Sample records for coli endotoxin lipopolysaccharide

  1. Effects of Aging on Endotoxin Tolerance Induced by Lipopolysaccharides Derived from Porphyromonas gingivalis and Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ying; Li, Hui; Yang, Mi-Fang; Shu, Wei; Sun, Meng-Jun; Xu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background Periodontitis is a bacterially induced chronic inflammatory disease. Exposure of the host to periodontal pathogens and their virulence factors induces a state of hyporesponsiveness to subsequent stimulations, termed endotoxin tolerance. Aging has a profound effect on immune response to bacteria challenge. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of aging on endotoxin tolerance induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) LPS in murine peritoneal macrophages. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied the cytokine production (TNF-?and IL-10) and Toll-like receptor 2, 4 (TLR2, 4) gene and protein expressions in peritoneal macrophages from young (2-month-old) and middle-aged (12-month-old) ICR mice following single or repeated P. gingivalis LPS or E. coli LPS stimulation. Pretreatment of peritoneal macrophages with P. gingivalis LPS or E. coli LPS resulted in a reduction in TNF-? production and an increase in IL-10 production upon secondary stimulation (p<0.05), and the markedly lower levels of TNF-? and higher levels of IL-10 were observed in macrophages from young mice compared with those from middle-aged mice (p<0.05). In addition, LPS restimulations also led to the significantly lower expression levels of TLR2, 4 mRNA and protein in macrophages from young mice (p<0.05). Conclusions/Significance Repeated LPS stimulations triggered endotoxin tolerance in peritoneal macrophages and the ability to develop tolerance in young mice was more excellent. The impaired ability to develop endotoxin tolerance resulted from aging might be related to TLR2, 4 and might lead to the incontrollable periodontal inflammation in older adults. PMID:22723968

  2. Immune Modulation of the Pulmonary Hypertensive Response to Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide (Endotoxin) in Broilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Wideman; M. E. Chapman; W. Wang; G. F. Erf

    The lungs of broilers are constantly chal- lenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) that can activate leukocytes and trigger thromboxane A2 (TxA2)- and serotonin (5HT)-mediated pulmonary vasoconstric- tion leading to pulmonary hypertension. Among broilers from a single genetic line, some individuals respond to LPS with large increases in pulmonary arterial pressure, whereas others fail to exhibit any response to the same

  3. Structure of a hexasaccharide proximal to the hydrophobic region of lipopolysaccharides present in Bordetella pertussis endotoxin preparations.

    PubMed

    Lebbar, S; Caroff, M; Szabó, L; Mérienne, C; Szilógyi, L

    1994-06-17

    A branched-chain hexasaccharide containing 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid was released by detergent-promoted hydrolysis from Bordetella pertussis endotoxin preparations that were first dephosphorylated with aqueous HF and then treated with nitrous acid. Its structure (2) [Formula: See text] was determined by chemical and physical methods. This hexasaccharide is present in all four lipopolysaccharides that make up the B. pertussis strain 1414 (phase 1) endotoxin preparations analysed, and is situated near to the hydrophobic domains. An analogous structure reported previously (ref 7) is erroneous and should be disregarded. PMID:8050099

  4. The role of endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide in surgically induced tumour growth in a murine model of metastatic disease

    PubMed Central

    Pidgeon, G P; Harmey, J H; Kay, E; Costa, M Da; Redmond, H P; Bouchier-Hayes, D J

    1999-01-01

    Surgical removal of a primary tumour is often followed by rapid growth of previously dormant metastases. Endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide, a cell wall constituent of Gram-negative bacteria, is ubiquitously present in air and may be introduced during surgery. BALB/c mice received a tail vein injection of 105 4T1 mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Two weeks later, animals were subjected to surgical trauma or an intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin (10 ?g per animal). Five days later, animals which underwent open surgery, laparoscopy with air sufflation or received an endotoxin injection displayed increased lung metastasis compared to anaesthetic controls. These increases in metastatic tumour growth were reflected in increased tumour cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis within lung metastases. Circulating levels of the angiogenic cytokine, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), were also elevated in these groups and correlated with increased plasma levels of endotoxin. Endotoxin treatment for 18 h (>10 ng ml–1) directly up-regulated VEGF production by the 4T1 tumour cells in vitro. Metastatic tumour growth in mice undergoing carbon dioxide laparoscopy, where air is excluded, was similar to anaesthetic controls. These data indicate that endotoxin introduced during surgery is associated with the enhanced growth of metastases following surgical trauma, by altering the critical balances governing cellular growth and angiogenesis. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10604727

  5. Quantification of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin) by GC-MS determination of 3-hydroxy fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Binding, Norbert; Jaschinski, Sabine; Werlich, Sabine; Bletz, Stefan; Witting, Ute

    2004-01-01

    A GC-MS method for the quantification of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxin) is presented. After hydrolytic cleavage of 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) from the lipid A region of LPS, derivatisation of both the hydroxyl and the carboxyl group was performed in one step with a mixture of methyl-bis(trifluoracetamide)(MBTFA) and N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoracetamide (MTBSTFA). Using GC-MS in the EI mode with selected ion monitoring (SIM) for analysis, baseline separation of 3-OH FAs (and of possibly interfering 2-OH FAs) was achieved. The sensitivity of the method (LOD 7-50 pg/injection for the different 3-OH FAs investigated) allows for the efficient quantification of LPS in occupational and environmental samples. Degradation of 3-OH FAs as well as of their derivatives during sample preparation and GC-MS separation as a possible source of errors in analytical methods based on 3-OH FA determination is reported for the first time. Thermal elimination of water from the underivatised 3-OH FAs and of trifluoroacetic acid from the derivatives was identified as the cause of degradation. The resulting alpha,beta-unsaturated compounds showing the same mass spectra as the 3-OH FA derivatives were detected as more or less prominent satellite peaks. By using alkaline instead of acidic hydrolysis and cool on-column instead of split/splitless injection, elimination was reduced to an acceptable level. PMID:14737472

  6. Capture of Lipopolysaccharide (Endotoxin) by the Blood Clot: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Margaret T.; Rickles, Frederick R.; Armstrong, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    In vertebrates and arthropods, blood clotting involves the establishment of a plug of aggregated thrombocytes (the cellular clot) and an extracellular fibrillar clot formed by the polymerization of the structural protein of the clot, which is fibrin in mammals, plasma lipoprotein in crustaceans, and coagulin in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Both elements of the clot function to staunch bleeding. Additionally, the extracellular clot functions as an agent of the innate immune system by providing a passive anti-microbial barrier and microbial entrapment device, which functions directly at the site of wounds to the integument. Here we show that, in addition to these passive functions in immunity, the plasma lipoprotein clot of lobster, the coagulin clot of Limulus, and both the platelet thrombus and the fibrin clot of mammals (human, mouse) operate to capture lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin). The lipid A core of LPS is the principal agent of gram-negative septicemia, which is responsible for more than 100,000 human deaths annually in the United States and is similarly toxic to arthropods. Quantification using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test shows that clots capture significant quantities of LPS and fluorescent-labeled LPS can be seen by microscopy to decorate the clot fibrils. Thrombi generated in the living mouse accumulate LPS in vivo. It is suggested that capture of LPS released from gram-negative bacteria entrapped by the blood clot operates to protect against the disease that might be caused by its systemic dispersal. PMID:24282521

  7. Capture of lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) by the blood clot: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Margaret T; Rickles, Frederick R; Armstrong, Peter B

    2013-01-01

    In vertebrates and arthropods, blood clotting involves the establishment of a plug of aggregated thrombocytes (the cellular clot) and an extracellular fibrillar clot formed by the polymerization of the structural protein of the clot, which is fibrin in mammals, plasma lipoprotein in crustaceans, and coagulin in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Both elements of the clot function to staunch bleeding. Additionally, the extracellular clot functions as an agent of the innate immune system by providing a passive anti-microbial barrier and microbial entrapment device, which functions directly at the site of wounds to the integument. Here we show that, in addition to these passive functions in immunity, the plasma lipoprotein clot of lobster, the coagulin clot of Limulus, and both the platelet thrombus and the fibrin clot of mammals (human, mouse) operate to capture lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin). The lipid A core of LPS is the principal agent of gram-negative septicemia, which is responsible for more than 100,000 human deaths annually in the United States and is similarly toxic to arthropods. Quantification using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test shows that clots capture significant quantities of LPS and fluorescent-labeled LPS can be seen by microscopy to decorate the clot fibrils. Thrombi generated in the living mouse accumulate LPS in vivo. It is suggested that capture of LPS released from gram-negative bacteria entrapped by the blood clot operates to protect against the disease that might be caused by its systemic dispersal. PMID:24282521

  8. Analysis of unmodified endotoxin preparations by 252Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry. Determination of molecular masses of the constituent native lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Caroff, M; Deprun, C; Karibian, D; Szabó, L

    1991-10-01

    Nine unmodified endotoxin preparations constituted of Re-, Rd-, and Rc-type lipopolysaccharides (2 to 5 glycoses), representing four species of enterobacteria were analyzed by 252Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry. The constituent lipopolysaccharides were characterized by the ion pair: (M-H)- and its corresponding lipid fragment ion. The lipid fragment ion is produced by cleavage of the glycosidic bond of the 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid unit that substitutes O-6' of the glucosamin beta 1'-6glucosamine ("lipid A backbone") disaccharide of the lipid A moiety. These lipid fragment ions were identical to the (M-H)- ions seen in the spectra of homologous isolated lipid A preparations that were obtained by hydrolysis (pH 4.5, 100 degrees C) promoted by sodium dodecyl sulfate. Since the molecular components present in the endotoxin preparations analyzed are known, the ion pair (M-H)(-)-lipid fragment ion defines the molecular compositions of each individual lipopolysaccharide. Heterogeneity of the R-type endotoxin preparations analyzed was due almost exclusively to differing lipid A moieties. In three Salmonella minnesota 595 Re endotoxin preparations 10 different lipopolysaccharides were identified, only two of which were common to all three preparations. Of the nine lipopolysaccharides identified in two S. minnesota R7 endotoxin preparations, only two were present in both. PMID:1917976

  9. Ailanthoidol suppresses lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory reactions in RAW264.7 cells and endotoxin shock in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Kyung; Jun, Jong-Gab

    2011-12-01

    The biological properties of ailanthoidol, a neolignan from Zanthoxylum ailanthoides or Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which is used in Chinese traditional herbal medicine, have not been evaluated. Here, we report that ailanthoidol inhibits inflammatory reactions in macrophages and protects mice from endotoxin shock. Our in vitro experiments showed that ailanthoidol suppressed the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) , as well as the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW264.7 cells. Similarly, ailanthoidol inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells, including interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6. In an animal model, ailanthoidol protected BALB/c mice from LPS-induced endotoxin shock, possibly through inhibition of the production of inflammatory cytokines and NO. Collectively, ailanthoidol inhibited the production of inflammatory mediators and may be a potential target for treatment of various inflammatory diseases. PMID:21826708

  10. Comparison of the limulus amebocyte lysate test and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for measuring lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins) in airborne dust from poultry-processing industries.

    PubMed Central

    Sonesson, A; Larsson, L; Schütz, A; Hagmar, L; Hallberg, T

    1990-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) content in airborne dust samples from three different poultry slaughterhouses was determined with both the chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of lipopolysaccharide-derived 3-hydroxy fatty acids. Gram-negative cell walls were also measured by using two-dimensional gas chromatography/electron-capture analysis of diaminopimelic acid originating from the peptidoglycan. The correlation between the results of the Limulus assay and those of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for determination of the lipopolysaccharide content in the dust samples was poor, whereas a good correlation was obtained between lipopolysaccharide and diaminopimelic acid concentrations with the gas chromatographic methods. The results suggest that it is predominantly cell-wall-dissociated lipopolysaccharides that are measured with the Limulus assay, whereas the gas chromatographic methods allow determination of total concentrations of lipopolysaccharide, including Limulus-inactive lipopolysaccharide, gram-negative cells, and cellular debris. PMID:2187411

  11. Atypical antipsychotic paliperidone prevents behavioral deficits in mice prenatally challenged with bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Umesh; Mohanty, Banalata

    2015-01-15

    Studies on animal models provide enough evidences that old age appearance of psychosis on exposures to various insults during critical period of brain development could be prevented by antipsychotic drug treatment. Presently, gestational intervention of the atypical antipsychotic paliperidone (PAL) is done along with the exposure of bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide/LPS hypothesizing that the drug would counteract and/or prevent the immune activation-induced behavioral deficits in mice. Effect of the PAL (0.05 mg/kg; GD 15-PND 28) in preventing reflex, sensorimotor and anxiety deficits in prenatally LPS-challenged (800 µg/kg; GD 15 and GD 17) mice was assessed at three different life stages: neonatal (PND 4-PND 14), adolescence (PND 35) and at adulthood (PND 85). LPS-induced behavioral deficits were recognizable even at neonatal and adolescence stages, though more pronounced at adulthood. In only PAL-treated group few behavioral deficits though observed both at neonatal and adult stages but less prominent than LPS group were found. PAL co-treatment prevented the abnormalities in nest-seeking behavior in neonates, anxiety abnormalities at adolescence and adulthood but not the sensorimotor impairment. The drug might have maintained the stress homeostasis to counteract the behavioral abnormalities as LPS-induced hypercorticosteronemia was prevented on PAL co-treatment. In view of the in utero exposure, comparatively low drug dose was selected. Though efficacy has been predicted, the dose was not effective to prevent all psychopathological impairments. Considering the wider objectives, it was not possible to conduct multi dose study simultaneously. Our ongoing study with higher dose may predict the effective PAL dose in prevention of psychiatric illness. PMID:25240711

  12. Effects of endotoxin on mammary secretion of lactating cows. [Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Lengemann, F.W.; Pitzrick, M.

    1986-05-01

    The objectives were to describe the magnitude and time course of changes in milk pH, Na, K, lactose, and somatic cells and to determine if paracellular pathways were altered after infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin (serotype 0128:AB12) to produce inflammation in one-half of the udder of the goat. Intramammary infusion of endotoxin increased pH, number of somatic cells, and Na and decreased K and lactose in milk. Sodium and number of somatic cells were increased by as little as .1..mu..g of endotoxin; .25 ..mu..g produced changes in most of the other parameters; maximal effect was elicited by 1..mu..g of endotoxin. The gland response peaked from 5 to 7 h after infusion of endotoxin with an increase in milk cellularity as the only significant effect noted in the control gland. Infusion of (/sup 14/C)lactose into the gland and (/sup 99m/Tc)albumin into the blood demonstrated that large molecules were more able to cross into and out of udder halves after endotoxin treatment. It is suggested that ion interchange rather than bulk flow across paracellular paths is responsible for changes. In addition, endotoxin appeared to reduce lactose secretion and synthesis.

  13. Effect of enrofloxacin treatment on plasma endotoxin during bovine Escherichia coli mastitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Dosogne; E. Meyer; A. Sturk; J. van Loon; A. M. Massart-Leën; C. Burvenich

    2002-01-01

    Objective and design: To investigate the effect of enrofloxacin on endotoxin resorption during bovine Escherichia coli mastitis. Animals: 12 healthy early post partum Holstein cows. Treatment: Mastitis was induced by intramammary infusion of 10 4 cfu E. coli P4:O32. Six cows were treated twice according to the usual enrofloxacin therapy: 5 mg\\/kg enro- floxacin 1) intravenously at 10 h and

  14. Specific binding of endotoxin to human monocytes and mouse macrophages: serum requirement.

    PubMed

    Haeffner-Cavaillon, N; Cavaillon, J M; Etievant, M; Lebbar, S; Szabo, L

    1985-03-01

    Specific binding of Bordetella pertussis and Neisseria meningitidis endotoxins to human monocytes and murine macrophages was demonstrated. Binding of B. pertussis endotoxin could be inhibited by endotoxins of Salmonella minnesota, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, the extent of inhibition being dependent on the origin of the lipopolysaccharides and on the origin of the mononuclear phagocytic cells. The binding of B. pertussis and N. meningitidis endotoxins which was mediated by the polysaccharide region of the endotoxins was serum dependent. The results indicated that the binding of endotoxin was promoted neither by natural antibodies directed against the endotoxin nor by proteins known to combine with endotoxins: immunoglobulins, albumin, or fibronectin; we have provided some evidence that complement components may play a role in the specific binding of endotoxins to the monocyte/macrophage membrane. PMID:2857597

  15. Effectiveness of castor oil extract on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals.

    PubMed

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Chung, Adriana; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    This in vitro study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of castor oil extract used as an irrigating solution on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals. Sixty single-rooted teeth were prepared (using castor oil extract as irrigating solution) and divided into five groups (n = 12): Group 1 samples were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), Group 2 samples were treated with polymyxin B, Group 3 samples were treated with Ca(OH)2 and 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX), and Group 4 samples were treated with castor oil extract. A control group used physiological saline solution as an irrigant. Canal content samples were collected at four different times: immediately after instrumentation, seven days after instrumentation, after 14 days of intracanal medication, and seven days after removal of intracanal medication. A plating method was used to assess antimicrobial activity and the quantification of endotoxins was evaluated by the chromogenic Limulus lysate assay. Data were submitted to ANOVA and a Dunn test (a = 5%). Irrigation with castor oil extract decreased E. coli counts but had no effect on the level of endotoxins. Samples taken seven days after removal of medication revealed a significant reduction in endotoxin levels in Groups 3 and 4. Compared to the saline solution irrigation, castor oil extract decreased microorganism counts in root canals immediately after canal preparation. None of the medications used completely eliminated endotoxins in the root canal. PMID:22782052

  16. Role of Plasma, Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein, and CD14 in Response of Mouse Peritoneal Exudate Macrophages to Endotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Heumann, Didier; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Le Roy, Didier; Ohno, Naohito; Yadomae, Toshiro; Glauser, Michel Pierre; Calandra, Thierry

    2001-01-01

    Plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) and membrane CD14 function to enhance the responses of monocytes to low concentrations of endotoxin. Surprisingly, recent reports have suggested that LBP or CD14 may be dispensable for macrophage responses to low concentrations of LPS or may even exert an inhibitory effect in the case of LBP. We therefore investigated whether LBP and CD14 participated in the response of mouse peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEM) to LPS stimulation. In the presence of a low amount of plasma (<1%) or of recombinant mouse or human LBP, PEM were found to respond to low concentrations of LPS (<5 to 10 ng/ml) in an LBP- and CD14-dependent manner. However, tumor necrosis factor production (not interleukin-6 production) by LPS-stimulated PEM was reduced when cells were stimulated in the presence of higher concentrations of plasma or serum (5 or 10%). Yet, the inhibitory effect of plasma or serum was not mediated by LBP. Taken together with previous results obtained with LBP and CD14 knockout mice in models of experimental endotoxemia, the present data confirm a critical part for LBP and CD14 in innate immune responses of both blood monocytes and tissue macrophages to endotoxins. PMID:11119527

  17. Endotoxin of Escherichia coli and permeability of the mammary glands of goats

    SciTech Connect

    Lengemann, F.W.; Pitzrick, M.

    1987-01-01

    Serial collections of milk were used to determine where in the mammary gland endotoxin of Escherichia coli was effective in altering the transfer of selected milk components into blood and blood components into milk. Lactating goats had half the gland infused with 1 ..mu..g of endotoxin and the other half served as a control. Sodium-24 and /sup 42/K or (/sup 14/C) lactose were included with /sup 141/Ce in the infusate in some experiments, whereas in others /sup 99m/Tc-labelled albumin or /sup 24/Na and /sup 42/K were given intravenously 2 h after the endotoxin infusion. Milk was collected 3 h after endotoxin infusion. Endotoxin increased the loss of /sup 24/Na, /sup 42/K, and (/sup 14/C) lactose from the mammary gland and increased the transfer of /sup 24/Na and /sup 99m/Tc-albumin into the gland. The transfer in of /sup 42/K was reduced compared with control halves. Movement of stable Na and K was in accord with the movement of the /sup 24/Na and /sup 42/K. Endotoxin was effective in all parts of the gland but particularly from the mid-portion upward to the alveoli. For the control halves there was evidence that some /sup 24/Na and /sup 42/K crossed the ductal or cisternal epithelium into blood outside of the alveoli, whereas only /sup 42/K provided evidence for transfer from blood to milk in these same regions. There was no demonstrable transfer of lactose and albumin in regions other than the alveoli.

  18. Underlying mechanisms involved in the decrease of milk secretion during Escherichia coli endotoxin induced mastitis in lactating mice.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ken; Oyama, Shoko; Uejyo, Takaaki; Kuki, Chinatsu; Rahman, Md Morshedur; Kumura, Haruto

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis, the inflammation of mammary glands resulting from bacterial infection, disrupts milk production in lactating mammary glands. In this study, we injected lipopolysaccharide (LPS), one of the endotoxins from Escherichia coli into mouse mammary glands to disrupt milk production, and we investigated the influence of LPS on nutrient uptake, synthesis, and secretion processes for milk component production in alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). The expression of genes relevant to the three-staged milk component production process (nutrient uptake, synthesis, and secretion of milk components) were down-regulated within 12 h after LPS injection in AEC. The internalization of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) from the basolateral membrane to the cytoplasm occurred in accordance with the down-regulation of gene expression 3 h after LPS injection. The abnormal localization of adipophilin and beta-casein was also observed in the LPS-injected mammary glands. SLC7A1, an amino acid transporter, was up-regulated 3 and 6 h after LPS injection. Furthermore, the inactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and the activation of STAT3 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NFkappaB) occurred 3 h after LPS injection. These results indicate that the nutrient uptake, synthesis, and secretion of milk components in AEC are rapidly shut down in the lactating mammary glands after LPS injection. PMID:24308795

  19. Increase in milk metalloproteinase activity and vascular permeability in bovine endotoxin-induced and naturally occurring Escherichia coli mastitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Raulo; T. Sorsa; T. Tervahartiala; T. Latvanen; E. Pirilä; J. Hirvonen; P. Maisi

    2002-01-01

    An endotoxin-induced mastitis model was used to study permeability changes associated with increased milk matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in early inflammation. One quarter of two cows was inoculated with endotoxin (Escherichia coli 055:B5). Blood, milk, and whey were collected before and repeatedly after inoculation for 48h. The profile and amounts of gelatinolytic MMPs were determined by zymography; gelatinase A (72kD

  20. Central role for type I interferons and Tyk2 in lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxin shock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Karaghiosoff; Ralf Steinborn; Pavel Kovarik; Gernot Kriegshäuser; Manuela Baccarini; Birgit Donabauer; Ursula Reichart; Thomas Kolbe; Christian Bogdan; Tomas Leanderson; David Levy; Thomas Decker; Mathias Müller

    2003-01-01

    Toll-like receptor-4 activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces the expression of interferon-? (IFN-?) in a MyD88-independent manner. Here we report that mice devoid of the JAK protein tyrosine kinase family member, Tyk2, were resistant to shock induced by high doses of LPS. Basal and LPS-induced expression of IFN-? and IFN-?4 mRNA in Tyk2-null macrophages were diminished. However, Tyk2-null mice showed normal

  1. Comparison of bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide concentrations in the blood, ovarian follicular fluid and uterine fluid: a clinical case of bovine metritis

    PubMed Central

    MAGATA, Fumie; ISHIDA, Yoshikazu; MIYAMOTO, Akio; FURUOKA, Hidefumi; INOKUMA, Hisashi; SHIMIZU, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the concentration of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the blood, ovarian follicular fluid and uterine fluid of a clinical case of bovine metritis. A 2-year-old lactating Holstein cow exhibited continuous fever >39.5°C for more than 2 weeks after normal calving. The cow produced a fetid, watery, red-brown uterine discharge from the vagina and was diagnosed with metritis. The LPS concentrations in plasma and uterine fluid were 0.94 and 6.34 endotoxin units (EU)/ml, respectively. One of seven follicles showed an extremely high level of LPS (12.40 EU/ml) compared to the other follicles (0.62–0.97 EU/ml). These results might suggest the presence of high concentration of LPS in follicles in cows with postpartum metritis. PMID:25223344

  2. An extracellular lipopolysaccharide-phospholipid-protein complex produced by Escherichia coli grown under lysinelimiting conditions

    PubMed Central

    Knox, K. W.; Cullen, Julia; Work, Elizabeth

    1967-01-01

    Lysine limitation during growth of the lysine-requiring mutant of Escherichia coli 12408 resulted in the excretion of a complex containing 60% of lipopolysaccharide, 26% of extractable phospholipid and 11% of protein. The complex was obtained from the culture filtrate in yields of about 0·5g./l. by precipitation with chloroform or gel filtration; some purification steps are described. The greater part of the phospholipid consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, which contained four main fatty acids; two monoenoic acids and a cyclopropane acid were esterified mainly in the ?-position, and a saturated acid was located mainly in the ?-position. The protein component was relatively insoluble and contained an excess of acidic over basic amino acids and little cystine. The lipopolysaccharide resembled in composition the intracellular lipopolysaccharides from rough strains of E. coli. Both protein and lipopolysaccharide constituents of the complex were serologically active; the complex was less toxic than the purified lipopolysaccharide. In the electron microscope the complex showed a mixture of particles of various sizes and shapes. Rods and hollow spheroids (diameter 12–200m?) were most common and resembled the particles previously found surrounding cells actively excreting the complex. The chloroform-precipitated material showed a tubular lamellar structure. Soluble lipopolysaccharide prepared from the complex also consisted of hollow spheres and rods. ImagesPLATE 1 (a)PLATE 1 (b)PLATE 1 (c)PLATE 2 (a)PLATE 2 (b)PLATE 2 (c)PLATE 2 (d) PMID:5340506

  3. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF BOVINE MACROPHAGES IN RESPONSE TO ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to identify changes in bovine macrophage gene expression in response to treatment with Escherichia coli 0157:H7 lipopolysaccharide (LPS), utilizing a human gene microarray. Bovine cDNA from control and LPS-treated primary macrophages hybridized to greater than 5,644 (79.8%)...

  4. Interaction of bacterial endotoxine (lipopolysaccharide) with latex particles: application to latex agglutination immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Peula-García, J M; Molina-Bolivar, J A; Velasco, J; Rojas, A; Galisteo-González, F

    2002-01-15

    The latex agglutination immunoassay technique uses polymer colloids as carriers for antibodies or antigens to enhance the immunological reaction. In this work, the interaction of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Brucella Melitensis with two conventional latexes has been studied. Some experiments on the physical adsorption of the LPS onto these polystyrene beads have been performed and several complexes with different coverage degrees were obtained by modifying the incubation conditions. Regarding the application in the development of diagnostic test systems, it is advisable to study the latex-LPS complexes from an electrokinetic and colloidal stability point of view. The complexes were electrokinetically characterized by measuring the electrophoretic mobility under different redispersion conditions. The colloidal stability was determined by simple turbidity measurements. Experimental and theoretical data have been employed to study the molecular disposition of the LPS in the latex particle surface to compare with the outer membrane of bacterial cells. Latex complexes covered by different LPS amounts showed high colloidal stability and adequate immunoreactivity that remains for a long time period. PMID:16290356

  5. Influence of Core Oligosaccharide of Lipopolysaccharide to Outer Membrane Behavior of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhou; Wang, Jianli; Ren, Ge; Li, Ye; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides, major molecules in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, play important roles on membrane integrity of the cell. However, how the core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide affect the membrane behavior is not well understood. In this study, the relationship between the core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide and the membrane behavior was investigated using a series of Escherichia coli mutants defective in genes to affect the biosynthesis of core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide. Cell surface hydrophobicity, outer membrane permeability, biofilm formation and auto-aggregation of these mutant cells were compared. Compared to the wild type W3110, cell surface hydrophobicities of mutant ?waaC, ?waaF, ?waaG, ?waaO, ?waaP, ?waaY and ?waaB were enhanced, outer membrane permeabilities of ?waaC, ?waaF, ?waaG and ?waaP were significantly increased, abilities of biofilm formation by ?waaC, ?waaF, ?waaG, ?waaO, ?waaR, ?waaP, ?waaQ and ?waaY decreased, and auto-aggregation abilities of ?waaC, ?waaF, ?waaG, ?waaO, ?waaR, ?waaU, ?waaP and ?waaY were strongly enhanced. These results give new insight into the influence of core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide on bacterial cell membrane behavior. PMID:26023839

  6. PmrD is required for modifications to escherichia coli endotoxin that promote antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Erica J; Herrera, Carmen M; Crofts, Alexander A; Trent, M Stephen

    2015-04-01

    In Salmonella enterica, PmrD is a connector protein that links the two-component systems PhoP-PhoQ and PmrA-PmrB. While Escherichia coli encodes a PmrD homolog, it is thought to be incapable of connecting PhoPQ and PmrAB in this organism due to functional divergence from the S. enterica protein. However, our laboratory previously observed that low concentrations of Mg(2+), a PhoPQ-activating signal, leads to the induction of PmrAB-dependent lipid A modifications in wild-type E. coli (C. M. Herrera, J. V. Hankins, and M. S. Trent, Mol Microbiol 76:1444-1460, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07150.x). These modifications include phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) and 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose (l-Ara4N), which promote bacterial resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) when affixed to lipid A. Here, we demonstrate that pmrD is required for modification of the lipid A domain of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under low-Mg(2+) growth conditions. Further, RNA sequencing shows that E. coli pmrD influences the expression of pmrA and its downstream targets, including genes coding for the modification enzymes that transfer pEtN and l-Ara4N to the lipid A molecule. In line with these findings, a pmrD mutant is dramatically impaired in survival compared with the wild-type strain when exposed to the CAMP polymyxin B. Notably, we also reveal the presence of an unknown factor or system capable of activating pmrD to promote lipid A modification in the absence of the PhoPQ system. These results illuminate a more complex network of protein interactions surrounding activation of PhoPQ and PmrAB in E. coli than previously understood. PMID:25605366

  7. Refining HPV 16 L1 purification from E. coli: Reducing endotoxin contaminations and their impact on immunogenicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lysann Schädlich; Tilo Senger; Carsten J. Kirschning; Martin Müller; Lutz Gissmann

    2009-01-01

    HPV 16 L1 capsomeres purified from Escherichia coli represent a promising and potentially cost-effective alternative to the recently licensed VLP-based vaccines for the prevention of cervical cancer. However, recombinant protein preparations from bacteria always bear the risk of contaminating endotoxins which are highly toxic in humans and therefore have to be eliminated from vaccine preparations. In this study, we measured

  8. In vivo effects of the antiglucocorticoid RU 486 on glucocorticoid and cytokine responses to Escherichia coli endotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Hawes, A S; Rock, C S; Keogh, C V; Lowry, S F; Calvano, S E

    1992-01-01

    The endogenous adrenocortical response to sepsis is critical for host survival. The in vivo interactions among the endogenous glucocorticoid response, the induction of cytokines, and host survival during endotoxemia were explored in this study by use of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU 486. Male Lewis rats underwent sterile insertion of a right jugular venous catheter. After a 72-h recovery period, animals received a 50% lethal dose of Escherichia coli endotoxin (2.5 mg/kg) via the catheter after pretreatment for 30 min prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment with (i) vehicle alone intravenously (i.v.) (-corticosterone [-Cort]/-RU 486/+LPS) (n = 10), (ii) the antiglucocorticoid RU 486 (10 mg/kg) i.v. (-Cort/+RU 486/+LPS) (n = 11), or (iii) RU 486 (10 mg/kg) i.v. in animals that had undergone subcutaneous implantation of a corticosterone pellet at the time of catheter insertion (+Cort/+RU 486/+LPS) (n = 10). Except in animals receiving corticosterone pretreatment, baseline plasma corticosterone levels were low in all groups. Plasma corticosterone levels increased significantly (P less than 0.001) above the baseline following LPS administration. Animals in the -Cort/+RU 486/+LPS-treated group exhibited significantly increased mortality (P less than 0.001), with only 9% of the animals surviving at 72 h, as well as significantly increased plasma interleukin-6 levels, compared with animals receiving the vehicle alone (-Cort/-RU 486/+LPS), which showed 50% mortality. Pretreatment with corticosterone and RU 486 (+Cort/+RU 486/+LPS) significantly (P less than 0.001) reversed the mortality observed with RU 486 pretreatment alone (-Cort/+RU 486/+LPS), with 70% of the animals surviving at 72 h, and significantly attenuated the peak plasma tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 responses to LPS, compared with those in the animals treated with vehicle alone. These data demonstrate that the blockade of glucocorticoid binding by RU 486 increases LPS-induced mortality. The reversal of this effect by the induction of hypercorticosteronemia prior to RU 486 and LPS exposure (+Cort/+RU 486/+LPS) improves survival and is further associated with significant attenuation of cytokine production. Therefore, these data suggest that the protective effect of the endogenous glucocorticoid response to acute endotoxemia may result from the down-regulation of a potentially lethal cytokine response. PMID:1612734

  9. Oral administration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii reduces mortality associated with immune and cortisol responses to Escherichia coli endotoxin in pigs.

    PubMed

    Collier, C T; Carroll, J A; Ballou, M A; Starkey, J D; Sparks, J C

    2011-01-01

    The effects of active dry yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii (Scb), on the immune/cortisol response and subsequent mortality to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration were evaluated in newly weaned piglets (26.1 ± 3.4 d of age). Barrows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: with (Scb; n = 15) and without (control; n = 15) the in-feed inclusion of Scb (200 g/t) for 16 d. On d 16, all piglets were dosed via indwelling jugular catheters with LPS (25 ?g/kg of BW) at 0 h. Serial blood samples were collected at 30-min intervals from -1 to 6 h and then at 24 h. Differential blood cell populations were enumerated hourly from 0 to 6 h and at 24 h. Serum cortisol, IL-1?, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interferon-? (IFN-?) concentrations were determined via porcine-specific ELISA at all time points. In Scb-treated piglets, cumulative ADG increased (P < 0.05) by 39.9% and LPS-induced piglet mortality was reduced 20% compared with control piglets. White blood cells, lymphocytes, and neutrophils were increased (P < 0.05) in Scb-treated animals before LPS dosing compared with control piglets before being equally suppressed (P < 0.05) from baseline in both treatments after LPS dosing with a return to baseline by 24 h. Suppression of circulating cortisol concentrations (P < 0.05) was observed in Scb-treated piglets from -1 h to 1 h relative to LPS dosing compared with control animals before both peaked equally and subsequently returned to baseline. Peak production (P < 0.05) of IL-1? and IL-6 was less in Scb-treated piglets after LPS administration compared with controls before both equally returned to baseline. Peak TNF-? production in Scb-treated animals was accelerated 0.5 h and was greater (P < 0.05) than peak production in control piglets, after which both equally returned to baseline. The peak production of IFN-? was greater and had increased (P < 0.05) amplitude persistence for 3 h in Scb-treated animals compared with control piglets before both equally returned to baseline. These results highlight the previously unidentified effects of Scb administration on immune and cortisol responses and the subsequent impact on growth and endotoxin-induced mortality in weaned piglets. PMID:20852076

  10. Lactoferrin-lipopolysaccharide interaction: involvement of the 28-34 loop region of human lactoferrin in the high-affinity binding to Escherichia coli 055B5 lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Elass-Rochard, E; Roseanu, A; Legrand, D; Trif, M; Salmon, V; Motas, C; Montreuil, J; Spik, G

    1995-12-15

    The ability of lactoferrin (Lf), an iron-binding glycoprotein that is also called lactotransferrin, to bind lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may be relevant to some of its biological properties. A knowledge of the LPS-binding site on Lf may help to explain the mechanism of its involvement in host defence. Our report reveals the presence of two Escherichia coli 055B5 LPS-binding sites on human Lf (hLf): a high-affinity binding site (Kd 3.6 +/- 1 nM) and a low-affinity binding site (Kd 390 +/- 20 nM). Bovine Lf (bLf), which shares about 70% amino acid sequence identity with hLf, exhibits the same behaviour towards LPS. Like hLf, bLf also contains a low- and a high-affinity LPS-binding site. The Kd value (4.5 +/- 2 nM) corresponding to the high-affinity binding site is similar to that obtained for hLf. Different LPS-binding sites for human serum transferrin have been suggested, as this protein, which is known to bind bacterial endotoxin, produced only 12% inhibition of hLf-LPS interaction. Binding and competitive binding experiments performed with the N-tryptic fragment (residues 4-283), the C-tryptic fragment (residues 284-692) and the N2-glycopeptide (residues 91-255) isolated from hLf have demonstrated that the high-affinity binding site is located in the N-terminal domain I of hLf, and the low-affinity binding site is present in the C-terminal lobe. The inhibition of hLf-LPS interaction by a synthetic octadecapeptide corresponding to residues 20-37 of hLf and lactoferricin B (residues 17-41), a proteolytic fragment from bLf, revealed the importance of the 28-34 loop region of hLf and the homologous region of bLf for LPS binding. Direct evidence that this amino acid sequence is involved in the high-affinity binding to LPS was demonstrated by assays carried out with EGS-loop hLf, a recombinant hLf mutated at residues 28-34. PMID:8554529

  11. Cloning and characterization of the Escherichia coli Heptosyltransferase III: Exploring substrate specificity in lipopolysaccharide core biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Mudapaka, Jagadesh; Taylor, Erika Anne

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules are an important cell surface component that enables adhesion to surfaces and cell motility, amongst other functions. In Escherichia coli, there are multiple Heptosyltransferase enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the core region of LPS. Here we describe the first ever cloning, expression, purification and characterization of Heptosyltransferase III (HepIII) from E. coli, which catalyzes the addition of an l-glycero-d-manno-heptose (Hep) residue to the growing LPS core via an ?(1?7) bond. Inspired by results from our lab on the E. coli HepI, we assessed the catalytic efficiency with phospho-Hep2-Kdo2-Lipid A (PH2K2LA) and two deacylated analogues. PMID:25957775

  12. Engineering N-linked protein glycosylation with diverse O antigen lipopolysaccharide structures in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Mario F; Wacker, Michael; Hernandez, Marcela; Hitchen, Paul G; Marolda, Cristina L; Kowarik, Michael; Morris, Howard R; Dell, Anne; Valvano, Miguel A; Aebi, Markus

    2005-02-22

    Campylobacter jejuni has a general N-linked protein glycosylation system that can be functionally transferred to Escherichia coli. In this study, we engineered E. coli cells in a way that two different pathways, protein N-glycosylation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis, converge at the step in which PglB, the key enzyme of the C. jejuni N-glycosylation system, transfers O polysaccharide from a lipid carrier (undecaprenyl pyrophosphate) to an acceptor protein. PglB was the only protein of the bacterial N-glycosylation machinery both necessary and sufficient for the transfer. The relaxed specificity of the PglB oligosaccharyltransferase toward the glycan structure was exploited to create novel N-glycan structures containing two distinct E. coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa O antigens. PglB-mediated transfer of polysaccharides might be valuable for in vivo production of O polysaccharides-protein conjugates for use as antibacterial vaccines. PMID:15703289

  13. Trapped lipopolysaccharide and LptD intermediates reveal lipopolysaccharide translocation steps across the Escherichia coli outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuejun; Gu, Yinghong; Dong, Haohao; Wang, Wenjian; Dong, Changjiang

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a main component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, which is essential for the vitality of most Gram-negative bacteria and plays a critical role for drug resistance. LptD/E complex forms a N-terminal LPS transport slide, a hydrophobic intramembrane hole and the hydrophilic channel of the barrel, for LPS transport, lipid A insertion and core oligosaccharide and O-antigen polysaccharide translocation, respectively. However, there is no direct evidence to confirm that LptD/E transports LPS from the periplasm to the external leaflet of the outer membrane. By replacing LptD residues with an unnatural amino acid p-benzoyl-L-phenyalanine (pBPA) and UV-photo-cross-linking in E.coli, the translocon and LPS intermediates were obtained at the N-terminal domain, the intramembrane hole, the lumenal gate, the lumen of LptD channel, and the extracellular loop 1 and 4, providing the first direct evidence and "snapshots" to reveal LPS translocation steps across the outer membrane. PMID:26149544

  14. Trapped lipopolysaccharide and LptD intermediates reveal lipopolysaccharide translocation steps across the Escherichia coli outer membrane

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuejun; Gu, Yinghong; Dong, Haohao; Wang, Wenjian; Dong, Changjiang

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a main component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, which is essential for the vitality of most Gram-negative bacteria and plays a critical role for drug resistance. LptD/E complex forms a N-terminal LPS transport slide, a hydrophobic intramembrane hole and the hydrophilic channel of the barrel, for LPS transport, lipid A insertion and core oligosaccharide and O-antigen polysaccharide translocation, respectively. However, there is no direct evidence to confirm that LptD/E transports LPS from the periplasm to the external leaflet of the outer membrane. By replacing LptD residues with an unnatural amino acid p-benzoyl-L-phenyalanine (pBPA) and UV-photo-cross-linking in E.coli, the translocon and LPS intermediates were obtained at the N-terminal domain, the intramembrane hole, the lumenal gate, the lumen of LptD channel, and the extracellular loop 1 and 4, providing the first direct evidence and “snapshots” to reveal LPS translocation steps across the outer membrane. PMID:26149544

  15. Mammalian nitrate biosynthesis: mouse macrophages produce nitrite and nitrate in response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Stuehr; M. A. Marletta

    1985-01-01

    Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitrate biosynthesis was studied in LPS-sensitive C3H\\/He and LPS-resistant C3H\\/HeJ mice. Intraperitoneal injection of 15 ..mu..g of LPS led to a temporary 5- to 6-fold increase in blood nitrate concentration in the C3H\\/He strain. Levels of nitrate excreted in the urine were also increased. In contrast, no increase was observed in the C3H\\/HeJ strain with LPS

  16. The sugar 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) as a characteristic component of bacterial endotoxin -- a review of its biosynthesis, function, and placement in the lipopolysaccharide core.

    PubMed

    Lodowska, Jolanta; Wolny, Daniel; W?glarz, Ludmi?a

    2013-10-01

    The sugar 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) is a characteristic component of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin). It connects the carbohydrate part of LPS with C6 of glucosamine or 2,3-diaminoglucose of lipid A by acid-labile ?-ketosidic linkage. The number of Kdo units present in LPS, the way they are connected, and the occurrence of other substituents (P, PEtn, PPEtn, Gal, or ?-l-Ara4N) account for structural diversity of the inner core region of endotoxin. In a majority of cases, Kdo is crucial to the viability and growth of bacterial cells. In this paper, the biosynthesis of Kdo and the mechanism of its incorporation into the LPS structure, as well as the location of this unique component in the endotoxin core structures, have been described. PMID:24102217

  17. Enhanced host immune recognition of E.coli causing mastitis in CD-14 transgenic mice.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherchia coli causes mastitis, an economically significant disease in dairy animals. E. coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) when bound by host membrane proteins such as CD-14, causes release of pro-inflammatory cytokines recruiting neutrophils as a early innate immune response. Excessive pr...

  18. Anti-inflammatory effect of an Escherichia coli extract in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide-induced cystitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung-Ju Lee; Sae Woong Kim; Yong-Hyun Cho; Moon Soo Yoon

    2006-01-01

    The bacterial extract, Uro-Vaxom®, which consists of immunostimulating components derived from 18 Escherichia coli strains, was used for the prophylaxis of recurrent cystitis. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of E. coli extract, we measured the cytokine levels of bladder tissue after oral administration and analyzed bladder inflammation by\\u000a histopathologic examination in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cystitis in mice. After

  19. Molecular and Structural Basis of Inner Core Lipopolysaccharide Alterations in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Gracjana; Müller-Loennies, Sven; Lindner, Buko; Kobylak, Natalia; Brade, Helmut; Raina, Satish

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) often carries nonstoichiometric substitutions in lipid A and in the inner core. In this work, the molecular basis of inner core alterations and their physiological significance are addressed. A new inner core modification of LPS is described, which arises due to the addition of glucuronic acid on the third heptose with a concomitant loss of phosphate on the second heptose. This was shown by chemical and structural analyses. Furthermore, the gene whose product is responsible for the addition of this sugar was identified in all Escherichia coli core types and in Salmonella and was designated waaH. Its deduced amino acid sequence exhibits homology to glycosyltransferase family 2. The transcription of the waaH gene is positively regulated by the PhoB/R two-component system in a growth phase-dependent manner, which is coordinated with the transcription of the ugd gene explaining the genetic basis of this modification. Glucuronic acid modification was observed in E. coli B, K12, R2, and R4 core types and in Salmonella. We also show that the phosphoethanolamine (P-EtN) addition on heptose I in E. coli K12 requires the product of the ORF yijP, a new gene designated as eptC. Incorporation of P-EtN is also positively regulated by PhoB/R, although it can occur at a basal level without a requirement for any regulatory inducible systems. This P-EtN modification is essential for resistance to a variety of factors, which destabilize the outer membrane like the addition of SDS or challenge to sublethal concentrations of Zn2+. PMID:23372159

  20. Regulation of interactions of endotoxin with host cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theresa L. Gioannini; Athmane Teghanemt; Kol A. Zarember; Jerrold P. Weiss

    2003-01-01

    Potent Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent cell activation by endotoxin requires lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and CD14-dependent delivery of endotoxin to cells containing MD-2 and TLR4. We have used metabolically labeled [14C] meningococcal lipooligosaccharide (LOS), purified recombinant endotoxin-binding proteins, and cultured endothelial cells to better define protein: endotoxin intermediates key in cell activation in the absence of functional membrane (m) CD14. Protein:endotoxin

  1. Tumor necrosis factor-? and nitrite\\/nitrate responses during acute mastitis induced by Escherichia coli infection and endotoxin in dairy cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W Blum; H Dosogne; D Hoeben; F Vangroenweghe; H. M Hammon; R. M Bruckmaier; C Burvenich

    2000-01-01

    Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and of NOx (sum of nitrite and nitrate as indicators of endogenous nitric oxide production) in milk and blood plasma were measured in three mastitis models in dairy cows in early lactation. Escherichia coli P4:037 bacteria or endotoxin 0111:B4 were administered into both left quarters of 12 and 6 cows, respectively. Six of the

  2. Systemic E. coli lipopolysaccharide but not deoxynivalenol results in transient leukopenia and diminished metabolic activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Kluess, Jeannette; Kahlert, Stefan; Panther, Patricia; Diesing, Anne-Kathrin; Nossol, Constanze; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Kersten, Susanne; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-02-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are reported to act synergistically in the animal organism. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that systemic co-exposure of DON and LPS aggravates the impact of the individual toxin on leukocyte counts in vivo and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) ex vivo. Growing barrows were fed a standard diet, equipped with permanent venous catheters and infused for 1 h with one of four treatments: control group with physiological saline (CON, n=8), mycotoxin group (DON, n=6) with 100 ?g/kg body weight (BW) deoxynivalenol, endotoxin group (LPS, n=6) with 7.5 ?g/kg BW Escherichia coli LPS, and co-exposed group (DON+LPS, n=6) with 100 ?g/kg BW DON and 7.5 ?g/kg BW LPS. Blood was collected 30 min prior to infusion and 10, 20, 30, 60, 360, 720 and 1440 min after start of infusion for total and differential leukocyte counts. PBMC were isolated from blood drawn at 3 and 24 h and subjected to an ex vivo 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, either non-stimulated or stimulated with concanavalin A. LPS induced a transient significant leukopenia between 30 and 360 min, owing to a decrease in segmented neutrophils and lymphocytes (time×treatment: p<0.001). Metabolic activity of stimulated PBMC ex vivo was severely compromised in pigs 3 h after LPS exposure (<50% of control, p<0.001), but already regained 80% of its activity at 24 h, thus showing no difference between treatments. DON alone did not affect leukocytes in vivo or PBMC activity ex vivo and neither aggravated the effect of LPS. PMID:25315977

  3. Involvement of MAPK Activation in Bacterial Endotoxin-Inducible Tissue Factor Upregulation in Human Monocytic THP1 Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur J. Chu; Zhen-Guo Wang; Melissa A. Walton; Ann Seto

    2001-01-01

    Background. Monocytic tissue factor (mTF) hypercoagulation leading to thrombotic complications is commonly observed following sepsis.Objective. We herein study the intracellular mechanism of mTF upregulation in human model monocytic THP-1 cells in response to bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS; Escherichia coli O111:B04), determining if mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation is involved in the signaling.Methods. We assessed mTF upregulation by its cell surface

  4. Mammalian nitrate biosynthesis: mouse macrophages produce nitrite and nitrate in response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide

    SciTech Connect

    Stuehr, D.J.; Marletta, M.A.

    1985-11-01

    Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitrate biosynthesis was studied in LPS-sensitive C3H/He and LPS-resistant C3H/HeJ mice. Intraperitoneal injection of 15 ..mu..g of LPS led to a temporary 5- to 6-fold increase in blood nitrate concentration in the C3H/He strain. Levels of nitrate excreted in the urine were also increased. In contrast, no increase was observed in the C3H/HeJ strain with LPS injections up to 175 ..mu..g. Furthermore, thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from C3H/He, but not from C3H/HeJ mice, produced nitrite (60%) and nitrate (40%) when cultured with LPS (10 ..mu..g/ml). T-lymphocyte addition/depletion experiments showed the presence of T cells enhanced this response. However, LPS did not cause nitrite or nitrate production in cultures of spleen lymphocytes from either strain. LPS-induced nitrate synthesis was also observed with nude mice and CBA/N mice, indicating that neither functional T lymphocytes nor LPS-responsive B lymphocytes were required for the response in vivo. This was consistent with the in vitro results showing macrophages alone were competent. Mycobacterium bovis infection of C3H/He and C3H/HeJ mice resulted in a large increase in nitrate production over the course of the infection for both strains, suggesting T-lymphocyte-mediated activation of macrophages as a potent stimulus for nitrate biosynthesis. The synthesis of nitrite is significant in that it can directly participate in the endogenous formation of nitrosamines and may also be involved in some aspect of the chemistry of cytotoxicity.

  5. Molecular Dynamics and NMR Spectroscopy Studies of E. coli Lipopolysaccharide Structure and Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Emilia L.; Engström, Olof; Jo, Sunhwan; Stuhlsatz, Danielle; Yeom, Min Sun; Klauda, Jeffery B.; Widmalm, Göran; Im, Wonpil

    2013-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes, comprises three regions: lipid A, core oligosaccharide, and O-antigen polysaccharide. Using the CHARMM36 lipid and carbohydrate force fields, we have constructed a model of an Escherichia coli R1 (core) O6 (antigen) LPS molecule. Several all-atom bilayers are built and simulated with lipid A only (LIPA) and varying lengths of 0 (LPS0), 5 (LPS5), and 10 (LPS10) O6 antigen repeating units; a single unit of O6 antigen contains five sugar residues. From 1H,1H-NOESY experiments, cross-relaxation rates are obtained from an O-antigen polysaccharide sample. Although some experimental deviations are due to spin-diffusion, the remaining effective proton-proton distances show generally very good agreement between NMR experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. The simulation results show that increasing the LPS molecular length has an impact on LPS structure and dynamics and also on LPS bilayer properties. Terminal residues in a LPS bilayer are more flexible and extended along the membrane normal. As the core and O-antigen are added, per-lipid area increases and lipid bilayer order decreases. In addition, results from mixed LPS0/5 and LPS0/10 bilayer simulations show that the LPS O-antigen conformations at a higher concentration of LPS5 and LPS10 are more orthogonal to the membrane and less flexible. The O-antigen concentration of mixed LPS bilayers does not have a significant effect on per-lipid area and hydrophobic thickness. Analysis of ion and water penetration shows that water molecules can penetrate inside the inner core region, and hydration is critical to maintain the integrity of the bilayer structure. PMID:24047996

  6. SoxRS-Mediated Lipopolysaccharide Modification Enhances Resistance against Multiple Drugs in Escherichia coli?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joon-Hee; Lee, Kang-Lok; Yeo, Won-Sik; Park, Su-Jin; Roe, Jung-Hye

    2009-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major constituent of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria that serves as a barrier against harmful molecules, including antibiotics. The waaYZ locus that encodes the LPS core biosynthetic function in Escherichia coli was found to be induced strongly by superoxide generators but not by H2O2, ethanol, or heat shock. This induction was dependent on SoxRS, a superoxide and nitric oxide sensing system, through a soxbox in the waaY promoter that binds SoxS. A ?waaYZ mutant became more sensitive to some superoxide generators, and the activation of SoxR by these drugs became more sensitized in the mutant. Through phenotypic microarray analysis, we found that the mutant became sensitive to a wide variety of chemicals not restricted to oxidizing agents. We found that the mutant is under envelope stress and is altered in LPS composition, as monitored by the level of ?E activation and changes in the electrophoretic mobility of LPS, respectively. waaY expression was also regulated by MarA (multiple-antibiotic resistance regulator), which shares a binding site (soxbox) with SoxS, and was induced by salicylate, a nonoxidative compound. These results demonstrate a novel way of protecting gram-negative bacteria against various compounds by modifying LPS, possibly through phosphorylation. Since either oxidant or nonoxidant compounds elicit resistance toward themselves and other toxic drugs, this mechanism could serve as an efficient way for pathogenic bacteria to enhance survival during antibiotic treatment within an oxidant-rich host immune environment. PMID:19376854

  7. Removal of Endotoxins from Bacteriophage Preparations by Extraction with Organic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Szermer-Olearnik, Bo?ena; Boraty?ski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin, pyrogen) constitutes a very troubling contaminant of crude phage lysates produced in Gram-negative bacteria. Toxicity of LPS depends on the strong innate immunity response including the cytokines. Therefore, its removal is important for bacteriophage applications. In this paper, we present a procedure for extractive removal of endotoxin from bacteriophage preparations with water immiscible solvents (1-octanol or 1-butanol). During extraction most of the phage lytic activity is retained in the aqueous phase, while endotoxin accumulates in the organic solvent. The levels of endotoxin (expressed as endotoxin units, EU) in the aqueous bacteriophage-containing fraction determined by limulus amebocyte lysate or EndoLISA assay were exceptionally low. While the initial endotoxin levels in the crude phage lysates ranged between 103 and 105 EU/ml the average level after organic extraction remaining in the aqueous fraction was 5.3 EU/ml. These values when related to phage titers decreased from 103-105 EU/109 PFU (plaque forming units) down to an average of 2.8 EU/109 PFU. The purification procedure is scalable, efficient and applicable to all the bacteriophages tested: T4, HAP1 (E. coli) and F8 (P. aeruginosa). PMID:25811193

  8. Resistance of MMP9 and TIMP1 to endotoxin tolerance.

    PubMed

    Muthukuru, Manoj; Cutler, Christopher W

    2015-07-01

    Inflammatory cytokines activate tissue collagenases such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs are antagonized by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) that attempt to regulate excessive collagenase activity during inflammatory conditions. During chronic inflammatory conditions, induction of endotoxin tolerance negatively regulates the cytokine response in an attempt to curtail excessive host tissue damage. However, little is known about how downregulation of inflammatory cytokines during endotoxin tolerance regulates MMP activities. In this study, human monocyte-derived macrophages were either sensitized or further challenged to induce tolerance with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PgLPS) or Escherichia coli (EcLPS). Inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-? and IL-1?, and levels of MMP9 and TIMP1 were analyzed by a combination of cytometric bead array, western blot/gelatin zymography and real-time RT-PCR. Functional blocking with anti-TLR4 but not with anti-TLR2 significantly downregulated TNF-? and IL-1?. However, MMP9 levels were not inhibited by toll-like receptor (TLR) blocking. Interestingly, endotoxin tolerance significantly upregulated TIMP1 relative to MMP9 and downmodulated MMP9 secretion and its enzymatic activity. These results suggest that regulatory mechanisms such as induction of endotoxin tolerance could inhibit MMP activities and could facilitate restoring host tissue homeostasis. PMID:25951835

  9. Specific incorporation of glycine into bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Novel function of specific transfer ribonucleic acids.

    PubMed Central

    Gamian, A; Krzyzaniak, A; Barciszewska, M Z; Gawro?ska, I; Barciszewski, J

    1991-01-01

    It has been found that the bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPSs) contain some amino acids and glycine is the most abundant amino acid in the polysaccharide core preparations of LPSs of gram-negative bacteria. Until now nothing was known about the mechanism of amino acid incorporation into the lipopolysaccharide core. We found that one out of three glycyl-tRNAs(Gly) from Escherichia coli is the donor of amino acid and is the substrate for a putative aminoacyl-tRNA:LPS transferase. We have isolated, purified this tRNA and determined its nucleotide sequence to be major E.coli tRNA(3Gly). This tRNA(Gly) (anticodon GCC) conserved the tRNA structural features. The assay for determination of the specific incorporation of glycine into the lipopolysaccharide was also invented and described. Images PMID:1719487

  10. Sequential response of milk leukocytes, albumin, immunoglobulins, monovalent ions, citrate, and lactose in cows given infusions of Escherichia coli endotoxin into the mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Guidry, A J; Ost, M; Mather, I H; Shainline, W E; Weinland, B T

    1983-12-01

    Changes in concentrations of both the cellular and the humoral components of milk are known to occur during mastitis. This study was conducted to determine temporal changes in the concentrations of leukocytes, albumin, immunoglobulins (Ig), monovalent ions, lactose, and citrate in milk during the initial phases of simulated mastitis. Ten cows whose udders were pathogen free and had milk leukocyte counts of less than 0.5 X 10(6)/ml were used. Two dosages of Escherichia coli endotoxin were administered to simulate various degrees of mastitis. Two quarters in each cow were infused with the endotoxin and the other 2 served as controls. Quarter milk samples were collected frequently before and after infusion. Within 2 hours after infusion of a 100-micrograms dose of endotoxin, clinical mastitis was observed in most of the infused quarters. Leukocytes, albumin, IgG1, and conductivity showed significant increases. Values before infusion and at postinfusion (PI) hour 2 were as follows: leukocytes, 0.33 and 3.65 X 10(6)/ml, respectively; albumin, 0.38 and 4.49 mg/ml; IgG1, 0.34 and 0.79 mg/ml; and conductivity, 6.0 and 6.9 mmho. Average of the peak values and their average relative time of appearance after infusion were as follows: leukocytes, 28.82 X 10(6)/ml at 16 hours; albumin, 9.37 mg/ml at 4 hours; IgG1, 1.35 mg/ml at 4 hours; and conductivity, 95.5 mmho at 10 hours. The IgG1 values tended to remain high in the presence of rapidly declining albumin concentrations, indicating the possibility of an active, rather than a passive, transfer of IgG1 from the circulation. The response to the 10-micrograms dose of endotoxin ranged from subclinical to clinically mild mastitis with lesser cellular and humoral responses. PMID:6362498

  11. Relation Between Excreted Lipopolysaccharide Complexes and Surface Structures of a Lysine-Limited Culture of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Knox, K. W.; Vesk, Maret; Work, Elizabeth

    1966-01-01

    Knox, K. W. (Twyford Laboratories, London, England), Maret Vesk, and Elizabeth Work. Relation between excreted lipopolysaccharide complexes and surface structures of a lysine-limited culture of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 92:1206–1217. 1966.—The lysine-requiring mutant Escherichia coli 12408, when grown in 15 liters of defined medium containing a suboptimal amount of lysine, showed a biphasic type of growth. During a long stationary phase of 15 hr, there was a steady accumulation of diaminopimelic acid (DAP) and an antigenic complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoprotein; the accumulation continued unchanged until the end of the second growth phase. The rapid rate of DAP excretion suggested that it was the result of a derepressed state of a biosynthetic pathway. LPS excretion was such that the amount in the culture fluid was doubled during a period corresponding to the normal generation time for the organism; this suggested that the LPS-lipoprotein complex was a product of unbalanced growth. Surface defects were suggested by the action of lysozyme, which, in low concentrations (10 ?g/ml), lysed the lysine-limited cells even in the absence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, but had no effect at 10 ?g/ml on cells grown with adequate lysine. Electron microscopy of cells excreting the LPS complex showed them to be surrounded by a mass of stacked leaflets and globules, some of which were bounded by triple membranes. Sections showed no lysis but changes in cell surfaces; outer layers of the walls had numerous blebs whose outer membranes were sometimes continuous with the outer triple membrane of the wall. LPS-lipoprotein probably originates from these blebs. Images PMID:4959044

  12. Variable Airway Responsiveness to Inhaled Lipopolysaccharide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOEL N. KLINE; J. DAVID COWDEN; GARY W. HUNNINGHAKE; BRIAN C. SCHUTTE; JANET L. WATT; CHRISTINE L. WOHLFORD-LENANE; LINDA S. POWERS; MICHAEL P. JONES; DAVID A. SCHWARTZ

    1999-01-01

    Individuals exposed to inhaled endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) can develop airway symptoma- tology and exacerbations of asthma. Moreover, among those occupationally exposed to organic dusts, the progression of airflow obstruction is related to the endotoxin concentration in the bioaero- sol. Not everyone exposed to high concentrations of LPS develops these problems. To determine whether individuals express a differential response to inhaled

  13. Inflammatory response after inhalation of bacterial endotoxin assessed by the induced sputum technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörgen Thorn; Ragnar Rylander

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUNDOrganic dusts may cause inflammation in the airways. This study was performed to assess the usefulness of the induced sputum technique for evaluating the presence of airways inflammation using inhaled endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) as the inducer of inflammation.METHODSTo characterise the inflammatory response after inhalation of endotoxin, 21 healthy subjects inhaled 40 ?g lipopolysaccharide and were examined before and 24 hours after

  14. Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lyudmila V. Borovikova; Svetlana Ivanova; Minghuang Zhang; Huan Yang; Galina I. Botchkina; Linda R. Watkins; Haichao Wang; Naji Abumrad; John W. Eaton; Kevin J. Tracey

    2000-01-01

    Vertebrates achieve internal homeostasis during infection or injury by balancing the activities of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), produced by all gram-negative bacteria, activates macrophages to release cytokines that are potentially lethal. The central nervous system regulates systemic inflammatory responses to endotoxin through humoral mechanisms. Activation of afferent vagus nerve fibres by endotoxin or cytokines stimulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal anti-inflammatory responses.

  15. Endotoxin induced uncoupling of the somatotrophic axis in nursery pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin known to stimulate the innate immune response and stress axis in pigs. However, little is known about the effects of LPS on pig somatotrophic responses. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an endotoxin challenge on weaned pig serum con...

  16. The Lipopolysaccharide Export Pathway in Escherichia coli: Structure, Organization and Regulated Assembly of the Lpt Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Polissi, Alessandra; Sperandeo, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial outer membrane (OM) is a peculiar biological structure with a unique composition that contributes significantly to the fitness of Gram-negative bacteria in hostile environments. OM components are all synthesized in the cytosol and must, then, be transported efficiently across three compartments to the cell surface. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a unique glycolipid that paves the outer leaflet of the OM. Transport of this complex molecule poses several problems to the cells due to its amphipatic nature. In this review, the multiprotein machinery devoted to LPS transport to the OM is discussed together with the challenges associated with this process and the solutions that cells have evolved to address the problem of LPS biogenesis. PMID:24549203

  17. Distribution of polysaccharide side chains of lipopolysaccharide determine resistance of Escherichia coli to the bactericidal activity of serum.

    PubMed

    Porat, R; Mosseri, R; Kaplan, E; Johns, M A; Shibolet, S

    1992-05-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of serum-sensitive strains of Escherichia coli was compared with LPS derived from serum-resistant clones. Polysaccharide O-antigen side chains (PSSC) of LPS from serum-resistant clones contained 12%-40% more of the longer carbohydrate molecules (L-PSSC) than did LPS from serum-sensitive parent strains; in contrast, 12%-27% more of the shorter PSSC (S-PSSC) were found in LPS from serum-sensitive strains. The sensitivity or resistance to the bactericidal activity of human serum correlated with the distribution and the length of PSSC fractions of LPS. This was demonstrated in a liposome model in which LPS was incorporated into simulated bacterial membranes. The incubation of serum with liposomes incorporated with various ratios of S-PSSC-to-L-PSSC concentrations resulted in liposomal lysis at S-PSSC-to-L-PSSC ratios greater than 2:1. These findings demonstrate the importance of the length of carbohydrate side chains of LPS in determining sensitivity or resistance to the bactericidal activity of human serum. PMID:1569348

  18. Thermographic variation of the udder of dairy ewes in early lactation and following an Escherichia coli endotoxin intramammary challenge in late lactation.

