Science.gov

Sample records for coli endotoxin lipopolysaccharide

  1. Lipopolysaccharide Endotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Raetz, Christian R. H.; Whitfield, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Summary Since lipopolysaccharide endotoxins of Gram-negative bacteria were last reviewed in this series in 1990, much has been learned about the assembly and signaling functions of these remarkable glycoconjugates. Lipopolysaccharides typically consist of a hydrophobic domain known as lipid A (or endotoxin), a non-repeating “core” oligosaccharide, and a distal polysaccharide (or O-antigen). The flood of recent genomic data has made it possible to study lipopolysaccharide assembly in diverse Gram-negative bacteria, many of which are human or plant pathogens, and to create mutants or hybrid constructs with novel properties. Unexpectedly, key genes for lipid A biosynthesis have also been found in higher plants, indicating that eucaryotic lipid A-like molecules may exist. The carbohydrate diversity of lipopolysaccharides is better appreciated now than ten years ago, but much remains to be learned about function. Sequence comparisons suggest that extensive lateral transfer of genes for the assembly of O-antigens has occurred among bacteria. The most significant finding in the field of endotoxin biology since 1990 has been the identification of the plasma membrane protein TLR4 as the lipid A signaling receptor of animal cells. The latter belongs to a family of innate immunity receptors, all of which possess a large extracellular domain of leucine-rich repeats, a single trans-membrane segment and a smaller cytoplasmic signaling region that engages the adaptor protein MyD88. The expanding knowledge of TLR4 specificity and its downstream signaling pathways should provide new opportunities for blocking the inflammatory side effects of sepsis. Future progress will require insights into lipopolysaccharide-protein recognition at the atomic level, greater understanding of intra- and inter-cellular lipopolysaccharide trafficking, and incisive biological approaches that combine the tools of bacterial and animal genetics. PMID:12045108

  2. Effects of Aging on Endotoxin Tolerance Induced by Lipopolysaccharides Derived from Porphyromonas gingivalis and Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ying; Li, Hui; Yang, Mi-Fang; Shu, Wei; Sun, Meng-Jun; Xu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background Periodontitis is a bacterially induced chronic inflammatory disease. Exposure of the host to periodontal pathogens and their virulence factors induces a state of hyporesponsiveness to subsequent stimulations, termed endotoxin tolerance. Aging has a profound effect on immune response to bacteria challenge. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of aging on endotoxin tolerance induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) LPS in murine peritoneal macrophages. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied the cytokine production (TNF-αand IL-10) and Toll-like receptor 2, 4 (TLR2, 4) gene and protein expressions in peritoneal macrophages from young (2-month-old) and middle-aged (12-month-old) ICR mice following single or repeated P. gingivalis LPS or E. coli LPS stimulation. Pretreatment of peritoneal macrophages with P. gingivalis LPS or E. coli LPS resulted in a reduction in TNF-α production and an increase in IL-10 production upon secondary stimulation (p<0.05), and the markedly lower levels of TNF-α and higher levels of IL-10 were observed in macrophages from young mice compared with those from middle-aged mice (p<0.05). In addition, LPS restimulations also led to the significantly lower expression levels of TLR2, 4 mRNA and protein in macrophages from young mice (p<0.05). Conclusions/Significance Repeated LPS stimulations triggered endotoxin tolerance in peritoneal macrophages and the ability to develop tolerance in young mice was more excellent. The impaired ability to develop endotoxin tolerance resulted from aging might be related to TLR2, 4 and might lead to the incontrollable periodontal inflammation in older adults. PMID:22723968

  3. Potency of endotoxin from bicarbonate dialysate compared with endotoxins from Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri.

    PubMed

    Bland, L A; Oliver, J C; Arduino, M J; Oettinger, C W; McAllister, S K; Favero, M S

    1995-02-01

    Endotoxin is a potent activator of the complement system and other host immunoregulators, including the cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-6. In this study, the potency of an endotoxin from bicarbonate dialysate was compared with endotoxins from two enteric microorganisms, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli. Endotoxin concentrations were standardized for the three endotoxins by use of the Limulus amebocyte lysate turbidimetric assay. Endotoxin potency was assessed by the comparative plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-6 after an in vitro whole-blood challenge by each type of endotoxin. Blood collected from 10 hemodialysis patients was spiked with 0.1, 1, and 10 ng/mL of E. coli and Shigella endotoxin and with 1 and 10 ng/mL of bicarbonate dialysate endotoxin. After incubation, plasma was separated and frozen at -70 degrees C until assayed for cytokine concentrations. Dialysate endotoxin was found to be 10 to 100 times less potent than E. coli and Shigella endotoxins. It was concluded that there are significant differences in the potency of endotoxins from different strains of bacteria and that these differences should be noted when designing or evaluating studies on the clinical effects of endotoxins in hemodialysis settings. PMID:7756598

  4. Lactoferrin Inhibits the Endotoxin Interaction with CD14 by Competition with the Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Elass-Rochard, Elisabeth; Legrand, Dominique; Salmon, Valerie; Roseanu, Anca; Trif, Mihaela; Tobias, Peter S.; Mazurier, Joel; Spik, Genevieve

    1998-01-01

    Human lactoferrin (hLf), a glycoprotein released from neutrophil granules during inflammation, and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP), an acute-phase serum protein, are known to bind to the lipid A of LPS. The LPS-binding sites are located in the N-terminal regions of both proteins, at amino acid residues 28 to 34 of hLf and 91 to 108 of LBP. Both of these proteins modulate endotoxin activities, but they possess biologically antagonistic properties. In this study, we have investigated the competition between hLf and recombinant human LBP (rhLBP) for the binding of Escherichia coli 055:B5 LPS to the differentiated monocytic THP-1 cell line. Our studies revealed that hLf prevented the rhLBP-mediated binding of LPS to the CD14 receptor on cells. Maximal inhibition of LPS-cell interactions by hLf was raised when both hLf and rhLBP were simultaneously added to LPS or when hLf and LPS were mixed with cells 30 min prior to the incubation with rhLBP. However, when hLf was added 30 min after the interaction of rhLBP with LPS, the binding of the rhLPS-LBP complex to CD14 could not be reversed. These observations indicate that hLf competes with rhLBP for the LPS binding and therefore interferes with the interaction of LPS with CD14. Furthermore, experiments involving competitive binding of the rhLBP-LPS complex to cells with two recombinant mutated hLfs show that in addition to residues 28 to 34, another basic cluster which contains residues 1 to 5 of hLf competes for the binding to LPS. Basic sequences homologous to residues 28 to 34 of hLf were evidenced on LPS-binding proteins such as LBP, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, and Limulus anti-LPS factor. PMID:9453600

  5. Synthesis, characterization and immunological properties of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 lipopolysaccharide- diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Rokhsartalab-Azar, Shadi; Shapouri, Reza; Rahnema, Mehdi; Najafzadeh, Faezeh

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Escherichia coli O157:H7, an emerging pathogen, causes severe enteritis and the extraintestinal complication of hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The goal of this study was to evaluate the conjugate of E. coli O157: H7 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with diphtheria toxoid (DT) as a candidate vaccine in mice model. Material and Methods: LPS from E. coli O157:H7 was extracted by hot phenol method and then detoxified. Purified LPS was coupled to DT with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) as a spacer and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDAC) as a linker. The coupling molar ratio of LPS to DT was 3:1. Clinical evaluation of E. coli O157:H7 LPS-DT conjugate was also performed. Results: The conjugate was devoid of endotoxin activity and indicated 0.125 U/ml of D-LPS. Mice immunization with D-LPS DT conjugate elicited fourfold higher IgG antibody in comparison to D-LPS. Also, in vivo protection of mice with conjugate provided high protection against the LD50 of E. coli O157:H7, which indicated a good correlation with the IgG titer. Conclusion: Our results showed that the suggested vaccine composed of E. coli O157:H7 LPS and DT had a significant potential to protect against E. coli infections. PMID:26668702

  6. Effect of Escherichia coli endotoxin on tissue lipoprotein lipase activities in chickens.

    PubMed

    Griffin, H D; Butterwith, S C

    1988-06-01

    1. Four-week-old broiler chickens were injected intravenously with from 0.01 to 1 mg of E. coli endotoxin/kg body weight or with saline. 2. At all doses used endotoxin markedly depressed food intake and lipoprotein lipase activities in muscle and adipose tissue within 8 h. Heart lipoprotein lipase activity was significantly depressed only at doses of 0.1 mg endotoxin/kg body weight or greater. 3. Treatment of birds with 0.3 mg endotoxin/kg body weight reduced post-heparin lipoprotein lipase activity to 0.13 of that in control birds in 8 h. 4. Endotoxin generally depressed plasma very-low-density lipoprotein concentration. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentration was significantly elevated only in birds given 1 mg endotoxin/kg body weight. 5. Fatty acid synthetase activity in the liver of endotoxin-treated birds was significantly lower than in control birds 16 h after administration of endoxin, but not after 8 h. 6. These results show that tissue lipoprotein lipase activity in birds is very responsive to E. coli endotoxin, as in mammals. Hypertriglyceridaemia occurs only occasionally in endotoxin-treated chickens, most probably because of the particularly close relationship between food intake and hepatic lipoprotein synthesis in birds. PMID:3044531

  7. Capture of Lipopolysaccharide (Endotoxin) by the Blood Clot: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Margaret T.; Rickles, Frederick R.; Armstrong, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    In vertebrates and arthropods, blood clotting involves the establishment of a plug of aggregated thrombocytes (the cellular clot) and an extracellular fibrillar clot formed by the polymerization of the structural protein of the clot, which is fibrin in mammals, plasma lipoprotein in crustaceans, and coagulin in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Both elements of the clot function to staunch bleeding. Additionally, the extracellular clot functions as an agent of the innate immune system by providing a passive anti-microbial barrier and microbial entrapment device, which functions directly at the site of wounds to the integument. Here we show that, in addition to these passive functions in immunity, the plasma lipoprotein clot of lobster, the coagulin clot of Limulus, and both the platelet thrombus and the fibrin clot of mammals (human, mouse) operate to capture lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin). The lipid A core of LPS is the principal agent of gram-negative septicemia, which is responsible for more than 100,000 human deaths annually in the United States and is similarly toxic to arthropods. Quantification using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test shows that clots capture significant quantities of LPS and fluorescent-labeled LPS can be seen by microscopy to decorate the clot fibrils. Thrombi generated in the living mouse accumulate LPS in vivo. It is suggested that capture of LPS released from gram-negative bacteria entrapped by the blood clot operates to protect against the disease that might be caused by its systemic dispersal. PMID:24282521

  8. Immune modulation of the pulmonary hypertensive response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wideman, R F; Chapman, M E; Wang, W; Erf, G F

    2004-04-01

    The lungs of broilers are constantly challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) that can activate leukocytes and trigger thromboxane A2 (TxA2)- and serotonin (5HT)-mediated pulmonary vasoconstriction leading to pulmonary hypertension. Among broilers from a single genetic line, some individuals respond to LPS with large increases in pulmonary arterial pressure, whereas others fail to exhibit any response to the same supramaximal dose of LPS. This extreme variability in the pulmonary hypertensive response to LPS appears to reflect variability in the types or proportions of chemical mediators released by leukocytes. Our research has confirmed that TxA2 and 5HT are potent pulmonary vasoconstrictors in broilers and that broilers hatched and reared together consistently exhibit pulmonary hypertension after i.v. injections of TxA2 or 5HT. Previous in vitro studies conducted using macrophages from different lines of chickens demonstrated innate variability in the LPS-stimulated induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) followed by the onset of an LPS-refractory state. The NOS enzyme converts arginine to citrulline and nitric oxide (NO). It is known that NO produced by endothelial NOS serves as a key modulator of flow-dependent pulmonary vasodilation, and it is likely that NO generated by iNOS also contributes to the pulmonary vasodilator response. Accordingly, it is our hypothesis that the pulmonary hypertensive response to LPS in broilers is minimal when more vasodilators (NO, prostacyclin) than vasoconstrictors (TxA2, 5HT) are generated during an LPS challenge. Indeed, inhibiting NO production through pharmacological blockade of NOS with the inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester modestly increased the baseline pulmonary arterial pressure and dramatically increased the pulmonary hypertensive response to LPS in all broilers evaluated. Innate differences in the effect of LPS on the pulmonary vasculature may contribute to differences in susceptibility of broilers to pulmonary hypertension syndrome (ascites). PMID:15109060

  9. Atypical antipsychotic paliperidone prevents behavioral deficits in mice prenatally challenged with bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Umesh; Mohanty, Banalata

    2015-01-15

    Studies on animal models provide enough evidences that old age appearance of psychosis on exposures to various insults during critical period of brain development could be prevented by antipsychotic drug treatment. Presently, gestational intervention of the atypical antipsychotic paliperidone (PAL) is done along with the exposure of bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide/LPS hypothesizing that the drug would counteract and/or prevent the immune activation-induced behavioral deficits in mice. Effect of the PAL (0.05 mg/kg; GD 15-PND 28) in preventing reflex, sensorimotor and anxiety deficits in prenatally LPS-challenged (800 µg/kg; GD 15 and GD 17) mice was assessed at three different life stages: neonatal (PND 4-PND 14), adolescence (PND 35) and at adulthood (PND 85). LPS-induced behavioral deficits were recognizable even at neonatal and adolescence stages, though more pronounced at adulthood. In only PAL-treated group few behavioral deficits though observed both at neonatal and adult stages but less prominent than LPS group were found. PAL co-treatment prevented the abnormalities in nest-seeking behavior in neonates, anxiety abnormalities at adolescence and adulthood but not the sensorimotor impairment. The drug might have maintained the stress homeostasis to counteract the behavioral abnormalities as LPS-induced hypercorticosteronemia was prevented on PAL co-treatment. In view of the in utero exposure, comparatively low drug dose was selected. Though efficacy has been predicted, the dose was not effective to prevent all psychopathological impairments. Considering the wider objectives, it was not possible to conduct multi dose study simultaneously. Our ongoing study with higher dose may predict the effective PAL dose in prevention of psychiatric illness. PMID:25240711

  10. Effects of endotoxin on mammary secretion of lactating cows. [Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Lengemann, F.W.; Pitzrick, M.

    1986-05-01

    The objectives were to describe the magnitude and time course of changes in milk pH, Na, K, lactose, and somatic cells and to determine if paracellular pathways were altered after infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin (serotype 0128:AB12) to produce inflammation in one-half of the udder of the goat. Intramammary infusion of endotoxin increased pH, number of somatic cells, and Na and decreased K and lactose in milk. Sodium and number of somatic cells were increased by as little as .1..mu..g of endotoxin; .25 ..mu..g produced changes in most of the other parameters; maximal effect was elicited by 1..mu..g of endotoxin. The gland response peaked from 5 to 7 h after infusion of endotoxin with an increase in milk cellularity as the only significant effect noted in the control gland. Infusion of (/sup 14/C)lactose into the gland and (/sup 99m/Tc)albumin into the blood demonstrated that large molecules were more able to cross into and out of udder halves after endotoxin treatment. It is suggested that ion interchange rather than bulk flow across paracellular paths is responsible for changes. In addition, endotoxin appeared to reduce lactose secretion and synthesis.

  11. Lpsd/Ran of endotoxin-resistant C3H/HeJ mice is defective in mediating lipopolysaccharide endotoxin responses

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Peter M. C.; Kang, Anthony; Chen, Hong; Yuan, Quan; Fan, Peidong; Sultzer, Barnet M.; Kan, Yuet Wai; Chung, Siu-Wah

    1999-01-01

    C3H/HeJ inbred mice are defective in that they are highly resistant to endotoxic shock as compared with normal responder mice. Their B cells and macrophages do not respond significantly when exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), whereas cells from the responder mice do. Using a functional assay, we previously isolated a cDNA, which encodes for Ran/TC4 GTPase. We now show that this gene is mutated in C3H/HeJ mice, which accounts for their resistance to endotoxin stimulation. Sequence analysis of independent mutant Lpsd/Ran cDNAs isolated from splenic B cells of C3H/HeJ mice reveals a consistent single base substitution at position 870, where a thymidine is replaced with a cytidine. In situ hybridization maps the Lpsd/Ran cDNA to mouse chromosome 4. By retroviral gene transfer, the wild-type Lpsn/Ran cDNA but not the mutant Lpsd/Ran cDNA can restore LPS responsiveness of C3H/HeJ cells. Adenoviral gene transfer in vivo with the mutant Lpsd/Ran cDNA but not the wild-type Lpsn/Ran cDNA rescues endotoxin-sensitive mice from septic shock. Thus Lps/Ran is an important target for LPS-mediated signal transduction, and the Lpsd/Ran gene may be useful as a therapeutic sequence in gene therapy for endotoxemia and septic shock. PMID:10500213

  12. The effect of sodium chloride extract and commercial lipopolysaccharides of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium on chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, K; Abe, F

    1988-01-01

    In chickens inoculated into the heart with a sodium chloride extract of Escherichia coli strain (serotype O2) isolated from a chicken with colibacillosis, characteristic hemorrhages into the anterior chamber of the eyes (hyphema) were found. Significant lesions were limited to the eyes. Cyclophosphamide-treated chickens were more sensitive to the extract than untreated chickens and hyphema was usually seen in association with hemorrhages of the iris. These activities were not reduced by heating the extract at 60 degrees C for one hour or by trypsin digestion. Chickens inoculated into the heart with commercial lipopolysaccharides of E. coli (serotypes O111:B4 and O55:B5) and Salmonella typhimurium showed similar lesions in the eyes as the chickens inoculated with the sodium chloride extract. These findings suggest that the endotoxin may induce hyphema in chickens. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3285982

  13. Peptide-assembled graphene oxide as a fluorescent turn-on sensor for lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) detection.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seng Koon; Chen, Peng; Lee, Fook Loy; Moochhala, Shabbir; Liedberg, Bo

    2015-09-15

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a toxic inflammatory stimulator released from the outer cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, known to be directly related to, for example, septic shock, that causes millions of casualties annually. This number could potentially be lowered significantly if specific, sensitive, and more simply applicable LPS biosensors existed. In this work, we present a facile, sensitive and selective LPS sensor, developed by assembling tetramethylrhodamine-labeled LPS-binding peptides on graphene oxide (GO). The fluorescence of the dye-labeled peptide is quenched upon interaction with GO. Specific binding to LPS triggers the release of the peptide-LPS complex from GO, resulting in fluorescence recovery. This fluorescent turn-on sensor offers an estimated limit of detection of 130 pM, which is the lowest ever reported among all synthetic LPS sensors to date. Importantly, this sensor is applicable for detection of LPS in commonly used clinical injectable fluids, and it enables selective detection of LPS from different bacterial strains as well as LPS on the membrane of living E. coli. PMID:26303386

  14. Pulmonary toxicity of endotoxins: comparison of lipopolysaccharides from various bacterial species.

    PubMed Central

    Helander, I; Saxn, H; Salkinoja-Salonen, M; Rylander, R

    1982-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides from three gram-negative bacteria isolated from bale cotton and piggery air were analyzed for their chemical composition, and their pulmonary toxicity for guinea pigs, lethal toxicity for mice, and pyrogenicity for rabbits were measured. Lipopolysaccharides from Enterobacter agglomerans and Citrobacter freundii had closely related chemical compositions; both were pyrogenic for rabbits and caused a dose-dependent influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes into the airways of guinea pigs. The lethal toxicities of these lipopolysaccharides in mice were comparable to that of Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide, which was used as a reference. Lipopolysaccharide from Agrobacterium sp. was chemically different from those of E. agglomerans and C. freundii, did not induce any influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and was only weakly toxic or pyrogenic. The low biological activity of the agrobacterial lipopolysaccharide may be due to its different chemical composition. PMID:7056574

  15. Blockade of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase protects mice against lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxin shock.

    PubMed

    Jung, In Duk; Lee, Min-Goo; Chang, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Jun Sik; Jeong, Young-Il; Lee, Chang-Min; Park, Won Sun; Han, Jin; Seo, Su-Kil; Lee, Sang Yong; Park, Yeong-Min

    2009-03-01

    Suppression of an excessive systemic inflammatory response is a promising and potent strategy for treating endotoxic sepsis. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which is the rate-limiting enzyme for tryptophan catabolism, may play a critical role in various inflammatory disorders. In this study, we report a critical role for IDO in the dysregulated immune response associated with endotoxin shock. We found that IDO knockout (IDO(-/-)) mice and 1-methyl-D-tryptophan-treated, endotoxin-shocked mice had decreased levels of the cytokines, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-12, and enhanced levels of IL-10. Blockade of IDO is thought to promote host survival in LPS-induced endotoxin shock, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate IDO expression during endotoxin shock. In vitro and in vivo, IDO expression was increased by exogenous IL-12, but decreased by exogenous IL-10 in dendritic cells and splenic dendritic cells. Interestingly, whereas LPS-induced IL-12 levels in serum were higher than those of IL-10, the balance between serum IL-12 and IL-10 following challenge became reversed in IDO(-/-)- or 1-methyl-D-tryptophan-treated mice. Our findings demonstrate that the detrimental immune response to endotoxin shock may occur via IDO modulation. Restoring the IL-12 and IL-10 balance by blocking IDO represents a potential strategy for sepsis treatment. PMID:19234212

  16. Influence of antibiotic and E5 monoclonal immunoglobulin M interactions on endotoxin release from Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Lamp, K C; Rybak, M J; McGrath, B J; Summers, K K

    1996-01-01

    Recent controversy surrounding the activity of monoclonal antibodies against endotoxin highlights the necessity of identifying all factors associated with increased mortality, one of which is endotoxin concentrations. Antibiotics may induce different patterns of endotoxin release. We compared the release of free endotoxin (in endotoxin units per milliliter) over 6 h and changes in numbers of CFU of exponentially growing Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10(6) to 10(7) CFU/ml) cultured in chemically defined endotoxin-free broth combined with pooled human serum and/or 10 micrograms of E5 immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibody per ml. MICs and MBCs were tested in each medium at the same inoculum. The inoculum was exposed to antibiotics at a single fixed multiple of the MIC for each medium (range, two to eight times the MIC). E5 antibody had no effect on MICs, MBCs, bactericidal activity, or endotoxin release. In the presence of 50% serum, amikacin, ceftazidime, imipenem, and ofloxacin each killed equivalent amounts of E. coli over 6 h; however, ceftazidime induced the highest release of endotoxin. Amikacin and ofloxacin produced the most favorable ratio of endotoxin release to amount of bacterial killing. In the presence of 50% serum, ceftazidime and imipenem reduced the P. aeruginosa inoculum to the greatest extent over 6 h. Although its bactericidal activity was diminished, ofloxacin caused the lowest release of free endotoxin. Imipenem and ofloxacin showed similar low ratios of endotoxin release to bacterial killing. In summary, antibiotic class, presence of serum, and type of organism influenced bactericidal activity and endotoxin release. PMID:8787917

  17. Endotoxin of Escherichia coli and permeability of the mammary glands of goats

    SciTech Connect

    Lengemann, F.W.; Pitzrick, M.

    1987-01-01

    Serial collections of milk were used to determine where in the mammary gland endotoxin of Escherichia coli was effective in altering the transfer of selected milk components into blood and blood components into milk. Lactating goats had half the gland infused with 1 ..mu..g of endotoxin and the other half served as a control. Sodium-24 and /sup 42/K or (/sup 14/C) lactose were included with /sup 141/Ce in the infusate in some experiments, whereas in others /sup 99m/Tc-labelled albumin or /sup 24/Na and /sup 42/K were given intravenously 2 h after the endotoxin infusion. Milk was collected 3 h after endotoxin infusion. Endotoxin increased the loss of /sup 24/Na, /sup 42/K, and (/sup 14/C) lactose from the mammary gland and increased the transfer of /sup 24/Na and /sup 99m/Tc-albumin into the gland. The transfer in of /sup 42/K was reduced compared with control halves. Movement of stable Na and K was in accord with the movement of the /sup 24/Na and /sup 42/K. Endotoxin was effective in all parts of the gland but particularly from the mid-portion upward to the alveoli. For the control halves there was evidence that some /sup 24/Na and /sup 42/K crossed the ductal or cisternal epithelium into blood outside of the alveoli, whereas only /sup 42/K provided evidence for transfer from blood to milk in these same regions. There was no demonstrable transfer of lactose and albumin in regions other than the alveoli.

  18. Oral administration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii reduces Escherichia coli endotoxin associated mortality in weaned pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of active dry yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii (Scb), on the immune/neuroendocrine response and subsequent mortality to E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration were evaluated in newly weaned pigs (26.1 + or - 3.4 d of age). Barrows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment group...

  19. Exposure of periodontal ligament progenitor cells to lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli changes osteoblast differentiation pattern

    PubMed Central

    ALBIERO, Mayra Laino; AMORIM, Bruna Rabelo; MARTINS, Luciane; CASATI, Márcio Zaffalon; SALLUM, Enilson Antonio; NOCITI, Francisco Humberto; SILVÉRIO, Karina Gonzales

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells (PDLMSCs) are an important alternative source of adult stem cells and may be applied for periodontal tissue regeneration, neuroregenerative medicine, and heart valve tissue engineering. However, little is known about the impact of bacterial toxins on the biological properties of PDLSMSCs, including self-renewal, differentiation, and synthesis of extracellular matrix. Objective : This study investigated whether proliferation, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and osteogenic differentiation of CD105-enriched PDL progenitor cell populations (PDL-CD105+ cells) would be affected by exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli (EcLPS). Material and Methods : Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression was assessed in PDL-CD105+ cells by the immunostaining technique and confirmed using Western blotting assay. Afterwards, these cells were exposed to EcLPS, and the following assays were carried out: (i) cell viability using MTS; (ii) expression of the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) genes; (iii) osteoblast differentiation assessed by mineralization in vitro, and by mRNA levels of run-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN) determined by quantitative PCR. Results : PDL-CD105+ cells were identified as positive for TLR4. EcLPS did not affect cell viability, but induced a significant increase of transcripts for IL-6 and IL-8. Under osteogenic condition, PDL-CD105+ cells exposed to EcLPS presented an increase of mineralized matrix deposition and higher RUNX2 and ALP mRNA levels when compared to the control group. Conclusions : These results provide evidence that CD105-enriched PDL progenitor cells are able to adapt to continuous Escherichia coli endotoxin challenge, leading to an upregulation of osteogenic activities. PMID:26018305

  20. Underlying mechanisms involved in the decrease of milk secretion during Escherichia coli endotoxin induced mastitis in lactating mice.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ken; Oyama, Shoko; Uejyo, Takaaki; Kuki, Chinatsu; Rahman, Md Morshedur; Kumura, Haruto

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis, the inflammation of mammary glands resulting from bacterial infection, disrupts milk production in lactating mammary glands. In this study, we injected lipopolysaccharide (LPS), one of the endotoxins from Escherichia coli into mouse mammary glands to disrupt milk production, and we investigated the influence of LPS on nutrient uptake, synthesis, and secretion processes for milk component production in alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). The expression of genes relevant to the three-staged milk component production process (nutrient uptake, synthesis, and secretion of milk components) were down-regulated within 12 h after LPS injection in AEC. The internalization of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) from the basolateral membrane to the cytoplasm occurred in accordance with the down-regulation of gene expression 3 h after LPS injection. The abnormal localization of adipophilin and beta-casein was also observed in the LPS-injected mammary glands. SLC7A1, an amino acid transporter, was up-regulated 3 and 6 h after LPS injection. Furthermore, the inactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and the activation of STAT3 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NFkappaB) occurred 3 h after LPS injection. These results indicate that the nutrient uptake, synthesis, and secretion of milk components in AEC are rapidly shut down in the lactating mammary glands after LPS injection. PMID:24308795

  1. Structural and antigenic properties of Campylobacter coli lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed Central

    Mandatori, R; Penner, J L

    1989-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from O-serotype reference strains and from serotyped isolates of Campylobacter coli were examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in combination with silver staining and immunoblotting to elucidate the molecular basis for the thermostable antigenic diversity in C. coli. Electrophoresed low-Mr LPS was detectable by silver staining and immunoblotting, but high-Mr LPS was demonstrable only by immunoblotting. Eight different antigenic specificities of low-Mr LPS were defined among the 18 serotype reference strains. In some cases, the LPSs from serotype reference strains and from field isolates of the same serotype had virtually identical low-Mr and high-Mr molecules. In other cases, the high-Mr molecules of the LPS were virtually the same for both the isolates and the corresponding serotype reference strains but low-Mr LPS of the isolate differed in both its antigenicity and it structure. The antigenic specificities of high-Mr LPS but not low-Mr LPS are the serotypic markers of the species that are identified when serotyping is performed by passive hemagglutination. Images PMID:2807533

  2. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides form procollagen-endotoxin complexes that trigger cartilage inflammation and degeneration: implications for the development of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We have previously reported that bacterial toxins, especially endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), might be important causative agents in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in an in vitro model that simulates the potential effects of residing in damp buildings. Since numerous inflammatory processes are linked with the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), we investigated in detail the effects of LPS on the NF-κB pathway and the postulated formation of procollagen-endotoxin complexes. Methods An in vitro model of human chondrocytes was used to investigate LPS-mediated inflammatory signaling. Results Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that LPS physically interact with collagen type II in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and anti-collagen type II significantly reduced this interaction. BMS-345541 (a specific inhibitor of IκB kinase (IKK)) or wortmannin (a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)) inhibited the LPS-induced degradation of the ECM and apoptosis in chondrocytes. This effect was completely inhibited by combining BMS-345541 and wortmannin. Furthermore, BMS-345541 and/or wortmannin suppressed the LPS-induced upregulation of catabolic enzymes that mediate ECM degradation (matrix metalloproteinases-9, -13), cyclooxygenase-2 and apoptosis (activated caspase-3). These proteins are regulated by NF-κB, suggesting that the NF-κB and PI-3K pathways are involved in LPS-induced cartilage degradation. The induction of NF-κB correlated with activation of IκBα kinase, IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation and p65 nuclear translocation. Further upstream, LPS induced the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and bound with TLR4, indicating that LPS acts through TLR4. Conclusion These results suggest that molecular associations between LPS/TLR4/collagen type II in chondrocytes upregulate the NF-κB and PI-3K signaling pathways and activate proinflammatory activity. PMID:24020912

  3. Crosstalk between the lipopolysaccharide and phospholipid pathways during outer membrane biogenesis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Emiola, Akintunde; Andrews, Steven S; Heller, Carolin; George, John

    2016-03-15

    The outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria is composed of phospholipids in the inner leaflet and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in the outer leaflet. LPS is an endotoxin that elicits a strong immune response from humans, and its biosynthesis is in part regulated via degradation of LpxC (EC 3.5.1.108) and WaaA (EC 2.4.99.12/13) enzymes by the protease FtsH (EC 3.4.24.-). Because the synthetic pathways for both molecules are complex, in addition to being produced in strict ratios, we developed a computational model to interrogate the regulatory mechanisms involved. Our model findings indicate that the catalytic activity of LpxK (EC 2.7.1.130) appears to be dependent on the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids. This is biologically important because it assists in maintaining LPS/phospholipids homeostasis. Further crosstalk between the phospholipid and LPS biosynthetic pathways was revealed by experimental observations that LpxC is additionally regulated by an unidentified protease whose activity is independent of lipid A disaccharide concentration (the feedback source for FtsH-mediated LpxC regulation) but could be induced in vitro by palmitic acid. Further experimental analysis provided evidence on the rationale for WaaA regulation. Overexpression of waaA resulted in increased levels of 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) sugar in membrane extracts, whereas Kdo and heptose levels were not elevated in LPS. This implies that uncontrolled production of WaaA does not increase the LPS production rate but rather reglycosylates lipid A precursors. Overall, the findings of this work provide previously unidentified insights into the complex biogenesis of the Escherichia coli outer membrane. PMID:26929331

  4. Crosstalk between the lipopolysaccharide and phospholipid pathways during outer membrane biogenesis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Emiola, Akintunde; Andrews, Steven S.; Heller, Carolin; George, John

    2016-01-01

    The outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria is composed of phospholipids in the inner leaflet and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in the outer leaflet. LPS is an endotoxin that elicits a strong immune response from humans, and its biosynthesis is in part regulated via degradation of LpxC (EC 3.5.1.108) and WaaA (EC 2.4.99.12/13) enzymes by the protease FtsH (EC 3.4.24.-). Because the synthetic pathways for both molecules are complex, in addition to being produced in strict ratios, we developed a computational model to interrogate the regulatory mechanisms involved. Our model findings indicate that the catalytic activity of LpxK (EC 2.7.1.130) appears to be dependent on the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids. This is biologically important because it assists in maintaining LPS/phospholipids homeostasis. Further crosstalk between the phospholipid and LPS biosynthetic pathways was revealed by experimental observations that LpxC is additionally regulated by an unidentified protease whose activity is independent of lipid A disaccharide concentration (the feedback source for FtsH-mediated LpxC regulation) but could be induced in vitro by palmitic acid. Further experimental analysis provided evidence on the rationale for WaaA regulation. Overexpression of waaA resulted in increased levels of 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) sugar in membrane extracts, whereas Kdo and heptose levels were not elevated in LPS. This implies that uncontrolled production of WaaA does not increase the LPS production rate but rather reglycosylates lipid A precursors. Overall, the findings of this work provide previously unidentified insights into the complex biogenesis of the Escherichia coli outer membrane. PMID:26929331

  5. Acute inflammatory effects of intratracheally instilled Escherichia coli endotoxin and sonicated suspension of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae in swine.

    PubMed Central

    Liggett, A D; Harrison, L R; Farrell, R L

    1986-01-01

    A single bolus of either Escherichia coli endotoxin, sonicated suspension of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae, or pyrogen-free normal saline was intratracheally instilled in six week old specific-pathogen-free pigs. Pigs exposed to E. coli endotoxin developed fever, leukopenia followed by leukocytosis, and endotoxemia. Leukocytosis was the only clinical abnormality noted in pigs receiving the sonicated suspension of H. pleuropneumoniae. At one day postexposure, focal areas of atelectasis and consolidation were observed in the caudal lung lobes of animals receiving either E. coli endotoxin or the sonicated suspension of H. pleuropneumoniae. Lesions were characterized by a neutrophilic bronchitis and bronchiolitis with alveolitis in the surrounding tissue. Increased numbers of alveolar macrophages and evidence of phagocytosis were observed by light and electron microscopy. No clinical abnormalities or lesions were observed in animals receiving normal saline. Lesions typical of acute porcine Haemophilus pleuropneumonia were not produced by either E. coli endotoxin or sonicated suspension of H. pleuropneumoniae, indicating that multiple virulence factors are probably involved in lesion development. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:3539296

  6. Myocardial dysfunction in endotoxin- and E. coli-induced shock: pathophysiological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Archer, L T

    1985-01-01

    Experimental studies have documented that myocardial dysfunction is precipitated between 3 and 6 hr after endotoxin or E. coli. This finding has now been confirmed in human septic shock. A "Hinshaw-modified" isolated working left ventricle preparation has been used to document and assess the degree of failure. It was found that the failure is often severe and reversible only temporarily by adrenergic agents but reversible by digoxin or insulin. The cause of the failure has not been identified, but evidence is presented against a myocardial depressant factor (MDF) being the causative factor. Hearts subjected to a 2-4 hr period of hypotension on the threshold of failure show no signs of failure when subjected to blood circulating from an animal in splanchnic arterial occlusion shock. Hearts from pancreatectomized animals subjected to endotoxin shock with their source of MDF removed demonstrate the typical failure in 4-6 hr. Other factors are suggested that contribute to myocardial dysfunction: hypotension or nonuniform perfusion of subendocardial regions of the heart, depressed responsiveness to inotropic and chronotropic stimuli, intracardiac ionic and fluid disturbances, and increases in heart chamber and muscle stiffness. Since steroid/antibiotic therapy increases the probability (p less than 0.05) that an animal will survive lethal sepsis, investigating the effect of this therapy on myocardial function may aid in determining whether or not this degree of heart failure contributes in the animal to irreversible shock and death. PMID:3888434

  7. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF BOVINE MACROPHAGES IN RESPONSE TO ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to identify changes in bovine macrophage gene expression in response to treatment with Escherichia coli 0157:H7 lipopolysaccharide (LPS), utilizing a human gene microarray. Bovine cDNA from control and LPS-treated primary macrophages hybridized to greater than 5,644 (79.8%)...

  8. Control of endotoxin activity and interleukin-1 production through regulation of lipopolysaccharide-lipoprotein binding by a macrophage factor.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, H S; Riveau, G R; de Deckker, F A; Chedid, L A

    1988-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) extracted from gram-negative bacteria are much less active when bound to serum lipoproteins. We present evidence here that the binding of radiolabeled LPS extracted from Escherichia coli O113 and Salmonella typhimurium to lipoproteins in rabbit serum is increased 8 to 24 h after a single intravenous injection of homologous or heterologous LPS. Supernatants of activated macrophages containing interleukin-1 also stimulate increased binding. The isolated product of this binding does not induce the production of interleukin-1 by macrophages in vivo or in vitro and is unable itself to stimulate increased binding of LPS to lipoprotein. Normal rabbit sera spiked with lipoprotein fractions prepared from tolerant but not normal rabbit sera bind increased amounts of LPS. These data suggest that there may exist a self-regulated mechanism for decreasing the toxicity of LPS and the production of LPS-induced interleukin-1; this mechanism is controlled by a macrophage factor and functions through altering the binding of LPS to certain serum lipoproteins. PMID:3275583

  9. PmrD Is Required for Modifications to Escherichia coli Endotoxin That Promote Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Erica J.; Herrera, Carmen M.; Crofts, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    In Salmonella enterica, PmrD is a connector protein that links the two-component systems PhoP-PhoQ and PmrA-PmrB. While Escherichia coli encodes a PmrD homolog, it is thought to be incapable of connecting PhoPQ and PmrAB in this organism due to functional divergence from the S. enterica protein. However, our laboratory previously observed that low concentrations of Mg2+, a PhoPQ-activating signal, leads to the induction of PmrAB-dependent lipid A modifications in wild-type E. coli (C. M. Herrera, J. V. Hankins, and M. S. Trent, Mol Microbiol 76:1444–1460, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07150.x). These modifications include phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) and 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose (l-Ara4N), which promote bacterial resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) when affixed to lipid A. Here, we demonstrate that pmrD is required for modification of the lipid A domain of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under low-Mg2+ growth conditions. Further, RNA sequencing shows that E. coli pmrD influences the expression of pmrA and its downstream targets, including genes coding for the modification enzymes that transfer pEtN and l-Ara4N to the lipid A molecule. In line with these findings, a pmrD mutant is dramatically impaired in survival compared with the wild-type strain when exposed to the CAMP polymyxin B. Notably, we also reveal the presence of an unknown factor or system capable of activating pmrD to promote lipid A modification in the absence of the PhoPQ system. These results illuminate a more complex network of protein interactions surrounding activation of PhoPQ and PmrAB in E. coli than previously understood. PMID:25605366

  10. [Endotoxin theory of atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Anikhovskaia, I A; Kubatiev, A A; Iakovlev, M Iu

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of bacterial lipopolysaccharides in the induction of atherogenesis is postulated. The excess of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin aggression) is observed in the general blood circulation of volunteers with the presence of atherosclerotic risk factors (obesity, diabetes, stress, pathology of haemostasis, kidney, intestines, etc.). The results allow to be optimistic about the prospects for preventing the development and progression of atherosclerotic pathology. PMID:25857184

  11. Concentrations of alpha-Tocopherol after intramammary infusion of Escherichia coli or lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Barrett, J J; Hogan, J S; Weiss, W P; Smith, K L; Sordillo, L M

    1997-11-01

    Fifteen Holstein cows were used in a trial involving intramammary challenge to determine the effects of acute clinical mastitis on the concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in milk and plasma and the concentrations of neutrophils in milk and blood. Cows were assigned to one of three experimental groups challenged by intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide, Escherichia coli, or sterile phosphate-buffered saline. All quarters infused with lipopolysaccharide or E. coli were diagnosed with clinical mastitis on d 1 and 2 after challenge. Acute inflammation caused by intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide or E. coli resulted in increased concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in milk in challenged quarters but had no effect on concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in plasma. Concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in milk and blood neutrophils did not differ among treatment groups. Concentrations of alpha-tocopherol did not differ between milk and blood neutrophils. Approximately 25% of the alpha-tocopherol in milk from glands with clinical mastitis was associated with neutrophils, and < 10% of the alpha-tocopherol in milk from nonmastitic glands was associated with neutrophils. A shift toward sources of alpha-tocopherol other than synthesized milk fat occurred during acute inflammation in the mammary gland. PMID:9406075

  12. Lactoferrin-lipopolysaccharide interaction: involvement of the 28-34 loop region of human lactoferrin in the high-affinity binding to Escherichia coli 055B5 lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Elass-Rochard, E; Roseanu, A; Legrand, D; Trif, M; Salmon, V; Motas, C; Montreuil, J; Spik, G

    1995-01-01

    The ability of lactoferrin (Lf), an iron-binding glycoprotein that is also called lactotransferrin, to bind lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may be relevant to some of its biological properties. A knowledge of the LPS-binding site on Lf may help to explain the mechanism of its involvement in host defence. Our report reveals the presence of two Escherichia coli 055B5 LPS-binding sites on human Lf (hLf): a high-affinity binding site (Kd 3.6 +/- 1 nM) and a low-affinity binding site (Kd 390 +/- 20 nM). Bovine Lf (bLf), which shares about 70% amino acid sequence identity with hLf, exhibits the same behaviour towards LPS. Like hLf, bLf also contains a low- and a high-affinity LPS-binding site. The Kd value (4.5 +/- 2 nM) corresponding to the high-affinity binding site is similar to that obtained for hLf. Different LPS-binding sites for human serum transferrin have been suggested, as this protein, which is known to bind bacterial endotoxin, produced only 12% inhibition of hLf-LPS interaction. Binding and competitive binding experiments performed with the N-tryptic fragment (residues 4-283), the C-tryptic fragment (residues 284-692) and the N2-glycopeptide (residues 91-255) isolated from hLf have demonstrated that the high-affinity binding site is located in the N-terminal domain I of hLf, and the low-affinity binding site is present in the C-terminal lobe. The inhibition of hLf-LPS interaction by a synthetic octadecapeptide corresponding to residues 20-37 of hLf and lactoferricin B (residues 17-41), a proteolytic fragment from bLf, revealed the importance of the 28-34 loop region of hLf and the homologous region of bLf for LPS binding. Direct evidence that this amino acid sequence is involved in the high-affinity binding to LPS was demonstrated by assays carried out with EGS-loop hLf, a recombinant hLf mutated at residues 28-34. Images Figure 9 PMID:8554529

  13. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for the lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli O157.