    PubMed

    Castro-Costa, A; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Rovai, M; Flores, C; Aguiló, J

    2014-03-01

    A total of 83 lactating dairy ewes (Manchega, n=48; Lacaune, n=35) were used in 2 consecutive experiments for assessing the ability of infrared thermography (IRT) to detect intramammary infections (IMI) by measuring udder skin temperatures (UST). In experiment 1, ewes were milked twice daily and IRT pictures of the udder were taken before and after milking at 46 and 56d in milk (DIM). Milk yield was 1.46 ± 0.04 L/d, on average. Detection of IMI was done using standard bacterial culture by udder half at 15, 34, and 64 DIM. Twenty-two ewes were classified as having IMI in at least one udder half, the others being healthy (142 healthy and 24 IMI halves, respectively). Four IMI halves had clinical mastitis. No UST differences were detected by IMI and udder side, being 32.94 ± 0.04°C on average. Nevertheless, differences in UST were detected for breed (Lacaune - Manchega=0.35 ± 0.08°C), milking process moment (after - before=0.13 ± 0.11°C), and milking schedule (p.m. - a.m.=0.79 ± 0.07°C). The UST increased linearly with ambient temperature (r=0.88). In experiment 2, the UST response to an Escherichia coli O55:B5 endotoxin challenge (5 ?g/udder half) was studied in 9 healthy Lacaune ewes milked once daily in late lactation (0.58 ± 0.03 L/d; 155 ± 26 DIM). Ewes were allocated into 3 balanced groups of 3 ewes to which treatments were applied by udder half after milking. Treatments were (1) control (C00, both udder halves untreated), (2) half udder treated (T10 and C01, one udder half infused with endotoxin and the other untreated, respectively), and (3) treated udder halves (T11, both udder halves infused with endotoxin). Body (vaginal) temperature and UST, milk yield, and milk composition changes were monitored by udder half at different time intervals (2 to 72 h). First local and systemic signs of IMI were observed at 4 and 6h postchallenge, respectively. For all treatments, UST increased after the challenge, peaking at 6h in T 0055 (which differed from that in C00, C01, and T10), and decreased thereafter without differences by treatment. Vaginal temperature and milk somatic cell count increased by 6h postchallenge, whereas lactose content decreased, in the endotoxin-infused udder halves. Effects of endotoxin on lactose and somatic cell count values were detectable in the infused udder halves until 72 h. In conclusion, despite the accuracy of the camera (± 0.15°C) and the moderate standard errors of the mean obtained for UST measures (± 0.05 to 0.24°C), we were unable to discriminate between healthy and infected (subclinically or clinically) udder halves in dairy ewes. PMID:24418270

  19. MODIFICATION AND APPLICATION OF A GC\\/MS METHOD FOR ENDOTOXIN ANALYSIS IN AGRICULTURAL DUSTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rena Saito; Brian Cranmer; Stephen Reynolds

    Bacterial endotoxins play an important role in occupational lung disease. GC\\/MS may offer advantages over traditional endotoxin assays, leading to improved exposure assessment. GC\\/MS analyses focus on quantification of biomarkers of endotoxins; 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFA's) in lipid A of lipopolysaccharide. The goal of this study is to modify the GC\\/MS method for endotoxin analysis and determine the correlations between

  20. The potential of lipopolysaccharide as a real-time biomarker of bacterial contamination in marine bathing water.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Anas A; Jackson, Simon K; Bradley, Graham

    2014-03-01

    The use of total lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a rapid biomarker for bacterial pollution was investigated at a bathing and surfing beach during the UK bathing season. The levels of faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli), the Gram-positive enterococci, and organisms commonly associated with faecal material, such as total coliforms and Bacteroides, were culturally monitored over four months to include a period of heavy rainfall and concomitant pollution. Endotoxin measurement was performed using a kinetic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay and found to correlate well with all indicators. Levels of LPS in excess of 50 Endotoxin Units (EU) mL(-1) were found to correlate with water that was unsuitable for bathing under the current European regulations. Increases in total LPS, mainly from Gram-negative indicator bacteria, are thus a potential real-time, qualitative method for testing bacterial quality of bathing waters. PMID:24642437

  1. Structure and Functional Analysis of LptC, a Conserved Membrane Protein Involved in the Lipopolysaccharide Export Pathway in Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Tran, An X.; Dong, Changjiang; Whitfield, Chris

    2010-01-01

    LptC is a conserved bitopic inner membrane protein from Escherichia coli involved in the export of lipopolysaccharide from its site of synthesis in the cytoplasmic membrane to the outer membrane. LptC forms a complex with the ATP-binding cassette transporter, LptBFG, which is thought to facilitate the extraction of lipopolysaccharide from the inner membrane and release it into a translocation pathway that includes the putative periplasmic chaperone LptA. Cysteine modification experiments established that the catalytic domain of LptC is oriented toward the periplasm. The structure of the periplasmic domain is described at a resolution of 2.2-? from x-ray crystallographic data. The periplasmic domain of LptC consists of a twisted boat structure with two ?-sheets in apposition to each other. The ?-sheets contain seven and eight antiparallel ?-strands, respectively. This structure bears a high degree of resemblance to the crystal structure of LptA. Like LptA, LptC binds lipopolysaccharide in vitro. In vitro, LptA can displace lipopolysaccharide from LptC (but not vice versa), consistent with their locations and their proposed placement in a unidirectional export pathway. PMID:20720015

  2. Recombinant human activated protein C attenuates endotoxin-induced lung injury in awake sheep

    PubMed Central

    Waerhaug, Kristine; Kuklin, Vladimir N; Kirov, Mikhail Y; Sovershaev, Mikhail A; Langbakk, Bodil; Ingebretsen, Ole C; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Bjertnaes, Lars J

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute lung injury often complicates severe sepsis. In Gram-negative sepsis, bacterial endotoxin activates both coagulation and inflammation. Enhanced lung vascular pressures and permeability, increased extravascular lung water content and deteriorated gas exchange characterize ovine endotoxin-induced lung injury, a frequently used model of acute lung injury. Recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC), with its anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, fibrinolytic and antiapoptotic effects, reportedly reduces the respirator-dependent days and the mortality of patients with severe sepsis. We speculate whether rhAPC antagonizes endotoxin-induced lung injury in sheep. Methods Two groups of sheep were exposed to Escherichia coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) 15 ng/kg/minute intravenously from 0 to 24 hours; one group received only lipopolysaccharide throughout (n = 8), and the other group received lipopolysaccharide in combination with rhAPC 24 ?g/kg/hour from 4 to 24 hours (n = 9). In addition, one group received rhAPC as above as the only intervention (n = 4), and four sham-operated sheep were used for determination of the ? and ? isoforms of protein kinase C in pulmonary tissue. Data were assessed by one-way analysis of variance for repeated measurements. Biochemical data were analyzed using Student's t test, or using the Mann–Whitney U test when appropriate. Results Infusion of endotoxin caused lung injury, manifested by increments in pulmonary artery pressure, in pulmonary micro-occlusion pressure, in pulmonary vascular downstream resistance, in pulmonary vascular permeability index, in extravascular lung water index and in deterioration of oxygenation that were all attenuated by infusion of rhAPC. Endotoxemia led to changes in inflammation and coagulation, including pulmonary neutrophil accumulation paralleled by increased TNF? and decreased protein C and fibrinogen in animal plasma, which all improved following infusion of rhAPC. Moreover, rhAPC prevented the translocation of protein kinase C ? and ? isoforms from the cytosolic fraction of lung tissue extracts. Conclusion In awake sheep, rhAPC alleviates endotoxin-induced lung injury – as characterized by improvements of oxygenation, coagulation and inflammation, as well as by reversal of pulmonary hemodynamic and volumetric changes. PMID:18702832

  3. Endotoxin-Binding Peptides Derived from Casein Glycomacropeptide Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Inflammatory Responses via Blockade of NF-?B activation in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xue; Gao, Dongxiao; Chen, Bin; Mao, Xueying

    2015-01-01

    Systemic low-grade inflammation and increased circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contribute to metabolic dysfunction. The inhibitory effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of casein glycomacropeptide (GMP) hydrolysate on the inflammatory response of LPS-stimulated macrophages were investigated. Results showed that the inhibitory effect of GMP hydrolysates obtained with papain on nitric oxide (NO) production were obviously higher than that of GMP hydrolysates obtained with pepsin, alcalase and trypsin (p < 0.05), and the hydrolysate obtained with papain for 1 h hydrolysis (GHP) exhibited the highest inhibitory effect. Compared with native GMP, GHP markedly inhibited LPS-induced NO production in a dose-dependent manner with decreased mRNA level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). GHP blocked toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88)/nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signaling pathway activation, accompanied by downregulation of LPS-triggered significant upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1? gene expression. Furthermore, GHP could neutralize LPS not only by direct binding to LPS, but also by inhibiting the engagement of LPS with the TLR4/MD2 complex, making it a potential LPS inhibitor. In conclusion, these findings suggest that GHP negatively regulates TLR4-mediated inflammatory response in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, and therefore may hold potential to ameliorate inflammation-related issues. PMID:25923657

  4. Endotoxin-Binding Peptides Derived from Casein Glycomacropeptide Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Inflammatory Responses via Blockade of NF-?B activation in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xue; Gao, Dongxiao; Chen, Bin; Mao, Xueying

    2015-01-01

    Systemic low-grade inflammation and increased circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contribute to metabolic dysfunction. The inhibitory effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of casein glycomacropeptide (GMP) hydrolysate on the inflammatory response of LPS-stimulated macrophages were investigated. Results showed that the inhibitory effect of GMP hydrolysates obtained with papain on nitric oxide (NO) production were obviously higher than that of GMP hydrolysates obtained with pepsin, alcalase and trypsin (p < 0.05), and the hydrolysate obtained with papain for 1 h hydrolysis (GHP) exhibited the highest inhibitory effect. Compared with native GMP, GHP markedly inhibited LPS-induced NO production in a dose-dependent manner with decreased mRNA level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). GHP blocked toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88)/nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signaling pathway activation, accompanied by downregulation of LPS-triggered significant upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1? gene expression. Furthermore, GHP could neutralize LPS not only by direct binding to LPS, but also by inhibiting the engagement of LPS with the TLR4/MD2 complex, making it a potential LPS inhibitor. In conclusion, these findings suggest that GHP negatively regulates TLR4-mediated inflammatory response in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, and therefore may hold potential to ameliorate inflammation-related issues. PMID:25923657

  5. Biological activities of Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, E; Berman, D T; Boettcher, L A

    1981-01-01

    Purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from smooth (s) and rough (R) strains of Brucella abortus and lipid A isolated from S-LPS by mild acid hydrolysis were examined in several assays of biological activity. Brucella S- and R-LPSs and Brucella lipid A activated the complement cascade. Previously reported mitogenic activation by Brucella LPSs of spleen cells from endotoxin-resistant C3H/HeJ mice was confirmed and also produced by isolated Brucella lipid A. Mitogenicity was not inhibited by polymyxin B, and amino acid analysis showed no binding of polymyxin B to Brucella LPS under conditions in which mitogenicity of phenol-water-extracted Escherichia coli LPS was inhibited. S and R Brucella LPSs and lipid A all produced equivalent polyclonal stimulation of C3H/HeJ and C3H/HeAU spleen cells. Crude and purified LPS from S but not from R B. abortus was toxic for outbred mice, with 50% lethal doses approximately six times greater than that for E. coli LPS. S- and R-LPSs were abortifacient in pregnant outbred mice. S Brucella LPS was lethal for carrageenen-pretreated C3H/HeJ and C3H/HeAU mice, whereas only C3H/HeAU mice were killed by E. coli LPS. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the unique fatty acid composition of Brucella lipid A is responsible for its biological activity in endotoxin-resistant C3H/HeJ mice. The participation of the protein strongly bound to the lipid A cannot be excluded, but its mode of action, if any, is different from that of the lipid A-associated protein of enterobacterial LPS. PMID:6783538

  6. Acute mammary and liver transcriptome responses after an intramammary Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide challenge in postpartal dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Minuti, Andrea; Zhou, Zheng; Graugnard, Daniel E; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Palladino, Alejandro R; Cardoso, Felipe C; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of an intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on the bovine mammary and liver transcriptome and its consequences on metabolic biomarkers and liver tissue composition. At 7 days of lactation, 7 cows served as controls (CTR) and 7 cows (LPS) received an intramammary Escherichia coli LPS challenge. The mammary and liver tissues for transcriptomic profiling were biopsied at 2.5 h from challenge. Liver composition was evaluated at 2.5 h and 7 days after challenge, and blood biomarkers were analyzed at 2, 3, 7 and 14 days from challenge. In mammary tissue, the LPS challenge resulted in 189 differentially expressed genes (DEG), with 20 down-regulated and 169 up-regulated. In liver tissue, there were 107 DEG in LPS compared with CTR with 42 down-regulated and 65 up-regulated. In mammary, bioinformatics analysis highlighted that LPS led to activation of NOD-like receptor signaling, Toll-like receptor signaling, RIG-I-like receptor signaling and apoptosis pathways. In liver, LPS resulted in an overall inhibition of fatty acid elongation in mitochondria and activation of the p53 signaling pathway. The LPS challenge induced changes in liver lipid composition, a systemic inflammation (rise of blood ceruloplasmin and bilirubin), and an increase in body fat mobilization. The data suggest that cells within the inflamed mammary gland respond by activating mechanisms of pathogen recognition. However, in the liver the response likely depends on mediators originating from the udder that affect liver functionality and specifically fatty acid metabolism (?-oxidation, ketogenesis, and lipoprotein synthesis). PMID:25921778

  7. Salt-inducible kinase 3 deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxin shock accompanied by increased levels of pro-inflammatory molecules in mice.

    PubMed

    Sanosaka, Masato; Fujimoto, Minoru; Ohkawara, Tomoharu; Nagatake, Takahiro; Itoh, Yumi; Kagawa, Mai; Kumagai, Ayako; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Kunisawa, Jun; Naka, Tetsuji; Takemori, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    Macrophages play important roles in the innate immune system during infection and systemic inflammation. When bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binds to Toll-like receptor 4 on macrophages, several signalling cascades co-operatively up-regulate gene expression of inflammatory molecules. The present study aimed to examine whether salt-inducible kinase [SIK, a member of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family] could contribute to the regulation of immune signal not only in cultured macrophages, but also in vivo. LPS up-regulated SIK3 expression in murine RAW264.7 macrophages and exogenously over-expressed SIK3 negatively regulated the expression of inflammatory molecules [interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide (NO) and IL-12p40] in RAW264.7 macrophages. Conversely, these inflammatory molecule levels were up-regulated in SIK3-deficient thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages (TEPM), despite no impairment of the classical signalling cascades. Forced expression of SIK3 in SIK3-deficient TEPM suppressed the levels of the above-mentioned inflammatory molecules. LPS injection (10 mg/kg) led to the death of all SIK3-knockout (KO) mice within 48 hr after treatment, whereas only one mouse died in the SIK1-KO (n = 8), SIK2-KO (n = 9) and wild-type (n = 8 or 9) groups. In addition, SIK3-KO bone marrow transplantation increased LPS sensitivity of the recipient wild-type mice, which was accompanied by an increased level of circulating IL-6. These results suggest that SIK3 is a unique negative regulator that suppresses inflammatory molecule gene expression in LPS-stimulated macrophages. PMID:25619259

  8. Regulation of interactions of endotoxin with host cells.

    PubMed

    Gioannini, Theresa L; Teghanemt, Athmane; Zarember, Kol A; Weiss, Jerrold P

    2003-01-01

    Potent Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent cell activation by endotoxin requires lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and CD14-dependent delivery of endotoxin to cells containing MD-2 and TLR4. We have used metabolically labeled [(14)C] meningococcal lipooligosaccharide (LOS), purified recombinant endotoxin-binding proteins, and cultured endothelial cells to better define protein:endotoxin intermediates key in cell activation in the absence of functional membrane (m) CD14. Protein:endotoxin complexes or aggregates (agg) were purified by gel sieving and characterized by immunocapture and bio-assays. Cell activation closely correlated with LBP, albumin and soluble (s) CD14-dependent conversion of endotoxin agg (M(r) > or = 20 x 10(6)) to monomeric (M(r) approximately 55 x 10(3)) endotoxin:sCD14 complexes. Ordered interaction of LBP (+ albumin) and sCD14 with LOSagg was required for the efficient formation of a bioactive endotoxin:sCD14 complex and potent cell activation. Increasing the ratio of LBP/sCD14 or addition of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) reduced accumulation of endotoxin:sCD14 complexes and instead yielded aggregates of endotoxin (M(r) approximately 1-20 x 10(6)) containing LBP or BPI that were taken up by cells in a CD14- and TLR4-independent manner without inducing pro-inflammatory responses. These findings strongly suggest that host machinery linked to TLR4-dependent cellular activation or TLR4-independent cellular clearance of endotoxin selectively recognizes different protein:endotoxin complexes. At the outset of infection, the low concentrations of LBP present and absence of extracellular BPI favor formation of pro-inflammatory endotoxin:CD14 complexes. The mobilization of LBP and BPI that is triggered by inflammation directs endotoxin for clearance and hence resolution of endotoxin-triggered inflammation. PMID:14733729

  9. Neuropeptide Y prevents the blood pressure fall induced by endotoxin in conscious rats with adrenal medullectomy.

    PubMed

    Evéquoz, D; Waeber, B; Aubert, J F; Flückiger, J P; Nussberger, J; Brunner, H R

    1988-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a vasoconstrictor peptide known to be present in the adrenal medulla, the terminal nerve endings, and in plasma. This study was designed to test whether NPY could prevent the acute blood pressure fall induced by endotoxin administration. Normotensive rats were subjected to adrenal demedullation on the right side and were either adrenalectomized or sham-operated on the left side. Eight to ten days later, NPY (0.07 microgram/min i.v.) or its vehicle were infused for 95 minutes into these conscious, semirestrained rats. The same experiments were performed with rats that received an infusion of epinephrine (0.1 microgram/min). These doses of NPY and epinephrine when given alone had no blood pressure effect. During the last 75 minutes of the 95-minute infusion, endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide Escherichia coli 0.111:B4, 10 micrograms/min i.v.) or its vehicle were administered. In rats with an intact adrenal gland, endotoxin failed to induce hypotension. In rats lacking a functioning adrenal medulla, however, endotoxin induced a pronounced mean blood pressure fall of 55 +/- 11.6 mm Hg (mean +/- SEM). This blood pressure drop could be prevented equally well with NPY and with epinephrine infusion and averaged 11 +/- 2.3 and 16 +/- 2.4 mm Hg, respectively, at the end of the experiment. Additional rats were biadrenalectomized and supplemented with an excess of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. In these rats also, NPY markedly attenuated the blood pressure fall resulting from endotoxemia. These data taken together indicate that in conscious rats with no adrenal medulla, the acute blood pressure fall induced by endotoxin administration is greatly enhanced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3335055

  10. Effect of serum from various animal species on erythrocyte attachment of endotoxins and other bacterial antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Praino, M; Neter, E

    1977-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide O antigens (endotoxins) and other bacterial antigens readily attach to erythrocytes in vitro. This attachment is prevented by certain mammalian and avian sera. In this study, the inhibitory capacity of sera from lower animals was compared with that of higher animals for a total of 30 species. Antigens and the corresponding antisera included both crude O antigens and purified lipopolysaccharide preparations, the common enterobacterial antigen from Escherichia coli O14, the Vi antigen from Citrobacter ballerup, the polyribose-phosphate antigen from Haemophilus influenzae type b, and the crude teichoic acid antigen from Staphylococcus aureus. Antigen and serum mixtures were incubated at 37 degrees C for 30 min and used for erythrocyte modification; failure of hemagglutination by homologous bacterial antiserum provided evidence of inhibitory capacity. Sera from the classes Mammalia and Aves were very strong inhibitors; those of Reptilia and Osteichthyes were moderate in activity, displaying variation within the classes; those of Amphibia and Chondrichthyes were minimal inhibitors; and those of Merostomata, Crustacea, and Lamellibranchiata displayed questionable or no inhibitory capacity. Inhibitory sera were active with all antigens tested. The findings suggest evolution of inhibitory factors consistent with the theory of two diverging lines of animal phylogeny based on embryological criteria and closely parallel the observations of an endotoxin-altering capacity in vertebrate sera that is not found in invertebrate sera or hemolymph. PMID:591059

  11. Increased cardiomyocyte intracellular calcium during endotoxin-induced cardiac dysfunction in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M; Kliewer, A; Maass, D; Becker, L; White, D J; Bryant, D; Arteaga, G; Horton, J; Giroir, B P

    2000-05-01

    Septic shock is a complex pathophysiologic state characterized by circulatory insufficiency, multiple system organ dysfunction, and frequent mortality. Although profound cardiac dysfunction occurs during sepsis, the pathogenesis of this dysfunction remains poorly understood. To determine whether abnormalities in intramyocyte calcium accumulation might contribute to the development of cardiac dysfunction, we measured myocyte intracellular calcium during peak cardiac dysfunction after an endotoxin challenge. Intraperitoneal administration of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide 4 mg/kg to adult guinea pigs resulted in significantly impaired cardiac performance (Langendorff preparation) 18 h after challenge compared with control. This included diminished left ventricular pressure development (56 +/- 7 versus 95 +/- 4 mm Hg, p < 0.05), maximal rate of left ventricular pressure rise (998 +/- 171 versus 1784 +/- 94 mm Hg/s, p < 0.05) and left ventricular pressure fall (1014 +/- 189 versus 1621 +/- 138 mm Hg/s, p < 0.05). Assay of intracellular calcium in fura-2AM-loaded cardiac myocytes demonstrated increased intracellular calcium concentration in myocytes obtained from lipopolysaccharide-challenged animals compared with controls (234 +/- 18 versus 151 +/- 6 nM, p < 0.05). Inhibition of calcium-release channel (ryanodine receptor) opening by administration of dantrolene prevented the increase in intracytoplasmic calcium (159 +/- 8 versus 234 +/- 18 nM, p < 0.05) and partially ameliorated systolic and diastolic ventricular dysfunction. These data indicate that abnormalities of intracellular calcium contribute to the development of endotoxin-induced myocardial dysfunction. PMID:10813595

  12. Apoptosis induction in gastric mucous cells in vitro: lesser potency of Helicobacter pylori than Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide, but positive interaction with ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Durkin, Emma; Moran, Anthony P; Hanson, Peter J

    2006-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause peptic ulcer disease, but whether they interact with Helicobacter pylori to promote damage is controversial. Moreover, the reported induction of apoptosis in gastric cells by H. pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10(-9) g/ml) contrasts with studies showing low immunological potency of this LPS. Therefore, the effects of LPS from H. pylori NCTC 11637 and Escherichia coli O111:B4 on apoptosis in a primary culture of guinea-pig gastric mucous cells were investigated in the presence and absence of the NSAID, ibuprofen. Cell loss was estimated by a crystal violet assay, and apoptosis determined from caspase activity and from condensation and fragmentation of nuclei. Exposure to E. coli LPS for 24 h caused cell loss and enhanced apoptotic activity at concentrations >or= 10(-9) g/ml, but similar effects were only obtained with H. pylori LPS at concentrations >or= 10(-6) g/ml. Although ibuprofen (250 microM) caused cell loss and apoptosis, addition of either E. coli or H. pylori LPSs further enhanced these effects. In conclusion, LPS and ibuprofen interact to enhance gastric cell loss and apoptosis. In such interactions, E. coli LPS is more potent than that of H. pylori. The low potency of H. pylori LPS may contribute to a chronic low-grade gastritis that can be enhanced by the use of NSAIDs. PMID:16420743

  13. Pathogenic Escherichia coli and lipopolysaccharide enhance the expression of IL-8, CXCL5, and CXCL10 in canine endometrial stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Iulia; Hagman, Ragnvi; Guo, Yongzhi; Humblot, Patrice; Wang, Liya; Wernersson, Sara

    2015-07-01

    Chemokines play a central role in cellular communication in response to bacterial infection. However, the knowledge of the chemokine responses to bacterial infections in dogs remains limited. Uterine bacterial infection (pyometra) is one of the most common bacterial diseases in dogs and causes sepsis in most of the cases. We have shown previously that dogs with pyometra have higher messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of chemokines in uterus. To assess whether the stromal part of the endometrium expresses chemokines in response to bacterial infection, we cultured endometrial stromal cells isolated from healthy dogs and exposed them to either live pathogenic Escherichia coli, isolated from the uterus of a dog with pyometra, or lipopolysaccharide. Changes in the mRNA expression of ELR(+) CXC chemokines, IL-8, CXCL5, CXCL7, and ELR(-) CXC chemokine, CXCL10, were measured after 24 hours using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Levels of IL-8, CXCL5, and CXCL10 were upregulated in endometrial stromal cells exposed to E coli and lipopolysaccharide, whereas the level of CXCL7 was decreased or unaffected. In addition, levels of IL-8 and CXCL5, but not CXCL7 or CXCL10, were significantly higher in dogs with pyometra than those in healthy dogs. Our findings show that pathogenic uterine-derived E coli induces a CXC chemokine response both in cultured endometrial stromal cells within 24 hours and in pyometra-affected uteri from dogs. Stromal cells could therefore play an important role in early neutrophil and T cell recruitment to the site of inflammation during gram-negative bacterial infection of the uterus. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of chemokines in host response to bacterial infection in dogs and the possibility of using chemokines as diagnostic parameters for bacterial infection in this species. PMID:25765298

  14. Bactericidal Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to the Lipopolysaccharide O Antigen from Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli Clone ST131-O25b:H4 Elicit Protection in Mice.

    PubMed

    Szijártó, Valéria; Guachalla, Luis M; Visram, Zehra C; Hartl, Katharina; Varga, Cecília; Mirkina, Irina; Zmajkovic, Jakub; Badarau, Adriana; Zauner, Gerhild; Pleban, Clara; Magyarics, Zoltán; Nagy, Eszter; Nagy, Gábor

    2015-06-01

    The Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131)-O25b:H4 clone has spread worldwide and become responsible for a significant proportion of multidrug-resistant extraintestinal infections. We generated humanized monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that target the lipopolysaccharide O25b antigen conserved within this lineage. These MAbs bound to the surface of live bacterial cells irrespective of the capsular type expressed. In a serum bactericidal assay in vitro, MAbs induced >95% bacterial killing in the presence of human serum as the complement source. Protective efficacy at low antibody doses was observed in a murine model of bacteremia. The mode of action in vivo was investigated by using aglycosylated derivatives of the protective MAbs. The significant binding to live E. coli cells and the in vitro and in vivo efficacy were corroborated in assays using bacteria grown in human serum to mimic relevant clinical conditions. Given the dry pipeline of novel antibiotics against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens, passive immunization with bactericidal antibodies offers a therapeutic alternative to control infections caused by E. coli ST131-O25b:H4. PMID:25779571

  15. Research paper Simultaneous metal chelate affinity purification and endotoxin

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    . coli using a non-ionic detergent. Endotoxin content was as low as 5 to 9 EU mg-1 with a recovery of antibody fragments of over 90%. Non-ionic detergent treatment did not compromise integrity-ionic detergent takes advantage of the hydrophobic properties of endotoxin trapping them in the detergent phase

  16. CD47 Deficiency Protects Mice from Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury and Escherichia coli Pneumonia1

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiao; Johansen, Mette; Looney, Mark R.; Brown, Eric J.; Matthay, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    CD47 modulates neutrophil transmigration toward the sites of infection or injury. Mice lacking CD47 are susceptible to Escherichia coli (E. coli) peritonitis. However, less is known concerning the role of CD47 in the development of acute lung inflammation and injury. In this study, we show that mice lacking CD47 are protected from LPS-induced acute lung injury and E. coli pneumonia with a significant reduction in pulmonary edema, lung vascular permeability, and bacteremia. Reconstitution of CD47+/? mice with CD47?/? neutrophils significantly reduced lung edema and neutrophil infiltration, thus demonstrating that CD47+ neutrophils are required for the development of lung injury from E. coli pneumonia. Importantly, CD47-deficient mice with E. coli pneumonia had an improved survival rate. Taken together, deficiency of CD47 protects mice from LPS-induced acute lung injury and E. coli pneumonia. Targeting CD47 may be a novel pathway for treatment of acute lung injury. PMID:18453616

  17. Hormone and Cytokine Responses to Repeated Endotoxin Exposures-No Evidence of Endotoxin Tolerance After 5 Weeks in Humans.

    PubMed

    Rittig, Nikolaj; Thomsen, Henrik H; Bach, Ermina; Jřrgensen, Jens Otto L; Mřller, Niels

    2015-07-01

    Endotoxin administrations are used in experimental models of inflammatory disease. Short-term endotoxin tolerance in response to repeated endotoxin exposure is well known, but the duration of endotoxin tolerance in humans remains unknown. The main purpose of this study was to test whether endotoxin tolerance is present in vivo when separating endotoxin exposures with more than 5 weeks, a time span often used between individual investigations in clinical experimental studies. Seventeen healthy young men were exposed twice to Escherichia coli endotoxin. The inflammatory response was calculated as area under the curve between the first and second endotoxin exposures for heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, temperature, cortisol, tumor necrosis factor ?, and interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and IL-10. The median interval between exposures was 90 days (range, 37-244). The ratio between the inflammatory responses during the second and the first endotoxin exposures was 0.89 ± 0.09 (P = 0.28) for tumor necrosis factor ?, 0.96 ± 0.07 (P = 0.53) for IL-1?, 0.97 ± 0.11 (P = 0.78) for IL-6, 1.30 ± 0.18 (P = 0.12) for IL-10, and 0.92 ± 0.04 (P = 0.10) for cortisol. Our data do not show evidence of in vivo tolerance to repeated endotoxin exposure when administrations are separated with at least 5 weeks. This observation is important in the planning and interpretation of future experimental endotoxin studies. PMID:25895146

  18. Detoxification of endotoxin-contaminated titanium and hydroxyapatite-coated surfaces utilizing various chemotherapeutic and mechanical modalities.

    PubMed

    Zablotsky, M H; Diedrich, D L; Meffert, R M

    1992-01-01

    The surgical repair of the ailing implant may be complicated by the surface effects of pathogenic bacteria and their products. This study evaluated the ability of various chemotherapeutic modalities to detoxify endotoxin-contaminated titanium alloy and hydroxyapatite-coated test strips. Grit-blasted titanium alloy and hydroxyapatite-coated test strips were contaminated with purified outer membranes of Escherichia coli labeled with radioactive 14C. The titanium alloy strips were treated with citric acid, stannous fluoride, tetracycline HCl, chlorhexidine gluconate, hydrogen peroxide, chloramine T, sterile water, a plastic sonic scaler tip, and an air-powder abrasive unit. Hydroxyapatite-coated strips were treated with chloramine T, citric acid, or burnished with sterile water on cotton pellets. Residual lipopolysaccharide levels were measured by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The air-powder abrasive unit removed significantly greater amounts of lipopolysaccharide than all other treatment modalities on titanium samples (P < 0.05). A 60-second burnish with sterile water was able to remove significant amounts of lipopolysaccharide when compared with untreated controls (P < 0.05). Citric acid was superior in the removal of lipopolysaccharide from hydroxyapatite-coated surfaces when compared with the controls or chloramine T (P < 0.01). Detoxification of an implant infected surface may be beneficial when surgical repair of the ailing implant is indicated. PMID:1288809

  19. Influence of Sanitizers on the Lipopolysaccharide Toxicity of Escherichia coli Strains Cultivated in the Presence of Zygosaccharomyces bailii

    PubMed Central

    Mogotsi, Lerato; De Smidt, Olga; Venter, Pierre; Groenewald, Willem

    2014-01-01

    The influence of sublethal concentrations of two sanitizers, liquid iodophor and liquid hypochlorite (LH), on the growth rates and toxicity of food-borne pathogenic Escherichia coli strains grown in the presence of spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was assessed. When grown in combination with Z. bailii both E. coli O113 and E. coli O26 exhibited slower growth rates, except when E. coli O113 was grown in combination with Z. bailii at 0.2% LH. The growth rate of Z. bailii was not impacted by the addition of the sanitizers or by communal growth with E. coli strains. LAL and IL-6 results indicated a decrease in toxicity of pure E. coli cultures with comparable profiles for control and sanitizer exposed samples, although the LAL assay proved to be more sensitive. Interestingly, pure cultures of Z. bailii showed increased toxicity measured by LAL and decreased toxicity measured by IL-6. LAL analysis showed a decrease in toxicity of both E. coli strains grown in combination with Z. bailii, while IL-6 analysis of the mixed cultures showed an increase in toxicity. The use of LAL for toxicity determination in a mixed culture overlooks the contribution made by spoilage yeast, thus demonstrating the importance of using the appropriate method for toxicity testing in mixed microbe environments. PMID:24977173

  20. Dose-Response Relationship to Inhaled Endotoxin in Normal Subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OLIVIER MICHEL; ANNE-MARIE NAGY; MARC SCHROEVEN; JEAN DUCHATEAU; JEAN NČVE; PIERRE FONDU; ROGER SERGYSELS

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to endotoxin and to its purified derivative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is related to several oc- cupational pulmonary diseases and to severe domestic asthma. An inhalation of a given dose of pure LPS produces both a systemic and a bronchial inflammatory response. Information on the dose- response relationship to inhaled LPS in normal subjects is a prerequisite to define the safety

  1. Original article Local and systemic effects of endotoxin mastitis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Local and systemic effects of endotoxin mastitis on the chemiluminescence of milk and blood neutrophils in dairy cows Jalil MEHRZAD, Hilde DOSOGNE, Evelyne MEYER, Christian BURVENICH* Ghent ­ The local and systemic effects of intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection on the chemiluminescence

  2. Original article Neutrophil recruitment in endotoxin-induced murine

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (Received 14 July 2009; accepted 7 October 2009) Abstract ­ Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary tissue / lipopolysaccharide / macrophage / neutrophil / murine model 1. INTRODUCTION Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary tisOriginal article Neutrophil recruitment in endotoxin-induced murine mastitis is strictly dependent

  3. GM1 and GD1a gangliosides modulate toxic and inflammatory effects of E. coli lipopolysaccharide by preventing TLR4 translocation into lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Bayunova, Lubov; Sokolova, Tatyana; Vlasova, Yulia; Bachteeva, Vera; Avrova, Natalia; Parnova, Rimma

    2015-03-01

    Exogenous gangliosides are known to inhibit the effects of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in different cells exhibiting a nti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities. The mechanisms underlying ganglioside action are not fully understood. Because LPS recognition and receptor complex formation occur in lipid rafts, and gangliosides play a key role in their maintenance, we hypothesize that protective effects of exogenous gangliosides would depend on inhibition of LPS signaling via prevention of TLR4 translocation into lipid rafts. The effect of GM1 and GD1a gangliosides on LPS-induced toxic and inflammatory reactions in PC12 cells, and in epithelial cells isolated from the frog urinary bladder, was studied. In PC12 cells, GD1a and GM1 significantly reduced the effect of LPS on the decrease of cell survival and on stimulation of reactive oxygen species production. In epithelial cells, gangliosides decreased LPS-stimulated iNOS expression, NO, and PGE2 production. Subcellular fractionation, in combination with immunoblotting, showed that pretreatment of cells with GM1, GD1a, or methyl-?-cyclodextrin, completely eliminated the effect of LPS on translocation of TLR4 into lipid rafts. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that ganglioside-induced prevention of TLR4 translocation into lipid rafts could be a mechanism of protection against LPS in various cells. PMID:25499607

  4. Contamination of nanoparticles by endotoxin: evaluation of different test methods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nanomaterials can be contaminated with endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) during production or handling. In this study, we searched for a convenient in vitro method to evaluate endotoxin contamination in nanoparticle samples. We assessed the reliability of the commonly used limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay and an alternative method based on toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 reporter cells when applied with particles (TiO2, Ag, CaCO3 and SiO2), or after extraction of the endotoxin as described in the ISO norm 29701. Results Our results indicate that the gel clot LAL assay is easily disturbed in the presence of nanoparticles; and that the endotoxin extraction protocol is not suitable at high particle concentrations. The chromogenic-based LAL endotoxin detection systems (chromogenic LAL assay and Endosafe-PTS), and the TLR4 reporter cells were not significantly perturbed. Conclusion We demonstrated that nanoparticles can interfere with endotoxin detection systems indicating that a convenient test method must be chosen before assessing endotoxin contamination in nanoparticle samples. PMID:23140310

  5. Endotoxin contamination delays the foreign body reaction.

    PubMed

    van Putten, Sander M; Wübben, Maike; Plantinga, Josée A; Hennink, Wim E; van Luyn, Marja J A; Harmsen, Martin C

    2011-09-15

    Biomaterials are at continuous risk of bacterial contamination during production and application. In vivo, bacterial contamination of biomaterials delays the foreign body reaction (FBR). Endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), major constituents of the bacterial cell wall, are potent stimulators of the immune system in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, biomaterials contaminated with LPS induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines by adherent macrophages. This suggests that the presence of endotoxins on biomaterials will intensify the FBR. The effects of LPS on the course of the FBR have never been studied in vivo. In this study, the influence of LPS contamination on the FBR to subcutaneously implanted Puramatrix-loaded hexamethylenediisocyanate-crosslinked dermal sheep collagen (HDSC) disks was studied in rats. During the onset phase of the FBR, a massive influx of granulocytes was detected in LPS-contaminated disks, while their presence was prolonged. IL-10 production inside LPS-contaminated disks was increased at days 10 and 21. Macrophage densities were not affected by the presence of LPS. However, macrophage functionality was altered: giant cell formation and biomaterial degradation were delayed by LPS-contamination up to 21 days. On the basis of these results, we conclude that LPS delays the FBR. This finding indicates that endotoxin contamination has significant implications for the in vivo function of biomaterials and medical devices and emphasizes the importance of endotoxin testing. PMID:21681945

  6. Topically applied standardized aqueous extract of Curcuma longa Linn. suppresses endotoxin-induced uveal inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Renu; Gupta, S K; Agarwal, Puneet; Srivastava, Sushma

    2013-10-01

    Aqueous extract of C. longa when administered 4 h after induction of E. coli lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in rats showed significantly suppressed inflammation with a significantly lower mean clinical grade, histopathological grade and aqueous humor (AH) protein level compared to vehicle treated group. Although, prednisolone group showed significantly lower clinical grade, histopathological grades and AH protein levels compared to C. longa group, TNF-alpha levels did not differ significantly. Moreover, when the aqueous extract was administered starting from 3 days before induction of uveitis, the mean clinical and histopathological grade as well as AH protein and TNF-alpha levels were comparable to C. longa group when treatment was administered 4 h after induction of uveitis. It is concluded that topically applied standardized aqueous extract of C. longa suppresses endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats by reducing TNF-alpha activity. PMID:24266103

  7. Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus dietary supplementation on the performance, intestinal barrier function, rectal microflora and serum immune function in weaned piglets challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jiayun; Li, Haihua; Wang, Zhixiang; Wang, Wenjie

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglet model to determine the effects of diets containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on the performance, intestinal barrier function, rectal microflora and serum immune function. A total of 150 piglets (initial body weight (BW) 7.53 ± 0.21 kg) were allotted to one of the following diets, including a basal diet, a basal diet supplemented with 250 mg/kg Flavomycin, or basal diet plus 0.05, 0.1 or 0.2 % L. acidophilus. On day 28 of the trial, the pigs were given an intraperitoneal injection of LPS (200 ?g/kg body weight) followed by blood collection 3 h later. Diets with either antibiotics, 0.1 or 0.2 % Lactobacillus increased (P < 0.05) the final BW and decreased (P < 0.05) feed gain ratio (F/G) compared with the control group. Pigs fed diets containing antibiotic or Lactobacillus had greater average daily gain (ADG) (P < 0.05) than pigs fed the control diet. The rectal content Lactobacillus counts for pigs fed diet containing Lactobacillus were significant higher (P < 0.01) than those fed antibiotic or control diet. Feeding the Lactobacillus diets decreased the Escherichia coli counts of rectal content (P < 0.01). Pigs fed diets containing 0.1 or 0.2 % Lactobacillus decreased serum DAO activity (P < 0.05) compared with pigs fed the control diet. Serum IL-10 concentration was enhanced in pigs fed the diet with Lactobacillus compared to pigs fed the control diet and antibiotic diet. Feeding a diet with Lactobacillus reduced (P < 0.05) IFN-? concentration compared to the control diet. Inclusion of Lactobacillus in diets fed to pigs reduced TNF-? concentration compared with pigs fed no Lactobacillus (P < 0.05). These results indicate that feeding with L. acidophilus improved growth performance and protected against LPS-induced inflammatory status. PMID:25577203

  8. Statistical optimization of medium composition and culture condition for the production of recombinant anti-lipopolysaccharide factor of Eriocheir sinensis in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shan; Liu, Mei; Wang, Baojie; Jiang, Keyong; Wang, Lei

    2011-11-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are important antimicrobial peptides that are isolated from some aquatic species. In a previous study, we isolated ALF genes from Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. In this study, we optimized the production of a recombinant ALF by expressing E. sinensis ALF genes in Escherichia coli maintained in shake-flasks. In particular, we focused on optimization of both the medium composition and the culture condition. Various medium components were analyzed by the Plackett-Burman design, and two significant screened factors, (NH4)2SO4 and KH2PO4, were further optimized via the central composite design (CCD). Based on the CCD analysis, we investigated the induction start-up time, the isopropylthio-D-galactoside (IPTG) concentration, the post-induction time, and the temperature by response surface methodology. We found that the highest level of ALF fusion protein was achieved in the medium containing 1.89 g/L (NH4)2SO4 and 3.18 g/L KH2PO4, with a cell optical density of 0.8 at 600 nm before induction, an IPTG concentration of 0.5 mmol/L, a post-induction temperature of 32.7°C, and a post-induction time of 4 h. Applying the whole optimization strategy using all optimal factors improved the target protein content from 6.1% (without optimization) to 13.2%. We further applied the optimized medium and conditions in high cell density cultivation, and determined that the soluble target protein constituted 10.5% of the total protein. Our identification of the economic medium composition, optimal culture conditions, and details of the fermentation process should facilitate the potential application of ALF for further research.

  9. Binding of /sup 125/I-labeled endotoxin to bovine, canine, and equine platelets and endotoxin-induced agglutination of canine platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, K.M.; Boehme, M.; Inbar, O.

    1982-10-01

    Endotoxin from Escherichia coli O127:B8, Salmonella abortus-equi and S minnesota induced clumping of some canine platelets (PLT) at a final endotoxin concentration of 1 microgram/ml. Endotoxin-induced clumping of canine PLT was independent of PLT energy-requiring processes, because clumping was observed with canine PLT incubated with 2-deoxy-D-glucose and antimycin A. The PLT responded to adenosine diphosphate before, but not after, incubation with the metabolic inhibitors. Endotoxin induced a slight and inconsistant clumping of bovine and equine PLT at high (mg/ml) endotoxin concentration. High-affinity binding sites could not be demonstrated on canine, bovine, and equine PLT, using /sup 125/I-labeled E coli O127:B8 endotoxin. Nonspecific binding was observed and appeared to be due primarily to an extraneous coat on the PLT surface that was removed by gel filtration. The endotoxin that was bound to PLT did not appear to modify PLT function. An attempt to identify plasma proteins that bound physiologically relevant amounts of endotoxin was not successful. The significance of the endotoxin-induced clumping or lack of it on the pathophysiology of endotoxemia is discussed.

  10. Endotoxin{middle dot}albumin complexes transfer endotoxin monomers to MD-2 resulting in activation of TLR4.

    PubMed

    Esparza, Gregory A; Teghanemt, Athmane; Zhang, DeSheng; Gioannini, Theresa L; Weiss, Jerrold P

    2012-06-01

    Response to Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) is partially mediated by the recognition of GNB-derived endotoxin by host cells. Potent host response to endotoxin depends on the sequential interaction of endotoxin with lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), CD14, MD-2 and TLR4. While CD14 facilitates the efficient transfer of endotoxin monomers to MD-2 and MD-2·TLR4, activation of MD-2·TLR4 can occur in the absence of CD14 through an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that incubation of purified endotoxin (E) aggregates (E(agg), M ( r )???20 million) in PBS with???0.1% albumin in the absence of divalent cations Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), yields E·albumin complexes (M ( r ) ?70,000). E·albumin transfers E monomers to sMD-2 or sMD-2·TLR4 ectodomain (TLR4(ecd)) with a 'K (d)' of ?4?nM and induces MD-2·TLR4-dependent, CD14-independent cell activation with a potency only 10-fold less than that of monomeric E·CD14 complexes. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, a mechanistic basis for delivery of endotoxin monomers to MD-2 and for activation of TLR4 that is independent of CD14. PMID:21994253

  11. Paradoxical effects of IL-10 in endotoxin-induced uveitis.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, J T; Angell, E

    1995-10-15

    Uveitis, or intraocular inflammation, can be provoked in laboratory rodents by the local or systemic injection of bacterial endotoxin. Many of the inflammatory effects of endotoxin are potentially due to the induction of cytokine synthesis. IL-10 is a cytokine that potently inhibits the synthesis of many cytokines, including IL-1 and TNF-alpha. We have assessed the ability of IL-10 to inhibit endotoxin-induced uveitis in rabbits and mice. The intravitreal injection of 1 micrograms of human recombinant IL-10 was extremely effective in rabbits in reducing the inflammation produced by the intravitreal injection of 250 ng of Escherichia coli endotoxin, as judged by the reduced accumulation of cells and protein in the aqueous humor. Locally injected IL-10 was similarly effective in blocking the ocular inflammatory effects of intravitreally injected endotoxin in a mouse model. If the injection of IL-10 was delayed subsequent to the endotoxin injection, the reduced inflammatory effects in the rabbit model were diminished. In contrast to its ability to inhibit the local inflammatory effect of endotoxin in the eye, IL-10 did not reduce the inflammation induced by a local ocular injection of 400 U of human recombinant IL-alpha. Paradoxically, in a mouse model of uveitis subsequent to intraperitoneally injected endotoxin, the simultaneous injection of 1 micrograms of IL-10 and endotoxin potentiated the ocular inflammation, as judged by the number of leukocytes seen in histologic sections. This effect was dose dependent, since eye inflammation was markedly inhibited by 100 micrograms of IL-10 injected i.p. These observations are compatible with the hypothesis that locally injected IL-10 acts by reducing cytokine synthesis in these uveitis models. Intraperitoneally injected IL-10 can either inhibit or suppress endotoxin-induced eye inflammation in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:7561121

  12. Polaprezinc Protects Mice against Endotoxin Shock

    PubMed Central

    Ohata, Shuzo; Moriyama, Chihiro; Yamashita, Atsushi; Nishida, Tadashi; Kusumoto, Chiaki; Mochida, Shinsuke; Minami, Yukari; Nakada, Junya; Shomori, Kohei; Inagaki, Yoshimi; Ohta, Yoshiji; Matsura, Tatsuya

    2010-01-01

    Polaprezinc (PZ), a chelate compound consisting of zinc and l-carnosine (Car), is an anti-ulcer drug developed in Japan. In the present study, we investigated whether PZ suppresses mortality, pulmonary inflammation, and plasma nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? levels in endotoxin shock mice after peritoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and how PZ protects against LPS-induced endotoxin shock. PZ pretreatment inhibited the decrease in the survival rate of mice after LPS injection. PZ inhibited the increases in plasma NO as well as TNF-? after LPS. Compatibly, PZ suppressed LPS-induced inducible NO synthase mRNA transcription in the mouse lungs. PZ also improved LPS-induced lung injury. However, PZ did not enhance the induction of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 in the mouse lungs after LPS. Pretreatment of RAW264 cells with PZ suppressed the production of NO and TNF-? after LPS addition. This inhibition likely resulted from the inhibitory effect of PZ on LPS-mediated nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation. Zinc sulfate, but not Car, suppressed NO production after LPS. These results indicate that PZ, in particular its zinc subcomponent, inhibits LPS-induced endotoxin shock via the inhibition of NF-?B activation and subsequent induction of proinflammatory products such as NO and TNF-?, but not HSP induction. PMID:20490319

  13. A new endotoxin adsorber: first clinical application.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, H; Jakob, W; Fröhlich, D; Rothe, G; Prasser, C; Drobnik, W; Taeger, K; Meier-Hellmann, A; Reinhart, K; Zimmermann, M; Schmitz, G

    2001-10-01

    In an open, uncontrolled pilot study, 5 men and 1 woman with suspected gram-negative sepsis were treated with a new whole-blood endotoxin adsorption system. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) adsorption was carried out by hemoperfusion over high-affinity polymethacrylate-bound albumin (Fresenius Endotoxin Adsorber EN 500). All patients suffered from endotoxemia (>20 pg/ml LAL) and met at least two systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria. Four patients suffered from pneumonia due to mechanical ventilation, one from peritonitis, and one from pneumonia and peritonitis. Endotoxin adsorption was very well tolerated, and efficient LPS removal was shown in all patients. Apache II score immediately before immunoadsorption was 23.5 and was 22.3 after the last treatment. All 6 critically ill patients improved substantially and were discharged from the intensive care unit. LPS whole blood immunoadsorption is a promising new method. No side effects have been observed thus far. A large controlled study to prove clinical efficacy in patients with severe sepsis is under way. PMID:11778916

  14. Polaprezinc Protects Mice against Endotoxin Shock.

    PubMed

    Ohata, Shuzo; Moriyama, Chihiro; Yamashita, Atsushi; Nishida, Tadashi; Kusumoto, Chiaki; Mochida, Shinsuke; Minami, Yukari; Nakada, Junya; Shomori, Kohei; Inagaki, Yoshimi; Ohta, Yoshiji; Matsura, Tatsuya

    2010-05-01

    Polaprezinc (PZ), a chelate compound consisting of zinc and l-carnosine (Car), is an anti-ulcer drug developed in Japan. In the present study, we investigated whether PZ suppresses mortality, pulmonary inflammation, and plasma nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha levels in endotoxin shock mice after peritoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and how PZ protects against LPS-induced endotoxin shock. PZ pretreatment inhibited the decrease in the survival rate of mice after LPS injection. PZ inhibited the increases in plasma NO as well as TNF-alpha after LPS. Compatibly, PZ suppressed LPS-induced inducible NO synthase mRNA transcription in the mouse lungs. PZ also improved LPS-induced lung injury. However, PZ did not enhance the induction of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 in the mouse lungs after LPS. Pretreatment of RAW264 cells with PZ suppressed the production of NO and TNF-alpha after LPS addition. This inhibition likely resulted from the inhibitory effect of PZ on LPS-mediated nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. Zinc sulfate, but not Car, suppressed NO production after LPS. These results indicate that PZ, in particular its zinc subcomponent, inhibits LPS-induced endotoxin shock via the inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and subsequent induction of proinflammatory products such as NO and TNF-alpha, but not HSP induction. PMID:20490319

  15. Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovikova, Lyudmila V.; Ivanova, Svetlana; Zhang, Minghuang; Yang, Huan; Botchkina, Galina I.; Watkins, Linda R.; Wang, Haichao; Abumrad, Naji; Eaton, John W.; Tracey, Kevin J.

    2000-05-01

    Vertebrates achieve internal homeostasis during infection or injury by balancing the activities of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), produced by all gram-negative bacteria, activates macrophages to release cytokines that are potentially lethal. The central nervous system regulates systemic inflammatory responses to endotoxin through humoral mechanisms. Activation of afferent vagus nerve fibres by endotoxin or cytokines stimulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal anti-inflammatory responses. However, comparatively little is known about the role of efferent vagus nerve signalling in modulating inflammation. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized, parasympathetic anti-inflammatory pathway by which the brain modulates systemic inflammatory responses to endotoxin. Acetylcholine, the principle vagal neurotransmitter, significantly attenuated the release of cytokines (tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6 and IL-18), but not the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human macrophage cultures. Direct electrical stimulation of the peripheral vagus nerve in vivo during lethal endotoxaemia in rats inhibited TNF synthesis in liver, attenuated peak serum TNF amounts, and prevented the development of shock.

  16. IL18-deficient mice are resistant to endotoxin-induced liver injury but highly susceptible to endotoxin shock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshimitsu Sakao; Kiyoshi Takeda; Hiroko Tsutsui; Tsuneyasu Kaisho; Fumiko Nomura; Haruki Okamura; Kenji Nakanishi; Shizuo Akira

    1999-01-01

    IL-18 is an IL-1-related cytokine which shares biological functions with IL-12. These include the activation of NK cells, induction of IFN-g production and Th1 cell differentiation. In this study we analyzed the effect of IL-18 deficiency on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury and endotoxin shock in Propionibacterium acnes-primed mice. P. acnes-primed IL-18-deficient (IL-18KO) mice showed resistance to LPS-induced liver injury. Unexpectedly,

  17. Kinetics of Hydrothermal Inactivation of Endotoxins ?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lixiong; Wilbur, Chris L.; Mintz, Kathryn L.

    2011-01-01

    A kinetic model was established for the inactivation of endotoxins in water at temperatures ranging from 210°C to 270°C and a pressure of 6.2 × 106 Pa. Data were generated using a bench scale continuous-flow reactor system to process feed water spiked with endotoxin standard (Escherichia coli O113:H10). Product water samples were collected and quantified by the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. At 250°C, 5-log endotoxin inactivation was achieved in about 1 s of exposure, followed by a lower inactivation rate. This non-log-linear pattern is similar to reported trends in microbial survival curves. Predictions and parameters of several non-log-linear models are presented. In the fast-reaction zone (3- to 5-log reduction), the Arrhenius rate constant fits well at temperatures ranging from 120°C to 250°C on the basis of data from this work and the literature. Both biphasic and modified Weibull models are comparable to account for both the high and low rates of inactivation in terms of prediction accuracy and the number of parameters used. A unified representation of thermal resistance curves for a 3-log reduction and a 3 D value associated with endotoxin inactivation and microbial survival, respectively, is presented. PMID:21193667

  18. Distribution of lipid A species between long and short chain lipopolysaccharides isolated from Salmonella, Yersinia, and Escherichia as seen by 252Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lebbar, S; Karibian, D; Deprun, C; Caroff, M

    1994-12-16

    Smooth type endotoxins of Salmonella, Yersinia, and Escherichia were fractionated into long and short chain lipopolysaccharides by silica gel chromatography. Lipid A was prepared from the fractions and analyzed by plasma desorption mass spectrometry. Both Yersinia and Salmonella endotoxins had a large proportion of aminoarabinose-containing lipopolysaccharide molecular species that were found to be concentrated in the long chain fraction. In the Escherichia endotoxin, hypoacylated lipopolysaccharides (lacking the tetradecanoate and one of the four hydroxytetradecanoates) were found mostly in the short chain fraction. Possible implications of these results for the lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic pathway and for studies on the influence of sugar chain length on the biological effects of endotoxins are discussed. PMID:7989362

  19. ?-Chaconine isolated from a Solanum tuberosum L. cv Jayoung suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory mediators via AP-1 inactivation in RAW 264.7 macrophages and protects mice from endotoxin shock.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Goo; Lee, Suel-Gie; Lee, Hwi-Ho; Lee, Hae Jun; Shin, Ji-Sun; Kim, Nan-Jung; An, Hyo-Jin; Nam, Jung-Hwan; Jang, Dae Sik; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2015-06-25

    In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of ?-chaconine in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and in LPS-induced septic mice. ?-Chaconine inhibited the expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) at the transcriptional level, and attenuated the transcriptional activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1) by reducing the translocation and phosphorylation of c-Jun. ?-Chaconine also suppressed the phosphorylation of TGF-?-activated kinase-1 (TAK1), which lies upstream of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 (MKK7)/Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. JNK knockdown using siRNA prevented the ?-chaconine-mediated inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators. In a sepsis model, pretreatment with ?-chaconine reduced the LPS-induced lethality and the mRNA and production levels of pro-inflammatory mediators by inhibiting c-Jun activation. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of ?-chaconine are associated with the suppression of AP-1, and support its possible therapeutic role for the treatment of sepsis. PMID:25913072

  20. Stress-Derived Corticotropin Releasing Factor Breaches Epithelial Endotoxin Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yong; Geng, Xiao-Rui; Yang, Gui; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Loss of the endotoxin tolerance of intestinal epithelium contributes to a number of intestinal diseases. The etiology is not clear. Psychological stress is proposed to compromise the intestinal barrier function. The present study aims to elucidate the role of the stress-derived corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in breaching the established intestinal epithelial endotoxin tolerance. Methods Epithelial cells of HT-29, T84 and MDCK were exposed to lipopolysaccharide to induce the endotoxin tolerance; the cells were then stimulated with CRF. The epithelial barrier function was determined using as indicators of the endotoxin tolerant status. A water-avoid stress mouse model was employed to test the role of CRF in breaching the established endotoxin tolerance in the intestine. Results The established endotoxin tolerance in the epithelial cell monolayers was broken down by a sequent exposure to CRF and LPS manifesting a marked drop of the transepithelial resistance (TER) and an increase in the permeability to a macromolecular tracer, horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The exposure to CRF also increased the expression of Cldn2 in the epithelial cells, which could be mimicked by over expression of TLR4 in epithelial cells. Over expression of Cldn2 resulted in low TER in epithelial monolayers and high permeability to HRP. After treating mice with the 10-day chronic stress, the intestinal epithelial barrier function was markedly compromised, which could be prevented by blocking either CRF, or TLR4, or Cldn2. Conclusions Psychological stress-derived CRF can breach the established endotoxin tolerance in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:23840363

  1. EFFECTS OF BRANCHEDCHAIN AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTATION ON GROWING STEERS DURING AN ENDOTOXIN CHALLENGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Gilliam; B. C. Graham; J. W. Waggoner; K. L. DeAtley; D. M. Hallford; C. A. Löest

    2008-01-01

    Steers exposed to an endotoxin may require additional branched-chain AA (BCAA) to support acute- phase response protein synthesis. This study evaluated effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and BCAA supplementation on N retention and blood metabolites of 20 ruminally cannulated steers (177 ± 4.2 kg BW). The experiment was a randomized block design, with 14-d adaptation to metabolism stalls and diet

  2. MICROWAVE RADIATION (2450-MHZ) POTENTIATES THE LETHAL EFFECT OF ENDOTOXIN IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groups of male CBA/J mice were injected with Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and irradiated with 2450 MHz (CW) microwaves. High ambient temperature (37C) also potentiated the lethal effect of endotoxin. Microwave irradiation prior to LPS injection, however, did no...

  3. Acute nephrotoxic and obstructive injury primes the kidney to endotoxin-driven cytokine\\/chemokine production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R A Zager; A C M Johnson; S Y Hanson; S Lund

    2006-01-01

    Gram-negative sepsis is a frequent complication in patients with acute renal failure. This study tested whether acute tubular injury, for example, induced by cisplatin (CP) or urinary tract obstruction, enhances renal cytokine responses to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)), potentially contributing to tissue damage. CD-1 mice were subjected to CP or vehicle injection. After 24 or 72 h, LPS or its vehicle

  4. Downregulation of Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis by Intravitreal Injection of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Encapsulated in Liposomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laure Lajavardi; Amelie Bochot; Serge Camelo; Brigitte Goldenberg; Marie-Christine Naud; Francine Behar-Cohen; Elias Fattal; Yvonne de Kozak

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE. To reestablish the immunosuppressive microenviron- ment of the eye, disrupted by ocular inflammation during endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU), by means of intravitreal injec- tion of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in saline or encap- sulated in liposomes, to increase its bioavailability and effi- ciency. METHODS. EIU was induced in Lewis rats by subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Simultaneously, animals were intravitreally

  5. Recognition of Gram-negative bacteria and endotoxin by the innate immune system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J Ulevitch; Peter S Tobias

    1999-01-01

    Until about 10 years ago the exact mechanisms controlling cellular responses to the endotoxin – or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) – of Gram-negative bacteria were unknown. Now a considerable body of evidence supports a model where LPS or LPS-containing particles (including intact bacteria) form complexes with a serum protein known as LPS-binding protein; the LPS in this complex is subsequently transferred to

  6. Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects on eukaryotic signal transduction1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTIAN R. H. RAETZ; RICHARD J. ULEVITCH; SAMUEL D. WRIGHT; CAROL H. SIBLEY; CARL F. NATHAN

    The lipid A domain of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a unique, glucosamine-based phospholipid that makes up the outer monolayer of the outer membrane of most gram-negative bacteria. Because of its profound pharmacological effects on animal cells, especially those of the immune system, lipid A is also known as endo- toxin. Despite decades of earlier work, the precise chemistry of endotoxins and

  7. Otitis media with effusion following inoculation of Haemophilus influenzae type b endotoxin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Nonomura; Y. Nakano; Y. Satoh; O. Fujioka; H. Niijima; M. Fujita

    1986-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) was extracted from Haemophilus influenzae type b by using Westphal's phenol water method. The ears of 40 adult male guinea pigs were subsequently inoculated with 10 µg\\/ml solutions of LPS by transmeatal injections. Groups of animals were then sacrificed from day 2 to day 24 after the injections to observe the pathological changes produced. Massive serous effusions

  8. Do endotoxins devoid of 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid exist?

    PubMed

    Caroff, M; Lebbar, S; Szabó, L

    1987-03-30

    After treatment with aqueous, 50% hydrofluoric acid, a well-known dephosphorylating agent, the presence of 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid (KDO), an essential and characteristic constituent of endotoxins, can be readily demonstrated in reportedly KDO-deficient bacterial lipopolysaccharides. PMID:3566759

  9. Influence of various dust sampling and extraction methods on the measurement of airborne endotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Douwes, J; Versloot, P; Hollander, A; Heederik, D; Doekes, G

    1995-01-01

    The influence of various filter types and extraction conditions on the quantitation of airborne endotoxin with the Limulus amebocyte lysate test was studied by using airborne dusts sampled in a potato processing plant. Samples were collected with an apparatus designed to provide parallel samples. Data from the parallel-sampling experiment were statistically evaluated by using analysis of variance. In addition, the influence of storage conditions on the detectable endotoxin concentration was investigated by using commercially available lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and endotoxin-containing house dust extracts. The endotoxin extraction efficiency of 0.05% Tween 20 in pyrogen-free water was seven times higher than that of pyrogen-free water only. Two-times-greater amounts of endotoxin were extracted from glass fiber, Teflon, and polycarbonate filters than from cellulose ester filters. The temperature and shaking intensity during extraction were not related to the extraction efficiency. Repeated freeze (-20 degrees C)-and-thaw cycles with commercial LPS reconstituted in pyrogen-free water had a dramatic effect on the detectable endotoxin level. A 25% loss in endotoxin activity per freeze-thaw cycle was observed. Storage of LPS samples for a period of 1 year at 7 degrees C had no effect on the endotoxin level. House dust extracts showed a decrease of about 20% in the endotoxin level after they had been frozen and thawed for a second time. The use of different container materials (borosilicate glass, "soft" glass, and polypropylene) did not result in different endotoxin levels. This study indicates that the assessment of endotoxin exposure may differ considerably between groups when different sampling, extraction, and storage procedures are employed. PMID:7646014

  10. Involvement of cannabinoid receptor-1 activation in mitochondrial depolarizing effect of lipopolysaccharide in human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Barbonetti, A; Vassallo, M R C; Costanzo, M; Battista, N; Maccarrone, M; Francavilla, S; Francavilla, F

    2014-07-01

    Gram-negative bacteria frequently involved in urogenital tract infections release the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS); its receptor, toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), has been recently identified in human spermatozoa, and its direct activation has been suggested in mediating adverse effects of LPS on human spermatozoa. However, the underlying signal transduction remains to be clarified. In other cell types, LPS induces the generation of endocannabinoids, which are involved in mediating endotoxin effects. In human spermatozoa, which exhibit a completely functional endocannabinoid system, the activation of cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) inhibited sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). In this study, we tested the hypothesis of a contribution of CB1 activation by sperm-generated endocannabinoids in the adverse effects exerted by LPS on human spermatozoa. The exposure of motile sperm suspensions to E. coli LPS produced a significant decrease in sperm ??m, assessed at flow cytometry with JC-1, similar to that induced by Metanandamide (Met-AEA), a non-hydrolyzable analogue of the endocannabinoid AEA. The LPS-induced inhibition of ??m was prevented by the selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, SR141716. However, the inhibition of ??m induced by either LPS or Met-AEA did not affect sperm motility. Consistent with this finding, the CB1-mediated inhibition of ??m was neither associated to mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species as evaluated by flow cytometry with MytoSox Red nor to apoptosis pathway activation as evaluated with cytoflorimetric assay for activated caspase-9 and caspase-3. Any oxidative genomic damage was also ruled out with the cytoflorimetric quantification of the oxidized base adduct 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. In conclusion, E. coli LPS inhibited sperm ??m through the activation of CB1, but this effect was not accompanied to the activation of mitochondrial dysfunction-related apoptotic/oxidative mechanisms, which could affect sperm motility and genomic integrity. PMID:24692267

  11. Alveolar endotoxin increases alveolar liquid clearance in rats.

    PubMed

    Garat, C; Rezaiguia, S; Meignan, M; D'Ortho, M P; Harf, A; Matthay, M A; Jayr, C

    1995-12-01

    Under some pathological conditions, ion transport across alveolar epithelial cells is downregulated, whereas under other pathological conditions, it may be upregulated. Because endotoxin is a biologically relevant pathological stimulus, we investigated the effect of endotoxin on alveolar epithelial liquid clearance in vivo. Escherichia coli endotoxin (220 micrograms/kg) was instilled into the lungs via the trachea of rats. Then, 24 or 40 h after endotoxin instillation, alveolar and lung liquid clearances were studied over 1 h by instillation of a 5% albumin solution with 1.5 microCi of 125I-labeled albumin (6 ml/kg into both lungs). Alveolar liquid clearance was significantly greater at 24 h (36 +/- 5%) and 40 h (38 +/- 7%) after endotoxin exposure than in saline-instilled controls (27 +/- 6%). Although there was an influx of neutrophils into the air space, there was no increase in lung epithelial permeability to protein at 24 or 40 h. Amiloride (2 x 10(-3) M), a sodium channel inhibitor, significantly reduced alveolar liquid clearance in the rats exposed to endotoxin. However, the increase in alveolar liquid clearance was not inhibited when propranolol (2 x 10(-5) M) was added to the 5% albumin solution. Thus exposure to alveolar endotoxin upregulates net alveolar fluid clearance in vivo for up to 40 h, a potentially important mechanism for accelerating alveolar fluid clearance under some pathological conditions. The increase in alveolar liquid clearance 24 and 40 h after instillation of endotoxin into the air spaces is mediated by an increased uptake of sodium through amiloride-sensitive sodium channels. PMID:8847269

  12. Endotoxin and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lundin, Jessica I.; Checkoway, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Objective Exposure to endotoxin, a component of gram-negative bacterial cell walls, is widespread in many industrial settings and in the ambient environment. Heavy-exposure environments include livestock farms, cotton textile facilities, and saw mills. Concentrations are highly variable in non-occupational indoor and outdoor environments. Endotoxin is a potent inflammagen with recognized health effects, including fever, shaking chills, septic shock, toxic pneumonitis, and respiratory symptoms. Somewhat paradoxically, given the putative role of inflammation in carcinogenesis, various lines of evidence suggest that endotoxin may prevent cancer initiation or limit tumor growth. The hypothesis that components of bacteria may retard cancer progression dates back to William B. Coley’s therapeutic experiments (“bacterial vaccine”) in the 1890s. Data sources In this article, we review epidemiologic, clinical trial, and experimental studies pertinent to the hypothesis that endotoxin prevents cancer. Since the 1970s, epidemiologic studies of cotton textile and other endotoxin-exposed occupational groups have consistently demonstrated reduced lung cancer risks. Experimental animal toxicology research and some limited therapeutic trials in cancer patients offer additional support for an anticarcinogenic potential. The underlying biological mechanisms of anticarcinogenesis are not entirely understood but are thought to involve the recruitment and activation of immune cells and proinflammatory mediators (e.g., tumor necrosis factor ? and interleukin-1 and -6). Conclusions In view of the current state of knowledge, it would be premature to recommend endotoxin as a cancer-chemopreventive agent. Nonetheless, further epidemiologic and experimental investigations that can clarify further dose–effect and exposure–timing relations could have substantial public health and basic biomedical benefits. PMID:19750096

  13. Antimicrobial action and cell agglutination by the eosinophil cationic protein are modulated by the cell wall lipopolysaccharide structure.

    PubMed

    Pulido, David; Moussaoui, Mohammed; Andreu, David; Nogués, M Victňria; Torrent, Marc; Boix, Ester

    2012-05-01

    Antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs) are essential effectors of innate immunity, acting as a first line of defense against bacterial infections. Many AMPs exhibit high affinity for cell wall structures such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent endotoxin able to induce sepsis. Hence, understanding how AMPs can interact with and neutralize LPS endotoxin is of special relevance for human health. Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is an eosinophil secreted protein with high activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. ECP has a remarkable affinity for LPS and a distinctive agglutinating activity. By using a battery of LPS-truncated E. coli mutant strains, we demonstrate that the polysaccharide moiety of LPS is essential for ECP-mediated bacterial agglutination, thereby modulating its antimicrobial action. The mechanism of action of ECP at the bacterial surface is drastically affected by the LPS structure and in particular by its polysaccharide moiety. We have also analyzed an N-terminal fragment that retains the whole protein activity and displays similar cell agglutination behavior. Conversely, a fragment with further minimization of the antimicrobial domain, though retaining the antimicrobial capacity, significantly loses its agglutinating activity, exhibiting a different mechanism of action which is not dependent on the LPS composition. The results highlight the correlation between the protein's antimicrobial activity and its ability to interact with the LPS outer layer and promote bacterial agglutination. PMID:22330910

  14. Removal of endotoxin from water by microfiltration through a microporous polyethylene hollow-fiber membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Y; Fujii, R; Igami, I; Kawai, A; Kamiki, T; Niwa, M

    1986-01-01

    The microporous polyethylene hollow-fiber membrane has a unique microfibrile structure throughout its depth and has been found to possess the functions of filtration and adsorption of endotoxin in water. The membrane has a maximum pore diameter of approximately 0.04 micron, a diameter which is within the range of microfiltration. Approximately 10 and 20% of the endotoxin in tap water and subterranean water, respectively, was smaller than 0.025 micron. Endotoxin in these water sources was efficiently removed by the microporous polyethylene hollow-fiber membrane. Escherichia coli O113 culture broth contained 26.4% of endotoxin smaller than 0.025 micron which was also removed. Endotoxin was leaked into the filtrate only when endotoxin samples were successively passed through the membrane. These results indicate that endotoxin smaller than the pore size of the membrane was adsorbed and then leaked into the filtrate because of a reduction in binding sites. Dissociation of 3H-labeled endotoxin from the membrane was performed, resulting in the removal of endotoxin associated with the membrane by alcoholic alkali at 78% efficiency. Images PMID:3518630

  15. Dietary oil composition differentially modulates intestinal endotoxin transport and postprandial endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intestinal derived endotoxin and the subsequent endotoxemia can be considered major predisposing factors for diseases such as atherosclerosis, sepsis, obesity and diabetes. Dietary fat has been shown to increase postprandial endotoxemia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of different dietary oils on intestinal endotoxin transport and postprandial endotoxemia using swine as a model. We hypothesized that oils rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) would augment, while oils rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) would attenuate intestinal endotoxin transport and circulating concentrations. Methods Postprandial endotoxemia was measured in twenty four pigs following a porridge meal made with either water (Control), fish oil (FO), vegetable oil (VO) or coconut oil (CO). Blood was collected at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5?hours postprandial and measured for endotoxin. Furthermore, ex vivo ileum endotoxin transport was assessed using modified Ussing chambers and intestines were treated with either no oil or 12.5% (v/v) VO, FO, cod liver oil (CLO), CO or olive oil (OO). Ex vivo mucosal to serosal endotoxin transport permeability (Papp) was then measured by the addition of fluorescent labeled-lipopolysaccharide. Results Postprandial serum endotoxin concentrations were increased after a meal rich in saturated fatty acids and decreased with higher n-3 PUFA intake. Compared to the no oil control, fish oil and CLO which are rich in n-3 fatty acids reduced ex vivo endotoxin Papp by 50% (P?endotoxin Papp. Conclusion Overall, these results indicate that saturated and n-3 PUFA differentially regulate intestinal epithelial endotoxin transport. This may be associated with fatty acid regulation of intestinal membrane lipid raft mediated permeability. PMID:23305038

  16. Endotoxin detection--from limulus amebocyte lysate to recombinant factor C.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jeak Ling; Ho, Bow

    2010-01-01

    Gram negative bacterial endotoxin is a biological pyrogen that causes fever when introduced intravenously. The endotoxin, also known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. During Gram-negative sepsis, endotoxin stimulates host macrophages to release inflammatory cytokines. However, excessive inflammation causes multiple organ failure and death. Endotoxins, which are ubiquitous pathogenic molecules, are a bane to the pharmaceutical industry and healthcare community. Thus early and sensitive detection of endotoxin is crucial to prevent endotoxaemia. The limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) has been widely used for ~30 years for the detection of endotoxin in the quality assurance of injectable drugs and medical devices. The LAL constitutes a cascade of serine proteases which are triggered by trace levels of endotoxin, culminating in a gel clot at the end of the reaction. The Factor C, which normally exists as a zymogen, is the primer of this coagulation cascade. In vivo, Factor C is the perfect biosensor, which alerts the horseshoe crab of the presence of a Gram-negative invader. The hemostatic end-point entraps the invader, killing it and limiting further infection. However, as an in vitro endotoxin detection tool, variations in the sensitivity and specificity of LAL to endotoxin, and the dwindling supply of horseshoe crabs are posing increasing challenges to the biotechnology industry. This has necessitated the innovation of an alternative test for endotoxin. Thus, Factor C became the obvious, albeit tricky target for the recombinant technology effort. This chapter documents the backwater of mining the natural blood lysate of the endangered species to the monumental effort of genetic engineering, to produce recombinant Factor C (rFC). The rFC is a 132 kDa molecule, which was produced as a proenzyme inducible by the presence of trace levels of endotoxin. The rFC forms the basis of the "PyroGene" kit, which is a novel micro-enzymatic endotoxin diagnostic assay for high-throughput screens of endotoxin. Using the rFC, Lonza Inc. has spawned the "PyroSense" which serves as checkpoints of the biotechnology production line. Thus, from cloning to commercial applications, the rFC has initiated a new era in endotoxin-testing for the quality assurance of biomedical products and for the healthcare industry, whilst sparing the endangered horseshoe crabs. PMID:20593268

  17. Cardiac lipoprotein lipase: effects of lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willem C. Hiilsmann; Marie-Louise Dubelaar; L. Elly A. De Wit; Niek L. M. Persoon

    1988-01-01

    Summary  Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the active principle of certain endotoxins, protein-free perfused in rat hearts leads in 3 h to\\u000a a considerable loss of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. In the presence of albumin LPS has virtually no effect. Tumor necrosis\\u000a factor (TNF) added instead of LPS had no effects on LPL activity during 3 hin vitro perfusion.\\u000a \\u000a LPS injected into rats intravenously

  18. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food and...Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay. (a) Identification. An endotoxin assay is a device that uses serological...