    PubMed Central

    Westerman, R B; He, Y; Keen, J E; Littledike, E T; Kwang, J

    1997-01-01

    Identification of the O157 antigen is an essential part of the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7, which is recognized as a major etiologic agent of hemorrhagic colitis. However, polyclonal antibodies produced against E. coli O157:H7 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may react with several other bacteria including Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, Yersinia enterocolitica O9, Escherichia hermannii, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. We produced eight monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the LPS of E. coli O157. Western blots (immunoblots) of both the phenol phase (smooth) and the aqueous phase (rough) of hot phenol-water-purified LPS indicated that three of the MAbs were specific for the O antigen and five were reactive with the LPS core. The eight MAbs could be further differentiated by their reactivities to Salmonella O30 LPS (group N), which is reported to be identical to the E. coli O157 antigen. All eight MAbs reacted strongly to all of the 64 strains of E. coli O157 tested, which included 47 isolates of O157:H7 and 17 other O157 strains. None of the eight MAbs cross-reacted with any of the 38 other E. coli serotypes tested, which consisted of 29 different O-antigen serotypes, or with 38 strains (22 genera) of non-E. coli gram-negative enteric bacteria. PMID:9041412

  14. [Changes in the afferent activity of the vagus nerve and the rectal temperature in rats following Escherichia coli endotoxin administration].

    PubMed

    Lapsha, V I; Lukashenko, T M; Utkina, L N; Gurin, V N

    2001-10-01

    In anaesthetised rats, i.p. administration of the Echerichia coli lipopolysaccharide in doses 5 mcg/kg (LPS) increased afferent activity of the cervical vagus, whereas 100 and 1000 mcg/kg doses inhibited the afferent discharges. Pyrogen-free saline (PFS) did not alter the activity. Rectal temperature (RT) was decreased by the PFS and by large doses of the LPS. Sodium salicylate administration prevented the effects. PMID:11767451

  15. Engineering N-linked protein glycosylation with diverse O antigen lipopolysaccharide structures in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Mario F; Wacker, Michael; Hernandez, Marcela; Hitchen, Paul G; Marolda, Cristina L; Kowarik, Michael; Morris, Howard R; Dell, Anne; Valvano, Miguel A; Aebi, Markus

    2005-02-22

    Campylobacter jejuni has a general N-linked protein glycosylation system that can be functionally transferred to Escherichia coli. In this study, we engineered E. coli cells in a way that two different pathways, protein N-glycosylation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis, converge at the step in which PglB, the key enzyme of the C. jejuni N-glycosylation system, transfers O polysaccharide from a lipid carrier (undecaprenyl pyrophosphate) to an acceptor protein. PglB was the only protein of the bacterial N-glycosylation machinery both necessary and sufficient for the transfer. The relaxed specificity of the PglB oligosaccharyltransferase toward the glycan structure was exploited to create novel N-glycan structures containing two distinct E. coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa O antigens. PglB-mediated transfer of polysaccharides might be valuable for in vivo production of O polysaccharides-protein conjugates for use as antibacterial vaccines. PMID:15703289

  16. Structural and antigenic heterogeneity of lipopolysaccharides of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    PubMed Central

    Logan, S M; Trust, T J

    1984-01-01

    The techniques of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, silver staining, and immunoblotting were used to analyze the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure of 20 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and 4 strains of Campylobacter coli belonging to more than 22 thermostable serotypes. The LPSs of all strains examined were shown to be of a low-molecular-weight type, and these low-molecular-weight LPSs conferred heat-stable serospecificity. High-molecular-weight banding observed with both in vivo LPS in proteinase K digests of whole cell lysates and purified LPS was shown to be due to the ready ability of Campylobacter lipopolysaccharide to form aggregates rather than to the presence of O polysaccharide chains. Purified LPSs from two strains of C. jejuni were also subjected to gross chemical analysis. The high-lipid A to low-neutral sugar ratio of both LPSs was typical of LPSs lacking O polysaccharide chains. Images PMID:6203838

  17. Influence of Core Oligosaccharide of Lipopolysaccharide to Outer Membrane Behavior of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhou; Wang, Jianli; Ren, Ge; Li, Ye; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides, major molecules in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, play important roles on membrane integrity of the cell. However, how the core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide affect the membrane behavior is not well understood. In this study, the relationship between the core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide and the membrane behavior was investigated using a series of Escherichia coli mutants defective in genes to affect the biosynthesis of core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide. Cell surface hydrophobicity, outer membrane permeability, biofilm formation and auto-aggregation of these mutant cells were compared. Compared to the wild type W3110, cell surface hydrophobicities of mutant ΔwaaC, ΔwaaF, ΔwaaG, ΔwaaO, ΔwaaP, ΔwaaY and ΔwaaB were enhanced, outer membrane permeabilities of ΔwaaC, ΔwaaF, ΔwaaG and ΔwaaP were significantly increased, abilities of biofilm formation by ΔwaaC, ΔwaaF, ΔwaaG, ΔwaaO, ΔwaaR, ΔwaaP, ΔwaaQ and ΔwaaY decreased, and auto-aggregation abilities of ΔwaaC, ΔwaaF, ΔwaaG, ΔwaaO, ΔwaaR, ΔwaaU, ΔwaaP and ΔwaaY were strongly enhanced. These results give new insight into the influence of core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide on bacterial cell membrane behavior. PMID:26023839

  18. Enhanced host immune recognition of E.coli causing mastitis in CD-14 transgenic mice.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherchia coli causes mastitis, an economically significant disease in dairy animals. E. coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) when bound by host membrane proteins such as CD-14, causes release of pro-inflammatory cytokines recruiting neutrophils as a early innate immune response. Excessive pr...

  19. Combined effect of ampicillin, colistin and dexamethasone administered intramuscularly to dairy cows on the clinico-pathological course of E. coli-endotoxin mastitis.

    PubMed

    Ziv, G; Shem-Tov, M; Ascher, F

    1998-01-01

    The effects of a single intramuscular injection of a drug product containing ampicillin, colistin and dexamethasone, as a suspension in a diester of propylene glycol of medium-chain fatty acids, on the clinico-pathological course of experimental Escherichia coli-endotoxin mastitis was examined in 30 dairy cows. Cows were divided into five groups, six cows per group, and 24 of them were infused with E. coli endotoxin into two quarters of their udders. The drug product was injected at 25,000 IU colistin sulphate, 10.0 mg ampicillin anhydrate and 0.025 mg dexamethasone acetate.kg-1 body weight as follows: Group 2 cows, immediately post-endotoxin infusion (PEI); Group 3 cows, 2 h PEI and, Group 4 cows, 4 h PEI. Group 1 cows were not treated with the product and served as a positive (endotoxin only) control while Group 5 cows were not challenged with endotoxin and were not treated with the product. A clinical mastitis score (CMS) was developed to quantitatively assess the degree of inflammation. Blood biochemistry and hematological parameters were used to monitor the immediate effects of treatment on several conventional inflammatory markers. Milk somatic cell counts (MSCC), milk electrical conductivity and daily milk production were among the parameters used to monitor systemic and local inflammatory reactions. Administration of the drug product immediately PEI and 2 h PEI clearly nullified some of the most severe early systemic reactions to inflammation but the effect of therapy on the local inflammatory markers was not as obvious. Notewhorthy, however, were the effects of the treatment on reducing the duration of elevated quarter MSCC and the increase in the speed of return to pre-endotoxin challenge daily milk production levels. PMID:9559523

  20. Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis without the Lipids: Recognition Promiscuity of Escherichia coli Heptosyltransferase I

    PubMed Central

    Czyzyk, Daniel J.; Liu, Cassie; Taylor, Erika A.

    2011-01-01

    Heptosyltransferase I (HepI) is responsible for the transfer of L-glycero-D-manno-heptose to a 3-deoxy-α-D-oct-2-ulopyranosonic acid (Kdo) of the growing core region of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The catalytic efficiency of HepI with the fully deacylated analogue of Escherichia coli HepI LipidA is 12-fold greater than with the fully acylated substrate, with a kcat/Km of 2.7 × 106 M−1 s−1, compared to a value of 2.2 × 105 M−1 s−1 for the Kdo2-LipidA substrate. Not only is this is the first demonstration that an LPS biosynthetic enzyme is catalytically enhanced by the absence of lipids, this result has significant implications for downstream enzymes that are now thought to utilize deacylated substrates. PMID:22059588

  1. Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis without the lipids: recognition promiscuity of Escherichia coli heptosyltransferase I.

    PubMed

    Czyzyk, Daniel J; Liu, Cassie; Taylor, Erika A

    2011-12-13

    Heptosyltransferase I (HepI) is responsible for the transfer of l-glycero-d-manno-heptose to a 3-deoxy-α-D-oct-2-ulopyranosonic acid (Kdo) of the growing core region of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The catalytic efficiency of HepI with the fully deacylated analogue of Escherichia coli HepI LipidA is 12-fold greater than with the fully acylated substrate, with a k(cat)/K(m) of 2.7 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1), compared to a value of 2.2 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) for the Kdo(2)-LipidA substrate. Not only is this is the first demonstration that an LPS biosynthetic enzyme is catalytically enhanced by the absence of lipids, this result has significant implications for downstream enzymes that are now thought to utilize deacylated substrates. PMID:22059588

  2. The effect of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha on ovarian function

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Erin J.; Sibley, Kelly; Miller, Aleisha N.; Lane, Elizabeth A.; Fishwick, John; Nash, Deborah M.; Herath, Shan; England, Gary CW; Dobson, Hilary; Sheldon, I. Martin

    2009-01-01

    Problem Pelvic inflammatory disease and metritis are important causes of infertility in humans and domestic animals. Uterine infection with Escherichia coli in cattle is associated with reduced ovarian follicle growth and decreased estradiol secretion. We hypothesized that this effect could be mediated by the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Method of study In vitro, bovine ovarian theca and granulosa cells were treated with LPS or TNFα and steroid secretion measured. In vivo, the effect of LPS or TNFα intrauterine infusion was determined by ovarian ultrasonography and measurement of hormones in cattle. Results LPS reduced granulosa cell estradiol secretion, whilst TNFα decreased theca and granulosa cell androstenedione and estradiol production, respectively. In vivo, fewer animals ovulated following intrauterine infusion with LPS or TNFα. Conclusion LPS and TNFα suppress ovarian cell function, supporting the concept that pelvic inflammatory disease and metritis are detrimental for bovine ovarian health. PMID:19238751

  3. Improving the soluble expression and purification of recombinant human stem cell factor (SCF) in endotoxin-free Escherichia coli by disulfide shuffling with persulfide.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Takafumi; Akuta, Teruo; Kikuchi-Ueda, Takane; Imaizumi, Keitaro; Ono, Yasuo

    2016-04-01

    We here present a new method for the expression and purification of recombinant human stem cell factor (rhSCF(164)) in endotoxin-free ClearColi(®) BL21(DE3) cells harboring codon-optimized Profinity eXact™-tagged hSCF cDNA. Previously, we demonstrated that co-expression with thioredoxin increased the solubility of rhSCF in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), and addition of l-arginine enhanced chromatography performance by removing the endotoxin-masked surface of rhSCF. Initially, we tried to express rhSCF in an endotoxin-free strain using a thioredoxin co-expression system, which resulted in significantly lower expression, possibly due to the stress imposed by overexpressed thioredoxin or antibiotics susceptibility. Therefore, we developed a new expression system without thioredoxin. External redox coupling was tested using persulfides such as glutathione persulfide or cysteine persulfide for the in vivo-folding of hSCF in the cytoplasm. Persulfides improved the protein solubility by accelerating disulfide-exchange reactions for incorrectdisulfides during folding in E. coli. Furthermore, the persulfides enhanced the expression level, likely due to upregulation of the enzymatic activity of T7 RNA polymerase. The recombinant protein was purified via affinity chromatography followed by cleavage with sodium fluoride, resulting in complete proteolytic removal of the N-terminal tag. The endotoxin-free fusion protein from ClearColi(®) BL21(DE3) could bind to the resin in the standard protocol using sodium phosphate (pH 7.2). Furthermore, purified rhSCF enhanced the proliferation and maturation of the human mast cell line LAD2. Thus, we conclude that use of the protein expression system employing E. coli by disulfide shuffling with persulfide addition could be a very useful method for efficient protein production. PMID:26724416

  4. Role of lipopolysaccharide and outer membrane protein of Escherichia coli K-12 in the receptor activity for bacteriophage T4.

    PubMed Central

    Mutoh, N; Furukawa, H; Mizushima, S

    1978-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide isolated from Escherichia coli K-12 did not inactivate phage T4, although the cell envelopes with 1% sodium deoxycholate resulted in the release of cytoplasmic membrane proteins, 70% of the lipopolysaccharide, and almost all of the phospholipid. The reconstitution of phage receptor activity was achieved from deoxycholate-soluble and -insoluble fractions by dialysis against a solution of magnesium chloride. Lipopolysaccharide was the only essential component in the deoxycholate-soluble fraction. PhageT4-resistant mutants YA21-6 and YA21-82, having defects in the deoxycholate-soluble and -insoluble fractions, respectively, were isolated. The deoxycholate-soluble fraction of YA21-6 possessed heptoseless lipopolysaccharide, and this defect was responsible for the phage resistance. The deoxycholate-insoluble fraction of YA21-82 lacked outer membrane protein O-8. The addition of O-8 to this fraction together with the wild-type lipopolysaccharide resulted in the appearance of the receptor activity. Furthermore, the reconstitution was successfully achieved with only O-8 and the wild-type lipopolysaccharide, indicating that O-8 was an essential component in the deoxycholate-insoluble fraction. Images PMID:361717

  5. Enhanced Toxicity for Mice of 6-Mercaptopurine with Bacterial Endotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Marecki, Nelda M.; Bradley, S. G.

    1974-01-01

    The toxicity of 6-mercaptopurine was potentiated by 2 mg of either Escherichia coli 026:B6 B endotoxin or Salmonella typhosa 0901 W endotoxin per kg. Nonlethal doses of heat-killed, gram-negative bacteria were also capable of potentiating the lethality of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). Salmonella minnesota S, the wild-type strain, and S. minnesota Re 595, a mutant containing only the lipid A and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate moiety of the endotoxin molecule, exhibited the same capability to enhance the toxic action of 6-MP. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) did not affect the clearance of 6-MP from the circulation, but did alter its apparent metabolism as indicated by blood levels of a metabolite, 6-thiouric acid. The concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in mice 18 h after injection of 100 mg of 6-MP per kg simultaneously with 2 mg of LPS per kg was significantly elevated over normal values. However, these BUN values were significantly less than those resulting from the administration of one mean lethal dose of either agent. The clearance from the circulation of the gram-negative organism E. coli HB, or the gram-positive organism Staphylococcus epidermidis S, was not affected by 6-MP. Endotoxin had no effect on the clearance of S. epidermidis S, but inhibited that of E. coli HB. When 6-MP and LPS were administered simultaneously with either bacterial species, only the clearance of E. coli HB was inhibited. Mice were protected from the lethality associated with combinations of 6-MP and LPS by (i) prior treatment with phenobarbital, (ii) caffeine, (iii) methylprednisolone, and (iv) polymyxin B sulfate. With the exception of caffeine, each regimen protected mice against the lethal effects of 400 mg of 6-MP per kg, and methylprednisolone or polymyxin B protected mice against 8 mg of LPS per kg. PMID:15825398

  6. Lipopolysaccharide-deficient, bacteriophage-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Hancock, R E; Reeves, P

    1976-07-01

    Bacteriophage-resistant mutants isolated and classified in a previous study were examined for alterations in their lipopolysaccharide (LPS) composition, and properties likely to be affected by alterations in LPS composition were studied. It was found that many of the mutants of the Ktw (K2-resistance), Ttk (T2, T4, or K19 resistance), Bar (bacteriophage), Wrm (wide-range mutants), and miscellaneous resistance groups were altered in their response to a series of antibiotics and to two LPS-specific bacteriophages, C21 and U3. Furthermore, many of the bacteriophages to which these mutants were resistant adsorbed to LPS preparations. By direct sugar analysis of the mutant LPS preparations, it was shown that the mutants fitted into six distinct classes, which are readily derived from LPS core with a structure resembling that of Salmonella or Escherichia coli O100. A number of the mutants were shown to map between pyrE and mtl, which has been previously shown to be the site of a cluster of rfa genes in both Salmonella and E. coli. Outer membrane protein composition was studied in the above mutants using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Some strains were shown to have alterations in the amount of major proteins. The nature of the bacteriophage receptors involved and the alterations leading to resistance are discussed. PMID:776951

  7. Associations of Escherichia coli K-12 OmpF trimers with rough and smooth lipopolysaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Diedrich, D.L.; Stein, M.A.; Schnaitman, C.A. )

    1990-09-01

    The associations of both rough and smooth lipopolysaccharides (LPS) with the OmpF porin of Escherichia coli K-12 were examined in galE strains deleted for ompC. Transformation with pSS37 and growth with galactose conferred the ability to assemble a Shigella dysenteriae O antigen onto the core oligosaccharide of E. coli K-12 LPS. The association of LPS with OmpF trimers was assessed by staining, autoradiography of LPS specifically labeled with (1-14C)galactose, and Western immunoblotting with a monoclonal antibody specific for OmpF trimers. These techniques revealed that the migration distances and multiple banding patterns of OmpF porin trimers in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were dictated by the chemotype of associated LPS. Expression of smooth LPS caused almost all of the trimeric OmpF to run in gels with a slower mobility than trimers from rough strains. The LPS associated with trimers from a smooth strain differed from the bulk-phase LPS by consisting almost exclusively of molecules with O antigen.

  8. Effects of intrauterine infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin in normal cows and in cows with endometritis induced by experimental infection with Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Hussain, A M; Daniel, R C

    1992-04-01

    Two experiments were carried out to describe the effects of intrauterine infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin on some aspects of nonspecific uterine defense mechanisms in healthy cyclic cows (Experiment 1) and in cows with induced endometritis by experimental infection with Streptococcus agalactiae (Experiment 2). In Experiments 1 and 2, the mean log(e) total white cell counts (>95% neutrophils) in the uterine flushing fluid of the endotoxin-treated group were significantly increased (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). Streptococcus agalactiae was detected by the Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) in 47% of the samples from uteri experimentally infected with this organism; 12.5% were positive on culture, and only 10% were positive on both tests. With one exception, all the samples with a positive culture were positive to the LAT, but not all samples submitted to the LAT had positive culture. There was a significant (P<0.05) association between endotoxin treatment and the presence of infection detected by the LAT but not with that detected by culture (P>0.05) at 3 to 12 days post infection. Similar results were found at 8 to 16 days post infection. The infection disappeared from the endotoxin-treated group but not from the non-treated group 12 days after the induction of infection. It is concluded that intrauterine E. coli endotoxin infusion might provide an alternative treatment for those cows with endometritis that is refractory to conventional antimicrobial and hormonal therapy. It is also concluded that the LAT is an easier, quicker and more reliable method than bacterial culture for the detection of endometritis caused by Strep. agalactiae , and, possibly, such immunodiagnostic tests may be useful for the detection of other uterine infections. PMID:16727080

  9. Oral administration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii reduces mortality associated with immune and cortisol responses to Escherichia coli endotoxin in weaned pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of active dry yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii (Scb), on the immune/cortisol response and subsequent mortality to E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration were evaluated in newly weaned piglets (26.1 +/- 3.4 d of age). Barrows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups, wit...

  10. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with K1-encapsulated Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide are opsonic and protect mice against lethal challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, B M; Cross, A S; Futrovsky, S L; Sidberry, H F; Sadoff, J C

    1986-01-01

    Seven murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against O-side-chain determinants of the K1-encapsulated Bortolussi strain of Escherichia coli (O18:K1:H7) were evaluated for their in vitro and in vivo activities. All the MAbs reacted well in Western blots against E. coli O18 lipopolysaccharide antigens. Two MAbs of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) class promoted in vitro opsonophagocytosis and protected mice lethally challenged with bacteria. Two IgM MAbs showed partial protection, although they had no in vitro opsonic activity, and the remaining three IgM MAbs showed no apparent functional activities. Monoclonal IgG antibodies against bacterial lipopolysaccharide can be opsonic and protective in spite of the presence of the K1 capsule on the bacterium. Images PMID:3516883

  11. Interaction of aminoglycosides with the outer membranes and purified lipopolysaccharide and OmpF porin of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, R E; Farmer, S W; Li, Z S; Poole, K

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of uptake of aminoglycosides across the outer membrane of Escherichia coli was reevaluated. Porin-deficient mutants showed no alteration in gentamicin or kanamycin susceptibility. Furthermore, the influence of kanamycin on intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of porin OmpF (Y. Kobayashi, and T. Nakae, Eur. J. Biochem. 151:231-236, 1985) was shown to be strongly influenced by protein concentration and EDTA. This led to the hypothesis that aminoglycoside-mediated increases and decreases in intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence were due to aggregation-disaggregation of OmpF mediated by interaction at a divalent cation binding site on OmpF. Gentamicin, kanamycin, and polymyxin B increased E. coli outer membrane permeability to the hydrophobic fluorescent compound 1-N-phenyl-naphthylamine (NPN) and the peptidoglycan-degrading enzyme lysozyme. Addition of Mg2+ blocked these permeabilizing activities. Furthermore, gentamicin and polymyxin B bound to Mg(2+)-binding sites on E. coli lipopolysaccharide, as determined in dansyl polymyxin displacement experiments. A polymyxin-resistant, lipopolysaccharide-altered pmr mutant of E. coli had a fourfold-lower MIC of gentamicin and kanamycin and was more poorly permeabilized to 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine than was its parent strain. These data were consistent with uptake of aminoglycosides across the E. coli outer membrane by the self-promoted uptake mechanism. PMID:1656859

  12. Extraction, Purification and Characterization of Lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi

    PubMed Central

    Rezania, Simin; Amirmozaffari, Noor; Tabarraei, Bahman; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Zarei, Omid; Alizadeh, Reza; Masjedian, Faramarz; Zarnani, Amir Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an important structural component of the outer cell membrane complex of gram negative microorganisms. Its causative role in gram negative bacteria-induced diseases and broad applications in different kinds of cell stimulation experiments provided a conceptual basis for studies directed at the isolation, purification, and detailed chemical characterization of LPS. The main problem with LPS purification protocols is the contamination of the end product with nucleic acids and proteins in variable proportions which could potentially interfere with downstream applications. In this study, a simple procedure for purification of LPS from Escherichia coli (E.coli) and Salmonella typhi (S.typhi) with high purity and very low contaminating nucleic acids and proteins based on the hot phenol-water extraction protocol has been introduced. The purity of extracted LPS was evaluated by silver and coomassie blue staining of SDS-PAGE gels and HPLC analysis. Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) coagulation activity and rabbit pyrogen assay were exploited to monitor the functionality of purified LPS. The results showed that DNase and RNase treatment of the sample is essential after the sonication step to eliminate nucleic acid contamination in the LPS fraction. Silver staining demonstrated ladder pattern which is characteristic of LPS. No contaminating protein was found as assessed by coomassie blue staining. HPLC fractionation revealed high degree of purity comparable with commercial LPS. Parenteral administration of purified LPS resulted in substantial increase of rabbits’ body temperature (mean: 1.45°C). LAL coagulation assay confirmed the functional activity of the purified LPS. In conclusion, the protocol presented here could be employed for isolation of LPS with high purity and functional activity. PMID:23407691

  13. Pharmacokinetics of florfenicol after intravenous administration in Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxaemic sheep.

    PubMed

    Pérez, R; Palma, C; Drápela, C; Sepulveda, M; Espinoza, A; Peñailillo, A K

    2015-04-01

    Experiments in different animal species have shown that febrile conditions, induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), may alter the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. The objective was to study the effects of a LPS-induced acute-phase response (APR) model on plasma pharmacokinetics of florfenicol (FFC) after its intravenous administration in sheep. Six adult clinically healthy Suffolk Down sheep, 8 months old and 35.5 ± 2.2 kg in body weight (bw), were distributed through a crossover factorial 2 × 2 design, with 4 weeks of washout. Pairs of sheep similar in body weight were assigned to experimental groups: Group 1 (LPS) was treated with three intravenous doses of 1 μg/kg bw of E. coli LPS before FFC treatment. Group 2 (control) was treated with an equivalent volume of saline solution (SS) at similar intervals as LPS. At 24 h after the first injection of LPS or SS, an intravenous bolus of 20 mg/kg bw of FFC was administered. Blood samples (5 mL) were collected before drug administration and at different times between 0.05 and 48.0 h after treatment. FFC plasma concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography. A noncompartmental pharmacokinetic model was used for data analysis, and data were compared using a Mann-Whitney U-test. The mean values of AUC0-∞ in the endotoxaemic sheep (105.9 ± 14.3 μg·h/mL) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than values observed in healthy sheep (78.4 ± 5.2 μg·h/mL). The total mean plasma clearance (CLT ) decreased from 257.7 ± 16.9 mL·h/kg in the control group to 198.2 ± 24.1 mL·h/kg in LPS-treated sheep. A significant increase (P < 0.05) in the terminal half-life was observed in the endotoxaemic sheep (16.9 ± 3.8 h) compared to the values observed in healthy sheep (10.4 ± 3.2 h). In conclusion, the APR induced by the intravenous administration of E. coli LPS in sheep produces higher plasma concentrations of FFC due to a decrease in the total body clearance of the drug. PMID:25229993

  14. Removal of endotoxins from bacteriophage preparations by extraction with organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Szermer-Olearnik, Bo?ena; Boraty?ski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin, pyrogen) constitutes a very troubling contaminant of crude phage lysates produced in Gram-negative bacteria. Toxicity of LPS depends on the strong innate immunity response including the cytokines. Therefore, its removal is important for bacteriophage applications. In this paper, we present a procedure for extractive removal of endotoxin from bacteriophage preparations with water immiscible solvents (1-octanol or 1-butanol). During extraction most of the phage lytic activity is retained in the aqueous phase, while endotoxin accumulates in the organic solvent. The levels of endotoxin (expressed as endotoxin units, EU) in the aqueous bacteriophage-containing fraction determined by limulus amebocyte lysate or EndoLISA assay were exceptionally low. While the initial endotoxin levels in the crude phage lysates ranged between 10(3) and 10(5) EU/ml the average level after organic extraction remaining in the aqueous fraction was 5.3 EU/ml. These values when related to phage titers decreased from 10(3)-10(5) EU/10(9) PFU (plaque forming units) down to an average of 2.8 EU/10(9) PFU. The purification procedure is scalable, efficient and applicable to all the bacteriophages tested: T4, HAP1 (E. coli) and F8 (P. aeruginosa). PMID:25811193

  15. The induction of nitric oxide synthase and intestinal vascular permeability by endotoxin in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Boughton-Smith, N. K.; Evans, S. M.; Laszlo, F.; Whittle, B. J.; Moncada, S.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effect of endotoxin (E. coli lipopolysaccharide) on the induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and the changes in vascular permeability in the colon and jejunum over a 5 h period have been investigated in the rat. 2. Under resting conditions, a calcium-dependent constitutive NOS, determined by the conversion of radiolabelled L-arginine to citrulline, was detected in homogenates of both colonic and jejunal tissue. 3. Administration of endotoxin (3 mg kg-1, i.v.) led, after a 2 h lag period, to the appearance of calcium-independent NOS activity in the colon and jejunum ex vivo, characteristic of the inducible NOS enzyme. 4. Administration of endotoxin led to an increase in colonic and jejunal vascular permeability after a lag period of 3 h, determined by the leakage of radiolabelled albumin. 5. Pretreatment with dexamethasone (1 mg kg-1 s.c., 2 h prior to challenge) inhibited both the induction of NOS and the vascular leakage induced by endotoxin. 6. Administration of the NO synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (12.5-50 mg kg-1, s.c.) 3 h after endotoxin injection, dose-dependently reduced the subsequent increase in vascular permeability in jejunum and colon, an effect reversed by L-arginine (300 mg kg-1, s.c.). 7. These findings suggest that induction of NOS is associated with the vascular injury induced by endotoxin in the rat colon and jejunum. PMID:7507778

  16. Residual Endotoxin Contaminations in Recombinant Proteins Are Sufficient to Activate Human CD1c+ Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Harald; Schmittner, Maria; Duschl, Albert; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Many commercially available recombinant proteins are produced in Escherichia coli, and most suppliers guarantee contamination levels of less than 1 endotoxin unit (EU). When we analysed commercially available proteins for their endotoxin content, we found contamination levels in the same range as generally stated in the data sheets, but also some that were higher. To analyse whether these low levels of contamination have an effect on immune cells, we stimulated the monocytic cell line THP-1, primary human monocytes, in vitro differentiated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and primary human CD1c+ dendritic cells (DCs) with very low concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; ranging from 0.002–2 ng/ml). We show that CD1c+ DCs especially can be activated by minimal amounts of LPS, equivalent to the levels of endotoxin contamination we detected in some commercially available proteins. Notably, the enhanced endotoxin sensitivity of CD1c+ DCs was closely correlated with high CD14 expression levels observed in CD1c+ DCs that had been maintained in cell culture medium for 24 hours. When working with cells that are particularly sensitive to LPS, even low endotoxin contamination may generate erroneous data. We therefore recommend that recombinant proteins be thoroughly screened for endotoxin contamination using the limulus amebocyte lysate test, fluorescence-based assays, or a luciferase based NF-κB reporter assay involving highly LPS-sensitive cells overexpressing TLR4, MD-2 and CD14. PMID:25478795

  17. Removal of Endotoxins from Bacteriophage Preparations by Extraction with Organic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Szermer-Olearnik, Bożena; Boratyński, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin, pyrogen) constitutes a very troubling contaminant of crude phage lysates produced in Gram-negative bacteria. Toxicity of LPS depends on the strong innate immunity response including the cytokines. Therefore, its removal is important for bacteriophage applications. In this paper, we present a procedure for extractive removal of endotoxin from bacteriophage preparations with water immiscible solvents (1-octanol or 1-butanol). During extraction most of the phage lytic activity is retained in the aqueous phase, while endotoxin accumulates in the organic solvent. The levels of endotoxin (expressed as endotoxin units, EU) in the aqueous bacteriophage-containing fraction determined by limulus amebocyte lysate or EndoLISA assay were exceptionally low. While the initial endotoxin levels in the crude phage lysates ranged between 103 and 105 EU/ml the average level after organic extraction remaining in the aqueous fraction was 5.3 EU/ml. These values when related to phage titers decreased from 103-105 EU/109 PFU (plaque forming units) down to an average of 2.8 EU/109 PFU. The purification procedure is scalable, efficient and applicable to all the bacteriophages tested: T4, HAP1 (E. coli) and F8 (P. aeruginosa). PMID:25811193

  18. Metabolic and Hematological Consequences of Dietary Deoxynivalenol Interacting with Systemic Escherichia coli Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Bannert, Erik; Tesch, Tanja; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Kahlert, Stefan; Renner, Lydia; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that chronic oral deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure modulated Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammation, whereby the liver was suspected to play an important role. Thus, a total of 41 barrows was fed one of two maize-based diets, either a DON-diet (4.59 mg DON/kg feed, n = 19) or a control diet (CON, n = 22). Pigs were equipped with indwelling catheters for pre- or post-hepatic (portal vs. jugular catheter) infusion of either control (0.9% NaCl) or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW) for 1h and frequent blood sampling. This design yielded six groups: CON_CONjugular-CONportal, CON_CONjugular-LPSportal, CON_LPSjugular-CONportal, DON_CONjugular-CONportal, DON_CONjugular-LPSportal and DON_LPSjugular-CONportal. Blood samples were analyzed for blood gases, electrolytes, glucose, pH, lactate and red hemogram. The red hemogram and electrolytes were not affected by DON and LPS. DON-feeding solely decreased portal glucose uptake (p < 0.05). LPS-decreased partial oxygen pressure (pO2) overall (p < 0.05), but reduced pCO2 only in arterial blood, and DON had no effect on either. Irrespective of catheter localization, LPS decreased pH and base-excess (p < 0.01), but increased lactate and anion-gap (p < 0.01), indicating an emerging lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis was more pronounced in the group DON_LPSjugular-CONportal than in CON-fed counterparts (p < 0.05). DON-feeding aggravated the porcine acid-base balance in response to a subsequent immunostimulus dependent on its exposure site (pre- or post-hepatic). PMID:26580654

  19. Molecular Dynamics and NMR Spectroscopy Studies of E. coli Lipopolysaccharide Structure and Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Emilia L.; Engström, Olof; Jo, Sunhwan; Stuhlsatz, Danielle; Yeom, Min Sun; Klauda, Jeffery B.; Widmalm, Göran; Im, Wonpil

    2013-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes, comprises three regions: lipid A, core oligosaccharide, and O-antigen polysaccharide. Using the CHARMM36 lipid and carbohydrate force fields, we have constructed a model of an Escherichia coli R1 (core) O6 (antigen) LPS molecule. Several all-atom bilayers are built and simulated with lipid A only (LIPA) and varying lengths of 0 (LPS0), 5 (LPS5), and 10 (LPS10) O6 antigen repeating units; a single unit of O6 antigen contains five sugar residues. From 1H,1H-NOESY experiments, cross-relaxation rates are obtained from an O-antigen polysaccharide sample. Although some experimental deviations are due to spin-diffusion, the remaining effective proton-proton distances show generally very good agreement between NMR experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. The simulation results show that increasing the LPS molecular length has an impact on LPS structure and dynamics and also on LPS bilayer properties. Terminal residues in a LPS bilayer are more flexible and extended along the membrane normal. As the core and O-antigen are added, per-lipid area increases and lipid bilayer order decreases. In addition, results from mixed LPS0/5 and LPS0/10 bilayer simulations show that the LPS O-antigen conformations at a higher concentration of LPS5 and LPS10 are more orthogonal to the membrane and less flexible. The O-antigen concentration of mixed LPS bilayers does not have a significant effect on per-lipid area and hydrophobic thickness. Analysis of ion and water penetration shows that water molecules can penetrate inside the inner core region, and hydration is critical to maintain the integrity of the bilayer structure. PMID:24047996

  20. Metabolic and hematological consequences of dietary deoxynivalenol interacting with systemic Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Bannert, Erik; Tesch, Tanja; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Kahlert, Stefan; Renner, Lydia; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that chronic oral deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure modulated Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammation, whereby the liver was suspected to play an important role. Thus, a total of 41 barrows was fed one of two maize-based diets, either a DON-diet (4.59 mg DON/kg feed, n = 19) or a control diet (CON, n = 22). Pigs were equipped with indwelling catheters for pre- or post-hepatic (portal vs. jugular catheter) infusion of either control (0.9% NaCl) or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW) for 1h and frequent blood sampling. This design yielded six groups: CON_CONjugular‑CONportal, CON_CONjugular‑LPSportal, CON_LPSjugular‑CONportal, DON_CONjugular‑CONportal, DON_CONjugular‑LPSportal and DON_LPSjugular‑CONportal. Blood samples were analyzed for blood gases, electrolytes, glucose, pH, lactate and red hemogram. The red hemogram and electrolytes were not affected by DON and LPS. DON-feeding solely decreased portal glucose uptake (p < 0.05). LPS-decreased partial oxygen pressure (pO₂) overall (p < 0.05), but reduced pCO₂ only in arterial blood, and DON had no effect on either. Irrespective of catheter localization, LPS decreased pH and base-excess (p < 0.01), but increased lactate and anion-gap (p < 0.01), indicating an emerging lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis was more pronounced in the group DON_LPSjugular-CONportal than in CON-fed counterparts (p < 0.05). DON-feeding aggravated the porcine acid-base balance in response to a subsequent immunostimulus dependent on its exposure site (pre- or post-hepatic). PMID:26580654

  1. Shwartzman reaction in endotoxin-resistant rabbits induced by heterologous endotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Kováts, T. G.; Végh, P.

    1967-01-01

    Moderate resistance to Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens endotoxin was induced in rabbits. The E. coli endotoxin-resistant rabbits did not respond with a Shwartzman reaction if the skin preparation was carried out by E. coli endotoxin and the provocation by Serratia endotoxin. However, the same animals showed definite haemorrhagic reactions if their skin was prepared by endotoxin from other serological types, e.g. Serratia or Salmonella typhi endotoxin. Serratia endotoxin resistant rabbits did not display the Shwartzman reaction if the skin preparation was carried out by Serratia endotoxin. On the contrary, they displayed marked Shwartzman reactions at the sites of the skin preparation with E. coli endotoxin. The provocation of this haemorrhagic reaction could be carried out either by E. coli or by Serratia endotoxin. The above results point to the possibility of the role of an immunological specificity in the skin preparation of the Shwartzman phenomenon. No such specificity could be demonstrated with regards to the intravenous provocation of the reaction. The immunospecificity (serological specificity) in the preparation of the Shwartzman reaction is limited, because it disappears if a higher degree of resistance is established. The immunospecificity in resistance or in sensitivity is dose-dependent. By raising the preparing or provoking doses, the Shwartzman reaction can be induced by heterologous or homologous endotoxins in rabbits that have a higher degree of resistance. The possible cause is discussed. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:5337212

  2. Failure of oral E. coli O83 lipopolysaccharide to influence intestinal morphology and cell proliferation in rats: short communication.