  19. Maternal supplementation with fishmeal protects against late gestation endotoxin-induced fetal programming of the ovine hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, R E; Or'Rashid, M; Quinton, M; AlZahal, O; Boermans, H J; McBride, B W; Karrow, N A

    2014-06-01

    Adverse uterine environments caused by maternal stress (such as bacterial endotoxin) can alter programming of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) rendering offspring susceptible to various adulthood diseases. Thus, protection against this type of stress may be critical for ensuring offspring health. The present study was designed to determine if maternal supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) during pregnancy helps to protect against stress-induced fetal programming. Briefly, 53 ewes were fed a diet supplemented with fishmeal (FM) or soybean meal (SM) from day 100 of gestation (gd100) through lactation. On gd135, half the ewes from each dietary group were challenged with either 1.2 ?g/kg Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin, or saline as the control. The offspring's cortisol response to weaning stress was assessed 50 days postpartum by measuring serum cortisol concentrations 0, 6 and 24 h post weaning. Twenty-four hours post-weaning, lambs were subjected to an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge (0.5 ?g/kg) and serum cortisol concentrations were measured 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 h post injection. At 5.5 months of age, offspring were also challenged with 400 ng/kg of LPS, and serum cortisol concentrations were measured 0, 2, 4 and 6 h post challenge. Interestingly, female offspring born to FM+LPS mothers had a greater cortisol response to weaning and endotoxin challenge compared with the other treatments, while female offspring born to SM+LPS mothers had a faster cortisol response to the ACTH stressor. Additionally, males born to FM+LPS mothers had a greater cortisol response to the ACTH challenge than the other treatments. Overall, FM supplementation during gestation combined with LPS challenge alters HPAA responsiveness of the offspring into adulthood. PMID:24901660

  20. Induction of immune and adjuvant immunoglobulin G responses in mice by Brucella lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, E; Kurtz, R S; Berman, D T

    1984-01-01

    The immunogenic and adjuvant properties of Brucella abortus and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) were studied in endotoxin-responsive, athymic, and euthymic BALB/c mice and in responsive C3H/HeAu mice and congenic nonresponsive C3H/HeJ mice. Consistent with previous reports, E. coli LPS did not stimulate significant primary or secondary antibody responses in C3H/HeJ mice and induced the production of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and low levels of IgG in C3H/HeAu mice. In contrast, B. abortus smooth and rough LPS stimulated primary and secondary antibody responses and induced the production of IgM and high levels of IgG in both responsive and nonresponsive strains of C3H/He mice and in nude mice. When used as adjuvant, B. abortus LPS augmented the IgG plaque-forming-cell response of C3H/HeAu and BALB/c euthymic mice to the T-dependent antigen sheep erythrocytes. E. coli LPS augmented only the IgM plaque-forming-cell response in the same mouse strains. Neither B. abortus nor E. coli LPS was adjuvant for C3H/HeJ or nude mice. The dichotomy between the antibody and adjuvant responses of both C3H/HeJ mice and athymic mice to B. abortus LPS may be a function of the true thymus independence and dependence of these responses. In addition, the refractiveness of C3H/HeJ and nude mice to B. abortus LPS as adjuvant, but not as mitogen or polyclonal B cell activator, clearly dissociates these phenomena. PMID:6434430

  1. Systemic anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody treatment exacerbates endotoxin-induced uveitis in the rat.

    PubMed

    De Vos, A F; Van Haren, M A; Verhagen, C; Hoekzema, R; Kijlstra, A

    1995-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor is released in the circulation and aqueous humor during endotoxin-induced uveitis, and induces acute uveitis when injected intraocularly in rats. To elucidate the role of tumor necrosis factor in the development of endotoxin-induced uveitis we analysed the effect of neutralizing anti-tumor necrosis factor antibodies and of pentoxifylline, a drug that inhibits tumor necrosis factor synthesis. Lewis rats were treated with: (a) a single intracardial injection of polyclonal rabbit anti-murine tumor necrosis factor antiserum prior to foot pad injection of 200 micrograms lipopolysaccharide; (b) an intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg pentoxifylline 1 hr before, at the time of, and 3 hr after foot pad injection of lipopolysaccharide; or (c) an intravitreal injection of 20 to 500 micrograms pentoxifylline together with 1 microgram lipopolysaccharide. The ocular inflammation was examined by slit-lamp and evaluated for the presence of hyperemia, flare, miosis, infiltrating cells or hypopyon. Levels of tumor necrosis factor in serum and aqueous samples were determined using a bioassay. Systemic treatment with either anti-tumor necrosis factor antibodies or pentoxifylline resulted in a significant inhibition, 90 and 70% respectively, of serum tumor necrosis factor activity at 3 to 4 hr after lipopolysaccharide injection. Systemic pentoxifylline treatment had no influence on the severity of uveitis. Anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody treatment, in contrast, caused an exacerbation of endotoxin-induced uveitis at t = 20 hr; mean uveitis score 3.9 vs. 1.4 in controls; P < 0.01. Intraocular administration of pentoxifylline together with lipopolysaccharide also had an aggravating effect on uveitis, that was associated with increased levels of intraocular tumor necrosis factor. The results show that inhibition of serum tumor necrosis factor activity does not block the development of endotoxin-induced uveitis. In fact, anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody treatment exacerbates the intraocular inflammation. These findings suggest that tumor necrosis factor may have other than proinflammatory properties in this uveitis model. PMID:8846838

  2. Single session of Nd:YAG laser intracanal irradiation neutralizes endotoxin in dental root dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archilla, José R. F.; Moreira, Maria S. N. A.; Miyagi, Sueli P. H.; Bombana, Antônio C.; Gutknecht, Norbert; Marques, Márcia M.

    2012-11-01

    Endotoxins released in the dental root by Gram-negative microorganisms can be neutralized by calcium hydroxide, when this medication is applied inside the root canal for at least seven days. However, several clinical situations demand faster root canal decontamination. Thus, for faster endotoxin neutralization, endodontists are seeking additional treatments. The in vitro study tested whether or not intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation would be able to neutralize endotoxin within the human dental root canal in a single session. Twenty-four human teeth with one root were mounted between two chambers. After conventional endodontic treatment, root canals were contaminated with Escherichia coli endotoxin. Then they were irradiated or not (controls) in contact mode with an Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 15 Hz, 100 mJ and pulse fluency of 124 J/cm2). The endotoxin activity was measured using the limulus lysate technique and data were statistically compared (p?0.05). The concentration of active endotoxin measured in the negative control group was significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.04). The concentrations of endotoxin in both irradiated groups were significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.027) and similar to that of negative control group (p=0.20). A single session of intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation is able to neutralize endotoxin in the dental root tissues.

  3. Endotoxin elimination in sepsis: physiology and therapeutic application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Buttenschoen; Peter Radermacher; Hendrik Bracht

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  The present review summarizes key papers on the elimination of endotoxin in human.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are extremely strong stimulators of inflammatory reactions, act at very low concentrations, and\\u000a are involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis and septic shock. Elimination of LPS is vital; therefore, therapeutic detoxification\\u000a of LPS may offer new perspectives. Multiple mechanisms eliminate LPS in human comprising molecules

  4. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Hyperglycemia Is Mediated by CHH Release in Crustaceans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simonetta Lorenzon; Piero Giulio Giulianini; Enrico Antonio Ferrero

    1997-01-01

    Septicemia in crustaceans may occur occasionally due to Gram-negative opportunistic bacteria, especially under conditions of intensive aquaculture. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin induces in mammals septic shock and the activation by LPS of hormone release through the hypothalamo–pituitary axis is well known. In crustaceans an increase in circulating Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone and hyperglycemia are reported to result from exposure to several

  5. Regional Difference in Susceptibility to Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neurotoxicity in the Rat Brain: Role of Microglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Won-Gon Kim; Robert P. Mohney; Belinda Wilson; Gwang-Ho Jeohn; Bin Liu; Jau-Shyong Hong

    2000-01-01

    Inflammation in the brain has been increasingly associated with the development of a number of neurological diseases. The hallmark of neuroinflammation is the activation of microglia, the resident brain immune cells. Injection of bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the hippocampus, cortex, or sub- stantia nigra of adult rats produced neurodegeneration only in the substantia nigra. Although LPS appeared to impact

  6. Ultrasound body composition traits response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers supplemented with Omnigen-AF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the body composition traits response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183 ± 5 kg) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separat...

  7. OmniGen-AF supplementation modulated the physiological and acute phase responses of Brahman heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton...

  8. Modulation of the metabolic response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers through OmniGen-AF supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the metabolic response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separated into 2...

  9. Temperament influences endotoxin-induced changes in rectal temperature, sickness behavior, and plasma epinephrine concentrations in bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the influence of temperament on endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) induced changes in body temperature and the secretion of cortisol and epinephrine. Purebred Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score (average of exit velocity, EV, and pen score, PS...

  10. Sexually dimorphic secretion of cortisol but not catecholamines in response to an endotoxin challenge in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge on secretion of the adrenal stress-related hormones cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine in bull and heifer calves. Brahman calves (n = 12; 269 ± 11.7 kg) were randomly selected from the fall 2007 c...

  11. Removal of endotoxin from deionized water using micromachined silicon nanopore membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ross A.; Goldman, Ken; Fissell, William H.; Fleischman, Aaron J.; Zorman, Christian A.; Roy, Shuvo

    2011-05-01

    Endotoxins are lipopolysaccharide components of the cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that trigger the body's innate immune system and can cause shock and death. Water for medical therapy, including parenteral and dialysate solutions, must be free of endotoxin. This purity is challenging to achieve as many Gram-negative bacteria are endemic in the environment, and can thrive in harsh, nutrient-poor conditions. Current methods for removing endotoxin include distillation and reverse osmosis, both of which are resource intensive processes. Membranes that present an absolute barrier to macromolecular passage may be capable of delivering pure water for biomedical applications. In this work, endotoxin has been filtered from aqueous solutions using silicon nanopore membranes (SNMs) with monodisperse pore size distributions. SNMs with critical pore sizes between 26 and 49 nm were challenged with solutions of deionized water spiked with endotoxin and with Pseudomonas cepacia. The filtrate produced by the SNM from Pseudomonas-contaminated water had <1.0 endotoxin unit (EU) ml-1, which meets standards for dialysate purity. This approach suggests a technique for single-step cleanup of heavily contaminated water that may be suitable for field or clinical use.

  12. Detection and quantitative evaluation of endotoxin contamination in nanoparticle formulations by LAL-based assays.

    PubMed

    Neun, Barry W; Dobrovolskaia, Marina A

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a membrane component of all Gram-negative bacteria. The administration of products contaminated with bacterial endotoxin can cause fever, shock, and even death. Accordingly, the FDA sets limits on the number of endotoxin units (EU) that may be present in a drug or device product. Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) is the extract from amoebocytes of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus, which reacts with bacterial endotoxin. Detection of the products of this reaction is an effective means of quantifying the EU present in a drug formulation. However, nanoparticles frequently interfere with the reactivity of endotoxin, the LAL reaction, or the detection of the reaction products. This interference can be manifested as either an enhancement or an inhibition, causing a respective overestimation or underestimation of the EU in the sample. Here, we present two methods for the detection and quantification of endotoxin in nanoparticle preparations: one is based on an end-point chromogenic LAL assay, and the second approach is based on measuring the turbidity of the LAL extract. PMID:21116960

  13. Chlamydial hemagglutinin identified as lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Watkins, N G; Caldwell, H D; Hackstadt, T

    1987-08-01

    Chlamydial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) agglutinated mouse and rabbit erythrocytes but not human, guinea pig, or pronghorn antelope erythrocytes. Hemagglutination was not specific for Chlamydia spp., as rough LPSs from Coxiella burnetii and Escherichia coli also agglutinated erythrocytes from the same animal species. Nonagglutinated and agglutinated erythrocytes bound equivalent amounts of LPS, indicating that hemagglutination was not due to a specific interaction of chlamydial LPS with erythrocytes. Thus, hemagglutination by chlamydial LPS is not mediated by specific receptor-ligand interactions but is a property of the altered surface of the LPS-coated erythrocytes. PMID:3301820

  14. Oxidative degradation of endotoxin by advanced oxidation process (O3/H2O2 & UV/H2O2).

    PubMed

    Oh, Byung-Taek; Seo, Young-Suk; Sudhakar, Dega; Choe, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Park, Youn-Jong; Cho, Min

    2014-08-30

    The presence of endotoxin in water environments may pose a serious public health hazard. We investigated the effectiveness of advanced oxidative processes (AOP: O3/H2O2 and UV/H2O2) in the oxidative degradation of endotoxin. In addition, we measured the release of endotoxin from Escherichia coli following typical disinfection methods, such as chlorine, ozone alone and UV, and compared it with the use of AOPs. Finally, we tested the AOP-treated samples in their ability to induce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) in mouse peritoneal macrophages. The production of hydroxyl radical in AOPs showed superior ability to degrade endotoxin in buffered solution, as well as water samples from Korean water treatment facilities, with the ozone/H2O2 being more efficient compared to UV/H2O2. In addition, the AOPs proved effective not only in eliminating E. coli in the samples, but also in endotoxin degradation, while the standard disinfection methods lead to the release of endotoxin following the bacteria destruction. Furthermore, in the experiments with macrophages, the AOPs-deactivated endotoxin lead to the smallest induction of TNF-?, which shows the loss of inflammation activity, compared to ozone treatment alone. In conclusion, these results suggest that AOPs offer an effective and mild method for endotoxin degradation in the water systems. PMID:25038578

  15. The Chemical Composition of Endotoxin Isolated from Intestinal Strain of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans

    PubMed Central

    Lodowska, Jolanta; Wolny, Daniel; Jaworska-Kik, Marzena; Kurkiewicz, S?awomir; Dzier?ewicz, Zofia; W?glarz, Ludmi?a

    2012-01-01

    Desulfovibrio desulfuricans anaerobes are constituents of human alimentary tract microflora. There are suggestions that they take part in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and some gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. Endotoxin is one of Gram-negative bacteria cellular components that influence these microorganisms pathogenicity. Endotoxin is a lipid-polisaccharide heteropolymer consisting of three elements: lipid A, core oligosaccharide, and O-specific polysaccharide, also called antigen-O. The biological activity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is determined by its structure. In this study, we show that rhamnose, fucose, mannose, glucose, galactose, heptose, and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid (Kdo) are constituents of D. desulfuricans endotoxin oligosaccharide core and O-antigen. Lipid A of these bacteria LPS is composed of glucosamine disaccharide substituted by 3-acyloxyacyl residues: ester-bound 3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoic, 3-(hexadecanoyloxy)tetradecanoic acid, and amide-bound 3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanoic acid. PMID:22629175

  16. Endotoxins enhance hepatocarcinogenesis induced by oral intake of thioacetamide in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YANG Jin-Ming; HAN De-Wu; XIE Chun-Ming; LIANG Quqn-Cheng; ZHAO Yuan-Chang; MA Xue-Hui

    AIM To clarify whether endotoxin is of pathogenic im- portance for hepatocarcinogenesis,or the increased can- cer risk results solely from thecirrhotic process. METHODS The rat model of hepatoma was treated by the intake of 0.03% thioacetamide in drinking water for six months. During induction of hepatoma, rats were additionally treated with splenectomy and\\/or lipopolysaccharide administration. The liver nuclear DNA index

  17. A phosphoethanolamine transferase specific for the outer 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid residue of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. Identification of the eptB gene and Ca2+ hypersensitivity of an eptB deletion mutant.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, C Michael; Kalb, Suzanne R; Cotter, Robert J; Raetz, Christian R H

    2005-06-01

    Addition of a phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) moiety to the outer 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) residue of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in WBB06, a heptose-deficient Escherichia coli mutant, occurs when cells are grown in 5-50 mM CaCl2 (Kanipes, M. I., Lin, S., Cotter, R. J., and Raetz, C. R. H. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 1156-1163). A Ca2+-induced, membrane-bound enzyme was responsible for the transfer of the pEtN unit to the Kdo domain. We now report the identification of the gene encoding the pEtN transferase. E. coli yhjW was cloned and overexpressed, because it is homologous to a putative pEtN transferase implicated in the modification of the beta-chain heptose residue of Neisseria meningitidis lipo-oligosaccharide (Mackinnon, F. G., Cox, A. D., Plested, J. S., Tang, C. M., Makepeace, K., Coull, P. A., Wright, J. C., Chalmers, R., Hood, D. W., Richards, J. C., and Moxon, E. R. (2002) Mol. Microbiol. 43, 931-943). In vitro assays with Kdo2-4'-[32P]lipid A as the acceptor showed that YhjW (renamed EptB) utilizes phosphatidylethanolamine in the presence of Ca2+ to transfer the pEtN group. Stoichiometric amounts of diacylglycerol were generated during the EptB-catalyzed transfer of pEtN to Kdo2-lipid A. EptB is an inner membrane protein of 574 amino acid residues with five predicted trans-membrane segments within its N-terminal region. An in-frame replacement of eptB with a kanamycin resistance cassette rendered E. coli WBB06 (but not wild-type W3110) hypersensitive to CaCl2 at 5 mM or higher. Ca2+ hypersensitivity was suppressed by excess Mg2+ in the medium or by restoring the LPS core of WBB06. The latter was achieved by reintroducing the waaC and waaF genes, which encode LPS heptosyl transferases I and II, respectively. Our data demonstrate that pEtN modification of the outer Kdo protected cells containing heptose-deficient LPS from damage by high concentrations of Ca2+. Based on its sequence similarity to EptA(PmrC), we propose that the active site of EptB faces the periplasmic surface of the inner membrane. PMID:15795227

  18. Effects of endotoxin induced lung injury and exercise in goats/sheep. Final report, 1 February 1992-2 June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Mundie, T.G.

    1993-06-02

    This study was designed the effects of exercise performed on animals already injured with E. coli endotoxin. This would tell us whether exercise makes the lung injury worse. It would also tell us how much exercise performance is impaired. These studies were designed to give further insights into the underlying causes of acute lung injury. Premature termination of the study prevented completion of the research project. It appeared from the limited experimentation conducted that maximal exercise was impaired by endotoxin-induced lung injury. Conclusions regarding exacerbation of endotoxin-induced lung injury cannot be made.... Acute lung injury, Maximal exercise, Endotoxin.

  19. Endotoxin Deactivation by Transient Acidification

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Melina M.; Xu, Xiumin; Klein, Dagmar; Kenyon, Norma S; Ricordi, Camillo; Felipe, Maria Sueli S.; Pastori, Ricardo L.

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant proteins are an important tool for research and therapeutic applications. Therapeutic proteins have been delivered to several cell types and tissues and might be used to improve the outcome of the cell transplantation. Recombinant proteins are propagated in bacteria, which will contaminate them with the lypopolysacharide-endotoxin found in the outer bacterial membrane. Endotoxin could interfere with in vitro biological assays and is the major pathological factor, which must be removed or inactivated before in vivo administration. Here we describe a one-step protocol in which the endotoxin activity on recombinant proteins is remarkably reduced by transient exposure to acidic conditions. Maximum endotoxin deactivation occurs at acidic pH below their respective isoelectric point (pI). This method does not require additional protein purification or separation of the protein from the endotoxin fraction. The endotoxin level was measured both in vitro and in vivo. For in vitro assessment we have utilized Limulus Amebocyte Lysate method for in vivo the pyrogenic test. We have tested the above-mentioned method with 5 different recombinant proteins including a monoclonal antibody clone 5c8 against CD154 produced by hybridomas. More than 99% of endotoxin was deactivated in all of the proteins, the recovery of the protein after deactivation varied between maximum 72.9 and minimum 46.8%. The anti CD154 clone 5c8 activity remained unchanged as verified by the measurement of binding capability to activated lymphocytes. Furthermore, the effectiveness of this method was not significantly altered by urea, commonly used in protein purification. This procedure provides a simple and cost-efficient way to reduce the endotoxin activity in antibodies and recombinant proteins. PMID:20412635

  20. Enhanced Resistance of Gastric Mucosa to Damaging Agents in the Rat Stomach Adapted to Helicobacter pylori Lipopolysaccharide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomasz Brzozowski; Peter C. Konturek; Anthony P. Moran; Slawomir Kwiecien; Robert Pajdo; Stanislaw J. Konturek; Danuta Drozdowicz; Agata Ptak; Wieslaw Pawlik; Eckhart G. Hahn

    2003-01-01

    Background and Aim: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been proposed to act as one of numerous virulence factors in the Helicobacter pylori (HP)-infected stomach. However, little is known as to whether the gastric mucosa can withstand the repeated LPS insult, and how the possible adaptation to this endotoxin influences the damage induced by strong irritants. We determined the effect of a single

  1. Endotoxin induces fibrosis in vascular endothelial cells through a mechanism dependent on transient receptor protein melastatin 7 activity.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Cesar; Montorfano, Ignacio; Hermosilla, Tamara; Armisén, Ricardo; Velásquez, Luis A; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Varela, Diego; Simon, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of systemic inflammatory diseases, including endotoxemia-derived sepsis syndrome, is characterized by endothelial dysfunction. It has been demonstrated that the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces the conversion of endothelial cells (ECs) into activated fibroblasts through endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition mechanism. Fibrogenesis is highly dependent on intracellular Ca2+ concentration increases through the participation of calcium channels. However, the specific molecular identity of the calcium channel that mediates the Ca2+ influx during endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis is still unknown. Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a calcium channel that is expressed in many cell types, including ECs. TRPM7 is involved in a number of crucial processes such as the conversion of fibroblasts into activated fibroblasts, or myofibroblasts, being responsible for the development of several characteristics of them. However, the role of the TRPM7 ion channel in endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis is unknown. Thus, our aim was to study whether the TRPM7 calcium channel participates in endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis. Using primary cultures of ECs, we demonstrated that TRPM7 is a crucial protein involved in endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis. Suppression of TRPM7 expression protected ECs from the fibrogenic process stimulated by endotoxin. Downregulation of TRPM7 prevented the endotoxin-induced endothelial markers decrease and fibrotic genes increase in ECs. In addition, TRPM7 downregulation abolished the endotoxin-induced increase in ECM proteins in ECs. Furthermore, we showed that intracellular Ca2+ levels were greatly increased upon LPS challenge in a mechanism dependent on TRPM7 expression. These results demonstrate that TRPM7 is a key protein involved in the mechanism underlying endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis. PMID:24710004

  2. Endotoxin Induces Fibrosis in Vascular Endothelial Cells through a Mechanism Dependent on Transient Receptor Protein Melastatin 7 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Echeverría, Cesar; Montorfano, Ignacio; Hermosilla, Tamara; Armisén, Ricardo; Velásquez, Luis A.; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Varela, Diego; Simon, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of systemic inflammatory diseases, including endotoxemia-derived sepsis syndrome, is characterized by endothelial dysfunction. It has been demonstrated that the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces the conversion of endothelial cells (ECs) into activated fibroblasts through endothelial­to­mesenchymal transition mechanism. Fibrogenesis is highly dependent on intracellular Ca2+ concentration increases through the participation of calcium channels. However, the specific molecular identity of the calcium channel that mediates the Ca2+ influx during endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis is still unknown. Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a calcium channel that is expressed in many cell types, including ECs. TRPM7 is involved in a number of crucial processes such as the conversion of fibroblasts into activated fibroblasts, or myofibroblasts, being responsible for the development of several characteristics of them. However, the role of the TRPM7 ion channel in endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis is unknown. Thus, our aim was to study whether the TRPM7 calcium channel participates in endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis. Using primary cultures of ECs, we demonstrated that TRPM7 is a crucial protein involved in endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis. Suppression of TRPM7 expression protected ECs from the fibrogenic process stimulated by endotoxin. Downregulation of TRPM7 prevented the endotoxin-induced endothelial markers decrease and fibrotic genes increase in ECs. In addition, TRPM7 downregulation abolished the endotoxin-induced increase in ECM proteins in ECs. Furthermore, we showed that intracellular Ca2+ levels were greatly increased upon LPS challenge in a mechanism dependent on TRPM7 expression. These results demonstrate that TRPM7 is a key protein involved in the mechanism underlying endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis. PMID:24710004

  3. SUBCHRONIC ENDOTOXIN INHALATION CAUSES CHRONIC AIRWAY DISEASE IN ENDOTOXIN-SENSITIVE BUT NOT ENDOTOXIN-RESISTANT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    SUBCHRONIC ENDOTOXIN INHALATION CAUSES CHRONIC AIRWAY DISEASE IN ENDOTOXIN-SENSITIVE BUT NOT ENDOTOXIN-RESISTANT MICE. D. M. Brass, J. D. Savov, *S. H. Gavett, ?C. George, D. A. Schwartz. Duke Univ Medical Center Durham, NC, *U.S. E.P.A. Research Triangle Park, NC, ?Univ of Iowa,...

  4. Nitric Oxide Production During Endotoxin-Induced Mastitis in the Cow1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Bouchard; S. Blais; C. Desrosiers; X. Zhao; P. Lacasse

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide production was measured during endo- toxin-induced mastitis. One hour after morning milk- ing, the right hind quarters of 15 cows were infused with saline containing Escherichia coli endotoxin. Left hind control quarters were infused with saline only. At varying intervals before and after infusion, diagnostic markers of mastitis were recorded and nitric oxide pro- duction was evaluated by

  5. Endotoxin Studies And Biosolids Stabilization Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation has three parts; a review of bench-scale endotoxin research, a review of observations from a field scale endotoxin release study, and discussion of biosolids stabilization and characterization by PLFA/FAME microbial community analysis. Endotoxins are part of th...

  6. Escherichia coli Morphological Changes and Lipid A Removal Induced by Reduced Pressure Nitrogen Afterglow Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Zerrouki, Hayat; Rizzati, Virginie; Bernis, Corinne; Nčgre-Salvayre, Anne; Sarrette, Jean Philippe; Cousty, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Lipid A is a major hydrophobic component of lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin) present in the membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria, and the major responsible for the bioactivity and toxicity of the endotoxin. Previous studies have demonstrated that the late afterglow region of flowing post-discharges at reduced pressure (1-20 Torr) can be used for the sterilization of surfaces and of the reusable medical instrumentation. In the present paper, we show that the antibacterial activity of a pure nitrogen afterglow can essentially be attributed to the large concentrations of nitrogen atoms present in the treatment area and not to the UV radiation of the afterglow. In parallel, the time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial Escherichia coli (E. coli) population is correlated with morphologic changes observed on the bacteria by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for increasing afterglow exposure times. The effect of the afterglow exposure is also studied on pure lipid A and on lipid A extracted from exposed E. coli bacteria. We report that more than 60% of lipid A (pure or bacteria-extracted) are lost with the used operating conditions (nitrogen flow QN2 = 1 standard liter per minute (slpm), pressure p = 5 Torr, microwave injected power PMW = 200 W, exposure time: 40 minutes). The afterglow exposure also results in a reduction of the lipid A proinflammatory activity, assessed by the net decrease of the redox-sensitive NF?B transcription factor nuclear translocation in murine aortic endothelial cells stimulated with control vs afterglow-treated (pure and extracted) lipid A. Altogether these results point out the ability of reduced pressure nitrogen afterglows to neutralize the cytotoxic components in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25837580

  7. Experimental Study on Inactivation of Bacterial Endotoxin by Using Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xingmin; Li, Yaxi; Zhang, Guanjun; Ma, Yue; Shao, Xianjun

    2011-12-01

    The low-temperature plasma (LTP) generated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was used to sterilize the E.coli endotoxin, which is usually difficult to kill by traditional methods. Three different concentrations of bacterial endotoxin (1 EU/mL, 0.5 EU/mL and 0.25 EU/mL) were treated by LTP for different time (20 s, 40 s and 60 s). Tachypleus amebocyte lysate (TAL) method was employed to detect the concentration variation of bacterial endotoxin before and after the plasma treatment, and endotoxic shock mice model was used to evaluate the inactivation effects of LTP on endotoxin for further study. Experimental results demonstrated that, DBD plasma can inactivate the bacterial endotoxin quickly and effectively, and when the LTP treatment time was increased, the concentrations of bacterial endotoxin decreased gradually (after 60 s plasma treatment, its inactivation effect was beyond the Chinese pharmacopoeia standard), and the average survival time of mice gradually extended. The possible inactivation mechanisms are proposed to be related to reactive oxygen species (ROSs).

  8. Lipopolysaccharide Membrane Building and Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Sunhwan; Wu, Emilia L.; Stuhlsatz, Danielle; Klauda, Jeffery B.; Widmalm, Göran; Im, Wonpil

    2015-01-01

    Summary While membrane simulations are widely employed to study the structure and dynamics of various lipid bilayers and membrane proteins in the bilayers, simulations of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in membrane environments have been limited due to its structural complexity, difficulties in building LPS-membrane systems, and lack of appropriate molecular force field. In this work, as a first step to extend CHARMM-GUI Membrane Builder to incorporate LPS molecules and to explore their structures and dynamics in membrane environments using molecular dynamics simulations, we describe step-by-step procedures to build LPS bilayer systems using CHARMM and the recently developed CHARMM carbohydrate and lipid force fields. Such procedures are illustrated by building various bilayers of Escherichia coli O6 LPS and their preliminary simulation results are given in terms of per-LPS area and density distributions of various components along the membrane normal. PMID:25753722

  9. Optimal induction of tumor necrosis factor production in human monocytes requires complete S-form lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Männel, D N; Falk, W

    1989-01-01

    Optimal activation of human monocytes in vitro for the biosynthesis of tumor necrosis factor was achieved only with complete S-form lipopolysaccharide. Endotoxin preparations with shorter carbohydrate chains or the lipid A component of lipopolysaccharide were not able to induce release of comparable amounts of tumor necrosis factor by monocytes under the conditions described. The same differences in the level of tumor necrosis factor mRNA were observed. Moreover, addition of these agents to appropriate monocyte-activating substances inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor. The regulatory implications of this phenomenon are discussed. Images PMID:2731978

  10. A non-chromatographic method for the removal of endotoxins from bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Branston, Steven D; Wright, Jason; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli

    2015-08-01

    The Ff filamentous bacteriophages show potential as a new class of therapeutics, displaying utility in materials science as well as pharmaceutical applications. These phages are produced by the infection of E. coli, a Gram-negative bacterium which unavoidably sheds endotoxins into the extracellular space during growth. Since endotoxin molecules are highly immunoreactive, separation from the phage product is of critical importance, particularly those developed for human therapeutic use. The properties of M13, one of the Ff group, present a purification challenge chiefly because the standard scalable method for endotoxin removal from proteins-anion exchange chromatography-is not applicable due to pI similarity between the particles. This article examines the potential of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-NaCl precipitation as a scalable method for the separation of endotoxins from phage M13. Precipitation of M13 by 2% (w/v) PEG 6 000, 500?mM NaCl reduced endotoxin contamination of the phage product by 88%, but additional precipitation rounds did not maintain this proportional decrease. Dynamic light scattering was subsequently used to determine the effectiveness of a detergent to disassociate endotoxin molecules from M13. As a result, PEG-NaCl precipitation was supplemented with up to 2% (v/v) Triton X-100 to improve separation. A 5.7 log10 reduction in endotoxin concentration was achieved over three rounds of precipitation whilst retaining over 97% of the phage. This method compares favorably with the well-known ATPS (Triton X-114) technique for endotoxin removal from protein solutions. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 1714-1719. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25728530

  11. Mononuclear cells in the corneal response to endotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, E.L.; Cruse, V.K.; Kwok, M.T.

    1982-04-01

    A severe keratitis can be produced after the direct injection of bacterial endotoxin, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in rabbits. Corneal inflammation can progress to scarring and vascularization within a 2 to 3 week period. Pretreatment with systemic adrenal corticosteroids (triamcinolone) prevents this response. Limbal cellular and vascular events were studied during the first 20 hr after injection of LPS in treated and nontreated rabbits. Perivascular limbal inflammatory cells were counted and limbal vascular permeability was assessed by extravasation of 131I-albumin and 125I-fibrinogen in the cornea. Corticosteroids decreased but did not prevent the early protein extravasation and profoundly altered the inflammatory cell population around blood vessels at the limbus. Mononuclear cells, particularly mononuclear phagocytes, were sharply reduced. It is proposed that these cell types play an important role in the perpetuation and amplification of the inflammatory response in this reaction.

  12. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on D-fructose transport across rabbit jejunum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. García-Herrera; B. Abad; M. J. Rodríguez-Yoldi

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate alterations in the transport of D-fructose across the rabbit jejunum when the gut is exposed in vitro to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin causative agent of sepsis. Materials and methods: D-fructose intestinal transport was assesed employing three techniques: sugar uptake measurements in rings of everted jejunum (7mol\\/D-fructose\\/ml cell water), transepithelial flux measurements in Ussing-type chambers (7mol D-fructose\\/cm2\\/h) and

  13. Cytokine Inducing Activities of Rhizobial and Mesorhizobial Lipopolysaccharides of Different Lethal Toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Urbanik-Sypniewska; A. Choma; J. Kutkowska; T. KamiŃska; M. Kandefer-SzerszeŃ; R. Russa; J. Dolecka

    2000-01-01

    The lethality and cytokines-inducing activity of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) obtained from nodulating bacteria, Rhizobium leguminosarum and Mesorhizobium loti, were compared to those of Salmonella typhimurium LPSThe activity of Rleguminosarum LPS was almost comparable to Salmonella endotoxin in terms of lethality, Limulus lysate gelating activity and in vivo tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1ß (IL-lß), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-? (IFN-?) induction capacityIn contrast

  14. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production by Schwann's cells dependent upon TLR4 expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsiao-Nan Hao; Jean D. Peduzzi-Nelson; Pamela J. VandeVord; Kaveh Barami; Stephen P. DeSilva; Dalip Pelinkovic; Lawrence G. Morawa

    2009-01-01

    Signaling of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) through its cognate ligand endotoxin appears critical in tissue inflammation associated with bacterial infection. We found that anti-GM1 antibody (Ab) enhances TLR4 expression in Schwann's cells (SCs) in vivo and in vitro. The anti-GM1 Ab-treated SC also showed increased release of pro-inflammation cytokines IL-1? and TNF-? after incubation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, down-regulation of TLR4

  15. Contribution of CD14 to Endotoxin-Induced Liver Injury May Depend on Types of Macrophage Activation in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiko Toshima; Satoshi Mochida; Keiko Ishikawa; Atsushi Matsui; Masahiro Arai; Itsuro Ogata; Kenji Fujiwara

    1998-01-01

    Activated Kupffer cells and hepatic macrophages can produce massive liver necrosis through microcirculatory disturbance due to sinusoidal fibrin deposition. This mechanism is involved in the development of liver injury after endotoxin administration in rats pretreated with heat-killedPropionibacterium acnes(P.acnes) or undergoing 70% liver resection. The significance of CD14, a receptor for lipopolysaccharide and its binding protein, was evaluated in both models

  16. Voluntarily Produced Increases in Heart Rate Variability Modulate Autonomic Effects of Endotoxin Induced Systemic Inflammation: An Exploratory Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul LehrerMaria; Maria Katsamanis Karavidas; Shou-En Lu; Susette M. Coyle; Leo O. Oikawa; Marie Macor; Steve E. Calvano; Stephen F. Lowry

    2010-01-01

    Exposure of healthy people to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; endotoxin) produces a pro-inflammatory response, subjective symptoms,\\u000a and decreased heart rate variability (HRV). Given the efficacy of HRV biofeedback (BF) for treating asthma, the large autonomic\\u000a effects of HRV BF, and the link between vagus nerve activity and inflammation, we hypothesized that HRV BF would dampen the\\u000a acute manifestations of systemic inflammation induced

  17. Reduced Th1, but not Th2, cytokine production by lymphocytes after in vivo exposure of healthy subjects to endotoxin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FANNY N. LAUW; TESSA TEN HOVE; PASCALE E. P. DEKKERS; EVERT DE JONGE; Deventer van S. J. H; TOM VAN DER POLL

    2000-01-01

    Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) tolerance is characterized by a reduced capacity of monocytes to pro- duce proinflammatory cytokines upon restimulation in vitro. To determine whether LPS exposure induces a change in lymphocyte cytokine production and whether this results in a shift in the T-helper 1 (Th1)\\/Th2 bal- ance, whole blood obtained from seven healthy subjects before and after an intravenous injection

  18. Comparative studies of endotoxin uptake by isolated rat Kupffer and peritoneal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, E S; Thomas, P; Broitman, S A

    1987-01-01

    The process of uptake of endotoxin by cells of the reticuloendothelial system is of current interest. Rabbit peritoneal macrophages have been used to study macrophage-endotoxin interactions and have suggested a receptor-mediated process. It is generally believed that the site of in vivo endotoxin clearance is the liver and that this clearance involves the Kupffer cell population. In the current report, the uptake characteristics of iodine-125-labeled Salmonella minnesota lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were compared in both isolated rat Kupffer cells and elicited rat peritoneal cells. Both types of cells were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a semisynthetic AIN-76 5% saturated-fat diet either by peritoneal lavage for peritoneal cells or by collagenase perfusion followed by purification on a 17.5% metrizamide gradient for Kupffer cells. Hot phenol water-extracted S. minnesota LPS was labeled with iodine by the chloramine-T method following a reaction with methyl-p-hydroxybenzimidate. The in vitro uptake of [125I]LPS by Kupffer cells was unsaturable up to concentrations of 33.33 micrograms/ml, while peritoneal cells became saturated at between 16.67 and 25 micrograms of LPS per ml. Uptake by both types of cells could be inhibited by a 10-fold excess of unlabeled LPS. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that Kupffer cells were unsaturable after 60 min of incubation, while peritoneal cells were saturable after 40 min of incubation. Pretreatment with 75 mM colchicine inhibited uptake by peritoneal cells but not Kupffer cells, while pretreatment with 12 mM 2-deoxyglucose inhibited uptake by Kupffer cells but not peritoneal cells. These results are consistent with a process of receptor-mediated endocytosis for peritoneal cells, while Kupffer cells may internalize endotoxins by absorptive pinocytosis. These results suggest that studies of peritoneal cell-endotoxin interactions do not accurately describe the physiologic process within the liver, the major site for the clearance of gut-derived endotoxins. PMID:2824379

  19. Piceatannol Suppresses endotoxin-induced ocular inflammation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kalariya, Nilesh M.; Shoeb, Mohammad; Reddy, Aramati B. M.; Sawhney, Rahul; Ramana, Kota V.

    2013-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory effect of piceatannol, a naturally occurring polyphenol and a potent free radical scavenger, on ocular inflammation is not known. We examined the anti-inflammatory role of piceatannol in ocular inflammatory response due to endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats. EIU was induced in Lewis rats by subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 ug/rat). Piceatannol (30 mg/kg body wt, i.p) was injected either 2 h prior to or 1 h post LPS induction. A significant increase in the number of infiltrating cells, total protein, and various cytokines and chemokines in AqH were observed in the EIU rat eyes as compared to control groups. However, pre- or post- treatment of piceatannol significantly blocked the LPS-induced changes. Further, piceatannol also suppressed the expression of Cox-2, iNOS and activation of NF-?B in the ciliary bodies as well as retina. Further, piceatannol also inhibited the expression of Cox-2, iNOS, and phosphorylation of NF-?B in primary human non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cells (HNPECs) treated with LPS. Similarly, piceatannol also diminished LPS-induced level of NO and PGE2 in HNPECs. Thus our results demonstrate an anti-inflammatory role of piceatannol in suppressing ocular inflammation induced by endotoxin in rats. PMID:23892029

  20. Biophysical Mechanisms of the Neutralization of Endotoxins by Lipopolyamines

    PubMed Central

    Sil, Diptesh; Heinbockel, Lena; Kaconis, Yani; Rössle, Manfred; Garidel, Patrick; Gutsmann, Thomas; David, Sunil A; Brandenburg, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) are one of the strongest immunostimulators in nature, responsible for beneficial effects at low, and pathophysiological effects at high concentrations, the latter frequently leading to sepsis and septic shock associated with high mortality in critical care settings. There are no drugs specifically targeting the pathophysiology of sepsis, and new therapeutic agents are therefore urgently needed. The lipopolyamines are a novel class of small molecules designed to sequester and neutralize LPS. To understand the mechanisms underlying the binding and neutralization of LPS toxicity, we have performed detailed biophysical analyses of the interactions of LPS with candidate lipopolyamines which differ in their potencies of LPS neutralization. We examined gel-to-liquid crystalline phase behavior of LPS and of its supramolecular aggregate structures in the absence and presence of lipopolyamines, the ability of such compounds to incorporate into different membrane systems, and the thermodynamics of the LPS:lipopolyamine binding. We have found that the mechanisms which govern the inactivation process of LPS obey similar rules as found for other active endotoxin neutralizers such as certain antimicrobial peptides. PMID:24133550

  1. Mifepristone (RU486) restores humoral and T cell-mediated immune response in endotoxin immunosuppressed mice.

    PubMed

    Rearte, B; Maglioco, A; Balboa, L; Bruzzo, J; Landoni, V I; Laborde, E A; Chiarella, P; Ruggiero, R A; Fernández, G C; Isturiz, M A

    2010-12-01

    Sepsis and septic shock can be caused by Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and other microorganisms. In the case of Gram-negative bacteria, endotoxin, a normal constituent of the bacterial wall, also known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), has been considered as one of the principal agents causing the undesirable effects in this critical illness. The response to LPS involves a rapid secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-? and the concomitant induction of anti-inflammatory mediators such as IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-? or glucocorticoids, which render the host temporarily refractory to subsequent lethal doses of LPS challenge in a process known as LPS or endotoxin tolerance. Although protective from the development of sepsis or systemic inflammation, endotoxin tolerance has also been pointed out as the main cause of the non-specific humoral and cellular immunosuppression described in these patients. In this report we demonstrate, using a mouse model, that mifepristone (RU486), a known glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, could play an important role in the restoration of both adaptive humoral and cellular immune response in LPS immunosuppressed mice, suggesting the involvement of endogenous glucocorticoids in this phenomenon. On the other hand, using cyclophosphamide and gemcitabine, we demonstrated that regulatory/suppressor CD4(+) CD25(+) forkhead boxP3(+) and GR-1(+) CD11b(+) cells do not play a major role in the establishment or the maintenance of endotoxin tolerance, a central mechanism for inducing an immunosuppression state. PMID:20964639

  2. Endotoxin·albumin complexes transfer endotoxin monomers to MD-2 resulting in activation of Toll-Like Receptor-4a

    PubMed Central

    Esparza, Gregory A.; Teghanemt, Athmane; Zhang, DeSheng; Gioannini, Theresa L.; Weiss, Jerrold P.

    2013-01-01

    Response to Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) is partially mediated by the recognition of GNB-derived endotoxin (E) by host cells. Potent host response to E depends on the sequential interaction of E with lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), CD14, MD-2 and Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4). While CD14 facilitates the efficient transfer of E monomers to MD-2 and MD-2·TLR4, activation of MD-2·TLR4 can occur in the absence of CD14, through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that incubation of purified E aggregates (Eagg, Mr ? 20 million) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) with ? 0.1% albumin in the absence of divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+, yields E·albumin complexes (Mr ~70,000). E·albumin transfers E monomers to sMD-2 or sMD-2·TLR4 ectodomain (TLR4ecd) with a “Kd” of ~4 nM and induces MD-2·TLR4-dependent, CD14-independent cell activation with a potency only 10-fold less than that of monomeric E·CD14 complexes. Our findings demonstrate for the first time a mechanistic basis for delivery of endotoxin monomers to MD-2 and for activation of TLR4 that is independent of CD14. PMID:21994253

  3. Interaction of Antimicrobial Peptide Temporin L with Lipopolysaccharide In Vitro and in Experimental Rat Models of Septic Shock Caused by Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Giacometti; Oscar Cirioni; Roberto Ghiselli; Federico Mocchegiani; Fiorenza Orlando; Carmela Silvestri; Argante Bozzi; A. Di Giulio; C. Luzi; M. L. Mangoni; D. Barra; V. Saba; G. Scalise; A. C. Rinaldi

    2006-01-01

    Sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, despite intense efforts to improve survival. The primary lead for septic shock results from activation of host effector cells by endotoxin, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) associated with cell membranes of gram-negative bacteria. For these reasons, the quest for compounds with antiendotoxin properties is actively pursued. We investigated the efficacy

  4. In Vitro Evaluation of the Effects of Low-Intensity Nd:YAG Laser Irradiation on the Inflammatory Reaction Elicited by Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide Adherent to Titanium Dental Implants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Giannelli; Daniele Bani; Alessia Tani; Alessandro Pini; Martina Margheri; Sandra Zecchi-Orlandini; Paolo Tonelli; Lucia Formigli

    2009-01-01

    Background: The bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) represents a prime pathogenic factor of peri-implantitis because of its ability to adhere tenaciously to dental titanium implants. Despite this, the current therapeutic approach to this disease remains based mainly on bacterial decontamina- tion, paying little attention to the neutralization of bioactive bacterial products. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether

  5. The isolation and characterization of lipopolysaccharides from Microcystis aeruginosa, a prominent toxic water bloom forming cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Bláhová, Lucie; Adamovský, Ond?ej; Kubala, Lukáš; Švihálková Šindlerová, Lenka; Zounková, Radka; Bláha, Lud?k

    2013-12-15

    Massive toxic blooms of cyanobacteria represent a major threat to water supplies worldwide, yet serious gaps exist in understanding their complex toxic effects, including the role of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The present comparative study focused on the levels and biological activities of LPS isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa, which is one of the most globally distributed toxic species. Using hot phenol extraction, LPS was isolated from 3 laboratory cultures and 11 natural water blooms. It formed 0.2-0.7% of the original dry biomass of the cyanobacteria, based on gravimetry. Additional analyses by commercial anti-LPS ELISA were correlated with gravimetry but showed concentrations that were about 7-times lower, which indicated either impurities in isolated LPS or the poor cross-reactivity of the antibodies used. LPS isolates from M. aeruginosa were potent pyrogens in the traditional Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-test, but comparison with the PyroGene test demonstrated the limited selectivity of LAL with several interferences. The determined pyrogenicity (endotoxin units, EU) ranged from very low values in laboratory cultures (less than 0.003 up to 0.008-EU per 100 pg LPS) to higher values in complex bloom samples (0.01-0.078 EU per 100 pg of LPS), which suggested the role of bloom-associated bacteria in the overall effects. Potent pro-inflammatory effects of the studied LPS from both cultures and bloom samples were observed in a highly-relevant ex vivo human blood model by studying reactive oxygen species production in phagocytes as well as increased productions of interleukin 8, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor ?, TNF-?. LPS from M. aeruginosa seem to modulate several pathways involved in the regulation of both innate immunity and specific responses. In comparison to the standard pathogenic bacterial LPS (World Health Organization Escherichia coli O113:10 endotoxin; activity 1 EU per 100 pg), the studied cyanobacterial samples had pyrogenicity potencies that were at least 12-times lower. However, the health risks associated with LPS from M. aeruginosa should not be underestimated, especially with respect to diverse biological effects observed ex vivo and in the case of massive blooms in drinking water reservoirs, where the estimated pyrogenicity can reach up to 46,000 EU per mL of water. PMID:24140921

  6. Cytokine response by monocytes and macrophages to free and lipoprotein-bound lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Cavaillon, J M; Fitting, C; Haeffner-Cavaillon, N; Kirsch, S J; Warren, H S

    1990-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that bacterial lipopolysaccharide binds to serum lipoproteins in vitro and in vivo and that lipopolysaccharide in the form that is bound to lipoprotein is less biologically active in several experimental models. In order to study the mechanism of this apparent detoxification, we compared the ability of free and lipoprotein-bound lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli O18 to stimulate interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor from elicited murine peritoneal macrophages and circulating human monocytes. Lipopolysaccharide bound to lipoprotein was 20- to 1,000-fold less active than the unbound form in inducing the release of each cytokine. We also studied the binding of each form of lipopolysaccharide to the macrophage surface. Lipopolysaccharide complexed to lipoprotein was unable to compete for the binding of radiolabeled heterologous lipopolysaccharide to murine macrophages, and radiolabeled lipopolysaccharide-lipoprotein complexes bound poorly compared with molar equivalents of free lipopolysaccharide. Our experiments suggest that in the process of binding to lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharide may be rendered less toxic through a mechanism of decreased ability to induce monocytes and macrophages to release cytokines, perhaps because of an altered interaction at the cell surface. PMID:2114366

  7. Inhibition of IRAK-4 activity for rescuing endotoxin LPS-induced septic mortality in mice by lonicerae flos extract

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sun Hong; Roh, Eunmiri [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Soo [Pharmaceutical R and D Center, Huons Co., Ltd., Anyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Pharmaceutical R and D Center, Huons Co., Ltd., Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Seung-Il [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Nam Song [Pharmaceutical R and D Center, Huons Co., Ltd., Anyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Pharmaceutical R and D Center, Huons Co., Ltd., Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Narae; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Han, Sang-Bae [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngsoo, E-mail: youngsoo@chungbuk.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-13

    Highlights: •Lonicerae flos extract (HS-23) is a clinical candidate, Phase I for sepsis treatment. •Here, HS-23 or its major constituents rescued LPS-induced septic mortality in mice. •As a mechanism, they directly inhibited IRAK-4-catalyzed kinase activity. •Thus, they suppressed LPS-induced expression of NF-?B/AP-1-target inflammatory genes. -- Abstract: Lonicerae flos extract (HS-23) is a clinical candidate currently undergoing Phase I trial in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected healthy human volunteers, but its molecular basis remains to be defined. Here, we investigated protective effects of HS-23 or its major constituents on Escherichia coli LPS-induced septic mortality in mice. Intravenous treatment with HS-23 rescued LPS-intoxicated C57BL/6J mice under septic conditions, and decreased the levels of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-1? and high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) in the blood. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and its isomers were assigned as major constituents of HS-23 in the protection against endotoxemia. As a molecular mechanism, HS-23 or CGA isomers inhibited endotoxin LPS-induced autophosphorylation of the IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4) in mouse peritoneal macrophages as well as the kinase activity of IRAK-4 in cell-free reactions. HS-23 consequently suppressed downstream pathways critical for LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor (NF)-?B or activating protein 1 (AP-1) in the peritoneal macrophages. HS-23 also inhibited various toll-like receptor agonists-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, and down-regulated LPS-induced expression of NF-?B/AP-1-target inflammatory genes in the cells. Taken together, HS-23 or CGA isomers exhibited anti-inflammatory therapy against LPS-induced septic mortality in mice, at least in part, mediated through the inhibition of IRAK-4.

  8. Effect of postponed treatment with an anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) F(ab')2 fragment on endotoxin-induced cytokine and neutrophil responses in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    van der Poll, T; Levi, M; ten Cate, H; Jansen, J; Biemond, B J; Haagmans, B L; Eerenberg, A; van Deventer, S J; Hack, C E; ten Cate, J W

    1995-04-01

    TNF is considered to be an intermediate factor in endotoxin-induced release of other cytokines and endotoxin-induced neutrophil degranulation. Little is known about the effect of postponed treatment with anti-TNF in primate endotoxin models. To assess the effect of delayed treatment with anti-TNF in endotoxaemia, six healthy adult chimpanzees were intravenously injected with Escherichia coli endotoxin (4 ng/kg). In three of these animals the administration of endotoxin was followed after 30 min by a bolus i.v. injection of the anti-TNF F(ab')2 fragment MAK 195F (0.1 mg/kg). Post-treatment with MAK 195F completely prevented the appearance of TNF activity in serum elicited by endotoxin, and markedly reduced the rises in the serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-8. In addition, the endotoxin-induced increases in the type I and type II soluble TNF receptors were also profoundly inhibited by MAK 195F, suggesting that TNF is involved in the release of its own soluble receptors in endotoxaemia. Neutrophilic leucocytosis was not affected by MAK 195F. In contrast, MAK 195F did significantly abrogate neutrophil degranulation, as measured by the plasma concentrations of lactoferrin. These results indicate that treatment with anti-TNF 30 min after the administration of endotoxin is still effective in attenuating the induction of the cytokine network and of neutrophil degranulation. PMID:7697917

  9. A single intravenous dose of endotoxin rapidly alters serum lipoproteins and lipid transfer proteins in normal volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa C. Hudgins; Thomas S. Parker; Daniel M. Levine; Bruce R. Gordon; Stuart S. Saal; Xian-cheng Jiang; Cindy E. Seidman; Jolanta D. Tremaroli; Julie Lai; Albert L. Rubin

    2003-01-01

    Endotoxemia is associated with rapid and marked declines in serum levels of LDL and HDL by unknown mechanisms. Six normal volunteers received a single, small intravenous (iv) dose of endotoxin ( Escherichia coli 0113, 2 ng\\/ kg) or saline in a random order, cross-over design. After en- dotoxin treatment, volunteers had mild, transient flu-like symptoms and markedly increased serum levels

  10. Influence of droplet size, pH and ionic strength on endotoxin-triggered ordering transitions in liquid crystalline droplets

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Daniel S.; Abbott, Nicholas L.

    2012-01-01

    We report an investigation of ordering transitions that are induced in water-dispersed, micrometer-sized droplets of a thermotropic liquid crystal (LC) by the bacterial lipopolysaccharide endotoxin. We reveal that the ordering transitions induced by endotoxin – from a bipolar state of the droplets to a radial state – are strongly dependent on the size of the LC droplets. Specifically, as the diameters of the LC droplets increase from 2 ?m to above 10 ?m (in phosphate buffered saline with an ionic strength of 90 mM and a pH of 7.2), we measured the percentage of droplets exhibiting a radial configuration in the presence of 100 pg/mL endotoxin to decrease from 98 ± 1 % to 3 ± 2 %. In addition, we measured a decrease in either the ionic strength or pH of the aqueous phase to reduce the percentage of droplets exhibiting a radial configuration in the presence of endotoxin. These results, when interpreted within the context of a simple thermodynamic model that incorporates the contributions of elasticity and surface anchoring to the free energies of the LC droplets, lead us to conclude that (i) the elastic constant K24 plays a central role in determining the size-dependent response of the LC droplets to endotoxin, and (ii) endotoxin-triggered ordering transitions occur only under solution conditions (pH, ionic strength) where the combined contributions of elasticity and surface anchoring to the free energies of the bipolar and radial configurations of the LC droplets are similar in magnitude. Our analysis also suggests that the presence of endotoxin perturbs the free energies of the LC droplets by ~10?17 J/droplet, which is comparable to the standard free energy of self-association of ~103 endotoxin molecules. These results, when combined with prior reports of localization of endotoxin at the center of LC droplets, are consistent with the hypothesis that self-assembly of endotoxin within micrometer-sized LC droplets provides the driving force for the ordering transitions. Overall, these results advance our understanding of ordering transitions triggered by the interactions of analytes with LC droplets and, more broadly, provide guidance to the design of LC droplet systems as the basis of stimuli-responsive soft materials. PMID:23675387

  11. Cytokines in mammary lymph and milk during endotoxin-induced bovine mastitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Persson Waller; I. G. Colditz; S. Lun; K. Östensson

    2003-01-01

    Cytokine kinetics were examined in milk and in afferent and efferent lymph of the supramammary lymph node after intramammary infusion of endotoxin from Escherichia coli. Cows were sampled 0, 2 and 4h after infusion (p.i.). Neutrophils appeared in afferent lymph 2h p.i., and in efferent lymph and milk 4h p.i. The milk contained high concentrations of interleukin-8 (IL-8) at 2

  12. Anti-inflammatory therapy in acute endotoxin-induced bovine mastitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Anderson; E. Hunt

    1989-01-01

    Acute mastitis was induced in lactating cows by intramammary challenge with 10 µg of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. The cows were monitored clinically prior to and for 96 hours after challenge. Milk production, complete blood counts, serum enzyme activities and milk indicators of inflammation were evaluated.

  13. Systemic Administration of Lipopolysaccharide Induces Cyclooxygenase2 Immunoreactivity in Endothelium and Increases Microglia in the Mouse Hippocampus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dae Won Chung; Ki-Yeon Yoo; In Koo Hwang; Dae Won Kim; Jin Young Chung; Choong Hyun Lee; Jung Hoon Choi; Soo Young Choi; Hwa Young Youn; In Se Lee; Moo-Ho Won

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we observed the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on neurodegeneration and immune response in the hippocampus.\\u000a LPS is a gram-negative bacterial cell surface proteoglycan and known as a bacterial endotoxin. For this, we investigated the\\u000a optimal concentration of LPS influencing the ICR mouse hippocampus to measure the LPS receptor, e.g., toll-like receptor 4\\u000a (TLR4), expression in mouse hippocampal

  14. Effects of Propofol and Midazolam on the Inflammation of Lungs after Intravenous Endotoxin Administration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Mine Gursac; Saracoglu, Ayten; Saracoglu, Tolga; Kursad, Husnu; Dostbil, Aysenur; Aksoy, Mehmet; Ahiskalioglu, Ali; Ince, Ilker

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Pulmonary complications are important sepsis (such as ARDS, diffuse pneumonia). Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by the extensive migration of neutrophils into alveoli of the lungs. Propofol and midazolam are the most widely used agents for sedation in intensive care units. Aimed to investigate the effects of anaesthesia with propofol and midazolam on measured hemodynamic variables and neutrophil migration induced by Escherichia Coli endotoxin (ECE) in pulmonary viscera. Materials and Methods: Forty Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Thiopental Sodium 30 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally to anesthetize the rats. They were ventilated via tracheotomy. Femoral artery was cannulated for the measurement of continuous blood pressure and gases. Group C was the control. After the administration of 1 mL/kg 0.9% NaCL, infusion began at 1 mL/kg/h rate. In Group E 15 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide derived from ECE was administered iv. In Group PE, after a bolus dose of 10 mg/kg propofol and 15 mg/kg ECE, 10 mg/kg/h infusion was applied. In Group ME, after 0.1 mg/kg midazolam bolus dose and 15 mg/kg ECE administration, 0.1 mg/kg/h infusion was administered iv. Rats were sacrified by iv potassium chloride. The lungs were then removed, fixed in 10% buffered formalin for 3 days and embedded in paraffin. They were graded on a scale of 0–3 according to the aggregation of neutrophils. Results: There was intense neutrophil migration in Group E (grade 2, 3). However, although mild neutrophil migration was obtained in 70% of the rat lungs in Group ME (grade 1, 2), it was recorded in only 30% of Group PE (grade 1). Conclusion: The sepsis model induced by ECE and compared with midazolam, propofol anaesthesia is associated with less neutrophil infiltration. In the light of the literature, propofol attenuate the free-radical-mediated lipid peroxidation and systemic inflammation in patients. PMID:26180495

  15. Human exposure to endotoxins and fecal indicators originating from water features.

    PubMed

    de Man, H; Heederik, D D J; Leenen, E J T M; de Roda Husman, A M; Spithoven, J J G; van Knapen, F

    2014-03-15

    Exposure to contaminated aerosols and water originating from water features may pose public health risks. Endotoxins in air and water and fecal bacteria in water of water features were measured as markers for exposure to microbial cell debris and enteric pathogens, respectively. Information was collected about wind direction, wind force, distance to the water feature, the height of the water feature and the tangibility of water spray. The mean concentration of endotoxins in air nearby and in water of 31 water features was 10 endotoxin units (EU)/m(3) (Geometric Mean (GM), range 0-85.5 EU/m(3) air) and 773 EU/mL (GM, range 9-18,170 EU/mL water), respectively. Such mean concentrations may be associated with respiratory health effects. The water quality of 26 of 88 water features was poor when compared to requirements for recreational water in the Bathing Water Directive 2006/7/EC. Concentrations greater than 1000 colony forming units (cfu) Escherichia coli per 100 mL and greater than 400 cfu intestinal enterococci per 100 mL increase the probability of acquiring gastrointestinal health complaints. Regression analyses showed that the endotoxin concentration in air was significantly influenced by the concentration of endotoxin in water, the distance to the water feature and the tangibility of water spray. Exposure to air and water near water features was shown to lead to exposure to endotoxins and fecal bacteria. The potential health risks resulting from such exposure to water features may be estimated by a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), however, such QMRA would require quantitative data on pathogen concentrations, exposure volumes and dose-response relationships. The present study provides estimates for aerosolisation ratios that can be used as input for QMRA to quantify exposure and to determine infection risks from exposure to water features. PMID:24231029

  16. Procyanidin dimer B2 [epicatechin-(4?-8)-epicatechin] suppresses the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in endotoxin-treated monocytic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-yu Zhang; Hua-qing Liu; Ke-qiang Xie; Lin-lin Yin; Yu Li; Catherine L. Kwik-Uribe; Xing-zu Zhu

    2006-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the predominant procyanidin dimer in cocoa, dimer B2, was investigated in this study. Pretreatment of the procyanidin dimer B2 reduced COX-2 expression induced by the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in differentiated human monocytic cells (THP-1) in culture. To further elucidate the underlying mechanism of COX-2 inhibition by procyanidin, we examined their effects on the activation of extracellular

  17. Differential effects of glucocorticoids in the establishment and maintenance of endotoxin tolerance.

    PubMed

    Rearte, B; Landoni, V; Laborde, E; Fernández, G; Isturiz, M

    2010-02-01

    Gram-negative infections can result in endotoxic shock, which is the most common cause of death in intensive care units. Most of the undesirable effects in sepsis and septic shock have been ascribed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a normal constituent of the bacterial wall. The response to LPS involves rapid secretion of proinflammatory cytokines [tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, interferon-gamma] and the concomitant induction of anti-inflammatory mediators such as IL-10 and transforming growth factor-beta and glucocorticoids (GC), which render the host temporarily refractory to subsequent lethal doses of LPS challenge in a process known as LPS or endotoxin tolerance. Although protective from the development of sepsis or systemic inflammation, endotoxin tolerance has also been pointed out as the principal cause of the non-specific immunosuppression described in these patients. In this report we demonstrate, using a mouse model, that while the maintenance of tolerance is dependent upon GC, the establishment of tolerance by LPS could be inhibited by dexamethasone (Dex), a synthetic GC. Conversely, we demonstrated that mifepristone (RU486), a known GC receptor antagonist, was capable of inducing a transient and reversible disruption of endotoxin tolerance, also permitting partial restoration of the humoral immune response in LPS tolerant/immunosuppressed mice. These results are encouraging for the management of immunosuppression in sepsis and/or non-infectious shock, and deserve further investigation in the future. PMID:19912256

  18. Super-low Dose Endotoxin Pre-conditioning Exacerbates Sepsis Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Keqiang; Geng, Shuo; Yuan, Ruoxi; Diao, Na; Upchurch, Zachary; Li, Liwu

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis mortality varies dramatically in individuals of variable immune conditions, with poorly defined mechanisms. This phenomenon complements the hypothesis that innate immunity may adopt rudimentary memory, as demonstrated in vitro with endotoxin priming and tolerance in cultured monocytes. However, previous in vivo studies only examined the protective effect of endotoxin tolerance in the context of sepsis. In sharp contrast, we report herein that pre-conditioning with super-low or low dose endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) cause strikingly opposite survival outcomes. Mice pre-conditioned with super-low dose LPS experienced severe tissue damage, inflammation, increased bacterial load in circulation, and elevated mortality when they were subjected to cecal-ligation and puncture (CLP). This is in contrast to the well-reported protective phenomenon with CLP mice pre-conditioned with low dose LPS. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that super-low and low dose LPS differentially modulate the formation of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) in neutrophils. Instead of increased ERK activation and NET formation in neutrophils pre-conditioned with low dose LPS, we observed significantly reduced ERK activation and compromised NET generation in neutrophils pre-conditioned with super-low dose LPS. Collectively, our findings reveal a mechanism potentially responsible for the dynamic programming of innate immunity in vivo as it relates to sepsis risks. PMID:26029736

  19. Endotoxin increase after fat overload is related to postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in morbidly obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Clemente-Postigo, M.; Queipo-Ortuńo, M. I.; Murri, M.; Boto-Ordońez, M.; Perez-Martinez, P.; Andres-Lacueva, C.; Cardona, F.; Tinahones, F. J.

    2012-01-01

    The low-grade inflammation observed in obesity has been associated with a high-fat diet, though this relation is not fully understood. Bacterial endotoxin, produced by gut microbiota, may be the linking factor. However, this has not been confirmed in obese patients. To study the relationship between a high-fat diet and bacterial endotoxin, we analyzed postprandial endotoxemia in morbidly obese patients after a fat overload. The endotoxin levels were determined in serum and the chylomicron fraction at baseline and 3 h after a fat overload in 40 morbidly obese patients and their levels related with the degree of insulin resistance and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. The morbidly obese patients with the highest postprandial hypertriglyceridemia showed a significant increase in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in serum and the chylomicron fraction after the fat overload. Postprandial chylomicron LPS levels correlated positively with the difference between postprandial triglycerides and baseline triglycerides. There were no significant correlations between C-reactive protein (CRP) and LPS levels. The main variables contributing to serum LPS levels after fat overload were baseline and postprandial triglyceride levels but not glucose or insulin resistance. Additionally, superoxide dismutase activity decreased significantly after the fat overload. Postprandial LPS increase after a fat overload is related to postprandial hypertriglyceridemia but not to degree of insulin resistance in morbidly obese patients. PMID:22394503

  20. Effect of Zingiber officinale and propolis on microorganisms and endotoxins in root canals

    PubMed Central

    MAEKAWA, Lilian Eiko; VALERA, Marcia Carneiro; de OLIVEIRA, Luciane Dias; CARVALHO, Cláudio Antonio Talge; CAMARGO, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro; JORGE, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of glycolic propolis (PRO) and ginger (GIN) extracts, calcium hydroxide (CH), chlorhexidine (CLX) gel and their combinations as ICMs (ICMs) against Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and endotoxins in root canals. Material and Methods: After 28 days of contamination with microorganisms, the canals were instrumented and then divided according to the ICM: CH+saline; CLX, CH+CLX, PRO, PRO+CH; GIN; GIN+CH; saline. The antimicrobial activity and quantification of endotoxins by the chromogenic test of Limulus amebocyte lysate were evaluated after contamination and instrumentation at 14 days of ICM application and 7 days after ICM removal. Results and Conclusion: After analysis of results and application of the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn statistical tests at 5% significance level, it was concluded that all ICMs were able to eliminate the microorganisms in the root canals and reduce their amount of endotoxins; however, CH was more effective in neutralizing endotoxins and less effective against C. albicans and E. faecalis, requiring the use of medication combinations to obtain higher success. PMID:23559108

  1. Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide affinity for two casting alloys.

    PubMed

    Knoernschild, K L; Tompkins, G R; Lefebvre, C A; Schuster, G S

    1995-07-01

    With the exception of plaque, the affinity of biologically active bacterial products for restorative materials and the influence of that affinity on periodontal health has not been detailed. This study recognized that Porphyromonas gingivalis endotoxin, which is cell envelope lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced by a bacterium that is common to the crevicular microbial flora, has an affinity for dental casting alloys. Regardless of surface finish, no difference in LPS initial adherence or elution was recorded between a type III gold or nickel-chromium-beryllium alloy (p > 0.05), but LPS readily adhered and remained attached to both alloys. LPS affinity could contribute to periodontal inflammation in tissues that approximate restorations fabricated from either alloy. PMID:7674187

  2. Behavioral Tolerance to Endotoxin is Enhanced by Adaptation to Winter Photoperiods

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Seasonal changes in day length enhance or suppress aspects of immune function in mammals. Following adaptation to short, winter-like short photoperiods, cytokine and behavioral responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced simulated infections are attenuated in LPS-naive Siberian hamsters. This experiment examined whether diminished initial responses to LPS in short days are accompanied by decrements in the development of innate immunological memory that leads to endotoxin tolerance. Male hamsters exposed to short days (9h-light/day; SD) or kept in their natal long-day photoperiod (15h-light/day; LD) for 12–13 weeks were injected with bacterial LPS (625 µg/kg, i.p.) or sterile saline. Ten days later all hamsters were challenged with LPS (625 ug/kg, i.p.), and behavioral sickness responses (anorexia and reductions in nest building) were assessed. In LD hamsters, behavioral responses to the second LPS injection were markedly attenuated but still evident, indicative of partial tolerance. SD hamsters, in contrast, failed to exhibit anorexic or thermoregulatory responses to the second LPS injection, indicative of complete behavioral tolerance to LPS. Thus despite engaging greater naive responses to LPS, LD hamsters exhibited incomplete LPS tolerance relative to SD hamsters. The expression of behavioral tolerance to endotoxin is relatively diminished during the breeding season, a time of year when naive responses to endotoxin are at their greatest. During winter, enhancements in behavioral endotoxin tolerance may conserve energy and facilitate survival in the face of energetically-challenging conditions. PMID:18291598

  3. A true theranostic approach to medicine: towards tandem sensor detection and removal of endotoxin in blood.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Michael; Blaszykowski, Christophe; Sheikh, Sonia; Romaschin, Alexander

    2015-05-15

    Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death around the world. The condition occurs when a local infection overcomes the host natural defense mechanism and suddenly spreads into the circulatory system, triggering a vigorous, self-injurious inflammatory host response. The pathogenesis of sepsis is relatively well known, one of the most potent immuno-activator being bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - also known as 'endotoxin'. Tests exist to detect endotoxin in bodily fluids, but are expensive, not necessarily user-friendly and require reporter molecules. In addition, the situation for safe and effective anti-endotoxin therapy is problematical. At the present time, endotoxin removal through cartridge hemoperfusion is one of the better alternatives to combat sepsis. The capability to both measure endotoxemia levels and offer an adapted response treatment in a timely manner is crucial for better management and improved prognosis, but is currently unavailable. In this context, we describe herein preliminary research towards the development of an alternative LPS biosensor and an innovative LPS neutralization cartridge to be eventually combined in an all-integrated configuration for the theranostic, personalized treatment of blood endotoxemia/sepsis. LPS detection is performed in a real-time and label-free manner in full human blood plasma, using ultra-high frequency acoustic wave sensing in combination with ultrathin, oligoethylene glycol-based mixed surface chemistry imposed on piezoelectric quartz discs. Biosensing platforms are functionalized with polymyxin B (PMB), a cyclic peptide antibiotic with high affinity for LPS. Analogous surface modification is used on glass beads for the therapeutic cartridge component of the combined strategy. Incubation of LPS-spiked whole blood with PMB-bead chemistry resulted in a significant decrease in the production of pro-inflammatory TNF-? cytokine. LPS neutralization is discussed in relation to the perturbation of its supramolecular chemistry in solution. PMID:25067837

  4. Resurrecting Inactive Antimicrobial Peptides from the Lipopolysaccharide Trap

    PubMed Central

    Mohanram, Harini

    2014-01-01

    Host defense antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a promising source of antibiotics for the treatment of multiple-drug-resistant pathogens. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, functions as a permeability barrier against a variety of molecules, including AMPs. Further, LPS or endotoxin is the causative agent of sepsis killing 100,000 people per year in the United States alone. LPS can restrict the activity of AMPs inducing aggregations at the outer membrane, as observed for frog AMPs, temporins, and also in model AMPs. Aggregated AMPs, “trapped” by the outer membrane, are unable to traverse the cell wall, causing their inactivation. In this work, we show that these inactive AMPs can overcome LPS-induced aggregations while conjugated with a short LPS binding ?-boomerang peptide motif and become highly bactericidal. The generated hybrid peptides exhibit activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in high-salt conditions and detoxify endotoxin. Structural and biophysical studies establish the mechanism of action of these peptides in LPS outer membrane. Most importantly, this study provides a new concept for the development of a potent broad-spectrum antibiotic with efficient outer membrane disruption as the mode of action. PMID:24419338

  5. First Evidence for a Covalent Linkage between Enterobacterial Common Antigen and Lipopolysaccharide in Shigella sonnei Phase II ECALPS*

    PubMed Central

    Gozdziewicz, Tomasz K.; Lugowski, Czeslaw; Lukasiewicz, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) is expressed by Gram-negative bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae, including emerging drug-resistant pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus spp. Recent studies have indicated the importance of ECA for cell envelope integrity, flagellum expression, and resistance of enteric bacteria to acetic acid and bile salts. ECA, a heteropolysaccharide built from the trisaccharide repeating unit, ?3)-?-d-Fucp4NAc-(1?4)-?-d-ManpNAcA-(1?4)-?-d-GlcpNAc-(1?, occurs as a cyclic form (ECACYC), a phosphatidylglycerol (PG)-linked form (ECAPG), and an endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-associated form (ECALPS). Since the discovery of ECA in 1962, the structures of ECAPG and ECACYC have been completely elucidated. However, no direct evidence has been presented to support a covalent linkage between ECA and LPS; only serological indications of co-association have been reported. This is paradoxical, given that ECA was first identified based on the capacity of immunogenic ECALPS to elicit antibodies cross-reactive with enterobacteria. Using a simple isolation protocol supported by serological tracking of ECA epitopes and NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, we have succeeded in the first detection, isolation, and complete structural analysis of poly- and oligosaccharides of Shigella sonnei phase II ECALPS. ECALPS consists of the core oligosaccharide substituted with one to four repeating units of ECA at the position occupied by the O-antigen in the case of smooth S. sonnei phase I. These data represent the first structural evidence for the existence of ECALPS in the half-century since it was first discovered and provide insights that could prove helpful in further structural analyses and screening of ECALPS among Enterobacteriaceae species. PMID:24324266

  6. Dissociation of cell-associated interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-1 release induced by lipopolysaccharide and lipid A.