    PubMed

    Illyés, György; Kovács, Krisztina; Kocsis, Béla; Baintner, Károly

    2008-03-01

    It is known that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract in significant quantities. However, the question remained whether oral LPS modified the structure or function of the gut. In the present experiment Escherichia coli 083 LPS was administered to growing rats in repeated oral doses of 400 mg/kg body weight (b. w.), every 8 h. After three days of treatment, morphometric and histochemical examinations of the small intestine did not show significant differences between treated and control rats. It is concluded that repeated oral administration of high doses of E. coli 083 LPS had no demonstrable effect on intestinal structure and cell proliferation in a rat model. PMID:18401951

  3. Recent advances in biosensor based endotoxin detection.

    PubMed

    Das, A P; Kumar, P S; Swain, S

    2014-01-15

    Endotoxins also referred to as pyrogens are chemically lipopolysaccharides habitually found in food, environment and clinical products of bacterial origin and are unavoidable ubiquitous microbiological contaminants. Pernicious issues of its contamination result in high mortality and severe morbidities. Standard traditional techniques are slow and cumbersome, highlighting the pressing need for evoking agile endotoxin detection system. The early and prompt detection of endotoxin assumes prime importance in health care, pharmacological and biomedical sectors. The unparalleled recognition abilities of LAL biosensors perched with remarkable sensitivity, high stability and reproducibility have bestowed it with persistent reliability and their possible fabrication for commercial applicability. This review paper entails an overview of various trends in current techniques available and other possible alternatives in biosensor based endotoxin detection together with its classification, epidemiological aspects, thrust areas demanding endotoxin control, commercially available detection sensors and a revolutionary unprecedented approach narrating the influence of omics for endotoxin detection. PMID:23934306

  4. The efficient removal of endotoxins from insulin using quaternized polyethyleneimine-coated porous zirconia.

    PubMed

    McNeff, C; Zhao, Q; Almlöf, E; Flickinger, M; Carr, P W

    1999-10-15

    The synthesis and use of a zirconia-based, alkali-stable strong anion-exchange stationary phase are described for the removal of pyrogenic lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from insulin. The strong anion-exchange material is produced by deposition of polyethyleneimine (PEI) onto porous zirconia particles, followed by cross-linking with a novel reagent, 1,2-bis-(2-iodoethoxy) ethane, and quaternization with iodomethane. Physical characterization of the chromatographic support shows that it has an ion-exchange capacity of 0.6 mmol/g, and 82% of the amine sites on the surface are in quaternized form. Isocratic elution of small benzoic acid derivatives shows good column efficiency. The two primary virtues of this material are its chemical stability under alkali conditions (up to pH 13) and its lower hydrophobicity compared to previously described alkali-stable PEI-coated zirconia supports cross-linked with 1,10-diiododecane. Using this new zirconia-based phase, a purification protocol is developed for the efficient removal of Escherichia coli 0111:B4 LPS from bovine insulin samples. An endotoxin clearance rate of up to 1.3 x 10(8) was attained. Endotoxin levels were reduced to less than 5 endotoxin units/ml even at initial contamination levels as high as 5.0 x 10(6) endotoxin units/ml. Furthermore, endotoxin adsorbed to the porous zirconia column may be easily removed (depyrogenated) using alkali for repeated purification cycles. PMID:10527514

  5. Naturally occurring hypothermia is more advantageous than fever in severe forms of lipopolysaccharide- and Escherichia coli-induced systemic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Elaine; Lewis, Kevin; Al-Saffar, Hiba; Krall, Catherine M.; Singh, Anju; Kulchitsky, Vladimir A.; Corrigan, Joshua J.; Simons, Christopher T.; Petersen, Scott R.; Musteata, Florin M.; Bakshi, Chandra S.; Romanovsky, Andrej A.; Sellati, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The natural switch from fever to hypothermia observed in the most severe cases of systemic inflammation is a phenomenon that continues to puzzle clinicians and scientists. The present study was the first to evaluate in direct experiments how the development of hypothermia vs. fever during severe forms of systemic inflammation impacts the pathophysiology of this malady and mortality rates in rats. Following administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 or 18 mg/kg) or of a clinical Escherichia coli isolate (5 × 109 or 1 × 1010 CFU/kg), hypothermia developed in rats exposed to a mildly cool environment, but not in rats exposed to a warm environment; only fever was revealed in the warm environment. Development of hypothermia instead of fever suppressed endotoxemia in E. coli-infected rats, but not in LPS-injected rats. The infiltration of the lungs by neutrophils was similarly suppressed in E. coli-infected rats of the hypothermic group. These potentially beneficial effects came with costs, as hypothermia increased bacterial burden in the liver. Furthermore, the hypotensive responses to LPS or E. coli were exaggerated in rats of the hypothermic group. This exaggeration, however, occurred independently of changes in inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins. Despite possible costs, development of hypothermia lessened abdominal organ dysfunction and reduced overall mortality rates in both the E. coli and LPS models. By demonstrating that naturally occurring hypothermia is more advantageous than fever in severe forms of aseptic (LPS-induced) or septic (E. coli-induced) systemic inflammation, this study provides new grounds for the management of this deadly condition. PMID:22513748

  6. Exacerbation of murine ileitis by Toll‐like receptor 4 mediated sensing of lipopolysaccharide from commensal Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Heimesaat, M M; Fischer, A; Jahn, H‐K; Niebergall, J; Freudenberg, M; Blaut, M; Liesenfeld, O; Schumann, R R; Göbel, U B; Bereswill, S

    2007-01-01

    Background In the course of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and acute murine ileitis following peroral Toxoplasma gondii infection, commensal Escherichia coli accumulate at inflamed mucosal sites and aggravate small intestinal immunopathology. Aim To unravel the molecular mechanisms by which commensal E coli exacerbate ileitis. Methods Ileitis was investigated in mice that lack Toll‐like receptors (TLR) 2 or 4, specific for bacterial lipoproteins (LP) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), respectively. Gnotobiotic mice, in which any cultivable gut bacteria were eradicated by antibiotic treatment, were used to study the role of LPS in ileitis. Results Microbiological analyses revealed that E coli increase in the inflamed ileum. TLR4−/−, but not TLR2−/−, mice displayed reduced mortality and small intestinal immunopathology. Decreased interferon (IFN)‐γ and nitric oxide (NO) levels in the inflamed terminal ileum of TLR4−/− mice indicated that TLR4 signalling aggravates ileitis via local mediator release from immune cells. E coli strains isolated from the inflamed ileum activated cultured mouse macrophages and induced TLR4‐dependent nuclear factor κB activation and NO production in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and in peritoneal macrophages, respectively. Most strikingly, in contrast with wild‐type mice, gnotobiotic TLR4−/− mice were protected from induction of ileitis by treatment with purified E coli lipid A or colonisation with live E coli. Finally, prophylactic treatment with the LPS scavenger polymyxin B ameliorated T gondii‐induced ileitis. Conclusion These findings highlight the innate immune system as a key player in T gondii‐induced ileal immunopathology. Treatment with LPS or TLR4 antagonists may represent a novel strategy for prophylaxis and/or therapy of small intestinal inflammation in IBD. PMID:17255219

  7. ELEVATED MILK SOLUBLE CD 14 IN BOVINE MAMMARY GLANDS CHALLENGED WITH E. COLI LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether soluble CD 14 in milk were affected by the stage of lactation, the level of milk somatic cell count (SCC), the presence of bacteria or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. First, milk samples from 100 lactating cows (396 functional quarter...

  8. ELEVATED MILK SOLUBLE CD14 IN BOVINE MAMMARY GLANDS CHALLENGED WITH ESCHERICHIA COLI LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether soluble CD14 in milk was affected by stage of lactation, milk somatic cell count (SCC), presence of bacteria or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Milk samples from 100 lactating cows were assayed for sCD14 in milk to determine effects o...

  9. EFFECTS OF FISH OIL SUPPLEMENTATION ON PERFORMANCE AS WELL AS IMMUNOLOGICAL, ADRENAL, AND SOMATOTROPHIC RESPONSES OF WEANED PIGS AFTER ESCHERICHIA COLI LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE CHALLENGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy-two crossbred pigs (7.58 +/- 0.3 kg BW) weaned at 28 days of age were used to investigate the effects of fish oil supplementation on pig performance and immunological, adrenal, and somatotropic responses following Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in a 2 x 2 factorial desig...

  10. Evidence of persisting serum antibodies to Escherichia coli O157 lipopolysaccharide and Verocytotoxin in members of rural communities in England.

    PubMed

    Evans, J; Chalmers, R M; Chart, H; Salmon, R L; Kench, S M; Coleman, T J; Meadows, D; Morgan-Capner, P; Softley, P; Sillis, M; Thomas, D R

    2000-01-01

    The techniques of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting were used to examine a total of 1667 sera, from apparently healthy members of rural communities in England, for antibodies to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia coli O157 and Verocytotoxins (VT). Twenty-nine sera from 22 individuals were shown to have antibodies specific for E. coli O157 LPS. Some of these lived on livestock farms and had occupational contact with cattle, suggesting that personnel working with farm animals may produce serum antibodies to the O157 LPS antigens. Fifteen people had IgG class antibodies to O157 LPS, suggesting long-term exposure to E. coli O157 and five people had serum antibodies on more than one occasion showing evidence of persistent antibodies to O157 LPS. Thirteen sera from 12 of 22 individuals also contained antibodies to VT1, VT2 or both toxins. Ten sera contained antibodies to VT1 and VT2, three sera contained antibodies to VT2 only. PMID:11338118

  11. Changes of stress oxidative enzymes in rat mammary tissue, blood and milk after experimental mastitis induced by E. coli lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Hadi; Batavani, Rooz Ali; Asr‎i-Rezaei, Siamak; Hobbenaghi, Rahim

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced mastitis model in rat on the activity of antioxidant enzyme systems. To achieve this purpose, E. coli LPS were infused into the mammary gland of 12 rats 72 hr postpartum and compared with 12 rats in control group infused intramammary placebo sterile pyrogene – free, physiological saline. The antioxidant activities of the enzymes, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase together with ‎‏malondialdehyde (MDA) level were assayed in blood serum, milk and mammary tissue. Results obtained showed that, the antioxidant enzyme activities in milk, blood serum and mammary tissue were significantly decreased while the level of MDA, the indicator of lipid peroxidation were significantly increased following intramammary inoculation of LPS compared to the control animals. Histopathological examination also revealed the infiltration of inflammatory cells in mammary tissue and disruption of acinar structure and acinar lumina in mastitic rats. The results indicated that E. coli LPS-induced ‎mastitis could alter antioxidant enzymes and increase lipid peroxidation. PMID:26261708

  12. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced autophagy is involved in the restriction of Escherichia coli in peritoneal mesothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Host cell autophagy is implicated in the control of intracellular pathogen. Escherichia coli (E.coli) is the most common organism caused single-germ enterobacterial peritonitis during peritoneal dialysis. In this study, we investigated autophagy of peritoneal mesothelial cells and its role in defense against E.coli. Results Autophagy in human peritoneal mesothelial cell line (HMrSV5) was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a dose-dependent and time-dependent way, which was demonstrated by increased expression of Beclin-1 and light chain 3 (LC3)-II, the accumulation of punctate green fluorescent protein-LC3, and a higher number of monodansylcadaverine-labeled autophagic vacuoles. After incubation of HMrSV5 cells with E.coli following LPS stimulation, both the intracellular bactericidal activity and the co-localization of E.coli (K12-strain) with autophagosomes were enhanced. Conversely, blockade of autophagy with 3-methyladenine, wortmannin or Beclin-1 small-interfering RNA (siRNA) led to a significant reduction in autophagy-associated protein expression, attenuation of intracellular bactericidal activity, and reduced co-localization of E.coli with monodansylcadaverine-labeled autophagosomes. In addition, treatment of HMrSV5 cells with LPS caused a dose-dependent and time-dependent increase in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression. Both knockdown of TLR4 with siRNA and pharmacological inhibition of TLR4 with Polymyxin B significantly decreased LPS-induced autophagy. Furthermore, TLR4 siRNA attenuated remarkably LPS-induced intracellular bactericidal activity. Conclusions Our findings demonstrated for the first time that LPS-induced autophagy in peritoneal mesothelial cells could enhance the intracellular bactericidal activity and the co-localization of E.coli with autophagosomes. The activation of TLR4 signaling was involved in this process. These results indicate that LPS-induced autophagy may be a cell-autonomous defense mechanism triggered in peritoneal mesothelial cells in response to E.coli infection. PMID:24219662

  13. ENDOTOXINS, ALGAE AND 'LIMULUS' AMOEBOCYTE LYSATE TEST IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the distribution of algae and bacteria, and investigate sources of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) in drinking water. The field survey was performed on five drinking water systems located in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania ...

  14. [Case of septic shock caused by extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli after transrectal prostate biopsy, successfully treated by endotoxin adsorption therapy].

    PubMed

    Kohno, Yusuke; Fukui, Naotaka; Kageyama, Yukio; Higashi, Yotsuo

    2013-09-01

    A 62-year-old man, with a family history of prostate cancer, referred to our hospital because of elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (6.02 ng/ml). After prophylactic administration of antibiotics (cefotiam), transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate was performed. He was admitted to the hospital due to high fever the next evening. His blood pressure was below the shock level, and his renal function deteriorated progressively. Suspecting septic shock, the patient was treated with Meropenem, γ-globulin, and dopamine, which were not effective. Then, endotoxin adsorption therapy was employed and the condition of the patient recovered soon after the initiation of the therapy. Extended spectrum β -lactamase-producing Escherichia coli was found in his urine. Pathological diagnosis of the biopsy specimen was atypical glands. PMID:24113759

  15. Endotoxin induced uncoupling of the somatotrophic axis in nursery pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin known to stimulate the innate immune response and stress axis in pigs. However, little is known about the effects of LPS on pig somatotrophic responses. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an endotoxin challenge on weaned pig serum con...

  16. The structural characterization of the O-polysaccharide antigen in the lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli serotype O118 and its relationship to the O-antigens of Salmonella enterica O47 and Escherichia coli serotype O151

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide produced by Escherichia coli O118:H16 (standard reference strain; NRCC 6613) contained an O-polysaccharide (O-PS) composed of D-galactose, 2-acetimidoylamino-2,6-dideoxy-L-galactose (L-FucNAm), 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose, ribitol, and phosphate (1:1...

  17. Thermographic variation of the udder of dairy ewes in early lactation and following an Escherichia coli endotoxin intramammary challenge in late lactation.

    PubMed

    Castro-Costa, A; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Rovai, M; Flores, C; Aguiló, J

    2014-03-01

    A total of 83 lactating dairy ewes (Manchega, n=48; Lacaune, n=35) were used in 2 consecutive experiments for assessing the ability of infrared thermography (IRT) to detect intramammary infections (IMI) by measuring udder skin temperatures (UST). In experiment 1, ewes were milked twice daily and IRT pictures of the udder were taken before and after milking at 46 and 56d in milk (DIM). Milk yield was 1.46 ± 0.04 L/d, on average. Detection of IMI was done using standard bacterial culture by udder half at 15, 34, and 64 DIM. Twenty-two ewes were classified as having IMI in at least one udder half, the others being healthy (142 healthy and 24 IMI halves, respectively). Four IMI halves had clinical mastitis. No UST differences were detected by IMI and udder side, being 32.94 ± 0.04°C on average. Nevertheless, differences in UST were detected for breed (Lacaune - Manchega=0.35 ± 0.08°C), milking process moment (after - before=0.13 ± 0.11°C), and milking schedule (p.m. - a.m.=0.79 ± 0.07°C). The UST increased linearly with ambient temperature (r=0.88). In experiment 2, the UST response to an Escherichia coli O55:B5 endotoxin challenge (5 μg/udder half) was studied in 9 healthy Lacaune ewes milked once daily in late lactation (0.58 ± 0.03 L/d; 155 ± 26 DIM). Ewes were allocated into 3 balanced groups of 3 ewes to which treatments were applied by udder half after milking. Treatments were (1) control (C00, both udder halves untreated), (2) half udder treated (T10 and C01, one udder half infused with endotoxin and the other untreated, respectively), and (3) treated udder halves (T11, both udder halves infused with endotoxin). Body (vaginal) temperature and UST, milk yield, and milk composition changes were monitored by udder half at different time intervals (2 to 72 h). First local and systemic signs of IMI were observed at 4 and 6h postchallenge, respectively. For all treatments, UST increased after the challenge, peaking at 6h in T 0055 (which differed from that in C00, C01, and T10), and decreased thereafter without differences by treatment. Vaginal temperature and milk somatic cell count increased by 6h postchallenge, whereas lactose content decreased, in the endotoxin-infused udder halves. Effects of endotoxin on lactose and somatic cell count values were detectable in the infused udder halves until 72 h. In conclusion, despite the accuracy of the camera (± 0.15°C) and the moderate standard errors of the mean obtained for UST measures (± 0.05 to 0.24°C), we were unable to discriminate between healthy and infected (subclinically or clinically) udder halves in dairy ewes. PMID:24418270

  18. Endotoxin exposure during late pregnancy alters ovine offspring febrile and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness later in life.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Rebecca E; Karrow, Niel A; Quinton, Margaret; Finegan, Esther J; Miller, Stephan P; Atkinson, Jim L; Boermans, Herman J

    2010-07-01

    A growing number of studies indicate that maternal infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse fetal development and neonatal health. In this study, late gestating sheep (day 135) were challenged systemically with saline (0.9%) or Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (400 ng/kg x 3 consecutive days, or 1.2 microg/kg x 1 day) in order to assess the impact of maternal endotoxemia on the developing fetal neuroendocrine-immune system. During adulthood, cortisol secretion and febrile responses of female offspring and the cortisol response of the male offspring to endotoxin (400 ng/kg), as well as the female cortisol response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge, were measured to assess neuroendocrine-immune function. These studies revealed that maternal endotoxin treatment during late gestation altered the female febrile and male and female cortisol response to endotoxin exposure later in life; however, the response was dependent on the endotoxin treatment regime that the pregnant sheep received. The follow-up ACTH challenge suggests that programing of the adrenal gland may be altered in the female fetus during maternal endotoxemia. The long-term health implications of these changes warrant further investigation. PMID:20536335

  19. Endotoxin-neutralizing activity of hen egg phosvitin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Hongmiao; Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Shicui

    2013-04-01

    Endotoxin, also known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is responsible for initiating host responses leading to inflammation and sometimes unwanted sepsis, which is associated with high mortality in patients. No therapeutic agents to date are efficacious enough to protect patients from LPS-mediated tissue damage and organ failure. Previously, egg yolk protein phosvitin (Pv) in zebrafish has been shown to act as a pattern recognition receptor, capable of binding to the microbial cell wall components including LPS, we therefore wonder if it has the capacity to block LPS toxicity. In this study we first demonstrated that hen Pv, a naturally occurring protein rich in egg yolk, had antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus under thermal stress, and then showed that Pv was able to bind to LPS, lipoteichoic acid and peptidoglycan as well as the microbes E. coli and S. aureus. More importantly, we revealed that Pv significantly inhibited LPS-induced tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-α release from murine RAW264.7 cells and considerably reduced serum TNF-α level in mice. Additionally, hen Pv could promote the survival rate of the endotoxemia mice. Furthermore, hen Pv displayed no cytotoxicity to murine RAW264.7 macrophages and no hemolytic activity towards human red blood cells. Taken together, these data suggest that Pv is an endotoxin-neutralizing agent with a therapeutic potential in clinical treatment of LPS-induced sepsis. PMID:23079731

  20. Interleukin-1 decreases renal sodium reabsorption: possible mechanism of endotoxin-induced natriuresis

    SciTech Connect

    Caverzasio, J.; Rizzoli, R.; Dayer, J.M.; Bonjour, J.P.

    1987-05-01

    Administration of pyrogen or endotoxins such as Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide can elicit a marked increase in urinary sodium excretion. This response occurs without any elevation in the filtered load of sodium and it does not appear to be prostaglandin mediated. The various effects produced by endotoxins appear to have interleukin-1 as a common mediator. In the present work, the authors have studied whether human recombinant interleukin-1..beta.. (hrIL-1) could affect the renal handling of sodium and thus, could be implicated in natriuretic response to pyrogens or endotoxins. They observed that hrIL-1 intravenously injected into conscious rats provokes a marked increase in sodium excretion. This natriuretic response was not associated with any increase in glomerular filtration rate (clearance of (/sup 3/H)inulin), nor was it accompanied by significant changes in the urinary excretion of potassium, calcium, or inorganic phosphate. The only concomitant alteration was a decrease in urinary pH. Pretreatment with indomethacin abolished the effect of hrIL-1 on urinary pH but did not modify the natriuretic response. In conclusion, hrIL-1 elicits a selective decrease in tubular sodium reabsorption, which does not appear to involve a change in prostaglandin synthesis. This observation strongly suggests that interleukin-1 could be a key mediator in endotoxin-induced natriuresis.

  1. Intravenous Endotoxin Challenge in Healthy Humans: An Experimental Platform to Investigate and Modulate Systemic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, James N; Segre, Elisabetta; De Maeyer, Roel P H; Maini, Alexander A N; Gilroy, Derek W

    2016-01-01

    Activation of inflammatory pathways represents a central mechanism in multiple disease states both acute and chronic. Triggered via either pathogen or tissue damage-associated molecular motifs, common biochemical pathways lead to conserved yet variable physiological and immunological alterations. Dissection and delineation of the determinants and mechanisms underlying phenotypic variance in response is expected to yield novel therapeutic advances. Intravenous (IV) administration of endotoxin (gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide), a specific Toll-like receptor 4 agonist, represents an in vivo model of systemic inflammation in man. National Institutes for Health Clinical Center Reference Endotoxin (CCRE, Escherichia coli O:113:H10:K negative) is employed to reliably and reproducibly generate vascular, hematological, endocrine, immunological and organ-specific functional effects that parallel, to varying degrees, those seen in the early stages of pathological states. Alteration of dose (0.06 - 4 ng/kg) and time-scale of exposure (bolus vs. infusion) allows replication of either acute or chronic inflammation and a range of severity to be elicited, with higher doses (2 - 4 ng/kg) frequently being used to create a 'sepsis-like' state. Established and novel medicinal compounds may additionally be administered prior to or post endotoxin exposure to appreciate their effect on the inflammatory cascade. Despite limitations in scope and generalizability, human IV endotoxin challenge offers a unique platform to gain mechanistic insights into inducible physiological responses and inflammatory pathways. Rationally employed it may aid translation of this knowledge into therapeutic innovations. PMID:27213711

  2. The Lipopolysaccharide Export Pathway in Escherichia coli: Structure, Organization and Regulated Assembly of the Lpt Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Polissi, Alessandra; Sperandeo, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial outer membrane (OM) is a peculiar biological structure with a unique composition that contributes significantly to the fitness of Gram-negative bacteria in hostile environments. OM components are all synthesized in the cytosol and must, then, be transported efficiently across three compartments to the cell surface. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a unique glycolipid that paves the outer leaflet of the OM. Transport of this complex molecule poses several problems to the cells due to its amphipatic nature. In this review, the multiprotein machinery devoted to LPS transport to the OM is discussed together with the challenges associated with this process and the solutions that cells have evolved to address the problem of LPS biogenesis. PMID:24549203

  3. Endotoxin-Binding Peptides Derived from Casein Glycomacropeptide Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Inflammatory Responses via Blockade of NF-κB activation in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xue; Gao, Dongxiao; Chen, Bin; Mao, Xueying

    2015-01-01

    Systemic low-grade inflammation and increased circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contribute to metabolic dysfunction. The inhibitory effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of casein glycomacropeptide (GMP) hydrolysate on the inflammatory response of LPS-stimulated macrophages were investigated. Results showed that the inhibitory effect of GMP hydrolysates obtained with papain on nitric oxide (NO) production were obviously higher than that of GMP hydrolysates obtained with pepsin, alcalase and trypsin (p < 0.05), and the hydrolysate obtained with papain for 1 h hydrolysis (GHP) exhibited the highest inhibitory effect. Compared with native GMP, GHP markedly inhibited LPS-induced NO production in a dose-dependent manner with decreased mRNA level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). GHP blocked toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway activation, accompanied by downregulation of LPS-triggered significant upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β gene expression. Furthermore, GHP could neutralize LPS not only by direct binding to LPS, but also by inhibiting the engagement of LPS with the TLR4/MD2 complex, making it a potential LPS inhibitor. In conclusion, these findings suggest that GHP negatively regulates TLR4-mediated inflammatory response in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, and therefore may hold potential to ameliorate inflammation-related issues. PMID:25923657

  4. Endotoxin-Binding Peptides Derived from Casein Glycomacropeptide Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Inflammatory Responses via Blockade of NF-κB activation in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xue; Gao, Dongxiao; Chen, Bin; Mao, Xueying

    2015-05-01

    Systemic low-grade inflammation and increased circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contribute to metabolic dysfunction. The inhibitory effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of casein glycomacropeptide (GMP) hydrolysate on the inflammatory response of LPS-stimulated macrophages were investigated. Results showed that the inhibitory effect of GMP hydrolysates obtained with papain on nitric oxide (NO) production were obviously higher than that of GMP hydrolysates obtained with pepsin, alcalase and trypsin (p < 0.05), and the hydrolysate obtained with papain for 1 h hydrolysis (GHP) exhibited the highest inhibitory effect. Compared with native GMP, GHP markedly inhibited LPS-induced NO production in a dose-dependent manner with decreased mRNA level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). GHP blocked toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway activation, accompanied by downregulation of LPS-triggered significant upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β gene expression. Furthermore, GHP could neutralize LPS not only by direct binding to LPS, but also by inhibiting the engagement of LPS with the TLR4/MD2 complex, making it a potential LPS inhibitor. In conclusion, these findings suggest that GHP negatively regulates TLR4-mediated inflammatory response in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, and therefore may hold potential to ameliorate inflammation-related issues. PMID:25923657

  5. Regulation of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript-Synthesising Neurons of the Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus by Endotoxin; Implications for Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Regulation of Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Füzesi, T.; Sánchez, E.; Wittmann, G.; Singru, P. S.; Fekete, C.; Lechan, R. M

    2009-01-01

    Infectious diseases and the administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) result in decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure. Because the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) has pivotal roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis and expresses an anorexic peptide, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), we hypothesised that increased CART synthesis in this nucleus may contribute to LPS-induced changes in energy homeostasis. Therefore, we studied the effects of intraperitoneal administration of LPS on CART gene expression in the PVN by semiquantitative in situ hybridisation. LPS caused a rapid increase in CART mRNA levels in the PVN. One hour after treatment, the density of silver grains was increased by three-fold in the PVN, and remained elevated 3 h after treatment. Because the dorsal vagal complex, an important vegetative centre in the brainstem, is heavily innervated by CART-containing axons, we determined whether the retrograde tracer, cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), accumulates in CART neurons in the PVN following stereotaxic injection of the tracer into the dorsal vagal complex. One week after injection, CTB accumulated in CART neurons in the ventral, medial, and lateral parvocellular subdivisions of the PVN. In addition, LPS administration induced c-fos expression in a population of CART neurons in the PVN that project to the dorsal vagal complex. These data indicate that increased CART gene expression in neurons of PVN may contribute to LPS-induced anorexia, and suggest that this action may be mediated, at least in part, through a PVN-dorsal vagal complex pathway. PMID:18624928

  6. Endotoxin removal by radio frequency gas plasma (glow discharge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Angela

    2011-12-01

    Contaminants remaining on implantable medical devices, even following sterilization, include dangerous fever-causing residues of the outer lipopolysaccharide-rich membranes of Gram-negative bacteria such as the common gut microorganism E. coli. The conventional method for endotoxin removal is by Food & Drug Administration (FDA)-recommended dry-heat depyrogenation at 250°C for at least 45 minutes, an excessively time-consuming high-temperature technique not suitable for low-melting or heat-distortable biomaterials. This investigation evaluated the mechanism by which E. coli endotoxin contamination can be eliminated from surfaces during ambient temperature single 3-minute to cumulative 15-minute exposures to radio-frequency glow discharge (RFGD)-generated residual room air plasmas activated at 0.1-0.2 torr in a 35MHz electrodeless chamber. The main analytical technique for retained pyrogenic bio-activity was the Kinetic Chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) Assay, sufficiently sensitive to document compliance with FDA-required Endotoxin Unit (EU) titers less than 20 EU per medical device by optical detection of enzymatic color development corresponding to < 0.5 EU/ml in sterile water extracts of each device. The main analytical technique for identification of chemical compositions, amounts, and changes during sequential reference Endotoxin additions and subsequent RFGD-treatment removals from infrared (IR)-transparent germanium (Ge) prisms was Multiple Attenuated Internal Reflection (MAIR) infrared spectroscopy sensitive to even monolayer amounts of retained bio-contaminant. KimaxRTM 60 mm x 15 mm and 50mm x 15mm laboratory glass dishes and germanium internal reflection prisms were inoculated with E. coli bacterial endotoxin water suspensions at increments of 0.005, 0.05, 0.5, and 5 EU, and characterized by MAIR-IR spectroscopy of the dried residues on the Ge prisms and LAL Assay of sterile water extracts from both glass and Ge specimens. The Ge prism MAIR-IR measurements were repeated after employing 3-minute RFGD treatments sequentially for more than 10 cycles to observe removal of deposited matter that correlated with diminished EU titers. The results showed that 5 cycles, for a total exposure time of 15 minutes to low-temperature gas plasma, was sufficient to reduce endotoxin titers to below 0.05 EU/ml, and correlated with concurrent reduction of major endotoxin reference standard absorption bands at 3391 cm-1, 2887 cm-1, 1646 cm -1 1342 cm-1, and 1103 cm-1 to less than 0.05 Absorbance Units. Band depletion varied from 15% to 40% per 3-minute cycle of RFGD exposure, based on peak-to-peak analyses. In some cases, 100% of all applied biomass was removed within 5 sequential 3-minute RFGD cycles. The lipid ester absorption band expected at 1725 cm-1 was not detectable until after the first RFGD cycle, suggesting an unmasking of the actual bacterial endotoxin membrane induced within the gas plasma environment. Future work must determine the applicability of this low-temperature, quick depyrogenation process to medical devices of more complicated geometry than the flat surfaces tested here.

  7. Purification and characterization of lipopolysaccharides from six strains of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Stromberg, Loreen R; Stromberg, Zachary R; Banisadr, Afsheen; Graves, Steven W; Moxley, Rodney A; Mukundan, Harshini

    2015-09-01

    Certain Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are virulent human pathogens that are most often acquired through contaminated food. The United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service has declared several serogroups of STEC as adulterants in non-intact raw beef products. Hence, sensitive and specific tests for the detection of these STEC are a necessity for implementation in food safety programs. E. coli serogroups are identified by their respective O-antigen moiety on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) macromolecule. We propose that the development of O-antigen-specific immunological assays can facilitate simple and rapid discriminatory detection of STEC in beef. However, the resources (antigens and antibodies) required for such development are not readily available. To overcome this, we extracted and characterized LPS and O-antigen from six STEC strains. Using hot phenol extraction, we isolated the LPS component from each strain and purified it using a series of steps to eliminate proteins, nucleic acids, and lipid A antigens. Antigens and crude LPS extracts were characterized using gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and modified Western blotting with commercially available antibodies, thus assessing the serogroup specificity and sensitivity of available ligands as well. The results indicate that, while many commercially available antibodies bind LPS, their activities and specificities are highly variable, and often not as specific as those required for serogroup discrimination. This variability could be minimized by the production of antibodies specific for the O-antigen. Additionally, the antigens generated from this study provide a source of characterized LPS and O-antigen standards for six serogroups of STEC. PMID:26093258

  8. High ambient temperature alleviates the inflammatory response and growth depression in pigs challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Campos, Paulo H R F; Merlot, Elodie; Damon, Marie; Noblet, Jean; Le Floc'h, Nathalie

    2014-06-01

    Pig production has increased in hot climate countries over recent years, but the effect of exposure to high temperatures on the health status of farm animals has not been investigated thoroughly. It is not clear how the ambient temperature (Ta) might influence responses to inflammatory challenge in pigs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of high Ta on performance and physiological parameters of growing pigs, subjected to repeated administration of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Thirty-seven pigs, each fitted with a jugular catheter, were assigned to one of two Ta conditions: thermo-neutral (TN, 24 °C) or high (HT, 30 °C). After a 14-day adaptation period, and a 7-day measurement period, pigs were administered five repeated injections of LPS at 48 h intervals. Irrespective of Ta, the LPS challenge reduced feed consumption and increased plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines, haptoglobin and cortisol. However, the extent of these responses was greater in pigs at TN than HT. In both groups, plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations decreased, following the first LPS injection and thereafter returned to baseline, which occurred faster at HT than at TN. Moreover, the LPS challenge decreased growth and feed efficiency in pigs kept at TN, which was not observed in pigs kept at HT. The results suggest a greater capacity of pigs to limit the physiological and metabolic disturbances caused by inflammatory challenge, when kept at HT, compared to TN. PMID:24792207

  9. Preparation of endotoxin-free bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Boratyński, Janusz; Syper, Danuta; Weber-Dabrowska, Beata; Łusiak-Szelachowska, Marzanna; Poźniak, Gryzelda; Górski, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    Bacteriophages (phages) are bacterial viruses that interact with bacterial walls and invade bacterial cells. Moreover, they disturb bacterial metabolism and lead to bacteria lysis. In the case of Gram-negative bacteria crude phage cultures, apart from the phages themselves, the bacterial debris, bacterial proteins and nucleic acids contain endotoxins. These endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) posses a high degree of toxicity in vitro and in vivo, and their removal is essential for safety in antibacterial bacteriophage therapy. An effective, scaleable purification of bacteriophages from endotoxins was accomplished by sequential ultrafiltration through polysulfone membrane (30 nm) followed by chromatography on sepharose 4B and Matrex Cellulofine Sulfate. The phage fraction after gel filtration chromatography routinely contained endotoxins in the 150-2500 EU/ml range. The procedure yielded bacteriophages contaminated with as little as 0.4-7 EU/ml (Limulus assay). This value lies within the permitted level for intravenous applications (5 EU/kg/h by European Pharmacopoeia, 1997). PMID:15213806

  10. Effect of Polysaccharides from Acanthopanax senticosus on Intestinal Mucosal Barrier of Escherichia coli Lipopolysaccharide Challenged Mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Jie; Xu, Yunhe; Yang, Di; Yu, Ning; Bai, Zishan; Bian, Lianquan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the role of polysaccharide from Acanthopanax senticosus (ASPS) in preventing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal injury, 18 mice (at 5 wk of age) were assigned to three groups with 6 replicates of one mouse each. Mice were administrated by oral gavage with or without ASPS (300 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days and were injected with saline or LPS at 15 days. Intestinal samples were collected at 4 h post-challenge. The results showed that ASPS ameliorated LPS-induced deterioration of digestive ability of LPS-challenged mice, indicated by an increase in intestinal lactase activity (45%, p<0.05), and the intestinal morphology, as proved by improved villus height (20.84%, p<0.05) and villus height:crypt depth ratio (42%, p<0.05), and lower crypt depth in jejunum (15.55%, p<0.05), as well as enhanced intestinal tight junction proteins expression involving occludin-1 (71.43%, p<0.05). ASPS also prevented intestinal inflammation response, supported by decrease in intestinal inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor α (22.28%, p<0.05) and heat shock protein (HSP70) (77.42%, p<0.05). In addition, intestinal mucus layers were also improved by ASPS, as indicated by the increase in number of goblet cells (24.89%, p<0.05) and intestinal trefoil peptide (17.75%, p<0.05). Finally, ASPS facilitated mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor (100%, p<0.05) and its receptor (200%, p<0.05) gene. These results indicate that ASPS can prevent intestinal mucosal barrier injury under inflammatory conditions, which may be associated with up-regulating gene mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor and its receptor. PMID:26732337

  11. Effect of Polysaccharides from Acanthopanax senticosus on Intestinal Mucosal Barrier of Escherichia coli Lipopolysaccharide Challenged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jie; Xu, Yunhe; Yang, Di; Yu, Ning; Bai, Zishan; Bian, Lianquan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the role of polysaccharide from Acanthopanax senticosus (ASPS) in preventing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal injury, 18 mice (at 5 wk of age) were assigned to three groups with 6 replicates of one mouse each. Mice were administrated by oral gavage with or without ASPS (300 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days and were injected with saline or LPS at 15 days. Intestinal samples were collected at 4 h post-challenge. The results showed that ASPS ameliorated LPS-induced deterioration of digestive ability of LPS-challenged mice, indicated by an increase in intestinal lactase activity (45%, p<0.05), and the intestinal morphology, as proved by improved villus height (20.84%, p<0.05) and villus height:crypt depth ratio (42%, p<0.05), and lower crypt depth in jejunum (15.55%, p<0.05), as well as enhanced intestinal tight junction proteins expression involving occludin-1 (71.43%, p<0.05). ASPS also prevented intestinal inflammation response, supported by decrease in intestinal inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor α (22.28%, p<0.05) and heat shock protein (HSP70) (77.42%, p<0.05). In addition, intestinal mucus layers were also improved by ASPS, as indicated by the increase in number of goblet cells (24.89%, p<0.05) and intestinal trefoil peptide (17.75%, p<0.05). Finally, ASPS facilitated mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor (100%, p<0.05) and its receptor (200%, p<0.05) gene. These results indicate that ASPS can prevent intestinal mucosal barrier injury under inflammatory conditions, which may be associated with up-regulating gene mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor and its receptor. PMID:26732337

  12. A comparison of the endotoxin biosynthesis and protein oxidation pathways in the biogenesis of the outer membrane of Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    Piek, Susannah; Kahler, Charlene M.