    PubMed Central

    Cavaillon, J M; Fitting, C; Caroff, M; Haeffner-Cavaillon, N

    1989-01-01

    The capacities of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipid A to trigger mouse BALB/c peritoneal macrophages and to induce the production of cell-associated interleukin-1 (IL-1) and membrane-associated IL-1 and IL-1 release have been compared. Bordetella pertussis lipid A was 1,000 to 10,000 times less efficient than the native LPS to induce IL-1 release by freshly isolated elicited macrophages. When resident macrophages were studied, lipid A, at high concentrations (greater than 2 micrograms/ml), induced significant levels of cell-associated IL-1 but little or no IL-1 release. With synthetic lipid A built up with the Escherichia coli lipid A structure (compound 506), IL-1 activity was present in the supernatants of elicited peritoneal macrophages and to a lesser extent in those of resident macrophages. However, the release of IL-1 induced by synthetic lipid A 506 remained much lower than those induced by rough LPS. Membrane-associated IL-1 could be induced on BALB/c macrophages with LPS and natural or synthetic lipid A, the LPS being the most active. In C3H/HeJ mice, neither natural nor synthetic lipid A could induce detectable cell-associated IL-1, whereas LPS could induce cell-associated and membrane IL-1 activity but no IL-1 release. Our results indicate that fragments of endotoxins may induce the production of IL-1 but the entire structure of the LPS molecule is the most effective to induce intracellular IL-1 production, expression of membrane IL-1, and release of IL-1. PMID:2537258

  7. Involvement of neuronal processes and nitric oxide in the inhibition by endotoxin of pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Cuesta, M A; Barrachina, M D; Whittle, B J; Pique, J M; Esplugues, J V

    1994-05-01

    Administration of E. coli endotoxin (1 mg kg-1, i.v.) abolished the acid response induced by the i.v. infusion of pentagastrin (8 micrograms kg-1 h-1) in the continuously perfused stomach of the anaesthetized rat. Local serosal application of tetrodotoxin (36 ng per rat) completely restored acid responses to pentagastrin in endotoxin-treated rats. However, pretreatment with atropine (0.5 mg kg-1, s.c.), capsaicin (20, 30, and 50 mg kg-1, s.c. 2 weeks before the study) or guanethidine (16 mg kg-1, s.c. 3 and 16h before) did not influence the inhibitory effects of endotoxin. Continuous i.v. infusion with NG-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 mg kg-1 h-1) restored the secretory responses to pentagastrin in endotoxin treated rats. The effects of L-NAME were reversed by L-arginine (100 mg kg-1 h-1, i.v.), but not by its enantiomer D-arginine (100 mg kg-1 h-1, i.v.). The secretory responses elicited by pentagastrin (10(-10)-10(-6) M) in the isolated lumen perfused stomach of the rat were not influenced by incubation (100 min) with endotoxin (10 micrograms ml-1). These observations with tetrodotoxin indicate that inhibition of acid secretion by endotoxin in vivo involves neuronal activity, while inhibition of NO synthesis had a comparable inhibitory action. Activation of a systemic non-adrenergic non-cholinergic neuronal pathway involving NO could thus mediate the acute acid inhibitory effects of endotoxin. PMID:8065466

  8. Endotoxin-induced basal respiration alterations of renal HK-2 cells: a sign of pathologic metabolism down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Quoilin, C; Mouithys-Mickalad, A; Duranteau, J; Gallez, B; Hoebeke, M

    2012-06-29

    To study the mechanism of oxygen regulation in inflammation-induced acute kidney injury, we investigate the effects of a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) on the basal respiration of proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) both by high-resolution respirometry and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. These two complementary methods have shown that HK-2 cells exhibit a decreased oxygen consumption rate when treated with LPS. Surprisingly, this cellular respiration alteration persists even after the stress factor was removed. We suggested that this irreversible decrease in renal oxygen consumption after LPS challenge is related to a pathologic metabolic down-regulation such as a lack of oxygen utilization by cells. PMID:22659746

  9. Immunization with Lipopolysaccharide-Deficient Whole Cells Provides Protective Immunity in an Experimental Mouse Model of Acinetobacter baumannii Infection

    PubMed Central

    García-Quintanilla, Meritxell; Pulido, Marina R.; Pachón, Jerónimo; McConnell, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing clinical importance of infections caused by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii warrants the development of novel approaches for prevention and treatment. In this context, vaccination of certain patient populations may contribute to reducing the morbidity and mortality caused by this pathogen. Vaccines against Gram-negative bacteria based on inactivated bacterial cells are highly immunogenic and have been shown to produce protective immunity against a number of bacterial species. However, the high endotoxin levels present in these vaccines due to the presence of lipopolysaccharide complicates their use in human vaccination. In the present study, we used a laboratory-derived strain of A. baumannii that completely lacks lipopolysaccharide due to a mutation in the lpxD gene (IB010), one of the genes involved in the first steps of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, for vaccination. We demonstrate that IB010 has greatly reduced endotoxin content (<1.0 endotoxin unit/106 cells) compared to wild type cells. Immunization with formalin inactivated IB010 produced a robust antibody response consisting of both IgG1 and IgG2c subtypes. Mice immunized with IB010 had significantly lower post-infection tissue bacterial loads and significantly lower serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, TNF-? and IL-6 compared to control mice in a mouse model of disseminated A. baumannii infection. Importantly, immunized mice were protected from infection with the ATCC 19606 strain and an A. baumannii clinical isolate. These data suggest that immunization with inactivated A. baumannii whole cells deficient in lipopolysaccharide could serve as the basis for a vaccine for the prevention of infection caused by A. baumannii. PMID:25485716

  10. Analysis of a common-antigen lipopolysaccharide from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, M; McGroarty, E J

    1989-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (O5 serotype) was separated into two antigenically distinct fractions. A minor fraction, containing shorter polysaccharide chains, reacted with a monoclonal antibody to a P. aeruginosa common antigen but did not react with antibodies specific to O5-serotype lipopolysaccharide. In contrast, fractions containing long polysaccharide chains reacted only with the O5-specific monoclonal antibodies. The shorter, common-antigen fraction lacked phosphate and contained stoichiometric amounts of sulfate, and the fatty acid composition of this fraction was similar to that of the O-antigen-specific fraction. The lipid A derived from the serotype-specific lipopolysaccharide cross-reacted with monoclonal antibodies against lipid A from Escherichia coli, while the lipid A derived from the common antigen did not react. We propose that many serotypes of P. aeruginosa produce two chemically and antigenically distinct lipopolysaccharide molecules, one of which is a common antigen with a short polysaccharide and a unique core-lipid A structure. Images PMID:2495275

  11. Endotoxin Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, G. W.; McSherry, B. J.; Valli, V. E. O.

    1974-01-01

    Endotoxin administered intravenously to a group of four calves resulted in disseminated intravascular coagulation. A sublethal dose of piromen, a commercially available Pseudomonas spp endotoxin, was used. Serial measurements of total plasma fibrinogen, soluble fibrin levels, ethanol gelation tests, protamine sulfate tests, fibrinogen-fibrin-related antigen (FR-antigen) and prothrombin and thrombin times were done. Initial depression of plasma fibrinogen with a nadir of about 40% of pre-endotoxin levels at eight to 11 hours post-endotoxin (+8 to +11 hours) followed by an overcompensation to 180% at +60 to +108 hours was shown. Soluble fibrin was demonstrated in plasma from +2 to +22 hours with a peak of 100-114 mg/100 ml at +4 to +9 hours. Positive plasma ethanol gelation and protamine sulfate tests, as well as the presence of serum FR-antigen, occurred consistently following endotoxin administration. Significant increases in prothrombin times (PT) from +4 to +40 hours and in thrombin times (TT) from +4 to +16 hours were demonstrated. The peak increase of PT at +8 to +10 hours was 180%. The peak increase of TT at +6 to +9 hours was 260-290%. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:4279765

  12. Membrane peroxidation by lipopolysaccharide and iron-ascorbate adversely affects Caco-2 cell function: beneficial role of butyric acid1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederic Courtois; Ernest G Seidman; Edgard Delvin; Claude Asselin; Sandra Bernotti; Marielle Ledoux; Emile Levy

    Background: Membrane lipid peroxidation may play a role in immune-mediated bowel diseases. Objective: We examined the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a ubiquitous endotoxin mediator of gram-negative bacteria, alone and in combination with iron-ascorbate, on enterocyte function. Furthermore, we assessed the antioxidant capacity of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butyric acid, which are known to play a significant role in the welfare

  13. Genome-Wide Expression Analysis of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mastitis in a Mouse Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiamao Zheng; Anjanette D. Watson; David E. Kerr

    2006-01-01

    To better understand the acute host response to Escherichia coli mastitis, we analyzed gene expression patterns of approximately 23,000 transcripts 4 h after an intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a mouse model. A total of 489 genes were significantly affected, of which 391 were induced and 98 were repressed. Gene ontology analysis demonstrated that most of the induced genes

  14. Effect of Sodium Butyrate on Growth Performance and Response to Lipopolysaccharide in Weanling Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary sodium butyrate on growth performance and response to E. coli. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in weanling pigs. In the first 28 d experiment, 180 pigs (initial BW 6.3 kg) were fed 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4% sodium butyrate, or 110 mg/kg d...

  15. The Anti-inflammatory Effects of Curcuma longa and Berberis aristata in Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis in Rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suresh Kumar Gupta; Renu Agarwal; Sushma Srivastava; Puneet Agarwal; Shyam Sunder Agrawal; Rohit Saxena; Niranjan Galpalli

    PURPOSE. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of topical application of Curcuma longa (C. longa) and Berberis aristata (B. aristata) aqueous extracts on experimental uveitis in the rabbit. METHODS. Anterior uveitis was induced in rabbits by intravitreal injection of lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli after pre- treatment with C. longa and B. aristata aqueous extracts. Subsequently, the anti-inflammatory activity of C. longa

  16. Longitudinal study of dust and airborne endotoxin in the home.

    PubMed Central

    Park, J H; Spiegelman, D L; Burge, H A; Gold, D R; Chew, G L; Milton, D K

    2000-01-01

    To characterize the seasonal variability of endotoxin levels, we measured endotoxin in dust from the bed, bedroom floor, and kitchen floor in 20 homes, and in air from the bedroom in 15 of the homes. All homes were located in the greater Boston, Massachusetts, area and were sampled each month from April 1995 to June 1996. Outdoor air was collected at two locations. We found greater within-home than between-home variance for bedroom floor, kitchen floor, and airborne endotoxin. However, the reverse was true for bed dust endotoxin. Thus, studies using single measurements of dust endotoxin are most likely to reliably distinguish between homes if bed dust is sampled. Dust endotoxin levels were not significantly associated with airborne endotoxin. Airborne endotoxin was significantly (p = 0. 04) and positively associated with absolute humidity in a mixed-effect model adjusting for a random home effect and fixed effect of sampling month and home characteristics. This finding implies that indoor humidity may be an important factor controlling endotoxin exposure. We found a significant (p < 0.05) seasonal effect in kitchen floor dust (spring > fall) and bedroom airborne endotoxin (spring > winter), but not in the other indoor samples. We found significant seasonal pattern in outdoor airborne endotoxin (summer > winter). PMID:11102291

  17. Endotoxins in Environmental and Clinical Samples Assessed by GC-Tandem MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szponar, Bogumila

    Bacteria appeared on the Earth millions years before us and human evolution was triggered by the constant presence of pathogenic and symbiotic microorganisms in our surroundings. Interplay occurred between higher organism and microbial consortia residing in the host organs and on the epithelial surfaces; another natural space of bacteria-human interaction is the indoor environment where we spend the majority of our lifetime. Indoor microbial exposure affects our well-being and can result in respiratory symptoms, such as allergies and asthma, since both dead and live microorganisms and their cell constituents, including lipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxins), interact with our immune system. Thus, there is a demand for robust tools for qualitative and quantitative determination of the microbial communities that we are exposed to.

  18. Astrocytes enhance lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production by microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Solŕ, Carme; Casal, Carme; Tusell, Josep M; Serratosa, Joan

    2002-10-01

    Several stimuli result in glial activation and induce nitric oxide (NO) production in microglial and astroglial cells. The bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been widely used to achieve glial activation in vitro, and several studies show that both microglial and, to a lesser extent, astroglial cell cultures produce NO after LPS treatment. However, NO production in endotoxin-treated astrocyte cultures is controversial. We characterized NO production in microglial, astroglial and mixed glial cell cultures treated with lipopolysaccharide, measured as nitrite accumulation in the culture media. We also identified the NO-producing cells by immunocytochemistry, using specific markers for the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) isoform, microglial and astroglial cells. Only microglial cells showed iNOS immunoreactivity. Thus, contaminating microglial cells were responsible for NO production in the secondary astrocyte cultures. We then analysed the effect of astrocytes on NO production by microglial cells using microglial-astroglial cocultures, and we observed that this production was clearly enhanced in the presence of astroglial cells. Soluble factors released by astrocytes did not appear to be directly responsible for such an effect, whereas nonsoluble factors present in the cell membrane of LPS-treated astrocytes could account, at least in part, for this enhancement. PMID:12405988

  19. COX-2 mediated induction of endothelium-independent contraction to bradykinin in endotoxin-treated porcine coronary artery.

    PubMed

    More, Amar S; Kim, Hye Min; Zhao, Ru; Khang, Gilson; Hildebrandt, Tobias; Bernlöhr, Christian; Doods, Henri; Lee, Dongwon; Lee, Seung Hee; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Wu, Dongmei

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the vascular effects of bradykinin in health and vascular inflammation comparing responses of isolated pig coronary arteries in the absence and presence of endotoxins. Bradykinin induced contractions in lipopolysaccharide-treated, but not untreated, arterial rings without endothelium. The B2-receptor antagonist HOE140, but not the B1-receptor inhibitor SSR240612, blocked these endothelium-independent contractions in response to bradykinin. The bradykinin-induced contractions were blocked by indomethacin, celecoxib, and terbogrel but not valeryl salicylate, AH6809, AL 8810, or RO1138452. They were attenuated by N-(p-amylcinnamoyl) anthranilic acid, and by diethyldithiocarbamate plus tiron but not by L-NAME. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed significant upregulations of messenger RNA expressions of B1 receptors, COX-2, and thromboxane A synthase 1 (TBXAS1) following lipopolysaccharide incubation but not of B2 receptors or COX-1. The present data demonstrate that bradykinin induces contractions mediated by the COX-2 pathway in endotoxin-treated pig coronary arteries. These results support differential roles of bradykinin in health and disease. PMID:25192543

  20. Ambient endotoxin concentrations in PM10 from Southern California.

    PubMed Central

    Mueller-Anneling, Linda; Avol, Ed; Peters, John M; Thorne, Peter S

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of endotoxin in urban air pollution have not previously been extensively characterized. We measured 24-hr levels of PM10 (particulate matter < 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter) and the associated endotoxin component once every 6 weeks for 1 year in 13 communities in Southern California. All the samples collected had detectable PM10 and endotoxin levels. The geometric mean PM10 was 34.6 microg/m3 [geometric SD (GSD), 2.1; range, 3.0-135]. By volume, the endotoxin geometric mean was 0.44 endotoxin units (EU)/m3 (GSD, 3.1; range, 0.03-5.44). Per unit material collected, the geometric mean of endotoxin collected was 13.6 EU/mg (GSD, 3.2; range, 0.7-96.8). No correlation was found between endotoxin concentrations and other ambient pollutants concurrently measured [ozone, nitrogen dioxide, total acids, or PM2.5 (particulate matter < 2.5 micro m in aerodynamic diameter]. PM10 and endotoxin concentrations were significantly correlated, most strongly in summer. Samples collected in more rural and agricultural areas had lower PM10 and mid-range endotoxin levels. The high desert and mountain communities had lower PM10 levels but endotoxin levels comparable with or higher than the rural agricultural sites. By volume, endotoxin levels were highest at sites downwind of Los Angeles, California, which were also the locations of highest PM10. Endotoxin concentrations measured in this study were all < 5.5 EU/m3, which is lower than recognized thresholds for acute adverse health effects for occupational exposures but in the same range as indoor household concentrations. This study provides the first extensive characterization of endotoxin concentration across a large metropolitan area in relation to PM10 and other pollutant monitoring, and supports the need for studies of the role of endotoxin in childhood asthma in urban settings. PMID:15064165

  1. Generation of Minicells from an Endotoxin-Free Gram-Positive Strain Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Young; Choy, Hyon E; Lee, Jin-Ho; Kim, Geun-Joong

    2015-04-28

    Drug delivery systems (DDSs) incorporating bacterial minicells have been evaluated as a very powerful tool in view of biocompatibility. However, limited studies have been carried out on these systems, mainly using minicells from Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli. Thus, we generated a new minicell-producing strain from an endotoxin-free Corynebacterium glutamicum by the inactivation of genes related to cell division. The two knockout strains, ?parA and ?ncgl1366, showed distinct abilities to produce minicells. The resulting minicells were purified via sequential antibiotic treatments and centrifugations, which resulted in reproducible yields. PMID:25341464

  2. CD14 and lipopolysaccharide binding protein expression in a rat model of alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Su, G. L.; Rahemtulla, A.; Thomas, P.; Klein, R. D.; Wang, S. C.; Nanji, A. A.

    1998-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and CD14 play key intermediary roles in the activation of cells by endotoxin. As endotoxin has been postulated to participate in promoting pathological liver injury in alcoholic liver disease, we investigated the role of LBP and CD14 in alcoholic liver injury. Rats were fed intragastrically ethanol or dextrose and either medium-chain triglycerides, corn oil, or fish oil for 4 weeks. Kupffer cells, endothelial cells, and hepatocytes were isolated. LBP and CD14 mRNA levels were measured in liver and individual cell types. The highest levels of LBP and CD14 mRNA levels in the liver were found in the fish oil/ethanol group, which was also the group with the greatest degree of pathological injury and inflammation. CD14 mRNA levels were also significantly elevated in groups fed unsaturated fatty acids with dextrose. CD14 expression was localized to the Kupffer cells and LBP expression to the hepatocytes. Expression of CD14 mRNA was also found in nonmyeloid cells in the two experimental groups (fish oil/ethanol and corn oil/ethanol) that had liver necrosis and inflammation. Our results suggest that enhanced LBP and CD14 expression correlates with the presence of pathological liver injury in alcoholic liver injury. Furthermore, unsaturated fatty acids may prime cells to respond to endotoxin by enhancing CD14 expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9502426

  3. Protein Kinase C? (PKC?) Regulates Ocular Inflammation and Apoptosis in Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis (EIU)

    PubMed Central

    de Kozak, Yvonne; Omri, Boubaker; Smith, Justine R.; Naud, Marie-Christine; Thillaye-Goldenberg, Brigitte; Crisanti, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    We show that inhibitory effect of interleukin-13 on endotoxin-induced uveitis in the Lewis rat is dependent on signaling activity of protein kinase C? (PKC?). To understand the effect of interleukin-13 or PKC? inhibitor treatment, the activation status of rat bone marrow-derived macrophages was studied in vitro. At 6 hours, lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages produced tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) with nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B)/p65 expression. Treatment led to absence of NF-?B/p65 expression and low levels of TNF-?, suggesting accelerated inactivation of macrophages. At 24 hours after lipopolysaccharide stimulation, nuclear NF-?B/p65 decreased and nuclear NF-?B/p50 increased, associated with nuclear BCL-3 and a low level of TNF-?, indicating onset of spontaneous resolution. Treatment limited PKC? cleavage, with expression of nuclear NF-?B/p50 and BCL-3 and low nuclear NF-?B/p65 promoting macrophage survival, as evidenced by Bcl-2 expression. At 24 hours, intraocular treatment decreased membranous expression of PKC? by ocular cells, reduced vascular leakage with low nitric-oxide synthase-2 expression in vascular endothelial cells, and limited inflammatory cell infiltration with decreased intraocular TNF-?, interleukin-6, and nitric-oxide synthase-2 mRNA. Importantly, treatment decreased nuclear NF-?B/p65, increased transforming growth factor-?2, and reduced caspase 3 expression in infiltrating macrophages, implying a change of their phenotype within ocular microenvironment. Treatment accelerated endotoxin-induced uveitis resolution through premature apoptosis of neutrophils related to high expression of toll-like receptor 4 and caspase 3. PMID:17392164

  4. Lipopolysaccharides in diazotrophic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Serrato, Rodrigo V.

    2014-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a process in which the atmospheric nitrogen (N2) is transformed into ammonia (NH3) by a select group of nitrogen-fixing organisms, or diazotrophic bacteria. In order to furnish the biologically useful nitrogen to plants, these bacteria must be in constant molecular communication with their host plants. Some of these molecular plant-microbe interactions are very specific, resulting in a symbiotic relationship between the diazotroph and the host. Others are found between associative diazotrophs and plants, resulting in plant infection and colonization of internal tissues. Independent of the type of ecological interaction, glycans, and glycoconjugates produced by these bacteria play an important role in the molecular communication prior and during colonization. Even though exopolysaccharides (EPS) and lipochitooligosaccharides (LCO) produced by diazotrophic bacteria and released onto the environment have their importance in the microbe-plant interaction, it is the lipopolysaccharides (LPS), anchored on the external membrane of these bacteria, that mediates the direct contact of the diazotroph with the host cells. These molecules are extremely variable among the several species of nitrogen fixing-bacteria, and there are evidences of the mechanisms of infection being closely related to their structure. PMID:25232535

  5. Role of endotoxemia in cardiovascular dysfunction and mortality. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus challenges in a canine model of human septic shock.

    PubMed Central

    Natanson, C; Danner, R L; Elin, R J; Hosseini, J M; Peart, K W; Banks, S M; MacVittie, T J; Walker, R I; Parrillo, J E

    1989-01-01

    Using different types of bacteria and a canine model simulating human septic shock, we investigated the role of endotoxin in cardiovascular dysfunction and mortality. Either Escherichia coli (a microorganism with endotoxin) or Staphylococcus aureus (a microorganism without endotoxin) were placed in an intraperitoneal clot in doses of viable or formalin-killed bacteria. Cardiovascular function of conscious animals was studied using simultaneous radionuclide heart scans and thermodilution cardiac outputs. Serial plasma endotoxin levels were measured. S. aureus produced a pattern of reversible cardiovascular dysfunction over 7-10 d that was concordant (P less than 0.01) with that of E. coli. Although this cardiovascular pattern was not altered by formalin killing (S. aureus and E. coli), formalin-killed organisms produced a lower mortality and less myocardial depression (P less than 0.01). S. aureus, compared to E. coli, produced higher postmortem concentrations of microorganisms and higher mortality (P less than 0.025). E. coli produced significant endotoxemia (P less than 0.01), though viable organisms (versus nonviable) resulted in higher endotoxin blood concentrations (P less than 0.05). Significant endotoxemia did not occur with S. aureus. Thus, in the absence of endotoxemia, S. aureus induced the same cardiovascular abnormalities of septic shock as E. coli. These findings indicate that structurally and functionally distinct microorganisms, with or without endotoxin, can activate a common pathway resulting in similar cardiovascular injury and mortality. PMID:2642920

  6. Influence of prenatal stress on behavioral, endocrine, and cytokine responses to adulthood bacterial endotoxin exposure.

    PubMed

    Kohman, Rachel A; Tarr, Andrew J; Day, Cameron E; McLinden, Kristina A; Boehm, Gary W

    2008-11-21

    Prior research suggests that prenatal stress, among other effects, can lead to hyper-reactivity of the offspring's hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and alterations in immune function. These stress-induced changes have been linked to a greater propensity to develop depression or anxiety disorders. Furthermore, prenatally stressed offspring may be more susceptible to certain diseases. The immune alterations induced by prenatal stress exposure may disrupt the normal communication between the immune system, endocrine system, and central nervous system, potentially making prenatally stressed individuals more vulnerable to the negative aspects of immune activation, including cytokine-induced cognitive deficits and anxiety. The present study investigated whether prenatal stress would exaggerate these detrimental effects of peripheral immune activation. We hypothesized that prenatally stressed subjects would be hypersensitive to endotoxin administration and would therefore show exaggerated learning deficits, increased anxiety-like behavior, and increased peripheral and central interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) levels. The observed results only partially supported our hypotheses, as prenatally stressed subjects showed evidence, albeit modest, of increased anxiety-like behavior following endotoxin administration relative to non-stressed controls. While prenatal stress exposure or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration independently impaired learning, the data failed to support the hypothesis that prenatally stressed subjects would show exaggerated cognitive deficits, engendered via enhanced peripheral and central IL-1beta levels, following immune activation. Collectively, the data suggest that although prenatal stress exposure led to increases in anxiety-like behavior following endotoxin exposure, it did not appear to increase susceptibility to LPS-induced cognitive decline or elevations in proinflammatory cytokine production. PMID:18590773

  7. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in caprine milk during experimentally induced endotoxin mastitis.

    PubMed

    Olumee-Shabon, Z; Swain, T; Smith, E A; Tall, E; Boehmer, J L

    2013-05-01

    The goal of the current study was to identify proteins in goat milk before and at 18 h following intramammary challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Initial evaluation of protein profiles generated using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis on skim milk samples from a group of 6 goats collected before challenge and at 18, 24, and 48 h after LPS challenge revealed little change in the abundance of casein proteins, and minimal changes in the presence or abundance of the plasma protein serum albumin, which is known to leak into milk during coliform mastitis in dairy cattle. Proteins in baseline milk samples and in milk from the same goats 18 h post-LPS challenge were excised from the gels, and peptides were sequenced using nano-flow liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Despite the overwhelming presence of casein proteins and ?-lactoglobulin, the lower abundance proteins ?-2-microglobulin, fatty acid-binding protein, serum albumin, and retinol-binding protein were detected in skim milk samples from healthy goats. Skim milk samples 18 h postchallenge were characterized by the sustained presence and abundance of the casein proteins, and by the presence of haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, lactoferrin, cathelicidin-1, and cathelicidin-3. No marked differences in the intensity of the spot corresponding to serum albumin were observed in gels of skim milk samples 18 h postchallenge, which could indicate that the breakdown of the blood-milk barrier during endotoxin mastitis may not be as profound in goats as has been observed in dairy cattle. Nonetheless, the occurrence of an inflammatory response was supported by elevated somatic cell counts in the goat milk following inoculation with endotoxin, as well as by the presence of both antimicrobial and acute phase proteins. The results provide information about the composition of proteins in goat milk as well as added knowledge of the host response during endotoxin mastitis in goats. PMID:23498005

  8. If blocking potency of ivabradine is preserved under elevated endotoxin levels in human atrial myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Scheruebel, Susanne; Koyani, Chintan N.; Hallström, Seth; Lang, Petra; Platzer, Dieter; Mächler, Heinrich; Lohner, Karl; Malle, Ernst; Zorn-Pauly, Klaus; Pelzmann, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Lower heart rate is associated with better survival in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), a disease mostly caused by sepsis. The benefits of heart rate reduction by ivabradine during MODS are currently being investigated in the MODIfY clinical trial. Ivabradine is a selective inhibitor of the pacemaker current If and since If is impaired by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin), a trigger of sepsis, we aimed to explore If blocking potency of ivabradine under elevated endotoxin levels in human atrial cardiomyocytes. Treatment of myocytes with S-LPS (containing the lipid A moiety, a core oligosaccharide and an O-polysaccharide chain) but not R595 (an O-chain lacking LPS-form) caused If inhibition under acute and chronic septic conditions. The specific interaction of S-LPS but not R595 to pacemaker channels HCN2 and HCN4 proves the necessity of O-chain for S-LPS–HCN interaction. The efficacy of ivabradine to block If was reduced under septic conditions, an observation that correlated with lower intracellular ivabradine concentrations in S-LPS- but not R595-treated cardiomyocytes. Computational analysis using a sinoatrial pacemaker cell model revealed that despite a reduction of If under septic conditions, ivabradine further decelerated pacemaking activity. This novel finding, i.e. If inhibition by ivabradine under elevated endotoxin levels in vitro, may provide a molecular understanding for the efficacy of this drug on heart rate reduction under septic conditions in vivo, e.g. the MODIfY clinical trial. PMID:24583250

  9. Dehydroepiandrosterone protects mice from endotoxin toxicity and reduces tumor necrosis factor production.

    PubMed Central

    Danenberg, H D; Alpert, G; Lustig, S; Ben-Nathan, D

    1992-01-01

    Recent reports have demonstrated an immunomodulating activity of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) different from that described for glucocorticoids. The present study was designed to test DHEA's activity in endotoxic shock and to investigate its effect on endotoxin-induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Mortality of CD-1 mice exposed to a lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 800 micrograms per mouse) was reduced from 95 to 24% by treatment with a single dose of DHEA, given 5 min before LPS. LPS administration resulted in high levels of TNF, a response that was significantly blocked by DHEA, both in vivo and in vitro. DHEA treatment also reduced LPS-induced increments in serum corticosterone levels, a parameter considered not to be mediated by TNF. In another experimental model, mice sensitized with D-galactosamine, followed by administration of recombinant human TNF, were subjected to 89% mortality rate, which was reduced to 55% in DHEA-treated mice. These data show that DHEA protects mice from endotoxin lethality. The protective effect is probably mediated by reduction of TNF production as well as by effecting both TNF-induced and non-TNF-induced phenomena. PMID:1444309

  10. Organ Dysfunction among Piglets Treated with Inhaled Nitric Oxide and Intravenous Hydrocortisone during Prolonged Endotoxin Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Göranson, Sofie Paues; Go?dzik, Waldemar; Harbut, Piotr; Ryniak, Stanis?aw; Zielinski, Stanis?aw; Haegerstrand, Caroline Gillis; Kübler, Andrzej; Hedenstierna, Göran; Frostell, Claes; Albert, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Objective It has previously been shown that a combination of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) and intravenous (IV) steroid attenuates endotoxin-induced organ damage in a 6-hour porcine endotoxemia model. We aimed to further explore these effects in a 30-hour model with attention to clinically important variables. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting University animal laboratory. Subjects Domestic piglets (n?=?30). Interventions Animals were randomized into 5 groups (n?=?6 each): 1) Controls, 2) LPS-only (endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion), 3) LPS + iNO, 4) LPS + IV steroid, 5) LPS + iNO + IV steroid. Measurements and Main Results Exposure to LPS temporarily increased pulmonary artery mean pressure and impeded renal function with elevated serum creatinine and acidosis compared to a control group over the 30-hour study period. Double treatment with both iNO and IV steroid tended to blunt the deterioration in renal function, although the only significant effect was on Base Excess (p?=?0.045). None of the LPS + iNO + IV steroid treated animals died during the study period, whereas one animal died in each of the other LPS-infused groups. Conclusions This study suggests that combined early therapy with iNO and IV steroid is associated with partial protection of kidney function after 30 hours of experimental LPS infusion. PMID:24827456

  11. Inhibition of endotoxin-induced activation of human monocytes by human lipoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Flegel, W A; Wölpl, A; Männel, D N; Northoff, H

    1989-01-01

    Toxicity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (endotoxin) is, to a large extent, mediated by the activation of monocytes/macrophages and subsequent release of monokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). It is known that LPS binds readily to serum lipoproteins and that LPS-lipoprotein complexes are less toxic than unbound LPS. Here we present data analyzing the impact of the LPS-serum interaction at the cellular level. By measuring IL-1 TNF-alpha, and IL-6, the interaction of different LPSs or lipid A with human serum could be shown to prevent the activation of human monocytes. The amounts of LPS inactivated by normal human serum did not exceed 10 ng/ml. The LPS-inactivating capacity of serum was shown to be a function of the lipoproteins. Other serum components, such as naturally occurring anti-LPS immunoglobulin G, complement, or nutritive lipids, had no significant influence in our system. Our experiments suggest that serum lipoproteins control endotoxin-induced monocyte activation and monokine release. PMID:2731990

  12. Rhein prevents endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury by inhibiting NF-?B activities.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chen; Qi, Dong; Sun, Ju-Feng; Li, Peng; Fan, Hua-Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effect and mechanisms of rhein on sepsis-induced acute kidney injury by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in vivo, and on LPS-induced HK-2 cells in vitro. For histopathological analysis, rhein effectively attenuated the severity of renal injury. Rhein could significantly decrease concentration of BUN and SCr and level of TNF-? and IL-1? in two different mouse models of experimental sepsis. Moreover, rhein could markedly attenuate circulating leukocyte infiltration and enhance phagocytic activity of macrophages partly impaired at 12?h after CLP. Rhein could enhance cell viability and suppresse the release of MCP-1 and IL-8 in LPS-stimulated HK-2 cells Furthermore, rhein down regulated the expression of phosphorylated NF-?B p65, I?B? and IKK? stimulated by LPS both in vivo and in vitro. All these results suggest that rhein has protective effects on endotoxin-induced kidney injury. The underlying mechanism of rhein on anti-endotoxin kidney injury may be closely related with its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties by decreasing NF-?B activation through restraining the expression and phosphorylation of the relevant proteins in NF-?B signal pathway, hindering transcription of NF-?B p65.These evidence suggest that rhein has a potential application to treat endotoxemia-associated acute kidney injury. PMID:26149595

  13. Rhein prevents endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury by inhibiting NF-?B activities

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chen; Qi, Dong; Sun, Ju-Feng; Li, Peng; Fan, Hua-Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effect and mechanisms of rhein on sepsis-induced acute kidney injury by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in vivo, and on LPS-induced HK-2 cells in vitro. For histopathological analysis, rhein effectively attenuated the severity of renal injury. Rhein could significantly decrease concentration of BUN and SCr and level of TNF-? and IL-1? in two different mouse models of experimental sepsis. Moreover, rhein could markedly attenuate circulating leukocyte infiltration and enhance phagocytic activity of macrophages partly impaired at 12?h after CLP. Rhein could enhance cell viability and suppresse the release of MCP-1 and IL-8 in LPS-stimulated HK-2 cells Furthermore, rhein down regulated the expression of phosphorylated NF-?B p65, I?B? and IKK? stimulated by LPS both in vivo and in vitro. All these results suggest that rhein has protective effects on endotoxin-induced kidney injury. The underlying mechanism of rhein on anti-endotoxin kidney injury may be closely related with its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties by decreasing NF-?B activation through restraining the expression and phosphorylation of the relevant proteins in NF-?B signal pathway, hindering transcription of NF-?B p65.These evidence suggest that rhein has a potential application to treat endotoxemia-associated acute kidney injury. PMID:26149595

  14. Removal of endotoxin from dairy wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of various treatments on removing endotoxin (ET) from wastewater was tested by using the treated water to induce a systemic reaction via intratracheal inoculation (20 ml/goat, 6 goats/group). Treatments (T1-T7) of wastewater were as follows: 1) autoclaved 15 min, centrifuged and contain...

  15. Are bovine teeth a suitable substitute for human teeth in in vitro studies to assess endotoxin load in root canals?

    PubMed

    Melo, Tiago André Fontoura de; Gründling, Grasiela Sabrina Longhi; Montagner, Francisco; Scarparo, Roberta Kochenborger; Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli de; Vier-Pelisser, Fabiana Vieira

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the feasibility of using bovine teeth as a suitable alternative for human teeth, in experiments involving in vitro endotoxin contamination. Twenty bovine central incisors and 20 human single-root premolars had their dental crowns removed and root lengths set at 16 mm. Root canals were prepared up to #60 K-file size and sterilized with cobalt-60 gamma irradiation (20 kGy, 6 h). The teeth were randomly divided into four groups: G1-bovine teeth (bovine negative control, n = 10), G2-human teeth (human negative control, n = 10), G3-bovine teeth, inoculated with Escherichia coli (055:B55) LPS, and G4-human teeth inoculated with E. coli LPS. The G1 and G2 groups were exposed to apyrogenic water. After the teeth had been incubated at 37 °C and atmospheric humidity for 24 h, the samples of solutions in the main canals were collected with apyrogenic absorbent paper tips. LPS levels were quantified using Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, with a significance level of 5%. A high amount of endotoxin was detected in the inoculated human teeth (G4) when compared to the sterilized teeth (G2), as well as in the inoculated bovine teeth (G3) when compared to the inoculated human teeth (G4). However, there was no statistical difference between bovine teeth before and after the E. coli endotoxin inoculation. Therefore, under the mentioned experimental conditions, the use of bovine teeth should not be a choice for laboratory research on endotoxin contamination. PMID:26154374

  16. Effect of endotoxin on pituitary hormone secretion in sheep.

    PubMed

    Coleman, E S; Elsasser, T H; Kemppainen, R J; Coleman, D A; Sartin, J L

    1993-07-01

    Endotoxin, a potent stimulator of the immune system and an important mediator in the pathophysiology of septic shock, has been shown to alter the release of certain hormones following its systemic administration. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of endotoxin on pituitary hormone secretion both in vivo and in vitro in sheep, with emphasis placed on its effects on growth hormone (GH) release. Endotoxin (400 ng/kg i.v.) increased plasma GH, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and prolactin, while it decreased luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency (p < 0.05). Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor, a major mediator of endotoxin effects, also increased following endotoxin administration. Endotoxin did not affect the GH response to human GH-releasing hormone. In vitro studies evaluated the effect of endotoxin to alter GH secretion from dispersed sheep anterior pituitary cells at dosages of 1, 10 and 50 micrograms/ml, with samples collected at 4, 8 and 24 h. Endotoxin increased pituitary GH secretion at 24 h for 1 microgram/ml (p < 0.05) and at all time periods for 10 and 50 micrograms/ml (p < 0.05). It also led to an increased release of ACTH and LH in vitro. The results of this study demonstrate the ability of endotoxin to alter pituitary hormone secretion both in vivo and in vitro in sheep, suggesting a direct effect of endotoxin on the pituitary gland. PMID:8264844

  17. Antidiabetic Drug Metformin Suppresses Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kalariya, Nilesh M.; Shoeb, Mohammad; Ansari, Naseem H.; Srivastava, Satish K.; Ramana, Kota V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the therapeutic effects of metformin, a commonly used antidiabetic drug, in preventing endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats. Methods. EIU in Lewis rats was developed by subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 ?g). Metformin (300 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) or its carrier was injected either 12 hours before or 2 hours after LPS induction. Three and 24 hours after EIU, eyes were enucleated and aqueous humor (AqH) was collected. The MILLIPLEX-MAG Rat cytokine-chemokine magnetic bead array was used to determine inflammatory cytokines. The expression of Cox-2, phosphorylation of AMPK, and NF-?B (p65) were determined immunohistochemically. Primary human nonpigmented ciliary epithelial cells (HNPECs) were used to determine the in vitro efficacy of metformin. Results. Compared with controls, the EIU rat AqH had significantly increased number of infiltrating cells and increased levels of various cytokines and chemokines (TNF-?, MCP-1, IL-1?, MIP-1?, IL-6, Leptin, and IL-18) and metformin significantly prevented the increase. Metformin also prevented the expression of Cox-2 and phosphorylation of p65, and increased the activation of AMPK in the ciliary bodies and retinal tissues. Moreover, metformin prevented the expression of Cox-2, iNOS, and activation of NF-kB in the HNPECs and decreased the levels of NO and PGE2 in cell culture media. Conclusions. Our results for the first time demonstrate a novel role of the antidiabetic drug, metformin, in suppressing uveitis in rats and suggest that this drug could be developed to prevent uveitis complications. PMID:22562515

  18. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1107 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety...the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1107 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety...the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1107 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety...the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1107 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety...the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1107 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety...the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis...

  3. In vitro toxicity and interactions of environmental contaminants (Arochlor 1254 and mercury) and immunomodulatory agents (lipopolysaccharide and cortisol) on thymocytes from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Gregory G.; Sweet, Leonard I.; Adams, Jean V.; Omann, Geneva M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Meier, Peter G.

    2002-01-01

    The immunotoxicity of chemical combinations commonly encountered by the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) immune system was the focus of this study. It was hypothesised that combinations of an environmental contaminant (mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254) and an immunomodulatory agent (bacterial endotoxin or cortisol) might interact to produce a greater toxicity than that of the environmental contaminant alone at concentrations typically encountered in piscine blood and other tissues. Thus lake trout thymocytes were isolated and treated with mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254 in the presence and absence of cortisol or lipopolysaccharide. Incubations were performed for 6 or 20h at 4A?C or 10A?C. Lipopolysaccharide did not affect the toxicity of either contaminant. In contrast, cortisol enhanced the toxicity of both environmental contaminants. Hence, stressors that lead to increased cortisol production, but not lipopolysaccharide directly, may increase the toxicity of mercury and Aroclor 1254 to lake trout thymocytes.

  4. Environmental heat stress modulates thyroid status and its response to repeated endotoxin challenge in steers.

    PubMed

    Kahl, S; Elsasser, T H; Rhoads, R P; Collier, R J; Baumgard, L H

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in cattle, the effects of acute exposure to a heat stress (HS) environment on the status of the pituitary (thyrotropin, TSH)-thyroid (thyroxine, T4)-peripheral tissue T4 deiodination (type 1 5'-deiodinase [D1]; triiodothyronine [T3]; reverse-triiodothyronine [rT3]) axis, and the further response of this pituitary-thyroid-peripheral tissue axis (PTTA) to perturbation caused by the induction of the proinflammatory innate immune state provoked by the administration of gram-negative bacteria endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]). Ten steers (318 ± 49 kg body weight) housed in controlled environment chambers were subjected to either a thermoneutral (TN: constant 19°C) or HS temperature conditions (cyclical daily temperatures: 32.2°C-40.0°C) for a total period of 9 d. To minimize the effects of altered plane of nutrition due to HS, steers in TN were pair-fed to animals in HS conditions. Steers received 2 LPS challenges 3 d apart (LPS1 and LPS2; 0.2 ?g/kg body weight, intravenously, Escherichia coli 055:B5) with the first challenge administered on day 4 relative to the start of the environmental conditioning. Jugular blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, and 24 h relative to the start of each LPS challenge. Plasma TSH, T4, T3, and rT3 were measured by radioimmunoassay. Liver D1 activity was measured in biopsy samples collected before the LPS1 (0 h) and 24 h after LPS2. Before the start of LPS1, HS decreased (P < 0.01 vs TN) plasma TSH (40%), T4 (45.4%), and T3 (25.9%), but did not affect rT3 concentrations. In TN steers, the LPS1 challenge decreased (P < 0.01 vs 0 h) plasma concentrations of TSH between 1 and 7 h and T4 and T3 at 7 and 24 h. In HS steers, plasma TSH concentrations were decreased at 2 h only (P < 0.05), whereas plasma T3 was decreased at 7 and 24 h (P < 0.01). Whereas plasma T4 concentrations were already depressed in HS steers at 0 h, LPS1 did not further affect the levels. Plasma rT3 concentrations were increased in all steers at 4, 7, and 24 h after LPS1 (P < 0.01). The patterns of concentration change of T4, T3, and rT3 during LPS2 mirrored those observed in LPS1; the responses in plasma TSH were of smaller magnitude than those incurred after LPS1. The LPS challenges reduced (P < 0.01) hepatic activity of D1 in all animals but no differences were observed between steers subjected to TN or HS environment. The data are consistent with the concept that acute exposure of cattle to a HS environment results in the depression of the pituitary and thyroid components of the PTTA, whereas a normal capacity to generate T3 from T4 in the liver is preserved. The data also suggest that LPS challenge further suppresses all components of the PTTA including liver T3 generation, and these PTTA perturbations are more pronounced in steers that encounter a HS exposure. PMID:25804834

  5. Milk Thistle Extract and Silymarin Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide Induced Lamellar Separation of Hoof Explants in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Reisinger, Nicole; Schaumberger, Simone; Nagl, Veronika; Hessenberger, Sabine; Schatzmayr, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of laminitis is not completely identified and the role of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) in this process remains unclear. Phytogenic substances, like milk thistle (MT) and silymarin, are known for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and might therefore have the potential to counteract endotoxin induced effects on the hoof lamellar tissue. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of endotoxins on lamellar tissue integrity and to test if MT and silymarin are capable of inhibiting LPS-induced effects in an in vitro/ex vivo model. In preliminary tests, LPS neutralization efficiency of these phytogenics was determined in an in vitro neutralization assay. Furthermore, tissue explants gained from hooves of slaughter horses were tested for lamellar separation after incubation with different concentrations of LPS. By combined incubation of explants with LPS and either Polymyxin B (PMB; positive control), MT or silymarin, the influence of these substances on LPS-induced effects was assessed. In the in vitro neutralization assay, MT and silymarin reduced LPS concentrations by 64% and 75%, respectively, in comparison PMB reduced 98% of the LPS concentration. In hoof explants, LPS led to a concentration dependent separation. Accordantly, separation force was significantly decreased by 10 µg/mL LPS. PMB, MT and silymarin could significantly improve tissue integrity of explants incubated with 10 µg/mL LPS. This study showed that LPS had a negative influence on the structure of hoof explants in vitro. MT and silymarin reduced endotoxin activity and inhibited LPS-induced effects on the lamellar tissue. Hence, MT and silymarin might be used to support the prevention of laminitis and should be further evaluated for this application. PMID:25290524

  6. Milk thistle extract and silymarin inhibit lipopolysaccharide induced lamellar separation of hoof explants in vitro.

    PubMed

    Reisinger, Nicole; Schaumberger, Simone; Nagl, Veronika; Hessenberger, Sabine; Schatzmayr, Gerd

    2014-10-01

    The pathogenesis of laminitis is not completely identified and the role of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) in this process remains unclear. Phytogenic substances, like milk thistle (MT) and silymarin, are known for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and might therefore have the potential to counteract endotoxin induced effects on the hoof lamellar tissue. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of endotoxins on lamellar tissue integrity and to test if MT and silymarin are capable of inhibiting LPS-induced effects in an in vitro/ex vivo model. In preliminary tests, LPS neutralization efficiency of these phytogenics was determined in an in vitro neutralization assay. Furthermore, tissue explants gained from hooves of slaughter horses were tested for lamellar separation after incubation with different concentrations of LPS. By combined incubation of explants with LPS and either Polymyxin B (PMB; positive control), MT or silymarin, the influence of these substances on LPS-induced effects was assessed. In the in vitro neutralization assay, MT and silymarin reduced LPS concentrations by 64% and 75%, respectively, in comparison PMB reduced 98% of the LPS concentration. In hoof explants, LPS led to a concentration dependent separation. Accordantly, separation force was significantly decreased by 10 µg/mL LPS. PMB, MT and silymarin could significantly improve tissue integrity of explants incubated with 10 µg/mL LPS. This study showed that LPS had a negative influence on the structure of hoof explants in vitro. MT and silymarin reduced endotoxin activity and inhibited LPS-induced effects on the lamellar tissue. Hence, MT and silymarin might be used to support the prevention of laminitis and should be further evaluated for this application. PMID:25290524

  7. Effects of endotoxin on monoamine metabolism in the rat.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorecky, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.; Taam, D.; Fine, J.

    1972-01-01

    Examination of effects of administered endotoxin on catecholamine metabolism in the rat brain, sympathetic neurons, and adrenal medulla. It is found that endotoxin, administered intraperitoneally, lowers the norepinephrine content in peripheral sympathetic neurons and the brain, and the catecholamine content in the adrenal medulla. It also accelerates the disappearance of H3-norepinephrine from all these tissues. It is therefore suggested that the effects of endotoxin on body temperature may be mediated in part by central non-adrenergic neurons.

  8. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides and innate immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Alexander; E. T. Rietschel

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are the major outer surface membrane components present in almost all Gram-negative bacteria and act as extremely strong stimulators of innate or natural immunity in diverse eukaryotic species ranging from insects to humans. LPS consist of a poly- or oligosaccharide region that is anchored in the outer bacterial membrane by a specific carbohydrate lipid moiety termed lipid

  9. The unique role of dietary L-arginine in the acceleration of peritoneal macrophage sensitivity to bacterial endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Pekarova, Michaela; Kubala, Lukas; Martiskova, Hana; Papezikova, Ivana; Kralova, Stanislava; Baldus, Stephan; Klinke, Anna; Kuchta, Radoslav; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Kuchtova, Zdenka; Kolarova, Hana; Lojek, Antonin

    2013-05-01

    It is known that cells and organisms can indirectly "sense" changes in L-arginine availability via changes in the activity of various metabolic pathways. However, the mechanism(s) by which genes can be directly regulated by L-arginine in mammalian cells have not yet been elucidated. We investigated the effect of L-arginine in the in vivo model of peritoneal inflammation in mice and in vitro in RAW 264.7 macrophages. A detailed analysis of basic physiological functions and selected intracellular signaling cascades revealed that L-arginine is crucial for the acceleration of macrophage activation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. L-arginine increased the production of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, release of Ca(2+), as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Interestingly, the effect of L-arginine on macrophage activation was dependent on the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and activity of phospholipase C. In RAW 264.7 cells, L-arginine was shown to modulate the response of macrophages toward lipopolysaccharide via the activation of G-protein-coupled receptors. According to our data, we concluded that L-arginine availability plays a key role in the initiation of intracellular signaling pathways that trigger the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in murine macrophages. Although macrophages are partially stimulated in the absence of extracellular L-arginine, the presence of this amino acid significantly accelerates the sensitivity of macrophages to bacterial endotoxin. PMID:23184235

  10. The Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein Is a Secretory Class 1 Acute-Phase Protein Whose Gene Is Transcriptionally Activated by APRF\\/STAT3 and Other Cytokine-Inducible Nuclear Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. SCHUMANN; C. J. KIRSCHNING; A. UNBEHAUN; H. ABERLE; H.-P. KNOPF; N. LAMPING; R. J. ULEVITCH; Max Delbruck; Max Planck

    1996-01-01

    Acute-phase reactants (APRs) are proteins synthesized in the liver following induction by interleukin-1 (IL-1),IL-6,andglucocorticoids,involvingtranscriptionalgeneactivation.Lipopolysaccharide-bindingprotein (LBP) is a recently identified hepatic secretory protein potentially involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis, capable of binding the bacterial cell wall product endotoxin and directing it to its cellular receptor, CD14. In order to examine the transcriptional induction mechanisms by which the LBP gene is

  11. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Hamesch, K; Borkham-Kamphorst, E; Strnad, P; Weiskirchen, R

    2015-04-01

    The intraperitoneal application of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alone or in combination with other hepatotoxins is an experimental model for inducing systemic and hepatic inflammation in rodents applied worldwide. The endotoxin is recognized by the LPS-binding protein. This complex binds together with the lymphocyte antigen 96 (MD2) and the pattern-recognition receptor CD14 to members of the toll-like receptor family. The activated receptor complex in turn transduces signals to well characterized intracellular cascades that result in a multifaceted network of intracellular responses ending in inflammation. The most prominent among these is the activation of the NF-?B pathway and the production of a multitude of inflammatory cytokines. Although the application of LPS is in general easy to perform, unintended variations in preparation of the injection solution or in handling of the animals might affect the reproducibility or the outcome of a specific experiment. Here, we present a well-standardized protocol that allows for an induction of highly reproducible acute hepatic inflammation in mice. Furthermore, examples of appropriate readouts for the resulting inflammatory response are given. PMID:25835737

  12. Endotoxin and Acute Renal Failure Associated with Obstructive Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, E. N.; Wright, N. A.

    1970-01-01

    A single dose of endotoxin given to rats with obstructive jaundice produced death with intravascular coagulation. This action was apparently due to delayed clearance of endotoxin from the circulation. The finding is relevant to “hepatorenal failure,” which can be caused by bacteraemia after biliary tract operations. PMID:4921235

  13. EFFECTS OF LIME (CAO) ON THE ENDOTOXIN LEVELS OF BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lime addition is a common practice for treating biosolids in order to meet EPA 503 requirements for land application. Since this treatment kills the majority of microorganisms, will it increase the level of endotoxins present in biosolids? And, if endotoxin levels are increased, ...

  14. Induction of calprotectin release by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Kido, J; Kido, R; Suryono; Kataoka, M; Fagerhol, M K; Nagata, T

    2004-06-01

    Calprotectin, a major cytosolic protein of leukocytes, is detected in neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages, and epithelial cells. This protein is known to be a marker for several inflammatory diseases and is detected in inflammatory gingival tissue with periodontal disease. Recently, we found that the calprotectin level in gingival crevicular fluid from periodontitis patients was significantly higher than that of healthy subjects. However, the regulation of calprotectin in periodontal disease is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of lipopolysaccharides of periodontopathic bacteria on calprotectin release from human neutrophils. Neutrophils from healthy donors were treated with lipopolysaccharides from Porphyromonas gingivalis (P-LPS), Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Escherichia coli. Calprotectin of neutrophil was identified by immunoblotting and calprotectin amount was determined by ELISA. Two subunits (10 and 14 kDa) of calprotectin were observed in the cell and medium fractions from neutrophils. P-LPS increased calprotectin release from seven to 16 times the control level after 30 min and its effect appeared in a dose-dependent manner (10-1000 ng/ml). Lipopolysaccharides from A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. intermedia, F. nucleatum, and E. coli also induced calprotectin release from neutrophils. These results suggest that lipopolysaccharides from periodontopathic bacteria induce calprotectin release from human neutrophils. PMID:15107070

  15. Endotoxin assay by bioluminescence using mutant firefly luciferase.

    PubMed

    Noda, Kenichi; Goto, Hitoshi; Murakami, Yuji; Ahmed, Abo Bakr F; Kuroda, Akio

    2010-02-15

    The Limulus reaction is an application of the defense mechanism of horseshoe crab for endotoxin detection. Endotoxin is a component of the cell wall in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, and causes fever or shock when it enters the human blood stream. For endotoxin detection, gel formation or turbidity of the coagulation factor chromogen or fluorescence-modified peptide is used. However, these conventional methods have problems with regard to their measurement time or sensitivity. We recently obtained a mutant firefly luciferase that has a luminescence intensity over 10-fold higher than that of the wild type. Therefore, we developed a new endotoxin detection method that combines the Limulus reaction and bioluminescence using mutant luciferase. The new method detects 0.0005EU/ml of endotoxin within 15min. PMID:19850001

  16. Chemical analysis of Azospirillum lipopolysaccharides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Choma; R. Russa; H. Mayer; Z. Lorkiewicz

    1987-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were extracted by hot phenol-water from five strains each of Azospirillum lipoferum and Azospirillum brasilense. Rhamnose, glucose, glucosamine and 3-deoxy-d-mannooctulosonic acid were comon sugar constituents of all LPS preparations. 2-O-Mefucose, 3-O-Me-fucose, 3-O-Me-rhamnose and 2-O-Megalactose were found in LPSs of some A. brasilense strains. Fatty acid spectra from all LPSs studied were almost identical with predominance of 3-hydroxymyristic and

  17. Endotoxins associated with cyanobacteria and their removal during drinking water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jarkko Rapala; Kirsti Lahti; Leena A. Räsänen; Anna-Liisa Esala; Seppo I. Niemelä; Kaarina Sivonen

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate endotoxin concentrations in cyanobacterial water blooms and strains, and to assess the removal of endotoxins during drinking water treatment. Endotoxin concentrations were measured from 151 hepatotoxic, neurotoxic and non-toxic cyanobacterial water blooms by using Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay, and the results were compared to bacterial data. Endotoxin activities ranged from 20

  18. Lipopolysaccharides of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis Induce Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Rat Peritoneal Macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LUIS LOPEZ-URRUTIA; ANDRES ALONSO; MARIA LUISA NIETO; YOLANDA BAYON; ANTONIO ORDUNA; MARIANO SANCHEZ CRESPO

    2000-01-01

    Received 28 October 1999\\/Returned for modification 16 November 1999\\/Accepted 6 December 1999 Smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS) and lipid A of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis induced the production of nitric oxide (NO) by rat adherent peritoneal cells, but they induced lower levels of production of NO than Escherichia coli LPS. The participation of the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) was

  19. INHIBITION OF TUMOUR NECROSIS FACTOR PRODUCTION IN ENDOTOXIN-STIMULATED HUMAN MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES BY THE PROSTACYCLIN ANALOGUE ILOPROST: CELLULAR MECHANISMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Achim Jörres; Harald Dinter; Nicholas Topley; Gerhard M. Gahl; Ulrich Frei; Peter Scholz

    1997-01-01

    The prostacyclin analogue iloprost has been shown to inhibit effectively TNF-? production in human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBMC) stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The current paper set out to analyse further the possible mechanisms involved in the regulation of TNF-? synthesis by iloprost. Healthy human PBMC were challenged withEscherichia coliLPS and assessed for TNF-? gene transcription, mRNA stability and

  20. The inflammatory cytokine response to Chlamydia trachomatis infection is endotoxin mediated.

    PubMed Central

    Ingalls, R R; Rice, P A; Qureshi, N; Takayama, K; Lin, J S; Golenbock, D T

    1995-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a major etiologic agent of sexually transmitted diseases. Although C. trachomatis is a gram-negative pathogen, chlamydial infections are not generally thought of as endotoxin-mediated diseases. A molecular characterization of the acute immune response to chlamydia, especially with regard to the role of its lipopolysaccharide (LPS), remains to be undertaken. We extracted 15 mg of LPS from 5 x 10(12) C. trachomatis elementary bodies (EB) for analysis of structure and biological activity. When methylated lipid A was subjected to high-pressure liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry, the majority of the lipid A was found to be pentaacyl. The endotoxin activities of whole C. trachomatis EB and purified LPS were characterized in comparison with whole Salmonella minnesota R595 and with S. minnesota R595 LPS and lipooligosaccharide from Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Both C. trachomatis LPS and whole EB induced the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha from whole blood ex vivo, and C. trachomatis LPS was capable of inducing the translocation of nuclear factor kappa B in a Chinese hamster ovary fibroblast cell line transfected with the LPS receptor CD14. In both assays, however, C. trachomatis was approximately 100-fold less potent than S. minnesota and N. gonorrhoeae. The observation that C. trachomatis is a weak inducer of the inflammatory cytokine response correlates with the clinical observation that, unlike N. gonorrhoeae infection, genital tract infection with C. trachomatis is often asymptomatic. The ability of specific LPS antagonists to completely inhibit the tumor necrosis factor alpha-inducing activity of whole C. trachomatis EB suggests that the inflammatory cytokine response to chlamydia infection may be mediated primarily through LPS. This implies that the role of other surface protein antigens, at least in terms of eliciting the proinflammatory cytokine response, is likely to be minor. PMID:7542638

  1. Selective endothelin-A receptor blockade attenuates endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Toney, Brent M; Fisher, Amanda J; Albrecht, Marjorie; Lockett, Angelia D; Presson, Robert G; Petrache, Irina; Lahm, Tim

    2014-06-01

    Endothelin-1 is a potent mediator of sepsis-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). The pulmonary vascular effects of selective blockade of endothelin receptor subtype A (ETAR) during endotoxemia remain unknown. We hypothesized that selective ETAR antagonism attenuates endotoxin-induced PH and improves pulmonary artery (PA) vasoreactivity. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-450 g) received lipopolysaccharide (LPS; Salmonella typhimurium; 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or vehicle 6 hours before hemodynamic assessment and tissue harvest. The selective ETAR antagonist sitaxsentan (10 or 20 mg/kg) or vehicle was injected intravenously 3 hours after receipt of LPS. Right ventricular systolic pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), oxygenation (P/F ratio), and serum bicarbonate were measured. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell differential and lung wet-to-dry ratios were obtained. Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasorelaxations were determined in isolated PA rings. PA interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) messenger RNA (mRNA) were measured. LPS caused PH, decreased MAP, CO, and serum bicarbonate, and increased PA IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, and iNOS mRNA. Sitaxsentan attenuated sepsis-induced PH and increased MAP. The P/F ratio, CO, serum bicarbonate, and BAL neutrophilia were not affected by sitaxsentan. In isolated PA rings, while not affecting phenylephrine-induced vasocontraction or endothelium-dependent relaxation, sitaxsentan dose-dependently attenuated LPS-induced alterations in endothelium-independent relaxation. PA cytokine mRNA levels were not significantly attenuated by ETAR blockade. We conclude that ETAR blockade attenuates endotoxin-induced alterations in systemic and PA pressures without negatively affecting oxygenation. This protective effect appears to be mediated not by attenuation of sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction, acidosis, or alveolar inflammation but rather by improved endothelium-independent vasorelaxation. PMID:25006449

  2. The Immunobiology of TLR4 Agonists: From Endotoxin Tolerance to Immunoadjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Bohannon, Julia K.; Hernandez, Antonio; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Adams, William L.; Sherwood, Edward R.

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) is a structural component of the Gram negative outer membrane. The lipid A moiety of LPS binds to the LPS receptor complex expressed by leukocytes, endothelial cells and parenchymal cells and is the primary component of Gram negative bacteria that is recognized by the immune system. Activation of the LPS receptor complex by native lipid A induces robust cytokine production, leukocyte activation and inflammation, which is beneficial for clearing bacterial infections at the local level but can cause severe systemic inflammation and shock at higher challenge doses. Interestingly, prior exposure to LPS renders the host resistant to shock caused by subsequent LPS challenge, a phenomenon known as endotoxin tolerance. Treatment with lipid A has also been shown to augment the host response to infection and to serve as a potent vaccine adjuvant. However, the side effects associated with the pronounced inflammatory response limits the use of native lipid A as a clinical immunomodulator. More recently, analogs of lipid A have been developed that possess attenuated pro-inflammatory activity but retain attractive immunomodulatory properties. The lipid A analog monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) exhibits approximately 1/1000th of the toxicity of native lipid A but retains potent immunoadjuvant activity. As such, MPLA is currently employed as an adjuvant in several human vaccine preparations. Due to the potency of lipid A analogs as immunoadjuvants, numerous laboratories are actively working to identify and develop new lipid A mimetics and to optimize their efficacy and safety. Based on those characteristics, lipid A analogs represent an attractive family of immunomodulators. PMID:23989337

  3. Investigations on the Mechanism of Stimulation of Non-Specific Immunity by Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Howard, J. G.; Rowley, D.; Wardlaw, A. C.

    1958-01-01

    The stimulation of non-specific immunity by lipopolysaccharides could not be correlated with the serum properdin level at the time of challenge. Zymosan was effective in stimulating an increase in properdin without raising resistance to infection. The development of a low properdin level during Esch. coli infection did not inevitably lead to death. The fate of 32P-labelled lipopolysaccharide (32P-LP) after intravenous injection was followed in mice and guinea pigs. Most of it was accumulated rapidly in the reticulo-endothelial system. About a third was removed from the blood more slowly than the remainder, probably owing to a smaller particle size. Some of the 32P was excreted in the urine as inorganic phosphate. Very little radioactivity was found in the circulating leukocytes. The blood clearance of 32P-LP was slowed by the administration of nonradioactive lipopolysaccharide 30 min. previously. When this interval was 48 hr. the reticulo-endothelial system was found to be hyperactive in terms of rate of clearance and phagocytic capacity. This was accompanied by an increase in the number of active macrophages in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the spleen. These biphasic changes in the phagocytic activity of the R.E.S. parallel the decreased and increased resistance to infection following the injection of microgram amounts of lipopolysaccharide. Successive depression and stimulation of the R.E.S. also followed the injection of milligram amounts of Thorotrast. The hyperactive phase was accompanied by increased resistance to Esch. coli infection and decreased resistance to Salm. typhimurium infection. The lipid A component of lipopolysaccharide was also taken up by the R.E.S. which it stimulated. Resistance to both Esch. coli and Salm. typhimurium infections was enhanced. The basis of lipopolysaccharide-induced non-specific immunity is discussed in relation to changes in the properdin and reticulo-endothelial systems. The superiority of lipopolysaccharide over other colloids in stimulating immunity is considered to be determined by lipid A. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10 PMID:13574824

  4. Streptomycetes in house dust: associations with housing characteristics and endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Johansson, E; Vesper, S; Levin, L; LeMasters, G; Grinshpun, S; Reponen, T

    2011-08-01

    In addition to mold, indoor bioaerosols also contain bacterial components that may have implications for human health. Endotoxin is a cell wall component in Gram-negative bacteria present at varying levels indoors that has been found to have respiratory health implications. Streptomyces is a large genus of Gram-positive bacteria, and some species have been shown to produce inflammatory reactions in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of streptomycetes levels in house dust and to compare the variation in streptomycetes levels with that in endotoxin levels. Dust was collected by floor vacuuming from 178 homes in the Cincinnati metropolitan area. Streptomycetes levels were measured by quantitative PCR, and endotoxin was assayed by the Limulus amebocyte lysate method. Associations between home characteristics and bacterial contaminants, expressed as concentration and load, were investigated through multiple regression analyses. The presence of two or more dogs was a strong predictor of both streptomycetes and endotoxin levels. Season of dust collection and levels of outdoor molds were predictors of streptomycetes but not endotoxin levels. In contrast, number of inhabitants was a significant predictor of endotoxin load only. Neither streptomycetes nor endotoxin levels were associated with metrics of moisture damage. PMID:21204988

  5. Estrogen receptor ? mediates the effects of notoginsenoside R1 on endotoxin-induced inflammatory and apoptotic responses in H9c2 cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    ZHONG, LEI; ZHOU, XING-LU; LIU, YAN-SONG; WANG, YI-MIN; MA, FEI; GUO, BAO-LIANG; YAN, ZHAO-QI; ZHANG, QING-YUAN

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) are important for preventing endotoxin-induced myocardial dysfunction. Therefore, plant-derived phytoestrogens, which target ERs may also affect endotoxin-induced toxicity in cardiomyocytes. Our previous study revealed that notoginsenoside-R1 (NG-R1), a predominant phytoestrogen from Panax notoginseng, protects against cardiac dysfunction. However, the effects of NG-R1 on cardiomyocytes and the precise cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying its action remain to be elucidated. In the present study, pretreatment with NG-R1 suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced degradation of inhibitor of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) ?, the activation of NF-?B and caspase-3, and the subsequent myocardial inflammatory and apoptotic responses in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. An increase in the mRNA and protein expression of ER? was also observed in the NG-R1-treated cardiomyocytes. However, the expression pattern of ER? remained unaltered. Furthermore, the cardioprotective properties of NG-R1 against LPS-induced apoptosis and the inflammatory response in cardiomyocytes were attenuated by ICI 182780, a non-selective ER? antagonist, and methyl-piperidino-pyrazole, a selective ER? antagonist. These findings suggested that NG-R1 reduced endotoxin-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the inflammatory response via the activation of ER?. Therefore, NG-R1 exerted direct anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects on the cardiomyocytes, representing a potent agent for the treatment of myocardial inflammation during septic shock. PMID:25738436

  6. Specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis Delta-Endotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Jaquet, Françoise; Hütter, Ralf; Lüthy, Peter

    1987-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of the delta-endotoxins of 14 Bacillus thuringiensis strains belonging to 12 subspecies was determined against Pieris brassicae, Heliothis virescens, and Spodoptera littoralis. Larvae of P. brassicae were highly susceptible to purified crystals of strains of B. thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis and B. thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni, whereas H. virescens responded best to B. thuringiensis subsp. kenyae and B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. The crystals of the B. thuringiensis subsp. entomocidus strain were the most potent against S. littoralis. It was shown that the solubility of the crystals within the gut of the three insect species is a first important step in the mode of action. Predissolution of the crystals especially enhanced the insecticidal activity against H. virescens. When in vitro-activated toxins were applied, the relative potency range varied greatly from one insect species to another. It can be concluded that at least three factors influence the potency of B. thuringiensis delta-endotoxins: the strain-related origin of the toxin, the degree of solubility of the crystals in the gut juice, and the intrinsic susceptibility of the insect to the toxin. PMID:16347299

  7. Interactions of a designed peptide with lipopolysaccharide: Bound conformation and anti-endotoxic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Bhunia, Anirban; Chua, Geok Lin; Domadia, Prerna N. [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Warshakoon, Hemamali; Cromer, Jens R.; David, Sunil A. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Kansas, 2030 Becker Drive, Lawrence, KS 66047 (United States); Bhattacharjya, Surajit [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore)], E-mail: surajit@ntu.edu.sg

    2008-05-09

    Designed peptides that would selectively interact with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or endotoxin and fold into specific conformations could serve as important scaffolds toward the development of antisepsis compounds. Here, we describe solution structure of a designed amphipathic peptide, H{sub 2}N-YVKLWRMIKFIR-CONH{sub 2} (YW12D) in complex with endotoxin as determined by transferred nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy. The conformation of the isolated peptide is highly flexible, but undergoes a dramatic structural stabilization in the presence of LPS. Structure calculations reveal that the peptide presents two amphipathic surfaces in its bound state to LPS whereby each surface is characterized by two positive charges and a number of aromatic and/or aliphatic residues. ITC data suggests that peptide interacts with two molecules of lipid A. In activity assays, YW12D exhibits neutralization of LPS toxicity with very little hemolysis of red blood cells. Structural and functional properties of YW12D would be applicable in designing low molecular weight non-toxic antisepsis molecules.

  8. Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides And Plant—pathogen Interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.-A. Newman; J. M. Dow; M. J. Daniels

    2001-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides are amphipathic molecules forming the outermost layer of the cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria. They are essential for protecting the cell from hostile environments and, in the case of pathogens, they play a direct role in interactions with eukaryotic host cells. Mutants with altered lipopolysaccharide structure have been obtained with several plant pathogenic bacteria; such mutants generally show reduced

  9. Effect of Reduqing on TNF-?, IL1, IL6, IL8 and PAF levels in endotoxin-lnduced DIC model of rabbits) on TNF-?, IL1, IL6, IL8 and PAF levels in endotoxin-lnduced DIC model of rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Zhen Li; Wang-Yun Ye; Ming Luo; Chao-Dong Wu; Guang Yang; Kai-Fu Wang; Bao-Ying Lin; Yan-Ping Zhang; Li-Jun Xu; Zi-Jian Wen

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To study the mechanism of anti-endotoxemic effect of Reduqing Injection (RDQ) and to explore the essence of traditional\\u000a Chinese “heat-clearing and detoxifying therapy”.Methods: A disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) model was made in rabbits by intravenous injection with E. coli endotoxin.\\u000a Increased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and platelet activating\\u000a factor (PAF), as well

  10. Pretreatment of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ameliorates D-GalN/LPS induced acute liver failure through TLR4 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sainan; Yang, Naibin; Ni, Shunlan; Li, Wenyuan; Xu, Lanman; Dong, Peihong; Lu, Mingqin

    2014-01-01

    Endotoxin tolerance (ET) is an important phenomenon, which affects inflammation and phagocytosis. Pretreatment with low dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can protect liver injury from various hepatotoxicants such as acetaminophen and pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A. The current study aimed to investigate the protecting mechanisms of endotoxin tolerance in acute liver failure induced by D-galactosamine (D-GalN)/LPS and possible role of toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway in this phenomenon. Acute liver failure was induced by Injection of D-GalN/LPS. To mimic endotoxin tolerance, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with low dose of LPS (0.1 mg/kg once a day intraperitoneally for consecutive five days) before subsequent injection of D-GalN/LPS. Rat survival was determined by survival rate. Liver injury was confirmed by serum biochemical and liver histopathological examination. Inflammatory cytokines were determined by ELISA and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) (P65), toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) and Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1) were measured by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blot respectively. Pretreatment of LPS significantly improved rat survival. Moreover, rats pretreated with LPS exhibited lower serum enzyme (ALT, AST and TBiL) level, lower production of inflammatory cytokines and more minor liver histopathological damage than rats without pretreatment of LPS. LPS pretreatment suppressed production of TLR4 and IRAK-1. LPS pretreatment also inhibited activation of hepatic NF-?B. These results indicated that endotoxin tolerance contributed to liver protection against D-GalN/LPS induced acute liver failure through down-regulation of TLR4 and NF-?B pathway. PMID:25400741

  11. Pretreatment of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ameliorates D-GalN/LPS induced acute liver failure through TLR4 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sainan; Yang, Naibin; Ni, Shunlan; Li, Wenyuan; Xu, Lanman; Dong, Peihong; Lu, Mingqin

    2014-01-01

    Endotoxin tolerance (ET) is an important phenomenon, which affects inflammation and phagocytosis. Pretreatment with low dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can protect liver injury from various hepatotoxicants such as acetaminophen and pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A. The current study aimed to investigate the protecting mechanisms of endotoxin tolerance in acute liver failure induced by D-galactosamine (D-GalN)/LPS and possible role of toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway in this phenomenon. Acute liver failure was induced by Injection of D-GalN/LPS. To mimic endotoxin tolerance, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with low dose of LPS (0.1 mg/kg once a day intraperitoneally for consecutive five days) before subsequent injection of D-GalN/LPS. Rat survival was determined by survival rate. Liver injury was confirmed by serum biochemical and liver histopathological examination. Inflammatory cytokines were determined by ELISA and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) (P65), toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) and Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1) were measured by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blot respectively. Pretreatment of LPS significantly improved rat survival. Moreover, rats pretreated with LPS exhibited lower serum enzyme (ALT, AST and TBiL) level, lower production of inflammatory cytokines and more minor liver histopathological damage than rats without pretreatment of LPS. LPS pretreatment suppressed production of TLR4 and IRAK-1. LPS pretreatment also inhibited activation of hepatic NF-?B. These results indicated that endotoxin tolerance contributed to liver protection against D-GalN/LPS induced acute liver failure through down-regulation of TLR4 and NF-?B pathway. PMID:25400741

  12. 40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1108 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety...the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1108 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety...the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1108 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety...the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1108 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety...the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1108 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety...the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis...

  17. Biophysical Mechanisms of the Neutralization of Endotoxins by Lipopolyamines

    E-print Network

    Sil, Diptesh; Heinbockel, Lena; Kaconis, Yani; Rö ssle, Manfred; Garidel, Thomas; David, Sunil A.; Brandenburg, Klaus

    2013-09-30

    of the Neutralization of Endotoxins by Lipopolyamines The Open Biochemistry Journal, 2013, Volume 7 93 monoacylated maltose glycolipids. Chem. Phys. Lipids., 2008, 155, 31-37. [25] Hoffmann, C.; Blume, A.; Miller, I.; Garidel, P. Insights into protein-polysorbate...

  18. Endotoxin-Induced Structural Transformations in Liquid Crystalline Droplets

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Hsin; Miller, Daniel S.; Bertics, Paul J.; Murphy, Christopher J.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Abbott, Nicholas L.

    2012-01-01

    The ordering of liquid crystals (LCs) is known to be influenced by surfaces and contaminants. Here, we report that picogram per milliliter concentrations of endotoxin in water trigger ordering transitions in micrometer-size LC droplets. The ordering transitions, which occur at surface concentrations of endotoxin that are less than 10?5 Langmuir, are not due to adsorbate-induced changes in the interfacial energy of the LC. The sensitivity of the LC to endotoxin was measured to change by six orders of magnitude with the geometry of the LC (droplet versus slab), supporting the hypothesis that interactions of endotoxin with topological defects in the LC mediate the response of the droplets. The LC ordering transitions depend strongly on glycophospholipid structure and provide new designs for responsive soft matter. PMID:21596951

  19. Quercetin does not alter lipopolysaccharide-induced fever in rats.

    PubMed

    Kanashiro, Alexandre; Machado, Renes R; Malvar, David do C; Aguiar, Fernando A; Souza, Glória E P

    2008-03-01

    Fever is considered an important component of the acute phase response of the body in defence against invading organisms such as bacteria. Quercetin, an important representative of the flavonoid class, has been extensively studied as an anti-inflammatory agent. In the present study, we investigated the effect of quercetin, administered orally (5, 25 and 50 mg kg(-1)) or intraperitoneally (50 mg kg(-1)), on the febrile response induced by either intraperitoneally (50 mug kg(-1)) or intravenously (5 mug kg(-1)) injected lipopolysaccharide (LPS from Escherichia coli) in rats. In contrast with the well known anti-inflammatory activity of quercetin, the results demonstrate that quercetin, at the doses used, did not alter the fever induced by LPS, regardless of the route of administration. PMID:18284816

  20. The lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis locus of Campylobacter jejuni 81116.

    PubMed

    Fry, B N; Korolik, V; ten Brinke, J A; Pennings, M T; Zalm, R; Teunis, B J; Coloe, P J; van der Zeijst, B A

    1998-08-01

    Most Campylobacter jejuni strains express lipo-oligosaccharides. Some strains also express lipopolysaccharides (LPS), with O-antigen-like carbohydrate repeats. C. jejuni 81116 expresses an LPS containing both lipo-oligosaccharides and O-antigen-like repeats, but nothing is known about the structure or sugar composition of these LPS species. A cosmid library of the genome of C. jejuni 81116 was constructed and probed with Campylobacter hyoilei genes involved in LPS synthesis. Five cosmids hybridized with the probe and two of these expressed C. jejuni 81116 LPS in Escherichia coli. By subcloning, a 16 kb DNA region was identified which contains the genetic information required to express C. jejuni LPS. DNA sequence analysis revealed 11 ORFs homologous to genes involved in LPS synthesis of other bacteria. They consisted of three homologues of sugar biosynthesis genes, two homologues of transport genes and six homologues of sugar transferases. PMID:9720026

  1. IMMUNOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF MICE TO NATIVE PROTOPLASMIC POLYSACCHARIDE AND LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    PubMed Central

    von Eschen, Kenneth B.; Rudbach, Jon A.

    1974-01-01

    Functional separation of the two signals involved in stimulating immunological responses was achieved through the judicious use of two natural bacterial antigens. Native protoplasmic polysaccharide (NPP) extracted from Escherichia coli was immunochemically identical to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from the same organism. However, NPP was not endotoxic, not mitogenic, did not fix complement, and was immunologically independent of T cells. The NPP, which appeared to contain only the antigenic signal, could induce a primary antibody response in mice and could sensitize mice for a secondary response. However, the antigenic signal contained in NPP was insufficient to trigger a secondary response in mice primed with either NPP or LPS. LPS, containing both the antigenic and second signals, was required to trigger a secondary response in primed mice. PMID:4610079

  2. Lipopolysaccharide mutants of Rhizobium meliloti are not defective in symbiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Clover, R.H.; Kieber, J.; Signer, E.R. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Mutants of Rhizobium meliloti selected primarily for bacteriophage resistance fall into 13 groups. Mutants in the four best-characterized groups (class A, lpsB, lpsC, and class D), which map to the rhizobial chromosome, appear to affect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as judged by the reactivity with monoclonal antibodies and behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels of extracted LPS. Mutations in all 13 groups, in an otherwise wild-type genetic background, are Fix{sup +} on alfalfa. This suggests that LPS does not play a major role in symbiosis. Mutations in lpsB, however, are Fix{sup {minus}} in one particular genetic background, evidently because of the cumulative effect of several independent background mutations. In addition, an auxotrophic mutation evidently equivalent to Escherichia coli carAB is Fix{sup {minus}} on alfalfa.

  3. An Anti-Interleukin-2 Receptor Drug Attenuates T- Helper 1 Lymphocytes-Mediated Inflammation in an Acute Model of Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Navea, Amparo; Almansa, Inmaculada; Muriach, María; Bosch-Morell, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of Daclizumab, an anti-interleukin-2 receptor drug, in an experimental uveitis model upon a subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide into Lewis rats, a valuable model for ocular acute inflammatory processes. The integrity of the blood-aqueous barrier was assessed 24 h after endotoxin-induced uveitis by evaluating two parameters: cell count and protein concentration in aqueous humors. The histopathology of all the ocular structures (cornea, lens, sclera, choroid, retina, uvea, and anterior and posterior chambers) was also considered. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of the aqueous humor samples were performed to quantify the levels of the different chemokine and cytokine proteins. Similarly, a biochemical analysis of oxidative stress-related markers was also assessed. The inflammation observed in the anterior chamber of the eyes when Daclizumab was administered with endotoxin was largely prevented since the aqueous humor protein concentration substantially lowered concomitantly with a significant reduction in the uveal and vitreous histopathological grading. Th1 lymphocytes-related cytokines, such as Interleukin-2 and Interferon-?, also significantly reduced with related anti-oxidant systems recovery. Daclizumab treatment in endotoxin-induced uveitis reduced Th1 lymphocytes-related cytokines, such as Interleukin-2 and Interferon gamma, by about 60–70% and presented a preventive role in endotoxin-induced oxidative stress. This antioxidant protective effect of Daclizumab may be related to several of the observed Daclizumab effects in our study, including IL-6 cytokine regulatory properties and a substantial concomitant drop in INF?. Concurrently, Daclizumab treatment triggered a significant reduction in both the uveal histopathological grading and protein concentration in aqueous humors, but not in cellular infiltration. PMID:24595020

  4. Determinants of endotoxin levels in carpets in New Zealand homes.

    PubMed

    Wickens, K; Douwes, J; Siebers, R; Fitzharris, P; Wouters, I; Doekes, G; Mason, K; Hearfield, M; Cunningham, M; Crane, J

    2003-06-01

    Endotoxin in house dust has been shown to be associated with asthma severity. Little is known about the influence of housing characteristics on endotoxin distribution. Using standardized methods, dust was sampled from a 1m(2) site and the whole accessible carpet area in selected Wellington, New Zealand homes (n = 77). Endotoxin was measured using a Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate assay. Relative humidity and temperature were recorded using sensors placed in carpet bases. Questionnaires were used to collect information on housing characteristics. All analyses were performed for endotoxin units (EU)/mg and EU/m2 for each site. Geometric mean endotoxin levels were 22.7 EU/mg [geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 2.4] or 30,544 EU/m2 (GSD = 3.2) from the 1m(2) site, and 28.4 EU/mg (GSD = 3.4) or 5653 EU/m2 (GSD = 6.4) from the whole room. After controlling for confounding, endotoxin was positively associated with dogs inside [geometric mean ratio (GMR): 0.9-2.0], total household occupants (GMR: 1.7-2.0, for 1 m2 sample only), vacuum cleaners <1-year old (GMR: 2.3-2.7), reusing vacuum dust collection bags (GMR: 1.4-3.1), steamcleaning or shampooing the carpet (GMR: 1.4-2.2) and high relative humidity (GMR: 1.4-1.6). Lower endotoxin was associated with floor insulation (GMR: 0.4-0.8), and north-facing living rooms (GMR: 0.4-0.8). This study has identified home characteristics that could be modified to reduce endotoxin exposure. PMID:12756006

  5. Endotoxin-neutralizing capacity of serum from cardiac surgical patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elliott Bennett-Guerrero; G. Robin Barclay; Patricia L. Weng; Carol A. Bodian; Dennis E. Feierman; Frances Vela-Cantos; Michael G. Mythen

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine if endotoxin core antibody (EndoCAb) from the serum of cardiac surgical patients neutralizes endotoxin in an ex vivo biologic assay. Design: Prospective blinded cohort study. Setting: Academic medical center. Participants: Patients (n = 203) undergoing cardiac surgery. Interventions: Sera were obtained from patients preoperatively. Measurements and Main Results: EndoCAb levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sera

  6. Ragweed pollen extract intensifies lipopolysaccharide-induced priming of NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Aliz; Budai, Marietta M; Milesz, Sándor; Bácsi, Attila; T?zsér, József; Benk?, Szilvia

    2013-01-01

    Ragweed pollen extract (RWE) possesses intrinsic NADPH oxidase activity that induces oxidative stress by initiating the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS are important contributors to the manifestation of allergic inflammation; furthermore, concomitant exposure to an allergen and an endotoxin trigger a stronger inflammatory response. One of the main pro-inflammatory cytokines produced in inflammatory responses is interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and its production is associated with caspase-1-containing inflammasome complexes. Intracellular ROS have been implicated in NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1? production, therefore, we aimed to study whether RWE influences the function of NLRP3 inflammasome. Here we describe that, in the presence of NADPH, RWE significantly elevates lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-1? production of THP-1 cells as well as human primary macrophages and dendritic cells. We also demonstrate that increased IL-1? production is mediated through NLRP3 inflammasome in THP-1 macrophages. We provide evidence that RWE elevates cytosolic ROS level in these cells, and ROS inhibitors abolish IL-1? production. Furthermore, we show that RWE enhances lipopolysaccharide-induced gene transcription/expression of pro-IL-1? and key components of the inflammasome via a ROS-dependent mechanism. PMID:23278511

  7. Lumican overexpression exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced renal injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Mei; Ma, Ling; Jin, Yu-Nan; Yu, Yan-Qiu

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of lumican in mice with endotoxin-induced acute renal failure (ARF). Lumican transgenic mice and wild?type mice were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 mg/kg) to establish a model of ARF. The mice were sacrificed at 24 h and the blood and renal tissue samples were collected. The value of serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured to determine renal function. An ELISA was used to determined the concentrations of renal cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)?, interleukin (IL)?6, IL?4 and IL?10. The protein expression levels of Toll-like receptor (TLR4) and nuclear factor (NF)?B in renal tissues were assessed using western blot analysis. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase?mediated dUTP nick end labeling was performed to monitor apoptosis of renal tissue. Light microscopy and electron microscopy were used to observe structural changes in the renal tissues. Following the administration of LPS, the SCr and BUN values of mice in the lumican transgenic group were higher compared with those in the control group. The expression levels of renal TLR4, NF?B, TNF?, IL?6, IL?4 and IL?10 were upregulated in the lumican transgenic mice compared with those in the wild?type control group. Apoptosis was detected predominantly on the renal tubule. There was a significant difference in the optical density of apoptotic bodies between the control mice and the lumican transgenic mice. Light and electron microscopy demonstrated more severe renal tissue injury in the lumican transgenic mice compared with that in the control mice. In conclusion, LPS may cause excessive apoptosis in the renal tubular cells via the TLR4 signal transduction pathway, a decrease in the number of renal tubular cells and ARF. Lumican may be important in mice with LPS-induced ARF. PMID:26081832

  8. Maternal endotoxin exposure results in abnormal neuronal architecture in the newborn rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Bindu; Dai, Hui; Janisse, James; Romero, Roberto; Kannan, Sujatha

    2014-01-01

    Maternal intrauterine inflammation/infection is a potential risk factor for the development of neurologic disorders such as cerebral palsy in preterm and term infants. Cerebral palsy is associated with white matter and grey matter injury. In the current study, we used a rabbit model of cerebral palsy in which pregnant rabbits are administered intrauterine injections of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide. We then investigated the extent of neuronal damage in the newborn kit brain. We observed an overall decrease in number of MAP2-stained neurons and an increase in Fluoro-Jade C-stained cells in the anterior thalamus of 1-day-old rabbit brain. We also observed an overall decrease in the number of branching points and spine density in the retrosplenial cortex, a major output region of the anterior thalamus that is involved in cognition and memory. The loss of spines and dendritic atrophy in the retrosplenial cortex may be caused by loss of presynaptic input from the thalamus. Our study indicates that the cognitive impairments seen in patients with cerebral palsy may be related to degeneration of neurons and abnormal arborization of the thalamic and cortical neurons. PMID:23988854

  9. Cardiac Function and Circulating Cytokines Following Endotoxin Exposure in Neonatal Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Rupak; McQuinn, Tim C.; Dugan, Melissa A.; Saul, J. Philip; Spinale, Francis G.

    2011-01-01

    Complications following cardiac surgery in neonates can occur due to activation of the inflammatory system. This study used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin exposure to cause cytokine activation in neonatal mice and examine left ventricular (LV) function as well as the effects of antioxidant treatment on cytokine levels. Neonatal mice (6 day old) were injected with either 25 mg/kg LPS (n=13) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS, n=14) and LV function (echocardiography) was measured at 4 hours. Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, and IL-10 were measured at 30 min, 1, 2, and 4 hours after injection (n=5 mice per group). Effects of pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 50 mg/kg) on cytokine levels were examined at 2 and 4 hours following PBS or LPS (n=5 mice per group). Four hours after LPS heart rate was increased (434±14 vs. 405±14 bpm, p<0.05). LV end-diastolic dimension and ejection time were reduced with LPS (both p<0.05). LPS exposure increased plasma TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-10 levels. NAC pretreatment attenuated the increases in TNF-? and IL-6 levels, but augmented IL-10 levels at 2 hours post-LPS. LPS exposure altered cardiac performance and activated cytokines in neonatal mice, which may be ameliorated using antioxidants. PMID:20613681

  10. Male adolescent rats display blunted cytokine responses in the CNS after acute ethanol or lipopolysaccharide exposure.

    PubMed

    Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Gano, Anny; Paniccia, Jacqueline E; Deak, Terrence

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol induces widespread changes in cytokine expression, with recent data from our laboratory having demonstrated that, during acute ethanol intoxication, adult rats exhibit consistent increases in interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA expression in several brain regions, while showing reductions in IL-1 and TNF? expression. Given evidence indicating that adolescence may be an ontogenetic period in which some neuroimmune processes and cells may not yet have fully matured, the purpose of the current experiments was to examine potential age differences in the central cytokine response of adolescent (P31-33days of age) and adult (69-71days of age) rats to either an acute immune (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) or non-immune challenge (ethanol). In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of either sterile saline, LPS (250?g/kg), or ethanol (4-g/kg), and then trunk blood and brain tissue were collected 3h later for measurement of blood ethanol concentrations (BECs), plasma endotoxin, and central mRNA expression of several immune-related gene targets. In Experiment 2, the response to intragastrically (i.g.) administered ethanol was examined and compared to animals given tap water (i.g.). Results showed that LPS stimulated robust increases in expression of IL-1, IL-6, TNF?, and I?B? in the hippocampus, PVN, and amygdala, and that these increases were generally less pronounced in adolescents relative to adults. Following an i.p. ethanol challenge, IL-6 and I?B? expression was significantly increased in both ages in the PVN and amygdala, and adults exhibited even greater increases in I?B? than adolescents. I.g. administration of ethanol also increased IL-6 and I?B? expression in all three brain regions, with hippocampal IL-6 elevated even more so in adults compared to adolescents. Furthermore, assessment of plasma endotoxin concentrations revealed (i) whereas robust increases in plasma endotoxin were observed in adults injected with LPS, no corresponding elevations were seen in adolescents after LPS; and (ii) neither adolescents nor adults demonstrated increases in plasma endotoxin concentrations following i.p. or i.g. ethanol administration. Analysis of BECs indicated that, for both routes of exposure, adolescents exhibited lower BECs than adults. Taken together, these data suggest that categorically different mechanisms are involved in the central cytokine response to antigen exposure versus ethanol administration. Furthermore, these findings confirm once again that acute ethanol intoxication is a potent activator of brain cytokines, and calls for future studies to identify the mechanisms underlying age-related differences in the cytokine response observed during ethanol intoxication. PMID:25708278

  11. E. coli

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eric Erbe (USDA; ARS-Beltsville Electron Microscopy Unit)

    2005-05-04

    E. coli (Escherichia coli) cannot be seen with the naked eye and must be viewed under a microscope. Most strains are harmless and live in the human gut, but some strains can cause severe food poisoning.

  12. Prevention of cardiac damage induced by formyl-leurosine, a potent cytostatic agent, by radio-detoxified endotoxin (Tolerin) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bertók, L; Juhász-Nagy, A; Sótonyi, P

    1984-08-01

    Radio-detoxified endotoxin (Tolerin), produced by 60Co-gamma irradiation of Escherichia coli 089 endotoxin, can protect dogs against the acute cardiotoxic side-effects of formyl-leurosine, a semi-synthetic Vinca derivative with promising antineoplastic potency. Formyl-leurosine induces a rapid decrease in arterial blood pressure and diminishes the contractile force of the myocardium in the anaesthetized dog. These responses indicate a direct pharmacologic relaxant effect of the drug on the heart and vasculature smooth muscle. The early cardiovascular depression is of short duration and is unaffected by Tolerin. Tolerin can prevent, however, the secondary, more dangerous phase of circulatory depression that is associated with the severe cardiotoxic manifestations of the drug, as demonstrated by hemodynamic and morphologic (light and electronmicroscopic) patterns. PMID:6490357

  13. Prevention of cardiac damage induced by formyl-leurosine, a potent cytostatic agent, by radio-detoxified endotoxin (Tolerin) in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Bertok, L.; Juhasz-Nagy, A.; Sotonyi, P.

    1984-08-01

    Radio-detoxified endotoxin (Tolerin), produced by /sup 60/Co-gamma irradiation of Escherichia coli 089 endotoxin, can protect dogs against the acute cardiotoxic side-effects of formyl-leurosine, a semi-synthetic Vinca derivative with promising antineoplastic potency. Formyl-leurosine induces a rapid decrease in arterial blood pressure and diminishes the contractile force of the myocardium in the anaesthetized dog. These responses indicate a direct pharmacologic relaxant effect of the drug on the heart and vasculature smooth muscle. The early cardiovascular depression is of short duration and is unaffected by Tolerin. Tolerin can prevent, however, the secondary, more dangerous phase of circulatory depression that is associated with the severe cardiotoxic manifestations of the drug, as demonstrated by hemodynamic and morphologic (light and electronmicroscopic) patterns.

  14. LOW-DOSE AIRBORNE ENDOTOXIN EXPOSURE ENHANCES BRONCHIAL RESPONSIVENESS TO INHALED ALLERGEN IN ATOPIC ASTHMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endotoxin exposure has been associated with both protection against development of TH2-immune responses during childhood and exacerbation of asthma in persons who already have allergic airway inflammation.1 Occupational and experimental inhalation exposures to endotoxin have been...

  15. ALLERGEN PROVOCATION AUGMENTS ENDOTOXIN-INDUCED NASAL INFLAMMATION IN ATOPIC ASTHMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recent epidemiologic and in vivo studies have suggested that inhaled endotoxin plays an important role in asthma pathogenesis. Objective: The present study examines the effect of nasal allergen provocation on subsequent endotoxin challenges in subjects with atopi...

  16. Rahnella aquatilis 95U003 lipopolysaccharide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. D. Varbanets; L. B. Skoklyuk; E. L. Zdorovenko; V. V. Shubchynskyy; S. I. Pokhil

    2010-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide of a new species of Enterobacteriaceae, Rahnella aquatilis 95U003, was isolated and investigated. The structural components of the lipopolysaccharide molecule, lipid A, core oligosaccharide,\\u000a and O-specific polysaccharide, were isolated by mild acidic hydrolysis. In lipid A, 3-hydroxytetradecanoic (64.3%) and tetradecanoic\\u000a (22.3%) acids were found to be predominant fatty acids. In fractions 1 and 2 of the core oligosaccharides,

  17. Airborne endotoxin associated with particles of different sizes and affected by water content in handled straw.

    PubMed

    Madsen, A M; Nielsen, S H

    2010-07-01

    High exposures to endotoxin are observed in environments where organic materials are handled and lower exposures are found in e.g. indoor air. Inhaled endotoxin contributes significantly to the induction of airway inflammation and dysfunction. The size of an inhaled particle influences the deposition in the airways and the following health symptoms. The objective is to characterise the distribution of endotoxin on airborne particles of different sizes in straw storage halls with high exposure and in other environments with lower exposure levels to endotoxin. Furthermore we have studied the influence of water content of handled straw on the size distribution of endotoxin containing particles. Total, inhalable, thoracic and respirable endotoxin and particles have each been quantified in aerosols from boiler rooms and straw storage halls at 24 power plants, including 21 biofuel plants. Inhalable, thoracic and respirable endotoxin have been quantified in aerosols from offices and outdoor air. The endotoxin concentration was higher in airborne thoracic dust than in airborne 'total dust'. The median respirable fraction in the straw storage halls, boiler rooms at biofuel plants, boiler rooms at conventional plants, offices and outdoors was respectively 42%, 9%, 19%, 24% and 34%. Thoracic endotoxin per number of thoracic particles was higher than respirable endotoxin per number of respirable particles at the biofuel plants. In straw storage halls the fraction of endotoxin of respirable size was highest on the days with lowest water content in the received straw. Furthermore the exposures to all endotoxin fractions were highest on days with the lowest water content in the received straw. In conclusion the highest exposures and concentrations of endotoxin occur or tend to occur from thoracic dust. A high variation in endotoxin concentrations and in fractions of respirable or thoracic size is found in the different working areas. This is important in the risk assessment and makes attempts to influence the endotoxin exposure a possibility. Water content in straw affected the concentration, exposure level and size distribution of airborne endotoxin. PMID:20362504

  18. A review of the use of CD14: a biomarker for workplace airborne endotoxin exposure?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. M Swan; P Beckett; D Fishwick; K Oakley; N Raza; R. McL Niven; A. M Fletcher; H Francis; C. A. C Pickering; R Rawbone; B Crook; A. D Curran

    2002-01-01

    Occupational exposure to endotoxin, a component of Gram-negative bacteria, causes short-term illness and contributes to long-term illness. There are currently no recognised objective markers of endotoxin exposure. Such a biomarker could be used to distinguish between symptoms caused by inhaled endotoxin or by other contaminants of organic aerosols and to demonstrate a cause and effect relationship between endotoxin exposure and

  19. Endotoxin Inactivation in Water by Using Medium-Pressure UV Lamps

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, W. B.; Huck, P. M.; Dixon, D. G.; Mayfield, C. I.

    2003-01-01

    Deionized water was spiked with various concentrations of endotoxin and exposed to UV irradiation from medium-pressure UV lamps to assess endotoxin inactivation. It was found that endotoxin inactivation was proportional to the UV dose under the conditions examined. The inactivation rate was determined to be ?0.55 endotoxin unit/ml per mJ/cm2 of irradiation delivered. PMID:12732578

  20. Isolation of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from a South American camelid (Lama guanicoe) with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Mercado, E C; Rodríguez, S M; Elizondo, A M; Marcoppido, G; Parreńo, V

    2004-10-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli belonging to serotype O26:H11 was isolated from a 2-month-old guanaco with severe watery diarrhea. E. coli colonies carried the stx1 and eae genes, showed localized adherence to HEp-2 cells, and produced enterohemolysin. A serological response to lipopolysaccharide O26 was observed at the onset of diarrhea. PMID:15472347

  1. Isolation of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli from a South American Camelid (Lama guanicoe) with Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, E. C.; Rodríguez, S. M.; Elizondo, A. M.; Marcoppido, G.; Parreńo, V.

    2004-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli belonging to serotype O26:H11 was isolated from a 2-month-old guanaco with severe watery diarrhea. E. coli colonies carried the stx1 and eae genes, showed localized adherence to HEp-2 cells, and produced enterohemolysin. A serological response to lipopolysaccharide O26 was observed at the onset of diarrhea. PMID:15472347

  2. Fetal Calf Serum Protects Cultured Porcine Corneal Endothelial Cells from Endotoxin-Mediated Cell Damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela C. Sobottka Ventura; Katrin Engelmann; Matthias Böhnke

    1999-01-01

    In corneal organ culture, a contamination of sterile culture media with endotoxin is frequently found. Thus, we investigated if the presence of endotoxin affects the viability of cultured porcine corneal endothelial cells. Endotoxin in high concentrations caused morphological cell changes in porcine corneal endothelial monolayer cultures, delayed proliferation and decreased cellular esterase activity of porcine corneal endothelial cells in vitro.

  3. Airborne endotoxin concentrations at a large open-lot dairy in southern Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endotoxins are derived from Gram-negative bacteria and are a potential respiratory health risk for animals and humans. To determine the potential for endotoxin transport from a large open lot dairy, airborne endotoxin concentrations were determined at an upwind location (background) and five downwi...

  4. Biliary secretion of endotoxin and pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sakisaka, S.; Koga, H.; Sasatomi, K.; Mimura, Y.; Kawaguchi, T.; Tanikawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies suggested endotoxin, derived from the intestine through the portal blood to the liver, was predominantly metabolized by Kupffer cells. In the present study, fluorescent-labeled endotoxin injected into the rat portal vein was demonstrated not only in Kupffer cells but also in hepatocytes. Furthermore a great amount of labeled endotoxin was recovered in bile. In the livers of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), immunohistochemistry demonstrated significant retention of endotoxin in the biliary epithelial cells, and treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid significantly reduced the retention in those cells. The study for detection of apoptosis demonstrated increased rates of apoptosis in hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells in PBC liver, and the rate of apoptosis in biliary epithelial cells was significantly reduced after treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid. Immunohistochemistry in PBC liver demonstrated significant reduction of fluorescence intensity for a 7H6 antigen in biliary epithelial cells, indicating the increased paracellular permeability of bile ducts, because cellular immunolocalization of that antigen has been shown to be inversely correlated with the paracellular permeability of the tight junction. These results suggest that, in biliary epithelial cells, retention of endotoxin, increased apoptosis, and increased permeability of tight junctions may be involved in the pathogenesis of PBC. Images Figure 1 PMID:9626760

  5. Endotoxin Neutralization as a Biomonitor for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Keith; Chiu, Laura; Ferbas, John; Pepe, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin is a potent immunostimulant implicated in the development and/or progression of a variety of diseases. The mammalian immune system has both innate and adaptive immune responses to neutralize endotoxin. In this study, a system was developed to monitor bacterial exposure by measuring the extent and nature of endotoxin neutralization in plasma. In control patients, females had higher levels of endotoxin neutralization than males, mirroring clinical outcomes from bacterial infection and sepsis. In addition to the total amount of neutralization, we used inactivation techniques to elucidate the nature of this activity and develop a system to compare early and late immune responses. Using this method to monitor patients with inflammatory bowel disease, we found a more robust total response that relies more on long-term, adaptive components of the immune system and less on early, innate components. Our results indicate that endotoxin neutralization is a valuable method to discern inflammatory bowel disease patients from a control population. Additionally, the nature of neutralization may be valuable in monitoring disease severity and/or the role of medication. PMID:23826338

  6. Personal endotoxin exposure in a panel study of school children with asthma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Endotoxin exposure has been associated with asthma exacerbations and increased asthma prevalence. However, there is little data regarding personal exposure to endotoxin in children at risk, or the relation of personal endotoxin exposure to residential or ambient airborne endotoxin. The relation between personal endotoxin and personal air pollution exposures is also unknown. Methods We characterized personal endotoxin exposures in 45 school children with asthma ages 9-18 years using 376 repeated measurements from a PM2.5 active personal exposure monitor. We also assayed endotoxin in PM2.5 samples collected from ambient regional sites (N = 97 days) and from a subset of 12 indoor and outdoor subject home sites (N = 109 and 111 days, respectively) in Riverside and Whittier, California. Endotoxin was measured using the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate kinetic chromogenic assay. At the same time, we measured personal, home and ambient exposure to PM2.5 mass, elemental carbon (EC), and organic carbon (OC). To assess exposure relations we used both rank correlations and mixed linear regression models, adjusted for personal temperature and relative humidity. Results We found small positive correlations of personal endotoxin with personal PM2.5 EC and OC, but not personal PM2.5 mass or stationary site air pollutant measurements. Outdoor home, indoor home and ambient endotoxin were moderately to strongly correlated with each other. However, in mixed models, personal endotoxin was not associated with indoor home or outdoor home endotoxin, but was associated with ambient endotoxin. Dog and cat ownership were significantly associated with increased personal but not indoor endotoxin. Conclusions Daily fixed site measurements of endotoxin in the home environment may not predict daily personal exposure, although a larger sample size may be needed to assess this. This conclusion is relevant to short-term exposures involved in the acute exacerbation of asthma. PMID:21810249

  7. Antibiotic-induced release of endotoxin in chronically bacteriuric patients.

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, J C; Louis, W J; Tosolini, F A; Carlin, J B

    1991-01-01

    A novel in vivo model for the study of antibiotic-induced release of endotoxin from gram-negative bacteria is described. The model uses the chronically colonized urinary tracts of patients whose spinal cords have been injured. At baseline, the organisms were present in the range of 1 x 10(3) to 2 x 10(7) CFU/ml, and the concentration of endotoxin ranged from 2 x 10(-1) to 1 x 10(3) ng/ml in 44 studies. In 10 control studies, the concentration of endotoxin and the numbers of viable gram-negative bacteria over time changed by an average of less than 0.15 log10 units from the baseline values. At 2 h after antibiotic administration, the average decrease in CFU was 0.93 log10 units, and because antibiotics cause the release of endotoxin, an average increase in endotoxin concentration of 0.59 log10 units was noted in 21 studies with susceptible bacteria. Similar changes in response to antibiotic exposure were seen in studies with susceptible Pseudomonas bacteria in comparison with those seen in studies with susceptible members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. These results provide evidence that this novel model may be useful for comparing the effects of antibiotics with different modes of action, both as single agents and in combination, on the concentration of endotoxin in relation to changes in the numbers of bacteria, under conditions of bacterial replication and antibiotic exposure more closely resembling those found in vivo than is possible in other models. PMID:1804012

  8. Lipopolysaccharide Engineering in Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    Pupo, Elder; Hamstra, Hendrik-Jan; Meiring, Hugo; van der Ley, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Engineering the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthetic pathway offers the potential to obtain modified derivatives with optimized adjuvant properties. Neisseria meningitidis strain H44/76 was modified by expression of the pagL gene encoding lipid A 3-O-deacylase from Bordetella bronchiseptica and by inactivation of the lgtB gene encoding the terminal oligosaccharide galactosyltransferase. Mass spectrometry analysis of purified mutant LPS was used for detailed compositional analysis of all present molecular species. This determined that the modified LPS was mainly pentaacylated, demonstrating high efficiency of conversion from the hexaacyl to the 3-O-deacylated form by heterologous lipid A 3-O-deacylase (PagL) expression. MS analyses also provided evidence for expression of only one major oligosaccharide glycoform, which lacked the terminal galactose residue as expected from inactivation of the lgtB gene. The immunomodulatory properties of PagL-deacylated LPS were compared with another pentaacyl form obtained from an lpxL1? mutant, which lacks the 2? secondary acyl chain. Although both LPS mutants displayed impaired capacity to induce production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in the monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6, induction of the Toll-interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-?-dependent chemokine interferon-?-induced protein 10 was largely retained only for the lgtB?/pagL+ mutant. Removal of remaining hexaacyl species exclusively present in lgtB?/pagL+ LPS demonstrated that these minor species potentiate but do not determine the activity of this LPS. These results are the first to indicate a qualitatively different response of human innate cells to pentaacyl lpxL1? and pagL+ LPS and show the importance of detailed structure-function analysis when working with modified lipid A structures. The pagL+ LPS has significant potential as immune modulator in humans. PMID:24492609

  9. Lipopolysaccharides of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis Induce Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Rat Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    López-Urrutia, Luis; Alonso, Andrés; Nieto, Maria Luisa; Bayón, Yolanda; Orduńa, Antonio; Sánchez Crespo, Mariano

    2000-01-01

    Smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS) and lipid A of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis induced the production of nitric oxide (NO) by rat adherent peritoneal cells, but they induced lower levels of production of NO than Escherichia coli LPS. The participation of the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) was confirmed by the finding of an increased expression of both iNOS mRNA and iNOS protein. These observations might help to explain (i) the acute outcome of Brucella infection in rodents, (ii) the low frequency of septic shock in human brucellosis, and (iii) the prolonged intracellular survival of Brucella in humans. PMID:10679001

  10. Lipopolysaccharide preconditioning facilitates M2 activation of resident microglia after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Kentaro; Okazaki, Rentaro; Morioka, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Kozo; Tanaka, Sakae; Ogata, Toru

    2014-12-01

    The inflammatory response following spinal cord injury (SCI) has both harmful and beneficial effects; however, it can be modulated for therapeutic benefit. Endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning, a well-established method for modifying the immune reaction, has been shown to attenuate damage induced by stroke and brain trauma in rodent models. Although such effects likely are conveyed by tissue-repairing functions of the inflammatory response, the mechanisms that control the effects have not yet been elucidated. The present study preconditioned C57BL6/J mice with 0.05 mg/kg of LPS 48 hr before inducing contusion SCI to investigate the effect of LPS preconditioning on the activation of macrophages/microglia. We found that LPS preconditioning promotes the polarization of M1/M2 macrophages/microglia toward an M2 phenotype in the injured spinal cord on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemical analyses. Flow cytometric analyses reveal that LPS preconditioning facilitates M2 activation in resident microglia but not in infiltrating macrophages. Augmented M2 activation was accompanied by vascularization around the injured lesion, resulting in improvement in both tissue reorganization and functional recovery. Furthermore, we found that M2 activation induced by LPS preconditioning is regulated by interleukin-10 gene expression, which was preceded by the transcriptional activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3, as demonstrated by Western blotting and an IRF-3 binding assay. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that LPS preconditioning has a therapeutic effect on SCI through the modulation of M1/M2 polarization of resident microglia. The present study suggests that controlling M1/M2 polarization through endotoxin signal transduction could become a promising therapeutic strategy for various central nervous system diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25044014

  11. Protective phenotypes of club cells and alveolar macrophages are favored as part of endotoxin-mediated prevention of asthma.

    PubMed

    García, Luciana N; Leimgruber, Carolina; Uribe Echevarría, Elisa M; Acosta, Patricio L; Brahamian, Jorge M; Polack, Fernando P; Miró, María S; Quintar, Amado A; Sotomayor, Claudia E; Maldonado, Cristina A

    2015-07-01

    Atopic asthma is a chronic allergic disease that involves T-helper type 2 (Th2)-inflammation and airway remodeling. Bronchiolar club cells (CC) and alveolar macrophages (AM) are sentinel cells of airway barrier against inhaled injuries, where allergy induces mucous metaplasia of CC and the alternative activation of AM, which compromise host defense mechanisms and amplify Th2-inflammation. As there is evidence that high levels of environmental endotoxin modulates asthma, the goal of this study was to evaluate if the activation of local host defenses by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) previous to allergy development can contribute to preserving CC and AM protective phenotypes. Endotoxin stimulus before allergen exposition reduced hallmarks of allergic inflammation including eosinophil influx, Interleukin-4 and airway hyperreactivity, while the T-helper type 1 related cytokines IL-12 and Interferon-? were enhanced. This response was accompanied by the preservation of the normal CC phenotype and the anti-allergic proteins Club Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP) and Surfactant-D, thereby leading to lower levels of CC metaplasia and preventing the increase of the pro-Th2 cytokine Thymic stromal lymphopoietin. In addition, classically activated alveolar macrophages expressing nitric oxide were promoted over the alternatively activated ones that expressed arginase-1. We verified that LPS induced a long-term overexpression of CCSP and the innate immune markers Toll-like receptor 4, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-?, changes that were preserved in spite of the allergen challenge. These results demonstrate that LPS pre-exposition modifies the local bronchioalveolar microenvironment by inducing natural anti-allergic mechanisms while reducing local factors that drive Th2 type responses, thus modulating allergic inflammation. PMID:25504013

  12. Differential anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of dexamethasone and N-acetylcysteine in endotoxin-induced lung inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Rocksén, D; Lilliehöök, B; Larsson, R; Johansson, T; Bucht, A

    2000-01-01

    Inhalation of bacterial endotoxin induces an acute inflammation in the lower respiratory tract. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the glucocorticoid dexamethasone were investigated in mice exposed to aerosolized endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)). Powerful reduction of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was obtained by a single i.p. injection of dexamethasone (10 mg/kg), whereas treatment with NAC only resulted in reduction of neutrophils when administered at a high dose (500 mg/kg). Measurement of cytokine and chemokine expression in lung tissue revealed a significant decrease of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-12p40, and MIP-1? mRNA when mice where treated with dexamethasone but not when treated with NAC. Analysis of oxidative burst demonstrated a remarkable reduction of oxygen radicals in BALF neutrophils after treatment with dexamethasone, whereas the effect of NAC was not significantly different from that in untreated animals. In conclusion, dexamethasone exerted both anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects in acute airway inflammation, probably by blocking early events in the inflammatory cascade. In contrast, treatment with NAC resulted in a weak reduction of the inflammatory response but no inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines or reduction of oxidative burst in neutrophils. These results demonstrate dramatic differences in efficiency and also indicate that the two drugs have different actions. Combined treatment with NAC and dexamethasone revealed an additive action but no synergy was observed. PMID:11091282

  13. Endotoxin-induced mortality in rats is reduced by nitrones

    SciTech Connect

    Hamburger, S.A.; McCay, P.B. (Oklahoma Medical Researh Foundation, Oklahoma City (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The goal of these investigations was to determine if nitrone spin-trapping agents can alter mortality associated with endotoxemia in the rat. Reactive free radicals attack nitrone spin-trapping agents forming relatively reactive, persistent free radical spin adducts. We administered 85 mM (10 ml/kg) of alpha-phenyl N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN), alpha-4-pyridyl-N-oxide N-tert-butyl nitrone (4-POBN), 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO), or vehicle (saline i.p.) 30 min before endotoxin (25 mg/kg i.p.) or vehicle to Sprague-Dawley (SD) or Holtzman virus-free (HVF) rats (n = 10-17/group). All vehicle-treated rats receiving endotoxin were dead by 1 day. At 7 days, 83% of PBN-treated SD, 42% of PBN- or POBN-treated HVF, and 25% of DMPO-treated HVF rats were alive. The difference in survival of PBN-treated animals between strains may reflect the higher susceptibility of HVF rats to endotoxin. The observed reduction in mortality may be related to the well-established capacity of spin-trapping agents to capture reactive free radicals that may be generated in target tissues in response to endotoxin, and that would otherwise react with cell components and produce tissue injury.

  14. Streptomycetes in house dust: associations with housing characteristics and endotoxin

    EPA Science Inventory

    In addition to mold, indoor bioaerosols also contain bacterial components that may have implications for human health. Endotoxin is a cell wall component in Gram-negative bacteria present at varying levels indoors that has been found to have respiratory health implications. Stre...

  15. Byssinosis in carpet weavers exposed to wool contaminated with endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Ozesmi, M; Aslan, H; Hillerdal, G; Rylander, R; Ozesmi, C; Baris, Y I

    1987-07-01

    All the 303 full time day workers in a carpet weaving factory were submitted to a physical examination, chest radiography, and vitalograph test, and answered a respiratory questionnaire. Fifty four healthy non-exposed subjects served as controls. Dust concentrations and concentrations of bacterial endotoxin were measured. Of the 303 workers, 259 (85.5%) had airway symptoms and 62 (20.5%) had maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMF) values of less than 60% compared with 9.2% of the controls. The symptoms in 68 workers (22%) were compatible with byssinosis and 36 of these workers underwent vitalography before starting work and after four hours work on Mondays when significant reductions of their FEV1 and MMF were found. Twenty one of these 36 workers were tested on Tuesday and no differences in these measurements were found between measurements before work started and four hours later. The airborne dust concentrations in the factory were high and bacterial endotoxin was found. These findings suggest that a large number of workers in this carpet weaving factory suffer from a disease indistinguishable from byssinosis even though wool is used almost exclusively, the only cotton being the warp. The finding of endotoxin together with the absence of cotton confirms the theory that "byssinosis" is due to bacterial endotoxin rather than to cotton per se. PMID:3620372

  16. Regulation of the Packaging of Bacillus thuringiensisdelta -Endotoxins into Inclusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LILY CHANG; RIAN GRANT; ARTHUR ARONSON

    2001-01-01

    During sporulation, many Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies synthesize several related -endotoxins which are packaged into bipyramidal intracellular inclusions. These inclusions are solubilized in the alkaline, reducing conditions of the midguts of susceptible insect larvae and are converted by proteolysis to active toxins. The toxins insert into the membranes of cells lining the midgut and form cation-selective channels, which results in lethality.

  17. Endotoxins in indoor air and settled dust in primary schools in a subtropical climate.

    PubMed

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-09-01

    Endotoxins can significantly affect the air quality in school environments. However, there is currently no reliable method for the measurement of endotoxins, and there is a lack of reference values for endotoxin concentrations to aid in the interpretation of measurement results in school settings. We benchmarked the "baseline" range of endotoxin concentration in indoor air, together with endotoxin load in floor dust, and evaluated the correlation between endotoxin levels in indoor air and settled dust, as well as the effects of temperature and humidity on these levels in subtropical school settings. Bayesian hierarchical modeling indicated that the concentration in indoor air and the load in floor dust were generally (<95th percentile) <13 EU/m(3) and <24,570 EU/m(2), respectively. Exceeding these levels would indicate abnormal sources of endotoxins in the school environment and the need for further investigation. Metaregression indicated no relationship between endotoxin concentration and load, which points to the necessity for measuring endotoxin levels in both the air and settled dust. Temperature increases were associated with lower concentrations in indoor air and higher loads in floor dust. Higher levels of humidity may be associated with lower airborne endotoxin concentrations. PMID:23927534

  18. Endotoxin concentrations within the breathing zone of horses are higher in stables than on pasture.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Annerose; Derksen, Frederik J; Edward Robinson, N

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory airway disease is common in stabled horses, with a prevalence of 17.3% in Michigan pleasure horses. Stable dust is rich in endotoxin, which may induce neutrophilic airway inflammation. Climatological conditions (ambient temperature and relative humidity) may influence endotoxin concentrations in pastures. The aim of this project was to determine if endotoxin levels in the breathing zone of horses in stables were higher than of horses on pasture, and if the endotoxin on pasture was associated with climatological conditions. Endotoxin exposure of six horses that were stabled or on pasture was determined by a Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Climatological data were obtained from the US National Climatic Data Center. Endotoxin exposure was significantly higher (about 8-fold) in stables than on pasture. On pasture, endotoxin varied widely, despite constant climatological conditions. It was concluded that stabled horses are exposed to higher endotoxin concentrations than horses on pastures. Local endotoxin concentrations may be more important than ambient climatological conditions in determining endotoxin exposure of individual horses. PMID:18930664

  19. Green Tea Extract Treatment Alleviates Ocular Inflammation in a Rat Model of Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yong Jie; Chu, Kai On; Yip, Yolanda Wong Ying; Li, Wai Ying; Yang, Ya Ping; Chan, Kwok Ping; Ren, Jia Lin

    2014-01-01

    Green tea extract (GTE) ingested by rats exerted anti-oxidative activities in various ocular tissues as shown in our previous studies. The present work investigated anti-inflammatory effects of GTE on endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). EIU was generated in adult rats by a footpad injection of 1 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Oral administration of GTE (550 mg/kg) was given one, two or four times after LPS injection. Twenty-four hours later, LPS produced severe hyperemia and edema in the iris. Immunocytochemical examinations showed an accumulation of infiltrating cells in the aqueous humor that were immunopositive for cluster of differentiation 43 (CD43) and CD68, markers for leucocytes and macrophages, respectively. Analyses of the aqueous humor showed an increase in pro-inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). GTE treatments improved the clinical manifestations and reduced infiltrating cells and protein exudation in the aqueous humor, which were not observed under half dose of GTE (275 mg/kg). The number of CD68 positive macrophages residing in the iris and ciliary was also reduced. GTE suppressed production of TNF-?, IL-6 and MCP-1 in the aqueous humor, which was associated with a down-regulation of LPS receptor complex subunits, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and CD14, and suppression of nuclear factor-kappa Bp65 (NF-?Bp65) in the iris and ciliary body. Our findings show that GTE is a potent anti-inflammatory agent against the inflammation of EIU, and suggest a potential use in treatment of acute uveitis. PMID:25093862

  20. Temporal variation in endotoxin-induced vascular hyporeactivity in a rat mesenteric artery organ culture model

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, A J; Wilson, A J; Sibbald, R; Singer, M; Clapp, L H

    2001-01-01

    Endotoxin-induced vascular hyporeactivity to phenylephrine (PE) is well described in rodent aorta, but has not been investigated in smaller vessels in vitro. Segments of rat superior mesenteric artery were incubated in culture medium with or without foetal bovine serum (10%) for 6, 20 or 46?h in the presence or absence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1?–?100??g?ml?1). Contractions to PE were measured with or without nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors: L-NAME (300??M), aminoguanidine (AMG; 400??M) 1400W (10??M) and GW273629 (10??M); the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, ODQ (3??M); the COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398 (10??M). Contractile responses to the thromboxane A2 mimetic, U46619 were also assessed. In the presence of serum, LPS induced hyporeactivity at all time points. In its absence, hyporeactivity only occurred at 6 and 20?h. L-NAME and AMG fully reversed hyporeactivity at 6?h, whereas they were only partially effective at 20?h and not at all at 46?h. In contrast partial reversal of peak contraction was observed with 1400W (62% at 46?h), GW273629 (57% at 46?h) and ODQ (75% at 46?h). COX-2 inhibition produced no reversal. In contrast to PE, contractions to U46619 were substantially less affected by LPS. We describe a well-characterized reproducible model of LPS-induced hyporeactivity, which is largely mediated by the NO-cyclic GMP-dependent pathway. Importantly, long-term (2-day) production of NO via iNOS is demonstrated. Moreover, conventional doses of L-NAME and AMG became increasingly ineffective over time. Thus, the choice of inhibitor merits careful consideration in long-term models. PMID:11375251

  1. Short-term effects of an endotoxin on substantia nigra dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Reinert, Kaela R S; Umphlet, Claudia D; Quattlebaum, Ariana; Boger, Heather A

    2014-04-01

    Inflammation has been implicated in the pathology of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson?s disease (PD). Studies using the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent inflammogen, show that systemic insults can trigger prolonged microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production leading to degeneration of substantia nigra (SN) dopamine (DA) neurons, mimicking idiopathic PD. Because rapid effects of LPS on SN neurons had not been investigated previously, the focus of this study is to assess time-dependent alterations in SN neuroinflammation, DAergic neurons, and neuronal signaling cascades following LPS administration. LPS (5mg/kg, i.p.) or saline (0.9% NaCl) was administered to 8-month-old male mice. At 3h, 5h, and 12h post-injection, the morphology of the SN was assessed using antibodies directed against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, DAergic marker), Iba-1 (pan-microglial marker), phospho-ERK, and phospho-CREB (signaling). LPS administration significantly reduced TH-immunoreactivity (ir) at all time-points with the greatest reduction observed at 12h post-injection. Reduced TH-ir was accompanied by a significant increase in activated microglia at all time-points following LPS. By 12h post-injection, LPS-treated mice exhibited activated as well as reactive microglia, which can result in neuronal damage. These data demonstrate that the initial reduction in TH-ir observed after an LPS injection was not concomitant with morphological alterations in microglial cells, even though a significant increase in phospho-ERK was observed in glial cells as soon as 3h post-injection. It is possible that the initial alteration in DA phenotype (TH reduction) may perpetuate an inflammatory response that persists and leads to further DAergic damage. PMID:24513404

  2. Short-term Effects of an Endotoxin on Substantia Nigra Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Reinert, Kaela R.S.; Umphlet, Claudia D.; Quattlebaum, Ariana; Boger, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation has been implicated in the pathology of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). Studies using the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent inflammogen, show that systemic insults can trigger prolonged microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production leading to degeneration of substantia nigra (SN) dopamine (DA) neurons, mimicking idiopathic PD. Because rapid effects of LPS on SN neurons had not been investigated previously, the focus of this study is to assess time-dependent alterations in SN neuroinflammation, DAergic neurons, and neuronal signaling cascades following LPS administration. LPS (5 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline (0.9% NaCl) was administered to 8-month-old male mice. At 3hrs, 5hrs, and 12hrs post-injection, the morphology of the SN was assessed using antibodies directed against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, DAergic marker), Iba-1 (pan-microglial marker), phospho-ERK, and phospho-CREB (signaling). LPS administration significantly reduced TH-immunoreactivity (ir) at all time-points with the greatest reduction observed at 12 h post-injection. Reduced TH-ir was accompanied by a significant increase in activated microglia at all time-points following LPS. By 12 h post-injection, LPS-treated mice exhibited activated as well as reactive microglia, which can result in neuronal damage. These data demonstrate that the initial reduction in TH-ir observed after an LPS injection was not concomitant with morphological alterations in microglial cells, even though a significant increase in phospho-ERK was observed in glial cells as soon as 3 h post-injection. It is possible that the initial alteration in DA phenotype (TH reduction) may perpetuate an inflammatory response that persists and leads to further DAergic damage. PMID:24513404

  3. Endotoxin inactivation via steam-heat treatment in dilute simethicone emulsions used in biopharmaceutical processes.

    PubMed

    Britt, Keith A; Galvin, Jeffrey; Gammell, Patrick; Nti-Gyabaah, Joseph; Boras, George; Kolwyck, David; Ramirez, José G; Presente, Esther; Naugle, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Simethicone emulsion is used to regulate foaming in cell culture operations in biopharmaceutical processes. It is also a potential source of endotoxin contamination. The inactivation of endotoxins in dilute simethicone emulsions was assessed as a function of time at different steam temperatures using a Limulus amebocyte lysate kinetic chromogenic technique. Endotoxin inactivation from steam-heat treatment was fit to a four-parameter double exponential decay model, which indicated that endotoxin inactivation was biphasic, consisting of fast and slow regimes. In the fast regime, temperature-related effects were dominant. Transitioning into the slow regime, the observed temperature dependence diminished, and concentration-related effects became increasingly significant. The change in the Gibbs free energy moving through the transition state indicated that a large energy barrier must be overcome for endotoxin inactivation to occur. The corresponding Arrhenius pre-exponential factor was >10(12) s(-1) suggesting that endotoxins in aqueous solution exist as aggregates. The disorder associated with the endotoxin inactivation reaction pathway was assessed via the change in entropy moving through the transition state. This quantity was positive indicating that endotoxin inactivation may result from hydrolysis of individual endotoxin molecules, which perturbs the conformation of endotoxin aggregates, thereby modulating the biological activity observed. Steam-heat treatment decreased endotoxin levels by 1-2 logarithm (log) reduction (LRV), which may be practically relevant depending on incoming raw material endotoxin levels. Antifoam efficiency and cell culture performance were negligibly impacted following steam-heat treatment. The results from this study show that steam-heat treatment is a viable endotoxin control strategy that can be implemented to support large-scale biopharmaceutical manufacturing. PMID:24623631

  4. A total internal reflection ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy study of interactions between Proteus mirabilis lipopolysaccharides and antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gle?ska-Olender, J; S?k, S; Dworecki, K; Kaca, W

    2015-07-01

    Specific antigen-antibody interactions play a central role in the human immune system. The objective of this paper is to detect immune complexes using label-free detection techniques, that is, total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based topography and recognition imaging. Interactions of purified rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies with bacterial endotoxins (Proteus mirabilis S1959 O3 lipopolysaccharides) were studied. Lipopolysaccharide was adsorbed on gold surface for TIRE. In the AFM imaging experiments, LPS was attachment to the PEG linker (AFM tip modification). The mica surface was covered by IgG. In TIRE, the optical parameters ? and ? change when a complex is formed. It was found that even highly structured molecules, such as IgG antibodies (anti-O3 LPS rabbit serum), preserve their specific affinity to their antigens (LPS O3). LPS P. mirabilis O3 response of rabbit serum anti-O3 was also tested by topography and recognition imaging. Both TIRE and AFM techniques were recruited to check for possible detection of antigen-antibody recognition event. The presented data allow for determination of interactions between a variety of biomolecules. In future research, this technique has considerable potential for studying a wide range of antigen-antibody interactions and its use may be extended to other biomacromolecular systems. PMID:25854960

  5. Spatiotemporal induction patterns of cytokine and related immune signal molecule mRNAs in response to intrastriatal injection of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Stern, E L; Quan, N; Proescholdt, M G; Herkenham, M

    2000-09-22

    The brain's response to a direct immune challenge was examined by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Lipopolysaccharide (bacterial endotoxin) injected acutely into rat striatum induced mRNA expression for inhibitory factor kappaBalpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-6, IL-12 p35, inducible nitric oxide synthase, IL-1 receptor antagonist, and the type 1 IL-1 receptor. Expression patterns were evaluated at select time points ranging from 15 min to 3 days post-injection. Rats injected with vehicle alone were used to control for mechanical effects. Following lipopolysaccharide administration, a wave of mRNA induction within brain parenchyma radiated outward from the injection site, generally peaking in intensity at the 16-h time point. The individual profiles of cytokine mRNA induction patterns reveal that the brain's immune response to local inflammatory stimulation is quite elaborate and in many ways resembles the progression of cytokine induction customary of localized inflammation in peripheral tissues. PMID:10996227

  6. Biological activity of Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia lipopolysaccharide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah Shaw; Ian R. Poxton; John R. W. Govan

    1995-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia has emerged as an important multiresistant pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF), associated in 20% of colonised patients with a rapid and fatal decline in lung function. Although knowledge of B. cepacia epidemiology has improved, the mechanisms involved in pathogenesis remain obscure. In this study, B. cepacia lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was assessed for endotoxic potential and the capacity to induce

  7. Hyperbilirubinemia exaggerates endotoxin-induced hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Pakai, Eszter; Garami, Andras; Nucci, Tatiane B; Ivanov, Andrei I; Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2015-04-18

    Systemic inflammation is accompanied by an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and by either fever or hypothermia (or both). To study aseptic systemic inflammation, it is often induced in rats by the intravenous administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Knowing that bilirubin is a potent ROS scavenger, we compared responses to LPS between normobilirubinemic Gunn rats (heterozygous, asymptomatic; J/+) and hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rats (homozygous, jaundiced; J/J) to establish whether ROS mediate fever and hypothermia in aseptic systemic inflammation. These two genotypes correspond to undisturbed versus drastically suppressed (by bilirubin) tissue accumulation of ROS, respectively. A low dose of LPS (10 ?g/kg) caused a typical triphasic fever in both genotypes, without any intergenotype differences. A high dose of LPS (1,000 ?g/kg) caused a complex response consisting of early hypothermia followed by late fever. The hypothermic response was markedly exaggerated, whereas the subsequent fever response was strongly attenuated in J/J rats, as compared to J/+ rats. J/J rats also tended to respond to 1,000 ?g/kg with blunted surges in plasma levels of all hepatic enzymes studied (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase), thus suggesting an attenuation of hepatic damage. We propose that the reported exaggeration of LPS-induced hypothermia in J/J rats occurs via direct inhibition of nonshivering thermogenesis by bilirubin and possibly via a direct vasodilatatory action of bilirubin in the skin. This hypothermia-exaggerating effect might be responsible, at least in part, for the observed tendency of J/J rats to be protected from LPS-induced hepatic damage. The attenuation of the fever response to 1,000 ?g/kg could be due to either direct actions of bilirubin on thermoeffectors or the ROS-scavenging action of bilirubin. However, the experiments with 10 ?g/kg strongly suggest that ROS signaling is not involved in the fever response to low doses of LPS. PMID:25774749

  8. Quantification of ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids in settled house dust by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: comparison with fungal culture and determination of endotoxin by a Limulus amebocyte lysate assay.

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, A; Larsson, L; Burge, H; Milton, D

    1997-01-01

    Ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids, chemical markers for fungal biomass and the endotoxin of gram-negative bacteria, respectively, may be useful in studies of health effects of organic dusts, including domestic house dust. This paper reports a method for the combined determination of ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids in a single dust sample and a comparison of these chemical biomarkers determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with results from fungal culture and Limulus assay. Analyses of replicate house dust samples resulted in correlations of 0.91 (ergosterol in six replicates; P < 0.01) and 0.94 (3-hydroxy fatty acids in nine replicates; P < 0.001). The amounts of ergosterol (range, 2 to 16.5 ng/mg of dust) correlated with those of total culturable fungi (range, 6 to 1,400 CFU/mg of dust) in 17 samples, (r = 0.65; P < 0.005). The amounts of endotoxin (range, 11 to 243 endotoxin units/mg of dust) measured with a modified chromogenic Limulus assay correlated with those of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) determined from 3-hydroxy fatty acid analysis of 15 samples. The correlation coefficient depended on the chain lengths of 3-hydroxy acids used to compute the LPS content. The correlation was high (r = 0.88 +/- 0.01; P < 0.001) when fatty acid chains of 10 to 14 carbon atoms were included; the correlation was much lower when hydroxy acids of 16- or 18-carbon chains were included. In conclusion, the results of the described extraction and analysis procedure for ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids are reproducible, and the results can be correlated with fungal culture and endotoxin activity of organic dust samples. PMID:9212406

  9. E. Coli

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tools Print this page Get email updates Order publications Volunteer for Clinical Studies Help people who are suffering from chronic, serious, or life-threatening illnesses related to E. coli by volunteering for NIAID clinical ...

  10. Superoxide Dismutase Protects Escherichia coli against Killing by Human Serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Mcmanus; P. D. Josephy

    1995-01-01

    To assess the role of superoxide dismutase in protecting Escherichia coli from killing by human serum and neutrophils, we constructed isogenic, smooth-lipopolysaccharide K-12 strains, either sod wild-type, ?sodA, or ?sodA?sodB. The ?sodA?sodB strain was killed by serum much more readily than either the wild-type or ?sodA strain. After allowing for this serum sensitivity difference, the ?sodA?sodB strain also showed increased

  11. Endotoxin levels at Swine farms using different waste treatment and management technologies.

    PubMed

    Ko, Gwangpyo; Simmons Iii, Otto D; Likirdopulos, Christina A; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Williams, C M; Sobsey, Mark D

    2010-05-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are a major source of airborne endotoxins, which are air pollutants that can cause adverse health effects to both on-site farmers and neighbors. Release of airborne endotoxins to the environment can be reduced using proper waste treatment and management technologies. In this study, the levels of endotoxins released from two swine CAFOs using conventional lagoon-sprayfield technology were compared to those of 15 farms using various alternative waste management technologies in North Carolina. Over a 2-year period, 236 endotoxin samples were collected from the 17 farm units and analyzed using the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test. Concentrations of airborne endotoxins near barn exhaust fans were significantly higher than at the upwind boundary of the farm and at other farm sites. For most of the study sites, mean concentrations of endotoxins at the downwind boundary of the farm were higher than those at the upwind boundary of the farm, indicating the release of endotoxins from swine CAFOs to the neighboring environment. Endotoxin levels were significantly associated with concentrations of airborne bacteria but not fungi. Environmental factors, such as temperature, relative humidity, and wind velocity, affected the levels of airborne endotoxins at the farms. Based on the ratios of airborne endotoxins in downwind and upwind samples from the farm units, at least five different alternative waste management technologies significantly reduced the release of endotoxins from swine CAFOs. These results suggest that swine CAFOs are important sources of airborne endotoxins, the levels of which can be reduced by applying more robust and effective waste management technologies. PMID:20356077

  12. Lack of spatial variation of endotoxin in ambient particulate matter across a German metropolitan area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Verena Morgenstern; Cara L. Carty; Ulrike Gehring; Josef Cyrys; Wolfgang Bischof; Joachim Heinrich

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we describe the spatial variation of endotoxin across an urban setting using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) methods. We also identify potential sources of endotoxin that account for between-site variability and compare endotoxin levels in particulate matter with a 50% aerodynamic cut-off diameter of 2.5?m (PM2.5) and of 10?m (PM10). In 1999–2000, we collected PM2.5 and PM10 in

  13. Endotoxin-Free Dialysate Improves Response to Erythropoietin in Hemodialysis Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoki Matsuhashi; Tetsushiro Yoshioka

    2002-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Inflammatory process induced by endotoxin is one of the causes of resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) in hemodialysis patients. Thus dialysate contaminated with endotoxin may diminish response to rHuEPO. We investigated whether dose of rHuEPO could be reduced with endotoxin-free ultrafiltered dialysate. Methods: Twenty-seven chronic hemodialysis patients receiving rHuEPO were studied. The patients did not have known causes

  14. Investigation on interaction of Achatinin, a 9-O-acetyl sialic acid-binding lectin, with lipopolysaccharide in the innate immunity of Achatina fulica snails.

    PubMed

    Biswas, C; Sinha, D; Mandal, C

    2000-01-01

    Achatinin, a 9-O-acetyl sialic acid (9-O-AcSA) binding lectin, has been demonstrated to be synthesized in amoebocytes of Achatina fulica snails. This lectin was affinity-purified from Achatina amoebocytes lysate (AAL); it appeared as a single band on native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and showed 16 identical subunits of M.W. 15 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-PAGE. It was found to be homologous with an earlier reported lectin, Achatinin-H, derived from hemolymph of A. fulica snails (Sen, G., Mandal, C., 1995. The specificity of the binding site of Achatinin-H, a sialic-acid binding lectin from Achantia fulica. Carbohydr. Res., 268, 115-125). Homology between both lectins was confirmed by their similar electrophoretic mobilities, carbohydrate specificity and cross reactivity on immunodiffusion. Achatinin showed in vitro calcium dependent binding to two 9-O-acetylated sialoglyoconjugates (9-O-AcSG) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (Escherichia coli 055: B5) of M.W. 40 kDa and 27.5 kDa, which was abolished following de-O-acetylation. Based on the previously defined narrow sugar specificity of Achatinin towards 9-O-AcSAalpha2-->6GalNAc [Sen, G., Mandal, C., 1995. The specificity of the binding site of Achatinin-H, a sialic-acid binding lectin from Achatina fulica. Carbohydr. Res., 268, 115-125], we conclude that LPS contains this lectinogenic epitope at the terminal sugar moiety. The Achatinin-mediated hemagglutination inhibition of rabbit erythrocytes by LPS further confirmed it. The lectin exhibited bacteriostatic effect on Gram-negative bacteria E. coli, DH5alpha and C600. AAL was earlier reported to undergo coagulation in presence of pg level of LPS (Biswas, C., Mandal, C., 1999. The role of amoebocytes in the endotoxin-mediated coagulation in the innate immunity of Achatina fulica snail, Scand. J. Immunol. 49, 131-138). We now demonstrate that Achatinin participates in LPS-mediated coagulation of AAL as indicated by enhanced release of Achatinin from the LPS stimulated amoebocytes and most importantly, by exhibiting a 77% decline in the coagulation of AAL when depleted of Achatinin. Level of Achatinin sharply declined (17-fold) following injection of LPS (20 microg per snail) to the snails, which was reversible by simultaneous injection of LPS and leupeptin implying the presence of LPS-mediated serine protease activity in Achatinin. This was substantiated when purified Achatinin in vitro showed serine protease activity in the presence of LPS followed by its complete blockage in the presence of leupeptin and phenyl methyl sulphonyl fluoride. Therefore, Achatinin, an abundantly available lectin at multiple sites of A. fulica, by virtue of its interaction with LPS, essentially plays a crucial role in the innate immune protection of A. fulica snails. PMID:11275259

  15. RECOMBINANT SOLUBLE CD14 REDUCES SEVERITY OF INTRAMAMMARY INFECTION BY ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a bovine intramammary Escherichia coli infection model, the effect of recombinant bovine soluble CD14 (rbosCD14) on milk somatic cell count (SCC), bacterial clearance and cytokine production was investigated. We first determined whether rbosCD14 would increase SCC during a lipopolysaccharide (...