    2012-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterial cell envelope consists of an inner membrane (IM) that surrounds the cytoplasm and an asymmetrical outer-membrane (OM) that forms a protective barrier to the external environment. The OM consists of lipopolysaccahride (LPS), phospholipids, outer membrane proteins (OMPs), and lipoproteins. Oxidative protein folding mediated by periplasmic oxidoreductases is required for the biogenesis of the protein components, mainly constituents of virulence determinants such as pili, flagella, and toxins, of the Gram-negative OM. Recently, periplasmic oxidoreductases have been implicated in LPS biogenesis of Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis. Differences in OM biogenesis, in particular the transport pathways for endotoxin to the OM, the composition and role of the protein oxidation, and isomerization pathways and the regulatory networks that control them have been found in these two Gram-negative species suggesting that although form and function of the OM is conserved, the pathways required for the biosynthesis of the OM and the regulatory circuits that control them have evolved to suit the lifestyle of each organism. PMID:23267440

  13. Biological activities of Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Moreno, E; Berman, D T; Boettcher, L A

    1981-01-01

    Purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from smooth (s) and rough (R) strains of Brucella abortus and lipid A isolated from S-LPS by mild acid hydrolysis were examined in several assays of biological activity. Brucella S- and R-LPSs and Brucella lipid A activated the complement cascade. Previously reported mitogenic activation by Brucella LPSs of spleen cells from endotoxin-resistant C3H/HeJ mice was confirmed and also produced by isolated Brucella lipid A. Mitogenicity was not inhibited by polymyxin B, and amino acid analysis showed no binding of polymyxin B to Brucella LPS under conditions in which mitogenicity of phenol-water-extracted Escherichia coli LPS was inhibited. S and R Brucella LPSs and lipid A all produced equivalent polyclonal stimulation of C3H/HeJ and C3H/HeAU spleen cells. Crude and purified LPS from S but not from R B. abortus was toxic for outbred mice, with 50% lethal doses approximately six times greater than that for E. coli LPS. S- and R-LPSs were abortifacient in pregnant outbred mice. S Brucella LPS was lethal for carrageenen-pretreated C3H/HeJ and C3H/HeAU mice, whereas only C3H/HeAU mice were killed by E. coli LPS. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the unique fatty acid composition of Brucella lipid A is responsible for its biological activity in endotoxin-resistant C3H/HeJ mice. The participation of the protein strongly bound to the lipid A cannot be excluded, but its mode of action, if any, is different from that of the lipid A-associated protein of enterobacterial LPS. PMID:6783538

  14. Acute mammary and liver transcriptome responses after an intramammary Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide challenge in postpartal dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Minuti, Andrea; Zhou, Zheng; Graugnard, Daniel E; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Palladino, Alejandro R; Cardoso, Felipe C; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of an intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on the bovine mammary and liver transcriptome and its consequences on metabolic biomarkers and liver tissue composition. At 7 days of lactation, 7 cows served as controls (CTR) and 7 cows (LPS) received an intramammary Escherichia coli LPS challenge. The mammary and liver tissues for transcriptomic profiling were biopsied at 2.5 h from challenge. Liver composition was evaluated at 2.5 h and 7 days after challenge, and blood biomarkers were analyzed at 2, 3, 7 and 14 days from challenge. In mammary tissue, the LPS challenge resulted in 189 differentially expressed genes (DEG), with 20 down-regulated and 169 up-regulated. In liver tissue, there were 107 DEG in LPS compared with CTR with 42 down-regulated and 65 up-regulated. In mammary, bioinformatics analysis highlighted that LPS led to activation of NOD-like receptor signaling, Toll-like receptor signaling, RIG-I-like receptor signaling and apoptosis pathways. In liver, LPS resulted in an overall inhibition of fatty acid elongation in mitochondria and activation of the p53 signaling pathway. The LPS challenge induced changes in liver lipid composition, a systemic inflammation (rise of blood ceruloplasmin and bilirubin), and an increase in body fat mobilization. The data suggest that cells within the inflamed mammary gland respond by activating mechanisms of pathogen recognition. However, in the liver the response likely depends on mediators originating from the udder that affect liver functionality and specifically fatty acid metabolism (β-oxidation, ketogenesis, and lipoprotein synthesis). PMID:25921778

  15. The acute phase response induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide modifies the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of florfenicol in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Pérez, R; Palma, C; Burgos, R; Jeldres, J A; Espinoza, A; Peñailillo, A K

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute phase response (APR) on the pharmaco-kinetics and biotransformation of florfenicol (FFC) in rabbits. Six rabbits (3.0 ± 0.08 kg body weight (bw)) were distributed through a crossover design with 4 weeks of washout period. Pairs of rabbits similar in bw and sex were assigned to experimental groups: Group 1 (LPS) was treated with three intravenous doses of 1 μg/kg bw of E. coli LPS at intervals of 6 h, and Group 2 (control) was treated with an equivalent volume of saline solution (SS) at the same intervals and frequency of Group 1. At 24 h after the first injection of LPS or SS, an intravenous bolus of 20 mg/kg bw of FFC was administered. Blood samples were collected from the auricular vein before drug administration and at different times between 0.05 and 24.0 h after treatment. FFC and florfenicol-amine (FFC-a) were extracted from the plasma, and their concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. A noncompartmental pharmacokinetic model was used for data analysis, and data were compared using the paired Student t-test. The mean values of AUC0-∞ in the endotoxaemic rabbits (26.3 ± 2.7 μg·h/mL) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than values observed in healthy rabbits (17.2 ± 0.97 μg·h/mL). The total mean plasma clearance (CLT ) decreased from 1228 ± 107.5 mL·h/kg in the control group to 806.4 ± 91.4 mL·h/kg in the LPS-treated rabbits. A significant increase (P < 0.05) in the half-life of elimination was observed in the endotoxaemic rabbits (5.59 ± 1.14 h) compared to the values observed in healthy animals (3.44 ± 0.57 h). In conclusion, the administration of repeated doses of 1 μg/kg E. coli LPS induced an APR in rabbits, producing significant modifications in plasma concentrations of FFC leading to increases in the AUC, terminal half-life and mean residence time (MRT), but a significant decrease in CLT of the drug. As a consequence of the APR induced by LPS, there was a reduction in the metabolic conversion of FFC to their metabolite FFC-a in the liver, suggesting that the mediators released during the APR induced significant inhibitory effects on the hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:26010096

  16. Duration of in vivo endotoxin tolerance in horses.

    PubMed

    Holcombe, Susan J; Jacobs, Carrie C; Cook, Vanessa L; Gandy, Jeffery C; Hauptman, Joseph G; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2016-05-01

    Endotoxemia models are used to study mechanisms and treatments of early sepsis. Repeated endotoxin exposures induce periods of endotoxin tolerance, characterized by diminished proinflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and modulated production of proinflammatory cytokines. Repeated measure designs using equine endotoxemia models are rarely performed, despite the advantages associated with reduced variability, because the altered responsiveness would confound study results and because the duration of equine endotoxin tolerance is unknown. We determined the interval of endotoxin tolerance, in vivo, in horses based on physical, clinicopathologic, and proinflammatory gene expression responses to repeated endotoxin exposures. Six horses received 30ng/kg LPS in saline infused over 30min. Behavior pain scores, physical examination parameters, and blood for complete blood count and proinflammatory gene expression were obtained at predetermined intervals for 24h. Horses received a total of 3 endotoxin exposures. The first exposure was LPS 1, followed 7days later by LPS 7 or 14-21days later by LPS 14-21. Lipopolysaccharide exposures were allocated in a randomized, crossover design. Lipopolysaccharide produced clinical and clinicopathologic signs of endotoxemia and increased expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, P<0.001. Horses exhibited evidence of endotoxin tolerance following LPS 7 but not following LPS 14-21. Horses had significantly lower pain scores, heart rates, respiratory rates and duration of fever, after LPS 7 compared to LPS 1 and LPS 14-21, P<0.001, and expression of TNFα was lower in the whole blood of horses after LPS 7, P=0.05. Clinical parameters and TNFα gene expression were similar or slightly increased in horses following LPS 14-21 compared to measurements made in horses following LPS 1, suggesting that endotoxin tolerance had subsided. A minimum of 3 weeks between experiments is warranted if repeated measures designs are used to assess in vivo response to endotoxin in horses. PMID:27090620

  17. Collagenase Production by Endotoxin-Activated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Larry M.; Wahl, Sharon M.; Mergenhagen, Stephan E.; Martin, George R.

    1974-01-01

    Peritoneal exudate macrophages, when exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide in culture, were found to produce collagenase (EC 3.4.24.3). This enzyme was not detected in extracts of the macrophages or in media from nonstimulated macrophage cultures. Lipidcontaining fractions of the lipopolysaccharide, including a glycolipid from the rough mutant of Salmonella minnesota (R595) and lipid A, were potent stimulators of collagenase production. The lipid-free polysaccharide fraction had no effect. Cycloheximide prevented the production of collagenase by endotoxin-treated macrophages, suggesting that it was newly synthesized. Images PMID:4372628

  18. Effects of endotoxin on the lactating mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The regulation of endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) sequences in trans by a host gene, the Lps locus on mouse chromosome 4, was suspected from a genetic linkage analysis. The Lps locus mediates the mouse's response to the injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the responder mouse while mice with the deficient allele are incapable of responding. Others have found that endotoxin exposure reduces milk production in lactating animals. This observation was confirmed in mice and extended by examining /sup 125/I-prolactin binding to liver membranes of lactating mice. Endotoxin treatment of responder mice increases liver prolactin binding within 15 minutes, followed by a decline over 6 hours. Scatchard analysis shows that the immediate increase comes from both increased affinity and abundance of the prolactin receptor. No such change in prolactin binding is seen in the non-responder following endotoxin treatment nor in /sup 125/I-insulin binding in responders.

  19. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase of Escherichia coli. The first step of endotoxin biosynthesis is thermodynamically unfavorable.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M S; Bull, H G; Galloway, S M; Kelly, T M; Mohan, S; Radika, K; Raetz, C R

    1993-09-15

    UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase of Escherichia coli catalyzes the reaction, UDP-GlcNAc + R-3-hydroxymyristoyl-ACP--> UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-GlcNAc + ACP. Using Matrex Gel Green A and heparin-agarose, we have purified the enzyme to near homogeneity from a strain that overproduces it 474-fold. The subunit molecular mass determined by SDS-gel electrophoresis is approximately 30 kDa, consistent with results of previous radiolabeling experiments in mini-cells. The amino-terminal sequence (Met-Ile-Asp-Lys-Ser-Ala-Phe-Val-His-Pro) and the amino acid composition of the purified protein are consistent with DNA sequencing (Coleman, J., and Raetz, C. R. H. (1988) J. Bacteriol. 170, 1268-1274). At saturating concentrations of the second substrate, the apparent Km values for UDP-GlcNAc and R-3-hydroxymyristoyl-ACP are 99 and 1.6 microM, respectively. There is an absolute requirement for the R-3-hydroxy moiety of the fatty acyl-ACP substrate; myristoyl-ACP binds effectively (IC50 = 2 microM) but is inactive (< 0.01%) as an alternate substrate. The most remarkable feature of the reaction is its unfavorable equilibrium constant, Keq approximately equal to 0.01, which is not predicted by model S-->O acyl transfer reactions. Thus, although UDP-GlcNAc acyltransferase catalyzes the first unique step of lipid A biosynthesis, it is the second enzyme (the deacetylase) that commits the substrates to this pathway. The specific activity of the deacetylase is elevated approximately 5-fold when lipid A synthesis is inhibited. PMID:8366124

  20. CD36 regulates lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling pathways and mediates the internalization of Escherichia coli in cooperation with TLR4 in goat mammary gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Duoyao; Luo, Jun; Chen, Dekun; Xu, Huifen; Shi, Huaiping; Jing, Xiaoqi; Zang, Wenjuan

    2016-01-01

    The scavenger receptor CD36 is involved in pathogen recognition, phagocytosis, and pathogen-induced signaling. This study investigated the relationship between CD36 and TLR4 in modifying lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced signaling pathways and mediating Escherichia coli (E. coli) endocytosis in primary goat mammary epithelial cells (pGMECs). The manipulation of CD36 expression significantly influenced TLR4 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) mRNA expression in pGMECs stimulated with LPS for 12 h. NF-κB and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity was regulated by the manipulation of CD36 expression in LPS-induced pGMECs. However, CD36-mediated AP-1 activation occurred primarily through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (c-JNK). Adaptor proteins and proinflammatory cytokines were also involved in these signaling pathways and acted by regulating CD36 expression in LPS-stimulated cells. Moreover, CD36 cooperated with TLR4 in TLR4-mediated phagocytosis following E. coli simulation, but this complex was not induced by LPS treatment. Our study is the first to illuminate CD36 as a scavenger receptor in ruminants. Additionally, this study indicates that CD36 plays a vital role in the LPS-induced activation of downstream signaling cascades and mediates E. coli phagocytosis via TLR4 in pGMECs, which offers a novel treatment strategy for mastitis. PMID:26976286

  1. CD36 regulates lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling pathways and mediates the internalization of Escherichia coli in cooperation with TLR4 in goat mammary gland epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Duoyao; Luo, Jun; Chen, Dekun; Xu, Huifen; Shi, Huaiping; Jing, Xiaoqi; Zang, Wenjuan

    2016-01-01

    The scavenger receptor CD36 is involved in pathogen recognition, phagocytosis, and pathogen-induced signaling. This study investigated the relationship between CD36 and TLR4 in modifying lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced signaling pathways and mediating Escherichia coli (E. coli) endocytosis in primary goat mammary epithelial cells (pGMECs). The manipulation of CD36 expression significantly influenced TLR4 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) mRNA expression in pGMECs stimulated with LPS for 12 h. NF-κB and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity was regulated by the manipulation of CD36 expression in LPS-induced pGMECs. However, CD36-mediated AP-1 activation occurred primarily through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (c-JNK). Adaptor proteins and proinflammatory cytokines were also involved in these signaling pathways and acted by regulating CD36 expression in LPS-stimulated cells. Moreover, CD36 cooperated with TLR4 in TLR4-mediated phagocytosis following E. coli simulation, but this complex was not induced by LPS treatment. Our study is the first to illuminate CD36 as a scavenger receptor in ruminants. Additionally, this study indicates that CD36 plays a vital role in the LPS-induced activation of downstream signaling cascades and mediates E. coli phagocytosis via TLR4 in pGMECs, which offers a novel treatment strategy for mastitis. PMID:26976286

  2. Pathogenic Escherichia coli and lipopolysaccharide enhance the expression of IL-8, CXCL5, and CXCL10 in canine endometrial stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Iulia; Hagman, Ragnvi; Guo, Yongzhi; Humblot, Patrice; Wang, Liya; Wernersson, Sara

    2015-07-01

    Chemokines play a central role in cellular communication in response to bacterial infection. However, the knowledge of the chemokine responses to bacterial infections in dogs remains limited. Uterine bacterial infection (pyometra) is one of the most common bacterial diseases in dogs and causes sepsis in most of the cases. We have shown previously that dogs with pyometra have higher messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of chemokines in uterus. To assess whether the stromal part of the endometrium expresses chemokines in response to bacterial infection, we cultured endometrial stromal cells isolated from healthy dogs and exposed them to either live pathogenic Escherichia coli, isolated from the uterus of a dog with pyometra, or lipopolysaccharide. Changes in the mRNA expression of ELR(+) CXC chemokines, IL-8, CXCL5, CXCL7, and ELR(-) CXC chemokine, CXCL10, were measured after 24 hours using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Levels of IL-8, CXCL5, and CXCL10 were upregulated in endometrial stromal cells exposed to E coli and lipopolysaccharide, whereas the level of CXCL7 was decreased or unaffected. In addition, levels of IL-8 and CXCL5, but not CXCL7 or CXCL10, were significantly higher in dogs with pyometra than those in healthy dogs. Our findings show that pathogenic uterine-derived E coli induces a CXC chemokine response both in cultured endometrial stromal cells within 24 hours and in pyometra-affected uteri from dogs. Stromal cells could therefore play an important role in early neutrophil and T cell recruitment to the site of inflammation during gram-negative bacterial infection of the uterus. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of chemokines in host response to bacterial infection in dogs and the possibility of using chemokines as diagnostic parameters for bacterial infection in this species. PMID:25765298

  3. Lipopolysaccharide, capsule, and fimbriae as virulence factors among O1, O7, O16, O18, or O75 and K1, K5, or K100 Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kusecek, B; Wloch, H; Mercer, A; Vaisnen, V; Pluschke, G; Korhonen, T; Achtman, M

    1984-01-01

    K1, K5, and K100 Escherichia coli isolates of the lipopolysaccharide antigen types O1, O7, O16, O18, or O75, which had formerly been assigned to clonal groupings were compared with K? E. coli isolates and with laboratory-derived mutants defective in capsule or lipopolysaccharide synthesis. The amount of K1 capsule, the length distribution of the lipopolysaccharide, and the expression of type I and P fimbriae were determined. The clonal groupings were uniform with regard to these properties within each group but different from each other. Many of the K? strains differed from the clonal representatives. The results are interpreted with regard to the different diseases caused by each of these bacterial groups. Images PMID:6140224

  4. Bactericidal Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to the Lipopolysaccharide O Antigen from Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli Clone ST131-O25b:H4 Elicit Protection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Szijártó, Valéria; Guachalla, Luis M.; Visram, Zehra C.; Hartl, Katharina; Varga, Cecília; Mirkina, Irina; Zmajkovic, Jakub; Badarau, Adriana; Zauner, Gerhild; Pleban, Clara; Magyarics, Zoltán; Nagy, Eszter

    2015-01-01

    The Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131)-O25b:H4 clone has spread worldwide and become responsible for a significant proportion of multidrug-resistant extraintestinal infections. We generated humanized monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that target the lipopolysaccharide O25b antigen conserved within this lineage. These MAbs bound to the surface of live bacterial cells irrespective of the capsular type expressed. In a serum bactericidal assay in vitro, MAbs induced >95% bacterial killing in the presence of human serum as the complement source. Protective efficacy at low antibody doses was observed in a murine model of bacteremia. The mode of action in vivo was investigated by using aglycosylated derivatives of the protective MAbs. The significant binding to live E. coli cells and the in vitro and in vivo efficacy were corroborated in assays using bacteria grown in human serum to mimic relevant clinical conditions. Given the dry pipeline of novel antibiotics against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens, passive immunization with bactericidal antibodies offers a therapeutic alternative to control infections caused by E. coli ST131-O25b:H4. PMID:25779571

  5. Continuous infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin in vivo primes in vitro superoxide anion release in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes and Kupffer cells in a time-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Mayer, A M; Spitzer, J A

    1991-12-01

    Continuous infusion of a nonlethal dose of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (0.5 mg/kg) induced early (3 h) accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) in rat liver followed by later (30 h) greater extravasation of mononuclear phagocytes (MNP) (E. B. Rodriguez de Turco and J. A. Spitzer, J. Leukocyte Biol. 48:488-494, 1990). Nonparenchymal liver cells from rats treated for 3 and 30 h with LPS were recovered by centrifugal elutriation, yielding a 23-ml/min fraction (endothelial cells) and a 45-ml/min fraction (PMNL, Kupffer cells, and MNP), and compared for their capacity for basal and agonist-stimulated superoxide (O2-) production. Stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate and opsonized zymosan caused a dose-dependent release of O2- from the 45-ml/min fraction derived from rats treated for 3 h with saline, but not from the 23-ml/min fraction. Further purification of the 45-ml/min fraction by discontinuous density gradient centrifugation into a Kupffer and a PMNL fraction revealed that most of the agonist-induced O2- release was generated by infiltrating PMNL at this early time point of LPS infusion. By 30 h of LPS infusion, although enhancement of the phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate- and opsonized zymosan-stimulated release of O2- was observed in the 45-ml/min fraction, but not in the 23-ml/min fraction, the maximum release of O2- was smaller than that observed in the rats treated for 3 h. Our results support the following conclusions: (i) after a 3-h LPS infusion, PMNL found in the liver in increased numbers are also highly primed for agonist-stimulated release of O2-, while Kupffer cell priming is of a lesser extent; (ii) after a 30-h infusion of LPS, infiltrating MNP found in the liver in increased numbers are primed for agonist-induced O2- release, while priming of PMNL has diminished; (iii) at both 3 and 30 h of LPS infusion, liver endothelial cells are not significantly primed for agonist-stimulated O2- release; and (iv) in vivo priming by LPS infusion at both 3 and 30 h was not reversed by the experimental method used for cell recovery (ca. 3 h), thus suggesting that in vivo LPS priming of O2- release may ultimately lead to severe impairment of liver function and metabolism observed during endotoxemia and sepsis if not therapeutically blocked at an early time point. PMID:1657786

  6. Lipopolysaccharide neutralization by a novel peptide derived from phosvitin.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lili; Sun, Chen; Wang, Shengnan; Su, Feng; Zhang, Shicui

    2013-11-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also known as endotoxin, is the primary trigger of sepsis, which is associated with high mortality in patients. No therapeutic agents are currently efficacious enough to protect patients from sepsis characterized by LPS-mediated tissue damage and organ failure. Previously, a phosvitin-derived peptide, Pt5, which consists of the C-terminal 55 residues of zebrafish phosvitin, has been shown to function as an antibacterial agent. In this study, we have generated six mutants by site-directed mutagenesis based on the sequence of Pt5, and found that one of the six mutants, Pt5e, showed the strongest bactericidal activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. We then demonstrated that Pt5e was able to bind to LPS and lipoteichoic acid (LTA). More importantly, we showed that Pt5e significantly inhibited LPS-induced tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β release from murine RAW264.7 cells and considerably reduced serum TNF-α and IL-1β levels in mice. Additionally, Pt5e protected the liver from damage by LPS, and remarkably promoted the survival rate of the endotoxemia mice. Furthermore, Pt5e displayed no cytotoxicity to murine RAW264.7 macrophages and no hemolytic activity toward human red blood cells. These data together indicate that Pt5e is an endotoxin-neutralizing agent with a therapeutic potential in clinical treatment of LPS-induced sepsis. PMID:24028820

  7. Influence of Sanitizers on the Lipopolysaccharide Toxicity of Escherichia coli Strains Cultivated in the Presence of Zygosaccharomyces bailii

    PubMed Central

    Mogotsi, Lerato; De Smidt, Olga; Venter, Pierre; Groenewald, Willem

    2014-01-01

    The influence of sublethal concentrations of two sanitizers, liquid iodophor and liquid hypochlorite (LH), on the growth rates and toxicity of food-borne pathogenic Escherichia coli strains grown in the presence of spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was assessed. When grown in combination with Z. bailii both E. coli O113 and E. coli O26 exhibited slower growth rates, except when E. coli O113 was grown in combination with Z. bailii at 0.2% LH. The growth rate of Z. bailii was not impacted by the addition of the sanitizers or by communal growth with E. coli strains. LAL and IL-6 results indicated a decrease in toxicity of pure E. coli cultures with comparable profiles for control and sanitizer exposed samples, although the LAL assay proved to be more sensitive. Interestingly, pure cultures of Z. bailii showed increased toxicity measured by LAL and decreased toxicity measured by IL-6. LAL analysis showed a decrease in toxicity of both E. coli strains grown in combination with Z. bailii, while IL-6 analysis of the mixed cultures showed an increase in toxicity. The use of LAL for toxicity determination in a mixed culture overlooks the contribution made by spoilage yeast, thus demonstrating the importance of using the appropriate method for toxicity testing in mixed microbe environments. PMID:24977173

  8. Risks associated with endotoxins in feed additives produced by fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wallace, R John; Gropp, Jürgen; Dierick, Noël; Costa, Lucio G; Martelli, Giovanna; Brantom, Paul G; Bampidis, Vasileios; Renshaw, Derek W; Leng, Lubomir

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, feed additives for livestock, such as amino acids and vitamins, are being produced by Gram-negative bacteria, particularly Escherichia coli. The potential therefore exists for animals, consumers and workers to be exposed to possibly harmful amounts of endotoxin from these products. The aim of this review was to assess the extent of the risk from endotoxins in feed additives and to calculate how such risk can be assessed from the properties of the additive. Livestock are frequently exposed to a relatively high content of endotoxin in the diet: no additional hazard to livestock would be anticipated if the endotoxin concentration of the feed additive falls in the same range as feedstuffs. Consumer exposure will be unaffected by the consumption of food derived from animals receiving endotoxin-containing feed, because the small concentrations of endotoxin absorbed do not accumulate in edible tissues. In contrast, workers processing a dusty additive may be exposed to hazardous amounts of endotoxin even if the endotoxin concentration of the product is low. A calculation method is proposed to compare the potential risk to the worker, based on the dusting potential, the endotoxin concentration and technical guidance of the European Food Safety Authority, with national exposure limits. PMID:26768246

  9. Identification and sequences of the lipopolysaccharide core biosynthetic genes rfaQ, rfaP, and rfaG of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, C T; Pradel, E; Schnaitman, C A

    1992-01-01

    The rfa locus of Escherichia coli K-12 includes a block of about 10 closely spaced genes transcribed in the same direction which are involved in synthesis and modification of the hexose region of the lipopolysaccharide core. We have sequenced the first three genes in this block. The function of the first of these genes is unknown, but we have designated it rfaQ on the basis of its location and similarity to other rfa genes. Complementation of Salmonella typhimurium rfa mutants with E. coli rfa restriction fragments indicated that the second and third genes in the block were rfaG and rfaP. The deduced sizes of the RfaQ, RfaG, and RfaP proteins are 36,298, 42,284, and 30,872 Da, respectively, and the proteins are basic and lack extensive hydrophobic domains. RfaQ shares regions of homology with proteins RfaC and RfaF, which are involved in synthesis of the heptose region of the core. Proteins RfaB, RfaG, and RfaK share a region of homology, which suggests that they belong to a second family of Rfa proteins which are thought to be hexose transferases. PMID:1732225

  10. Contamination of nanoparticles by endotoxin: evaluation of different test methods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nanomaterials can be contaminated with endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) during production or handling. In this study, we searched for a convenient in vitro method to evaluate endotoxin contamination in nanoparticle samples. We assessed the reliability of the commonly used limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay and an alternative method based on toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 reporter cells when applied with particles (TiO2, Ag, CaCO3 and SiO2), or after extraction of the endotoxin as described in the ISO norm 29701. Results Our results indicate that the gel clot LAL assay is easily disturbed in the presence of nanoparticles; and that the endotoxin extraction protocol is not suitable at high particle concentrations. The chromogenic-based LAL endotoxin detection systems (chromogenic LAL assay and Endosafe-PTS), and the TLR4 reporter cells were not significantly perturbed. Conclusion We demonstrated that nanoparticles can interfere with endotoxin detection systems indicating that a convenient test method must be chosen before assessing endotoxin contamination in nanoparticle samples. PMID:23140310

  11. [Bacterial endotoxins: relationship between chemical structure and biological effect].

    PubMed

    Rietschel, E T; Brade, L; Schade, F U; Seydel, U; Zähringer, U; Mamat, U; Schmidt, G; Ulmer, A J; Loppnow, H; Flad, H D

    1993-04-01

    Gram-negative bacteria carry on their surface endotoxins, which are essential for bacterial growth and survival. If released from the bacterial cell, endotoxins induce in higher organisms a great variety of pathophysiological effects. Chemically, endotoxins constitute lipopolysaccharides (LPS), the lipid component (termed lipid A) of which is responsible for the induction of endotoxin effects. The structural and conformational parameters, endowing lipid A with its potent bioactivity, have been well characterized. The toxic effects of endotoxins are initiated by the specific interaction of lipid A with macrophages/monocytes resulting in the production of peptide or lipid mediators. This interaction is governed by a unique (toxic) conformation of lipid A on the one hand, and by specific cellular receptors on the other. The interaction and subsequent mediator production can be specifically and antagonistically inhibited by lipid A partial structures. A recently developed monoclonal anti-LPS-antibody cross-reacts with endotoxins of various bacterial origin, and it cross-protects against harmful endotoxin effects such as pyrogenicity and lethality. PMID:8340135

  12. IMPACT OF OBESITY ON ENDOTOXIN-INDUCED DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION.

    PubMed

    Duburcq, Thibault; Tournoys, Antoine; Gnemmi, Viviane; Hubert, Thomas; Gmyr, Valery; Pattou, François; Jourdain, Mercé

    2015-10-01

    An early activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis occurs during sepsis, leading to the syndrome of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Obesity has been demonstrated to be a hypercoagulable and hypofibrinolytic state, but its impact on DIC has never been studied. In this study, we aimed to determine if obesity impairs DIC in an acute endotoxic shock model using minipigs. This was a prospective, comparative, and experimental ancillary study approved by the Animal Ethics Committee. Pigs were chosen as a clinically relevant species, resembling humans in coagulation reactions. Four groups of five "Yucatan" minipigs were studied: lean and obese control groups, a lean lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group receiving Escherichia coli endotoxin (LPS), and an obese LPS group receiving the same endotoxin dose. We measured standard coagulation parameters (prothrombin time [PT], platelet count, and fibrinogen levels), thrombin-antithrombin complexes, tissue-type plasminogen activator, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. All measurements were performed at baseline and 30, 60, 90, 150, and 300 min. Results were given as median with interquartile ranges. At baseline, platelet count (477 [428 - 532] G/L vs. 381 [307 - 442] G/L; P = 0.005) and fibrinogen levels (4.6 [3.8 - 5.2] g/L vs. 2 [1.8 - 2.9] g/L; P < 0.001) were significantly higher, whereas PT (80% [76% - 92%] vs. 96% [89% - 100%]; P = 0.01) was significantly lower in obese pigs compared with lean pigs. In the LPS groups, administration of endotoxin resulted in a typical hypokinetic shock with DIC. The decrease in coagulation parameters (PT, platelet count, and fibrinogen levels) and the increase in thrombin-antithrombin complexes (581 [382 - 1,057] μg/mL vs. 247 [125 - 369] μg/mL at 150 min; P = 0.03) were significantly more important in the obese LPS group compared with those in the lean LPS group. Concerning the fibrinolytic reaction, we found a slightly more elevated increase of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the obese LPS group at 300 min (481 [365 - 617] ng/mL vs. 355 [209 - 660] ng/mL; P = 0.66). In our model of endotoxic shock, obese pigs developed a more severe DIC with a more severe procoagulant response. PMID:26125085

  13. Adherent endotoxin on dental implant surfaces: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Morra, Marco; Cassinelli, Clara; Bollati, Daniele; Cascardo, Giovanna; Bellanda, Marco

    2015-02-01

    Osteoimmunology is the crosstalk between cells from the immune and skeletal systems, suggesting a role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the stimulation of osteoclast activity. Endotoxin or bacterial challenges to inflammatory cells are directly relevant to dental implant pathologies involving bone resorption, such as osseointegration failure and peri-implantitis. While the endotoxin amount on implant devices is regulated by standards, it is unknown whether commercially available dental implants elicit different levels of adherent-endotoxin stimulated cytokines. The objective of this work is to develop a model system and evaluate endotoxin-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes relevant to osteoclast activation on commercially available dental implants. Murine J774-A1 macrophages were cultured on Ti disks with different level of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination to define the time-course of the inflammatory response to endotoxin, as evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. The developed protocol was then used to measure adherent endotoxin on commercially available packaged and sterile dental implants in the "as-implanted" condition. Results show that tested dental implants induce variable expression of endotoxin-stimulated genes, sometimes above the level expected to promote bone resorption in vivo. Results are unaffected by the specific surface treatment; rather, they likely reflect care in cleaning and packaging protocols. In conclusion, expression of genes that enhance osteoclast activity through endotoxin stimulation of inflammatory cells is widely different on commercially available dental implants. A reappraisal of the clinical impact of adherent endotoxins on dental (and bone) implant devices is required in light of increasing knowledge on crosstalk between cells from the immune and skeletal systems. PMID:25699642

  14. Loss of the O4 antigen moiety from the lipopolysaccharide of an extraintestinal isolate of Escherichia coli has only minor effects on serum sensitivity and virulence in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Russo, T A; Sharma, G; Brown, C R; Campagnari, A A

    1995-01-01

    The O-specific antigen in extraintestinal isolates of Escherichia coli is believed to be an important virulence factor. To assess its role in the pathogenic process, proven isogenic derivatives with either a complete (CP921) or nearly complete (CP920) deficiency of the O4 antigen were obtained by TnphoA'1-mediated transposon mutagenesis of an O4/K54/H5 blood isolate (CP9). By utilizing a previously reported isogenic K54 capsule-deficient derivative (CP9.137), additional isogenic derivatives deficient in both the K54 capsular antigen and either all (CP923) or nearly all (CP922) of the O4 antigen were also constructed. These strains and their wild-type parent were evaluated in vitro for serum sensitivity and in vivo by intraperitoneal challenge of outbred mice. The complete or nearly complete loss of the O4 antigen (CP920 and CP921) resulted in only a minor increase in serum sensitivity. In contrast, CP9.137 had a significant increase in serum sensitivity, and CP922 and CP923 were extremely serum sensitive. When tested in vivo, the complete or nearly complete loss of the O4 antigen resulted in a small but significant increase (P < or = 0.05), not the expected decrease, in virulence compared with its wild-type parent. In contrast, CP9.137 and CP922 were significantly less virulent (P < or = 0.05). These studies do not exclude a role for the O4 antigen moiety of lipopolysaccharide in the pathogenesis of extraintestinal E. coli infection; however, they demonstrate that the O4 antigen plays only a minor role in serum resistance in vitro and that its loss does not diminish and perhaps enhances the virulence of CP9 in vivo after intraperitoneal challenge. PMID:7890383

  15. The effect of probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 lipopolysaccharide on the 5-aminosalicylic acid transepithelial transport across Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Stětinová, Věra; Smetanová, Libuše; Kholová, Dagmar; Květina, Jaroslav; Svoboda, Zbyněk; Zídek, Zdeněk; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena

    2013-09-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) (i) EcN lipopolysaccharide (EcN LPS) and (ii) bacteria-free supernatant of EcN suspension (EcN supernatant) on in vitro transepithelial transport of mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid, 5-ASA), the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory drug in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Effect of co-administered EcN LPS (100 µg/ml) or EcN supernatant (50 µg/ml) on the 5-ASA transport (300 µmol/l) was studied using the Caco-2 monolayer (a human colon carcinoma cell line) as a model of human intestinal absorption. Permeability characteristics for absorptive and secretory transport of parent drug and its intracellularly-formed metabolite were determined. The quantification of 5-ASA and its main metabolite N-acetyl-5-amino-salicylic acid (N-Ac-5-ASA) was performed by high performance liquid chromatography. Obtained results suggest that neither EcN LPS nor EcN supernatant had effect on the total 5-ASA transport (secretory flux greater than absorptive flux) and on the transport of intracellularly formed N-Ac-5-ASA (preferentially transported in the secretory direction). The percent cumulative transport of the total 5-ASA alone or in combination with EcN LPS or EcN supernatant did not exceed 1%. PMID:23846256

  16. Molecular dynamics simulations of six different fully hydrated monomeric conformers of Escherichia coli re-lipopolysaccharide in the presence and absence of Ca2+.

    PubMed

    Obst, S; Kastowsky, M; Bradaczek, H

    1997-03-01

    Six previously published conformational models of Escherichia coli Re lipopolysaccharide (ReLPS) were subjected to molecular dynamics simulations using the CHARMM force field. The monomers of ReLPS were completely immersed in a water box. The dynamic behavior of the solvated models in the presence and absence of calcium cations was compared. The structure of the solvent shell was analyzed in terms of radial distribution functions. Diffusion coefficients and mean residence times were analyzed to characterize the dynamic behavior of the solvent. Order parameters and number of gauche defects were used for the description of the dynamics of the acyl chains. The cations are preferentially located between the carboxylate and phosphate groups of the headgroup. Their presence leads to a rigidification of the headgroup structure and alters the conformation of the backbone, thus influencing the structure and flexibility of the hydrophobic region as well. The effect of calcium on the backbone flexibility was measured in terms of glycosidic torsion angles. The six fatty acid chains of each ReLPS monomer adopt a highly ordered micromembrane structure. The packing parameter indicates that aggregation of these ReLPS monomers will lead to lamellar structures. Evaluation of all data enables us to present one conformation, C, which is thought to best represent the average structure of the ReLPS conformers. PMID:9138554

  17. Endotoxin-binding proteins in nasal lavage: evaluation as biomarkers to occupational endotoxin exposure.

    PubMed

    Borm, P J; Jetten, M; Keman, S; Schins, R P

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to endotoxin (LPS) can cause chronic respiratory disease, with symptoms that are more pronounced after exposure-free periods. The aim of this study was to evaluate LPS-response modulating proteins in nasal lavage and plasma as biomarkers for exposure to airborne endotoxin. We applied nasal lavage, lung function and exposure measurements in a small group (n = 11) of cotton workers during 6 weeks of observation (after 2 weeks free from exposure) and ten external controls. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI) were measured in nasal lavage fluid (NALF) along with classic markers such as differential cell counts, Interleukin-8 (IL-8) and albumin, to evaluate their use as markers in endotoxin exposure. In all control subjects and cotton workers LBP and BPI were readily detectable in NALF, although a high intra- and intervariability was noted. At the exposure levels in this study (cotton dust, geometric mean (GM) = 1.10 mg m(-3); endotoxin, GM = 2869 EU m(-3)), plasma BPI and BPI and LBP in NALF were significantly (P < 0.05) different from external controls. In addition, within the group of cotton workers, during the measurement period a significant increase was noted in BPI, albumin and BPI/LBP ratio in NALF (P < 0.05), while a significant decrease in total cell numbers was noted. However, none of the markers in NALF was correlated to the different exposure indices used, based on personal endotoxin or dust exposure measurements. The data show that LBP and BPI are present in nasal lavage fluid and that these markers as well as their ratio increase during airborne endotoxin exposure in cotton workers. PMID:23885948

  18. In vivo protection against endotoxin by plasma high density lipoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, D M; Parker, T S; Donnelly, T M; Walsh, A; Rubin, A L

    1993-01-01

    Overwhelming bacterial infection is accompanied by fever, hypotension, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and multiple organ failure leading to death in 30-80% of cases. These classical symptoms of septic shock are caused by potent cytokines that are produced in response to endotoxin released from Gram-negative bacteria. Treatments with antibodies and receptor antagonists to block endotoxin or cytokine mediators have given mixed results in clinical trials. High density lipoprotein (HDL) is a natural component of plasma that is known to neutralize endotoxin in vitro. We report here that raising the plasma HDL concentration protects mice against endotoxin in vivo. Transgenic mice with 2-fold-elevated plasma HDL levels had more endotoxin bound to HDL, lower plasma cytokine levels, and improved survival rates compared with low-HDL mice. Intravenous infusion of HDL also protected mice, but only when given as reconstituted HDL prepared from phospholipid and either HDL apoprotein or an 18-amino acid peptide synthesized to mimic the structure of apolipoprotein A-I of HDL. Intact plasma HDL was mildly toxic, and HDL apoprotein was ineffective. The effectiveness of the reconstituted peptide renders very unlikely any significant contribution to protection by trace proteins in apo-HDL. These data suggest a simple leaflet insertion model for binding and neutralization of lipopolysaccharide by phospholipid on the surface of HDL. Plasma HDL may normally act to protect against endotoxin; this protection may be augmented by administration of reconstituted HDL or reconstituted peptides. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8265667

  19. Attenuation of the induction of nitric oxide synthase by endogenous glucocorticoids accounts for endotoxin tolerance in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, C; Thiemermann, C; Wu, C C; Perretti, M; Vane, J R

    1994-01-01

    An enhanced formation of nitric oxide (NO) due to induction of a calcium-independent (inducible) NO synthase (iNOS) contributes importantly to the cardiovascular failure caused by bacterial endotoxin. Repeated challenges with small doses of endotoxin result in tolerance to both peripheral vascular failure and death caused by subsequent injection of a higher dose of endotoxin. Here we investigate whether tolerance to endotoxin is associated with a lack of induction of iNOS in vivo and whether endogenous glucocorticoids play a role in the development of endotoxin tolerance. In anesthetized rats, i.v. administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS); 2 mg.kg-1] resulted in a prolonged decrease in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and hyporeactivity to the contractile responses elicited by norepinephrine (NE; 10 nM) in aortic rings ex vivo. Hyporeactivity to NE was partially reversed by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (0.3 mM) in vitro, suggesting that an enhanced formation of NO contributes to this hyporeactivity. There was a substantial increase in the activity of iNOS in the lung 3 h after i.v. injection of LPS (0.2 +/- 0.1 to 6.6 +/- 0.6 pmol.mg-1.min-1; n = 5; P < 0.01). Rats injected i.p. with LPS (0.5 mg.kg-1) for 4 consecutive days became tolerant to an i.v. injection of LPS (2 mg.kg-1) in that both hypotension and vascular hyporeactivity to NE were significantly attenuated. Moreover, in these endotoxin-tolerant rats, the induction of iNOS by LPS in the lung was attenuated by 63% +/- 6%. Injection of LPS caused a 9-fold increase in plasma corticosterone (CCS) levels within 2 h and CCS levels remained significantly elevated 6 and 24 h after LPS. Animals rendered tolerant to endotoxin by administration of a low dose of LPS (0.5 mg.kg-1, i.p.) for 4 days still had a 6-fold increase in plasma CCS levels 24 h after the last injection of LPS. When endotoxin-tolerant rats were treated with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU 486 (50 mg.kg-1, p.o. 3 h prior to LPS), there was a restoration of the effects of LPS (2 mg.kg-1, i.v.) in causing hypotension, vascular hyporeactivity to NE, and iNOS induction in the lung. However, in control rats RU 486 enhanced neither the decrease in MAP nor the induction of iNOS in response to LPS (2 mg.kg-1, i.v.). Thus, cardiovascular tolerance to endotoxin is accompanied and explained by reduced induction of iNOS in vivo due to the elevation of endogenous glucocorticoid levels. PMID:7506416

  20. Binding of /sup 125/I-labeled endotoxin to bovine, canine, and equine platelets and endotoxin-induced agglutination of canine platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, K.M.; Boehme, M.; Inbar, O.

    1982-10-01

    Endotoxin from Escherichia coli O127:B8, Salmonella abortus-equi and S minnesota induced clumping of some canine platelets (PLT) at a final endotoxin concentration of 1 microgram/ml. Endotoxin-induced clumping of canine PLT was independent of PLT energy-requiring processes, because clumping was observed with canine PLT incubated with 2-deoxy-D-glucose and antimycin A. The PLT responded to adenosine diphosphate before, but not after, incubation with the metabolic inhibitors. Endotoxin induced a slight and inconsistant clumping of bovine and equine PLT at high (mg/ml) endotoxin concentration. High-affinity binding sites could not be demonstrated on canine, bovine, and equine PLT, using /sup 125/I-labeled E coli O127:B8 endotoxin. Nonspecific binding was observed and appeared to be due primarily to an extraneous coat on the PLT surface that was removed by gel filtration. The endotoxin that was bound to PLT did not appear to modify PLT function. An attempt to identify plasma proteins that bound physiologically relevant amounts of endotoxin was not successful. The significance of the endotoxin-induced clumping or lack of it on the pathophysiology of endotoxemia is discussed.

  1. Effect of Lead Acetate on the Susceptibility of Rats to Bacterial Endotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Selye, H.; Tuchweber, B.; Bertok, L.