  16. Modulation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation by chronic iron overload in rat.

    PubMed

    Lę, Bá Vuong; Khorsi-Cauet, Hafida; Bach, Véronique; Gay-Quéheillard, Jérôme

    2012-03-01

    Iron constitutes a critical nutrient source for bacterial growth, so iron overload is a risk factor for bacterial infections. This study aimed at investigating the role of iron overload in modulating bacterial endotoxin-induced lung inflammation. Weaning male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with saline or iron sucrose [15 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw), 3 times per week, 4 weeks]. They were then intratracheally injected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (5 ?g kg(-1) bw) or saline. Inflammatory indices were evaluated 4 or 18 h post-LPS/saline injection. At 4 h, LPS-treated groups revealed significant increases in the majority of inflammatory parameters (LPS-binding protein (LBP), immune cell recruitment, inflammatory cytokine synthesis, myeloperoxidase activity, and alteration of alveolar-capillary permeability), as compared with control groups. At 18 h, these parameters reduced strongly with the exception for LBP content and interleukin (IL)-10. In parallel, iron acted as a modulator of immune cell recruitment; LBP, tumor necrosis factor-?, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 3, and IL-10 synthesis; and alveolar-capillary permeability. Therefore, P. aeruginosa LPS may only act as an acute lung inflammatory molecule, and iron overload may modulate lung inflammation by enhancing different inflammatory parameters. Thus, therapy for iron overload may be a novel and efficacious approach for the prevention and treatment of bacterial lung inflammations. PMID:22066700

  17. Molecular and Cellular Regulation of Toll-Like Receptor-4 Activity Induced by Lipopolysaccharide Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Liaunardy-Jopeace, Ardiyanto; Gay, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    As well as being the primary signaling receptor for bacterial endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide Toll-like receptor-4 function is modulated by numerous factors not only in the context of microbial pathogenesis but also autoimmune and allergic diseases. TLR4 is subject to multiple levels of endogenous control and regulation from biosynthesis and trafficking to signal transduction and degradation. On the other hand regulation of TLR4 activity breaks down during Gram ?ve sepsis leading to systemic damage, multi organ failure, and death. In this article, we review how TLR4 traffics from the early secretory pathway, the cis/trans Golgi to the cell surface and endolysosomal compartments. We will present evidence about how these processes influence signaling and can potentially lead to increased sensitivity to ligand-dependent activation as well as ligand-independent constitutive activation that may contribute to pathogenesis in sepsis. We will also discuss how sustained signaling may be coupled to endocytosis and consider the potential molecular mechanisms of immuno-modulators that modify TLR4 signaling function including the cat allergen FelD1 and endogenous protein ligands such as the extracellular matrix protein tenascin C and calprotectin (MRP8/14). PMID:25339952

  18. Zinc prevents sickness behavior induced by lipopolysaccharides after a stress challenge in rats.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, Thiago B; Galvăo, Marcella C; Reis-Silva, Thiago M; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Bernardi, Maria M

    2015-01-01

    Sickness behavior is considered part of the specific beneficial adaptive behavioral and neuroimmune changes that occur in individuals in response to infectious/inflammatory processes. However, in dangerous and stressful situations, sickness behavior should be momentarily abrogated to prioritize survival behaviors, such as fight or flight. Taking this assumption into account, we experimentally induced sickness behavior in rats using lipopolysaccharides (LPS), an endotoxin that mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, and then exposed these rats to a restraint stress challenge. Zinc has been shown to play a regulatory role in the immune and nervous systems. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of zinc treatment on the sickness response of stress-challenged rats. We evaluated 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations, open-field behavior, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), corticosterone, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma levels. LPS administration induced sickness behavior in rats compared to controls, i.e., decreases in the distance traveled, average velocity, rearing frequency, self-grooming, and number of vocalizations, as well as an increase in the plasma levels of TNF-?, compared with controls after a stressor challenge. LPS also decreased BDNF expression but did not influence anxiety parameters. Zinc treatment was able to prevent sickness behavior in LPS-exposed rats after the stress challenge, restoring exploratory/motor behaviors, communication, and TNF-? levels similar to those of the control group. Thus, zinc treatment appears to be beneficial for sick animals when they are facing risky/stressful situations. PMID:25775356

  19. Effects of lipopolysaccharide on neurokinin A content and release in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

    PubMed

    De Laurentiis, Andrea; Candolfi, Marianela; Pisera, Daniel; Seilicovich, Adriana

    2003-03-28

    The administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) markedly affects pituitary secretion, and its effects are probably mediated by cytokines produced by immune cells or by the hypothalamo-pituitary axis itself. Since neurokinin A (NKA) plays a role in inflammatory responses and is involved in the control of prolactin secretion, we examined the in vivo effect of LPS on the concentration of NKA in hypothalamus and pituitary (assessed by RIA) and serum prolactin levels in male rats. One hour after the intraperitoneal administration of LPS (250 microg/rat), NKA content was decreased in the posterior pituitary but not in the hypothalamus or anterior pituitary. Three hours after injection, LPS decreased NKA concentration in the hypothalamus and anterior and posterior pituitary. In all the conditions tested, LPS significantly decreased serum prolactin. We also examined the in vitro effects of LPS (10 microg/ml), interleukin-6 (IL-6, 10 ng/ml) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha, 50 ng/ml) on hypothalamic NKA release. Interleukin-6 increased NKA release without modifying hypothalamic NKA concentration, whereas neither LPS nor TNF-alpha affected them. Our results suggest that IL-6 may be involved in the increase of hypothalamic NKA release induced by LPS. NKA could participate in neuroendocrine responses to endotoxin challenge. PMID:12609754

  20. Cordyceps sinensis prevents apoptosis in mouse liver with D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Jung; Cheng, Shiu-Min; Teng, Yi-Hsien; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Lee, Shin-Da

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) has long been considered to be an herbal medicine and has been used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. The present study examined the cytoprotective properties of C. sinensis on D(+)-galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fulminant hepatic failure. Mice were randomly assigned into control, GalN/LPS, CS 20 mg and CS 40 mg groups (C. sinensis, oral gavage, five days/week, four weeks). After receiving saline or C. sinensis, mice were intraperitoneally given GalN (800 mg/kg)/LPS (10 ?g/kg). The effects of C. sinensis on TNF-?, IL-10, AST, NO, SOD, and apoptoticrelated proteins after the onset of endotoxin intoxication were determined. Data demonstrated that GalN/LPS increased hepatocyte degeneration, circulating AST, TNF-?, IL-10, and hepatic apoptosis and caspase activity. C. sinensis pre-treatment reduced AST, TNF-?, and NO and increased IL-10 and SOD in GalN/LPS induced fulminant hepatic failure. C. sinensis attenuated the apoptosis of hepatocytes, as evidenced by the TUNEL and capase-3, 6 activity analyses. In summary, C. sinensis alleviates GalN/LPS-induced liver injury by modulating the cytokine response and inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:24707872

  1. Size heterogeneity of Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharides in outer membranes and culture supernatant membrane fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Munford, R S; Hall, C L; Rick, P D

    1980-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae cells growing in liquid media shed fragments of their outer membranes. These fragments, which may constitute a biologically important form of gram-negative bacterial endotoxin, have been reported to contain proteins, phospholipids, and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). In this study we compared the sizes of LPS molecules in shed membrane fragments and outer membranes from cells growing in broth cultures. Using conditional mutants of Salmonella typhimurium which incorporate specific sugars into LPS, we analyzed radiolabeled LPS by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This technique revealed that S. typhimurium LPS are more heterogeneous than previously known; molecules possessing from 0 to more than 30 O-chain repeat units were identified in outer membranes, supernatant fragments, and purified LPS. The size distributions of LPS molecules in outer membranes and supernatant fragments were similar; supernatant fragments appeared to be slightly enriched in molecules with long O-polysaccharide chains. Our results indicate the LPS molecules of many sizes are synthesized, translocated to outer membranes, and released into culture supernatants. Since the hydrophilic O-polysaccharides extend from bacterial surfaces into the aqueous environment, our findings suggest that the cell surface topography of this bacterium may be very irregular. We also speculate that heterogeneity in the degree of polymerization of O-antigenic side chains may influence the interactions of the toxic moiety of LPS (lipid A) with host constituents. Images PMID:7000751

  2. Synergistic dopaminergic neurotoxicity of manganese and lipopolysaccharide: differential involvement of microglia and astroglia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Lokuta, Kyle M.; Turner, DeAnne E.; Liu, Bin

    2009-01-01

    Overexposure to manganese is known to cause damage to basal ganglial neurons and the development of movement abnormalities. Activation of microglia and astrocytes has increasingly been associated with the pathogenesis of a variety of neurological disorders. We have recently shown that microglial activation facilitates manganese chloride (MnCl2, 10–300 ?M)-induced preferential degeneration of dopamine neurons. In this study, we report that combinations of MnCl2 (1–30 ?M) and endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5–2 ng/ml), at minimally effective concentrations when used alone, induced synergistic and preferential damage to dopamine neurons in rat primary neuron-glia cultures. Mechanistically, MnCl2 significantly potentiated LPS-induced release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta in microglia but not in astroglia. MnCl2 and LPS were more effective in inducing the formation of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in microglia than in astroglia. Furthermore, MnCl2 and LPS-induced free radical generation, cytokine release and dopamine neurotoxicity was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with potential anti-inflammatory agents minocycline and naloxone. These results demonstrate that the combination of manganese overexposure and neuroinflammation is preferentially deleterious to dopamine neurons. Moreover, these findings not only shed light on the understanding of manganese neurotoxicity but may also bear relevance to the potentially multifactorial etiology of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:19895668

  3. Interaction of CAP18-derived peptides with membranes made from endotoxins or phospholipids.

    PubMed Central

    Gutsmann, T; Hagge, S O; Larrick, J W; Seydel, U; Wiese, A

    2001-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides with alpha-helical structures and positive net charges are in the focus of interest with regard to the development of new antibiotic agents, in particular against Gram-negative bacteria. Interaction between seven polycationic alpha-helical CAP18-derived peptides and different types of artificial membranes composed of phosphatidylcholine or lipopolysaccharide of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli were investigated using different biophysical techniques. Results obtained from fluorescence energy transfer spectroscopy with liposomes, monolayer measurements on a Langmuir trough, and electrophysiological measurements on planar reconstituted asymmetric bilayer membranes including the lipid matrix of the outer membrane of E. coli were correlated, and these data were, furthermore, correlated with structural parameters of the peptides (net charge, alpha-helical content, hydrophobic moment, and hydrophobicity). All peptides induced current fluctuations in planar membranes due to the formation of transient lesions above a peptide- and lipid-specific minimal clamp voltage. Antibacterial activity was exhibited only by those peptides that induced lesion formation in the reconstituted outer membrane at clamp voltages below the transmembrane potential of the natural membrane. Thus, we propose that the physicochemical properties of both the peptides as well as of the target membranes are important for antibacterial activity. PMID:11371466

  4. Maternal endotoxin-induced preterm birth in mice: fetal responses in toll-like receptors, collectins, and cytokines.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Annamari; Paananen, Reija; Vuolteenaho, Reetta; Metsola, Juhani; Ojaniemi, Marja; Autio-Harmainen, Helena; Hallman, Mikko

    2008-03-01

    Major cause of prematurity is spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) associated with intrauterine inflammation. Our aim was to establish a model of endotoxin Lipopolysaccharide-induced PTB of live-born pups and to study early immune activation in fetal and maternal compartments. Expression of several proteins that bind microbes (Toll-like receptors TLR4, TLR2; surfactant proteins SP-A, SP-D) was analyzed. At 16 or 17 d of gestation, C57BL/6 dams received a single dose of intraperitoneal LPS, leading to PTB within 17 h. Cytokine levels increased in maternal serum, followed by a modest increase in fetal serum and in amniotic fluid. In uterus, placenta, and fetal membranes, LPS mostly increased the expressions of TLR, SPs, and cytokines. The number of TLR2-positive macrophages increased in labyrinthine placenta. In fetal lung, intestine, liver, and brain there were modest changes in cytokine expressions. In fetal lung, SP and TLR mRNAs decreased and TLR2-positive macrophages redistributed around vessels. LPS-induced fetal deaths associated with early age (16 d gestation) rather than with proinflammatory activation. Here we propose that maternal LPS response leads to PTB and acute decrease of immune proteins in epithelial lining of fetal lung. Instead, acceleration of lung maturity has been previously observed in intraamniotic inflammation. PMID:18287966

  5. A 15-week experimental exposure of pigs to airborne dust with added endotoxin in a continuous flow exposure chamber.

    PubMed Central

    Jolie, R; Bäckström, L; Olson, L; Chase, C

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of longterm exposure to airborne dust and endotoxin on the respiratory system of pigs. A continuous flow exposure chamber was built for the purpose of exposing pigs to selected airborne contaminants. Pigs (n = 6) were exposed to a combination of a very fine corn/soybean meal (40.6 mg/m3) with added lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 12.4 microg/m3) for 8 h/d over 5 d for 15 wk (75 d of exposure). Control pigs (n = 6) were housed in a room with minimal contamination of these airborne contaminants. Surprisingly, dust in the exposure chamber and the control room was highly contaminated with peptidoglycan. Changes in the lung were monitored by collecting bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid for cytology at 5 different time points throughout the exposure period. Blood samples were collected at the same time for hematology. A non-specific respiratory inflammatory response was found in exposed and control pigs, as suggested by the increased neutrophils in BAL fluid and the small inflammatory areas in the lung tissue. No macroscopic lung lesions were observed in control or exposed pigs. The findings in the control pigs imply that even low dust concentrations and possibly peptidoglycan contamination can induce cellular changes in the BAL fluid and that a true control pig does not exist. In addition, the exposed pigs developed a mild eosinophilia, indicating an allergic response to the airborne contaminants. PMID:10369571

  6. Comparison of endotoxin levels in cow's milk samples derived from farms and shops.

    PubMed

    Sipka, Sándor; Béres, Andrea; Bertók, Lóránd; Varga, Tamara; Bruckner, Geza

    2015-07-01

    The observations on the protective effect of bacterial endotoxin in farm-derived cow's milk on childhood asthma and allergy are contradictory. The aim of this study was to determine the endotoxin levels in 'farm-derived whole raw' and 'processed shop' sources of cow's milk, and to test how the temperature and storing conditions might alter their endotoxin concentrations. Milk was collected from farms and shops. The level of endotoxin was measured by micro (gel-clot) Limulus amebocyte lysate test expressed as EU/ml. The concentration ranges of endotoxin were much higher and more widely scattered in the samples of whole raw farm milk than in the processed shop milk. Cold storage or heating increased the endotoxin concentrations in all samples of farm milk, but not in the processed shop milk. These results show that elevated levels of endotoxin in raw farm milk samples can occur from the cowshed or be formed during storage. In processed shop milk, storage does not cause any changes in the amount of endotoxin. Therefore, it is consistent that the handling and storage of raw milk alters the endotoxin concentrations, which may explain previous contradictory findings regarding the beneficial modulating effects on innate immunity toward allergy prevention in early childhood. PMID:25527628

  7. Influence of endotoxin treatment on dexamethasone induction of hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase.

    PubMed Central

    McCallum, R E; Seale, T W; Stith, R D

    1983-01-01

    Decreased glucocorticoid binding has been observed at a time after endotoxin (3 to 6 h) when imparied liver enzyme induction is known to occur. This study was undertaken to characterize the early time course of hypoglycemia and decreased liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity in intact and adrenalectomized mice given endotoxin. In addition, altered steroid induction of hepatic PEPCK was examined in adrenalectomized mice given dexamethasone at intervals before and after a median lethal dose of endotoxin. Intact mice demonstrated a dramatic hyperglycemia at 1 h after endotoxin treatment, a response absent in adrenalectomized mice. Plasma glucose levels were significantly reduced from control values at 3 and 6 h posttreatment, with the most pronounced endotoxin-induced hypoglycemia seen in adrenalectomized mice. Hepatic PEPCK activity in intact mice given endotoxin was decreased at 3 and 6 h after treatment, although no change from basal, noninduced levels was seen in poisoned adrenalectomized mice. The increased increment in hepatic PEPCK activity due to fasting of intact control mice was reproduced in adrenalectomized control mice by the administration of dexamethasone. Furthermore, the induction of hepatic PEPCK by dexamethasone was inhibited by 1 h after endotoxin treatment, with enzyme activity falling to basal, noninduced levels by 6 h posttreatment. At these same time intervals after endotoxin treatment, no evidence of histopathology in the liver or adrenal glands was seen. These results coincide with changes in steroid binding seen previously and indicate that endotoxin treatment produces significant alterations in glucocorticoid action at the subcellular or molecular level. PMID:6822414

  8. Detection of endotoxin in biological products by the limulus test.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J F; Pearson, S M

    1977-01-01

    The limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test is established as a beneficial quality assurance measure for the parenteral drug industry because of its sensitivity, specificity, and simplicity. Limulus amebocyte lysate reacts with various forms of endotoxin to form an opaque gel under acceptable conditions of pH, temperature, and ionic content. Although certain materials and conditions may alter the lysate-endotoxin reaction, the test is not significantly limited by inhibition or non-specific activation. Many U.S. drug firms apply the LAL test generally for monitoring production water and other ingredients, for an in-process control, and as a supplemental end product test for pyrogenic contamination. Specific applications are made for bacterial and viral vaccines, antineoplastic agents, radiopharmaceuticals and drugs designed for intrathecal injection. Efforts to standardize LAL test technique and lysate potency continue. PMID:838151

  9. Endotoxin Temporarily Impairs Canine Colonic Absorption of Water and Sodium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph J. Cullen; Stephen T. Spates; Kimberly S. Ephgrave; Marilyn M. Hinkhouse

    1998-01-01

    Diarrhea is a common manifestation of sepsis. We hypothesized that endotoxin may impair colonic absorption of water and electrolytes, an effect which may be related to altered liquid transit in the colon. Five dogs underwent construction of 50-cm colonic Thiry–Vella fistulas (TVF). Following recovery, absorption studies were performed by perfusing the TVF with an isotonic solution at 2.9 ml\\/min containing

  10. Antibodies to endotoxin core in sudden infant death syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B A Oppenheim; G R Barclay; J Morris; F Knox; A Barson; D B Drucker; B A Crawley

    1994-01-01

    To assess the possible role of endotoxaemia in the pathogenesis of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), antibodies to endotoxin core (EndoCAb), which have previously been shown to be depressed by systemic endotoxaemia, were measured. IgG and IgM EndoCAb and total serum IgG and IgM were measured in serum samples from 25 children who had died from SIDS and 164 control

  11. Cardiovascular sequelae of endotoxin shock in diabetic dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Law; M. T. Moriarty; M. P. McLane

    1991-01-01

    Summary  Diabetic patients exhibit a higher incidence of post-surgical sepsis, as well as a higher rate of mortality from sepsis, than their non-diabetic counterparts. This may be a result of cardiovascular deterioration associated with diabetes mellitus. This study was designed to characterize the cardiovascular sequelae associated with endotoxin shock in a canine model of diabetes. Diabetes was induced with alloxan (50

  12. E. Coli and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or visit us online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . E. coli and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman ... advice from your health care provider. What is E. coli? E. coli (Escherichia coli) is a bacterium ...

  13. Airborne Endotoxin from Indoor and Outdoor Environments:Effect of Sample Dilution on the Kinetic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) Assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Airborne endotoxin in occupational environments are a potential respiratory hazard to individuals. In this study, total and inhalable airborne endotoxin samples were collected via filtration from inside animal housing units and downwind from agricultural production sites and a wastewater treatment ...

  14. The Effect of Residual Endotoxin Contamination on the Neuroinflammatory Response to Sterilized Intracortical Microelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    Ravikumar, Madhumitha; Hageman, Daniel J.; Tomaszewski, William H.; Chandra, Gabriella M.; Skousen, John L.; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    A major limitation to the use of microelectrode technologies in both research and clinical applications is our inability to consistently record high quality neural signals. There is increasing evidence that recording instability is linked, in part, to neuroinflammation. A number of factors including extravasated blood products and macrophage released soluble factors are believed to mediate neuroinflammation and the resulting recording instability. However, the roles of other inflammatory stimuli, such as residual endotoxin contamination, are poorly understood. Therefore, to determine the effect of endotoxin contamination we examined the brain tissue response of C57/BL6 mice to non-functional microelectrodes with a range of endotoxin levels. Endotoxin contamination on the sterilized microelectrodes was measured using a limulus amebocyte lysate test following FDA guidelines. Microelectrodes sterilized by autoclave, dry heat, or ethylene oxide gas, resulted in variable levels of residual endotoxins of 0.55 EU/mL, 0.22 EU/mL, and 0.11 EU/mL, respectively. Histological evaluation at two weeks showed a direct correlation between microglia/macrophage activation and endotoxin levels. Interestingly, astrogliosis, neuronal loss, and blood brain barrier dysfunction demonstrated a threshold-dependent response to bacterial endotoxins. However, at sixteen weeks, no histological differences were detected, regardless of initial endotoxin levels. Therefore, our results demonstrate that endotoxin contamination, within the range examined, contributes to initial but not chronic microelectrode associated neuroinflammation. Our results suggest that minimizing residual endotoxins may impact early recording quality. To this end, endotoxins should be considered as a potent stimulant to the neuroinflammatory response to implanted intracortical microelectrodes. PMID:24778808

  15. Effect of Tris-acetate buffer on endotoxin removal from human-like collagen used biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huizhi; Fan, Daidi; Deng, Jianjun; Zhu, Chenghui; Hui, Junfeng; Ma, Xiaoxuan

    2014-09-01

    Protein preparation, which has active ingredients designated for the use of biomaterials and therapeutical protein, is obtained by genetic engineering, but products of genetic engineering are often contaminated by endotoxins. Because endotoxin is a ubiquitous and potent proinflammatory agent, endotoxin removal or depletion from protein is essential for researching any biomaterials. In this study, we have used Tris-acetate (TA) buffer of neutral pH value to evaluate endotoxins absorbed on the Pierce high-capacity endotoxin removal resin. The effects of TA buffer on pH, ionic strength, incubation time as well as human-like collagen (HLC) concentration on eliminating endotoxins are investigated. In the present experiments, we design an optimal method for TA buffer to remove endotoxin from recombinant collagen and use a chromogenic tachypleus amebocyte lysate (TAL) test kit to measure the endotoxin level of HLC. The present results show that, the endotoxins of HLC is dropped to 8.3EU/ml at 25 mM TA buffer (pH7.8) with 150 mM NaCl when setting incubation time at 6h, and HLC recovery is about 96%. Under this experimental condition, it is proved to exhibit high efficiencies of both endotoxin removal and collagen recovery. The structure of treated HLC was explored by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), demonstrating that the property and structure of HLC treated by TA buffer are maintained. Compared to the most widely used endotoxin removal method, Triton X-114 extraction, using TA buffer can obtain the non-toxic HLC without extra treatment for removing the toxic substances in Triton X-114. In addition, the present study aims at establishing a foundation for further work in laboratory animal science and providing a foundation for medical grade biomaterials. PMID:25063101

  16. Preparation of Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) Against Lipopolysaccharide using Gel Chromatography from the Yolks of Eggs Laid by Immunized Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siyuan Ma; Yaping Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The objective is to prevent and treat injuries caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram negative bacteria in animals and\\u000a humans, we produced antibodies against LPS from egg yolk. LPS from E. coli (O111:B4) mixed with Freund’s Adjuvant was used as the immunogen to immunize Roman hens. Immunized eggs were collected, and\\u000a immunoglobulin Y (IgY) was purified using a water solution,

  17. Ambient Endotoxin Concentrations and Assessment of Offsite Transport at Open-Lot and Open-Freestall Dairies.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endotoxins are derived from gram-negative bacteria and are a potent inducer of inflammatory reactions in the respiratory tract when inhaled. To assess daily fluctuations of airborne endotoxin and their potential for transport from dairies, endotoxin concentrations were monitored over an 8-h period a...

  18. Enhancement of systemic and sputum granulocyte response to inhaled endotoxin in people with the GSTM1 null genotype

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine if the GSTM1 null genotype is a risk factor for increased inflammatory response to inhaled endotoxin. Methods 35 volunteers who had undergone inhalation challenge with a 20 000 endotoxin unit dose of Clinical Center Reference Endotoxin (CCRE) were genotyped for the G...

  19. Escherichia Coli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsell, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. I describe the scientific results that support a recent textbook illustration of an "Escherichia coli cell". The image magnifies a portion of the bacterium at one million times, showing the location and form of individual macromolecules. Results…

  20. Modeling endotoxin-induced systemic inflammation using an indirect response approach

    E-print Network

    Androulakis, Ioannis (Yannis)

    Modeling endotoxin-induced systemic inflammation using an indirect response approach P.T. Foteinou Inflammation Modeling Human a b s t r a c t A receptor mediated model of endotoxin-induced human inflammation of biologically rel- evant scenarios indicative of the non-linear behavior of inflammation. Such scenarios involve

  1. MICROWAVE RADIATION (2450 MHZ) ALTERS THE ENDOTOXIN-INDUCED HYPOTHERMIC RESPONSE OF RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The parental administration of bacterial endotoxin to rats causes a hypothermia that is maximal after approximately 90 minutes. When endotoxin-injected rats were held in a controlled environment at 22C and 50% relative humidity and exposed for 90 minutes to microwaves (2450 MHz, ...

  2. Documentation of the endotoxins present in the ambient air of cotton fiber textile mills in Québec.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Genevičve; Lalonde, Michčle; Beaudet, Yves; Boivin, Gilles; Villeneuve, Sylvie; Pépin, Carole

    2007-08-01

    Cotton workers are recognized as being at risk of developing occupational lung diseases. Some researchers have identified endotoxins as being a potential etiologic agent for some of the respiratory problems. This study wants to document the concentration of endotoxins found in the ambient air of textile mills where cotton fibers are handled and to identify the processing steps where the highest endotoxins concentrations in the air were found and the one where the relative limit values (RLVs) are exceeded. The 4 mills studied process cotton fibers. All the air samples were analyzed using the chromogenic Limulus Amoebocytes lysate LAL method using a kinetic detection principle based on the IRSST's standard method. In this study, a large variability in the concentrations of endotoxins in the air was observed, depending on the mill, the processing step, and the time. Despite these variations, some processes can be identified as being major generators of endotoxins in the ambient air of the mills. The highest concentrations were measured in the weaving and drawing processes and reached 10,000 EU m(-3) of air. The opening, cleaning, carding, spinning and drawing processes are the other major endotoxins generating processes with concentrations from 24 to 8,700 EU m(-3) of air. The endotoxins concentrations exceeded the RLVs for 55% of the workstations in this project. This study demonstrated that endotoxins levels in the cotton industry are high and appropriate control measures are needed. PMID:17671669

  3. Endotoxin activity in whole blood measured by neutrophil chemiluminescence is applicable to canine whole blood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mads Kjelgaard-Hansen; Bo Wiinberg; Bent Aalbćk; Lisbeth Olsen; David Harris; Alexander Romaschin; Annemarie T. Kristensen; Asger L. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    The dog is widely used as a translational experimental model studying the host response and new treatments for human endotoxemia. The present study evaluated the applicability of a novel patient-near neutrophil chemiluminescence assay for the measurement of endotoxin activity in human blood when applied to canine blood samples. The assay was observed to be analytically sensitive and specific to endotoxin

  4. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments.

    PubMed

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Heo, Yong

    2015-06-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-? production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3(-)Ia(+) B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens. PMID:25549222

  5. Effect of Vibrio anguillarum endotoxin on carbohydrate metabolism and cortisol actions in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)

    E-print Network

    Fajardo, Elizabeth Deirdre

    1989-01-01

    and extracellular products (ECP) and carbohydrate metabolism was studied over a 24-hour period. Endotoxin treatment caused significantly decreased plasma glucose levels and liver glycogen content. Cortisol administration increased phosphoenolpyruvate... this research possible. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I. INTRODUCTION II. MATERIALS AND METHODS LABORATORY DESIGN AND CONDITIONS EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS PREPARATION OF BACTERIA PREPARATION OF ENDOTOXIN PREPARATION OF EXTRACELLULAR PRODUCTS ADMINISTRATION...

  6. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Aronia Extract on Rat Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiro Ohgami; Iliyana Ilieva; Kenji Shiratori; Yoshikazu Koyama; Xue-Hai Jin; Kazuhiko Yoshida; Satoru Kase; Nobuyoshi Kitaichi; Yukari Suzuki; Tsuneo Tanaka; Shigeaki Ohno

    PURPOSE. Aronia crude extract (ACE) with high levels of poly- phenol compounds has been reported to have antioxidative effects in vitro and in vivo. In this study, attention was focused on the antioxidant effect of ACE. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of ACE on endotoxin-in- duced uveitis (EIU) in rats. In addition, the endotoxin-induced

  7. Reduced cancer rates in agricultural workers: a benefit of environmental and occupational endotoxin exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Lange

    2000-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have suggested reduced cancer rates in workers employed in agricultural industries. Traditionally, these observations have been attributed to low tobacco consumption and the healthy worker effect(s). Recent investigations have suggested that endotoxin may be responsible for reducing lung cancer rates in various occupational groups. Endotoxin anticancer properties are believed to be mediated through immunological mechanisms. This paper

  8. Marine aerosol as a possible source for endotoxins in coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Lang-Yona, Naama; Lehahn, Yoav; Herut, Barak; Burshtein, Noa; Rudich, Yinon

    2014-11-15

    Marine aerosols, that are very common in the highly populated coastal cities and communities, may contain biological constituents. Some of this biological fraction of marine aerosols, such as cyanobacteria and plankton debris, may influence human health by inflammation and allergic reactions when inhaled. In this study we identify and compare sources for endotoxins sampled on filters in an on-shore and more-inland site. Filter analysis included endotoxin content, total bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and cyanobacteria genome concentrations as well as ion content in order to identify possible sources for the endotoxins. Satellite images of chlorophyll-a levels and back trajectory analysis were used to further study the cyanobacteria blooms in the sea, close to the trajectory of the sampled air. The highest endotoxin concentrations found in the shoreline site were during winter (3.23±0.17 EU/m(3)), together with the highest cyanobacteria genome (1065.5 genome/m(3)). The elevated endotoxin concentrations were significantly correlated with cyanobacterial levels scaled to the presence of marine aerosol (r=0.90), as well as to chlorophyll-a (r=0.96). Filters sampled further inland showed lower and non-significant correlation between endotoxin and cyanobacteria (r=0.70, P value=0.19), suggesting decrease in marine-originated endotoxin, with possible contributions from other sources of gram-negative non-cyanobacteria. We conclude that marine cyanobacteria may be a dominant contributor to elevated endotoxin levels in coastal areas. PMID:25201818

  9. Pulmonary Hypertensive Response to Endotoxin in Cellulose-Primed and Unprimed Broiler Chickens1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Wang; R. F. Wideman; G. F. Erf

    Previous studies indicate that individual broilers vary widely in their pulmonary vascular respon- siveness to i.v. injections of endotoxin. This individual variability may reflect differences acquired during previ- ous respiratory challenges or genetic variability that may be associated with susceptibility to pulmonary hyperten- sion syndrome (ascites). In the present study, we com- pared the endotoxin responses of 4- to 5-

  10. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments

    PubMed Central

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-? production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3-Ia+ B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens. PMID:25549222

  11. Exposure to endotoxin decreases the risk of atopic eczema in infancy: A cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrike Gehring; Gabriele Bolte; Michael Borte; Wolfgang Bischof; Bärbel Fahlbusch; H.-Erich Wichmann; Joachim Heinrich

    2001-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown a protective effect of early exposure to cats and dogs on the development of atopic eczema, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic sensitization in later life. In particular, a higher microbial exposure to endotoxin in early childhood might contribute to this effect. Objective: We examined the associations between bacterial endotoxin in house dust and atopic eczema,

  12. Immunomodulation in Sepsis: The Role of Endotoxin Removal by Polymyxin B-Immobilized Cartridge

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Ricard; Artigas, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Severe sepsis results in high morbidity and mortality. Immunomodulation strategies could be an adjunctive therapy to treat sepsis. Endotoxin is a component of gram-negative bacteria and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of septic shock when it is recognized by immune cells. Removal of endotoxin could be an effective adjunctive approach to the management of sepsis. Devices to adsorb endotoxin or inflammatory cytokines have been designed as a strategy to treat severe sepsis, especially sepsis caused by gram-negative bacteria. Polymyxin B-immobilized cartridge has been successfully used to treat patients with sepsis of abdominal origin. Although this cartridge was conceived to adsorb endotoxin, several other immunological mechanisms have been elucidated, and this device has also yielded promising results in patients with nonseptic respiratory failure. In this paper, we summarize the immune modulation actions of Polymyxin B-immobilized cartridge to explore its potential usefulness beyond endotoxin elimination. PMID:24249974

  13. Induction of long-term lipopolysaccharide tolerance by an agonistic monoclonal antibody to the toll-like receptor 4/MD-2 complex.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Shoichiro; Bahrun, Uleng; Shimazu, Rintaro; Matsushita, Hidetomo; Fukudome, Kenji; Kimoto, Masao

    2006-10-01

    We have established an agonistic monoclonal antibody, UT12, that induces stimulatory signals comparable to those induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through Toll-like receptor 4 and MD-2. UT12 activated nuclear factor kappaB and induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in peritoneal exudative cells. In addition, mice injected with UT12 rapidly fell into endotoxin shock concomitant with the augmentation of serum TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels, followed by death within 12 h. On the other hand, when the mice were pretreated with a sublethal dose of UT12, the mice survived the subsequent lethal LPS challenges, with significant suppression of serum TNF-alpha and IL-6, indicating that UT12 induced tolerance against LPS. This effect of UT12 was maintained for at least 9 days. In contrast, the tolerance induced by LPS continued for less than 3 days. These results illuminate a novel potential therapeutic strategy for endotoxin shock by the use of monoclonal antibodies against the Toll-like receptor 4/MD-2 complex. PMID:17028215

  14. Molecular requirement for interleukin 1 induction by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocytes: involvement of the heptosyl-2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonate region.

    PubMed

    Lebbar, S; Cavaillon, J M; Caroff, M; Ledur, A; Brade, H; Sarfati, R; Haeffner-Cavaillon, N

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to localize in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) the minimal structural determinants sufficient to initiate the signal leading to interleukin 1 (IL 1) secretion by human monocytes. Our results clearly demonstrated that this signal is triggered by structures present in the so-called inner-core region which chemically consists of 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (KDO) and heptose in many LPS of gram-negative bacteria. Thus, the isolated polysaccharide region of Bordetella pertussis endotoxin as well as fragments derived therefrom containing the reducing KDO unit were able to induce similar levels of IL1 induction as the native LPS. Similarly, the trisaccharide alpha-D-manno-heptopyranosyl-(1-3)-alpha-D-manno-heptopyranosyl -(1-5)-3 -deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (hep-hep-KDO), representative for the inner-core region of a large number of enterobacterial LPS, was a very potent IL 1 inducer. Neither KDO monosaccharide, nor the alpha-(2-4)-linked 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid disaccharide isolated from Salmonella rough-form LPS promoted the signal indicating that the minimal structure of endotoxin able to induce IL 1 secretion resides in the hep (1-5)-KDO disaccharide. PMID:2419139

  15. Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Ambient Endotoxin Concentrations in Fresno, California

    PubMed Central

    Tager, Ira B.; Lurmann, Frederick W.; Haight, Thaddeus; Alcorn, Siana; Penfold, Bryan; Hammond, S. Katharine

    2010-01-01

    Background Endotoxins are found in indoor dust generated by human activity and pets, in soil, and adsorbed onto the surfaces of ambient combustion particles. Endotoxin concentrations have been associated with respiratory symptoms and the risk of atopy and asthma in children. Objective We characterized the temporal and spatial variability of ambient endotoxin in Fresno/Clovis, California, located in California’s Central Valley, to identify correlates and potential predictors of ambient endotoxin concentrations in a cohort of children with asthma [Fresno Asthmatic Children’s Environment Study (FACES)]. Methods Between May 2001 and October 2004, daily ambient endotoxin and air pollutants were collected at the central ambient monitoring site of the California Air Resources Board in Fresno and, for shorter time periods, at 10 schools and indoors and outdoors at 84 residences in the community. Analyses were restricted to May–October, the dry months during which endotoxin concentrations are highest. Results Daily endotoxin concentration patterns were determined mainly by meteorologic factors, particularly the degree of air stagnation. Overall concentrations were lowest in areas distant from agricultural activities. Highest concentrations were found in areas immediately downwind from agricultural/pasture land. Among three other measured air pollutants [fine particulate matter, elemental carbon (a marker of traffic in Fresno), and coarse particulate matter (PMc)], PMc was the only pollutant correlated with endotoxin. Endotoxin, however, was the most spatially variable. Conclusions Our data support the need to evaluate the spatial/temporal variability of endotoxin concentrations, rather than relying on a few measurements made at one location, in studies of exposure and and respiratory health effects, particularly in children with asthma and other chronic respiratory diseases. PMID:20494854

  16. Vesicle-Mediated Transfer of Virulence Genes from Escherichia coli O157:H7 to Other Enteric Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SIMA YARON; GLYNIS L. KOLLING; LEE SIMON; KARL R. MATTHEWS

    2000-01-01

    Membrane vesicles are released from the surfaces of many gram-negative bacteria during growth. Vesicles consist of proteins, lipopolysaccharide, phospholipids, RNA, and DNA. Results of the present study demon- strate that membrane vesicles isolated from the food-borne pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 facilitate the transfer of genes, which are then expressed by recipient Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis or E. coli JM109. Electron

  17. [Phytotoxic properties of Ralstonia solanacearum lipopolysaccharides].

    PubMed

    Hrytsa?, R V; Iakovleva, L M; Varbanets', L D

    2014-01-01

    The study is dedicated to research of phytotoxic properties of Ralstonia solanacearum lipopolysaccharides. This causative agent is one of the most dangerous among potato bacterial diseases. It is revealed that the inhibitory effect of LPS solution on seedlings germination is more noticeable on crops susceptible to brown rot. Maximal total phytotoxic properties have been shown by LPS from strains 35, 52b, TX1 and TS3, which were characterized by relatively low rhamnose content. Relative to the control plants LPS may diminish and some ones--increase the root length, height and weight of seedlings, subject to particular strain. But the stimulation revealed is minor. PMID:25000727

  18. Larvicidal activities against agricultural pests of transgenic Escherichia coli expressing combinations of four genes from Bacillus thuringiensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vadim Khasdan; Maria Sapojnik; Arieh Zaritsky; A. Rami Horowitz; Sammy Boussiba; Mario Rippa; Robert Manasherob; Eitan Ben-Dov

    2007-01-01

    The genes cry1Ac and cry1Ca from Bacillus thuringiensis subsps. kurstaki HD-73 and aizawai 4J4, respectively, encoding ?-endotoxins against lepidopteran larvae were isolated, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, with and without cyt1Aa (encoding cytolytic protein) and p20 (accessory protein) from subsp. israelensis. Nine combinations of the genes under control of an early T7, P\\u000a \\u000a A1\\u000a inducible promoter, produced the encoding

  19. Variation in the ovine cortisol response to systemic bacterial endotoxin challenge is predominantly determined by signalling within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    SciTech Connect

    You Qiumei [Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Karrow, Niel A. [Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail: nkarrow@uoguelph.ca; Cao Honghe [Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Rodriguez, Alexander [Department of Clinical Studies, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Mallard, Bonnie A. [Department of Pathobiology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Boermans, Herman J. [Department of Biomedical Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Bi-directional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems is designed, in part, to maintain or restore homeostasis during physiological stress. Exposure to endotoxin during Gram-negative bacterial infection for example, elicits the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). The secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids subsequently down regulates the host inflammatory response, minimizing potential tissue damage. Sequence and epigenetic variants in genes involved in regulating the neuroendocrine and immune systems are likely to contribute to individual differences in the HPAA response, and this may influence the host anti-inflammatory response to toxin exposure and susceptibility to inflammatory disease. In this study, high (HCR) and low (LCR) cortisol responders were selected from a normal population of 110 female sheep challenged iv with Escherichia coli endotoxin (400 ng/kg) to identify potential determinants that contribute to variation in the cortisol response phenotype. This phenotype was stable over several years in the HCR and LCR animals, and did not appear to be attributed to differences in expression of hepatic immune-related genes or systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations. Mechanistic studies using corticotrophin-releasing factor (0.5 {mu}g/kg body weight), arginine vasopressin (0.5 {mu}g/kg), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (0.5 {mu}g/kg) administered iv demonstrated that variation in this phenotype is largely determined by signalling within the HPAA. Future studies will use this ovine HCR/LCR model to investigate potential genetic and epigenetic variants that may contribute to variation in cortisol responsiveness to bacterial endotoxin.

  20. Arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid supplemented to an essential fatty acid-deficient diet alters the response to endotoxin in rats.

    PubMed

    Ling, Pei-Ra; Malkan, Alpin; Le, Hau D; Puder, Mark; Bistrian, Bruce R

    2012-03-01

    This study examined fatty acid profiles, triene-tetraene ratios (20:3n9/20:4n6), and nutritional and inflammatory markers in rats fed an essential fatty acid-deficient (EFAD) diet provided as 2% hydrogenated coconut oil (HCO) alone for 2 weeks or with 1.3 mg of arachidonic acid (AA) and 3.3 mg of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (AA + DHA) added to achieve 2% fat. Healthy controls were fed an AIN 93M diet (AIN) with 2% soybean oil. The HCO and AA + DHA diets led to significant reductions of linoleic acid, ?-linolenic acid, and AA (20:4n6) and increases in Mead acid (20:3n9) in plasma and liver compared with the AIN diet; but the triene-tetraene levels remained well within normal. However, levels of 20:3n9 and 20:4n6 were lower in liver phospholipids in the AA + DHA than in HCO group, suggesting reduced elongation and desaturation in ?-9 and -6 pathways. The AA + DHA group also had significantly lower levels of 18:1n9 and 16:1n7 as well as 18:1n9/18:0 and 16:1n7/16:0 than the HCO group, suggesting inhibition of stearyl-Co A desaturase-1 activity. In response to lipopolysaccharide, the levels of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 were significantly lower with HCO, reflecting reduced inflammation. The AA + DHA group had higher levels of IL-6 and C-reactive protein than the HCO group but significantly lower than the AIN group. However, in response to endotoxin, interleukin-6 was higher with AA + DHA than with AIN. Feeding an EFAD diet reduces baseline inflammation and inflammatory response to endotoxin long before the development of EFAD, and added AA + DHA modifies this response. PMID:21944266

  1. Quantification of the Influence of Endotoxins on the Mechanics of Adult and Neonatal Red Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroaki; Kuss, Navina; Rapp, Bastian E; Ichikawa, Masatoshi; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus; Pöschl, Johannes M B; Tanaka, Motomu

    2015-06-25

    In this study, we physically modeled the influence of endotoxin-induced sepsis symptoms on human red blood cells (RBCs) by quantifying the impact of endotoxins on the cell mechanics by the analysis of Fourier-transformed mean square amplitude of shape fluctuation, called flicker spectroscopy. With the aid of a microfluidic diffusion chamber, we noninvasively determined principal mechanical parameters of human RBCs in the absence and presence of endotoxins for individual RBCs for the first time. Because of the elongation of saccharide chain length of endotoxins, we found an increase in the morphological transition from discocytes to echinocytes, and monotonic changes in the mechanical parameters. Since septic shocks often cause lethal risks of neonates, we measured the mechanical parameters of neonatal RBCs, and compared them to those of adult RBCs. The quantitative comparison reveals that neonatal RBCs are more susceptible to the effect of endotoxins than adult RBCs. Furthermore, coincubation with the antiseptic peptide P19-2.5 (Aspidasept) with endotoxin results in a slight suppression of the impact of the endotoxin. The strategy proposed in our study can potentially be applied for the quantitative diagnosis of RBCs based on mechanical readouts. PMID:26024425

  2. Estimation of endotoxin inhalation from shower and humidifier exposure reveals potential risk to human health.

    PubMed

    Anderson, William B; George Dixon, D; Mayfield, Colin I

    2007-12-01

    This paper investigates potential exposure to endotoxin in drinking water through the inhalation of aerosols generated by showers and humidifiers. Adverse health effects attributable to the inhalation of airborne endotoxin in various occupational settings are summarized, as are controlled laboratory inhalation studies. Data from investigations estimating aerosolization of particulate matter by showers and humidifiers provide a basis for similar analyses with endotoxin, which like minerals in water, is nonvolatile. A theoretical assessment of the inhalation of aerosolized endotoxin showed that while the likelihood of an acute response while showering is minimal, the same is not true for humidifiers. Ultrasonic and impeller (cool mist) humidifiers efficiently produce large numbers of respirable particles. It is predicted that airway inflammation can occur if humidifier reservoirs are filled with tap water, sometimes even at typical drinking-water distribution-system endotoxin concentrations. Higher endotoxin levels occasionally found in drinking water (>1,000 EU/ml) are very likely to induce symptoms such as chills and fever if used as humidifier feed water. While it is unlikely that treated drinking water would contain extremely high endotoxin levels occasionally observed in cyanobacterial blooms (>35,000 EU/ml), the potential for serious acute health consequences exist if used in humidifiers. PMID:17878567

  3. Rapid diagnosis of gram negative pneumonia by assay of endotoxin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Pugin, J; Auckenthaler, R; Delaspre, O; van Gessel, E; Suter, P M

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of ventilator associated pneumonia can be made by quantitative cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or of protected specimen brushings, though cultures require 24-48 hours to provide results. In 80% of cases aerobic Gram negative bacteria are the cause. METHODS: A rapid diagnostic method of assessing the endotoxin content of lavage fluid by Limulus assay is described. Forty samples of lavage fluid were obtained from patients with multiple trauma requiring mechanical ventilation for a prolonged period. Pneumonia was diagnosed on the basis of clinical, radiological, and bacteriological findings, including quantitative cultures of lavage fluid. RESULTS: A relation was observed between the concentration of endotoxin in lavage fluid and the quantity of Gram negative bacteria. The median endotoxin content of lavage fluid in Gram negative bacterial pneumonia was 15 endotoxin units (EU)/ml; the range observed in individual patients was 6 to > 150 EU/ml. In patients with pneumonia due to Gram positive cocci and in non-infected patients the median endotoxin level was 0.17 (range < or = 0.06 to 2) EU/ml. An endotoxin level greater than or equal to 6 EU/ml distinguished patients with Gram negative bacterial pneumonia from colonised patients and from those with pneumonia due to Gram positive cocci. CONCLUSION: The measurement of endotoxin in lavage fluid is a rapid (less than two hours) and accurate diagnostic method. It should allow specific and early treatment of Gram negative bacterial pneumonia. PMID:1412100

  4. Comparison of Endotoxin Exposure Assessment by Bioaerosol Impinger and Filter-Sampling Methods

    PubMed Central

    Duchaine, Caroline; Thorne, Peter S.; Mériaux, Anne; Grimard, Yan; Whitten, Paul; Cormier, Yvon

    2001-01-01

    Environmental assessment data collected in two prior occupational hygiene studies of swine barns and sawmills allowed the comparison of concurrent, triplicate, side-by-side endotoxin measurements using air sampling filters and bioaerosol impingers. Endotoxin concentrations in impinger solutions and filter eluates were assayed using the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. In sawmills, impinger sampling yielded significantly higher endotoxin concentration measurements and lower variances than filter sampling with IOM inhalable dust samplers. Analysis of variance for repeated measures showed that this association remained after controlling for other factors such as replicate, sawmill, sawmill operation, wood type, and interaction terms. Endotoxin concentrations in the swine barns were 10-fold higher on average than in sawmills. These samples demonstrated comparable endotoxin concentration estimates for impinger and filter methods although the variability was lower using the impinger method. In both occupational settings, side-by-side replicates were more uniform for the impinger samples than for the filter samples. This study demonstrates that impinger sampling is an acceptable method for quantitation of area endotoxin concentrations. Further, when sampling is performed with impingers for airborne microorganism quantitation, these same impinger solutions can yield valid endotoxin exposure estimates, negating the need for additional filter sampling. PMID:11375194

  5. Detection and classification of related lipopolysaccharides via a small array of immobilized antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Uzarski, Joshua R; Mello, Charlene M

    2012-09-01

    A small array of antimicrobial peptides comprising three cysteine-terminated natural sequences covalently immobilized to pendant surface maleimide groups are used to bind and successfully discriminate five types of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules. Using surface plasmon resonance, LPSs isolated from four strains of Escherichia coli and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa yield distinct binding profiles to the three immobilized peptides. Linear discriminant analysis generated 100% training set and 80% validation set classification success for the 40 samples evaluated. This work demonstrates the discriminatory binding capabilities of immobilized antimicrobial peptides toward LPS molecules and alludes to their use as probes in pathogen sensing devices potentially superior to the current state-of-the-art. PMID:22881053

  6. E. coli enteritis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is swelling (inflammation) of the small intestine from Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) bacteria. It is the most common ... Vomiting (rare) Symptoms of a rare but severe E. coli infection include: Bruises that happen easily Pale skin Red ...

  7. TLR4 mutations are associated with endotoxin hyporesponsiveness in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy C. Arbour; Eva Lorenz; Brian C. Schutte; Joseph Zabner; Joel N. Kline; Michael Jones; Kathy Frees; Janet L. Watt; David A. Schwartz

    2000-01-01

    There is much variability between individuals in the response to inhaled toxins, but it is not known why certain people develop disease when challenged with environmental agents and oth- ers remain healthy. To address this, we investigated whether TLR4 (encoding the toll-like receptor-4), which has been shown to affect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responsiveness in mice1,2, underlies the variability in airway responsiveness

  8. Unresponsiveness of MyD88Deficient Mice to Endotoxin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taro Kawai; Osamu Adachi; Tomohiko Ogawa; Kiyoshi Takeda; Shizuo Akira

    1999-01-01

    MyD88 is a general adaptor protein that plays an important role in the Toll\\/IL-1 receptor family signalings. Recently, Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and TLR4) have been suggested to be the signaling receptors for lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In this study, we demonstrate that MyD88 knockout mice lack the ability to respond to LPS as measured by shock response, B cell

  9. Gel filtration chromatography as a method for removing bacterial endotoxin from antibody preparations.

    PubMed

    London, Anne Serdakowski; Mackay, Kasey; Lihon, Michael; He, Yaqin; Alabi, Busola Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The removal of bacterial endotoxins from biological samples is critical to avoid the potentially fatal pyrogenic response possible when introduced to mammalian systems. Endotoxins have a variety of specific characteristics that can be exploited to target their isolation and subsequent removal, but one that has not been extensively characterized is their difference in size from that of monoclonal antibodies. Here, we present a study which utilizes gel filtration chromatography as a method for endotoxin removal from both aggregated and nonaggregated antibody preparations, outlining a mechanistically simple method for removal of this impurity. PMID:25079968

  10. In vitro inactivation of bacterial endotoxin by human lipoproteins and apolipoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Emancipator, K; Csako, G; Elin, R J

    1992-01-01

    A chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay was used to measure the recovery of 1 endotoxin unit of endotoxin per ml. Purified human high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein A1 (apo A1) at a maximum concentration of 1 g of protein per liter reduced the recovery to less than 40% of baseline in a both dose- and time-dependent manner and in the absence of other serum components. Furthermore, the lapine fever response to a dose of 1 ml of 5-ng/ml endotoxin per kg was reduced by greater than 0.5 degrees C (P less than 0.005) when the solution was preincubated in vitro with 0.5 g of apo A1 per liter. By the Limulus test, a maximum concentration of 0.01 g of apolipoprotein B (apo B) per liter (which contained deoxycholate, a known endotoxin-disaggregating agent) reduced recovery to 0% in a dose- but not time-dependent manner. In heat-inactivated (56 degrees C, 1 h) normal human serum, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P less than 0.005) and apo A1 (P less than 0.05) correlated inversely with endotoxin recovery, but, paradoxically, apo B correlated directly with endotoxin recovery (P less than 0.05), while low-density lipoprotein cholesterol showed no significant correlation. INTRALIPID alone had no effect on endotoxin recovery. Addition of a maximum of 10 g of INTRALIPID per liter to 0.0042 g of apo B per liter increased endotoxin recovery from approximately 30 to 80% (P less than 0.001), but addition of INTRALIPID to 0.25 g of apo A1 per liter decreased recovery from approximately 30 to 20% (P less than 0.001). We conclude that (i) lipoproteins are endotoxin inactivators; (ii) this ability of lipoproteins may be modulated by their lipid component (lipid-endotoxin interaction); (iii) apo A1 is capable of directly inactivating endotoxin (protein-endotoxin interaction). PMID:1730494

  11. Multiple mechanisms involved in diabetes protection by lipopolysaccharide in non-obese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Cao, Hui; Wang, Hongjie; Yin, Guoxiao; Du, Jiao; Xia, Fei; Lu, Jingli; Xiang, Ming

    2015-06-15

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation has been proposed to be important for islet cell inflammation and eventually ? cell loss in the course of type 1 diabetes (T1D) development. However, according to the "hygiene hypothesis", bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an agonist on TLR4, inhibits T1D progression. Here we investigated possible mechanisms for the protective effect of LPS on T1D development in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. We found that LPS administration to NOD mice during the prediabetic state neither prevented nor reversed insulitis, but delayed the onset and decreased the incidence of diabetes, and that a multiple-injection protocol is more effective than a single LPS intervention. Further, LPS administration suppressed spleen T lymphocyte proliferation, increased the generation of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), reduced the synthesis of strong Th1 proinflammatory cytokines, and downregulated TLR4 and its downstream MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Most importantly, multiple injections of LPS induced a potential tolerogenic dendritic cell (DC) subset with low TLR4 expression without influencing the DC phenotype. Explanting DCs from repeated LPS-treated NOD mice into NOD/SCID diabetic mice conferred sustained protective effects against the progression of diabetes in the recipients. Overall, these results suggest that multiple mechanisms are involved in the protective effects of LPS against the development of diabetes in NOD diabetic mice. These include Treg induction, down-regulation of TLR4 and its downstream MyD88-dependent signaling pathway, and the emergence of a potential tolerogenic DC subset. PMID:25896969

  12. Movement-evoked hyperalgesia induced by lipopolysaccharides is not suppressed by glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Katalin J.; Papic, Jonathan C.; Larson, Alice A.

    2008-01-01

    Systemic exposure to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) produces a variety of effects, including movement-evoked hyperalgesia that can be measured using the grip force assay in mice. Because both lethality and enhanced sensitivity to cutaneous pain following exposure to endotoxins have each been attributed to inflammatory mediators, we explored the possibility that LPS-induced movement-evoked hyperalgesia is also sensitive to manipulations of glucocorticoids that regulate these other LPS responses. We found that the hyperalgesic effect of LPS (5 mg/kg s.c.) in mice that were adrenalectomized did not differ from that in control mice that were sham-operated, even though mortality after LPS was potentiated by adrenalectomy. The development of tolerance to the movement-evoked hyperalgesic effect of LPS also did not differ between adrenalectomized and sham-operated control mice. In addition, mifepristone (25 mg/kg s.c.), a glucocorticoid antagonist, did not attenuate the hyperalgesic effect of LPS (2 mg/kg s.c.), yet this dose of mifepristone was sufficient to enhance the incidence of lethality induced by LPS. Enhancement of glucocorticoid activity by two injections of dexamethasone (1 mg/kg s.c.) had no effect on the degree of hyperalgesia in mice injected with LPS (5 mg/kg s.c.), yet this dose of dexamethasone was sufficient to attenuate the incidence of mortality induced by LPS in adrenalectomized mice. Finally, morphine (10 mg/kg i.p.) reversed the decrease in grip force caused by LPS (5 mg/kg i.p.), supporting the interpretation that decreases in grip force produced by LPS reflect muscle hyperalgesia that is not sensitive to glucocorticoids. PMID:17686584

  13. Designed beta-boomerang antiendotoxic and antimicrobial peptides: structures and activities in lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Anirban; Mohanram, Harini; Domadia, Prerna N; Torres, Jaume; Bhattacharjya, Surajit

    2009-08-14

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an integral part of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is involved in a variety of biological processes including inflammation, septic shock, and resistance to host-defense molecules. LPS also provides an environment for folding of outer membrane proteins. In this work, we describe the structure-activity correlation of a series of 12-residue peptides in LPS. NMR structures of the peptides derived in complex with LPS reveal boomerang-like beta-strand conformations that are stabilized by intimate packing between the two aromatic residues located at the 4 and 9 positions. This structural feature renders these peptides with a high ability to neutralize endotoxicity, >80% at 10 nM concentration, of LPS. Replacements of these aromatic residues either with Ala or with Leu destabilizes the boomerang structure with the concomitant loss of antiendotoxic and antimicrobial activities. Furthermore, the aromatic packing stabilizing the beta-boomerang structure in LPS is found to be maintained even in a truncated octapeptide, defining a structured LPS binding motif. The mode of action of the active designed peptides correlates well with their ability to perturb LPS micelle structures. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies of the peptides delineate beta-type conformations and immobilization of phosphate head groups of LPS. Trp fluorescence studies demonstrated selective interactions with LPS and the depth of insertion into the LPS bilayer. Our results demonstrate the requirement of LPS-specific structures of peptides for endotoxin neutralizations. In addition, we propose that structures of these peptides may be employed to design proteins for the outer membrane. PMID:19520860

  14. Activation of innate immune system in response to lipopolysaccharide in chicken Sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Michailidis, Georgios; Anastasiadou, Maria; Guibert, Edith; Froment, Pascal

    2014-09-01

    Sertoli cells (SCs) play an important physiological role in the testis, as they support, nourish, and protect the germ cells. As protection of the developing spermatozoa is an emerging aspect of reproductive physiology, this study examined the expression pattern of innate immune-related genes, including avian ?-defensins (AvBDs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and cytokines, and investigated the time course of an inflammatory response in rooster SCs triggered by exposure to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). SCs were isolated from 6-week-old chicken, cultured in vitro, and stimulated with 1 ?g/ml LPS at different time courses (0, 6, 12, 24, and 48? h). Data on expression analysis revealed that all ten members of the chicken TLR family, nine members of the AvBD family, as well as eight cytokine genes were expressed in SCs. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that LPS treatment resulted in significant induction of the expression levels of six TLRs, six AvBDs, and four cytokine genes, while two cytokine genes were downregulated and two other genes were unchanged. The increasing interleukin 1? (IL1?) production was confirmed in the conditioned medium. Furthermore, the phagocytosis of SCs was increased after LPS treatment. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that SCs express innate immune-related genes and respond directly to bacterial ligands. These genes represent an important component of the immune system, which could be integrated into semen, and present a distinctive constituent of the protective repertoire of the testis against ascending infections. PMID:24920664

  15. Systemic lipopolysaccharide induces cochlear inflammation and exacerbates the synergistic ototoxicity of kanamycin and furosemide.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Keiko; Li, Song-Zhe; Ohlemiller, Kevin K; Ransohoff, Richard M

    2014-08-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics are highly effective agents against gram-negative bacterial infections, but they cause adverse effects on hearing and balance dysfunction as a result of toxicity to hair cells of the cochlea and vestibular organs. While ototoxicity has been comprehensively studied, the contributions of the immune system, which controls the host response to infection, have not been studied in antibiotic ototoxicity. Recently, it has been shown that an inflammatory response is induced by hair cell injury. In this study, we found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an important component of bacterial endotoxin, when given in combination with kanamycin and furosemide, augmented the inflammatory response to hair cell injury and exacerbated hearing loss and hair cell injury. LPS injected into the peritoneum of experimental mice induced a brisk cochlear inflammatory response with recruitment of mononuclear phagocytes into the spiral ligament, even in the absence of ototoxic agents. While LPS alone did not affect hearing, animals that received LPS prior to ototoxic agents had worse hearing loss compared to those that did not receive LPS pretreatment. The poorer hearing outcome in LPS-treated mice did not correlate to changes in endocochlear potential. However, LPS-treated mice demonstrated an increased number of CCR2(+) inflammatory monocytes in the inner ear when compared with mice treated with ototoxic agents alone. We conclude that LPS and its associated inflammatory response are harmful to the inner ear when coupled with ototoxic medications and that the immune system may contribute to the final hearing outcome in subjects treated with ototoxic agents. PMID:24845404

  16. Effects of propofol on early and late cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-induced septic shock in rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sha; Bao, Hongguang; Han, Liu; Liu, Lele

    2010-01-01

    Objective It has been reported that the intravenous anesthetic propofol (PPF) has anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether PPF has anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic shock by inhibiting the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)] and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in rats. Methods Thirty six male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups (control group, PPF + LPS group and LPS group; n = 12 per group). Control group rats received a 0.9% NaCl solution (NS) by the tail vein. The PPF + LPS group rats received PPF (10 mg/kg bolus, followed by infusion at 10 mg/(kg·h) through a femoral vein catheter) 1 h before LPS (7.5 mg/kg) administration via the tail vein. The LPS group rats received injection of LPS (7.5 mg/kg) via the tail vein. Hemodynamic effects were recorded as well as mortality rates, and plasma cytokine con-centrations (TNF-?, IL-6, HMGB1) were measured for the 24-h observation period. Results The mean arterial pressure and heart rate of the PPF + LPS group were more stable than those of the LPS group. The mortality at 24 h after the administration of the LPS injection was much higher in the LPS group (58.3%) compared to the PPF + LPS group (25.0%). Plasma concentrations of cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-?) and HMGB1 were significantly reduced in the PPF + LPS group compared to the LPS group (P < 0.05). Conclusion Pretreatment with PPF reduced the mortality rate of rats and attenuated the pro-inflammatory cytokine responses in an endotoxin shock model through an anti-inflammatory action inhibiting induction of HMGB1. PMID:23554654

  17. Hepatotoxic Interaction of Sulindac with Lipopolysaccharide: Role of the Hemostatic System

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Wei; Devi, Sachin S.; Sparkenbaugh, Erica; Younis, Husam S.; Roth, Robert A.; Ganey, Patricia E.

    2009-01-01

    Sulindac (SLD) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that has been associated with a greater incidence of idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity in human patients than other NSAIDs. One hypothesis regarding idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions is that interaction of a drug with a modest inflammatory episode precipitates liver injury. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) interacts with SLD to cause liver injury in rats. SLD (50 mg/kg) or its vehicle was administered to rats by gavage 15.5 h before LPS (8.3 × 105 endotoxin unit/kg) or its saline vehicle (i.v.). Thirty minutes after LPS treatment, SLD or vehicle administration was repeated. Rats were killed at various times after treatment, and serum, plasma, and liver samples were taken. Neither SLD nor LPS alone caused liver injury. Cotreatment with SLD/LPS led to increases in serum biomarkers of both hepatocellular injury and cholestasis. Histological evidence of liver damage was found only after SLD/LPS cotreatment. As a result of activation of hemostasis induced by SLD/LPS cotreatment, fibrin and hypoxia were present in liver tissue before the onset of hepatotoxicity. Heparin treatment reduced hepatic fibrin deposition and hypoxia and protected against liver injury induced by SLD/LPS cotreatment. These results indicate that cotreatment with nontoxic doses of LPS and SLD causes liver injury in rats, and this could serve as a model of human idiosyncratic liver injury. The hemostatic system is activated by SLD/LPS cotreatment and plays an important role in the development of SLD/LPS-induced liver injury. PMID:19074762

  18. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Dynamic Lipid Membrane Reorganization: Tubules, Perforations, and Stacks

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Peter G.; Lamoureux, Loreen; Swingle, Kirstie L.; Mukundan, Harshini; Montańo, Gabriel A.

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a unique lipoglycan, with two major physiological roles: 1), as a major structural component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and 2), as a highly potent mammalian toxin when released from cells into solution (endotoxin). LPS is an amphiphile that spontaneously inserts into the outer leaflet of lipid bilayers to bury its hydrophobic lipidic domain, leaving the hydrophilic polysaccharide chain exposed to the exterior polar solvent. Divalent cations have long been known to neutralize and stabilize LPS in the outer membrane, whereas LPS in the presence of monovalent cations forms highly mobile negatively-charged aggregates. Yet, much of our understanding of LPS and its interactions with the cell membrane does not take into account its amphiphilic biochemistry and charge polarization. Herein, we report fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy analysis of the interaction between LPS and fluid-phase supported lipid bilayer assemblies (sLBAs), as model membranes. Depending on cation availability, LPS induces three remarkably different effects on simple sLBAs. Net-negative LPS-Na+ leads to the formation of 100-?m-long flexible lipid tubules from surface-associated lipid vesicles and the destabilization of the sLBA resulting in micron-size hole formation. Neutral LPS-Ca2+ gives rise to 100-?m-wide single- or multilamellar planar sheets of lipid and LPS formed from surface-associated lipid vesicles. Our findings have important implications about the physical interactions between LPS and lipids and demonstrate that sLBAs can be useful platforms to study the interactions of amphiphilic virulence factors with cell membranes. Additionally, our study supports the general phenomenon that lipids with highly charged or bulky headgroups can promote highly curved membrane architectures due to electrostatic and/or steric repulsions. PMID:24896118

  19. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein and soluble CD14 catalyze exchange of phospholipids.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, B; Hailman, E; Wright, S D

    1997-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) is a plasma protein known to facilitate the diffusion of bacterial LPS (endotoxin). LBP catalyzes movement of LPS monomers from LPS aggregates to HDL particles, to phospholipid bilayers, and to a binding site on a second plasma protein, soluble CD14 (sCD14). sCD14 can hasten transfer by receiving an LPS monomer from an LPS aggregate, and then surrendering it to an HDL particle, thus acting as a soluble "shuttle" for an insoluble lipid. Here we show that LBP and sCD14 shuttle not only LPS, but also phospholipids. Phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine, and a fluorescently labeled derivative of phosphatidylethanolamine (R-PE) are each transferred by LBP from membranes to HDL particles. The transfer could be observed using recombinant LBP and sCD14 or whole human plasma, and the plasma-mediated transfer of PI could be blocked by anti-LBP and partially inhibited by anti-CD14. sCD14 appears to act as a soluble shuttle for phospholipids since direct binding of PI and R-PE to sCD14 was observed and because addition of sCD14 accelerated transfer of these lipids. These studies define a new function for LBP and sCD14 and describe a novel mechanism for the transfer of phospholipids in blood. In further studies, we show evidence suggesting that LBP transfers LPS and phospholipids by reciprocal exchange: LBP-catalyzed binding of R-PE to LPS x sCD14 complexes was accompanied by the exit of LPS from sCD14, and LBP-catalyzed binding of R-PE to sCD14 was accelerated by prior binding of LPS to sCD14. Binding of one lipid is thus functionally coupled with the release of a second. These results suggest that LBP acts as a lipid exchange protein. PMID:9006000

  20. Inhaled Hydrogen Sulfide Prevents Endotoxin-Induced Systemic Inflammation and Improves Survival by Altering Sulfide Metabolism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Kentaro; Kida, Kotaro; Marutani, Eizo; Crimi, Ettore; Bougaki, Masahiko; Khatri, Ashok; Kimura, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS])-induced inflammation is incompletely understood. We examined the impact of H2S breathing on LPS-induced changes in sulfide metabolism, systemic inflammation, and survival in mice. Results: Mice that breathed air alone exhibited decreased plasma sulfide levels and poor survival rate at 72?h after LPS challenge. Endotoxemia markedly increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels in plasma and lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in mice that breathed air. In contrast, breathing air supplemented with 80?ppm of H2S for 6?h after LPS challenge markedly improved survival rate compared to mice that breathed air alone (p<0.05). H2S breathing attenuated LPS-induced increase of plasma ALT activity and NOx levels and lung MPO activity. Inhaled H2S suppressed LPS-induced upregulation of inflammatory cytokines, while it markedly induced anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10 in the liver. Beneficial effects of H2S inhalation after LPS challenge were associated with restored sulfide levels and markedly increased thiosulfate levels in plasma. Increased thiosulfate levels after LPS challenge were associated with upregulation of rhodanese, but not cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE), in the liver. Administration of sodium thiosulfate dose-dependently improved survival after LPS challenge in mice. Innovation: By measuring changes in plasma levels of sulfide and sulfide metabolites using an advanced analytical method, this study revealed a critical role of thiosulfate in the protective effects of H2S breathing during endotoxemia. Conclusion: These observations suggest that H2S breathing prevents inflammation and improves survival after LPS challenge by altering sulfide metabolism in mice. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 11—21. PMID:22221071

  1. Age-related sensitivity to endotoxin-induced liver inflammation: Implication of inflammasome/IL-1? for steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ki Wung; Lee, Eun Kyeong; Kim, Dae Hyun; An, Hye Jin; Kim, Nam Deuk; Im, Dong Soon; Lee, Jaewon; Yu, Byung Pal; Chung, Hae Young

    2015-08-01

    Aging is associated with increased vulnerability to inflammatory challenge. However, the effects of altered inflammatory response on the metabolic status of tissues or organs are not well documented. In this study, we present evidence demonstrating that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced upregulation of the inflammasome/IL-1? pathway is accompanied with an increased inflammatory response and abnormal lipid accumulation in livers of aged rats. To monitor the effects of aging on LPS-induced inflammation, we administered LPS (2 mg kg(-1) ) to young (6-month old) and aged (24-month old) rats and found abnormal lipid metabolism in only aged rats with increased lipid accumulation in the liver. This lipid accumulation in the liver was due to the dysregulation of PPAR? and SREBP1c. We also observed severe liver inflammation in aged rats as indicated by increased ALT levels in serum and increased Kupffer cells in the liver. Importantly, among many inflammation-associated factors, the aged rat liver showed chronically increased IL-1? production. Increased levels of IL-1? were caused by the upregulation of caspase-1 activity and inflammasome activation. In vitro studies with HepG2 cells demonstrated that treatment with IL-1? significantly induced lipid accumulation in hepatocytes through the regulation of PPAR? and SREBP1c. In summary, we demonstrated that LPS-induced liver inflammation and lipid accumulation were associated with a chronically overactive inflammasome/IL-1? pathway in aged rat livers. Based on the present findings, we propose a mechanism of aging-associated progression of steatohepatitis induced by endotoxin, delineating a pathogenic role of the inflammasome/IL-1? pathway involved in lipid accumulation in the liver. PMID:25847140

  2. Volatile anesthetic sevoflurane ameliorates endotoxin-induced acute lung injury via microRNA modulation in rats

    PubMed Central

    OTSUKI, TATSURO; ISHIKAWA, MASASHI; HORI, YOKO; GOTO, GENTARO; SAKAMOTO, ATSUHIRO

    2015-01-01

    Volatile anesthetics have a lung protective effect in acute lung injury (ALI). Our previous study showed sevoflurane affects the expression of microRNA (miRNA) that control various physiological systems by regulating messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. However, the association between the anti-inflammatory effect of sevoflurane and miRNAs modulation remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of sevoflurane and the expression of miRNAs in an endotoxin-induced ALI model in rats. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to three groups [lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS-sevoflurane and control; n=8/group]. All the rats were mechanically ventilated and intravenously-administered LPS (saline as control). Two hours post-injury, general anaesthesia was performed for 4 h with 2% sevoflurane (LPS-sevoflurane). The LPS and the control groups did not receive anaesthesia. The severity of ALI was evaluated by partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen and the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokine. The miRNA expression in lung tissue was analyzed by a reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. LPS caused ALI, evidenced by the impairment of pulmonary function and increased mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6 and nuclear factor-?B. Sevoflurane improved pulmonary function and inhibited the increased mRNAs. Of the 219 miRNAs detected, 15 and nine miRNAs were significantly changed in the LPS and LPS-sevoflurane group, respectively. In the LPS-sevoflurane group, the expression of several miRNAs that regulate inflammation was significantly changed compared to the LPS group. In conclusion, the present data showed that sevoflurane influences the expression of the miRNAs that regulate inflammation. This result suggests that the changes in miRNA expression are involved in the lung protective mechanisms of volatile anesthetics.