    1966-01-01

    Selye, H. (Universit de Montral, Montreal, Canada), B. Tuchweber, and L. Bertk. Effect of lead acetate on susceptibility of rats to bacterial endotoxins. J. Bacteriol. 91:884890. 1966.A single, normally well-tolerated, intravenous injection of lead acetate increases the sensitivity of the rat to the endotoxins of various gram-negative bacteria about 100,000 times above normal. Under the conditions of these experiments, the mortality and organ changes normally produced by the intravenous injection of 100 ?g of Escherichia coli endotoxin were essentially the same as those obtained by use of 1 nanogram in lead-sensitized rats. The sensitizing effect of lead acetate for E. coli endotoxin is greatest when the two agents are given simultaneously. However, considerable sensitization is still detectable when endotoxin is injected up to 1 hr before or 7 hr after sensitization with lead. No sensitization was noted when the endotoxin was administered 24 hr before or after lead acetate. Under our experimental conditions, the minimal dose of lead acetate which could still induce significant sensitization to E. coli endotoxin was 1 mg per 100 g of body weight. Although lead acetate induces a high degree of susceptibility to various endotoxins, other reticuloendothelial blocking agents did not acquire unusual toxicity after pretreatment with lead. Finally, none of the other metals or reticuloendothelial blocking agents tested could duplicate the pronounced decrease in endotoxin resistance induced by lead acetate. Images PMID:5327235

  2. [Endotoxin aggression in pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction and its origin].

    PubMed

    Anihovskaia, I A; Golyshev, I S; Tebloev, K I; Iakovlev, M Iu

    2014-01-01

    Endotoxin aggression of intestinal origin occurs in 89% of patients with acute myocardial infarction and may be a factor of the induction and/or progression of the disease. Sources of the development of endotoxin aggression often are Escherichia coli, Bacteroicles, Klebsiella, Proteus and Pseudomonas. PMID:25702469

  3. Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovikova, Lyudmila V.; Ivanova, Svetlana; Zhang, Minghuang; Yang, Huan; Botchkina, Galina I.; Watkins, Linda R.; Wang, Haichao; Abumrad, Naji; Eaton, John W.; Tracey, Kevin J.

    2000-05-01

    Vertebrates achieve internal homeostasis during infection or injury by balancing the activities of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), produced by all gram-negative bacteria, activates macrophages to release cytokines that are potentially lethal. The central nervous system regulates systemic inflammatory responses to endotoxin through humoral mechanisms. Activation of afferent vagus nerve fibres by endotoxin or cytokines stimulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal anti-inflammatory responses. However, comparatively little is known about the role of efferent vagus nerve signalling in modulating inflammation. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized, parasympathetic anti-inflammatory pathway by which the brain modulates systemic inflammatory responses to endotoxin. Acetylcholine, the principle vagal neurotransmitter, significantly attenuated the release of cytokines (tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-18), but not the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human macrophage cultures. Direct electrical stimulation of the peripheral vagus nerve in vivo during lethal endotoxaemia in rats inhibited TNF synthesis in liver, attenuated peak serum TNF amounts, and prevented the development of shock.

  4. Single-dose tumor necrosis factor protection against endotoxin-induced shock and tissue injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Alexander, H R; Doherty, G M; Block, M I; Kragel, P J; Jensen, J C; Langstein, H N; Walker, E; Norton, J A

    1991-11-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a macrophage product released in response to endotoxin and other stimuli, has been shown to be a central mediator of endotoxin or septic shock. However, its highly conserved and wide-ranging physiological effects suggest that it may also be an essential cytokine in the host defense against acute bacterial infection or sepsis. A single nontoxic dose of human recombinant TNF administered intravenously 24 h prior to a lethal infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) completely prevented acute LPS-induced hypotension, ameliorated tissue injury in the lungs and liver, and improved survival in male Fisher 344 rats. The protective effects of TNF were dose dependent and required a 24-h pretreatment interval. After the infusion of LPS, animals in both groups (TNF-treated animals and saline-pretreated controls) initially appeared acutely ill and had a similar severe metabolic acidosis, indicating that TNF did not inactivate or prevent the toxic effects of LPS. Twelve hours after the administration of TNF, the gene for manganous superoxide dismutase, a mitochondrial enzyme which scavenges toxic reactive oxygen species and is induced during conditions which generate a free radical stress, was expressed in liver tissue, suggesting that the induction of manganous superoxide dismutase may be an important in vivo protective mechanism against cellular injury during lethal endotoxemia. PMID:1937748

  5. α-Chaconine isolated from a Solanum tuberosum L. cv Jayoung suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory mediators via AP-1 inactivation in RAW 264.7 macrophages and protects mice from endotoxin shock.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Goo; Lee, Suel-Gie; Lee, Hwi-Ho; Lee, Hae Jun; Shin, Ji-Sun; Kim, Nan-Jung; An, Hyo-Jin; Nam, Jung-Hwan; Jang, Dae Sik; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2015-06-25

    In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of α-chaconine in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and in LPS-induced septic mice. α-Chaconine inhibited the expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at the transcriptional level, and attenuated the transcriptional activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1) by reducing the translocation and phosphorylation of c-Jun. α-Chaconine also suppressed the phosphorylation of TGF-β-activated kinase-1 (TAK1), which lies upstream of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 (MKK7)/Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. JNK knockdown using siRNA prevented the α-chaconine-mediated inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators. In a sepsis model, pretreatment with α-chaconine reduced the LPS-induced lethality and the mRNA and production levels of pro-inflammatory mediators by inhibiting c-Jun activation. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of α-chaconine are associated with the suppression of AP-1, and support its possible therapeutic role for the treatment of sepsis. PMID:25913072

  6. Carbapenem-induced endotoxin release in gram-negative bacterial sepsis rat models.

    PubMed

    Horii, T; Kobayashi, M; Nadai, M; Ichiyama, S; Ohta, M

    1998-08-01

    The carbapenem-induced endotoxin release was evaluated using experimental models of gram-negative bacterial sepsis in Wistar rats. Infections with Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis resulted in an increase of the plasma endotoxin concentration after treatment with ceftazidime and carbapenems including imipenem, panipenem, meropenem and biapenem. Except for P. aeruginosa, the plasma endotoxin concentrations after carbapenem treatment were significantly lower than those after ceftazidime treatment. It is noteworthy that treatment of P. aeruginosa sepsis with meropenem or biapenem induced significantly more endotoxin release than other carbapenems and the endotoxin concentrations induced by these carbapenems reached those of ceftazidime treatment. The plasma endotoxin concentrations appeared to correlate with the reduction of platelet counts and the elevation of both glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase values. PMID:9753002

  7. Stress-Derived Corticotropin Releasing Factor Breaches Epithelial Endotoxin Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yong; Geng, Xiao-Rui; Yang, Gui; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Loss of the endotoxin tolerance of intestinal epithelium contributes to a number of intestinal diseases. The etiology is not clear. Psychological stress is proposed to compromise the intestinal barrier function. The present study aims to elucidate the role of the stress-derived corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in breaching the established intestinal epithelial endotoxin tolerance. Methods Epithelial cells of HT-29, T84 and MDCK were exposed to lipopolysaccharide to induce the endotoxin tolerance; the cells were then stimulated with CRF. The epithelial barrier function was determined using as indicators of the endotoxin tolerant status. A water-avoid stress mouse model was employed to test the role of CRF in breaching the established endotoxin tolerance in the intestine. Results The established endotoxin tolerance in the epithelial cell monolayers was broken down by a sequent exposure to CRF and LPS manifesting a marked drop of the transepithelial resistance (TER) and an increase in the permeability to a macromolecular tracer, horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The exposure to CRF also increased the expression of Cldn2 in the epithelial cells, which could be mimicked by over expression of TLR4 in epithelial cells. Over expression of Cldn2 resulted in low TER in epithelial monolayers and high permeability to HRP. After treating mice with the 10-day chronic stress, the intestinal epithelial barrier function was markedly compromised, which could be prevented by blocking either CRF, or TLR4, or Cldn2. Conclusions Psychological stress-derived CRF can breach the established endotoxin tolerance in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:23840363

  8. Growth and Development Symposium: Endotoxin, inflammation, and intestinal function in livestock.

    PubMed

    Mani, V; Weber, T E; Baumgard, L H; Gabler, N K

    2012-05-01

    Endotoxin, also referred to as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), can stimulate localized or systemic inflammation via the activation of pattern recognition receptors. Additionally, endotoxin and inflammation can regulate intestinal epithelial function by altering integrity, nutrient transport, and utilization. The gastrointestinal tract is a large reservoir of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, of which the gram-negative bacteria serve as a source of endotoxin. Luminal endotoxin can enter circulation via two routes: 1) nonspecific paracellular transport through epithelial cell tight junctions, and 2) transcellular transport through lipid raft membrane domains involving receptor-mediated endocytosis. Paracellular transport of endotoxin occurs through dissociation of tight junction protein complexes resulting in reduced intestinal barrier integrity, which can be a result of enteric disease, inflammation, or environmental and metabolic stress. Transcellular transport, via specialized membrane regions rich in glycolipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol, and saturated fatty acids, is a result of raft recruitment of endotoxin-related signaling proteins leading to endotoxin signaling and endocytosis. Both transport routes and sensitivity to endotoxin may be altered by diet and environmental and metabolic stresses. Intestinal-derived endotoxin and inflammation result in suppressed appetite, activation of the immune system, and partitioning of energy and nutrients away from growth toward supporting the immune system requirements. In livestock, this leads to the suppression of growth, particularly suppression of lean tissue accretion. In this paper, we summarize the evidence that intestinal transport of endotoxin and the subsequent inflammation leads to decrease in the production performance of agricultural animals and we present an overview of endotoxin detoxification mechanisms in livestock. PMID:22247110

  9. Influence of various dust sampling and extraction methods on the measurement of airborne endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Douwes, J; Versloot, P; Hollander, A; Heederik, D; Doekes, G

    1995-05-01

    The influence of various filter types and extraction conditions on the quantitation of airborne endotoxin with the Limulus amebocyte lysate test was studied by using airborne dusts sampled in a potato processing plant. Samples were collected with an apparatus designed to provide parallel samples. Data from the parallel-sampling experiment were statistically evaluated by using analysis of variance. In addition, the influence of storage conditions on the detectable endotoxin concentration was investigated by using commercially available lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and endotoxin-containing house dust extracts. The endotoxin extraction efficiency of 0.05% Tween 20 in pyrogen-free water was seven times higher than that of pyrogen-free water only. Two-times-greater amounts of endotoxin were extracted from glass fiber, Teflon, and polycarbonate filters than from cellulose ester filters. The temperature and shaking intensity during extraction were not related to the extraction efficiency. Repeated freeze (-20 degrees C)-and-thaw cycles with commercial LPS reconstituted in pyrogen-free water had a dramatic effect on the detectable endotoxin level. A 25% loss in endotoxin activity per freeze-thaw cycle was observed. Storage of LPS samples for a period of 1 year at 7 degrees C had no effect on the endotoxin level. House dust extracts showed a decrease of about 20% in the endotoxin level after they had been frozen and thawed for a second time. The use of different container materials (borosilicate glass, "soft" glass, and polypropylene) did not result in different endotoxin levels. This study indicates that the assessment of endotoxin exposure may differ considerably between groups when different sampling, extraction, and storage procedures are employed. PMID:7646014

  10. Paenibacterin, a novel broad-spectrum lipopeptide antibiotic, neutralises endotoxins and promotes survival in a murine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced sepsis.

    PubMed

    Huang, En; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2014-07-01

    Paenibacterin, produced by Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus OSY-SE, is active both against Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens, including antibiotic-resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. Paenibacterin showed relatively low cytotoxicity against a human kidney cell line (ATCC CRL-2190), with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50)≥109μg/mL. The cationic paenibacterin molecule binds to the negatively charged Gram-negative endotoxins in vitro, suggesting that paenibacterin can neutralise lipopolysaccharides. In a murine septic shock model, two 500μg doses of paenibacterin significantly increased the survival of mice challenged with a lethal level of P. aeruginosa. Considering that paenibacterin is effective against many strains of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, this study suggests that this antimicrobial agent is a promising candidate as a new drug. PMID:24802906

  11. Metabolic and clinical response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide in layer pullets of different genetic backgrounds supplied with graded dietary L-arginine.

    PubMed

    Lieboldt, M A; Frahm, J; Halle, I; Görs, S; Schrader, L; Weigend, S; Preisinger, R; Metges, C C; Breves, G; Dänicke, S

    2016-03-01

    L-arginine (Arg) is an essential amino acid in birds that plays a decisive role in avian protein synthesis and immune response. Effects of graded dietary Arg supply on metabolic and clinical response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were studied over 48 hours after a single intramuscular LPS injection in 18-week-old genetically diverse purebred pullets. LPS induced a genotype-specific fever response within 4 hours post injectionem. Whereas brown genotypes showed an initial hypothermia followed by longer-lasting moderate hyperthermia, white genotypes exhibited a biphasic hyperthermia without initial hypothermia. Furthermore, within 2 hours after LPS injection, sickness behavior characterized by lethargy, anorexia, intensified respiration, and ruffled feathers appeared, persisted for 3 to 5 hours and recovered 12 hours post injectionem. The varying grades of Arg did not alter the examined traits named above, whereas insufficient Arg reduced body growth and increased relative weights of liver and pancreas significantly. At 48 hours post injectionem, increased relative weights of liver and spleen were also found in LPS treated pullets, whereas LPS decreased those of pancreas, bursa, thymus, and cecal tonsils. Moreover, LPS lowered the sum of plasma amino acids and decreased plasma concentrations of Arg, citrulline, glutamate, methionine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, tryptophan, and tyrosine, and increased those of aspartate, glutamine, lysine, 1- and 3-methyl-histidine. Elevating concentrations of dietary Arg led to increasing plasma concentrations of Arg, citrulline, ornithine, and 3-methyl-histidine subsequently. As quantitative expression of LPS-induced anorexia, proteolysis, and the following changes in plasma amino acids, pullets showed a significant decrease of feed and nitrogen intake and catabolic metabolism characterized by negative nitrogen balance and body weight loss in the first 24 hours post injectionem. Pullets recovered from the challenge within the second 24 hours post injectionem and changed to anabolism with re-increased feed and nitrogen intake, positive nitrogen retention, and weight gain. To conclude, present results confirmed that LPS induced numerous metabolic and physiological changes in pullet's genotypes, whereas dietary Arg affected the examined traits only slightly. PMID:26740139

  12. Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus dietary supplementation on the performance, intestinal barrier function, rectal microflora and serum immune function in weaned piglets challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jiayun; Li, Haihua; Wang, Zhixiang; Wang, Wenjie

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglet model to determine the effects of diets containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on the performance, intestinal barrier function, rectal microflora and serum immune function. A total of 150 piglets (initial body weight (BW) 7.53 ± 0.21 kg) were allotted to one of the following diets, including a basal diet, a basal diet supplemented with 250 mg/kg Flavomycin, or basal diet plus 0.05, 0.1 or 0.2 % L. acidophilus. On day 28 of the trial, the pigs were given an intraperitoneal injection of LPS (200 μg/kg body weight) followed by blood collection 3 h later. Diets with either antibiotics, 0.1 or 0.2 % Lactobacillus increased (P < 0.05) the final BW and decreased (P < 0.05) feed gain ratio (F/G) compared with the control group. Pigs fed diets containing antibiotic or Lactobacillus had greater average daily gain (ADG) (P < 0.05) than pigs fed the control diet. The rectal content Lactobacillus counts for pigs fed diet containing Lactobacillus were significant higher (P < 0.01) than those fed antibiotic or control diet. Feeding the Lactobacillus diets decreased the Escherichia coli counts of rectal content (P < 0.01). Pigs fed diets containing 0.1 or 0.2 % Lactobacillus decreased serum DAO activity (P < 0.05) compared with pigs fed the control diet. Serum IL-10 concentration was enhanced in pigs fed the diet with Lactobacillus compared to pigs fed the control diet and antibiotic diet. Feeding a diet with Lactobacillus reduced (P < 0.05) IFN-γ concentration compared to the control diet. Inclusion of Lactobacillus in diets fed to pigs reduced TNF-α concentration compared with pigs fed no Lactobacillus (P < 0.05). These results indicate that feeding with L. acidophilus improved growth performance and protected against LPS-induced inflammatory status. PMID:25577203

  13. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy characterization of the lamellar and nonlamellar structures of free lipid A and Re lipopolysaccharides from Salmonella minnesota and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Brandenburg, K

    1993-01-01

    The structural polymorphism of free lipid A and deep rough mutant lipopolysaccharide (LPS Re) from Salmonella minnesota strain R595 and Escherichia coli strain F515 was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (IR) spectroscopy. For this, the beta <--> alpha phase states and the three-dimensional supramolecular structures, the latter deduced from small-angle synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction, were investigated at different water contents, Mg2+ concentrations, and temperatures. The analysis of the IR data for vibrations originating from the hydrophobic moiety shows that the beta <--> alpha acyl chain melting is strongly expressed only for the stretching and scissoring modes of the methylene groups. Vibrational groups originating from the interface region sense the acyl chain melting well (ester carbonyl bands) or only weakly (amide bands), and those resulting from the pure polar moiety not at all. From the x-ray data, the existence of lamellar (L), different cubic, and, for lipid A and LPS R595, also inverted hexagonal (HII) structures could be proven in the temperature range 20-80 degrees C with cubic <--> cubic and cubic <--> HII transitions for the Mg(2+)-free and L <--> HII transitions for the Mg(2+)-containing samples. These structural transitions can be characterized most readily by specific changes of the vibrational bands resulting from the interface region: the ester carbonyl and the amide bands. The magnitude of the changes corresponds to that of the structural rearrangement, i.e., is highest for the L <--> HII, lower for the cubic <--> HII, and lowest for the cubic <--> cubic transitions. The structural transitions are only marginally expressed for vibrational bands of the hydrophobic moiety. Similarly, the band contours of vibrations from the hydrophilic region are no indicators of the structural reorientations except for the carboxylate bands of LPS Re. Particularly the stretching vibrations of the phosphate groups are nearly completely invariant; the absolute values of their half bandwidths, however, differ significantly for lipid A and LPS Re, which seems to be of biological relevance. The ability of IR spectroscopy to detect supramolecular changes also beyond the measurability by x-ray diffraction, i.e., at water contents > 95 to 99.5%, is demonstrated. PMID:8494979

  14. Endotoxin and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lundin, Jessica I.; Checkoway, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Objective Exposure to endotoxin, a component of gram-negative bacterial cell walls, is widespread in many industrial settings and in the ambient environment. Heavy-exposure environments include livestock farms, cotton textile facilities, and saw mills. Concentrations are highly variable in non-occupational indoor and outdoor environments. Endotoxin is a potent inflammagen with recognized health effects, including fever, shaking chills, septic shock, toxic pneumonitis, and respiratory symptoms. Somewhat paradoxically, given the putative role of inflammation in carcinogenesis, various lines of evidence suggest that endotoxin may prevent cancer initiation or limit tumor growth. The hypothesis that components of bacteria may retard cancer progression dates back to William B. Coley’s therapeutic experiments (“bacterial vaccine”) in the 1890s. Data sources In this article, we review epidemiologic, clinical trial, and experimental studies pertinent to the hypothesis that endotoxin prevents cancer. Since the 1970s, epidemiologic studies of cotton textile and other endotoxin-exposed occupational groups have consistently demonstrated reduced lung cancer risks. Experimental animal toxicology research and some limited therapeutic trials in cancer patients offer additional support for an anticarcinogenic potential. The underlying biological mechanisms of anticarcinogenesis are not entirely understood but are thought to involve the recruitment and activation of immune cells and proinflammatory mediators (e.g., tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1 and -6). Conclusions In view of the current state of knowledge, it would be premature to recommend endotoxin as a cancer-chemopreventive agent. Nonetheless, further epidemiologic and experimental investigations that can clarify further dose–effect and exposure–timing relations could have substantial public health and basic biomedical benefits. PMID:19750096

  15. Efficacy of the Combination of Tachyplesin III and Clarithromycin in Rat Models of Escherichia coli Sepsis▿

    PubMed Central

    Cirioni, Oscar; Ghiselli, Roberto; Silvestri, Carmela; Kamysz, Wojciech; Orlando, Fiorenza; Riva, Alessandra; Kamysz, Elzbieta; Castelletti, Sefora; Rocchi, Marco; Saba, Vittorio; Scalise, Giorgio; Giacometti, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of tachyplesin III and clarithromycin in two experimental rat models of severe gram-negative bacterial infections. Adult male Wistar rats were given either (i) an intraperitoneal injection of 1 mg/kg Escherichia coli 0111:B4 lipopolysaccharide or (ii) 2 × 1010 CFU of E. coli ATCC 25922. For each model, the animals received isotonic sodium chloride solution, 1 mg/kg tachyplesin III, 50 mg/kg clarithromycin, or 1 mg/kg tachyplesin III combined with 50 mg/kg clarithromycin intraperitoneally. Lethality, bacterial growth in the blood and peritoneum, and the concentrations of endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in plasma were evaluated. All the compounds reduced the lethality of the infections compared to that for the controls. Tachyplesin III exerted a strong antimicrobial activity and achieved a significant reduction of endotoxin and TNF-α concentrations in plasma compared to those of the control and clarithromycin-treated groups. Clarithromycin exhibited no antimicrobial activity but had a good impact on endotoxin and TNF-α plasma concentrations. A combination of tachyplesin III and clarithromycin resulted in significant reductions in bacterial counts and proved to be the most-effective treatment in reducing all variables measured. PMID:18779356

  16. MICROWAVE RADIATION (2450-MHZ) POTENTIATES THE LETHAL EFFECT OF ENDOTOXIN IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groups of male CBA/J mice were injected with Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and irradiated with 2450 MHz (CW) microwaves. High ambient temperature (37C) also potentiated the lethal effect of endotoxin. Microwave irradiation prior to LPS injection, however, did no...

  17. RECOMBINANT BOVINE SOLUBLE CD14 REDUCES FATALITY OF ENDOTOXIN CHALLENGED MICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endotoxin, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), has been demonstrated to be responsible for the pathogenesis of Gram-negative bacterial infections, such as bovine coliform mastitis. In the US, 300,000 dairy cows are removed from herds or die annually because of acute coliform mastitis. Standard therapy for ...

  18. Effect of dietary fermented garlic by Weissella koreensis powder on growth performance, blood characteristics, and immune response of growing pigs challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Wang, J P; Yoo, J S; Jang, H D; Lee, J H; Cho, J H; Kim, I H

    2011-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of fermented garlic by Weissella koreensis powder (WKG) on pig growth performance and immune responses after an Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. In Exp. 1, 120 growing barrows (23.5 ± 0.5 kg of BW and 56 d of age) were used in a 35-d experiment to determine the optimal amounts of WKG. Pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with 6 replicate pens and 4 pigs per pen. Dietary treatments included 1) NC (negative control; basal diet without antibiotics), 2) PC (positive control; basal diet + 1 g of tylosin/kg), 3) WKG1 (basal diet + 1 g of WKG/kg), 4) WKG2 (basal diet + 2 g of WKG/kg), and 5) basal diet + 4 g of WKG/kg. At the end of the feeding period, 12 pigs each were selected from the NC and WKG2 treatment groups, and 6 pigs were injected with LPS (50 μg/kg of BW) and the other 6 pigs with an equivalent amount of sterile saline, resulting in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Blood samples and rectal temperature data were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 h after challenge. The ADG of pigs fed WKG- and antibiotic-supplemented diets was greater (P<0.05) than NC from d 14 to 35 and the overall phase, but no dosage-dependent effects were observed. At the end of the experiment, the fecal E. coli count was linearly reduced by the increasing amounts of WKG at d 35 (P=0.01). Challenge with LPS increased white blood cell counts at 6 and 8 h (P<0.01) and depressed lymphocyte concentration at 4, 8, and 12 h (P<0.01). During challenge, LPS injection increased rectal temperature at 2, 4, 6, and 8 h postchallenge (P<0.05), and WKG2 alleviated (P<0.05) the increase in the temperature at 2 h postchallenge. The LPS injection increased plasma tumor necrosis factor-α and IGF-1 concentrations at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 h (P<0.01), whereas an alleviating effect of WKG was observed at 4, 6, and 8 h after LPS challenge (P<0.05). At 2, 4, and 6 h postchallenge, concentration of cluster of differentiation-antigen-4-positive cells and cluster of differentiation-antigen-8-positive cells (CD4(+) and CD8(+), respectively) increased in the LPS treatments (P<0.05), and the WKG2 boosted this effect (P<0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation of WKG2 in growing pigs can improve ADG and have a beneficial effect on the immune response during an inflammatory challenge. PMID:21317348

  19. Biosensor of endotoxin and sepsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yang; Wang, Xiang; Wu, Xi; Gao, Wei; He, Qing-hua; Cai, Shaoxi

    2001-09-01

    To investigate the relation between biosensor of endotoxin and endotoxin of plasma in sepsis. Method: biosensor of endotoxin was designed with technology of quartz crystal microbalance bioaffinity sensor ligand of endotoxin were immobilized by protein A conjugate. When a sample soliton of plasma containing endotoxin 0.01, 0.03, 0.06, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0Eu, treated with perchloric acid and injected into slot of quartz crystal surface respectively, the ligand was released from the surface of quartz crystal to form a more stable complex with endotoxin in solution. The endotoxin concentration corresponded to the weight change on the crystal surface, and caused change of frequency that occurred when desorbed. The result was biosensor of endotoxin might detect endotoxin of plasma in sepsis, measurements range between 0.05Eu and 0.5Eu in the stop flow mode, measurement range between 0.1Eu and 1Eu in the flow mode. The sensor of endotoxin could detect the endotoxin of plasm rapidly, and use for detection sepsis in clinically.

  20. Removal of endotoxin from water by microfiltration through a microporous polyethylene hollow-fiber membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, Y.; Fujii, R.; Igami, I.; Kawai, A.; Kamiki, T.; Niwa, M.

    1986-04-01

    The microporous polyethylene hollow-fiber membrane has a unique microfibrile structure throughout its depth and has been found to possess the functions of filtration and adsorption of endotoxin in water. The membrane has a maximum pore diameter of approximately 0.04 micron, a diameter which is within the range of microfiltration. Approximately 10 and 20% of the endotoxin in tap water and subterranean water, respectively, was smaller than 0.025 micron. Endotoxin in these water sources was efficiently removed by the microporous polyethylene hollow-fiber membrane. Escherichia coli O113 culture broth contained 26.4% of endotoxin smaller than 0.025 micron which was also removed. Endotoxin was leaked into the filtrate only when endotoxin samples were successively passed through the membrane. These results indicate that endotoxin smaller than the pore size of the membrane was adsorbed and then leaked into the filtrate because of a reduction in binding sites. Dissociation of /sup 3/H-labeled endotoxin from the membrane was performed, resulting in the removal of endotoxin associated with the membrane by alcoholic alkali at 78% efficiency.

  1. Examining Associations of Circulating Endotoxin with Nutritional Status, Inflammation and Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Feroze, Usama; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Sterling, Kevin A; Molnar, Miklos Z.; Noori, Nazanin; Benner, Debbie; Shah, Vhalab; Dwivedi, Rama; Becker, Kenneth; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Raj, Dominic S

    2011-01-01

    Objective Lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin constitutes most part of the outer portion of the cell wall in the gram negative bacteria. Sub-clinical endotoxemia could contribute to increased inflammation and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Endotoxin level and clinical effect are determined by its soluble receptor sCD14 and high density lipoprotein. We examine the hypothesis that endotoxin level correlates with mortality. Methods In this cohort study, endotoxin levels were measured in 306 long-term hemodialysis patients who were then followed for up to 42 months. Soluble CD14 and cytokines levels were also measured. Results The mean (±SD) endotoxin level was 2.31±3.10 EU/ml (min: 0.26 EU/ml, max: 22.94 EU/ml, inter-quartile range: 1.33EU/ml, median: 1.27EU/ml). Endotoxin correlated with C-reactive protein (r = 0.11, p<0.04). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, high body mass index (BMI) and low HDL cholesterol levels were associated with higher endotoxinemia (endotoxin below or above of median). In multivariable Cox regression analysis adjusted for case-mix and nutritional/inflammatory confounders, endotoxin levels in the 3rd quartile vs. 1st quartile was associated with a trend towards increased hazard ratio (HR) for death (HR 1.83, 95% confidence interval: 0.93–3.6, p=0.08). Conclusions In this hemodialysis cohort, we found associations between endotoxinemia and CRP, body composition and HDL. A moderately high endotoxin levels tended to correlate with increased mortality than the highest circulating endotoxin level. Additional studies are required to asses the effect of endotoxemia on mortality in dialysis population. PMID:21880509

  2. Endotoxin measurement: aerosol sampling and application of a new Limulus method.

    PubMed

    Milton, D K; Gere, R J; Feldman, H A; Greaves, I A

    1990-06-01

    A new Limulus test was designed specifically for measuring endotoxin in environmental aerosols. The new Limulus method has a detection limit for airborne endotoxin of 2.2 pg (NP-1 activity)/m3 and can precisely quantitate aerosols containing 14 or more pg/m3 from samples representing 6.5 m3 of air. Aerosols in the range 100 to 500 pg/m3 were measured with 95% confidence of +/- 32% and an aerosol of 10 pg/m3 with 95% confidence of +/- 50%. Qualitative information about airborne endotoxin was also obtained from the assay. A wide variety of filter media were found to inactivate lipopolysaccharide in solution. This implies that airborne endotoxin can be measured only relative to the conditions of a particular study and that comparison of endotoxin aerosol measurements made under different circumstances are invalid. The research and policy implications of this observation are discussed. The need for improved collection and extraction methods notwithstanding, it was proposed that a buffered, parallel-line Limulus assay method be adopted as the standard method for measuring environmental endotoxin. The kinetic-turbidimetric Limulus assay with resistant-parallel-line estimates (KLARE), rate response method, should be considered a prime candidate for the standard method because of its precision, sensitivity, resistance to interference by pH, internal validation of estimates, and ability to provide qualitative as well as quantitative information about airborne endotoxin. PMID:2353643

  3. Measurement of endotoxins in bioaerosols at workplace: a critical review of literature and a standardization issue.

    PubMed

    Duquenne, Philippe; Marchand, Geneviève; Duchaine, Caroline

    2013-03-01

    Endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides found in the outer membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria and cyanobacteria. Worker exposure to endotoxins has been shown in a number of work situations and is associated with both respiratory and systemic pathologies. The lack of an occupational exposure limit is mainly due to the absence of a standard protocol at the international level for sampling and analyzing airborne endotoxins. The bibliographic review in this article takes an exhaustive look at the current knowledge on measuring airborne endotoxins. It shows that, despite several reference documents at the international level, the methods used to measure endotoxin exposure differ considerably from one laboratory to another. Standardization is necessary to reduce interlaboratory variability and, ultimately, to improve the use of interstudy data. The bibliographic review presents the current status of standardization for airborne endotoxin measurement methods in the workplace and summarizes areas for further research. This article is both a reference document for all operators wishing to use such methods and a working document to build international consensus around the measurement of airborne endotoxins. PMID:23002277

  4. Endotoxin Structures in the Psychrophiles Psychromonas marina and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis Contain Distinctive Acyl Features

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Charles R.; Alpuche, Giancarlo M.; Landis, Corinne A.; Sandman, Benjamin C.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid A is the essential component of endotoxin (Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide), a potent immunostimulatory compound. As the outer surface of the outer membrane, the details of lipid A structure are crucial not only to bacterial pathogenesis but also to membrane integrity. This work characterizes the structure of lipid A in two psychrophiles, Psychromonas marina and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis, and also two mesophiles to which they are related using MALDI-TOF MS and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) GC-MS. P. marina lipid A is strikingly similar to that of Escherichia coli in organization and total acyl size, but incorporates an unusual doubly unsaturated tetradecadienoyl acyl residue. P. cryohalolentis also shows structural organization similar to a closely related mesophile, Acinetobacter baumannii, however it has generally shorter acyl constituents and shows many acyl variants differing by single methylene (-CH2-) units, a characteristic it shares with the one previously reported psychrotolerant lipid A structure. This work is the first detailed structural characterization of lipid A from an obligate psychrophile and the second from a psychrotolerant species. It reveals distinctive structural features of psychrophilic lipid A in comparison to that of related mesophiles which suggest constitutive adaptations to maintain outer membrane fluidity in cold environments. PMID:25010385

  5. Antimicrobial Action and Cell Agglutination by the Eosinophil Cationic Protein Are Modulated by the Cell Wall Lipopolysaccharide Structure

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, David; Moussaoui, Mohammed; Andreu, David; Nogués, M. Victòria

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs) are essential effectors of innate immunity, acting as a first line of defense against bacterial infections. Many AMPs exhibit high affinity for cell wall structures such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent endotoxin able to induce sepsis. Hence, understanding how AMPs can interact with and neutralize LPS endotoxin is of special relevance for human health. Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is an eosinophil secreted protein with high activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. ECP has a remarkable affinity for LPS and a distinctive agglutinating activity. By using a battery of LPS-truncated E. coli mutant strains, we demonstrate that the polysaccharide moiety of LPS is essential for ECP-mediated bacterial agglutination, thereby modulating its antimicrobial action. The mechanism of action of ECP at the bacterial surface is drastically affected by the LPS structure and in particular by its polysaccharide moiety. We have also analyzed an N-terminal fragment that retains the whole protein activity and displays similar cell agglutination behavior. Conversely, a fragment with further minimization of the antimicrobial domain, though retaining the antimicrobial capacity, significantly loses its agglutinating activity, exhibiting a different mechanism of action which is not dependent on the LPS composition. The results highlight the correlation between the protein's antimicrobial activity and its ability to interact with the LPS outer layer and promote bacterial agglutination. PMID:22330910

  6. Proteogenomics of selective susceptibility to endotoxin using circulating acute phase biomarkers and bioassay development in sheep: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have injected endotoxin into animals to investigate and understand various pathologies and novel therapies for several decades. Recent observations have shown that there is selective susceptibility to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin in sheep, despite having similar breed characteristics. The reason behind this difference is unknown, and has prompted studies aiming to explain the variation by proteogenomic characterisation of circulating acute phase biomarkers. It is hypothesised that genetic trait, biochemical, immunological and inflammation marker patterns contribute in defining and predicting mammalian response to LPS. This review discusses the effects of endotoxin and host responses, genetic basis of innate defences, activation of the acute phase response (APR) following experimental LPS challenge, and the current approaches employed in detecting novel biomarkers including acute phase proteins (APP) and micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) in serum or plasma. miRNAs are novel targets for elucidating molecular mechanisms of disease because of their differential expression during pathological, and in healthy states. Changes in miRNA profiles during a disease challenge may be reflected in plasma. Studies show that gel-based two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with either matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) or liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are currently the most used methods for proteome characterisation. Further evidence suggests that proteomic investigations are preferentially shifting from 2-DE to non-gel based LC-MS/MS coupled with data extraction by sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH) approaches that are able to identify a wider range of proteins. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and most recently proteomic methods have been used to quantify low abundance proteins such as cytokines. qRT-PCR and next generation sequencing (NGS) are used for the characterisation of miRNA. Proteogenomic approaches for detecting APP and novel miRNA profiling are essential in understanding the selective resistance to endotoxin in sheep. The results of these methods could help in understanding similar pathology in humans. It might also be helpful in the development of physiological and diagnostic screening assays for determining experimental inclusion and endpoints, and in clinical trials in future. PMID:24580811

  7. Endotoxin, cytokines, and endotoxin binding proteins in obstructive jaundice and after preoperative biliary drainage

    PubMed Central

    Kimmings, A; van Deventer, S J H; Obertop, H; Rauws, E; Huibregtse, K; Gouma, D

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Obstructive jaundice is associated with postoperative complications related to increased endotoxaemia and the inflammatory response. In animals obstructive jaundice is associated with endotoxaemia and cytokine induction, which are reversed by internal biliary drainage.
AIMS—To study endotoxaemia and the subsequent inflammatory response in obstructive jaundiced patients and after endoscopic biliary drainage.
METHODS—In 15 patients with malignant distal obstructive jaundice, inflammatory and bacteriological parameters were assessed before endoscopic stent placement and after three weeks endoscopic drainage.
RESULTS—Drainage reduced bilirubin from 252.5 to 45.1 µmol/l. At baseline low level endotoxaemia was detected (4.3 pg/ml) which was not affected after drainage (4.5 pg/ml). Serum interleukin 8 (IL-8) and endotoxin binding proteins were increased in jaundice and reduced after drainage (IL-8 113.6 to 20.7 pg/ml; lipopolysaccharide binding protein 24.2 to 16.5 µg/ml; sCD14 17.4 to 7.6 µg/ml; bactericidal/permeability increasing protein 2.9 to 1.8 ng/ml). Levels of other cytokines, augmented in animals, were only slightly increased and not changed after drainage (tumour necrosis factor (TNF): 21.7 and 18.4 pg/ml; sTNFr p55/75: 2.9/7.0 and 2.7/5.6 ng/ml; IL-6: 4.2 and 6.1 pg/ml; IL-10: 4.5 and 2.7 pg/ml). Elastase and lactoferrin tended towards reduction after drainage. All bile cultures were positive after stenting.
CONCLUSIONS—The effects of obstructive jaundice in humans on endotoxin and cytokines are different from those in animal models. Obstructive jaundice causes alterations in circulating endotoxin binding proteins and IL-8. Concentrations of other mediators (TNF, previously suggested as being responsible for systemic endotoxaemia effects) are low and not affected by drainage.


Keywords: endotoxin; obstructive jaundice; cytokines; endotoxin binding proteins PMID:10764720

  8. Single session of Nd:YAG laser intracanal irradiation neutralizes endotoxin in dental root dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archilla, José R. F.; Moreira, Maria S. N. A.; Miyagi, Sueli P. H.; Bombana, Antônio C.; Gutknecht, Norbert; Marques, Márcia M.

    2012-11-01

    Endotoxins released in the dental root by Gram-negative microorganisms can be neutralized by calcium hydroxide, when this medication is applied inside the root canal for at least seven days. However, several clinical situations demand faster root canal decontamination. Thus, for faster endotoxin neutralization, endodontists are seeking additional treatments. The in vitro study tested whether or not intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation would be able to neutralize endotoxin within the human dental root canal in a single session. Twenty-four human teeth with one root were mounted between two chambers. After conventional endodontic treatment, root canals were contaminated with Escherichia coli endotoxin. Then they were irradiated or not (controls) in contact mode with an Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 15 Hz, 100 mJ and pulse fluency of 124 J/cm2). The endotoxin activity was measured using the limulus lysate technique and data were statistically compared (p≤0.05). The concentration of active endotoxin measured in the negative control group was significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.04). The concentrations of endotoxin in both irradiated groups were significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.027) and similar to that of negative control group (p=0.20). A single session of intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation is able to neutralize endotoxin in the dental root tissues.

  9. Single session of Nd:YAG laser intracanal irradiation neutralizes endotoxin in dental root dentin.

    PubMed

    Archilla, José R F; Moreira, Maria S N A; Miyagi, Sueli P H; Bombana, Antônio C; Gutknecht, Norbert; Marques, Márcia M

    2012-11-01

    Endotoxins released in the dental root by Gram-negative microorganisms can be neutralized by calcium hydroxide, when this medication is applied inside the root canal for at least seven days. However, several clinical situations demand faster root canal decontamination. Thus, for faster endotoxin neutralization, endodontists are seeking additional treatments. The in vitro study tested whether or not intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation would be able to neutralize endotoxin within the human dental root canal in a single session. Twenty-four human teeth with one root were mounted between two chambers. After conventional endodontic treatment, root canals were contaminated with Escherichia coli endotoxin. Then they were irradiated or not (controls) in contact mode with an Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 15 Hz, 100 mJ and pulse fluency of 124  J/cm2). The endotoxin activity was measured using the limulus lysate technique and data were statistically compared (p≤0.05). The concentration of active endotoxin measured in the negative control group was significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.04). The concentrations of endotoxin in both irradiated groups were significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.027) and similar to that of negative control group (p=0.20). A single session of intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation is able to neutralize endotoxin in the dental root tissues. PMID:23160777

  10. Effect of radio-detoxified endotoxin on the liver microsomal drug metabolizing enzyme system in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bertok, L.; Szeberenyi, S.

    1983-06-01

    E. coli endotoxin (LPS) depresses the hepatic microsomal mono-oxygenase activity. Radio-detoxified LPS (TOLERIN: /sup 60/Co irradiated endotoxin preparation) decreases this biotransforming activity to a smaller extent. Phenobarbital, an inducer of this mono-oxygenase system, failed to induce in LPS-treated animals. In radio-detoxified LPS-treated rats, phenobarbital induced the mono-oxygenase and almost fully restored the biotransformation.