  3. [Comparative characterisation of lipopolysaccharides of Rahnella aquatills].

    PubMed

    Skokliuk, L B; Varbanets', L D; Pokhyl, S I

    2009-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of eight strains of R. aquatilis isolated from different sources have been studied. The studies of neutral monosaccharide composition evidence that all of LPS contain galactose (13.4-68.5%), glucose (5.7-29.8%) and heptose (2.6-8.3%) (depending on strains). Some monosaccharides, such as ribose (95U007), rhamnose (95U011, 95U012, 96U036), fucose (95U003, 95U004, 95U007) and mannose (95U012, 96U035, 96U036, 96U037) were absent in LPS. Arabinose was present in two strains--95U003 and 95U007. On the basis of monosaccharide composition all investigated LPS can be divided into six groups. It was shown by double immunodiffusion in agar that all R. aquatilis LPS displayed antigenic activity in homological systems. The results of serological cross reactions indicate the immunochemical heterogeneity of R. aquatilis species. PMID:20455427

  4. Cyanobacterial lipopolysaccharides and human health – a review

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ian; Schluter, Philip J; Shaw, Glen R

    2006-01-01

    Cyanobacterial lipopolysaccharide/s (LPS) are frequently cited in the cyanobacteria literature as toxins responsible for a variety of heath effects in humans, from skin rashes to gastrointestinal, respiratory and allergic reactions. The attribution of toxic properties to cyanobacterial LPS dates from the 1970s, when it was thought that lipid A, the toxic moiety of LPS, was structurally and functionally conserved across all Gram-negative bacteria. However, more recent research has shown that this is not the case, and lipid A structures are now known to be very different, expressing properties ranging from LPS agonists, through weak endotoxicity to LPS antagonists. Although cyanobacterial LPS is widely cited as a putative toxin, most of the small number of formal research reports describe cyanobacterial LPS as weakly toxic compared to LPS from the Enterobacteriaceae. We systematically reviewed the literature on cyanobacterial LPS, and also examined the much lager body of literature relating to heterotrophic bacterial LPS and the atypical lipid A structures of some photosynthetic bacteria. While the literature on the biological activity of heterotrophic bacterial LPS is overwhelmingly large and therefore difficult to review for the purposes of exclusion, we were unable to find a convincing body of evidence to suggest that heterotrophic bacterial LPS, in the absence of other virulence factors, is responsible for acute gastrointestinal, dermatological or allergic reactions via natural exposure routes in humans. There is a danger that initial speculation about cyanobacterial LPS may evolve into orthodoxy without basis in research findings. No cyanobacterial lipid A structures have been described and published to date, so a recommendation is made that cyanobacteriologists should not continue to attribute such a diverse range of clinical symptoms to cyanobacterial LPS without research confirmation. PMID:16563160

  5. Diffuse lamellar keratitis related to endotoxins released from sterilizer reservoir biofilms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon P Holland; Richard G Mathias; Douglas W Morck; Jonathan Chiu; Stephen G Slade

    2000-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the risk factors and control mechanisms used to control the outbreak of diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) associated with laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and examine the relationship between DLK and endotoxins released from sterilizer biofilm reservoirs.

  6. Evaluation Of Airborne Endotoxin Concentrations Associated With Management Of Crop Grown On Applied Biosolids

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health concerns have been expressed regarding inhalation exposure associated with the application of biosolids on cropland, which is due to the potential aerosolization of microorganisms, cell wall products, volatile chemicals, and nuisance odors. Endotoxin is a component...

  7. Pathophysiology of endotoxin: microvascular dysfunction, and the roles of VEGF and nitric oxide (NO) 

    E-print Network

    Naftanel, Mark Andrew

    2013-02-22

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) elicits nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilation and plays major roles in angiogenesis and wound healing. Although bacterial endotoxin (LPS) has been shown to alter endothelial ...

  8. Lipopolysaccharide-enhanced, Toll-like Receptor 4–dependent T Helper Cell Type 2 Responses to Inhaled Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Eisenbarth, Stephanie C.; Piggott, Damani A.; Huleatt, James W.; Visintin, Irene; Herrick, Christina A.; Bottomly, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Allergic asthma is an inflammatory lung disease initiated and directed by T helper cells type 2 (Th2). The mechanism involved in generation of Th2 responses to inert inhaled antigens, however, is unknown. Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or other microbial products can influence the development and severity of asthma. However, the mechanism by which LPS influences asthma pathogenesis remains undefined. Although it is known that signaling through Toll-like receptors (TLR) is required for adaptive T helper cell type 1 (Th1) responses, it is unclear if TLRs are needed for Th2 priming. Here, we report that low level inhaled LPS signaling through TLR4 is necessary to induce Th2 responses to inhaled antigens in a mouse model of allergic sensitization. The mechanism by which LPS signaling results in Th2 sensitization involves the activation of antigen-containing dendritic cells. In contrast to low levels, inhalation of high levels of LPS with antigen results in Th1 responses. These studies suggest that the level of LPS exposure can determine the type of inflammatory response generated and provide a potential mechanistic explanation of epidemiological data on endotoxin exposure and asthma prevalence. PMID:12486107

  9. Endotoxin Induces Differentiated Contractile Responses in Porcine Pulmonary Arteries and Veins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Björn P. Persson; Piet J. M. Boels; Cecilia Lövdahl; Patrik Rossi; Anders Arner; Anders Oldner

    2011-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Sepsis-induced lung injury is characterized by pulmonary hypertension, edema and deteriorated gas exchange. As in vivo studies have indicated that bacterial endotoxin predominantly induces a pulmonary venous constriction, we aimed to investigate effects of endotoxin on isolated porcine pulmonary vessels. Methods: Pulmonary arteries and veins were examined using in vitro isometric force recordings. Endothelin-receptor protein expression and distribution were

  10. Bacterial Endotoxin Induces Fos Immunoreactivity in Primary Afferent Neurons of the Vagus Nerve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron P. A. Gaykema; Lisa E. Goehler; Fred J. H. Tilders; John G. J. M. Bol; Molly McGorry; Monika Fleshner; Steven F. Maier; Linda R. Watkins

    1998-01-01

    Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy inhibits brain-mediated illness responses to peripherally administered bacterial endotoxin, including fever, hyperalgesia, sickness behavior, and activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, direct evidence implicating vagal afferents specifically in conveying information about peripheral immune activation to the brain is still lacking. This study assessed whether (1) endotoxin induces the expression of the functional activation marker Fos in the vagal

  11. Recombinant human activated protein C attenuates endotoxin-induced lung injury in awake sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristine Waerhaug; Vladimir N Kuklin; Mikhail Y Kirov; Mikhail A Sovershaev; Bodil Langbakk; Ole C Ingebretsen; Kirsti Ytrehus; Lars J Bjertnaes

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acute lung injury often complicates severe sepsis. In Gram-negative sepsis, bacterial endotoxin activates both coagulation and inflammation. Enhanced lung vascular pressures and permeability, increased extravascular lung water content and deteriorated gas exchange characterize ovine endotoxin-induced lung injury, a frequently used model of acute lung injury. Recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC), with its anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, fibrinolytic and antiapoptotic effects,

  12. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stelios Viazis; Francisco Diez-Gonzalez

    2011-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) have been recognized as a cause of serious illness and mortality in outbreaks of foodborne illness that involve a large variety of foods. In general, most pathogenic strains behave biochemically and ecologically like any other nonpathogenic E. coli, making their detection among commensal E. coli an important problem, especially among EHEC. E. coli infections in humans

  13. Characterization of the Lipopolysaccharide from Rahnella aquatilis 1-95

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. D. Varbanets; E. L. Zdorovenko; A. N. Ostapchuk; G. M. Zdorovenko

    2005-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide from the freshwater bacterium Rahnella aquatilis 1-95 has been isolated and investigated for the first time. The structural components of the lipopolysaccharide molecule, such as lipid A, core oligosaccharide, and O-specific polysaccharide, were isolated by mild acidic hydrolysis. In lipid A, 3-hydroxytetradecanoic and tetradecanoic acids were found to be the predominant fatty acids. In the core, oligosaccharide, galactose,

  14. Exogenous carbon monoxide suppresses Escherichia coli vitality and improves survival in an Escherichia coli-induced murine sepsis model

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei-chang; Wang, Xu; Qin, Wei-ting; Qiu, Xue-feng; Sun, Bing-wei

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) has been shown to modulate inflammation and inhibit cytokine production both in vivo and in vitro. The aim of this study was to examine whether exogenous carbon monoxide could suppress the vitality of Escherichia coli (E coli) and improve the survival rate in an E coli-induced murine sepsis model. Methods: ICR mice were infected with E coli, and immediately injected intravenously with carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2, 8 mg/kg) or inactive CORM-2 (8 mg/kg). The survival rate was monitored 6 times daily for up to 36 h. The blood samples, liver and lung tissues were collected at 6 h after the infection. Bacteria in peritoneal lavage fluid, blood and tissues were enumerated following culture. Tissue iNOS mRNA expression was detected using RT-PCR. NF-?B expression was detected with Western blotting. Results: Addition of CORM-2 (200 and 400 ?mol/L) into culture medium concentration-dependently suppressed the growth of E coli and decreased the colony numbers, but inactive CORM-2 had no effect. Treatment of the infected mice with CORM-2 significantly increased the survival rate to 55%, while all the infected mice treated with inactive CORM-2 died within 36 h. E coli infection caused severe pathological changes in liver and lungs, and significantly increased serum transaminases, lipopolysaccharide, TNF-? and IL-1? levels, as well as myeloperoxidase activity, TNF-? and IL-1? levels in the major organs. Meanwhile, E coli infection significantly increased the number of colonies and the expression of iNOS mRNA and NF-?B in the major organs. All these abnormalities were significantly attenuated by CORM-2 treatment, while inactive CORM-2 was ineffective. Conclusion: In addition directly suppressing E coli, CORM-2 protects the liver and lungs against E coli-induced sepsis in mice, thus improving their survival. PMID:25399652

  15. Chronic Lung Function Decline in Cotton Textile Workers: Roles of Historical and Recent Exposures to Endotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Mehta, Amar J.; Hang, Jing-qing; Zhang, Hongxi; Dai, Helian; Su, Li; Eisen, Ellen A.; Christiani, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Long-term occupational exposure to cotton dust that contains endotoxin is associated with chronic respiratory symptoms and excessive decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), but the mechanisms of endotoxin-related chronic airflow obstruction remain unclear. Objective In the current study, we examined temporal aspects of the exposure–response relationship between airborne endotoxin exposure, longitudinal change in FEV1, and respiratory symptoms in a cohort of Chinese cotton textile workers. Methods This prospective cohort study followed 447 cotton textile workers from 1981 to 2006.at approximately 5-year intervals. We used a generalized estimating equations approach to model FEV1 level and respiratory symptoms as a function of past exposure (cumulative exposure up to the start of the most recent 5-year survey interval) and cumulative exposure (within the most recent interval) to endotoxins, after adjusting for other covariates. Models were stratified by active versus retired work status and by years employed before the baseline survey (< 5 and ? 5 years). Results and conclusions Past exposure to endotoxin was associated with reduced FEV1 level among retired cotton workers. Among all cotton workers, past exposure was more strongly associated with reduced FEV1 for those hired < 5 years before baseline than for those who were hired ? 5 years after baseline. Recent endotoxin exposure was significantly associated with byssinosis, chronic bronchitis, and chronic cough. PMID:20797932

  16. Endotoxin and ?-(1,3)-glucan levels in automobiles: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Francis Fu-Sheng; Wu, Mei-Wen; Chang, Chin-Fu; Lai, Shu-Mei; Pierse, Nevil; Crane, Julian; Siebers, Rob

    2010-12-01

    Exposure to bacterial endotoxin and fungal ?-(1,3)-glucan in the indoor environment can induce respiratory symptoms. Automobiles are an exposure source of allergens but it is not known if, and how much exposure there is to endotoxin and fungal ?-(1,3)-glucan. The objective of the study was to determine whether automobiles are a potential source of exposure to these microbial products. Dust was sampled from the passenger seats of 40 automobiles. Specific Limulus amoebocyte kinetic assays were used to measure endotoxin and ?-(1,3)-glucan, respectively. Endotoxin and ?-(1,3)-glucan was detected in all samples ranging from 19.9-247.0 EU/mg and 1.6-59.8 ?g/g, respectively. There were no significant differences in endotoxin levels between automobiles of smokers and non-smokers, but ?-(1,3)-glucan levels were about two-fold higher in the automobiles of non-smokers. In conclusion, endotoxin and ?-(1,3)-glucan exposure in automobiles at levels found in our study may be of importance for asthmatics. PMID:21186778

  17. In Vivo Effects of Bifidobacteria and Lactoferrin on Gut Endotoxin Concentration and Mucosal Immunity in Balb\\/c Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Griffiths; Linda C. Duffy; Floyd L. Schanbacher; Haiping Qiao; Diane Dryja; Allen Leavens; Jon Rossman; Gary Rich; Douglas Dirienzo; Pearay L. Ogra

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of oral supplementation of newborn Balb\\/c mice with bifidobacteria (B. infantis, B. bifidum) and iron-free apo-lactoferrin (bovine, human) on gut endotoxin concentration and mucosal immunity. Endotoxin concentration was measured in ileocecal filtrates at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days postdelivery by a quantitative limulus amebocyte lysate test. While endotoxin

  18. Resistance to Endotoxin Shock and Reduced Dissemination of Gram-Negative Bacteria in CD14Deficient Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Haziot; Enza Ferrero; Frank Köntgen; Naoki Hijiya; Shunsuke Yamamoto; Jack Silver; Colin L Stewart; Sanna M Goyert

    1996-01-01

    Endotoxin shock is the result of activation of the immune system by endotoxin\\/LPS, a component of Gram-negative bacteria. CD14, a GPI-anchored glycoprotein expressed strongly by monocyte\\/macrophages, is one of several receptors for endotoxin\\/LPS. The role of CD14 in bacterial-induced and LPS-induced shock was tested in CD14-deficient mice produced by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. CD14-deficient mice were found to

  19. Impedimetric microbial sensor for real-time monitoring of phage infection of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ming Soon; Ho, Jia Shin; Lau, Suk Hiang; Chow, Vincent T K; Toh, Chee-Seng

    2013-09-15

    We describe an impedimetric microbial sensor for real-time monitoring of the non-lytic M13 bacteriophage infection of Escherichia coli cells using a gold electrode covalently grafted with a monolayer of lipopolysaccharide specific antibody. After infection, damage to the lipopolysaccharide layer on the outer membrane of E. coli causes changes to its surface charge and morphology, resulting in the aggregation of redox probe, Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) at the electrode surface and thereby increases its electron-transfer rate. This consequent decrease of electron-transfer resistance in the presence of bacteriophage can be easily monitored using Faradaic impedance spectroscopy. Non-lytic bacterium-phage interaction which is hardly observable using conventional microscopic methods is detected within 3h using this impedimetric microbial sensor which demonstrates its excellent performance in terms of analysis time, ease and reduced reliance on labeling steps during in-situ monitoring of the phage infection process. PMID:23603131

  20. ?MSH Blunts Endotoxin-Induced MuRF1 and Atrogin-1 Upregulation in Skeletal Muscle by Modulating NF-?B and Akt/FoxO1 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Ana Isabel; Gómez-SanMiguel, Ana Belén; Gómez-Moreira, Carolina; Villanúa, María Ángeles; López-Calderón, Asunción

    2014-01-01

    Alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (?MSH) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anticachectic actions. We hypothesized that ?MSH administration could attenuate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the skeletal muscle through modifications in IGF-Akt-FoxO1 pathway, or/and in serum corticosterone. Adult male Wistar rats were injected with LPS and/or ?MSH. ?MSH administration reduced LPS-induced increase in liver TNF? and serum nitrites as well as NF-?B activation in skeletal muscle. In contrast, ?MSH was not able to prevent the stimulatory effect of LPS on serum concentration of ACTH and corticosterone. LPS decreased serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP3 and their expression in the liver (P < 0.01). However IGFBP3 expression in the gastrocnemius was increased by LPS. Treatment with ?MSH prevented the effects of LPS on IGFBP3 but not on IGF-I. In the gastrocnemius ?MSH blocked LPS-induced decrease in pAkt as well as the increase in pNF-?B(p65), FoxO1, atrogin-1, and MuRF1 levels. These results suggest that ?MSH blunts skeletal muscle response to endotoxin by downregulating atrogenes and FoxO1 at least in part by controlling NF-?B activation and Akt signalling, but not through modifications in the secretion of corticosterone or IGF-I. PMID:25294954

  1. Synergistic activity of a Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin and a bacterial endochitinase against Spodoptera littoralis larvae.

    PubMed Central

    Regev, A; Keller, M; Strizhov, N; Sneh, B; Prudovsky, E; Chet, I; Ginzberg, I; Koncz-Kalman, Z; Koncz, C; Schell, J; Zilberstein, A

    1996-01-01

    In an attempt to increase the insecticidal effect of the delta-endotoxin crystal protein CryIC on the relatively Cry-insensitive larvae of Spodoptera littoralis, a combination of CryIC and endochitinase was used. CryIC comprising the first 756 amino acids from Bacillus thuringiensis K26-21 and endochitinase ChiAII encoded by Serratia marcescens were separately produced in Escherichia coli carrying the genes in overexpression vectors. The endochitinase on its own, even at very low concentrations (0.1 microgram/ml), perforated the larval midgut peritrophic membrane. When applied together with low concentrations of CryIC, a synergistic toxic effect was obtained. In the absence of chitinase, about 20 micrograms of CryIC per ml was required to obtain maximal reduction in larval weight, while only 3.0 micrograms of CryIC per ml caused a similar toxic effect in the presence of endochitinase. Thus, a combination of the Cry protein and an endochitinase could result in effective insect control in transgenic systems in which the Cry protein is not expressed in a crystalline form. PMID:8837413

  2. Development of a rapid immunochromatographic strip for detection of Escherichia coli O157.

    PubMed

    Jung, Byeong Yeal; Jung, Suk Chan; Kweon, Chang Hee

    2005-10-01

    We developed an immunochromatographic (IC) strip for the rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157 in enriched samples. Murine monoclonal antibody to E. coli O157:H7 lipopolysaccharide was conjugated with 40 nm of colloidal gold particles by the citrate method. The specificity of the IC strip was determined using 48 pure-cultured bacteria, including 32 E. coli strains and 16 non-E. coli strains. Regardless of H serotype, E. coli O157 strains produced a positive signal, whereas the others, representing 29 E. coli serotypes, did not. Among 16 non-E. coli strains, only Citrobacter amalonaticus yielded a positive signal. The sensitivity of the IC strip was determined using 10-fold diluted E. coli O157:H7, with a range of 1.8 X 10(7) to 1.8 CFU/ml in enriched raw beef. E. coli O157 could be detected at a minimum of 1.8 x 10(5) CFU/ml without enrichment and 1.8 CFU/ml after enrichment. Various samples were enriched to detect E. coli O157 using the IC strip and to isolate E. coli O157:H7 using traditional culture procedures. The IC strip test results exhibited 100% agreement with traditional methods after selective enrichment, since E. coli O157:H7 was also isolated from all the samples with positive strip test results. However, the specificity of the strip was somewhat higher with pork (98.8%) than with bovine feces (87.9%) and swine feces (93.4%). These results indicated that the IC strip exhibits high specificity and sensitivity in the detection of E. coli O157, and this assay is rapid, economical, and simple, without requirement of complicated equipment. PMID:16245720

  3. Structural basis for outer membrane lipopolysaccharide insertion.

    PubMed

    Dong, Haohao; Xiang, Quanju; Gu, Yinghong; Wang, Zhongshan; Paterson, Neil G; Stansfeld, Phillip J; He, Chuan; Zhang, Yizheng; Wang, Wenjian; Dong, Changjiang

    2014-07-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is essential for most Gram-negative bacteria and has crucial roles in protection of the bacteria from harsh environments and toxic compounds, including antibiotics. Seven LPS transport proteins (that is, LptA-LptG) form a trans-envelope protein complex responsible for the transport of LPS from the inner membrane to the outer membrane, the mechanism for which is poorly understood. Here we report the first crystal structure of the unique integral membrane LPS translocon LptD-LptE complex. LptD forms a novel 26-stranded ?-barrel, which is to our knowledge the largest ?-barrel reported so far. LptE adopts a roll-like structure located inside the barrel of LptD to form an unprecedented two-protein 'barrel and plug' architecture. The structure, molecular dynamics simulations and functional assays suggest that the hydrophilic O-antigen and the core oligosaccharide of the LPS may pass through the barrel and the lipid A of the LPS may be inserted into the outer leaflet of the outer membrane through a lateral opening between strands ?1 and ?26 of LptD. These findings not only help us to understand important aspects of bacterial outer membrane biogenesis, but also have significant potential for the development of novel drugs against multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24990744

  4. Mechanisms Responsible for a ?X174 Mutant's Ability To Infect Escherichia coli by Phosphorylation?

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Jennifer; Putonti, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The ability for a virus to expand its host range is dependent upon a successful mode of viral entry. As such, the host range of the well-studied ?X174 bacteriophage is dictated by the presence of a particular lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the bacterial surface. The mutant ?X174 strain JACS-K, unlike its ancestor, is capable of infecting both its native host Escherichia coli C and E. coli K-12, which does not have the necessary LPS. The conversion of an alanine to a very reactive threonine on its virion surface was found to be responsible for the strain's expanded host range. PMID:20147402

  5. Mechanisms responsible for a PhiX174 mutant's ability to infect Escherichia coli by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jennifer; Putonti, Catherine

    2010-05-01

    The ability for a virus to expand its host range is dependent upon a successful mode of viral entry. As such, the host range of the well-studied PhiX174 bacteriophage is dictated by the presence of a particular lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the bacterial surface. The mutant PhiX174 strain JACS-K, unlike its ancestor, is capable of infecting both its native host Escherichia coli C and E. coli K-12, which does not have the necessary LPS. The conversion of an alanine to a very reactive threonine on its virion surface was found to be responsible for the strain's expanded host range. PMID:20147402

  6. Airborne environmental endotoxin: a cross-validation of sampling and analysis techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Walters, M; Milton, D; Larsson, L; Ford, T

    1994-01-01

    A standard method for measurement of airborne environmental endotoxin was developed and field tested in a fiberglass insulation-manufacturing facility. This method involved sampling with a capillary-pore membrane filter, extraction in buffer using a sonication bath, and analysis by the kinetic-Limulus assay with resistant-parallel-line estimation (KLARE). Cross-validation of the extraction and assay method was performed by comparison with methanolysis of samples followed by 3-hydroxy fatty acid (3-OHFA) analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Direct methanolysis of filter samples and methanolysis of buffer extracts of the filters yielded similar 3-OHFA content (P = 0.72); the average difference was 2.1%. Analysis of buffer extracts for endotoxin content by the KLARE method and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for 3-OHFA content produced similar results (P = 0.23); the average difference was 0.88%. The source of endotoxin was gram-negative bacteria growing in recycled washwater used to clean the insulation-manufacturing equipment. The endotoxin and bacteria become airborne during spray cleaning operations. The types of 3-OHFAs in bacteria cultured from the washwater, present in the washwater and in the air, were similar. Virtually all of the bacteria cultured from air and water were gram negative composed mostly of two species, Deleya aesta and Acinetobacter johnsonii. Airborne countable bacteria correlated well with endotoxin (r2 = 0.64). Replicate sampling showed that results with the standard sampling, extraction, and Limulus assay by the KLARE method were highly reproducible (95% confidence interval for endotoxin measurement +/- 0.28 log10). These results demonstrate the accuracy, precision, and sensitivity of the standard procedure proposed for airborne environmental endotoxin. PMID:8161191

  7. 2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-5-(3-Hydroxypropenyl)-7-Methoxybenzofuran, a Novel Ailanthoidol Derivative, Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effect through Downregulation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated RAW 264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon Jin; Jun, Jong-Gab; Kim, Jin-Kyung

    2013-06-01

    We reported that ailanthoidol, a neolignan from Zanthoxylum ailanthoides and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, inhibited inflammatory reactions by macrophages and protected mice from endotoxin shock. We examined the anti-inflammatory activity of six synthetic ailanthoidol derivatives (compounds 1-6). Among them, compound 4, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(3-hydroxypropenyl)-7-methoxybenzofuran, had the lowest IC50 value concerning nitric oxide (NO) release from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Compound 4 suppressed the generation of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 induced by LPS, and inhibited the release of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines from RAW264.7 cells. The underlying mechanism of compound 4 on anti-inflammatory action was correlated with the down-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and activator protein-1 activation. Compound 4 is potentially an effective functional chemical candidate for the prevention of inflammatory diseases. PMID:23776398

  8. 2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-5-(3-Hydroxypropenyl)-7-Methoxybenzofuran, a Novel Ailanthoidol Derivative, Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effect through Downregulation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated RAW 264.7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeon Jin; Jun, Jong-Gab

    2013-01-01

    We reported that ailanthoidol, a neolignan from Zanthoxylum ailanthoides and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, inhibited inflammatory reactions by macrophages and protected mice from endotoxin shock. We examined the anti-inflammatory activity of six synthetic ailanthoidol derivatives (compounds 1-6). Among them, compound 4, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(3-hydroxypropenyl)-7-methoxybenzofuran, had the lowest IC50 value concerning nitric oxide (NO) release from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Compound 4 suppressed the generation of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 induced by LPS, and inhibited the release of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines from RAW264.7 cells. The underlying mechanism of compound 4 on anti-inflammatory action was correlated with the down-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and activator protein-1 activation. Compound 4 is potentially an effective functional chemical candidate for the prevention of inflammatory diseases. PMID:23776398

  9. Variations in the carbohydrate regions of Bordetella pertussis lipopolysaccharides: electrophoretic, serological, and structural features.

    PubMed Central

    Caroff, M; Chaby, R; Karibian, D; Perry, J; Deprun, C; Szabó, L

    1990-01-01

    Structural and immunological differences between the two components that are usually present in unequal quantities in Bordetella pertussis endotoxin preparations and are visualized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis have been studied by using strains 1414, A100, and 134, all in phase I. According to analyses by both sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and thin-layer chromatography, the minor (8%) component of the endotoxin of strain 1414 (endotoxin 1414) appeared to be the predominating component of endotoxins A100 and 134. The masses of the carbohydrate chains isolated from endotoxin A100 and from the major component of endotoxin 1414 were 1,649 and 2,311 atomic mass units, respectively, as determined by 252Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry. Comparison of the 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of these chains established that four N-acetyl groups, an N-methyl group, and a 6-deoxy function, which characterize the nonreducing, distal trisaccharide of the glycose chain of strain 1414, were absent from that of strain A100. The antigenicity of endotoxin 1414, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was higher than that of endotoxin A100, but fell below it when the glycose chain of endotoxin 1414 was deprived of seven sugars by treatment with nitrous acid. This observation suggests that at least three (distal, proximal, and intermediate) regions of the glycose chain of endotoxin 1414 carry antigenic determinants. One of these, located in the distal trisaccharide, is absent from both endotoxins A100 and 134. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:2298694

  10. Regional blood flow and skeletal muscle energy status in endotoxemic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Jepson; M. Cox; P. C. Bates; N. J. Rothwell; M. J. Stock; E. B. Cady; D. J. Millward

    1987-01-01

    Endotoxins induce muscle wasting in part as a result of depressed protein synthesis. To investigate whether these changes reflect impaired energy transduction, blood flow, Oâ extraction, and high-energy phosphates in muscle and whole-body Oâ consumption (Voâ) have been measured. Voâ was measured for 6 h after an initial sublethal dose of endotoxin (Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide 0.3 mg\\/100 g body wt

  11. Comparison of the rabbit pyrogen test and Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay for endotoxin in hepatitis B vaccines and the effect of aluminum hydroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chul-Yong Park; Seung-Ha Jung; Jong-Phil Bak; Sun-Suk Lee; Dong-Kwon Rhee

    2005-01-01

    The rabbit pyrogen test and Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay have been used to detect endotoxins in vaccines, but interactions between the endotoxins and proteins or aluminum hydroxide can interfere with the results. Currently, the rabbit pyrogen test is used to detect endotoxin in hepatitis B (HB) vaccines even though the HB surface protein, the active ingredient, is over-expressed in

  12. Translocated LPS Might Cause Endotoxin Tolerance in Circulating Monocytes of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    del Fresno, Carlos; Alenda, Raquel; Gómez-Pińa, Vanesa; Fernández-Ruíz, Irene; Siliceo, María; Jurado, Teresa; Toledano, Victor; Arnalich, Francisco; García-Río, Francisco; López-Collazo, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an inherited pleiotropic disease that results from abnormalities in the gene codes of a chloride channel. The lungs of CF patients are chronically infected by several pathogens but bacteraemia have rarely been reported in this pathology. Besides that, circulating monocytes in CF patients exhibit a patent Endotoxin Tolerance (ET) state since they show a significant reduction of the inflammatory response to bacterial stimulus. Despite a previous description of this phenomenon, the direct cause of ET in CF patients remains unknown. In this study we have researched the possible role of microbial/endotoxin translocation from a localized infection to the bloodstream as a potential cause of ET induction in CF patients. Plasma analysis of fourteen CF patients revealed high levels of LPS compared to healthy volunteers and patients who suffer from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Experiments in vitro showed that endotoxin concentrations found in plasma of CF patients were enough to induce an ET phenotype in monocytes from healthy controls. In agreement with clinical data, we failed to detect bacterial DNA in CF plasma. Our results suggest that soluble endotoxin present in bloodstream of CF patients causes endotoxin tolerance in their circulating monocytes. PMID:22216320

  13. Endotoxin exposure among softwood lumber mill workers in the Canadian province of British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Dennekamp, M; Demers, P; Bartlett, K; Davies, H; Teschke, K

    1999-01-01

    An increased prevalence of respiratory problems among softwood lumber mill workers has been observed in a number of studies. These workers are potentially exposed to a variety of respiratory hazards including wood dust, abietic or other resin acids, monoterpenes, and fungi, as well as endotoxins. The objectives of this study were to determine if lumber mill workers were exposed to hazardous levels of airborne endotoxin and to identify the factors contributing to high exposures. Personal endotoxin samples (n = 216) were collected in four lumber mills in the Canadian province of British Columbia. The mean personal exposure concentration was 2.09 ng/m.(3) and 9% of the samples were above 5 ng/m.(3). Factors related to the personal endotoxin exposure were type of job, use of compressed air, the percentage of time spent in a booth or cab during a shift, and dust concentration. Log storage practices were also suspected of playing a role. The levels of exposure observed in this study were low compared to the levels reported for populations with respiratory problems attributed to endotoxins. PMID:10607995

  14. Indoor exposure to airborne endotoxin: a review of the literature on sampling and analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Paba, Emilia; Tranfo, Giovanna; Corsetti, Federica; Marcelloni, Anna Maria; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of exposure to airborne endotoxins has been studied for several years, especially in occupational environments, but a large number of procedures are used for sampling and analysis. This lack of standardization makes it very difficult to compare results and set internationally accepted threshold limit values (TLVs) or occupational exposure limits (OELs) for endotoxin exposure. This paper reviews the methods reported, using advanced bibliographical search techniques: 82 papers published from 2004 to the present were selected to analyze methods for the assessment of human exposure to airborne endotoxins, with particular reference to occupational settings, and to examine their performance and critical points. Only few studies have focused on the standardization of sampling and analysis methods. The European Committee for Standardization Guidelines coincide with the procedures most frequently applied, but this does not guarantee the best results in terms of recovery and reproducibility. The factor that mainly affects endotoxin measurements is the extraction method, the main concern being the presence in the samples of a fraction insoluble in aqueous media. If substantial differences in the proportions of this fraction in different environments are confirmed in the future, the contribution of insoluble endotoxins cannot be neglected. PMID:23385433

  15. Towards Clinical Applications of Anti-endotoxin Antibodies; A Re-appraisal of the Disconnect

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Endotoxin is a potent mediator of a broad range of patho-physiological effects in humans. It is present in all Gram negative (GN) bacteria. It would be expected that anti-endotoxin therapies, whether antibody based or not, would have an important adjuvant therapeutic role along with antibiotics and other supportive therapies for GN infections. Indeed there is an extensive literature relating to both pre-clinical and clinical studies of anti-endotoxin antibodies. However, the extent of disconnect between the generally successful pre-clinical studies versus the failures of the numerous large clinical trials of antibody based and other anti-endotoxin therapies is under-appreciated and unexplained. Seeking a reconciliation of this disconnect is not an abstract academic question as clinical trials of interventions to reduce levels of endotoxemia levels are ongoing. The aim of this review is to examine new insights into the complex relationship between endotoxemia and sepsis in an attempt to bridge this disconnect. Several new factors to consider in this reappraisal include the frequency and types of GN bacteremia and the underlying mortality risk in the various study populations. For a range of reasons, endotoxemia can no longer be considered as a single entity. There are old clinical trials which warrant a re-appraisal in light of these recent advances in the understanding of the structure-function relationship of endotoxin. Fundamentally however, the disconnect not only remains, it has enlarged. PMID:24351718

  16. Effects of Endotoxin and Psychological Stress on Redox Physiology, Immunity and Feather Corticosterone in Greenfinches

    PubMed Central

    Meitern, Richard; Sild, Elin; Lind, Mari-Ann; Männiste, Marju; Sepp, Tuul; Karu, Ulvi; Hőrak, Peeter

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of costs accompanying activation of immune system and related neuroendocrine pathways is essential for understanding the selective forces operating on these systems. Here we attempted to detect such costs in terms of disruption to redox balance and interference between different immune system components in captive wild-caught greenfinches (Carduelis chloris). Study birds were subjected to an endotoxin-induced inflammatory challenge and temporary exposure to a psychological stressor (an image of a predator) in a 2*2 factorial experiment. Injection of bacterial endotoxin resulted in up-regulation of two markers of antioxidant protection – erythrocyte glutathione, and plasma oxygen radical absorbance (OXY). These findings suggest that inflammatory responses alter redox homeostasis. However, no effect on markers of oxidative damage to proteins or DNA in erythrocytes could be detected. We found no evidence that the endotoxin injection interfered with antibody production against Brucella abortus antigen or the intensity of chronic coccidiosis. The hypothesis of within-immune system trade-offs as a cost of immunity was thus not supported in our model system. We showed for the first time that administration of endotoxin can reduce the level of corticosterone deposited into feathers. This finding suggests a down-regulation of the corticosterone secretion cascade due to an endotoxin-induced immune response, a phenomenon that has not been reported previously. Exposure to the predator image did not affect any of the measured physiological parameters. PMID:23805316

  17. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of fungal secondary metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Zeinab G.; Kalansuriya, Pabasara; Capon, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a preliminary investigation of the use the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall constituent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a natural chemical cue to stimulate and alter the expression of fungal secondary metabolism. Integrated high-throughput micro-cultivation and micro-analysis methods determined that 6 of 40 (15%) of fungi tested responded to an optimal exposure to LPS (0.6 ng/mL) by activating, enhancing or accelerating secondary metabolite production. To explore the possible mechanisms behind this effect, we employed light and fluorescent microscopy in conjunction with a nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive fluorescent dye and an NO scavenger to provide evidence that LPS stimulation of fungal secondary metabolism coincided with LPS activation of NO. Several case studies demonstrated that LPS stimulation can be scaled from single microplate well (1.5 mL) to preparative (>400 mL) scale cultures. For example, LPS treatment of Penicillium sp. (ACM-4616) enhanced pseurotin A and activated pseurotin A1 and pseurotin A2 biosynthesis, whereas LPS treatment of Aspergillus sp. (CMB-M81F) substantially accelerated and enhanced the biosynthesis of shornephine A and a series of biosynthetically related ardeemins and activated production of neoasterriquinone. As an indication of broader potential, we provide evidence that cultures of Penicillium sp. (CMB-TF0411), Aspergillus niger (ACM-4993F), Rhizopus oryzae (ACM-165F) and Thanatephorus cucumeris (ACM-194F) were responsive to LPS stimulation, the latter two examples being particular noteworthy as neither are known to produce secondary metabolites. Our results encourage the view that LPS stimulation can be used as a valuable tool to expand the molecular discovery potential of fungal strains that either have been exhaustively studied by or are unresponsive to traditional culture methodology. PMID:25379339

  18. Genetics of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in enteric bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Schnaitman, C A; Klena, J D

    1993-01-01

    From a historical perspective, the study of both the biochemistry and the genetics of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) synthesis began with the enteric bacteria. These organisms have again come to the forefront as the blocks of genes involved in LPS synthesis have been sequenced and analyzed. A number of new and unanticipated genes were found in these clusters, indicating a complexity of the biochemical pathways which was not predicted from the older studies. One of the most dramatic areas of LPS research has been the elucidation of the lipid A biosynthetic pathway. Four of the genes in this pathway have now been identified and sequenced, and three of them are located in a complex operon which also contains genes involved in DNA and phospholipid synthesis. The rfa gene cluster, which contains many of the genes for LPS core synthesis, includes at least 17 genes. One of the remarkable findings in this cluster is a group of several genes which appear to be involved in the synthesis of alternate rough core species which are modified so that they cannot be acceptors for O-specific polysaccharides. The rfb gene clusters which encode O-antigen synthesis have been sequenced from a number of serotypes and exhibit the genetic polymorphism anticipated on the basis of the chemical complexity of the O antigens. These clusters appear to have originated by the exchange of blocks of genes among ancestral organisms. Among the large number of LPS genes which have now been sequenced from these rfa and rfb clusters, there are none which encode proteins that appear to be secreted across the cytoplasmic membrane and surprisingly few which encode integral membrane proteins or proteins with extensive hydrophobic domains. These data, together with sequence comparison and complementation experiments across strain and species lines, suggest that the LPS biosynthetic enzymes may be organized into clusters on the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane which are organized around a few key membrane proteins. PMID:7504166

  19. Lipopolysaccharides mediate leukotoxin secretion in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Tang, G; Kawai, T; Komatsuzawa, H; Mintz, K P

    2012-04-01

    We previously reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -related sugars are associated with the glycosylation of the collagen adhesin EmaA, a virulence determinant of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. In this study, the role of LPS in the secretion of other virulence factors was investigated. The secretion of the epithelial adhesin Aae, the immunoglobulin Fc receptor Omp34 and leukotoxin were examined in a mutant strain with inactivated TDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-d-glucose 3,5-epimerase (rmlC), which resulted in altered O-antigen polysaccharides (O-PS) of LPS. The secretion of Aae and Omp34 was not affected. However, the leukotoxin secretion, which is mediated by the TolC-dependent type I secretion system, was altered in the rmlC mutant. The amount of secreted leukotoxin in the bacterial growth medium was reduced nine-fold, with a concurrent four-fold increase of the membrane-bound toxin in the mutant compared with the wild-type strain. The altered leukotoxin secretion pattern was restored to the wild-type by complementation of the rmlC gene in trans. Examination of the ltxA mRNA levels indicated that the leukotoxin secretion was post-transcriptionally regulated in the modified O-PS containing strain. The mutant strain also showed increased resistance to vancomycin, an antibiotic dependent on TolC for internalization, indicating that TolC was affected. Overexpression of TolC in the rmlC mutant resulted in an increased TolC level in the outer membrane but did not restore the leukotoxin secretion profile to the wild-type phenotype. The data suggest that O-PS mediate leukotoxin secretion in A. actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:22394466

  20. Innate Immune Programing by Endotoxin and Its Pathological Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Matthew C.; Gilliam, Elizabeth A.; Li, Liwu

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes and macrophages play pivotal roles in inflammation and homeostasis. Recent studies suggest that dynamic programing of macrophages and monocytes may give rise to distinct “memory” states. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a classical pattern recognition molecule, dynamically programs innate immune responses. Emerging studies have revealed complex dynamics of cellular responses to LPS, with high doses causing acute, resolving inflammation, while lower doses are associated with low-grade and chronic non-resolving inflammation. These phenomena hint at dynamic complexities of intra-cellular signaling circuits downstream of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). In this review, we examine pathological effects of varying LPS doses with respect to the dynamics of innate immune responses and key molecular regulatory circuits responsible for these effects. PMID:25610440

  1. Comparison of the binding of gram-negative bacterial endotoxin by polymyxin B sulphate, colistin sulphate and colistin sulphomethate sodium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Rogers; J. Cohen

    1986-01-01

    Summary Polymyxins are cyclic polypeptide antibiotics. In addition to their bactericidal activity they bind lipid A and neutralize the biological effects of bacterial endotoxin. We have studied the three available polymyxin preparations: polymyxin B sulphate (PB), colistin sulphate (CS) and colistin sulphomethate sodium (CMS), and compared their endotoxin binding capacity at equivalent therapeutic dosage. Each polymyxin was bound to a

  2. Exposure to Traffic-related Particles and Endotoxin during Infancy Is Associated with Wheezing at Age 3 Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick H. Ryan; David I. Bernstein; James Lockey; Tiina Reponen; Linda Levin; Sergey Grinshpun; Manuel Villareal; Gurjit K. Khurana Hershey; Jeff Burkle; Grace LeMasters

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Murine models demonstrate a synergistic production of reactive oxygen species on coexposure to diesel exhaust particles and endotoxin. Objectives: It was hypothesized that coexposure to traffic-related particles and endotoxin would have an additive effect on persistent wheezing during early childhood. Methods: Persistent wheezing at age 36 months was assessed in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study, a

  3. Airborne endotoxin from indoor and outdoor environments: effect of sample dilution on the kinetic Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay.

    PubMed

    Dungan, Robert S

    2011-03-01

    Airborne endotoxins in occupational environments are a potential respiratory hazard to individuals. In this study, airborne endotoxins were collected using open-face and button aerosol samplers from inside animal housing units and downwind from agricultural production sites and a wastewater treatment plant. Filter extracts were then diluted to examine the effect of interfering substances on the kinetic Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. In most cases, the overall endotoxin concentration was shown to decrease with increasing dilution up to 1000-fold, suggesting the presence of enhancing substances in the filter extracts. This dilution-dependent effect was most prominent in the open-face endotoxin samples, while button samples displayed little effect. Using a joinpoint regression model, it was determined that a dilution factor of 50 to 100 was generally sufficient to eliminate the presence of enhancing substances. After screening the data for dilution dependent effects, the airborne endotoxin concentrations were determined. The highest endotoxin concentrations, ranging from 2841 to 49,066 endotoxin units m(-3) of air, were found inside swine farrowing and finishing barns. Airborne endotoxin concentrations were 10- to 100-fold lower inside a dairy barn and downwind of other agricultural production sites and the wastewater treatment plant. Examination of dilution-dependent effects should be considered essential when utilizing the LAL assay, especially if values are to be used for regulatory purposes. PMID:21347956

  4. Temporal detection of Cry1Ab-endotoxins in coccinellid predators from fields of Bacillus thuringiensis corn.

    PubMed

    Harwood, J D; Samson, R A; Obrycki, J J

    2007-12-01

    The area planted to genetically engineered crops has increased dramatically in the last ten years. This has generated many studies examining non-target effects of bioengineered plants expressing Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins. To date, most have focused on population-level effects in the field or laboratory evaluation of specific plant-herbivore or plant-herbivore-predator trophic pathways. Using a post-mortem enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we examined the uptake of Cry1Ab-endotoxins by predatory coccinellids and the importance of anthesis to this trophic pathway. Adult Coleomegilla maculata, Harmonia axyridis, Cycloneda munda and Coccinella septempunctata contained low, but detectable, quantities of Bt-endotoxin when screened by ELISA. This was most evident in C. maculata, with 12.8% of 775 individuals testing positive for Cry1Ab-endotoxins. Interestingly, the presence of endotoxins in gut samples was not confined to periods around anthesis, but coccinellid adults tested positive two weeks before and up to ten weeks after pollen was shed, suggesting tri-trophic linkages in their food chain facilitates the transfer of endotoxins into higher-order predators. This contrasts with adult Coleomegilla maculata entering overwintering sites where Bt-endotoxins were not detected in gut samples, indicating low levels of persistence of Cry1Ab-endotoxins within coccinellid predators. This study enhances our understanding of complex interactions between transgenic crops and non-target food webs, but further research is required to quantify the significance of specific trophic linkages in the field. PMID:17997879

  5. Amide-mediated hydrogen bonding at organic crystal/water interfaces enables selective endotoxin binding with picomolar affinity.

    PubMed

    Vagenende, Vincent; Ching, Tim-Jang; Chua, Rui-Jing; Thirumoorthi, Navanita; Gagnon, Pete

    2013-05-22

    Since the discovery of endotoxins as the primary toxic component of Gram-negative bacteria, researchers have pursued the quest for molecules that detect, neutralize, and remove endotoxins. Selective removal of endotoxins is particularly challenging for protein solutions and, to this day, no general method is available. Here, we report that crystals of the purine-derived compound allantoin selectively adsorb endotoxins with picomolar affinity through amide-mediated hydrogen bonding in aqueous solutions. Atom force microscopy and chemical inhibition experiments indicate that endotoxin adsorption is largely independent from hydrophobic and ionic interactions with allantoin crystals and is mediated by hydrogen bonding with amide groups at flat crystal surfaces. The small size (500 nm) and large specific surface area of allantoin crystals results in a very high endotoxin-binding capacity (3 × 10(7) EU/g) which compares favorably with known endotoxin-binding materials. These results provide a proof-of-concept for hydrogen bond-based molecular recognition processes in aqueous solutions and establish a practical method for removing endotoxins from protein solutions. PMID:23611466

  6. Escherichia coli K1-induced cytopathogenicity of human brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naveed Ahmed; Iqbal, Junaid; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah

    2012-01-01

    Pathophysiology of Escherichia coli sepsis is complex involving circulating bacterial products, cytokine release, and sustained bacteremia resulting in the damage of vascular endothelium. Here, it is shown that E. coli K1 produced cytopathogenicity of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), that constitute the blood-brain barrier. Whole bacteria or their conditioned medium produced severe HBMEC damage suggesting E. coli K1-cytopathogenicity is a contact-independent process. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibitor, polymyxin B, purified LPS extracted from E. coli K1 as well as LPS mutant derived from E. coli K1, we showed that LPS is not the sole determinant of E. coli K1-mediated HBMEC death. Bacterial product(s) for HBMEC cytopathogenicity was heat-labile suggesting LPS-associated proteins. Several isogenic gene-deletion mutants (?ompA, ?ibeA, ?ibeB, ?cnf1) exhibited HBMEC cytopathogenicity similar to that produced by wild type E. coli K1. E. coli K1-mediated HBMEC death was independent of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) but dependent partially on focal adhesion kinase (FAK) using HBMEC expressing dominant negative FAK and PI3K. PMID:22819797

  7. Functionalized nanoparticles for endotoxin binding in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Darkow, R; Groth, T; Albrecht, W; Lützow, K; Paul, D

    1999-07-01

    Nanoparticles consisting of a polystyrene core and a polyglycidyl methacrylate shell were prepared by a two-step emulsion polymerization. The size and surface properties of the particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and polyelectrolyte titration techniques. Particles were found to be monodisperse with a mean diameter of about 85 nm. Parent particles were modified with a number of different ligands including diamines of increasing chain length, amino acids and corresponding amines and higher molecular weight ligands like polymyxin B. The modified particles were tested for their endotoxin (ET) binding capacity in water and physiological sodium chloride solution with the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. It was found that the ET binding properties of the different ligands depend both on the ability of the ligand to form Coulomb- and van der Waals-interactions with the ET molecule influenced by the nature of the suspension medium. Therefore, the choice of ligands for particle modification has to consider minutely the conditions under which ET has to be removed, e.g. removal from pure water, dialysis fluids, plasma or blood. PMID:10403045

  8. Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P. Nataro; Harry L. T. Mobley; James B. Kaper

    2004-01-01

    Few microorganisms are as versatile as Escherichia coli. An important member of the normal intestinal microflora of humans and other mammals, E. coli has also been widely exploited as a cloning host in recombinant DNA technology. But E. coli is more than just a laboratory workhorse or harmless intestinal inhabitant; it can also be a highly versatile, and frequently deadly,

  9. E. Coli Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    E. coli is the name of a type of bacteria that lives in your intestines. Most types of E. coli are harmless. However, some types can make ... type causes travelers' diarrhea. The worst type of E. coli causes bloody diarrhea, and can sometimes cause ...

  10. Reduction in the Ca2(+)-induced Ca2+ release from canine cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum following endotoxin administration.

    PubMed

    Liu, M S; Wu, L L

    1991-02-14

    Effects of endotoxin administration on the Ca2(+)-induced Ca2+ release from canine cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) were studied. Results show that the Ca2(+)-induced Ca2+ release from either passively or actively loaded SR vesicles was decreased by 28 to 46% (p less than 0.05) 4 h after endotoxin administration. Kinetic analysis reveals that the Vmax for Ca2+ was decreased significantly without changing the S0.5 and the Hill coefficient values. The binding of [3H]ryanodine to cardiac SR was reduced by 25.3% (p less than 0.01) following endotoxin administration. These data demonstrate that the Ca2(+)-induced Ca2+ release via the ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ channel in canine cardiac SR was reduced during endotoxin shock. A reduction in the SR Ca2(+)-induced Ca2+ release may have a pathophysiological significance in contributing to the development of myocardial depression during endotoxin shock. PMID:1996988

  11. A critical review of human endotoxin administration as an experimental paradigm of depression

    PubMed Central

    DellaGioia, Nicole; Hannestad, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    The syndrome called depression may represent the common final pathway at which different aetiopathogenic processes converge. One such atiopathogenic process is innate immune system activation. Some depressed patients increased levels of inflammatory cytokines and other immunologic abnormalities. It is not known whether immune system activation contributes to the pathogenesis of depressive symptoms. Supporting this possibility is the observation that in both rodents and humans, exogenous immune stimuli such as endotoxin can produce symptoms that resemble depression. A new approach to depression research would be to use immune stimuli to elicit depressive symptoms in humans. Here we review each of the symptoms elicited in humans by endotoxin administration, and compare this model to two other immune depression paradigms: interferon-alpha treatment and typhoid vaccine administration, to assess to what degree endotoxin administration represents a valid model of immune depression. We also review corresponding behavioral changes in rodents and the potential molecular pathways through which immune system activation produces each symptom. PMID:19666048

  12. Effect of endotoxin fever on plasma clearance of thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Elson, M.K.; Oken, M.M.; Shafer, R.B.

    1982-03-01

    Endotoxin-induced fever in rabbits causes a rapid decrease in serum T3, a reciprocal rise of 3,3',5'-tri-iodothyronine (rT3), and a less marked reduction in T4 with a rebound at 24 hr. To answer the question whether the alteration in hormone levels was the result of a decrease in T3 or T4 production and release or of an increase in T3 and T4 metabolism, we measured the disappearance of (125I)T4 and (125I)T3 during endotoxin-induced fever and externally applied heat. Results showed no significant difference in disappearance of (125I)T4 or (125I)T3. This suggests that the rapid change in T3 levels associated with endotoxin fever is due to an inhibition of thyroid production and peripheral conversion, and not to increased metabolism of hormones.

  13. Dissecting Escherichia coli Outer Membrane Biogenesis Using Differential Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Martorana, Alessandra M.; Motta, Sara; Di Silvestre, Dario; Falchi, Federica; Dehň, Gianni; Mauri, Pierluigi; Sperandeo, Paola; Polissi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria is a complex multi-layered structure comprising an inner cytoplasmic membrane and an additional asymmetric lipid bilayer, the outer membrane, which functions as a selective permeability barrier and is essential for viability. Lipopolysaccharide, an essential glycolipid located in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane, greatly contributes to the peculiar properties exhibited by the outer membrane. This complex molecule is transported to the cell surface by a molecular machine composed of seven essential proteins LptABCDEFG that form a transenvelope complex and function as a single device. While advances in understanding the mechanisms that govern the biogenesis of the cell envelope have been recently made, only few studies are available on how bacterial cells respond to severe envelope biogenesis defects on a global scale. Here we report the use of differential proteomics based on Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) to investigate how Escherichia coli cells respond to a block of lipopolysaccharide transport to the outer membrane. We analysed the envelope proteome of a lptC conditional mutant grown under permissive and non permissive conditions and identified 123 proteins whose level is modulated upon LptC depletion. Most such proteins belong to pathways implicated in cell envelope biogenesis, peptidoglycan remodelling, cell division and protein folding. Overall these data contribute to our understanding on how E. coli cells respond to LPS transport defects to restore outer membrane functionality. PMID:24967819

  14. Species-specific activation of TLR4 by hypoacylated endotoxins governed by residues 82 and 122 of MD-2.

    PubMed

    Oblak, Alja; Jerala, Roman

    2014-01-01

    The Toll-like receptor 4/MD-2 receptor complex recognizes endotoxin, a Gram-negative bacterial cell envelope component. Recognition of the most potent hexaacylated form of endotoxin is mediated by the sixth acyl chain that protrudes from the MD-2 hydrophobic pocket and bridges TLR4/MD-2 to the neighboring TLR4 ectodomain, driving receptor dimerization via hydrophobic interactions. In hypoacylated endotoxins all acyl chains could be accommodated within the binding pocket of the human hMD-2. Nevertheless, tetra- and pentaacylated endotoxins activate the TLR4/MD-2 receptor of several species. We observed that amino acid residues 82 and 122, located at the entrance to the endotoxin binding site of MD-2, have major influence on the species-specific endotoxin recognition. We show that substitution of hMD-2 residue V82 with an amino acid residue with a bulkier hydrophobic side chain enables activation of TLR4/MD-2 by pentaacylated and tetraacylated endotoxins. Interaction of the lipid A phosphate group with the amino acid residue 122 of MD-2 facilitates the appropriate positioning of the hypoacylated endotoxin. Moreover, mouse TLR4 contributes to the agonistic effect of pentaacylated msbB endotoxin. We propose a molecular model that explains how the molecular differences between the murine or equine MD-2, which both have sufficiently large hydrophobic pockets to accommodate all five or four acyl chains, influence the positioning of endotoxin so that one of the acyl chains remains outside the pocket and enables hydrophobic interactions with TLR4, leading to receptor activation. PMID:25203747

  15. Electrochemical sensor with substitutional stripping voltammetry for highly sensitive endotoxin assay.

    PubMed

    Takano, Shinichiro; Inoue, Kumi Y; Takahashi, Satoko; Ino, Kosuke; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a novel method for detection of endotoxin with extra-high sensitivity by using substitutional stripping voltammetry (SSV). In this method, a p-aminophenol (pAP) conjugated peptide (Boc-Leu-Gly-Arg-pAP; LGR-pAP) was used as a substrate for a protease, which is activated at the last step of the endotoxin-induced Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) cascade reaction. Extra-highly sensitive detection of pAP liberated by the endotoxin-induced LAL reaction was successfully realized with SSV, based on the accumulation of an amperometric signal owing to exchange of the oxidation current of pAP generated at an electrode in a reaction cell with silver deposition on another electrode in a deposition cell. This reaction is driven by the difference in the redox potential between pAP/quinoneimine and silver/silver ion. The amount of the deposited silver is quantified by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). This SSV-based endotoxin assay was performed with a chip device comprising two cells, each of which was connected via a liquid junction made of Vycor® glass. The reaction cell and the deposition cell contained a standard endotoxin sample with LAL regents containing LGR-pAP and AgNO3 solution, respectively. After the cells were electrically connected for 60 min, ASV was conducted in the deposition cell to quantify the total electrical charge derived by the oxidation of free pAP in the reaction cell. The ASV signal increased with the increase of the endotoxin concentration in the sample solution in the range of 0.5-1000 EU L(-1). PMID:25096015

  16. Workplace Determinants of Endotoxin Exposure in Dental Healthcare Facilities in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tanusha S.; Bello, Braimoh; Mabe, Onnicah D.; Renton, Kevin; Jeebhay, Mohamed F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Aerosols generated during dental procedures have been reported to contain endotoxin as a result of bacterial contamination of dental unit water lines. This study investigated the determinants of airborne endotoxin exposure in dental healthcare settings. Methods: The study population included dental personnel (n?=?454) from five academic dental institutions in South Africa. Personal air samples (n?=?413) in various dental jobs and water samples (n?=?403) from dental handpieces and basin taps were collected. The chromogenic-1000 limulus amebocyte lysate assay was used to determine endotoxin levels. Exposure metrics were developed on the basis of individually measured exposures and average levels within each job category. Analysis of variance and multivariate linear regression models were constructed to ascertain the determinants of exposure in the dental group. Results: There was a 2-fold variation in personal airborne endotoxin from the least exposed (administration) to the most exposed (laboratory) jobs (geometric mean levels: 2.38 versus 5.63 EU m?3). Three percent of personal samples were above DECOS recommended exposure limit (50 EU m?3). In the univariate linear models, the age of the dental units explained the most variability observed in the personal air samples (R2?=?0.20, P?endotoxin levels in water, job category (staff versus students), dental unit model type and age of dental unit. Conclusions: Apart from job type, dental unit characteristics are important predictors of airborne endotoxin levels in this setting. PMID:20044586

  17. Cotton dust and endotoxin exposure-response relationships in cotton textile workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, S.M.; Christiani, D.C.; Eisen, E.A.; Wegman, D.H.; Greaves, I.A.; Olenchock, S.A.; Ye, T.T.; Lu, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    Endotoxin exposure has been implicated in the etiology of lung disease in cotton workers. We investigated this potential relationship in 443 cotton workers from 2 factories in Shanghai and 439 control subjects from a nearby silk mill. A respiratory questionnaire was administered and pre- and postshift forced expiratory volume (FVC) and flow in one second (FEV1) were determined for each worker. Multiple area air samples were analyzed for total elutriated dust concentration (range: 0.15 to 2.5 mg/m3) and endotoxin (range: 0.002 to 0.55 microgram U.S. Reference Endotoxin/m3). The cotton worker population was stratified by current and cumulative dust or endotoxin exposure. Groups were compared for FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC%, % change in FEV1 over the shift (delta FEV1%), and prevalences of chronic bronchitis and byssinosis, and linear and logistic regression models were constructed. No dose-response relationships were demonstrated comparing dust concentration to any pulmonary function or symptom variable. A dose-response trend was seen with the current endotoxin level and FEV1, delta FEV1%, and the prevalence of byssinosis and chronic bronchitis, except for the highest exposure level group in which a reversal of the trend was seen. The regression coefficients for current endotoxin exposure were significant (p less than 0.05) in the models for FEV1 and chronic bronchitis but not in the models for delta FEV1% (i.e., acute change in FEV1) or byssinosis prevalence. The coefficient for dust level was never significant in the models.

  18. Endotoxin- and ATP-neutralizing activity of alkaline phosphatase as a strategy to limit neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme which can neutralize endotoxin as well as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), an endogenous danger signal released during brain injury. In this study we assessed a potential therapeutic role for AP in inhibiting neuroinflammation using three complementary approaches. Methods Mice were immunized to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and treated with AP for seven days during different phases of disease. In addition, serological assays to determine AP activity, endotoxin levels and endotoxin-reactive antibodies were performed in a cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and controls. Finally, the expression of AP and related enzymes CD39 and CD73 was investigated in brain tissue from MS patients and control subjects. Results AP administration during the priming phase, but not during later stages, of EAE significantly reduced neurological signs. This was accompanied by reduced proliferation of splenocytes to the immunogen, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide. In MS patients, AP activity and isoenzyme distribution were similar to controls. Although endotoxin-reactive IgM was reduced in primary-progressive MS patients, plasma endotoxin levels were not different between groups. Finally, unlike AP and CD73, CD39 was highly upregulated on microglia in white matter lesions of patients with MS. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that: 1) pre-symptomatic AP treatment reduces neurological signs of EAE; 2) MS patients do not have altered circulating levels of AP or endotoxin; and 3) the expression of the AP-like enzyme CD39 is increased on microglia in white matter lesions of MS patients. PMID:23231745

  19. Exposure–response relationship between endotoxin exposure and lung function impairment in cotton textile workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus Oldenburg; Ute Latza; Xaver Baur

    2007-01-01

    Objectives  Preventive workplace regulations are so far not based on an ubiquitously accepted threshold for airborne endotoxin in the\\u000a bioaerosol.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In a cross-sectional study, 150 employees of a cotton spinning mill underwent lung function testing. Furthermore, in a random\\u000a subset of 75 textile workers cross-shift lung function test and methacholine challenges were performed. Airborne current endotoxin\\u000a exposure was classified as “low”,

  20. Predictors of coarse particulate matter and associated endotoxin concentrations in residential environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Md. Aynul; MacNeill, Morgan; Kindzierski, Warren B.; Wallace, Lance; Héroux, Marie-Čve; Wheeler, Amanda J.

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to coarse particulate matter (PM), i.e., particles with an aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 ?m (PM10-2.5), is of increasing interest due to the potential for health effects including asthma, allergy and respiratory symptoms. Limited information is available on indoor and outdoor coarse PM and associated endotoxin exposures. Seven consecutive 24-h samples of indoor and outdoor coarse PM were collected during winter and summer 2010 using Harvard Coarse Impactors in a total of 74 Edmonton homes where no reported smoking took place. Coarse PM filters were subsequently analyzed for endotoxin content. Data were also collected on indoor and outdoor temperature, relative humidity, air exchange rate, housing characteristics and occupants' activities. During winter, outdoor concentrations of coarse PM (median = 6.7 ?g/m3, interquartile range, IQR = 3.4-12 ?g/m3) were found to be higher than indoor concentrations (median 3.4 ?g/m3, IQR = 1.6-5.7 ?g/m3); while summer levels of indoor and outdoor concentrations were similar (median 4.5 ?g/m3, IQR = 2.3-6.8 ?g/m3, and median 4.7 ?g/m3, IQR = 2.1-7.9 ?g/m3, respectively). Similar predictors were identified for indoor coarse PM in both seasons and included corresponding outdoor coarse PM concentrations, whether vacuuming, sweeping or dusting was performed during the sampling period, and number of occupants in the home. Winter indoor coarse PM predictors also included the number of dogs and indoor endotoxin concentrations. Summer median endotoxin concentrations (indoor: 0.41 EU/m3, outdoor: 0.64 EU/m3) were 4-fold higher than winter concentrations (indoor: 0.12 EU/m3, outdoor: 0.16 EU/m3). Other than outdoor endotoxin concentrations, indoor endotoxin concentration predictors for both seasons were different. Winter endotoxin predictors also included presence of furry pets and whether the vacuum had a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Summer endotoxin predictors were problems with mice in the previous 12 months and mean indoor relative humidity levels.

  1. Intravenous Endotoxin Triggers Pulmonary Vasoconstriction and Pulmonary Hypertension in Broiler Chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Wideman; G. F. Erf; M. E. Chapman

    ABSTRACT Bacterial endotoxins,stimulate endothelin- mediated, thromboxane-dependent increases in pulmo- nary vascular resistance in mammals, and thromboxane has been shown,to cause an immediate,but transient pul- monary,vasoconstriction,in broiler chickens. In the pres- ent study, i.v. injections of 1 mg endotoxin into anesthe- tized male broilers caused,a pulmonary,vasoconstrictive response,that was,delayed,in onset by 15 min,and that elevated the pulmonary,arterial pressure,by 10 mm,Hg within 25

  2. Challenge with lipopolysaccharides or Freund's adjuvant? What is the best option to trigger acute phase protein production in broilers?