  11. Effect of Heat-Killed Escherichia coli, Lipopolysaccharide, and Muramyl Dipeptide Treatments on the Immune Response Phenotype and Allergy in Neonatal Pigs Sensitized to the Egg White Protein Ovomucoid

    PubMed Central

    Schmied, Julie; Rupa, Prithy; Garvie, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Predisposition to food allergies may reflect a type 2 immune response (IR) bias in neonates due to the intrauterine environment required to maintain pregnancy. The hygiene hypothesis states that lack of early environmental stimulus leading to inappropriate development and bias in IR may also contribute. Here, the ability of heat-killed Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or muramyl dipeptide (MDP) to alter IR bias and subsequent allergic response in neonatal pigs was investigated. Three groups of three litters of pigs (12 pigs/litter) were given intramuscular injections of E. coli, LPS, MDP, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (control) and subsequently sensitized to the egg white allergen ovomucoid using an established protocol. To evaluate change in IR bias, immunoglobulin isotype-associated antibody activity (AbA), concentrations of type 1 and 2 and proinflammatory cytokines released from mitogen-stimulated blood mononuclear cells, and the percentage of T-regulatory cells (T-regs) in blood were measured. Clinical signs of allergy were assessed after oral challenge with egg white. The greatest effect on IR bias was observed in MDP-treated pigs, which had a type 2-biased phenotype by isotype-specific AbA, cytokine production, and a low proportion of T-regs. LPS-treated pigs had decreased type 1- and type 2-associated AbA. E. coli-treated pigs displayed increased response to Ovm as AbA and had more balanced cytokine profiles, as well as the highest proportion of T-regs. Accordingly, pigs treated with MDP were more susceptible to allergy than PBS controls, while pigs treated with LPS were less susceptible. Treatment with E. coli did not significantly alter the frequency of clinical signs. PMID:23081818

  12. Anti-inflammatory and anti-endotoxin properties of peptides derived from the carboxy-terminal region of a defensin from the tick Ornithodoros savignyi.

    PubMed

    Malan, Melissa; Serem, June C; Bester, Megan J; Neitz, Albert W H; Gaspar, Anabella R M

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are small cationic peptides that possess a large spectrum of bioactivities, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Several antimicrobial peptides are known to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in vitro and to protect animals from sepsis. In this study, the cellular anti-inflammatory and anti-endotoxin activities of Os and Os-C, peptides derived from the carboxy-terminal of a tick defensin, were investigated. Both Os and Os-C were found to bind LPS in vitro, albeit to a lesser extent than polymyxin B and melittin, known endotoxin-binding peptides. Binding to LPS was found to reduce the bactericidal activity of Os and Os-C against Escherichia coli confirming the affinity of both peptides for LPS. At a concentration of 25 µM, the nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity of Os was higher than glutathione, a known NO scavenger. In contrast, Os-C showed no scavenging activity. Os and Os-C inhibited LPS/IFN-γ induced NO and TNF-α production in RAW 264.7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, with no cellular toxicity even at a concentration of 100 µM. Although inhibition of NO and TNF-α secretion was more pronounced for melittin and polymyxin B, significant cytotoxicity was observed at concentrations of 1.56 µM and 25 µM for melittin and polymyxin B, respectively. In addition, Os, Os-C and glutathione protected RAW 264.7 cells from oxidative damage at concentrations as low as 25 µM. This study identified that besides previously reported antibacterial activity of Os and Os-C, both peptides have in addition anti-inflammatory and anti-endotoxin properties. Copyright © 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26662999

  13. Ultrasound body composition traits response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers supplemented with Omnigen-AF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the body composition traits response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183 ± 5 kg) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separat...

  14. OmniGen-AF supplementation modulated the physiological and acute phase responses of Brahman heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton...

  15. Sexually dimorphic secretion of cortisol but not catecholamines in response to an endotoxin challenge in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge on secretion of the adrenal stress-related hormones cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine in bull and heifer calves. Brahman calves (n = 12; 269 ± 11.7 kg) were randomly selected from the fall 2007 c...

  16. Influence of an in vivo endotoxin challenge on ex vivo phagocytic and oxidative burst capacities of bovine neutrophils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neutrophils promote health by reducing the early growth of invading pathogens. The objective of this study was to elucidate the temporal effects of an exogenous endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge on neutrophil function. Brahman heifers (186.1±11.8 kg; n=6) were challenged with an intraven...

  17. Modulation of the metabolic response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers through OmniGen-AF supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the metabolic response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 1835 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separated into 2...

  18. Temperament influences endotoxin-induced changes in rectal temperature, sickness behavior, and plasma epinephrine concentrations in bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the influence of temperament on endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) induced changes in body temperature and the secretion of cortisol and epinephrine. Purebred Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score (average of exit velocity, EV, and pen score, PS...

  19. The effect of yeast cell wall supplementation on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred newly-received heifers to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Heifers (n=24; 218.9+/-2.4 kg) were obtained from commercial sale barns and tra...

  20. Dried citrus pulp modulates the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding dried citrus pulp (CP) pellets on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-received crossbred heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Heifers (n=24; 218.3±2.4 kg) were obtained from commercial sale barns and transported...

  1. The effect of yeast cell wall supplementation on the metabolic responses of crossbred heifers to endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the metabolic responses of newly-received heifers to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Heifers (n=24; 218.9±2.4 kg) were obtained from commercial sale barns and transported to the Texas Tech University Beef Cent...

  2. Lipopolysaccharide Is Transferred from High-Density to Low-Density Lipoproteins by Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein and Phospholipid Transfer Protein

    PubMed Central

    Levels, J. H. M.; Marquart, J. A.; Abraham, P. R.; van den Ende, A. E.; Molhuizen, H. O. F.; van Deventer, S. J. H.; Meijers, J. C. M.

    2005-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major outer membrane component of gram-negative bacteria, is a potent endotoxin that triggers cytokine-mediated systemic inflammatory responses in the host. Plasma lipoproteins are capable of LPS sequestration, thereby attenuating the host response to infection, but ensuing dyslipidemia severely compromises this host defense mechanism. We have recently reported that Escherichia coli J5 and Re595 LPS chemotypes that contain relatively short O-antigen polysaccharide side chains are efficiently redistributed from high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to other lipoprotein subclasses in normal human whole blood (ex vivo). In this study, we examined the role of the acute-phase proteins LPS-binding protein (LBP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) in this process. By the use of isolated HDL containing fluorescent J5 LPS, the redistribution of endotoxin among the major lipoprotein subclasses in a model system was determined by gel permeation chromatography. The kinetics of LPS and lipid particle interactions were determined by using Biacore analysis. LBP and PLTP were found to transfer LPS from HDL predominantly to low-density lipoproteins (LDL), in a time- and dose-dependent manner, to induce remodeling of HDL into two subpopulations as a consequence of the LPS transfer and to enhance the steady-state association of LDL with HDL in a dose-dependent fashion. The presence of LPS on HDL further enhanced LBP-dependent interactions of LDL with HDL and increased the stability of the HDL-LDL complexes. We postulate that HDL remodeling induced by LBP- and PLTP-mediated LPS transfer may contribute to the plasma lipoprotein dyslipidemia characteristic of the acute-phase response to infection. PMID:15784577

  3. Removal of endotoxin from deionized water using micromachined silicon nanopore membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ross A.; Goldman, Ken; Fissell, William H.; Fleischman, Aaron J.; Zorman, Christian A.; Roy, Shuvo

    2011-05-01

    Endotoxins are lipopolysaccharide components of the cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that trigger the body's innate immune system and can cause shock and death. Water for medical therapy, including parenteral and dialysate solutions, must be free of endotoxin. This purity is challenging to achieve as many Gram-negative bacteria are endemic in the environment, and can thrive in harsh, nutrient-poor conditions. Current methods for removing endotoxin include distillation and reverse osmosis, both of which are resource intensive processes. Membranes that present an absolute barrier to macromolecular passage may be capable of delivering pure water for biomedical applications. In this work, endotoxin has been filtered from aqueous solutions using silicon nanopore membranes (SNMs) with monodisperse pore size distributions. SNMs with critical pore sizes between 26 and 49 nm were challenged with solutions of deionized water spiked with endotoxin and with Pseudomonas cepacia. The filtrate produced by the SNM from Pseudomonas-contaminated water had <1.0 endotoxin unit (EU) ml-1, which meets standards for dialysate purity. This approach suggests a technique for single-step cleanup of heavily contaminated water that may be suitable for field or clinical use.

  4. Endotoxin in endodontic infections: a review.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Zahed

    2011-03-01

    Gram-negative bacteria play an essential role in primary endodontic infections. They have several virulence factors such as endotoxin, a large molecule that plays a role in the initiation and perpetuation of apical periodontitis. This paper reviews the role of gram-negative bacteria in endodontic infections, structure and mechanisms of action of endotoxin, endotoxin in infected root canals, effects of calcium hydroxide and polymixin B on endotoxin, and applications of endotoxin to measure leakage. PMID:21563594

  5. The structures of core regions from enterobacterial lipopolysaccharides - an update.

    PubMed

    Holst, Otto

    2007-06-01

    To the major virulence factors of Gram-negative bacteria belong the lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins), which are very well characterized for their immunological, pharmacological and pathophysiological effects displayed in eucaryotic cells and organisms. In general, these amphiphilic lipopolysaccharides comprise three regions, which can be differentiated by their structures, function, genetics and biosynthesis: lipid A, the core region and a polysaccharide portion, which may be the O-specific polysaccharide, Enterobacterial Common Antigen (ECA) or a capsular polysaccharide. In the past, much emphasis has been laid on the elucidation of the structure-function relation. The lipid A was proven to represent the toxic principle of endotoxic active lipopolysaccharides, however, its toxicity depends not only on its structure but also on that of the core region, which is covalently linked to lipid A. Thus, and since the core region possesses immunogenic properties, complete structural analyses of lipopolysaccharides core regions and of structure-function relation are highly important for a better understanding of lipopolysaccharides action. To date, quite a number of core structures from lipopolysaccharides of various Gram-negative bacteria have been published and summarized in several overviews. This short review adds to this knowledge those structures of enterobacterial lipopolysaccharides that were published between January 2002 and October 2006. PMID:17403049

  6. Oxidative degradation of endotoxin by advanced oxidation process (O3/H2O2 & UV/H2O2).

    PubMed

    Oh, Byung-Taek; Seo, Young-Suk; Sudhakar, Dega; Choe, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Park, Youn-Jong; Cho, Min

    2014-08-30

    The presence of endotoxin in water environments may pose a serious public health hazard. We investigated the effectiveness of advanced oxidative processes (AOP: O3/H2O2 and UV/H2O2) in the oxidative degradation of endotoxin. In addition, we measured the release of endotoxin from Escherichia coli following typical disinfection methods, such as chlorine, ozone alone and UV, and compared it with the use of AOPs. Finally, we tested the AOP-treated samples in their ability to induce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in mouse peritoneal macrophages. The production of hydroxyl radical in AOPs showed superior ability to degrade endotoxin in buffered solution, as well as water samples from Korean water treatment facilities, with the ozone/H2O2 being more efficient compared to UV/H2O2. In addition, the AOPs proved effective not only in eliminating E. coli in the samples, but also in endotoxin degradation, while the standard disinfection methods lead to the release of endotoxin following the bacteria destruction. Furthermore, in the experiments with macrophages, the AOPs-deactivated endotoxin lead to the smallest induction of TNF-α, which shows the loss of inflammation activity, compared to ozone treatment alone. In conclusion, these results suggest that AOPs offer an effective and mild method for endotoxin degradation in the water systems. PMID:25038578

  7. Allergen specific responses in cord and adult blood are differentially modulated in the presence of endotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Eiwegger, T; Mayer, E; Brix, S; Schabussova, I; Dehlink, E; Bohle, B; Barkholt, V; Szépfalusi, Z

    2008-01-01

    Background Endotoxins are common contaminants in allergen preparations and affect antigen-specific cellular responses. Distinct effects of endotoxin on cells in human umbilical cord and adult blood are poorly defined. Objectives To examine the effect of endotoxins in allergen preparations on cellular responses in human cord and peripheral blood (PB). Methods The endotoxin content in β lactoglobulin (BLG), the peanut allergen Ara h 1 and the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 was assessed. Proliferation and cytokine response of mononuclear cells towards contaminated and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-free allergens were evaluated at different time-points. Fractions of contaminated BLG were generated and assayed on their immuno-stimulatory capacity. The involvement of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 was investigated by blocking antibodies and TLR-transfected human embryonic kidney cells. Results The proliferative response of cord blood (CB)-derived mononuclear cells towards allergen-preparations at day 3 was related to the level of LPS contamination. At day 7, proliferation was also detected in the absence of endotoxin. Cytokine production in CB was strongly affected by the content of endotoxin, TLR-4 dependent and not related to the allergen content. Allergen- and endotoxin-induced proliferative responses were generally significantly higher in CB than in adult blood. Conclusion Endotoxins in allergen preparations confound allergen-specific cellular responses. The impact of these contaminations varies with the blood source (CB vs. PB), the type of allergen and is time- and dose-dependent. Cite this as: T. Eiwegger, E. Mayer, S. Brix, I. Schabussova, E. Dehlink, B. Bohle, V. Barkholt and Z. Szépfalusi, Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 2008 (38) 1627–1634. PMID:18771487

  8. Farm dust and endotoxin protect against allergy through A20 induction in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Schuijs, Martijn J; Willart, Monique A; Vergote, Karl; Gras, Delphine; Deswarte, Kim; Ege, Markus J; Madeira, Filipe Branco; Beyaert, Rudi; van Loo, Geert; Bracher, Franz; von Mutius, Erika; Chanez, Pascal; Lambrecht, Bart N; Hammad, Hamida

    2015-09-01

    Growing up on a dairy farm protects children from allergy, hay fever, and asthma. A mechanism linking exposure to this endotoxin (bacterial lipopolysaccharide)-rich environment with protection has remained elusive. Here we show that chronic exposure to low-dose endotoxin or farm dust protects mice from developing house dust mite (HDM)-induced asthma. Endotoxin reduced epithelial cell cytokines that activate dendritic cells (DCs), thus suppressing type 2 immunity to HDMs. Loss of the ubiquitin-modifying enzyme A20 in lung epithelium abolished the protective effect. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the gene encoding A20 was associated with allergy and asthma risk in children growing up on farms. Thus, the farming environment protects from allergy by modifying the communication between barrier epithelial cells and DCs through A20 induction. PMID:26339029

  9. Lipopolysaccharides and divalent cations are involved in the formation of an assembly-competent intermediate of outer-membrane protein PhoE of E.coli.

    PubMed Central

    de Cock, H; Tommassen, J

    1996-01-01

    To identify the requirements for the biogenesis of outer-membrane proteins in Gram-negative bacteria, the sorting and assembly of the trimeric, pore-forming protein PhoE was studied in vitro. Purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in combination with low amounts of Triton X-100 and divalent cations induced the formation of folded monomers. LPS of deep-rough strains was far less efficient in the formation of folded monomers than wild-type LPS was. These folded monomers could be converted into heat-stable trimers upon addition of outer membranes and higher amounts of Triton X-100. Trimerization could precede the insertion step. These in vitro data suggest that the assembly in vivo proceeds sequentially by (i) formation of a folded monomer by interaction with LPS; (ii) sorting of the folded monomers to assembly sites in the outer membrane; (iii) trimerization; and (iv) insertion. Images PMID:8896450

  10. Alteration of the antibody response to Escherichia coli O antigen in mice by prior exposure to various somatic antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Ahlstedt, S; Holmgren, J

    1975-01-01

    In the present study in mice we used the Jerne plaque assay to compare the immunity enhancing potential of different Gram-negative bacteria with special regard to their endotoxin. The results confirm the recent finding that injection of Escherichia coli bacteria of various serotypes may enhance the IgG antibody response to the O antigen of a serologically unrelated E. coli strain injected subsequently, but may suppress the IgM antibody formation. The O antibodies formed were of low avidity but were antigen specific. Smaller amounts of antibodies were formed to a serologically unrelated antigen, E. coli O76, which had not been injected. Of the strains tested as primary stimuli E. coli O4 gave considerably greater enhancement than any other serotype including the homologous E. coli O6, when a short interval between the injections was used. The influence of O4 on the serologically unrelated anti-O6 response was stronger than on the response to the cross-reactive E. coli O18 antigen, suggesting that O antigen cross-reactivity is not the basis for the immunomodulation. Formalin-killed bacteria were more effective in this respect than boiled bacteria or purified lipopolysaccharide and rough mutants (E. coli R1--R4) and E. coli O4 were less effective than many of the other smooth E. coli. These findings suggest that shared determinants in the lipid, basic carbohydrate core or Kunin common antigen portions of the endotoxin do not play the major immunomodulating role in this system. Salmonella reading but not Pseudomonas aeruginosa affected the anti-E. coli O6 response in a similar manner. One explanation for the alterations in the immune response observed implies the presence of an antigen determinant shared by many Enterobacteriaceae in such a position in relation to the O antigen that it can be utilized for cellular co-operative events in the O antibody response. The protein portion of the endotoxin protein--lipid--carbohydrate complex is a possible location. PMID:51829

  11. Endotoxin Deactivation by Transient Acidification

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Melina M.; Xu, Xiumin; Klein, Dagmar; Kenyon, Norma S; Ricordi, Camillo; Felipe, Maria Sueli S.; Pastori, Ricardo L.

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant proteins are an important tool for research and therapeutic applications. Therapeutic proteins have been delivered to several cell types and tissues and might be used to improve the outcome of the cell transplantation. Recombinant proteins are propagated in bacteria, which will contaminate them with the lypopolysacharide-endotoxin found in the outer bacterial membrane. Endotoxin could interfere with in vitro biological assays and is the major pathological factor, which must be removed or inactivated before in vivo administration. Here we describe a one-step protocol in which the endotoxin activity on recombinant proteins is remarkably reduced by transient exposure to acidic conditions. Maximum endotoxin deactivation occurs at acidic pH below their respective isoelectric point (pI). This method does not require additional protein purification or separation of the protein from the endotoxin fraction. The endotoxin level was measured both in vitro and in vivo. For in vitro assessment we have utilized Limulus Amebocyte Lysate method for in vivo the pyrogenic test. We have tested the above-mentioned method with 5 different recombinant proteins including a monoclonal antibody clone 5c8 against CD154 produced by hybridomas. More than 99% of endotoxin was deactivated in all of the proteins, the recovery of the protein after deactivation varied between maximum 72.9 and minimum 46.8%. The anti CD154 clone 5c8 activity remained unchanged as verified by the measurement of binding capability to activated lymphocytes. Furthermore, the effectiveness of this method was not significantly altered by urea, commonly used in protein purification. This procedure provides a simple and cost-efficient way to reduce the endotoxin activity in antibodies and recombinant proteins. PMID:20412635

  12. Grape seed procyanidin extract reduces the endotoxic effects induced by lipopolysaccharide in rats.

    PubMed

    Pallarès, Victor; Fernández-Iglesias, Anabel; Cedó, Lídia; Castell-Auví, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat; Ardévol, Anna; Salvadó, Maria Josepa; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Blay, Mayte

    2013-07-01

    Acute inflammation is a response to injury, infection, tissue damage, or shock. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin implicated in triggering sepsis and septic shock, and LPS promotes the inflammatory response, resulting in the secretion of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as the interleukins (IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor-α by the immune cells. Furthermore, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species levels increase rapidly, which is partially due to the activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase in several tissues in response to inflammatory stimuli. Previous studies have shown that procyanidins, polyphenols present in foods such as apples, grapes, cocoa, and berries, have several beneficial properties against inflammation and oxidative stress using several in vitro and in vivo models. In this study, the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of two physiological doses and two pharmaceutical doses of grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) were analyzed using a rat model of septic shock by the intraperitoneal injection of LPS derived from Escherichia coli. The high nutritional (75mg/kg/day) and the high pharmacological doses (200mg/kg/day) of GSPE showed anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing the proinflammatory marker NOx in the plasma, red blood cells, spleen, and liver. Moreover, the high pharmacological dose also downregulated the genes Il-6 and iNos; and the high nutritional dose decreased the glutathione ratio (GSSG/total glutathione), further illustrating the antioxidant capability of GSPE. In conclusion, several doses of GSPE can alleviate acute inflammation triggered by LPS in rats at the systemic and local levels when administered for as few as 15 days before the injection of endotoxin. PMID:23439188

  13. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide exposure augments aflatoxin B(1)-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Barton, C C; Hill, D A; Yee, S B; Barton, E X; Ganey, P E; Roth, R A

    2000-06-01

    Bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) given to animals in large doses results in pronounced, midzonal liver injury. Exposure to smaller, non-injurious doses of LPS augments the toxicity of certain hepatotoxicants. This study was conducted to delineate the development of injury in a rat model of augmentation of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) hepatotoxicity by LPS. At large doses (i.e., > 1 mg/kg, ip), AFB(1) administration resulted in pronounced injury to the periportal regions of the liver. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats (250-350 g) were treated with 1 mg AFB(1)/kg, ip or its vehicle (0.5% DMSO/saline) and 4 h later with either E. coli LPS (7.4 x 106 EU/kg, iv) or its saline vehicle. Liver injury was assessed 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, or 96 h after AFB(1) administration. Hepatic parenchymal cell injury was evaluated as increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in serum and from histologic examination of liver sections. Biliary tract alterations were evaluated as increased concentration of serum bile acids and activities of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and 5'-nucleotidase (5'-ND) in serum. At all times and for all markers, injury in rats treated with either AFB(1) or LPS alone was absent or modest. In the AFB(1)/LPS cotreated group, hepatic parenchymal cell injury was pronounced by 24 h and had returned to control values by 72 h. The injury began in the periportal region and spread midzonally with time. Furthermore, changes in serum markers indicative of biliary tract alterations were evident by 12 h and had returned to control values by 72 h. Thus, the nature of the hepatic lesions suggested that LPS potentiated the effects of AFB(1) on both parenchymal and bile duct epithelial cells. PMID:10828277

  14. Yohimbine ameliorates the effects of endotoxin on gastric emptying of the liquid marker acetaminophen in horses.

    PubMed Central

    Meisler, S D; Doherty, T J; Andrews, F M; Osborne, D; Frazier, D L

    2000-01-01

    The effect of yohimbine pretreatment on gastric emptying of a liquid marker in horses was evaluated by measuring serum concentrations of acetaminophen. Gastric emptying was determined in normal, fasted horses, in horses given endotoxin (E. coli 055 B5; 0.2 microg/kg) intravenously, and in horses given yohimbine (0.25 mg/kg, IV, over 30 minutes) plus endotoxin. Acetaminophen (20 mg/kg) was given by stomach tube 15 minutes after the endotoxin infusion. Blood samples for acetaminophen analysis were collected, and time to reach the peak serum concentration (Tmax), the maximum serum concentration (Cmax) and the area under the acetaminophen serum concentration versus time curve (AUC) were determined for each treatment group. Endotoxin significantly increased Tmax, indicating a profound delay in gastric emptying and yohimbine pretreatment significantly (P < or = 0.05) prevented this effect. PMID:11041497

  15. The Stimulation by Endotoxin of the Nonspecific Resistance of Mice to Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hill, A. W.; Hibbitt, K. G.; Shears, A.

    1974-01-01

    The nonspecific resistance of mice to challenge was enhanced following the administration of an E. coli O55 B5 endotoxin. Although the route of administration of the endotoxin and the challenge organism were varied, the nonspecific resistance of the animal was enhanced in all the experiments. The efficiency of this resistance was highest when the inducing substance and the challenge dose of bacteria were administered intraperitoneally. Poly I: C and double stranded RNA were also studied but were much less effective than endotoxin in stimulating a resistance to infection. Stimulation of the fixed macrophages could not explain fully the enhanced resistance, since the clearance rates of colloidal carbon and radioactively labelled bacteria from the blood were not significantly enhanced after the administration of endotoxin. Furthermore, splenectomized animals, and animals injected with agents which interfere with the RES activity, trypan blue and corticosteroids, still developed a degree of nonspecific resistance to infection. PMID:4599349

  16. Use of a bacteriophage-encoded glycanase enzyme in the generation of lipopolysaccharide O side chain deficient mutants of Escherichia coli O9:K30 and Klebsiella O1:K20: role of O and K antigens in resistance to complement-mediated serum killing.

    PubMed

    McCallum, K L; Laakso, D H; Whitfield, C

    1989-11-01

    Coliphage K30 lysates contain free and phage-associated forms of a bacteriophage-encoded capsule depolymerase (glycanase) enzyme, active against the serotype K30 capsular polysaccharide of Escherichia coli. The free glycanase has been purified to apparent homogeneity. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated at 450,000, and when heated in SDS at 100 degrees C, the enzyme dissociated into two subunits of 90,000 and 52,000. The glycanase enzyme was used as a reagent to reversibly degrade the capsular layers on cells of Escherichia coli O9:K30 and Klebsiella O1:K20. This treatment rendered these bacteria sensitive to their respective lipopolysaccharide-specific bacteriophages, coliphage O9-1 and Klebsiella phage O1-3. This novel approach facilitated isolation of lipopolysaccharide O antigen side chain deficient mutants which retained the ability to synthesize the capsule. The response of defined mutants, O+:K-, O-:K+, and O-:K-, to exposure to nonimmune rabbit serum was measured. Results showed that the primary barrier against complement-mediated serum killing in both Escherichia coli O9:K30 and Klebsiella O1:K20 was the O antigen side chains of the lipopolysaccharide molecules. In both strains, the capsule played no role in the determination of serum resistance. PMID:2482125

  17. Effects of endotoxin induced lung injury and exercise in goats/sheep. Final report, 1 February 1992-2 June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Mundie, T.G.

    1993-06-02

    This study was designed the effects of exercise performed on animals already injured with E. coli endotoxin. This would tell us whether exercise makes the lung injury worse. It would also tell us how much exercise performance is impaired. These studies were designed to give further insights into the underlying causes of acute lung injury. Premature termination of the study prevented completion of the research project. It appeared from the limited experimentation conducted that maximal exercise was impaired by endotoxin-induced lung injury. Conclusions regarding exacerbation of endotoxin-induced lung injury cannot be made.... Acute lung injury, Maximal exercise, Endotoxin.

  18. Influence of the apical enlargement size on the endotoxin level reduction of dental root canals

    PubMed Central

    MARINHO, Ariane Cassia Salustiano; MARTINHO, Frederico Canato; ZAIA, Alexandre Augusto; FERRAZ, Caio Cezar Randi; GOMES, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria play an essential role in endodontic infections because they have virulence factors such as endotoxin. Due to its potential cytotoxic activity, special attention has been given to the removal/neutralization of this endotoxin in the root canal system. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the apical enlargement size (AES) by using rotary instruments on the endotoxin level reduction of dental root canals. Material and Methods Forty root canals of the mandibular premolar teeth were used. Escherichia coli endotoxin (055: B55) was inoculated into thirty root canals. Ten teeth served as the negative control group. After the incubation period, the first endotoxin samples were collected from the root canals with a sterile/apyrogenic paper point for the analysis of the endotoxin units (EU/mL) present before instrumentation (S1). Specimen instrumentation was performed with the Mtwo® rotary system in the sequence 10/.04, 15/.05, 20/.06, 25/.06, 30/.05, 35/.04 and 40/.04. To monitor the effectiveness of increasing apical enlargement on endotoxin removal, the second endotoxin samples were collected from all the root canals after instrumentation with the following instruments: #25/.06- (S2); #30/.05- (S3); # 35/.04- (S4); and #40/.04- (S5). Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) was used to quantify the levels of endotoxin. The results were statistically compared by using repeated measures of ANOVA with post hoc Tukey testing. Results Increasing levels of endotoxin removal was achieved by large sized apical enlargement: S2 (AES #25/.06)- 89.2%, S3 (AES #30/.05)- 95.9%, S4 (AES #35/.04)- 97.8% and S5 (AES #40/.04)- 98.2%. Substantial reduction of endotoxin content was obtained in S4 and S5 compared to S2 (p<0.05), however, the root canal preparation was not able to eliminate the endotoxin. Conclusions Under the conditions of this study, it was concluded that the reduction of endotoxin levels of the dental root canals could be predicted by increasing the apical enlargement size. PMID:23329249

  19. Prevention of experimental endotoxin shock by a monocyte activator.

    PubMed Central

    Passlick, B; Labeta, M O; Izbicki, J R; Ostertag, P; Lffler, T; Siebeck, M; Pichlmeier, U; Schweiberer, L; Ziegler-Heitbrock, H W

    1995-01-01

    In patients with polytrauma or major surgery, severe bacterial infections leading to septic shock and multiorgan failure are still a major cause of death. Prevention of septic shock in patients at risk would be an alternative to treatment of patients with overt septic shock. We therefore conducted a trial with the monocyte activator muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (MTP-PE) in an experimental pig model. Liposome encapsulated MTP-PE (50 micrograms/kg of body weight) or liposomes alone were given intravenously at 72 or 24 h before endotoxemia was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), simultaneously with the induction of endotoxin shock, or 1 h thereafter. Pretreatment with MTP-PE at 72 and 24 h before endotoxemia was induced resulted in a reduction of endotoxin shock-induced mortality from 81.8% (9 of 11 animals) in the control group to 8.3% (1 of 12 animals) of the MTP-PE-pretreated animals (P < 0.001). The administration of MTP-PE 24 h before the induction of endotoxin shock was more effective (P < 0.01) than administration of MTP-PE 72 h before endotoxemia was induced (P = 0.05). The pretreated animals did not develop fever or cardiovascular complications, and pulmonary function was significantly improved. Furthermore, the alpha-form of the soluble CD14 LPS receptor in pig serum showed a marked decrease in LPS-treated animals, and this decrease was reduced by MTP-PE pretreatment at 24 h before endotoxemia was induced. When MTP-PE was given simultaneously with the induction of septic shock or 1 h thereafter, it did not influence either mortality or morbidity. In conclusion, pretreatment of pigs with MTP-PE improves several parameters of endotoxin shock and it reduces mortality. Patients with high risk of developing septic complications might benefit from a pretreatment with this monocyte-activating substance. PMID:8585740

  20. SUBCHRONIC ENDOTOXIN INHALATION CAUSES CHRONIC AIRWAY DISEASE IN ENDOTOXIN-SENSITIVE BUT NOT ENDOTOXIN-RESISTANT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    SUBCHRONIC ENDOTOXIN INHALATION CAUSES CHRONIC AIRWAY DISEASE IN ENDOTOXIN-SENSITIVE BUT NOT ENDOTOXIN-RESISTANT MICE. D. M. Brass, J. D. Savov, *S. H. Gavett, ?C. George, D. A. Schwartz. Duke Univ Medical Center Durham, NC, *U.S. E.P.A. Research Triangle Park, NC, ?Univ of Iowa,...

  1. Obesity Increases Sensitivity to Endotoxin Liver Injury: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Steatohepatitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shi Qi; Zhi Lin, Hui; Lane, M. Daniel; Clemens, Mark; Diehl, Anna Mae

    1997-03-01

    Genetically obese fatty/fatty rats and obese/obese mice exhibit increased sensitivity to endotoxin hepatotoxicity, quickly developing steatohepatitis after exposure to low doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Among obese animals, females are more sensitive to endotoxin liver injury than males. LPS induction of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα ), the proven affecter of endotoxin liver injury, is no greater in the livers, white adipose tissues, or sera of obese animals than in those of lean controls. Indeed, the lowest serum concentrations of TNF occur in female obese rodents, which exhibit the most endotoxin-induced liver injury. Several cytokines that modulate the biological activity of TNF are regulated abnormally in the livers of obese animals. After exposure to LPS, mRNA of interferon γ , which sensitizes hepatocytes to TNF toxicity, is overexpressed, and mRNA levels of interleukin 10, a TNF inhibitor, are decreased. The phagocytic activity of liver macrophages and the hepatic expression of a gene encoding a macrophage-specific receptor are also decreased in obesity. This new animal model of obesity-associated liver disease demonstrates that hepatic macrophage dysfunction occurs in obesity and suggests that this might promote steatohepatitis by sensitizing hepatocytes to endotoxin.

  2. P-body formation limits proinflammatory cytokine synthesis in endotoxin tolerant monocytes and murine septic macrophages

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Clara; Brudecki, Laura; Yao, Zhi Q.; McCall, Charles E.; Gazzar, Mohamed El

    2015-01-01

    An anti-inflammatory phenotype with pronounced immunosuppression develops during sepsis, during which time neutrophils and monocyte/macrophages limit their toll-like receptor 4 responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS/endotoxin). We previously reported that during this endotoxin tolerant state, distinct signaling pathways differentially repress transcription and translation of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL-6. Sustained endotoxin tolerance contributes to sepsis mortality. While transcription repression requires chromatin modifications, a translational repressor complex of Ago2 and RBM4, which bind the 3’ UTR of TNFα and IL-6 mRNA, limits protein synthesis. Here, we show that Dcp1 supports the assembly of Ago2 and RBM4 repressor complex into cytoplasmic p-bodies in endotoxin-tolerant THP-1 human monocytes following stimulation with LPS, resulting in translational repression and limiting protein synthesis. Importantly, this translocation process is reversed by Dcp1 knockdown, which restores TNFα and IL-6 protein levels. We also find this translational repression mechanism in primary macrophages of septic mice. Because p-body formation is a critical step in mRNA translation repression, we conclude that Dcp1 is a major component of the translational repression machinery of endotoxin tolerance and may contribute to sepsis outcome. PMID:25998849

  3. An Endotoxin Tolerance Signature Predicts Sepsis and Organ Dysfunction at Initial Clinical Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Pena, Olga M.; Hancock, David G.; Lyle, Ngan H.; Linder, Adam; Russell, James A.; Xia, Jianguo; Fjell, Christopher D.; Boyd, John H.; Hancock, Robert E.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sepsis involves aberrant immune responses to infection, but the exact nature of this immune dysfunction remains poorly defined. Bacterial endotoxins like lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are potent inducers of inflammation, which has been associated with the pathophysiology of sepsis, but repeated exposure can also induce a suppressive effect known as endotoxin tolerance or cellular reprogramming. It has been proposed that endotoxin tolerance might be associated with the immunosuppressive state that was primarily observed during late-stage sepsis. However, this relationship remains poorly characterised. Here we clarify the underlying mechanisms and timing of immune dysfunction in sepsis. Methods We defined a gene expression signature characteristic of endotoxin tolerance. Gene-set test approaches were used to correlate this signature with early sepsis, both newly and retrospectively analysing microarrays from 593 patients in 11 cohorts. Then we recruited a unique cohort of possible sepsis patients at first clinical presentation in an independent blinded controlled observational study to determine whether this signature was associated with the development of confirmed sepsis and organ dysfunction. Findings All sepsis patients presented an expression profile strongly associated with the endotoxin tolerance signature (p<0.01; AUC 96.1%). Importantly, this signature further differentiated between suspected sepsis patients who did, or did not, go on to develop confirmed sepsis, and predicted the development of organ dysfunction. Interpretation Our data support an updated model of sepsis pathogenesis in which endotoxin tolerance-mediated immune dysfunction (cellular reprogramming) is present throughout the clinical course of disease and related to disease severity. Thus endotoxin tolerance might offer new insights guiding the development of new therapies and diagnostics for early sepsis. PMID:25685830

  4. Endotoxin Induces Fibrosis in Vascular Endothelial Cells through a Mechanism Dependent on Transient Receptor Protein Melastatin 7 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Echeverría, Cesar; Montorfano, Ignacio; Hermosilla, Tamara; Armisén, Ricardo; Velásquez, Luis A.; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Varela, Diego; Simon, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of systemic inflammatory diseases, including endotoxemia-derived sepsis syndrome, is characterized by endothelial dysfunction. It has been demonstrated that the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces the conversion of endothelial cells (ECs) into activated fibroblasts through endothelial­to­mesenchymal transition mechanism. Fibrogenesis is highly dependent on intracellular Ca2+ concentration increases through the participation of calcium channels. However, the specific molecular identity of the calcium channel that mediates the Ca2+ influx during endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis is still unknown. Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a calcium channel that is expressed in many cell types, including ECs. TRPM7 is involved in a number of crucial processes such as the conversion of fibroblasts into activated fibroblasts, or myofibroblasts, being responsible for the development of several characteristics of them. However, the role of the TRPM7 ion channel in endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis is unknown. Thus, our aim was to study whether the TRPM7 calcium channel participates in endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis. Using primary cultures of ECs, we demonstrated that TRPM7 is a crucial protein involved in endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis. Suppression of TRPM7 expression protected ECs from the fibrogenic process stimulated by endotoxin. Downregulation of TRPM7 prevented the endotoxin-induced endothelial markers decrease and fibrotic genes increase in ECs. In addition, TRPM7 downregulation abolished the endotoxin-induced increase in ECM proteins in ECs. Furthermore, we showed that intracellular Ca2+ levels were greatly increased upon LPS challenge in a mechanism dependent on TRPM7 expression. These results demonstrate that TRPM7 is a key protein involved in the mechanism underlying endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis. PMID:24710004

  5. Endotoxin induces fibrosis in vascular endothelial cells through a mechanism dependent on transient receptor protein melastatin 7 activity.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Cesar; Montorfano, Ignacio; Hermosilla, Tamara; Armisén, Ricardo; Velásquez, Luis A; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Varela, Diego; Simon, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of systemic inflammatory diseases, including endotoxemia-derived sepsis syndrome, is characterized by endothelial dysfunction. It has been demonstrated that the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces the conversion of endothelial cells (ECs) into activated fibroblasts through endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition mechanism. Fibrogenesis is highly dependent on intracellular Ca2+ concentration increases through the participation of calcium channels. However, the specific molecular identity of the calcium channel that mediates the Ca2+ influx during endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis is still unknown. Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a calcium channel that is expressed in many cell types, including ECs. TRPM7 is involved in a number of crucial processes such as the conversion of fibroblasts into activated fibroblasts, or myofibroblasts, being responsible for the development of several characteristics of them. However, the role of the TRPM7 ion channel in endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis is unknown. Thus, our aim was to study whether the TRPM7 calcium channel participates in endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis. Using primary cultures of ECs, we demonstrated that TRPM7 is a crucial protein involved in endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis. Suppression of TRPM7 expression protected ECs from the fibrogenic process stimulated by endotoxin. Downregulation of TRPM7 prevented the endotoxin-induced endothelial markers decrease and fibrotic genes increase in ECs. In addition, TRPM7 downregulation abolished the endotoxin-induced increase in ECM proteins in ECs. Furthermore, we showed that intracellular Ca2+ levels were greatly increased upon LPS challenge in a mechanism dependent on TRPM7 expression. These results demonstrate that TRPM7 is a key protein involved in the mechanism underlying endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis. PMID:24710004

  6. SUBCHRONIC ENDOTOXIN INHALATION CAUSES PERSISTENT AIRWAY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    The endotoxin component of organic dusts causes acute reversible airflow obstruction and airway inflammation. To test the hypothesis that endotoxin alone causes airway remodeling, we have compared the response of two inbred mouse strains to subchronic endotoxin ...

  7. Methods for chromatographic removal of endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Adam J; Bardliving, Cameron L; Batt, Carl A

    2012-01-01

    Endotoxin removal is critical when producing therapeutic proteins in bacterial systems. This hydrophobic compound can be removed through chromatography or filtration, but presents unique challenges dependent upon protein composition as well as production scale. Here we present a robust method for endotoxin removal at the pilot production scale using fast protein liquid chromatography and buffers specifically engineered for endotoxin removal. PMID:22735959

  8. Endotoxin Studies And Biosolids Stabilization Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation has three parts; a review of bench-scale endotoxin research, a review of observations from a field scale endotoxin release study, and discussion of biosolids stabilization and characterization by PLFA/FAME microbial community analysis. Endotoxins are part of th...

  9. Asparagine attenuates intestinal injury, improves energy status and inhibits AMP-activated protein kinase signalling pathways in weaned piglets challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuying; Liu, Yulan; Li, Shuang; Pi, Dingan; Zhu, Huiling; Hou, Yongqing; Shi, Haifeng; Leng, Weibo

    2015-08-28

    The intestine requires a high amount of energy to maintain its health and function; thus, energy deficits in intestinal mucosa may lead to intestinal damage. Asparagine (Asn) is a precursor for many other amino acids such as aspartate, glutamine and glutamate, which can be used to supply energy to enterocytes. In the present study, we hypothesise that dietary supplementation of Asn could alleviate bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal injury via improvement of intestinal energy status. A total of twenty-four weaned piglets were assigned to one of four treatments: (1) non-challenged control; (2) LPS+0 % Asn; (3) LPS+0·5 % Asn; (4) LPS+1·0 % Asn. On day 19, piglets were injected with LPS or saline. At 24 h post-injection, piglets were slaughtered and intestinal samples were collected. Asn supplementation improved intestinal morphology, indicated by higher villus height and villus height:crypt depth ratio, and lower crypt depth. Asn supplementation also increased the ratios of RNA:DNA and protein:DNA as well as disaccharidase activities in intestinal mucosa. In addition, Asn supplementation attenuated bacterial LPS-induced intestinal energy deficits, indicated by increased ATP and adenylate energy charge levels, and decreased AMP:ATP ratio. Moreover, Asn administration increased the activities of key enzymes involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, including citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Finally, Asn administration decreased the mRNA abundance of intestinal AMP-activated protein kinase-α1 (AMPKα1), AMPKα2, silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) and PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC1α), and reduced intestinal AMPKα phosphorylation. Collectively, these results indicate that Asn supplementation alleviates bacterial LPS-induced intestinal injury by modulating the AMPK signalling pathway and improving energy status. PMID:26277838

  10. Deoxynivalenol, but not E. coli lipopolysaccharide, changes the response pattern of intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) according to its route of application.

    PubMed

    Kluess, J W; Kahlert, S; Kröber, A; Diesing, A-K; Rothkötter, H-J; Wimmers, Klaus; Dänicke, S

    2015-12-15

    The porcine intestinal epithelium is a primary target for mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Although epithelial cells are exposed to these toxins mainly from the luminal-chyme compartment an exposure from the blood side resulting from systemic absorption cannot be excluded. Thus, we investigated the effect of DON and LPS, alone or combined, on porcine intestinal epithelial cells IPEC-J2 on a transcriptional, translational and functional level when administered either from apical or basolateral. IPEC-J2 cells were cultured on 12-well inserts in complete medium at 5% CO2 and 39°C and subjected to following treatments: control (CON), 2000 ng/mL DON, 1 μg/mL LPS or DON+LPS for 72 h, either from apical or basolateral. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), protein and IL-8 content were measured and microarray analysis, qRT-PCR (IL-8, zonula occludens-1 ZO-1, β-actin), Western Blot (ZO-1, β-actin) and immunofluorescence (ZO-1) were performed. Data of at least three independent experiments were analysed with ANOVA and Dunnett's post hoc test. Basolateral DON resulted in significantly lower cell counts (p<0.05) with larger cells (p<0.01), whereas apical DON reduced total (p<0.001) and specific protein content (IL-8 content CON vs. DON: 2378 pg/3 mL vs. 991 pg/3 mL; p<0.001). Transcripts of ß-actin and ZO-1 were significantly upregulated in response to DON, irrespective of direction, whereas IL-8 mRNA remained unaffected. However, ZO-1 spatial distribution in the tight junction and its function (TEER) were detrimentally affected by basolateral DON only. In conclusion, direction of DON exposure affected IPEC-J2 differently on a translational and functional level, but was mainly inconsequential on a transcriptional level. PMID:26417708

  11. The influence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on the thermoregulation of the box turtle Terrapene carolina.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, José Pedro Sousa; Marvin, Glenn A; Hutchison, Victor H

    2002-01-01

    Ectotherms can adjust their thermoregulatory set points in response to bacterial infection; the result may be similar to endothermic fever. We examined the influence of dose on the set point of body temperature (T(b)) in Terrapene carolina. After acclimating postprandial turtles to 20 degrees C, we injected them with two doses of bacterial endotoxin (LPS; lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli), 0.0025 or 0.025 mg LPS/g nonshell body mass, or with reptilian saline (control group). We placed the animals singly in linear thigmothermal gradients and recorded their T(b)'s for 48 h. The turtles showed dose-influenced thermal selection. Turtles injected with the high dose had T(b)'s significantly higher than control turtles, whereas low-dose turtles had T(b)'s significantly lower than control turtles. Also, there was a low daily effect on the T(b) of the turtles injected with the high dose. High-dose turtles had significantly higher T(b)'s than the control turtles during the first day but not during the second. Our results support the prediction of Romanovsky and Székely that an infectious agent may elicit opposite thermoregulatory responses depending on quality and quantity of the agent and the host health status. PMID:12177830

  12. Imaging robust microglial activation after lipopolysaccharide administration in humans with PET

    PubMed Central

    Sandiego, Christine M.; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Pittman, Brian; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Lim, Keunpoong; Lin, Shu-Fei; Matuskey, David; Lee, Jae-Yun; O’Connor, Kevin C.; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E.; Hannestad, Jonas; Cosgrove, Kelly P.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is associated with a broad spectrum of neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. The core process in neuroinflammation is activation of microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain. We measured the neuroinflammatory response produced by a systemic administration of the Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; also called endotoxin) in humans with the positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer [11C]PBR28, which binds to translocator protein, a molecular marker that is up-regulated by microglial activation. In addition, inflammatory cytokines in serum and sickness behavior profiles were measured before and after LPS administration to relate brain microglial activation with systemic inflammation and behavior. Eight healthy male subjects each had two 120-min [11C]PBR28 PET scans in 1 d, before and after an LPS challenge. LPS (1.0 ng/kg, i.v.) was administered 180 min before the second [11C]PBR28 scan. LPS administration significantly increased [11C]PBR28 binding 30–60%, demonstrating microglial activation throughout the brain. This increase was accompanied by an increase in blood levels of inflammatory cytokines, vital sign changes, and sickness symptoms, well-established consequences of LPS administration. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration in humans that a systemic LPS challenge induces robust increases in microglial activation in the brain. This imaging paradigm to measure brain microglial activation with [11C]PBR28 PET provides an approach to test new medications in humans for their putative antiinflammatory effects. PMID:26385967

  13. Endotoxin-like activity associated with Lyme disease Borrelia.

    PubMed

    Fumarola, D; Munno, I; Marcuccio, C; Miragliotta, G

    1986-12-01

    The newly recognized spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme Disease, has been examined for endotoxin-like activities as measured by the standard Farmacopea Ufficiale della Republica Italiana rabbit fever test and the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. The suspension of heat-killed microorganism caused a febrile response at a dose of 1 X 10(8) bacteria pro kilo. Similar results were obtained in the Limulus assay where the heat-killed spirochetes stimulated formation of solid clot until the concentration of 1 X 10(5) per ml. Both in pyrogen test and in Limulus assay heat-killed Escherichia coli exhibited a higher degree of potency. These results show that LD-Borrelia possess endotoxin-like activities which could help in understanding the pathogenesis of the clinical symptomatology of the disease. PMID:3577476

  14. Effect of endotoxin on lipid peroxidation in vivo in selenium and vitamin E deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sword, J.T.; Pope, A.L.; Hoekstra, W.G.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have used respiratory ethane production by selenium (Se) and vitamin E (E) deficient rats, an index of lipid peroxidation, to identify oxidant stressors which might precipitate sudden tissue degeneration in deficient animals. Other studies have suggested that endotoxin (gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide-LPS) might be such an oxidant stressor, especially in the lungs. Male weanling rats were fed a Se and E deficient diet for about 80 days. Rats were injected ip with Salmonella typhimurium LPS (.25, .5, or 1.0 mg/kg) or saline, and respiratory ethane was collected for 16 hr. In a representative experiment, mean rate of ethane production (nm/100g/hr) was increased (p < .01) by LPS: saline, .48 +/- .04 (SEM); .25 mg LPS/kg, 1.30 +/- .17; .5, 1.47 +/- .18 and 1.0, 1.68 +/- .18. E. coli and S. minnesota LPS gave similar results. Rats fed a supplemented diet (.2 ppm Se and 200 IU E/kg diet) produced less (p < .01) ethane: saline, .068 +/- .009 and .5 mg LPS/kg, .114 +/- .01. Over all experiments LPS produced a small yet significant increase in ethane in rats receiving Se or E supplementation but produced a marked increase in unsupplemented rats. In further studies with LPS treated rats, Se supplementation alone was 73%, and E supplementation alone 99% as effective as Se + E. These results showed that LPS stimulates lipid peroxidation in Se and E deficient rats and that infections may initiate oxidative cell damage in deficient animals. E was more protective than Se against LPS-induced peroxidation.

  15. Effects of Puerariae Radix Extract on Endotoxin Receptors and TNF-α Expression Induced by Gut-Derived Endotoxin in Chronic Alcoholic Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jing-Hua; Cui, Tuan; Sun, Zhao-Lin; Huang, Fu; Chen, Liang; Xu, Lin; Feng, Qin; Hu, Yi-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) is one of the earliest medicinal plants used to treat alcohol abuse in traditional Chinese medicine for more than a millennium. However, little is known about its effects on chronic alcoholic liver injury. Therefore, the present study observed the effects of puerariae radix extract (RPE) on chronic alcoholic liver injury as well as Kupffer cells (KCs) activation to release tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) induced by gut-derived endotoxin in rats and macrophage cell line. RPE was observed to alleviate the pathological changes and lipids deposition in liver tissues as well as the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity. Meanwhile, RPE inhibited KCs activation and subsequent hepatic TNF-α expression and downregulated the protein expression of endotoxin receptors, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), CD14, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, and TLR4 in chronic alcohol intake rats. Furthermore, an in vitro study showed that RPE inhibited the expression of TNF-α and endotoxin receptors, CD14 and TLR4, induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells. In summary, this study demonstrated that RPE mitigated liver damage and lipid deposition induced by chronic alcohol intake in rats, as well as TNF-α release, protein expression of endotoxin receptors in vivo or in vitro. PMID:23133491

  16. Comparison of Different Irrigants in the Removal of Endotoxins and Cultivable Microorganisms from Infected Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Cardoso, Flvia Goulart da Rosa; Chung, Adriana; Xavier, Ana Cludia Carvalho; Figueiredo, Mariana Diehl; Martinho, Frederico Canato; Palo, Renato Miotto

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of different irrigants used to remove endotoxins and cultivable microorganisms during endodontic therapy. Forty root canals were contaminated and divided into groups according to the irrigant: 2% NaOCl + surfactant, 2% CHX, 2.5% NaOCl, and pyrogen-free saline solution (control). Samples were collected after root canal contamination (S1), after instrumentation (S2), and 7 days after instrumentation (S3). Microorganisms and endotoxins were recovered from 100% of the contaminated root canals (S1). At S2, 2% NaOCl + surfactant, 2% CHX, and 2.5% NaOCl were able to completely eliminate cultivable microorganisms. At S3, both 2% CHX and 2.5% NaOCl were effective in preventing C. albicans and E. coli regrowth, but E. faecalis was still detected. No microorganism species was recovered from root canals instrumented with 2% NaOCl + surfactant. At S2, a higher percentage value of endotoxin reduction was found for 2% NaOCl + surfactant (99.3%) compared to 2% CHX (98.9%) and 2.5% NaOCl (97.18%) (p < 0.05). Moreover, at S3, 2% NaOCl + surfactant (100%) was the most effective irrigant against endotoxins. All irrigants tested were effective in reducing microorganisms and endotoxins from root canals. Moreover, 2% NaOCl + surfactant was the most effective irrigant against endotoxins and regrowth of microorganisms. PMID:26346574

  17. Impact of lipopolysaccharide coating on clay particle wettability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Zhu, Honglong

    2004-05-15

    Impact of lipopolysaccharide coating on kaolinite and Na-montmorillonite wettability was investigated. Kaolinite had greater diiodomethane contact angles, smaller water and formamide contact angles than Na-montmorillonite. After lipopolysaccharide coating, diiodomethane and formamide contact angles decreased, while water contact angles increased for both kaolinite and Na-montmorillonite. The decrease and increase in liquid contact angles after lipopolysaccharide coating were most pronounced for lipopolysaccharide extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, followed by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Echerichia coli. Clay particle wettability was determined by particle surface thermodynamic properties. Both kaolinite and Na-montmorillonite exhibited a monopolar surface and the monopolarity decreased after lipopolysaccharide coating, indicating an increase in hydration or surface wetness. The origins of interactions of clay particles with water molecules were discussed and related to clay particle water wettability. PMID:15261047

  18. Impact of bacterial endotoxin on the structure of DMPC membranes.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Michael; Brauckmann, Stephan; Moegle-Hofacker, Franzeska; Effenberger-Neidnicht, Katharina; Hartmann, Matthias; de Groot, Herbert; Mayer, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharides are believed to have a toxic effect on human cell membranes. In this study, the influence of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli on the structure, the dynamics and the mechanical strength of phospholipid membranes are monitored by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Model membranes are formed from 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and are either prepared as multilamellar bulk samples or multilamellar vesicles. Field gradient NMR data directly prove the rapid integration of LPS into DMPC membranes. Solid state NMR experiments primarily detect decreasing molecular order parameters with increasing LPS content. This is accompanied by a mechanical softening of the membrane bilayers as is shown by AFM indentation measurements. Altogether, the data prove that lipopolysaccharide molecules quickly insert into phospholipid bilayers, increase membrane fluctuation amplitudes and significantly weaken their mechanical stiffness. PMID:26071197

  19. A non-chromatographic method for the removal of endotoxins from bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Branston, Steven D; Wright, Jason; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli

    2015-08-01

    The Ff filamentous bacteriophages show potential as a new class of therapeutics, displaying utility in materials science as well as pharmaceutical applications. These phages are produced by the infection of E. coli, a Gram-negative bacterium which unavoidably sheds endotoxins into the extracellular space during growth. Since endotoxin molecules are highly immunoreactive, separation from the phage product is of critical importance, particularly those developed for human therapeutic use. The properties of M13, one of the Ff group, present a purification challenge chiefly because the standard scalable method for endotoxin removal from proteins-anion exchange chromatography-is not applicable due to pI similarity between the particles. This article examines the potential of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-NaCl precipitation as a scalable method for the separation of endotoxins from phage M13. Precipitation of M13 by 2% (w/v) PEG 6 000, 500 mM NaCl reduced endotoxin contamination of the phage product by 88%, but additional precipitation rounds did not maintain this proportional decrease. Dynamic light scattering was subsequently used to determine the effectiveness of a detergent to disassociate endotoxin molecules from M13. As a result, PEG-NaCl precipitation was supplemented with up to 2% (v/v) Triton X-100 to improve separation. A 5.7 log10 reduction in endotoxin concentration was achieved over three rounds of precipitation whilst retaining over 97% of the phage. This method compares favorably with the well-known ATPS (Triton X-114) technique for endotoxin removal from protein solutions. PMID:25728530

  20. Lipopolysaccharide Phosphorylation by the WaaY Kinase Affects the Susceptibility of Escherichia coli to the Human Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37.

    PubMed

    Bociek, Karol; Ferluga, Sara; Mardirossian, Mario; Benincasa, Monica; Tossi, Alessandro; Gennaro, Renato; Scocchi, Marco

    2015-08-01

    The human cathelicidin LL-37 is a multifunctional host defense peptide with immunomodulatory and antimicrobial roles. It kills bacteria primarily by altering membrane barrier properties, although the exact sequence of events leading to cell lysis has not yet been completely elucidated. Random insertion mutagenesis allowed isolation of Escherichia coli mutants with altered susceptibility to LL-37, pointing to factors potentially relevant to its activity. Among these, inactivation of the waaY gene, encoding a kinase responsible for heptose II phosphorylation in the LPS inner core, leads to a phenotype with decreased susceptibility to LL-37, stemming from a reduced amount of peptide binding to the surface of the cells, and a diminished capacity to lyse membranes. This points to a specific role of the LPS inner core in guiding LL-37 to the surface of Gram-negative bacteria. Although electrostatic interactions are clearly relevant, the susceptibility of the waaY mutant to other cationic helical cathelicidins was unaffected, indicating that particular structural features or LL-37 play a role in this interaction. PMID:26100635

  1. Performance, serum biochemical responses, and gene expression of intestinal folate transporters of young and older laying hens in response to dietary folic acid supplementation and challenge with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Jing, M; Munyaka, P M; Tactacan, G B; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; O, K; House, J D

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary folic acid (FA) supplementation on performance, serum biochemical indices, and mRNA abundance of intestinal folate transporters in young and older laying hens after acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Two experiments were conducted separately involving 48 Shaver White young laying hens (24 wk of age) in experiment 1 and 48 Shaver White older laying hens (58 wk of age) in experiment 2. Birds were fed 2 diets in a complete randomized design. The diets were wheat-soybean meal based, with or without supplemental 4 mg of FA/kg of diet. Birds were fed for 8 wk, during which time feed consumption and egg production were monitored. At the end of each feeding experiment, 6 hens from each dietary treatment were injected intravenously with 8 mg/kg of BW of either Escherichia coli LPS or sterile saline. Four hours after injection, blood and intestinal samples were collected for further analysis. Compared with the control, dietary FA supplementation increased egg weight and egg mass and decreased serum glucose levels in the young laying hens, and reduced serum uric acid in the older laying hens (P < 0.05). Relative to saline injection, plasma homocysteine, serum calcium, and phosphorus levels were found to be lower in both young and older laying hens after LPS challenge (P < 0.05). Other serum biochemical variables and the mRNA expression of 2 folate transport genes in the small and large intestine were differentially affected by LPS challenge, and some of those responses varied with the age of the birds. Additionally, interactions between diet and LPS challenge were specifically found in the older laying hens. In summary, in addition to improving production performance, there were effects of dietary FA supplementation and its interaction with LPS challenge on biochemical constituents, and age played a role in the development of responses to diet and bacterial LPS infections. PMID:24570431

  2. All-trans retinoic acid and intra-amniotic endotoxin-mediated effects on fetal sheep lung.

    PubMed

    Kramer, B W; Albertine, K H; Moss, T J M; Nitsos, I; Ladenburger, A; Speer, C P; Newnham, J P; Jobe, A H

    2008-10-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (RA) is a potent modulator of lung development. Chorioamnionitis, which is frequently associated with preterm birth, causes fetal lung inflammation and improves lung function but also results in alveolar simplification and microvascular injury. Endotoxin-mediated chorioamnionitis reduces RA concentration in the fetal lung to 16% of control values. We hypothesized that administration of RA to the fetus before induction of chorioamnionitis would preserve septation of the distal airspaces. Time-mated ewes with singletons were assigned to receive a fetal intramuscular treatment with 20,000 IU of RA in olive oil (or olive oil only) 3 hr prior to intra-amniotic injection of endotoxin (20 mg, E. coli 055:B5) or saline, at 124-day gestational age and 7 days after the fetal treatment. The right cranial lung lobe was processed for morphometric analysis. RA treatment did not affect chorioamnionitis-induced fetal and systemic inflammation or interleukin-8 concentrations in lung tissue. RA administration alone did not alter lung structure. Relative to control lungs (5 +/- 3 mL/kg), lung volume increased similarly with endotoxin (22 +/- 4 mL/kg) or RA plus endotoxin (20 +/- 3 mL/kg; P < 0.05). Alveolar wall thickness was 4.2 +/- 0.3 mum after endotoxin-induced chorioamnionitis, 6.0 +/- 0.4 mum in controls (P < 0.05 versus endotoxin) and 5.5 +/- 0.2 mum after RA and endotoxin (P < 0.05 versus control, n.s. versus endotoxin). The ratio of airspace versus tissue was 4.6 +/- 0.3 in endotoxin-induced chorioamnionitis, 2.1 +/- 0.3 in controls and 4.1 +/- 0.5 after RA and endotoxin. We conclude that fetal treatment with RA did not prevent inflammation-induced alveolar simplification. PMID:18727105

  3. Peptides with dual mode of action: Killing bacteria and preventing endotoxin-induced sepsis.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Klaus; Heinbockel, Lena; Correa, Wilmar; Lohner, Karl

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial infections, with the most severe form being sepsis, can often not be treated adequately leading to high morbidity and lethality of infected patients in critical care units. In particular, the increase in resistant bacterial strains and the lack of new antibiotics are main reasons for the worsening of the current situation, As a new approach, the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) seems to be promising, combining the ability of broad-spectrum bactericidal activity and low potential of induction of resistance. Peptides based on natural defense proteins or polypeptides such as lactoferrin, Limulus anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (LALF), cathelicidins, and granulysins are candidates due to their high affinity to bacteria and to their pathogenicity factors, in first line lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) of Gram-negative origin. In this review, we discuss literature with the focus on the use of AMPs from natural sources and their variants as antibacterial as well as anti-endotoxin (anti-inflammatory) drugs. Considerable progress has been made by the design of new AMPs for acting efficiently against the LPS-induced inflammation reaction in vitro as well as in vivo (mouse) models of sepsis. Furthermore, the data indicate that efficient antibacterial compounds are not necessarily equally efficient as anti-endotoxin drugs and vice versa. The most important reason for this may be the different molecular geometry of LPS in bacteria and in free form. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert. PMID:26801369

  4. Immobilization of ɛ-polylysine onto the probe surface for molecular adsorption type endotoxin detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooe, Katsutoshi; Tsuji, Akihito; Nishishita, Naoki; Hirano, Yoshiaki

    2007-04-01

    Patients with renal failure become not able to expel the waste product, and they accumulate the toxic products for themselves. They therefore must use the hemodialysis to weed out the metabolic decomposition product. Hemodialysis for chronic renal failure is the most popular treatment method with artificial organs. However, hemodialysis patients must continue the treatment throughout their life, the results of long term extracorporeal dialysis, those patients develop the various complications and diseases, for example, dialysis amyloidosis etc. Dialysis amyloidosis is one of the refractory complications, and the prevention of this complication is important. Recently, endotoxin is thought to be the most likely cause of the complication. Endotoxin is one of the major cell wall components of gram-negative bacteria, and it forms the complex with proteins and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It has various biological activities, e.g. attack of fever, when it gets mixed into human blood. In addition, it is known that large amount of endotoxin exists in living environment, and medicine is often contaminated with endotoxin. When contaminated dialyzing fluids are used to hemodialysis, above-mentioned dialysis amyloidosis is developed. Therefore, it is important that the detection and removal of endotoxin from dialyzing fluids. Until now, the measurement methods using Limulus Amebosyte Lysate (LAL) reagent were carried out as the tests for the presence of endotoxin. However, these methods include several different varieties of measurement techniques. The following are examples of them, gelatinization method, turbidimetric assay method, colorimetric assay method and fluoroscopic method. However, these techniques needed 30-60 minutes for the measurement. From these facts, they are not able to use as a "real-time endotoxin detector". The detection of endotoxin has needed to carry out immediately, for that reason, a new "real-time" detection method is desired. We focused attention to adsorption reaction between ɛ-polylysine and endotoxin. ɛ-polylysine has the structure of straight chain molecule composed by 25-30 residues made by lysine, and it is used as an antimicrobial agent, moreover, cellulose beads with immobilized ɛ-polylysine is used as the barrier filter for endotoxin removal. Therefore, it is expected that the endotoxin be adsorbed to the immobilized ɛ-polylysine onto the probe. As the result of this reaction, the mass of the probe is increased, and endotoxin can be detected by using of Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM). In our previous research, we have already acquired the proteins immobilization technique onto Au and Si surface. In this report, the proposal of molecular adsorption type endotoxin detection system, and the immobilization of ɛ-polylysine onto the probe are described. We use X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to confirm the ɛ-polylysine immobilization, and the adsorptive activity of immobilized ɛ-polylysine is measured by XPS and AFM. The purpose of this study is to bring about the realization of "Real-time endotoxin detection system".

  5. Circadian responses to endotoxin treatment in mice.

    PubMed

    Marpegán, Luciano; Bekinschtein, Tristán A; Costas, Monica A; Golombek, Diego A

    2005-03-01

    We tested the ability of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to phase-shift the activity circadian rhythm in C57Bl/6J mice. Intraperitoneal administration of 25 microg/kg LPS induced photic-like phase delays (-43+/-10 min) during the early subjective night. These delays were non-additive to those induced by light at CT 15, and were reduced by the previous administration of sulfasalazine, a NF-kappaB activation inhibitor. At CT 15, LPS induced c-Fos expression in the dorsal area of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). Our results suggest that the activation of the immune system should be considered an entraining signal for the murine circadian clock. PMID:15710463

  6. Endotoxin-induced hematologic and blood chemical changes in ponies: effects of flunixin meglumine, dexamethasone, and prednisolone.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Ewert KM; Fessler JF; Templeton CB; Bottoms GD; Latshaw HS; Johnson MA

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of certain drugs on hematologic changes, blood chemical values, and survival in endotoxin shock, anesthetized ponies were given (IV) endotoxin (Escherichia coli O55:B5) and then treated as follows: Group A ponies--given a saline infusion at 5 minutes and at 3 hours after they were given endotoxin; group B ponies--given flunixin meglumine at 5 minutes and at 3, 6, 9, and 24 hours after they were given endotoxin; group C ponies--treated with dexamethasone; and group D ponies--treated with prednisolone at 5 minutes and at 3, 9, and 24 hours after they were given endotoxin. Anesthesia was maintained for 4 hours, after which time the ponies were allowed to recover. Throughout the experiment, samples of blood were collected for blood gas, hematologic, and blood chemical values. The endotoxin effects were seen in the 4 groups: lactic acidosis, prolonged coagulation times, leukopenia, hemoconcentration, and elevated blood chemical values. Although none of the treatments prevented the effects of endotoxin, changes were less severe and survival times were longer in ponies treated with flunixin meglumine.

  7. Endotoxin inhibition of luteinizing hormone in sheep.

    PubMed

    Daniel, J A; Abrams, M S; deSouza, L; Wagner, C G; Whitlock, B K; Sartin, J L

    2003-07-01

    Administration of endotoxin suppresses circulating concentration of luteinizing hormone (LH) in a number of species, including rats, sheep, cattle, and non-human primates. Specifically, endotoxin administration decreases circulating concentration of LH and LH pulses frequency in castrated male sheep. Endotoxin could alter circulating concentrations of LH via actions at the hypothalamus through altered GnRH production and/or release, or endotoxin could alter circulating concentrations of LH at the level of the pituitary via inhibition of LH production and release or inhibition of LH in response to GnRH. The site of endotoxin suppression of circulating concentrations of LH as well as possible mediators of endotoxin suppression of circulating concentrations of LH, including cortiocotropin-releasing hormone, arginine vasopressin, glucocorticoids, inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandins, and opioids, are discussed. PMID:12963096

  8. Capillary electrophoresis chips for fingerprinting endotoxin chemotypes from whole-cell lysates.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Béla; Kilár, Anikó; Makszin, Lilla; Kovács, Krisztina; Kilár, Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    Endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPSs) are components of the envelope of Gram-negative bacteria. These molecules, responsible for both advantageous and harmful biological activities of these microorganisms, are highly immunogenic and directly involved in numerous bacterial diseases in humans such as Gram-negative sepsis. The characterization of endotoxins is of importance, since their physiological and pathophysiological effects depend on their chemical structure. The differences among LPSs from different bacterial serotypes and their mutants include variations mainly within the composition and length of their O-specific polysaccharide chains.Proper assignation of the S or R chemotypes of endotoxins is possible by analyzing their electrophoretic profiles. The recent microchip electrophoretic methods provide fast characterizations and differentiations of endotoxins. The methods are applicable for determination directly from whole-cell lysates after destruction of the proteinaceous components by proteinase K digestion and precipitation of the LPS components. The partially purified LPS components are visualized either by interaction with dodecyl sulfate and a fluorescent dye, or by a covalently bound fluorescent dye. These chip electrophoretic methods have advantages of high speed and quantification and replace the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with silver staining. PMID:21567320

  9. Lipopolysaccharide Membrane Building and Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Sunhwan; Wu, Emilia L.; Stuhlsatz, Danielle; Klauda, Jeffery B.; Widmalm, Göran; Im, Wonpil

    2015-01-01

    Summary While membrane simulations are widely employed to study the structure and dynamics of various lipid bilayers and membrane proteins in the bilayers, simulations of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in membrane environments have been limited due to its structural complexity, difficulties in building LPS-membrane systems, and lack of appropriate molecular force field. In this work, as a first step to extend CHARMM-GUI Membrane Builder to incorporate LPS molecules and to explore their structures and dynamics in membrane environments using molecular dynamics simulations, we describe step-by-step procedures to build LPS bilayer systems using CHARMM and the recently developed CHARMM carbohydrate and lipid force fields. Such procedures are illustrated by building various bilayers of Escherichia coli O6 LPS and their preliminary simulation results are given in terms of per-LPS area and density distributions of various components along the membrane normal. PMID:25753722

  10. Escherichia coli Morphological Changes and Lipid A Removal Induced by Reduced Pressure Nitrogen Afterglow Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Zerrouki, Hayat; Rizzati, Virginie; Bernis, Corinne; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Sarrette, Jean Philippe; Cousty, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Lipid A is a major hydrophobic component of lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin) present in the membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria, and the major responsible for the bioactivity and toxicity of the endotoxin. Previous studies have demonstrated that the late afterglow region of flowing post-discharges at reduced pressure (1-20 Torr) can be used for the sterilization of surfaces and of the reusable medical instrumentation. In the present paper, we show that the antibacterial activity of a pure nitrogen afterglow can essentially be attributed to the large concentrations of nitrogen atoms present in the treatment area and not to the UV radiation of the afterglow. In parallel, the time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial Escherichia coli (E. coli) population is correlated with morphologic changes observed on the bacteria by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for increasing afterglow exposure times. The effect of the afterglow exposure is also studied on pure lipid A and on lipid A extracted from exposed E. coli bacteria. We report that more than 60% of lipid A (pure or bacteria-extracted) are lost with the used operating conditions (nitrogen flow QN2 = 1 standard liter per minute (slpm), pressure p = 5 Torr, microwave injected power PMW = 200 W, exposure time: 40 minutes). The afterglow exposure also results in a reduction of the lipid A proinflammatory activity, assessed by the net decrease of the redox-sensitive NFκB transcription factor nuclear translocation in murine aortic endothelial cells stimulated with control vs afterglow-treated (pure and extracted) lipid A. Altogether these results point out the ability of reduced pressure nitrogen afterglows to neutralize the cytotoxic components in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25837580

  11. Escherichia coli morphological changes and lipid A removal induced by reduced pressure nitrogen afterglow exposure.

    PubMed

    Zerrouki, Hayat; Rizzati, Virginie; Bernis, Corinne; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Sarrette, Jean Philippe; Cousty, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Lipid A is a major hydrophobic component of lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin) present in the membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria, and the major responsible for the bioactivity and toxicity of the endotoxin. Previous studies have demonstrated that the late afterglow region of flowing post-discharges at reduced pressure (1-20 Torr) can be used for the sterilization of surfaces and of the reusable medical instrumentation. In the present paper, we show that the antibacterial activity of a pure nitrogen afterglow can essentially be attributed to the large concentrations of nitrogen atoms present in the treatment area and not to the UV radiation of the afterglow. In parallel, the time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial Escherichia coli (E. coli) population is correlated with morphologic changes observed on the bacteria by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for increasing afterglow exposure times. The effect of the afterglow exposure is also studied on pure lipid A and on lipid A extracted from exposed E. coli bacteria. We report that more than 60% of lipid A (pure or bacteria-extracted) are lost with the used operating conditions (nitrogen flow QN2 = 1 standard liter per minute (slpm), pressure p = 5 Torr, microwave injected power PMW = 200 W, exposure time: 40 minutes). The afterglow exposure also results in a reduction of the lipid A proinflammatory activity, assessed by the net decrease of the redox-sensitive NFκB transcription factor nuclear translocation in murine aortic endothelial cells stimulated with control vs afterglow-treated (pure and extracted) lipid A. Altogether these results point out the ability of reduced pressure nitrogen afterglows to neutralize the cytotoxic components in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25837580

  12. Effects of testosterone on fever and vasopressin mRNA in wether sheep given endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Parrott, R F; Vellucci, S V

    1997-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of testosterone on the febrile response of castrated rams to immunological challenge. Core temperature was recorded by radiotelemetry in wethers (n = 6) injected with lipopolysaccharide endotoxin or saline before and after androgen treatment. The number of cells expressing vasopressin mRNA in the brain region implicated in the anti-pyretic response, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, was determined by in situ hybridisation histochemistry. Endotoxin, but not androgen, increased vasopressin message (P < 0.05), and androgen also did not alter basal or febrile temperatures. Hence, these preliminary findings question whether the androgen-dependent anti-pyretic mechanism described in the male rat is of physiological significance in the ram. PMID:9429245

  13. Fucoidan extracted from Fucus evanescens prevents endotoxin-induced damage in a mouse model of endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatyana A; Besednova, Natalya N; Somova, Larisa M; Plekhova, Natalya G

    2014-02-01

    An important problem of treating patients with endotoxemia is to find drugs to reduce the negative effects of endotoxin on the organism. We tested fucoidan (sulfated polysaccharide) from the brown alga Fucus evanescens as a potential drug in a mouse model of endotoxemia inducted by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The survival time of mice injected with LPS increased under fucoidan treatment compared with the group of mice injected with LPS only. The preventive administration of fucoidan to mice with endotoxemia resulted in inhibition of increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF? and IL-6), as well as decreasing of the processes of hypercoagulability. The parenteral or per os administration of fucoidan resulted in decreasing the degree of microcirculatory disorders and secondary dystrophic-destructive changes in parenchymal organs of mice with endotoxemia. Taken together, these results demonstrate that fucoidan prevents endotoxin-induced damage in a mouse model of endotoxemia and increases the mice's resistance to LPS. PMID:24492521

  14. Direct induction of tissue factor synthesis by endotoxin in human macrophages from diverse anatomical sites.

    PubMed Central

    Semeraro, N; Biondi, A; Lorenzet, R; Locati, D; Mantovani, A; Donati, M B

    1983-01-01

    On exposure to endotoxin and other stimuli, human peripheral-blood mononuclear cells generate a potent procoagulant activity (PCA), identified as tissue factor. Although it is now recognized that the monocytes are the source of PCA, the question whether these cells per se are capable of procoagulant response to endotoxin or require lymphocyte collaboration remains unsettled. We have investigated the capacity of highly purified human macrophages from diverse anatomical sites to generate PCA following endotoxin stimulation. Purified (greater than 99%) monocyte-derived macrophages were obtained by prolonged (3-10 days) in-vitro culture of adherent monocytes using medium supplemented with 50% human serum. Purified (greater than 95%) peritoneal and milk macrophages were isolated by adherence to plastic. PCA was measured before and after incubation (4 hr at 37 degrees) with endotoxin (Salmonella enteritidis LPS, W or Escherichia coli O111:B4LPS, W, 1 microgram/ml final concentration) using a one-stage clotting assay and/or a two-stage amidolytic assay. Monocyte-derived macrophages had low baseline PCA (14-19 units/10(5) cells) but, upon exposure to endotoxin, displayed an eight-fold increase in PCA over control. Peritoneal and milk macrophages expressed very low baseline activity (1-5 units/10(5) cells). The latter, however, increased 15-20 times over control following endotoxin stimulation. PCA was identified as tissue factor by biological and immunological criteria. Its generation was completely abolished by cycloheximide. It is concluded that in the human mononuclear phagocyte series the capacity to produce PCA is not restricted to circulating monocytes but is also expressed by macrophages obtained from diverse anatomical sites. These macrophages appear to be autonomous in their procoagulant response to endotoxin. PMID:6654386

  15. Endotoxin enhances EEG alpha and beta power in human sleep.

    PubMed

    Trachsel, L; Schreiber, W; Holsboer, F; Pollmächer, T

    1994-03-01

    Endotoxin, a lipopolysaccharide (0.4 or 0.8 ng/kg body weight), was injected at 1900 hours in 17 healthy men in a single-blind, placebo-controlled experiment. The administration was followed by a 4-hour period of quiet wakefulness in bed (light intensity < 200 lux). Unlimited sleep was allowed after 2300 hours (lights off) until the next morning. The electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram, electrooculogram, electrocardiogram and rectal temperature were recorded throughout the experimental session. Standard sleep stages were assessed, and the EEG was submitted to a state-specific, serial spectral analysis. Endotoxin administration induced a rise of body temperature and heart rate, which started approximately 2 hours after the injection and persisted through most of the sleep period. Sleep latency remained unchanged, whereas rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency increased from 60.3 to 89.0 minutes (paired t test; p = 0.06) compared to control values. Stage 2 sleep was elevated from 45.5 to 49.0% of time in bed (p < 0.05), and total nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep from 64.2 to 69.1% (p < 0.05). No significant change could be observed in slow-wave sleep (SWS, stages 3 and 4). During the first 4 hours of the sleep period, NREM sleep EEG spectral power was distinctly and markedly increased between 8 and 12 Hz (alpha) and 15 and 20 Hz (beta) (p < 0.05), whereas at the same time EEG power between 1 and 8 Hz (delta, theta) was not significantly changed. We conclude that in humans the primary host response induced by endotoxin initially suppresses REM sleep and increases stage 2 NREM sleep, but does not affect SWS. No clear modification of sleep EEG delta activity could be observed after endotoxin injection, despite marked endocrinological and physiological changes such as the elevation of body temperature. Numerous factors related to the human primary host response may be responsible for the EEG intensification of the alpha and beta range. PMID:8036367

  16. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein enhances the responsiveness of alveolar macrophages to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Implications for cytokine production in normal and injured lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, T R; Mathison, J C; Tobias, P S; Letúrcq, D J; Moriarty, A M; Maunder, R J; Ulevitch, R J

    1992-01-01

    A plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) has been shown to regulate the response of rabbit peritoneal macrophages and human blood monocytes to endotoxin (LPS). We investigated whether LBP is present in lung fluids and the effects of LBP on the response of lung macrophages to LPS. Immunoreactive LBP was detectable in the lavage fluids of patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome by immunoprecipitation followed by Western blotting, and also by specific immunoassay. In rabbits, the LBP appeared to originate outside of the lungs, inasmuch as mRNA transcripts for LBP were identified in total cellular RNA from liver, but not from lung homogenates or alveolar macrophages. Purified LBP enhanced the response of human and rabbit alveolar macrophages to both smooth form LPS (Escherichia coli O111B:4) and rough form LPS (Salmonella minnesota Re595). In the presence of LBP and LPS, the onset of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) production occurred earlier and at an LPS threshold dose that was as much as 1,000-fold lower for both types of LPS. In rabbit alveolar macrophages treated with LBP and LPS, TNF alpha mRNA appeared earlier, reached higher levels, and had a prolonged half-life as compared with LPS treatment alone. Neither LPS nor LPS and LBP affected pHi or [Cai++] in alveolar macrophages. Specific monoclonal antibodies to CD14, a receptor that binds LPS/LBP complexes, inhibited TNF alpha production by human alveolar macrophages stimulated with LPS alone or with LPS/LBP complexes, indicating the importance of CD14 in mediating the effects of LPS on alveolar macrophages. Thus, immunoreactive LBP accumulates in lung lavage fluids in patients with lung injury and enhances LPS-stimulated TNF alpha gene expression in alveolar macrophages by a pathway that depends on the CD14 receptor. LBP may play an important role in augmenting TNF alpha expression by alveolar macrophages within the lungs. Images PMID:1281827

  17. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay....

  18. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay....

  19. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay....

  20. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay....

  1. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay....