    PubMed

    Koppenol, A; Everaert, N; Buyse, J; Delezie, E

    2015-04-01

    Broilers were injected at 10 days of age with either Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or with Freund's adjuvants (FA) to investigate its triggering effect on the acute phase reaction (APR). First the kinetics of certain APP was studied by sampling blood 4?h, 8?h, 12?h and 24?h post injection with LPS. Ovotransferrin (OVT) and ?-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentration increased with time post injection (PI) with LPS to reach a plateau at 12 and 24?h PI. Caeruloplasmin (CP) did not increase with time PI. Compared to injection with phosphate buffered saline, OVT concentrations were higher when injecting chicks with LPS at all time points PI. At 24?h PI, LPS injection resulted in higher OVT and AGP concentration compared to injection with FA. It is recommended to use LPS instead of FA to trigger the APR. The best time point to sample blood for APP determination is 24?h PI. PMID:25666225

  3. Protective effects of N-acetylcysteine on intestinal functions of piglets challenged with lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yongqing; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Zhenguo; Ding, Binying; Zhu, Huiling; Liu, Yulan; Qiu, Yinsheng; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2012-09-01

    The neonatal small intestine is susceptible to damage by endotoxin, but effective methods for prevention and treatment are lacking. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a widely used precursor of L: -cysteine for animal cells and plays an important role in protecting cells against oxidative stress. This study was conducted with the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglet model to determine the effects of NAC on intestinal function. Eighteen piglets were randomly allocated into control, LPS and LPS + NAC groups. The control and LPS groups were fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet, and the LPS + NAC group was fed the basal diet +500 mg/kg NAC. On days 10, 13 and 20 of the trial, the LPS and LPS + NAC groups received intraperitoneal administration of LPS (100 ?g/kg BW), whereas the control piglets received saline. On day 20 of the trial, D-: xylose (0.1 g/kg BW) was orally administrated to all piglets 2 h after LPS or saline injection, and blood samples were collected 1 h thereafter. One hour blood xylose test was used to measure intestinal absorption capacity and mucosal integrity, and diamine oxidase (DAO) was used as a marker of intestinal injury. On day 21 of the trial, pigs were killed to obtain the intestinal mucosa. Compared to the control, LPS challenge reduced (P < 0.05) the concentrations of D-: xylose (a marker of intestinal absorption) in plasma, activities of DAO in the jejunal mucosa, the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunal mucosa, RNA/DNA and protein/DNA in the jejunal and ileal mucosae, while increasing (P < 0.05) DAO activity in plasma and caspase-3 expression in the intestinal mucosa. The adverse effects of LPS were partially ameliorated (P < 0.05) by NAC supplementation. Moreover, NAC prevented the LPS-induced decrease in claudin-1 and occludin expression in the jejunal and ileal mucosae. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary NAC supplementation alleviates the mucosal damage and improves the absorptive function of the small intestine in LPS-challenged piglets. PMID:22180025

  4. Ropivacaine attenuates endotoxin plus hyperinflation-mediated acute lung injury via inhibition of early-onset Src-dependent signaling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with high mortality due to the lack of effective therapeutic strategies. Mechanical ventilation itself can cause ventilator-induced lung injury. Pulmonary vascular barrier function, regulated in part by Src kinase-dependent phosphorylation of caveolin-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), plays a crucial role in the development of protein-/neutrophil-rich pulmonary edema, the hallmark of ALI. Amide-linked local anesthetics, such as ropivacaine, have anti-inflammatory properties in experimental ALI. We hypothesized ropivacaine may attenuate inflammation in a “double-hit” model of ALI triggered by bacterial endotoxin plus hyperinflation via inhibition of Src-dependent signaling. Methods C57BL/6 (WT) and ICAM-1 ?/? mice were exposed to either nebulized normal saline (NS) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 mg) for 1 hour. An intravenous bolus of 0.33 mg/kg ropivacaine or vehicle was followed by mechanical ventilation with normal (7 ml/kg, NTV) or high tidal volume (28 ml/kg, HTV) for 2 hours. Measures of ALI (excess lung water (ELW), extravascular plasma equivalents, permeability index, myeloperoxidase activity) were assessed and lungs were homogenized for Western blot analysis of phosphorylated and total Src, ICAM-1 and caveolin-1. Additional experiments evaluated effects of ropivacaine on LPS-induced phosphorylation/expression of Src, ICAM-1 and caveolin-1 in human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC). Results WT mice treated with LPS alone showed a 49% increase in ELW compared to control animals (p?=?0.001), which was attenuated by ropivacaine (p?=?0.001). HTV ventilation alone increased measures of ALI even more than LPS, an effect which was not altered by ropivacaine. LPS plus hyperinflation (“double-hit”) increased all ALI parameters (ELW, EVPE, permeability index, MPO activity) by 3–4 fold compared to control, which were again decreased by ropivacaine. Western blot analyses of lung homogenates as well as HLMVEC treated in culture with LPS alone showed a reduction in Src activation/expression, as well as ICAM-1 expression and caveolin-1 phosphorylation. In ICAM-1 ?/? mice, neither addition of LPS to HTV ventilation alone nor ropivacaine had an effect on the development of ALI. Conclusions Ropivacaine may be a promising therapeutic agent for treating the cause of pulmonary edema by blocking inflammatory Src signaling, ICAM-1 expression, leukocyte infiltration, and vascular hyperpermeability. PMID:25097454

  5. Differential expression of Kir4.1 and aquaporin 4 in the retina from endotoxin-induced uveitis rat

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Qiang; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Jin, Zi-Bing; Wada, Akihiko

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The inwardly rectifying potassium channel protein Kir4.1 and the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) have been suggested to play essential roles in the potassium and water homeostasis of the retina. In this study, we investigated the expression of Kir4.1 and AQP4 in the retina during endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats. Methods EIU was induced in male Wistar rats by intravitreal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The severity of the EIU was evaluated by clinical and histopathological examination. The expression of Kir4.1 and AQP4 in the retina was detected by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining. Results In the animal model of EIU, the clinical changes correlated well with the histopathological findings. The inflammation peaked at 24 h and resolved by seven day. After an intravitreal LPS injection, the expression of Kir4.1 in the retina showed a significant decline at both the protein and mRNA levels. In the early stages of EIU, the expression of Kir4.1 mRNA decreased sharply, reaching a minimum at 12 h (31%, p<0.001). It then increased gradually and had partially recovered 14 days after LPS injection (92%, p>0.05). The expression of Kir4.1 protein decreased significantly, reaching a minimum at three days after the LPS injection (43%, p<0.001). Thereafter, it increased slightly but was maintained at a low level until 14 days after LPS injection (64%, p<0.001). In contrast, the expression of AQP4 mRNA remained almost unchanged after LPS treatment (p>0.05). The expression of AQP4 protein was only slightly reduced at one day (82%, p>0.05) after LPS injection and then increased gradually and had nearly recovered to the basal level at 14 days after LPS injection. Conclusions EIU differently alters the expression of Kir4.1 and AQP4 in the retina. The differential expression of Kir4.1 and AQP4 during EIU implies a disturbance of water and potassium transport in the retina, which may contribute to the retinal edema during ocular inflammation. PMID:17356517

  6. Steroidal and nonsteroidal drugs in endotoxin-induced uveitis.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, P S

    1994-01-01

    Various classes of anti-inflammatory compounds like steroids (dexamethasone), cyclooxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin and flurbiprofen), 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors (BWA 218C and BWA 4C), immunosuppressive drugs (cyclosporin and rapamycin) and cod liver oil were tested for their antiinflammatory activities in endotoxin-induced uveitis model in rabbits. Intraocular inflammation was assessed in terms of two inflammatory responses i.e. breakdown of blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) and leukocyte infiltration into aqueous humor and iris ciliary body (ICB). Prostaglandin (PG) E2 and leukotriene (LT) B4 release into aqueous humor was also measured. Indomethacin significantly inhibited PGE2 release without affecting leukocyte or BAB response. Flurbiprofen prevented leukocyte, PGE2 and LTB4 release into aqueous humor but not ICB chemotaxis. BWA 218C and BWA 4C also significantly inhibited leukocyte and LTB4 release but not BAB responses. Dexamethasone (2mg/kg, i.m.) and cyclosporin A (25 mg/kg i.m.) significantly inhibited leukocyte infiltration into aqueous humor and ICB, and PGE2 release but they failed to inhibit breakdown of BAB and LTB4 release. On the other hand, rapamycin (10mg/kg i.m.) and cod liver oil (1 ml daily i.m. up to 15 days) significantly prevented leukocyte and BAB response. Cod liver oil also significantly inhibited PGE2 and LTB4 release but rapamycin affected only PGE2 release into aqueous humor. It is concluded that arachidonic acid metabolites may not play a vital role in this uveitis model and additional proinflammatory mediators like cytokines may be involved. PMID:8207337

  7. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide induces apoptosis in the trout ovary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon MacKenzie; Nuria Montserrat; Mario Mas; Laura Acerete; Lluis Tort; Aleksei Krasnov; Frederick W Goetz; Josep V Planas

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In mammals it is well known that infections can lead to alterations in reproductive function. As part of the innate immune response, a number of cytokines and other immune factors is produced during bacterial infection or after treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and acts on the reproductive system. In fish, LPS can also induce an innate immune response but little

  8. Inhibition of gastric secretion by bacterial lipopolysaccharide in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. H. H. Leenen; A. S. J. P. A. M. van Miert

    1969-01-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provoked an inhibition of gastric secretion in the rat. Reserpine and the catecholamine-synthesis inhibitors ?-methyldopa and diethyl dithiocarbamate blocked this action of LPS, although adrenergic blocking agents or adrenalectomy were without effect. Direct stimulation of gastric secretion by carbachol also opposed the LPS effect, whereas central parasympathetic stimulation by 2-deoxy-D-glucose did not.

  9. Glomerular Transcriptome Changes Associated with Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Proteinuria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Sun; Liqun He; Minoru Takemoto; Jaakko Patrakka; Timo Pikkarainen; Guillem Genové; Jenny Norlin; Katarina Truvé; Karl Tryggvason; Christer Betsholtz

    2009-01-01

    Background: Global gene expression patterns have recently been characterized in normal glomeruli, but gene expression changes that accompany glomerular disease remain poorly characterized. Method: Here, we mapped global glomerular gene expression profile changes occurring in conjunction with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced proteinuria in mice. Results: We observed dramatic transcriptional reprogramming in glomeruli in response to LPS, representing some 20% of all genes

  10. Cytokine gene expression of peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated by lipopolysaccharide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hassan Hussein Musa; Yunhua Xu; Baoying Dai; Xiaoyan Kang; Chunhong Zhu; Guoqiang Zhu

    2009-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a predominant glycolipid in the outer membranes of gam-negative bacteria that stimulates monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils to produce cytokines. The aim was to study the expression profile of TLRs and cytokines and determine the role of LPS in the peripheral blood lymphocytes. Lymphocytes were isolated from the peripheral blood of chickens and induced with LPS, total RNA

  11. Molecular Genetic Analysis of an Endotoxin Nonresponder Mutant Cell Line: A Point Mutation in a Conserved Region of MD2 Abolishes Endotoxin-induced Signaling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andra B. Schromm; Egil Lien; Philipp Henneke; Jesse C. Chow; Atsutoshi Yoshimura; Holger Heine; Eicke Latz; Brian G. Monks; David A. Schwartz; Kensuke Miyake; Douglas T. Golenbock

    Somatic cell mutagenesis is a powerful tool for characterizing receptor systems. We reported previously two complementation groups of mutant cell lines derived from CD14-transfected Chinese hamster ovary-K1 fibroblasts defective in responses to bacterial endotoxin. Both classes of mutants expressed a normal gene product for Toll-like receptor (TLR)4, and fully re- sponded to stimulation by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- ? or

  12. Use of indium-111 oxine to study the effects of terbutaline on pulmonary and hepatic platelet sequestration in endotoxin shock

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, J.T.; Sigurdsson, G.H.; Mousawi, M.; Owunwanne, A.

    1987-01-01

    This study describes the effects of the beta 2 receptor agonist terbutaline on platelet sequestration in sheep exposed to endotoxin shock. The in vivo behavior of Indium-111-labeled platelets was followed simultaneously in the lungs, liver, spleen, and kidneys. The effects on the respiratory function and the central hemodynamics were also followed. Twelve adult sheep were given endotoxin (10 micrograms/kg bw), and six of those received a continuous intravenous infusion of terbutaline (20 micrograms/kg/hr) during 4 hr, starting 30 min after injection of endotoxin. The other six acted as controls. It was found that a marked pulmonary and hepatic platelet sequestration occurred during and just after the endotoxin infusion and was followed by a marked platelet disaggregation within 30 min in both groups. Three hours after the endotoxin a second wave of platelet trapping occurred in the control animals in both the lungs and the liver, while no such increase was seen in the terbutaline-treated animals. In the spleen, however, there was a decrease in platelet sequestration after endotoxin in both groups, and in the kidneys only minor changes occurred. Furthermore, less marked hemodynamic and respiratory alterations occurred in the terbutaline group compared with the controls. It was concluded that terbutaline decreased sequestration of platelets in the lungs and in the liver of sheep in endotoxin shock, which may be of importance in the development of multiple organ failure.

  13. Outer Membrane Protein A, Peptidoglycan-Associated Lipoprotein, and Murein Lipoprotein Are Released by Escherichia coli Bacteria into Serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUDITH HELLMAN; PAUL M. LOISELLE; MEGAN M. TEHAN; JENNIFER E. ALLAIRE; LENORA A. BOYLE; JAMES T. KURNICK; DAVID M. ANDREWS; KWANG SIK KIM; H. SHAW WARREN

    2000-01-01

    Complexes containing lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and three outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are released by gram-negative bacteria incubated in human serum and into the circulation in an experimental model of sepsis. The same OMPs are bound by immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the cross-protective antiserum raised to Escherichia coli J5 (anti-J5 IgG). This study was performed to identify the three OMPs. The 35-kDa

  14. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide acts as an adjuvant to induce autoimmune arthritisin mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, S; Sasatomi, E; Ohsawa, M

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the ability of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an adjuvant to induce autoimmune arthritis. LPS from Escherichia coli was intraperitoneally injected into DBA/1J mice together with the joint cartilage component type II collagen (CII) on day 0. Thereafter, the injection of CII and LPS was continued every 2 weeks up to day 56. The results showed that mice injected with CII plus LPS had signs of arthritis on day 55 and the joint inflammation reached a peak on day 75. Injection of CII or LPS alone induced no arthritis. Histologically, marked oedema of synovium and intense infiltration of inflammatory cells, including neutrophils, were observed 3 days after the onset of joint inflammation. Twenty?one days later, there were marked proliferation of synovial tissues with many mononulear cells and destruction of cartilage. Anti?CII immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG2a antibodies were markedly produced in mice injected with CII plus LPS. Pronounced secretion of cytokines, including interleukins?12 and ?1?, interferon?? and tumour necrosis factor??, was also observed in these animals. Arthritis was passively transferred into naive syngeneic mice with sera but not with lymphoid cells from mice given CII with LPS. Other types of LPS from Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium and Klebsiella pneumoniae as well as lipid A from E. coli, induced inflammation in joints when administered with CII. Polymixin B sulphate mixed with LPS or lipid A blocked the induction of joint inflammation. These results indicate that LPS appears to play an important role as an adjuvant in the induction of arthritis in which autoimmunity to CII is involved. PMID:10792509

  15. The role of lipopolysaccharide injected systemically in the reactivation of collagen-induced arthritis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Shin; Ohsawa, Motoyasu

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the role of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the reactivation of autoimmune disease by using collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice in which autoimmunity to the joint cartilage component type II collagen (CII) was involved.CIA was induced by immunization with CII emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant at the base of the tail (day 0) followed by a booster injection on day 21. Varying doses of LPS from E. coli were i.p. injected on day 50.Arthritis began to develop on day 25 after immunization with CII and reached a peak on day 35. Thereafter, arthritis subsided gradually but moderate joint inflammation was still observed on day 50. An i.p. injection of LPS on day 50 markedly reactivated arthritis on a dose-related fashion. Histologically, on day 55, there were marked oedema of synovium which had proliferated by the day of LPS injection, new formation of fibrin, and intense infiltration of neutrophils accompanied with a large number of mononuclear cells. The reactivation of CIA by LPS was associated with increases in anti-CII IgG and IgG2a antibodies as well as various cytokines including IL-12, IFN-?, IL-1?, and TNF-?. LPS from S. enteritidis, S. typhimurium, and K. neumoniae and its component, lipid A from E. coli also reactivated the disease. Polymyxin B sulphate suppressed LPS- or lipid A-induced reactivation of CIA.These results suggest that LPS may play an important role in the reactivation of autoimmune joint inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis in humans. PMID:10742285

  16. Lipopolysaccharide-binding alkylpolyamine DS-96 inhibits Chlamydia trachomatis infection by blocking attachment and entry.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Ichie; Hefty, P Scott

    2014-06-01

    Vaginally delivered microbicides are being developed to offer women self-initiated protection against transmission of sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia trachomatis. A small molecule, DS-96, rationally designed for high affinity to Escherichia coli lipid A, was previously demonstrated to bind and neutralize lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from a wide variety of Gram-negative bacteria (D. Sil et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51: 2811-2819, 2007, doi:10.1128/AAC.00200-07). Aside from the lack of the repeating O antigen, chlamydial lipooligosaccharide (LOS) shares general molecular architecture features with E. coli LPS. Importantly, the portion of lipid A where the interaction with DS-96 is expected to take place is well conserved between the two organisms, leading to the hypothesis that DS-96 inhibits Chlamydia infection by binding to LOS and compromising the function. In this study, antichlamydial activity of DS-96 was examined in cell culture. DS-96 inhibited the intercellular growth of Chlamydia in a dose-dependent manner and offered a high level of inhibition at a relatively low concentration (8 ?M). The data also revealed that infectious elementary bodies (EBs) were predominantly blocked at the attachment step, as indicated by the reduced number of EBs associated with the host cell surface following pretreatment. Of those EBs that were capable of attachment, the vast majority was unable to gain entry into the host cell. Inhibition of EB attachment and entry by DS-96 suggests that Chlamydia LOS is critical to these processes during the developmental cycle. Importantly, given the low association of host toxicity previously reported by Sil et al., DS-96 is expected to perform well in animal studies as an active antichlamydial compound in a vaginal microbicide. PMID:24663021

  17. Enzymatically deacylated Neisseria lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibits murine splenocyte mitogenesis induced by LPS.

    PubMed Central

    Erwin, A L; Mandrell, R E; Munford, R S

    1991-01-01

    Acyloxyacyl hydrolase is a leukocyte enzyme that selectively removes the secondary acyl chains from the lipid A moiety of gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). As predicted by the reported contribution of secondary acyl chains to the bioactivities of lipid A analogs, enzymatic deacylation of Salmonella typhimurium Rc LPS substantially reduces its potency in the dermal Shwartzman reaction and in several in vitro assays that measure responses of human endothelial cells and neutrophils, whereas the potency of this LPS for inducing murine splenocyte mitogenesis is affected much less. In the experiments described here, we studied the impact of acyloxyacyl hydrolysis on the bioactivities of several LPS that differ from Salmonella LPS in carbohydrate and lipid A structures. Deacylated LPS from Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and S. typhimurium were similarly reduced in potency in the Limulus lysate test (30- to 60-fold reduction in potency relative to the corresponding mock-treated LPS), and the ability of all of these deacylated LPS to stimulate neutrophil adherence to human endothelial cells was reduced by a factor of 100 or more. For LPS from E. coli, H. influenzae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the impact of deacylation on spleen cell mitogenesis was also similar to that observed for S. typhimurium LPS: deacylation reduced potency by less than 15-fold. Unexpectedly, the potency of Neisseria LPS in the murine splenocyte mitogenicity test was reduced over 100-fold by deacylation, and deacylated Neisseria LPS could block the mitogenic activity of Neisseria and Salmonella LPS. These studies indicate that the contribution of secondary acyl chains to the bioactivities of a given LPS cannot be predicted with confidence from the reported structure-activity relationships of lipid A or from the behavior of other deacylated LPS. PMID:1903767

  18. Serum Levels of Lipopolysaccharide and 1,3-?-D-Glucan Refer to the Severity in Patients with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanmin; Zhou, Guangxi; Yang, Wenjing; He, Zhenkun; Liu, Zhanju

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Interactions between the host and gut microbial community contribute to the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). In this study, we aimed to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and 1,3-?-D-glucan (BG) in the sera of CD patients and clarify the potential role in the diagnosis and therapeutic approaches. Materials and Methods. Serum samples were collected from 46 patients with active CD (A-CD), 22 CD patients at remission stage (R-CD), and 20 healthy controls, and the levels of LPS, BG, and TNF in sera were determined by ELISA. Moreover, sixteen patients with A-CD received anti-TNF monoclonal antibody therapy (infliximab, IFX) at a dose of 5?mg/kg body weight at weeks 0, 2, and 6, and the levels of LPS and BG were also tested at week 12 after the first intravenous infusion. Results. Serum levels of LPS and BG were found to be markedly increased in A-CD patients compared with R-CD patients and healthy controls (P < 0.05). They were also observed to be positively correlated with CDAI, ESR, and SES-CD, respectively (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the levels of TNF in sera had a significant correlation with LPS and BG, respectively. The concentrations of LPS and BG were demonstrated to be significantly downregulated in the sera of A-CD patients 12 weeks after IFX treatment (P < 0.05), suggesting that blockade of TNF could inhibit bacterial endotoxin absorption, partially through improving intestinal mucosal barrier. Conclusions. Serum levels of LPS and BG are significantly increased in A-CD patients and positively correlated with the severity of the disease. Blockade of intestinal mucosal inflammation with IFX could reduce the levels of LPS and BG in sera. Therefore, this study has shed some light on measurement of serum LPS and BG in the diagnosis and treatment of CD patients.

  19. Effect of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide Contamination on Gutta Percha- versus Resilon-Induced Human Monocyte Cell Line Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Hadjati, Jamshid; Assadian, Hadi; Ghorbanzadeh, Abdollah; Nourizadeh, Maryam; Fattah, Tahereh; Shokouhinejad, Noushin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Cytotoxic effects of obturation materials were tested in presence and absence of endotoxin on human monocytes in vitro. Materials and Methods: Human monocytes from THP-1 cell line were cultured. Three millimeters from the tip of each Resilon and gutta percha points were cut and directly placed at the bottom of the culture wells. Cultured cells were exposed to gutta percha (groups G1 and G2) and Resilon (R1 and R2). Ten ?g/ml bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was added to the culture wells in groups G1 and R1. Positive control included the bacterial LPS without the root canal filling material and the negative control contained the cells in culture medium only. Viability of cells was tested in all groups after 24, 48, and 72 hours using the methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for at least 3 times to obtain reproducible results. Optical density values were read and the data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and post hoc statistical test. Results: The results showed that cells in G2 had the lowest rate of viability at 24 hours, but the lowest rate of viable cells was recorded in G1 at 48 and 72 hours. The effect of LPS treatment was not statistically significant. Resilon groups showed cell viability values higher than those of gutta percha groups, although statistically non-significant (P=0.105). Cell viability values were lower in gutta percha than Resilon groups when LPS-treated and LPS-untreated groups were compared independently at each time point. Conclusion: It could be concluded that none of the tested root canal filling materials had toxic effects on cultured human monocyte cells whether in presence or absence of LPS contamination.

  20. Pivotal Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Differential Regulation of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Prostaglandins Production in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guiqing; Yu, Rui; Deng, Jing; Zhao, Qiong; Li, Yongchao; Joo, Myungsoo; van Breemen, Richard B.; Christman, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggers the production of inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and prostaglandins (PGs) by pulmonary macrophages. Here, we investigated if ROS influenced PGs production in response to LPS treatment in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). We observed that pretreatment of BMDM with two structurally unrelated ROS scavengers, MnTMPyP and EUK-134, not only prevented LPS-induced ROS accumulation, but also attenuated the LPS-induced PGD2, but not PGE2, production. Conversely LPS-induced PGD2, but not PGE2, production, was potentiated with the cotreatment of BMDM with H2O2. These data suggest that ROS differentially regulate PGD2 and PGE2 production in BMDM. In addition, selective inhibition of the ROS generator NADPH oxidase (NOX) using either pharmacologic inhibitors or its p47phox subunit deficient mouse BMDM also attenuated LPS-induced PGD2, but not PGE2 production, suggesting the critical role of NOX-generated ROS in LPS-induced PGD2 production in BMDM. We further found that both hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS) siRNA and its inhibitor HQL-79, but not lipocalin PGDS (L-PGDS) siRNA and its inhibitor AT-56, significantly attenuated LPS-induced PGD2 production, suggesting that H-PGDS, but not L-PGDS, mediates LPS-induced PGD2 production in BMDM. Furthermore, data from our in vitro cell-free enzymatic studies showed that coincubation of the recombinant H-PGDS with either MnTMPyP, EUK-134, or catalase significantly decreased PGD2 production, whereas coincubation with H2O2 significantly increased PGD2 production. Taken together, our results show that LPS-induced NOX-generated ROS production differentially and specifically regulates the H-PGDS-mediated production of PGD2, but not PGE2, in mouse BMDM. PMID:23071105

  1. Pivotal role of reactive oxygen species in differential regulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced prostaglandins production in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guiqing; Yu, Rui; Deng, Jing; Zhao, Qiong; Li, Yongchao; Joo, Myungsoo; van Breemen, Richard B; Christman, John W; Xiao, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggers the production of inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and prostaglandins (PGs) by pulmonary macrophages. Here, we investigated if ROS influenced PGs production in response to LPS treatment in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). We observed that pretreatment of BMDM with two structurally unrelated ROS scavengers, MnTMPyP and EUK-134, not only prevented LPS-induced ROS accumulation, but also attenuated the LPS-induced PGD(2), but not PGE(2), production. Conversely LPS-induced PGD(2), but not PGE(2), production, was potentiated with the cotreatment of BMDM with H(2)O(2). These data suggest that ROS differentially regulate PGD(2) and PGE(2) production in BMDM. In addition, selective inhibition of the ROS generator NADPH oxidase (NOX) using either pharmacologic inhibitors or its p47(phox) subunit deficient mouse BMDM also attenuated LPS-induced PGD(2), but not PGE(2) production, suggesting the critical role of NOX-generated ROS in LPS-induced PGD(2) production in BMDM. We further found that both hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS) siRNA and its inhibitor HQL-79, but not lipocalin PGDS (L-PGDS) siRNA and its inhibitor AT-56, significantly attenuated LPS-induced PGD(2) production, suggesting that H-PGDS, but not L-PGDS, mediates LPS-induced PGD(2) production in BMDM. Furthermore, data from our in vitro cell-free enzymatic studies showed that coincubation of the recombinant H-PGDS with either MnTMPyP, EUK-134, or catalase significantly decreased PGD(2) production, whereas coincubation with H(2)O(2) significantly increased PGD(2) production. Taken together, our results show that LPS-induced NOX-generated ROS production differentially and specifically regulates the H-PGDS-mediated production of PGD(2), but not PGE(2), in mouse BMDM. PMID:23071105

  2. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue from lean women respond differently to lipopolysaccharide-induced alteration of inflammation and glyceroneogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vatier, C; Kadiri, S; Muscat, A; Chapron, C; Capeau, J; Antoine, B

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Experimental endotoxaemia induces subcutaneous adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance in lean subjects. Glyceroneogenesis, by limiting free fatty acids (FFA) release from adipocytes, controls FFA homoeostasis and systemic insulin sensitivity. The roles of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in metabolic deregulation are intrinsically different. We compared the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the inflammation profiles of SAT and VAT explants from lean women, as well as on glyceroneogenesis, to test whether these two fat depots have intrinsically different responses to this metabolic endotoxin. Design: Abdominal SAT and VAT explants from eight lean women were treated in vitro with LPS. Their inflammatory status was evaluated by cytokine gene expression and secretion; glyceroneogenesis was evaluated by cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity and FFA vs glycerol release. Results: In the basal state, the cytokine status and expression of macrophage markers were lower in SAT than VAT. In the presence of 100?ng?ml?1 LPS, SAT exhibited a strong inflammatory response (increased interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? expression) and increased release of FFA due to inhibition of glyceroneogenesis, whereas VAT was only mildly affected. The effects of LPS on both tissues were blocked by the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) inhibitor, parthenolide. A significant effect of LPS on VAT occurred only at 1??g?ml?1 LPS. Conclusion: SAT explants from lean women are more sensitive to LPS-induced NF-?B activation than are VAT explants, leading to a depot-specific dysfunction of FFA storage. As SAT is the major player in FFA homoeostasis, this SAT dysfunction could be associated with visceral fat hypertrophy and systemic lipid disorders. PMID:23208412

  3. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Microglial Activation and Neuroprotection against Experimental Brain Injury Is Independent of Hematogenous TLR4

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhihong; Jalabi, Walid; Shpargel, Karl B.; Farabaugh, Kenneth T.; Dutta, Ranjan; Yin, Xinghua; Kidd, Grahame J.; Bergmann, Cornelia C.; Stohlman, Stephen A.; Trapp, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of the Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) elicits a rapid innate immune response. While this systemic inflammatory response can be destructive, tolerable low doses of LPS render the brain transiently resistant to subsequent injuries. However, the mechanism by which microglia respond to LPS stimulation and participate in subsequent neuroprotection has not been documented. In this study, we first established a novel LPS treatment paradigm where mice were injected intraperitoneally with 1.0 mg/kg LPS for four consecutive days to globally activate CNS microglia. By using a reciprocal bone marrow transplantation procedure between wild-type and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mutant mice, we demonstrated that the presence of LPS receptor (TLR4) is not required on hematogenous immune cells but is required on cells that are not replaced by bone marrow transplantation, such as vascular endothelia and microglia, to transduce microglial activation and neuroprotection. Furthermore, we showed that activated microglia physically ensheathe cortical projection neurons, which have reduced axosomatic inhibitory synapses from the neuronal perikarya. In line with previous reports that inhibitory synapse reduction protects neurons from degeneration and injury, we show here that neuronal cell death and lesion volumes are significantly reduced in LPS-treated animals following experimental brain injury. Together, our results suggest that activated microglia participate in neuroprotection and that this neuroprotection is likely achieved through reduction of inhibitory axosomatic synapses. The therapeutic significance of these findings rests not only in identifying neuroprotective functions of microglia, but also in establishing the CNS location of TLR4 activation. PMID:22915113

  4. Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Expression in Lipopolysaccharide-induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bhandary, Yashodhar P.; Velusamy, Thirunavukkarasu; Shetty, Praveenkumar; Shetty, Rashmi S.; Idell, Steven; Cines, Douglas B.; Jain, Deepika; Bdeir, Khalil; Abraham, Edward; Tsuruta, Yuko; Shetty, Sreerama

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) receptor (uPAR) is required for the recruitment of neutrophils in response to infection. uPA induces its own expression in lung epithelial cells, which involves its interaction with cell surface uPAR. Regulation of uPAR expression is therefore crucial for uPA-mediated signaling in infectious acute lung injury (ALI). Objectives: To determine the role of uPA in uPAR expression during ALI caused by sepsis. Methods: We used Western blot, Northern blot, Northwestern assay, and immunohistochemistry. Phosphate-buffered saline– and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated wild-type and uPA?/? mice were used. Measurements and Main Results: Biological activities of uPA, including proteolysis, cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation, are dependent on its association with uPAR. Bacterial endotoxin (LPS) is a major cause of pulmonary dysfunction and infection-associated mortality. The present study shows that LPS induces uPAR expression both in vitro and in vivo, and that the mechanism involves post-transcriptional stabilization of uPAR mRNA by reciprocal interaction of phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (hnRNPC) with uPAR mRNA coding region and 3? untranslated region determinants, respectively. The process involves tyrosine phosphorylation of PGK and hnRNPC. uPA?/? mice failed to induce uPAR expression after LPS treatment. In these mice, LPS treatment failed to alter the binding of PGK and hnRNPC protein with uPAR mRNA due to lack of tyrosine phosphorylation. Conclusions: Our study shows that induction of LPS-mediated uPAR expression is mediated through tyrosine phosphorylation of PGK and hnRNPC. This involves expression of uPA as an obligate intermediary. PMID:19029002

  5. Lipopolysaccharide from Nonvirulent Ara1 Burkholderia pseudomallei Isolates Is Immunologically Indistinguishable from Lipopolysaccharide from Virulent Ara2 Clinical Isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NARISARA ANUNTAGOOL; PAKAMAS INTACHOTE; VANAPORN WUTHIEKANUN; NICHOLAS J. WHITE; STITAYA SIRISINHA

    Different lines of evidence suggest that a discrepancy between the distribution of Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) pseudomallei in the environment and the distribution of the disease melioidosis is attributable, at least in part, to phenotypic differences between clinical and some environmental isolates. Two antigenically and biochemi- cally distinct biotypes have been described, only one of which is virulent. In this study, lipopolysaccharides

  6. Autotaxin and Endotoxin-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Oikonomou, Nikos; Katsifa, Aggeliki; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Kaffe, Eleanna; Aidinis, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Acute Lung Injury (ALI) is a life-threatening, diffuse heterogeneous lung injury characterized by acute onset, pulmonary edema and respiratory failure. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a common cause of both direct and indirect lung injury and when administered to a mouse induces a lung phenotype exhibiting some of the clinical characteristics of human ALI. Here, we report that LPS inhalation in mice results in increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) levels of Autotaxin (ATX, Enpp2), a lysophospholipase D largely responsible for the conversion of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in biological fluids and chronically inflamed sites. In agreement, gradual increases were also detected in BALF LPA levels, following inflammation and pulmonary edema. However, genetic or pharmacologic targeting of ATX had minor effects in ALI severity, suggesting no major involvement of the ATX/LPA axis in acute inflammation. Moreover, systemic, chronic exposure to increased ATX/LPA levels was shown to predispose to and/or to promote acute inflammation and ALI unlike chronic inflammatory pathophysiological situations, further suggesting a differential involvement of the ATX/LPA axis in acute versus chronic pulmonary inflammation. PMID:26196781

  7. Muramic acid, endotoxin, 3-hydroxy fatty acids, and ergosterol content explain monocyte and epithelial cell inflammatory responses to agricultural dusts.

    PubMed

    Poole, Jill A; Dooley, Gregory P; Saito, Rena; Burrell, Angela M; Bailey, Kristina L; Romberger, Debra J; Mehaffy, John; Reynolds, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    In agricultural and other environments, inhalation of airborne microorganisms is linked to respiratory disease development. Bacterial endotoxins, peptidoglycans, and fungi are potential causative agents, but relative microbial characterization and inflammatory comparisons amongst agricultural dusts are not well described. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of microbial endotoxin, 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFA), muramic acid, and ergosterol and evaluate inflammatory responses in human monocytes and bronchial epithelial cells with various dust samples. Settled surface dust was obtained from five environments: swine facility, dairy barn, grain elevator, domestic home (no pets), and domestic home with dog. Endotoxin concentration was determined by recombinant factor C (rFC). 3-OHFA, muramic acid, and ergosterol were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dust-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion in human monocytes and bronchial epithelial cells was evaluated. Endotoxin-independent dust-induced inflammatory responses were evaluated. Endotoxin and 3-OHFA levels were highest in agricultural dusts. Muramic acid, endotoxin, 3-OHFA, and ergosterol were detected in dusts samples. Muramic acid was highest in animal farming dusts. Ergosterol was most significant in grain elevator dust. Agricultural dusts induced monocyte tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and epithelial cell IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. Monocyte and epithelial IL-6 and IL-8 secretion was not dependent on endotoxin. House dust(s) induced monocyte TNFalpha, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion. Swine facility dust generally produced elevated responses compared to other dusts. Agricultural dusts are complex with significant microbial component contribution. Large animal farming dust(s)-induced inflammation is not entirely dependent on endotoxin. Addition of muramic acid to endotoxin in large animal farming environment monitoring is warranted. PMID:20391112

  8. Determinants of house dust, endotoxin, and ?-(1?3)-D-glucan in homes of Danish children.

    PubMed

    Holst, G; Hřst, A; Doekes, G; Meyer, H W; Madsen, A M; Sigsgaard, T

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the geographic variation and determinants of bacterial endotoxin and ? -(1,3)-d-glucan in Danish house dust. In a population of 317 children, we: (i) described loads and concentrations of floor dust, endotoxin, and ?-(1?3)-d-glucan and (ii) their correlations and (iii) assessed their determinants; (iv) Finally, we compared our findings with previous European studies. Bedroom floor dust was analyzed for endotoxin content by the kinetic limulus amoebocyte lysate assay and for ?-(1?3)-d-glucan by the inhibition enzyme immunoassay. The parents answered questions regarding potential determinants. We found: geometric means (geometric standard deviations) 186 mg/m(2) (4.3) for dust; 5.46 × 10(3) EU/m(2) (8.0) and 31.1 × 10(3) EU/g (2.6) for endotoxin; and 142 ?g/m(2) (14.3) and 0.71 × 10(3)  ?g/g (7.3) for ?-(1?3)-d-glucan. High correlations (r > 0.75) were found between floor dust and endotoxin and ?-(1?3)-d-glucan loads, while endotoxin and ?-(1?3)-d-glucan concentrations were moderately correlated (r = 0.36-0.41) with the dust load. Having a carpet was positively associated with dust load and with endotoxin and ?-(1?3)-d-glucan concentrations. Pet keeping, dwelling type, and dwelling location were determinants of endotoxin concentrations. No other determinants were associated with ?-(1?3)-d-glucan concentrations. Compared with other European studies, we found lower ?-(1?3)-d-glucan loads and concentrations but higher endotoxin loads and concentrations suggesting a geographically determined different composition of Danish floor dust compared with other European regions. PMID:25039673

  9. Enhanced cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions are associated with ovine high and low cortisol responsiveness to acute endotoxin challenge.

    PubMed

    You, Qiumei; Karrow, Niel A; Quinton, Margaret; Mallard, Bonnie A; Boermans, Herman J

    2008-06-01

    Inbred rodent studies have demonstrated that cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions are exacerbated in stress-susceptible, and attenuated in stress-resistant strains of mice. This physiological response was, in part, mediated by activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during the acute restraint stress. A study was conducted to examine whether or not cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions are also associated with variable cortisol responsiveness to inflammatory stress in an outbred ovine population. High (H), medium (M), and low (L) cortisol responsive sheep were identified from a population of 110 females based on their estimated breeding values for cortisol concentration measured 4 h post-systemic challenge with Escherichia coli endotoxin (400 ng kg(-1)). Cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB), and Candida albicans cellular antigen (CAA) were measured in these variable cortisol-responding sheep, in addition to serum interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgG concentrations. When compared to the M cortisol responders, both H and L cortisol responders had significantly greater cutaneous swelling during the elicitation phase in response to DNCB (P < 0.05) and CAA (P < 0.05); a similar but not significant trend was observed during the PHA challenge. The primary, but not the secondary, IgG response to OVA was significantly lower in the H and L cortisol responders when compared to the M cortisol responders. Differences in serum IL-6 or IFN-gamma concentration were not observed across variable cortisol-responsive groups. Together, these results demonstrate that cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions are enhanced in outbred H and L cortisol-responding sheep, independent of systemic modulation by IL-6 and IFN-gamma. PMID:18477334

  10. Mineralization of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac endotoxin in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite a number of studies describing the fate of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal endotoxins in soil have been conducted in the past decade, conflicting information on persistence of this class of insecticidal toxins exists. In the present experiment, 14C from glucose was incorporated into the ...

  11. Protective Effect of Carbon Monoxide Donor Compounds in Endotoxin-Induced Acute Renal Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shunji Shiohira; Takumi Yoshida; Satsuki Shirota; Ken Tsuchiya; Kosaku Nitta

    2007-01-01

    Background: Sepsis is a common cause of acute renal failure (ARF) in clinical practice. However, the precise mechanism of endotoxin-induced ARF is not fully understood. There have been several reports that inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO) gas could be protective against acute rejection in intestine, lung, and kidney transplantation. Thus, we investigated the direct effect of CO in an experimental

  12. Airborne Bacteria, Endotoxin and Fungi in Dust in Poultry and Swine Confinement Buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SCOTT CLARK; RAGNAR RYLANDER; LEIF LARSSON

    1983-01-01

    Airborne dust in swine and poultry confinements was analyzed to determine concentrations of total and gram-negative bacteria, total fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and endotoxin. Airborne concentrations of total and gram-negative bacteria in swine and confinement units have been found to be as high as, or higher, than those found in other environments, such as wastewater treatment plants and cotton card rooms,

  13. The influence of temperament, transportation stress, and endotoxin challenge on body composition traits in Brahman bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the influence of temperament of bulls on ultrasound body composition traits in response to transportation and an endotoxin challenge. Purebred Brahman bulls were selected from a pool of 60 bulls based on temperament scores measured at weaning (n=8 each: calm, int...

  14. Protective Effect of Endotoxin Instillation on Subsequent Bacteria-induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANIEL JEAN; SAĎDA REZAIGUIA-DELCLAUX; CHRISTOPHE DELACOURT; ROLAND LECLERCQ; CHANTAL LAFUMA; CHRISTIAN BRUN-BUISSON; ALAIN HARF; CHRISTOPHE DELCLAUX

    The phagocytic capability afforded by neutrophil influx into the lungs is essential to ward off invad- ing bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prior neutrophil recruitment in- duced by alveolar instillation of endotoxin (LPS, 200 m g\\/kg) 16 h before a pulmonary infection caused by instillation of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa ((PYO): 1.5 3 10

  15. A hydrocarbon ruler measures palmitate in the enzymatic acylation of endotoxin

    E-print Network

    Bishop, Russell

    A hydrocarbon ruler measures palmitate in the enzymatic acylation of endotoxin Victoria E Ahn1 that helps pathogenic bacteria to evade the host immune response by transferring a palmitate chain from the hydrocarbon ruler mechanism for palmitate recognition. A striking structural similarity between Pag

  16. Temporal effects on bovine neutrophil function following an intravenous endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neutrophils possess a large array of antimicrobial effector functions. The acute phase response is a complex series of events including a period of inflammation followed by a counter anti-inflammatory state. This study was performed to elucidate any temporal effect of an endotoxin challenge on bovin...

  17. Misoprostol but not antacid prevents endotoxin-induced gastric mucosal injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahendra Mahatma; Naurang Agrawal; Esam Z. Dajani; Steve Nelson; Chester nakamura; John Sitton

    1991-01-01

    Many of the complications of septic shock are believed to be a consequence of elevated circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is an important mediator of tissue injury. Prostaglandins (PGs) of the E series have recently been reported to inhibit TNF productionin vitro. We investigated thein vivo effect of misoprostol, a PGE1 analog, on endotoxin-induced gastric mucosal injury

  18. Year-long assessment of airborne endotoxin at a concentrated dairy operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the increasing prevalence of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), concern over bioaerosols drifting in downwind plumes is gaining attention as they may cause health effects in humans and livestock. In this study, we monitored total airborne endotoxins at upwind and downwind locations...

  19. Quantification of Bt-endotoxin exposure pathways in carabid food webs across multiple transgenic events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A. Peterson; John J. Obrycki; James D. Harwood

    2009-01-01

    Despite the reported specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis proteins against target pests, a number of studies have indicated that the uptake of Bt-endotoxins from bioengineered crops could have negative effects on natural enemies. It is therefore essential to quantify exposure pathways in non-target arthropod food webs across multiple transgenic events. Adult ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were collected from transgenic corn fields

  20. Chronic endotoxin exposure produces airflow obstruction and lung dendritic cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Lai, Peggy S; Fresco, Jennifer M; Pinilla, Miguel A; Macias, Alvaro A; Brown, Ronald D; Englert, Joshua A; Hofmann, Oliver; Lederer, James A; Hide, Winston; Christiani, David C; Cernadas, Manuela; Baron, Rebecca M

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms of persistent airflow obstruction that result from chronic occupational endotoxin exposure. We sought to analyze the inflammatory response underlying persistent airflow obstruction as a result of chronic occupational endotoxin exposure. We developed a murine model of daily inhaled endotoxin for periods of 5 days to 8 weeks. We analyzed physiologic lung dysfunction, lung histology, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and total lung homogenate inflammatory cell and cytokine profiles, and pulmonary gene expression profiles. We observed an increase in airway hyperresponsiveness as a result of chronic endotoxin exposure. After 8 weeks, the mice exhibited an increase in bronchoalveolar lavage and lung neutrophils that correlated with an increase in proinflammatory cytokines. Detailed analyses of inflammatory cell subsets revealed an expansion of dendritic cells (DCs), and in particular, proinflammatory DCs, with a reduced percentage of macrophages. Gene expression profiling revealed the up-regulation of a panel of genes that was consistent with DC recruitment, and lung histology revealed an accumulation of DCs in inflammatory aggregates around the airways in 8-week-exposed animals. Repeated, low-dose LPS inhalation, which mirrors occupational exposure, resulted in airway hyperresponsiveness, associated with a failure to resolve the proinflammatory response, an inverted macrophage to DC ratio, and a significant rise in the inflammatory DC population. These findings point to a novel underlying mechanism of airflow obstruction as a result of occupational LPS exposure, and suggest molecular and cellular targets for therapeutic development. PMID:22517795

  1. Differential acute phase immune responses by Angus and Romosinuano steers following an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our primary objective was to evaluate potential genetic differences between two diverse Bos taurus breeds (Angus (AG) and Romosinuano (RO)) in response to an endotoxin. The RO is a tropically adaptive Bos taurus breed developed in the Sinú valley of northern Colombia. Eighteen steers (n = 9 steers/b...

  2. Endotoxin tolerance represents a distinctive state of alternative polarization (M2) in human mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Pena, Olga M; Pistolic, Jelena; Raj, Disha; Fjell, Christopher D; Hancock, Robert E W

    2011-06-15

    Classical (M1) and alternative (M2) polarization of mononuclear cells (MNCs) such as monocyte and macrophages is known to occur in response to challenges within a microenvironment, like the encounter of a pathogen. LPS, also known as endotoxin, is a potent inducer of inflammation and M1 polarization. LPS can also generate an effect in MNCs known as endotoxin tolerance, defined as the reduced capacity of a cell to respond to LPS activation after an initial exposure to this stimulus. Using systems biology approaches in PBMCs, monocytes, and monocyte-derived macrophages involving microarrays and advanced bioinformatic analysis, we determined that gene responses during endotoxin tolerance were similar to those found during M2 polarization, featuring gene and protein expression critical for the development of key M2 MNC functions, including reduced production of proinflammatory mediators, expression of genes involved in phagocytosis, as well as tissue remodeling. Moreover, expression of different metallothionein gene isoforms, known for their role in the control of oxidative stress and in immunomodulation, were also found to be consistently upregulated during endotoxin tolerance. These results demonstrate that after an initial inflammatory stimulus, human MNCs undergo an M2 polarization probably to control hyperinflammation and heal the affected tissue. PMID:21576504

  3. Control of Cachectin (Tumor Necrosis Factor) Synthesis: Mechanisms of Endotoxin Resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Beutler; Nadia Krochin; Ian W. Milsark; Christina Luedke; Anthony Cerami

    1986-01-01

    Cachectin (tumor necrosis factor) is a macrophage hormone strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of endotoxin-induced shock. The availability of a DNA probe complementary to the cachectin messenger RNA (mRNA), as well as a specific antibody capable of recognizing the cachectin gene product, has made it possible to analyze the regulation of cachectin gene expression under a variety of conditions. Thioglycollateelicited

  4. Concentrations of airborne endotoxin and microorganisms at a 10,000 cow open-freestall dairy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confined animal production systems produce elevated bioaerosol concentrations, which are a potential respiratory health risk to individuals on site and downwind. In this study, airborne endotoxin and microorganisms were collected during the spring, summer, and fall at a large open-freestall dairy i...

  5. Antimicrobial Peptides: Insights into Membrane Permeabilization, Lipopolysaccharide Fragmentation and Application in Plant Disease Control.

    PubMed

    Datta, Aritreyee; Ghosh, Anirban; Airoldi, Cristina; Sperandeo, Paola; Mroue, Kamal H; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Kundu, Pallob; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Bhunia, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    The recent increase in multidrug resistance against bacterial infections has become a major concern to human health and global food security. Synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have recently received substantial attention as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics because of their potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. These peptides have also been implicated in plant disease control for replacing conventional treatment methods that are polluting and hazardous to the environment and to human health. Here, we report de novo design and antimicrobial studies of VG16, a 16-residue active fragment of Dengue virus fusion peptide. Our results reveal that VG16KRKP, a non-toxic and non-hemolytic analogue of VG16, shows significant antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative E. coli and plant pathogens X. oryzae and X. campestris, as well as against human fungal pathogens C. albicans and C. grubii. VG16KRKP is also capable of inhibiting bacterial disease progression in plants. The solution-NMR structure of VG16KRKP in lipopolysaccharide features a folded conformation with a centrally located turn-type structure stabilized by aromatic-aromatic packing interactions with extended N- and C-termini. The de novo design of VG16KRKP provides valuable insights into the development of more potent antibacterial and antiendotoxic peptides for the treatment of human and plant infections. PMID:26144972

  6. Antimicrobial Peptides: Insights into Membrane Permeabilization, Lipopolysaccharide Fragmentation and Application in Plant Disease Control

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Aritreyee; Ghosh, Anirban; Airoldi, Cristina; Sperandeo, Paola; Mroue, Kamal H.; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Kundu, Pallob; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Bhunia, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    The recent increase in multidrug resistance against bacterial infections has become a major concern to human health and global food security. Synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have recently received substantial attention as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics because of their potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. These peptides have also been implicated in plant disease control for replacing conventional treatment methods that are polluting and hazardous to the environment and to human health. Here, we report de novo design and antimicrobial studies of VG16, a 16-residue active fragment of Dengue virus fusion peptide. Our results reveal that VG16KRKP, a non-toxic and non-hemolytic analogue of VG16, shows significant antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative E. coli and plant pathogens X. oryzae and X. campestris, as well as against human fungal pathogens C. albicans and C. grubii. VG16KRKP is also capable of inhibiting bacterial disease progression in plants. The solution-NMR structure of VG16KRKP in lipopolysaccharide features a folded conformation with a centrally located turn-type structure stabilized by aromatic-aromatic packing interactions with extended N- and C-termini. The de novo design of VG16KRKP provides valuable insights into the development of more potent antibacterial and antiendotoxic peptides for the treatment of human and plant infections. PMID:26144972

  7. Increased lipopolysaccharide-induced tumour necrosis factor levels and death in hypercholesterolaemic rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Brito, B E; Romano, E L; Grunfeld, C

    1995-01-01

    Nutritional-induced hypercholesterolaemia in New Zealand rabbits causes increased susceptibility to experimental infections. Rabbits fed cholesterol (0.5 g%) for 8 weeks were injected intravenously with varying doses of Escherichia coli 0127: B8 lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 3-100 micrograms/kg). The levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), and the survival rates of treated rabbits were then measured. Rabbits fed either normal chow or chow impregnated with sesame oil were used as controls. LPS induced higher serum TNF levels in hypercholesterolaemic rabbits than in normal rabbits or rabbits fed with chow containing sesame oil. TNF levels rose faster in hypercholesterolaemic rabbits than in normal rabbits, reaching maximum levels at 60 min and 120 min, respectively, after LPS injection. The survival rate of hypercholesterolaemic rabbits (1/11) was lower than in normal rabbits (6/7) or rabbits fed with the sesame oil chow (4/4) at the higher LPS doses. No death occurred at lower doses. One possible interpretation of these results, also supported by neutralization experiments, is that increased TNF secretion in hypercholesterolaemic rabbits raises the host's susceptibility to experimental endotoxaemia and possibly to Gram-negative infection. PMID:7648721

  8. Airborne allergens, endotoxins, and particulate matter in elementary schools, results from Germany (LUPE 2).

    PubMed

    Fromme, Hermann; Bischof, Wolfgang; Dietrich, Silvio; Lahrz, Thomas; Schierl, Rudolf; Schwegler, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Allergic disorders are the most common childhood-related chronic diseases in developed countries. It is essential to assess the exposure, especially in schools, where children spend a large portion of their time. We aimed to investigate allergen and endotoxin levels in the air of schools and to observe seasonal variations of these factors. We evaluated airborne concentrations of house dust mites allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat allergen (Fel d 1), and endotoxin in PM10 in 14 classrooms during the school days in the region of Munich, each over 20 consecutive days and in 1 classroom over the course of a year (at 83 days); we also tested outdoor air close to the schools. Endotoxin levels were quantified using two different analytical methods. In addition, indoor air climate parameters were measured. The median daily indoor CO2 and PM10 concentrations in the classrooms ranged from 423 to 3,135 ppm (median: 1,211 ppm) and 9 to 390 ?g/m(3) (median: 127 ?g/m(3)), respectively. Fel d 1 in the PM10 samples was the most frequently detected allergen, with levels from 0.02 to 1.15 ng/m(3) in a total of 301 samples (median: 0.19 ng/m(3), 95th percentile: 0.57 ng/m(3)). Der p 1 and Der f 1 were detected in only 51% and 19% of the samples, with 95th percentiles at 0.5 and 0.3 ng/m(3). Endotoxin levels in the PM10 and inhalable dust samples ranged from 0.5 to 84.1 EU/m(3) (median: 15.3 EU/m(3); 95th percentile: 58.2 EU/m(3)) and from 0.03 to 115 EU/m(3) (median: 8.4 EU/m(3); 95th percentile: 27.9 EU/m(3)). Fel d 1 and endotoxin were found in higher levels in the winter months. The results of the two different indoor sampling techniques for endotoxin were statistically significantly correlated. The results of airborne allergens indicate a generally low exposure level in classrooms. With regard to endotoxin, our study showed higher levels in schools compared with residences. PMID:24011229

  9. Association of plasma endotoxin, inflammatory cytokines and risk of colorectal adenomas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that bacterial endotoxins may be associated with various chronic diseases, including colorectal adenomas and cancer. Given the evidence linking inflammation and colorectal cancer, we sought to determine if plasma endotoxin concentrations are associated with indicators of systemic or local inflammation and colorectal adenomas. Methods This cross-sectional study consisted of participants who underwent screening colonoscopies and included adenoma cases (n=138) and non-adenoma controls (n=324). Plasma concentrations of endotoxin were measured with Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay. We quantified concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and interferon-? (IFN-?) in plasma by ELISA and mRNA expression levels in rectal mucosal biopsies by quantitative RT-PCR. Interleukin-17 was evaluated only in the rectal mucosa. Results Compared to subjects with low plasma endotoxin concentrations, those with higher concentrations were more likely to have adenomas (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-2.1). Among subjects with adenomas, those with villous histology were more likely to have higher endotoxin concentrations (5.4 vs. 4.1EU/mL, p=0.05) and lower plasma IFN-? (0 vs. 1.64 pg/mL, p=0.02) compared to those with only tubular adenomas. Cases showed a trend of having higher plasma TNF-? levels than controls (p=0.06), but none of the other plasma or rectal mucosal cytokine levels differed between cases and controls. Elevated mucosal IL-12 levels were associated with having multiple adenomas (p=0.04). Higher concentrations of plasma endotoxin predicted increased plasma IL-12 levels (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.2) and rectal mucosal IL-12 (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.7) and IL-17 gene expression (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-4.6). Conclusions These findings suggest that interactions between elevated plasma endotoxin concentrations and inflammatory cytokines may be relevant to the development of colorectal adenomas. PMID:23442743

  10. The Thrombin-Derived Host Defense Peptide GKY25 Inhibits Endotoxin-Induced Responses through Interactions with Lipopolysaccharide and Macrophages/Monocytes.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Finja C; Kalle-Brune, Martina; van der Plas, Mariena J A; Strömdahl, Ann-Charlotte; Malmsten, Martin; Mörgelin, Matthias; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2015-06-01

    Host defense peptides have recently gained much interest as novel anti-infectives owing to their ability to kill bacteria and simultaneously modulate host cell responses. The cationic host defense peptide GKY25 (GKYGFYTHVFRLKKWIQKVIDQFGE), derived from the C terminus of human thrombin, inhibits proinflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo, but the mode of action is unclear. In this study, we show that GKY25, apart from binding bacterial LPS, also interacts directly with monocytes and macrophages in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. Moreover, GKY25 inhibits TLR4- and TLR2-induced NF-?B activation in response to several microbe-derived agonists. Furthermore, GKY25 reduces LPS-induced phosphorylation of MAPKs p38? and JNK1/2/3. FACS and electron microscopy analyses showed that GKY25 interferes with TLR4/myeloid differentiation protein-2 dimerization. The results demonstrate a previously undisclosed activity of the host defense peptide GKY25, based on combined LPS and cell interactions leading to inhibition of TLR4 dimerization and subsequent reduction of NF-?B activity and proinflammatory cytokine production in monocytes and macrophages. PMID:25911750

  11. Endotoxin-induced liver hypoxia: defective oxygen delivery versus oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    James, Philip E; Madhani, Melanie; Roebuck, William; Jackson, Simon K; Swartz, Harold M

    2002-02-01

    In vivo EPR was used to investigate liver oxygenation in a hemodynamic model of septic shock in mice. Oxygen-sensitive material was introduced either (i) as a slurry of fine particles which localized at the liver sinusoids (pO2 = 44.39 +/- 5.13 mmHg) or (ii) as larger particles implanted directly into liver tissue to measure average pO2 across the lobule (pO2 = 4.56 +/- 1.28 mmHg). Endotoxin caused decreases in pO2 at both sites early (5-15 min) and at late time points (6 h after endotoxin; sinusoid = 11.22 +/- 2.48 mmHg; lobule = 1.16 +/- 0.42 mmHg). The overall pO2 changes observed were similar (74.56% versus 74.72%, respectively). Blood pressures decreased transiently between 5 and 15 min (12.88 +/- 8% decrease) and severely at 6 h (59 +/- 9% decrease) following endotoxin, despite volume replacement with saline. Liver and circulatory nitric oxide was elevated at these times. Liver oxygen extraction decreased from 44% in controls to only 15% following endotoxin, despite severe liver hypoxia. Arterial oxygen saturation, blood flow (hepatic artery), and cardiac output were unaffected. Pretreatment with l-NMMA failed to improve endotoxin-induced oxygen defects at either site, whereas interleukin-13 preserved oxygenation. These site-specific measurements of pO2 provide in vivo evidence that the principal cause of liver hypoxia during hypodynamic sepsis is reduced oxygen supply to the sinusoid and can be alleviated by maintaining sinusoidal perfusion. PMID:11829531

  12. Involvement of prolactin in the meloxicam-dependent inflammatory response of the gonadotropic axis to prolonged lipopolysaccharide treatment in anoestrous ewes.

    PubMed

    Herman, Andrzej P; Krawczy?ska, Agata; Bochenek, Joanna; Antushevich, Hanna; Herman, Anna; Tomaszewska-Zaremba, Dorota

    2014-11-28

    An immune challenge can affect the reproductive process in females. Peripheral administration of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) decreases LH secretion and disrupts ovarian cyclicity. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of a cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor (meloxicam) on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and LH secretion in anoestrous ewes during systemic inflammation induced by LPS. LPS (400ngkg-1 per day) suppressed LH release. In three individuals, meloxicam (500?gkg-1, i.v.) abolished LPS-induced LH suppression. In another three ewes LH was ineffective. Similar changes were observed in hypothalamic GnRH expression. The effect of meloxicam depended on the circulating level of prolactin: meloxicam abolished inflammatory-dependent suppression of GnRH and LH secretion when plasma prolactin levels were similar to those in untreated animals, but was ineffective in those with elevated levels of prolactin. We conclude that COX-2 inhibitors minimise the negative effect of inflammation on the reproductive system but that this effect may be antagonised by prolactin. PMID:25429611

  13. In vitro production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha by human monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide is positively correlated with increased blood monocytes after exposure to a swine barn.

    PubMed

    Willson, P J; Khozani, T Talaei; Juurlink, B H J; Senthilselvan, A; Rennie, D C; Gerdts, V; Gawaziuk, J; Schneberger, D; Burch, Lauranell H; Dosman, J A

    2008-01-01

    Recently there has been interest in the air quality in and around intensive livestock production facilities, such as modern swine production barns, where agricultural workers and surrounding residents may be exposed to elevated levels of organic dusts. The health effects of these exposures are not completely understood. The study that is reported here is a component of a larger investigation of the relationships among the acute effects of high-concentration endotoxin exposure (swine barn dust), polymorphisms in the TLR4 gene, and respiratory outcomes following exposure to swine confinement buildings. The relationships among a mediator of acute lung inflammation, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and clinical responses to acute swine barn exposure were characterized. Analysis of the results showed that in vitro stimulation of human monocytes with as little as 1 ng/ml of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced a significant increase in the monocytes that produced TNF-alpha. Although the proportion of TNF-alpha-positive monocytes after in vitro stimulation with 1 ng/ml of LPS was not associated with gender or TLR4 genotype, it was positively associated with the concentration of monocytes in blood after barn exposure. Thus, these two responses to different forms of LPS exposure are significantly correlated, and more responsive monocytes in vitro indicate a forthcoming relative monocytosis, post barn exposure, which may initiate a cascade of chronic inflammation. PMID:18800289

  14. The lipid A of Burkholderia multivorans C1576 smooth-type lipopolysaccharide and its pro-inflammatory activity in a cystic fibrosis airways model.

    PubMed

    Ieranň, Teresa; Cescutti, Paola; Leone, Maria Rosaria; Luciani, Alessandro; Rizzo, Roberto; Raia, Valeria; Lanzetta, Rosa; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Maiuri, Luigi; Silipo, Alba; Molinaro, Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive disorder and it is characterised by chronic bacterial airway infection which leads to progressive lung deterioration, sometimes with fatal outcome. Burkholderia multivorans and Burkholderia cenocepacia are the species responsible for most of the infections of cystic fibrosis patients. Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins (LPSs) are among the foremost factors of pathogenesis of Gram-negative infection and, in particular, lipid A is the endotoxic portion of LPS responsible for eliciting host innate immune response. In this work, the complete primary structure of the lipid A from B. multivorans C1576 has been defined and, further, its pro-inflammatory activity in a cystic fibrosis airways model is shown. The structure of B. multivorans lipid A was attained by chemical, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses whereas its biological activity was assessed on the intestinal epithelial cell line CACO-2 cells, on the airway epithelial IB3-1 cells, carrying the ?F508/W1282X CFTR mutation and on an ex vivo model of culture explants of nasal polyps. PMID:19880661

  15. N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists memantine and MK-801 attenuate the cerebral infarct accelerated by intracorpus callosum injection of lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Cho, Geum-Sil; Lee, Jae-Chul; Ju, Chung; Kim, Chunsook; Kim, Won-Ki

    2013-03-22

    Inflammatory responses have been shown to modulate the pattern and degree of ischemic injury. Previously, we demonstrated that intracorpus callosum microinjection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a well-known endotoxin) markedly induced inflammatory responses confined to ipsilateral hemisphere and aggravated cerebral ischemic injury. Here we report that LPS injection increases the degree of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated excitotoxicity, one of major causes of cerebral ischemic injury. Intracorpus callosum microinjection of LPS 1 day prior to ischemic insults augmented intraneuronal Ca(2+) rise in rat brains subjected to transient occlusion of middle cerebral artery. Intraperitoneal administration of memantine, a NMDA receptor antagonist, reduced the LPS-enhanced calcium response as well as ischemic tissue damage. Western blot and immunohistochemistry data showed that the level of IL-1? was enhanced in LPS-injected rat brains, particularly in isolectin-B4 immunoreactive cells. Intraventricular microinjection of recombinant rat IL-1? aggravated cerebral ischemic injury, which was significantly reduced by memantine. Intraventricular injection of anti-IL-1? antibody significantly reduced the cerebral infarction aggravated by LPS preinjection. The results indicate that IL-1? released from isolectin-B4 immunoreactive cells enhanced excitotoxicity, consequently aggravating ischemic brain injury. PMID:23376060

  16. Lipopolysaccharide induces paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB) expression, synaptic alteration, and learning-memory deficit in rats.

    PubMed

    Deng, X-H; Ai, W-M; Lei, D-L; Luo, X-G; Yan, X-X; Li, Z

    2012-05-01

    Some typical immune proteins are expressed in the nervous system, among which the paired-immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB) is a receptor for major histocompatibility complex class I antigen (MHC-I), but may play a physiological role in the brain for neuronal circuitry stability by inhibiting synaptic plasticity. Chronic neuroinflammation is common to many neurodegenerative diseases and is often associated with neuronal/synaptic damage and dysfunction. Here we examined the expression of PirB in the rat brain following intracerebral application of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which has been shown to induce proinflammatory changes and cognitive deficits in rodents. One month after unilateral intrahippocampal LPS injection (10 ?g in 4 ?l phosphate-buffered saline, PBS), increased protein levels and immunoreactivity of PirB were detected in the ipsilateral hippocampal formation and cortex of the experimental group relative to vehicle (PBS) control. The increased PirB labeling was localized to astrocytes and neurons. Reduced synaptophysin protein levels and immunoreactivity were also found in the ipsilateral hippocampal formation and cortex in LPS-treated rats relative to controls. Morris water maze tests indicated that hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory were impaired in LPS-treated animals. Our findings add new experimental data for an upregulation of immune proteins in neuronal and glial cells in the brain in a model of endotoxin-induced neuroinflammation, synaptic alteration, and cognitive decline. The results suggest that PirB modulation may be involved in the pathological process under neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:22395112

  17. Endotoxin Exposure during Sensitization to Blomia tropicalis Allergens Shifts TH2 Immunity Towards a TH17-Mediated Airway Neutrophilic Inflammation: Role of TLR4 and TLR2.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Renato; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Gomes, Eliane; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Florsheim, Esther; Mirotti, Luciana; Labrada, Alexis; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza Maria; Russo, Momtchilo

    2013-01-01

    Experimental evidence and epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (eLPS) or other TLR agonists prevent asthma. We have previously shown in the OVA-model of asthma that eLPS administration during alum-based allergen sensitization blocked the development of lung TH2 immune responses via MyD88 pathway and IL-12/IFN-? axis. In the present work we determined the effect of eLPS exposure during sensitization to a natural airborne allergen extract derived from the house dust mite Blomia tropicalis (Bt). Mice were subcutaneously sensitized with Bt allergens co-adsorbed onto alum with or without eLPS and challenged twice intranasally with Bt. Cellular and molecular parameters of allergic lung inflammation were evaluated 24 h after the last Bt challenge. Exposure to eLPS but not to ultrapure LPS (upLPS) preparation during sensitization to Bt allergens decreased the influx of eosinophils and increased the influx of neutrophils to the airways. Inhibition of airway eosinophilia was not observed in IFN-?deficient mice while airway neutrophilia was not observed in IL-17RA-deficient mice as well in mice lacking MyD88, CD14, TLR4 and, surprisingly, TLR2 molecules. Notably, exposure to a synthetic TLR2 agonist (PamCSK4) also induced airway neutrophilia that was dependent on TLR2 and TLR4 molecules. In the OVA model, exposure to eLPS or PamCSK4 suppressed OVA-induced airway inflammation. Our results suggest that B. tropicalis allergens engage TLR4 that potentiates TLR2 signaling. This dual TLR activation during sensitization results in airway neutrophilic inflammation associated with increased frequency of lung TH17 cells. Our work highlight the complex interplay between bacterial products, house dust mite allergens and TLR signaling in the induction of different phenotypes of airway inflammation. PMID:23805294

  18. Endotoxin Exposure during Sensitization to Blomia tropicalis Allergens Shifts TH2 Immunity Towards a TH17-Mediated Airway Neutrophilic Inflammation: Role of TLR4 and TLR2

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Renato; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Gomes, Eliane; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Florsheim, Esther; Mirotti, Luciana; Labrada, Alexis; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza Maria; Russo, Momtchilo

    2013-01-01

    Experimental evidence and epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (eLPS) or other TLR agonists prevent asthma. We have previously shown in the OVA-model of asthma that eLPS administration during alum-based allergen sensitization blocked the development of lung TH2 immune responses via MyD88 pathway and IL-12/IFN-? axis. In the present work we determined the effect of eLPS exposure during sensitization to a natural airborne allergen extract derived from the house dust mite Blomia tropicalis (Bt). Mice were subcutaneously sensitized with Bt allergens co-adsorbed onto alum with or without eLPS and challenged twice intranasally with Bt. Cellular and molecular parameters of allergic lung inflammation were evaluated 24 h after the last Bt challenge. Exposure to eLPS but not to ultrapure LPS (upLPS) preparation during sensitization to Bt allergens decreased the influx of eosinophils and increased the influx of neutrophils to the airways. Inhibition of airway eosinophilia was not observed in IFN-?deficient mice while airway neutrophilia was not observed in IL-17RA-deficient mice as well in mice lacking MyD88, CD14, TLR4 and, surprisingly, TLR2 molecules. Notably, exposure to a synthetic TLR2 agonist (PamCSK4) also induced airway neutrophilia that was dependent on TLR2 and TLR4 molecules. In the OVA model, exposure to eLPS or PamCSK4 suppressed OVA-induced airway inflammation. Our results suggest that B. tropicalis allergens engage TLR4 that potentiates TLR2 signaling. This dual TLR activation during sensitization results in airway neutrophilic inflammation associated with increased frequency of lung TH17 cells. Our work highlight the complex interplay between bacterial products, house dust mite allergens and TLR signaling in the induction of different phenotypes of airway inflammation. PMID:23805294

  19. Quercetin 3-O-beta-(2''-galloyl)-glucopyranoside inhibits endotoxin LPS-induced IL-6 expression and NF-kappa B activation in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Hak; Lee, In Jeong; Lee, Hwa-Young; Han, Sang-Bae; Hong, Jin Tae; Ahn, Byeongwoo; Lee, Chong-Kil; Kim, Youngsoo

    2007-09-01

    We previously isolated quercetin 3-O-beta-(2''-galloyl)-glucopyranoside (QG-32) from Persicaria lapathifolia (Polygonacease) as an inhibitor of superoxide production. In the present study, QG-32 was found to inhibit interleukin (IL)-6 production in endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages RAW 264.7. The QG-32 attenuated LPS-induced synthesis of IL-6 transcript but also inhibited IL-6 promoter activity, indicating that the compound could down-regulate LPS-induced IL-6 expression at the transcription level. Since nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB has been evidenced to play a major mechanism in the LPS-induced IL-6 expression, an effect of QG-32 on NF-kappaB activating pathway was further analyzed. QG-32 inhibited nuclear import as well as DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB complex and subsequently suppressed NF-kappaB transcriptional activity in LPS-stimulated macrophages. However, QG-32 affected neither LPS-induced inhibitory kappaB (IkappaB) degradation nor IkappaB kinase (IKK) activation. In another experiment, QG-32 inhibited expression vector encoding NF-kappaB p65 or p50-elicited IL-6 promoter activity. Taken together, QG-32 could inhibit NF-kappaB-dependent IL-6 expression, targeting nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB complex downstream IkappaB degradation. This mechanism of action would be different from that of quercetin, an aglycone of QG-32, targeting IKK upstream IkappaB degradation. Finally, this study could provide a pharmacological potential of QG-32 in the inflammatory disorders. PMID:17855110

  20. Interplay between Intravitreal RvD1 and Local Endogenous Sirtuin-1 in the Protection from Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, S.; Di Filippo, C.; Gesualdo, C.; Testa, F.; Trotta, M. C.; Maisto, R.; Ferraro, B.; Ferraraccio, F.; Accardo, M.; Simonelli, F.; D'Amico, M.

    2015-01-01

    Rat endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) is a well-established model of human uveitis. In this model, intravitreal injection of resolvin D1 (RvD1, 10–100–1000?ng/kg) 1 hour after subcutaneous treatment of Sprague-Dawley rats with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 200??g/rat) significantly prevented the development of uveitis into the eye. RvD1 dose-dependently increased the expression of sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) within the eye, while it decreased the expression of acetyl-p53 and acetyl-FOXO1. These effects were accompanied by local downregulation of some microRNAs related to the expression and activity of SIRT1. These were miR-195-5p, miR-200a-3p, miR-34a-5p, and miR-145-5p. An increase of manganese superoxide dismutase and decrease of caspase 3 were evident after RvD1 treatment. In another set of experiments, the protective effects of RvD1 (1000?ng/kg) were partly abolished by the pretreatment of the rats with EX527 (10?mg/kg/day, i.p.), a specific inhibitor of SIRT1 activity, for 7 days prior to the induction of EIU in rats. Similarly, the effects of RvD1 (1000?ng/kg) on the SIRT1 protein expression were abolished by Boc2, N-t-butoxycarbonyl-PLPLP, a specific formyl-peptide receptor type 2/lipoxin A receptor antagonist. Therefore, an interplay of the SIRT1 activity on the RvD1 mediated resolution of EIU is argued. PMID:26180376