  2. Rat periodontal fibroblast responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide in vitro.

    PubMed

    Susilowati, Heni; Santoso, A L Supartinah; Barid, Izzata; Sosroseno, Wihaskoro

    2002-09-01

    Rat periodontal ligament fibroblasts and gingival fibroblasts were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli. Cell proliferation and both interleukin-1beta and nitric oxide production were determined by a colorimetric, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the Griess reaction, respectively. The results showed that at lipopolysaccharide concentration up to 100 ng per well, the cell proliferation of periodontal ligament fibroblasts was higher than that of gingival fibroblasts. No significant difference between the levels of interleukin-1beta produced by periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts can be observed. At high concentration of lipopolysaccharide (1000 ng/well), the levels of nitric oxide in the periodontal ligament fibroblasts cultures were higher than those in the gingival fibroblasts cultures. These results suggest those rat periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts may respond differently to lipopolysaccharide and, thus, may be different periodontal fibroblast subpopulations. PMID:12380797

  3. Lipopolysaccharide Neutralization by Cationic-Amphiphilic Polymers through Pseudoaggregate Formation.

    PubMed

    Uppu, Divakara S S M; Haldar, Jayanta

    2016-03-14

    Synthetic polymers incorporating the cationic charge and hydrophobicity to mimic the function of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been developed. These cationic-amphiphilic polymers bind to bacterial membranes that generally contain negatively charged phospholipids and cause membrane disintegration resulting in cell death; however, cationic-amphiphilic antibacterial polymers with endotoxin neutralization properties, to the best of our knowledge, have not been reported. Bacterial endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) cause sepsis that is responsible for a great amount of mortality worldwide. These cationic-amphiphilic polymers can also bind to negatively charged and hydrophobic LPS and cause detoxification. Hence, we envisaged that cationic-amphiphilic polymers can have both antibacterial as well as LPS binding properties. Here we report synthetic amphiphilic polymers with both antibacterial as well as endotoxin neutralizing properties. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines in human monocytes caused by LPS stimulation were inhibited by >80% when coincubated with these polymers. These reductions were found to be dependent on concentration and, more importantly, on the side-chain chemical structure due to variations in the hydrophobicity profiles of these polymers. These cationic-amphiphilic polymers bind and cause LPS neutralization and detoxification. Investigations of polymer interaction with LPS using fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that these polymers bind but neither dissociate nor promote LPS aggregation. We show that polymer binding to LPS leads to sort of a pseudoaggregate formation resulting in LPS neutralization/detoxification. These findings provide an unusual mechanism of LPS neutralization using novel synthetic cationic-amphiphilic polymers. PMID:26839947

  4. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide induced acute inflammation in lung by chlorination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinshan; Xue, Jinling; Xu, Bi; Xie, Jiani; Qiao, Juan; Lu, Yun

    2016-02-13

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also called endotoxin) is a pro-inflammatory constituent of gram negative bacteria and cyanobacteria, which causes a potential health risk in the process of routine urban application of reclaimed water, such as car wash, irrigation, scenic water refilling, etc. Previous studies indicated that the common disinfection treatment, chlorination, has little effect on endotoxin activity removal measured by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. However, in this study, significant decrease of acute inflammatory effects was observed in mouse lung, while LAL assay still presented a moderate increase of endotoxin activity. To explore the possible mechanisms, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results showed the chlorination happened in alkyl chain of LPS molecules, which could affect the interaction between LPS and LPS-binding protein. Also the size of LPS aggregates was found to drop significantly after treatment, which could be another results of chlorination caused polarity change. In conclusion, our observation demonstrated that chlorination is effective to reduce the LPS induced inflammation in lung, and it is recommended to use health effect-based methods to assess risk removal of water treatment technologies. PMID:26530889

  5. Inhibition of IRAK-4 activity for rescuing endotoxin LPS-induced septic mortality in mice by lonicerae flos extract

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sun Hong; Roh, Eunmiri; Kim, Hyun Soo; Baek, Seung-Il; Choi, Nam Song; Kim, Narae; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Han, Sang-Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2013-12-13

    Highlights: •Lonicerae flos extract (HS-23) is a clinical candidate, Phase I for sepsis treatment. •Here, HS-23 or its major constituents rescued LPS-induced septic mortality in mice. •As a mechanism, they directly inhibited IRAK-4-catalyzed kinase activity. •Thus, they suppressed LPS-induced expression of NF-κB/AP-1-target inflammatory genes. -- Abstract: Lonicerae flos extract (HS-23) is a clinical candidate currently undergoing Phase I trial in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected healthy human volunteers, but its molecular basis remains to be defined. Here, we investigated protective effects of HS-23 or its major constituents on Escherichia coli LPS-induced septic mortality in mice. Intravenous treatment with HS-23 rescued LPS-intoxicated C57BL/6J mice under septic conditions, and decreased the levels of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) in the blood. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and its isomers were assigned as major constituents of HS-23 in the protection against endotoxemia. As a molecular mechanism, HS-23 or CGA isomers inhibited endotoxin LPS-induced autophosphorylation of the IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4) in mouse peritoneal macrophages as well as the kinase activity of IRAK-4 in cell-free reactions. HS-23 consequently suppressed downstream pathways critical for LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB or activating protein 1 (AP-1) in the peritoneal macrophages. HS-23 also inhibited various toll-like receptor agonists-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, and down-regulated LPS-induced expression of NF-κB/AP-1-target inflammatory genes in the cells. Taken together, HS-23 or CGA isomers exhibited anti-inflammatory therapy against LPS-induced septic mortality in mice, at least in part, mediated through the inhibition of IRAK-4.

  6. Responses in whole-body amino acid kinetics to an acute, sub-clinical endotoxin challenge in lambs.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, S O; Bremner, D M; Holtrop, G; Lobley, G E

    2016-02-01

    Some effects of parasitism, endotoxaemia or sepsis can be mitigated by provision of extra protein. Supplemented protein may encompass a metabolic requirement for specific amino acids (AA). The current study investigates a method to identify and quantify the amounts of AA required during inflammation induced by an endotoxin challenge. One of each pair of six twin sheep was infused in the jugular vein for 20 h with either saline (control) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2 ng/kg body weight per min) from Escherichia coli. Between 12 and 20 h a mixture of stable isotope-labelled AA was infused to measure irreversible loss rates. From 16 to 20 h all sheep were supplemented with a mixture of unlabelled AA infused intravenously. Blood samples were taken before the start of infusions, and then continuously over intervals between 14 and 20 h. At 20 h the sheep were euthanised, and liver and kidney samples were taken for measurement of serine-threonine dehydratase (SDH) activity. LPS infusion decreased plasma concentrations of most AA (P<0·05; P<0·10 for leucine and tryptophan), except for phenylalanine (which increased P=0·022) and tyrosine. On the basis of the incremental response to the supplemental AA, arginine, aspartate, cysteine, glutamate, lysine (tendency only), glycine, methionine, proline, serine and threonine were important in the metabolic response to the endotoxaemia. The AA infusion between 16 and 20 h restored the plasma concentrations in the LPS-treated sheep for the majority of AA, except for glutamine, isoleucine, methionine, serine and valine. LPS treatment increased (P<0·02) SDH activity in both liver and kidney. The approach allows quantification of key AA required during challenge situations. PMID:26652711

  7. Effect of Endotoxin on the Serum Ribonuclease Activity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kutas, Vera; Bertk, L.; Szab, L. D.

    1969-01-01

    The effects of endotoxin shock, endotoxin tolerance, and lead acetate plus a minute amount of endotoxin on the serum ribonuclease activity of rats was measured. Changes in serum ribonuclease activity after various entoxin treatments could be a primary effect or a secondary effect of the damaging effect of endotoxin. PMID:4899009

  8. Protection against fatal Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis by immunization with smooth and rough lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Cryz, S J; Meadow, P M; Fürer, E; Germanier, R

    1985-04-01

    The protective capacity of various native and mutant lipopolysaccharide antigens against fatal Pseudomonas aeruginosa burn wound sepsis was evaluated. Immunization with O-polysaccharide-deficient lipopolysaccharides derived from Escherichia coli J5 or Salmonella typhi Ty 21a afforded substantial protection against only one of five Pseudomonas aeruginosa challenge strains of various serotypes. Immunization with both lipopolysaccharide antigens evoked antibody of the immunoglobulin G class which recognized lipopolysaccharide isolated from the challenge strain against which protection was noted. This was not seen for the remaining four challenge strains. Attempts to demonstrate cross-serotype protection using O-antigen-deficient and core-deficient Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide antigens was, for the most part, unsuccessful. In contrast, high levels of protection against all six serotypes of challenge strains were seen following immunization with homologous lipopolysaccharide. PMID:3924605

  9. Endotoxins in urban air in Stockholm, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, S.; Merritt, A. S.; Bellander, T.

    2011-01-01

    Endotoxins, i.e. components originating from the outer membrane in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, activate the human immune system, which may result in airway symptoms such as shortness of breath and airway inflammation. Endotoxins are present in the environment, both outdoors and indoors, and stay airborne for a long time. In order to investigate the levels of endotoxins in urban air and the influence of traffic and meteorological factors, particles (PM 10 and PM 2.5) were collected at five sites in Stockholm, Sweden on four occasions per site between May and September 2009. Endotoxins were extracted from the filters and analysis was conducted with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL)-assay. Endotoxins were present in urban air in Stockholm, albeit in low levels, and were similar to levels found in urban areas outside Sweden. To our knowledge, this is the northernmost location where endotoxins have been measured. The endotoxin levels found in PM 10 ranged from 0.020 to 0.107 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.050 EU m -3 and the levels found in PM 2.5 ranged from 0.005 to 0.064 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.015 EU m -3. No obvious effects of traffic or meteorological factors on endotoxin levels were observed, although a moderate correlation could be seen with soot. The small number of sampling sites is however a shortcoming of the present study. In future studies, more sites and sampling during all seasons would be preferable in order to get a better picture of the influence of different sources on endotoxin levels.

  10. Lipopolysaccharide augments aflatoxin B(1)-induced liver injury through neutrophil-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Barton, C C; Ganey, P E; Roth, R A

    2000-11-01

    Exposure to small, noninjurious doses of the inflammagen, bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) augments the toxicity of certain hepatotoxicants including aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)). Mediators of inflammation, in particular neutrophils (PMNs), are responsible for tissue injury in a variety of animal models. This study was conducted to examine the role of PMNs in the pathogenesis of hepatic injury after AFB(1)/LPS cotreatment. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats (250-350 g) were treated with either 1 mg AFB(1)/kg, ip or its vehicle (0.5% DMSO/saline), and 4 h later with either E. coli LPS (7. 4 x 10(6) EU/kg, iv) or its saline vehicle. Over a course of 6 to 96 h after AFB(1) administration, rats were killed and livers were stained immunohistochemically for PMNs. LPS resulted in an increase in PMN accumulation in the liver that preceded the onset of liver injury. To assess if PMNs contributed to the pathogenesis, an anti-PMN antibody was administered to reduce PMN numbers in blood and liver, and injury was evaluated. Hepatic parenchymal cell injury was evaluated as increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in serum and from histologic examination of liver sections. Biliary tract alterations were evaluated as increased concentration of serum bile acids and activities of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and 5'-nucleotidase (5'-ND) in serum. Neutrophil depletion protected against hepatic parenchymal cell injury caused by AFB(1)/LPS cotreatment but not against markers of biliary tract injury. This suggests that LPS augments AFB(1) hepatotoxicity through two mechanisms: one of which is PMN-dependent, and another that is not. PMID:11053557

  11. Distribution and Kinetics of Lipoprotein-Bound Endotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Levels, J. H. M.; Abraham, P. R.; van den Ende, A.; van Deventer, S. J. H.

    2001-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major glycolipid component of gram-negative bacterial outer membranes, is a potent endotoxin responsible for pathophysiological symptoms characteristic of infection. The observation that the majority of LPS is found in association with plasma lipoproteins has prompted the suggestion that sequestering of LPS by lipid particles may form an integral part of a humoral detoxification mechanism. Previous studies on the biological properties of isolated lipoproteins used differential ultracentrifugation to separate the major subclasses. To preserve the integrity of the lipoproteins, we have analyzed the LPS distribution, specificity, binding capacity, and kinetics of binding to lipoproteins in human whole blood or plasma by using high-performance gel permeation chromatography and fluorescent LPS of three different chemotypes. The average distribution of O111:B4, J5, or Re595 LPS in whole blood from 10 human volunteers was 60% (±8%) high-density lipoprotein (HDL), 25% (±7%) low-density lipoprotein, and 12% (±5%) very low density lipoprotein. The saturation capacity of lipoproteins for all three LPS chemotypes was in excess of 200 μg/ml. Kinetic analysis however, revealed a strict chemotype dependence. The binding of Re595 or J5 LPS was essentially complete within 10 min, and subsequent redistribution among the lipoprotein subclasses occurred to attain similar distributions as O111:B4 LPS at 40 min. We conclude that under simulated physiological conditions, the binding of LPS to lipoproteins is highly specific, HDL has the highest binding capacity for LPS, the saturation capacity of lipoproteins for endotoxin far exceeds the LPS concentrations measured in clinical situations, and the kinetics of LPS association with lipoproteins display chemotype-dependent differences. PMID:11292694

  12. Ocular Albumin Fluorophotometric Quantitation of Endotoxin-Induced Vascular Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Scott W.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Guss, Robert B.; Egbert, Peter R.

    1982-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) is known to alter systemic vascular permeability, but this effect is difficult to monitor and quantitate in vivo. The ocular vessels of the rabbit are particularly sensitive to LPS. Using a slit lamp equipped with a fluorophotometer, we have adapted a method to quantitate endotoxin-induced ocular vascular permeability by measuring the accumulation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated albumin into the anterior chamber of the eye. After intravenous administration of Salmonella typhimurim LPS, the anterior chamber fluorescence and blood fluorescence were measured at intervals of 15 min and 1 h, respectively, over 4 h. In controls, maximal fluorescence in the anterior chamber was 3.1 ± 0.8% of blood fluorescence. Doses of LPS as low as 0.25 μg/kg produced an ocular/serum fluorescence ratio of 17.6 ± 4.9. A dose of 2.5 μg of LPS per kg tended to produce a higher ratio (68.0 ± 7.1) than a larger dose of 50 μg/kg (30.5 ± 16.6). Permeability changes began within 30 min after LPS, and the rate of dye accumulation varied over time, with maximal leakage usually occurring 90 min after LPS, but occasionally occurring much later. Repeated doses produced tolerance. By conjugating albumin to rhodamine and utilizing a second filter with the slit lamp to measure accumulation of this dye, we demonstrated the persistence of marked permeability during a period when intraocular fluorescein isothiocyanate and albumin levels were relatively constant. This methodology indicates that extremely low doses of LPS induce ocular permeability changes and that neither the time course nor the dose response of this effect is linear. Ocular fluorophotometry is a sensitive, noninvasive technique to study the dynamics and pharmacology of LPS-induced permeability changes. PMID:6806194

  13. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli-induced inflammation alters mouse urinary bladder contraction via an interleukin-6-activated inducible nitric oxide synthase-related pathway.

    PubMed

    Weng, Te I; Wu, Hsiao Yi; Lin, Pei Ying; Liu, Shing Hwa

    2009-08-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infection. Elevated blood and urine interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels have been shown in inflammatory urinary tract diseases. The role of IL-6 in mediating the urodynamic dysfunction in response to E. coli-induced urinary tract infection has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-6 in the nitric oxide (NO)-triggered alteration of contractile responses in the urinary bladder under an E. coli-induced inflammatory condition. The electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked contractions of the isolated detrusor strips, and immunoblotting for detecting protein expression in the bladders was measured short term (1 h) or long term (6 or 24 h) after intraperitoneal injection of E. coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) or intravesical instillation of human pyelonephritogenic E. coli-J96 (O4:K6) strain or LPS into mice. IL-6 and NO productions were increased in the urinary bladders of mice 1 to 24 h after LPS or E. coli-J96 treatment. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression and protein kinase C (PKC) activation and EFS-evoked detrusor contractions were increased in the bladders at 6 h after LPS or E. coli-J96 treatment, which could be reversed by anti-IL-6 antibody and iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine. At 1 h after LPS administration, bladder NO generation, endothelial NOS expression, and EFS-evoked detrusor contractions were effectively increased, whereas anti-IL-6 antibody could not reverse these LPS-induced responses. These results indicate that IL-6 may play an important role in the iNOS/NO-triggered PKC-activated contractile response in urinary bladder during E. coli or LPS-induced inflammation. PMID:19470750

  14. Bacterial endotoxin-induced gene expression in the choroid plexus and paraventricular and supraoptic hypothalamic nuclei of the sheep.

    PubMed

    Vellucci, S V; Parrott, R F

    1996-12-31

    The febrile and neuroendocrine responses to circulating endotoxin are effected, at least in part, by a central action of prostaglandins with interleukins serving as intermediaries. Data from rodents suggest that prostaglandin and interleukin (IL-1 beta) synthesis in response to endotoxin challenge may occur within the circumventricular organs of the brain, especially the choroid plexus; the present study investigated this possibility using the sheep as an experimental model. A pyretic dose of bacterial endotoxin (40 micrograms lipopolysaccharide) was given intravenously to sheep (n = 5) and the effect on gene expression in the choroid plexus after a 40 min interval was compared with that observed in vehicle-treated animals (n = 5) using in situ hybridisation histochemistry. Evidence of activational and synthetic events following endotoxin administration was provided by significant increases in c-fos (P < 0.05) and IL-1 beta (P < 0.01) mRNA expression. Constitutive cyclooxygenase (cox-1 mRNA) and inducible cyclooxygenase (cox-2 mRNA) synthesis were unchanged. The investigation also sought to provide evidence for endotoxin effects on neuroendocrine activity in this species by examining changes in hypothalamic gene expression. The results showed that c-fos mRNA increased in the paraventricular (P < 0.01) and supraoptic (P < 0.05) nuclei and that CRH mRNA was upregulated in the paraventricular nucleus (P < 0.001). However, in agreement with previous work, there was no change in vasopressin gene expression although oxytocin mRNA was enhanced throughout the paraventricular nucleus (P < 0.05). These findings suggest the following: (1) possible involvement of the choroid plexus in the response of sheep to immunological challenge: (2) endotoxin-induced changes in gene expression in the ovine hypothalamus similar in those caused by other stressors: and (3) possible changes in oxytocin synthesis concomitant with fever in the sheep. PMID:9037517

  15. Differential effects of glucocorticoids in the establishment and maintenance of endotoxin tolerance.

    PubMed

    Rearte, B; Landoni, V; Laborde, E; Fernández, G; Isturiz, M

    2010-02-01

    Gram-negative infections can result in endotoxic shock, which is the most common cause of death in intensive care units. Most of the undesirable effects in sepsis and septic shock have been ascribed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a normal constituent of the bacterial wall. The response to LPS involves rapid secretion of proinflammatory cytokines [tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, interferon-gamma] and the concomitant induction of anti-inflammatory mediators such as IL-10 and transforming growth factor-beta and glucocorticoids (GC), which render the host temporarily refractory to subsequent lethal doses of LPS challenge in a process known as LPS or endotoxin tolerance. Although protective from the development of sepsis or systemic inflammation, endotoxin tolerance has also been pointed out as the principal cause of the non-specific immunosuppression described in these patients. In this report we demonstrate, using a mouse model, that while the maintenance of tolerance is dependent upon GC, the establishment of tolerance by LPS could be inhibited by dexamethasone (Dex), a synthetic GC. Conversely, we demonstrated that mifepristone (RU486), a known GC receptor antagonist, was capable of inducing a transient and reversible disruption of endotoxin tolerance, also permitting partial restoration of the humoral immune response in LPS tolerant/immunosuppressed mice. These results are encouraging for the management of immunosuppression in sepsis and/or non-infectious shock, and deserve further investigation in the future. PMID:19912256

  16. Super-low Dose Endotoxin Pre-conditioning Exacerbates Sepsis Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Keqiang; Geng, Shuo; Yuan, Ruoxi; Diao, Na; Upchurch, Zachary; Li, Liwu

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis mortality varies dramatically in individuals of variable immune conditions, with poorly defined mechanisms. This phenomenon complements the hypothesis that innate immunity may adopt rudimentary memory, as demonstrated in vitro with endotoxin priming and tolerance in cultured monocytes. However, previous in vivo studies only examined the protective effect of endotoxin tolerance in the context of sepsis. In sharp contrast, we report herein that pre-conditioning with super-low or low dose endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) cause strikingly opposite survival outcomes. Mice pre-conditioned with super-low dose LPS experienced severe tissue damage, inflammation, increased bacterial load in circulation, and elevated mortality when they were subjected to cecal-ligation and puncture (CLP). This is in contrast to the well-reported protective phenomenon with CLP mice pre-conditioned with low dose LPS. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that super-low and low dose LPS differentially modulate the formation of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) in neutrophils. Instead of increased ERK activation and NET formation in neutrophils pre-conditioned with low dose LPS, we observed significantly reduced ERK activation and compromised NET generation in neutrophils pre-conditioned with super-low dose LPS. Collectively, our findings reveal a mechanism potentially responsible for the dynamic programming of innate immunity in vivo as it relates to sepsis risks. PMID:26029736

  17. Possible pro-carcinogenic association of endotoxin on lung cancer among Shanghai women textile workers

    PubMed Central

    Checkoway, H; Lundin, J I; Costello, S; Ray, R; Li, W; Eisen, E A; Astrakianakis, G; Seixas, N; Applebaum, K; Gao, D L; Thomas, D B

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) is a widespread contaminant in many environmental settings. Since the 1970s, there has been generally consistent evidence indicating reduced risks for lung cancer associated with occupational endotoxin exposure. Methods: We updated a case–cohort study nested within a cohort of 267 400 female textile workers in Shanghai, China. We compared exposure histories of 1456 incident lung cancers cases diagnosed during 1989–2006 with those of a reference subcohort of 3022 workers who were free of lung cancer at the end of follow-up. We applied Cox proportional hazards modelling to estimate exposure–response trends, adjusted for age and smoking, for cumulative exposures lagged by 0, 10, and 20 years, and separately for time windows of ⩽15 and >15 years since first exposure. Results: We observed no associations between cumulative exposure and lung cancer, irrespective of lag interval. In contrast, analyses by exposure time windows revealed modestly elevated, but not statistically significant relative risks (∼1.27) at the highest three exposure quintiles for exposures that occurred >15 years since first exposure. Conclusions: The findings do not support a protective effect of endotoxin, but are suggestive of possible lung cancer promotion with increasing time since first exposure. PMID:24921918

  18. Effect of naloxone on regional cerebral blood flow during endotoxin shock in conscious rats

    SciTech Connect

    Law, W.R.; Ferguson, J.L. )

    1987-09-01

    Maintenance of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is vital during cardiovascular shock. Since opioids have been implicated in the pathophysiology of endotoxin shock and have been shown to alter cerebral perfusion patterns, the authors determined whether opioids were responsible for any of the changes in regional CBF observed during endotoxin shock and whether the use of naloxone might impair or aid in the maintenance of CBF. When blood flow (BF) is studied with radioactively-labeled microspheres in rats, the left ventricle of the heart is often cannulated via the right carotid artery. Questions have arisen concerning the potential adverse effects of this method on CBF in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the ligated artery. They measured right and left regional CBF by use of this route of cannulation. Twenty-four hours after cannulations were performed, flow measurements were made using radiolabeled microspheres in conscious unrestrained male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-400 g) before and 10, 30, and 60 min after challenging with 10 mg/kg Escherichia coli endotoxin (etx) or saline. Naloxone (2 mg/kg) or saline was given as a treatment 25 min post-etx. They found no significant differences between right and left cortical, midbrain, or cerebellar BF at any time in any treatment group. Therefore naloxone treatment of endotoxin shock may be beneficial in preventing decreases in regional CBF.

  19. Fractionation and analysis of lipopolysaccharide-derived oligosaccharides by zwitterionic-type hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Man-Kupisinska, Aleksandra; Bobko, Ewelina; Gozdziewicz, Tomasz K; Maciejewska, Anna; Jachymek, Wojciech; Lugowski, Czeslaw; Lukasiewicz, Jolanta

    2016-06-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) is a main surface antigen and virulence factor of Gram-negative bacteria. Regardless of the source of LPS, this molecule, isolated from the smooth forms of bacteria, is characterised by a general structural layout encompassing three regions: (i) an O-specific polysaccharide (O-PS) - a polymer of repeating oligosaccharide units, (ii) core oligosaccharide (OS), and (iii) the lipid A anchoring LPS in the outer membrane of the cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria. Structural analysis usually requires degradation of LPS and further efficient separation of various poly- and oligosaccharide glycoforms. The hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was shown as an efficient technique for separation of labelled or native neutral and acidic glycans, glycopeptides, sialylated glycans, glycosylated and nonglycosylated peptides. Herein we adopted ZIC(®) (zwitterionic stationary phase covalently attached to porous silica)-HILIC technology in combination with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry to separate different LPS-derived oligosaccharides. As a result three effective procedures have been developed: (i) to separate different core oligosaccharides of Escherichia coli R1 LOS, (ii) to separate RU-[Hep]-Kdo oligosaccharides from core OS glycoforms of Hafnia alvei PCM 1200 LPS, and (iii) to separate Hep and Kdo-containing mono, di-, tri- and tetrasaccharides of H. alvei PCM 1200 LPS. Moreover, some of developed analytical procedures were scaled to semi-preparative protocols and used to obtain highly-purified fractions of the interest in larger quantities required for future evaluation, analysis, and biological applications. PMID:27085741

  20. Mifepristone (RU486) restores humoral and T cell-mediated immune response in endotoxin immunosuppressed mice.

    PubMed

    Rearte, B; Maglioco, A; Balboa, L; Bruzzo, J; Landoni, V I; Laborde, E A; Chiarella, P; Ruggiero, R A; Fernández, G C; Isturiz, M A

    2010-12-01

    Sepsis and septic shock can be caused by Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and other microorganisms. In the case of Gram-negative bacteria, endotoxin, a normal constituent of the bacterial wall, also known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), has been considered as one of the principal agents causing the undesirable effects in this critical illness. The response to LPS involves a rapid secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-γ and the concomitant induction of anti-inflammatory mediators such as IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β or glucocorticoids, which render the host temporarily refractory to subsequent lethal doses of LPS challenge in a process known as LPS or endotoxin tolerance. Although protective from the development of sepsis or systemic inflammation, endotoxin tolerance has also been pointed out as the main cause of the non-specific humoral and cellular immunosuppression described in these patients. In this report we demonstrate, using a mouse model, that mifepristone (RU486), a known glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, could play an important role in the restoration of both adaptive humoral and cellular immune response in LPS immunosuppressed mice, suggesting the involvement of endogenous glucocorticoids in this phenomenon. On the other hand, using cyclophosphamide and gemcitabine, we demonstrated that regulatory/suppressor CD4(+) CD25(+) forkhead boxP3(+) and GR-1(+) CD11b(+) cells do not play a major role in the establishment or the maintenance of endotoxin tolerance, a central mechanism for inducing an immunosuppression state. PMID:20964639

  1. A true theranostic approach to medicine: towards tandem sensor detection and removal of endotoxin in blood.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Michael; Blaszykowski, Christophe; Sheikh, Sonia; Romaschin, Alexander

    2015-05-15

    Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death around the world. The condition occurs when a local infection overcomes the host natural defense mechanism and suddenly spreads into the circulatory system, triggering a vigorous, self-injurious inflammatory host response. The pathogenesis of sepsis is relatively well known, one of the most potent immuno-activator being bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - also known as 'endotoxin'. Tests exist to detect endotoxin in bodily fluids, but are expensive, not necessarily user-friendly and require reporter molecules. In addition, the situation for safe and effective anti-endotoxin therapy is problematical. At the present time, endotoxin removal through cartridge hemoperfusion is one of the better alternatives to combat sepsis. The capability to both measure endotoxemia levels and offer an adapted response treatment in a timely manner is crucial for better management and improved prognosis, but is currently unavailable. In this context, we describe herein preliminary research towards the development of an alternative LPS biosensor and an innovative LPS neutralization cartridge to be eventually combined in an all-integrated configuration for the theranostic, personalized treatment of blood endotoxemia/sepsis. LPS detection is performed in a real-time and label-free manner in full human blood plasma, using ultra-high frequency acoustic wave sensing in combination with ultrathin, oligoethylene glycol-based mixed surface chemistry imposed on piezoelectric quartz discs. Biosensing platforms are functionalized with polymyxin B (PMB), a cyclic peptide antibiotic with high affinity for LPS. Analogous surface modification is used on glass beads for the therapeutic cartridge component of the combined strategy. Incubation of LPS-spiked whole blood with PMB-bead chemistry resulted in a significant decrease in the production of pro-inflammatory TNF-α cytokine. LPS neutralization is discussed in relation to the perturbation of its supramolecular chemistry in solution. PMID:25067837

  2. Effect of extraction and assay media on analysis of airborne endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Spaan, Suzanne; Doekes, Gert; Heederik, Dick; Thorne, Peter S; Wouters, Inge M

    2008-06-01

    The measurement of airborne endotoxins is thus far not standardized. Earlier studies reported higher endotoxin yields when Tween 20 was added to the media used for filter extraction and in the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. This study compared four common media and assessed the effects of Tween during extraction and analysis separately. Parallel airborne dust samples from five work environments (n = 250) were used to compare the four media (pyrogen-free water [PFW], PFW-Tween 20, PFW-Tris, and PFW-triethylamine-phosphate [TAP]) and an extraction time of 10 or 60 min. A subset of the extracts in PFW or PFW-Tween (n = 40) were analyzed in parallel LAL assays with PFW or PFW-Tween as the assay medium. The results produced by a shorter extraction time or the presence of Tris were similar to the results for the reference procedure (PFW and 60 min of shaking). The use of PFW-TAP showed overall lower yields and a deviant calibration curve. The presence of Tween in the extraction medium resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) higher endotoxin yields from all dust types, independent of the effect of Tween in the assay. Tween in the LAL assay, however, also strongly inhibited the reactivity of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) standard, thus shifting the calibration curve to higher values. The inhibition of LPS in test samples was less pronounced and varied between dust sources, resulting in enhanced calculated concentrations. This assay effect could be circumvented by diluting extracts at least 50-fold before the LAL assay. In conclusion, of the media tested, only Tween enhances the efficiency of endotoxin extraction from airborne dust samples in a consistent manner. We recommend extraction in PFW-Tween combined with dilution and LAL analysis in PFW. PMID:18441112

  3. Air-sampled Filter Analysis for Endotoxins and DNA Content.

    PubMed

    Lang-Yona, Naama; Mazar, Yinon; Pardo, Michal; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor aerosol research commonly uses particulate matter sampled on filters. This procedure enables various characterizations of the collected particles to be performed in parallel. The purpose of the method presented here is to obtain a highly accurate and reliable analysis of the endotoxin and DNA content of bio-aerosols extracted from filters. The extraction of high molecular weight organic molecules, such as lipopolysaccharides, from sampled filters involves shaking the sample in a pyrogen-free water-based medium. The subsequent analysis is based on an enzymatic reaction that can be detected using a turbidimetric measurement. As a result of the high organic content on the sampled filters, the extraction of DNA from the samples is performed using a commercial DNA extraction kit that was originally designed for soils and modified to improve the DNA yield. The detection and quantification of specific microbial species using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) analysis are described and compared with other available methods. PMID:27023725

  4. Histochemical evidence for lipid A (endotoxin) in eukaryote chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Margaret T; Theg, Steven M; Braun, Nikolai; Wainwright, Norman; Pardy, R L; Armstrong, Peter B

    2006-10-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (a.k.a., endotoxin) is an essential component of the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria and is a potent activator of the innate immune system of animals. Lipid A, the glycolipid core of LPS, is the agent responsible for disease and death from gram-negative sepsis, an important cause of human mortality and morbidity. Although it is generally accepted that lipid A is restricted to the prokaryotes, recent efforts to purify molecules from green algae with structural features unique to lipid A have met with success. Furthermore, the vascular plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been found to contain genes that encode all of the enzymes of the biosynthetic pathway for lipid A. It is not known whether vascular plants synthesize lipid A or where lipid A might be located in the tissues. For the present study, we used affinity reagents for lipid A to probe green alga and tissues of the garden pea for a light microscopic localization of lipid A in these eukaryote cells. We find staining for lipid A in free-living and endosymbiotic green algae and in the chloroplasts of vascular plants, indicating that this molecule is not restricted to prokaryotes, but is found also in select eukaryotes. PMID:16935939

  5. Profiling of 3-hydroxy fatty acids as environmental markers of endotoxin using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Silvio; Negård, Mariell; Heldal, Kari K; Straumfors, Anne; Madsø, Lene; Bakke, Berit; Eduard, Wijnand

    2016-02-19

    3-Hydroxy acids are constituents of the lipid A part of lipopolysaccharides and may potentially be used as chemical markers of endotoxin. While commercial enzymatic assays, such as the widely used Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay, commonly detect merely the water-soluble fraction of the bioactive endotoxin, the chemical approach aims to estimate the total amount of endotoxin present in a sample. Our objective was to develop a simple method for quantitative profiling of 3-hydroxy fatty acids in occupational and environmental samples based on detection with HPLC-MS/MS. We included eleven 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-hydroxyoctanoic acid to 3-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid) in the HPLC-MS/MS based method, which involved base hydrolysis of filter samples using 1M sodium hydroxide and removal of the base as well as concentration of the fatty acids using solid-phase extraction on a functionalized polystyrene-divinylbenzene polymer. Recovery trials from spiked glass fiber filters, using threo-9,10-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid as internal standard, gave an overall recovery of 54-86% for 3-hydroxy fatty acids of medium chain length (3-hydroxynonanoic to 3-hydroxypentadecanoic acid). 3-Hydroxyoctanoic acid and the longer chain fatty acids were more problematic yielding overall spike recoveries of 11-39%. While the 3-hydroxy fatty acid profile of pure lipopolysaccharides was dominated by 3-hydroxydecanoic, 3-hydroxydodecanoic and 3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid the aqueous phase from drilling mud contained in addition relatively high amounts of 3-hydroxyoctanoic and 3-hydroxynonanoic acid. Endotoxin activity as measured by the LAL assay was reasonably correlated (R(2)=0.54) to the sum of 3-hydroxydecanoic acid, 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid and 3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid in these samples. PMID:26818235

  6. Airborne endotoxin in woodworking (joinery) shops.

    PubMed

    Harper, Martin; Andrew, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    Symptoms such as shortness of breath and cough have been noted in woodworking facilities even where wood dust itself is well-controlled. Suspicion has fallen on other possible contaminants in the workplace atmosphere, including bacterial endotoxin. A few studies have indicated potentially high endotoxin exposure with exposure to fresh wood in sawmills and in the production of fiberboard and chipboard, but fewer studies have been carried out on exposure to endotoxin in dry wood work, for example in joineries. A study of the endotoxin content of airborne wood dust samples from US woodworking facilities is presented, from the re-analysis of samples which previously had been taken to establish mass collection relationships between the IOM sampler, the closed-face 37 mm plastic cassette (CFC) sampler and the Button sampler. Endotoxin was strongly correlated with total dust, but the endotoxin content of a few fresh wood samples was found to be up to ten times higher per unit of wood dust than for dried-wood samples, and this difference was significant. No long-term time-weighted average sample exceeded the recommended limit value of 50 EU m(-3) (EU, endotoxin units)used in the Netherlands, although a number of the IOM samples came close (seven samples or 44% exceeded 20 EU m(-3)) and one short-term (48 minute) sample registered a high value of 73 EU m(-3). The geometric mean concentration from the IOM samples (11 EU m(-3)) is within the range of geometric means found from Australian joineries (3.7-60, combined: 24 EU m(-3)). In contrast, the corresponding values from the CFC (3.6 EU m(-3)), and the Button sampler (2.1 EU m(-3)) were much lower and no samples exceeded 20 EU m(-3). Endotoxin is likely only to be a significant problem in working with dried woods when associated with very high dust levels, where the wood dust itself is likely to be a cause for concern. The results from the few samples in this study where fresh wood was being worked were similar to results from other studies involving fresh woods. The agreement between these studies is encouraging given the difficulties of endotoxin analysis and the wide variation often expected between different laboratories. PMID:16395462

  7. Resurrecting inactive antimicrobial peptides from the lipopolysaccharide trap.

    PubMed

    Mohanram, Harini; Bhattacharjya, Surajit

    2014-01-01

    Host defense antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a promising source of antibiotics for the treatment of multiple-drug-resistant pathogens. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, functions as a permeability barrier against a variety of molecules, including AMPs. Further, LPS or endotoxin is the causative agent of sepsis killing 100,000 people per year in the United States alone. LPS can restrict the activity of AMPs inducing aggregations at the outer membrane, as observed for frog AMPs, temporins, and also in model AMPs. Aggregated AMPs, "trapped" by the outer membrane, are unable to traverse the cell wall, causing their inactivation. In this work, we show that these inactive AMPs can overcome LPS-induced aggregations while conjugated with a short LPS binding β-boomerang peptide motif and become highly bactericidal. The generated hybrid peptides exhibit activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in high-salt conditions and detoxify endotoxin. Structural and biophysical studies establish the mechanism of action of these peptides in LPS outer membrane. Most importantly, this study provides a new concept for the development of a potent broad-spectrum antibiotic with efficient outer membrane disruption as the mode of action. PMID:24419338

  8. Resurrecting Inactive Antimicrobial Peptides from the Lipopolysaccharide Trap

    PubMed Central

    Mohanram, Harini

    2014-01-01

    Host defense antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a promising source of antibiotics for the treatment of multiple-drug-resistant pathogens. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, functions as a permeability barrier against a variety of molecules, including AMPs. Further, LPS or endotoxin is the causative agent of sepsis killing 100,000 people per year in the United States alone. LPS can restrict the activity of AMPs inducing aggregations at the outer membrane, as observed for frog AMPs, temporins, and also in model AMPs. Aggregated AMPs, “trapped” by the outer membrane, are unable to traverse the cell wall, causing their inactivation. In this work, we show that these inactive AMPs can overcome LPS-induced aggregations while conjugated with a short LPS binding β-boomerang peptide motif and become highly bactericidal. The generated hybrid peptides exhibit activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in high-salt conditions and detoxify endotoxin. Structural and biophysical studies establish the mechanism of action of these peptides in LPS outer membrane. Most importantly, this study provides a new concept for the development of a potent broad-spectrum antibiotic with efficient outer membrane disruption as the mode of action. PMID:24419338

  9. Effects of intra-articularly administered endotoxin on clinical signs of disease and synovial fluid tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 6, and prostaglandin E2 values in horses.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, D L; MacKay, R J; Gum, G G; Colahan, P T; Meyer, J C

    1993-03-01

    In each of 4 horses, sterile synovitis was induced by intra-articular injection of 3 micrograms of Escherichia coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) into one antebrachiocarpal joint; an equal volume (2 ml) of phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBSS) was injected into the opposite, control carpus. Blood and 1.5 ml of synovial fluid were obtained at postinjection hours (PIH) 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, 42, 66, and 144. Synovial fluid sample collection was accomplished by use of an indwelling, intra-articular catheter through PIH 12, and by arthrocentesis subsequently. Joint fluid samples were analyzed for cell counts, protein concentration, cytologic variables, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) values. Tumor necrosis factor and IL-6 activities and WBC count were also measured in blood. To monitor local inflammation, skin temperature of each carpus was imaged, using a thermographic scanner prior to each sample collection time. Horses had minimal systemic effects. Mean (+/- SEM) rectal temperature increased significantly to 39.02 +/- 0.15 C only at PIH 18 after intra-articular injection of LPS. One horse had signs of mild depression from PIH 7 to 18, but its vital signs did not change appreciably. Each horse had mild signs of discomfort in the LPS-injected limb from PIH 1 to 3 until PIH 8 to 10. Mean peak surface temperature of the LPS-injected carpi was significantly higher than that of control carpi from PIH 8 to 144 (P < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8498739

  10. Short communication: Differential loss of bovine mammary epithelial barrier integrity in response to lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid.

    PubMed

    Wellnitz, Olga; Zbinden, Christina; Huang, Xiao; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2016-06-01

    In the mammary gland, the blood-milk barrier prevents an uncontrolled intermixture of blood and milk constituents and hence maintains the osmotic gradient to draw water into the mammary secretion. During mastitis, the permeability of the blood-milk barrier is increased, which is reflected by the transfer of blood constituents into milk and vice versa. In this study, we aimed to investigate changes in the barrier function of mammary epithelial cells in vitro as induced by cell wall components of different pathogens. Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells from 3 different cows were grown separately on Transwell (Corning Inc., Corning, NY) inserts. The formation of tight junctions between adjacent epithelial cells was shown by transmission electron microscopy and by immunofluorescence staining of the tight junction protein zona occludens-1. The integrity of the epithelial barrier was assayed by means of transepithelial electrical resistance, as well as by diffusion of the fluorophore Lucifer yellow across the cell layer. The release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was used as an indicator for cytotoxic effects. In response to a 24-h challenge with bacterial endotoxin, barrier integrity was reduced after 3 or 7h, respectively, in response to 0.5mg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli or 20mg/mL lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Staphylococcus aureus. No paracellular leakage was observed in response to 0.2mg/mL LPS or 2mg/mL LTA. Although LPS and LTA affected barrier permeability, most likely by opening the tight junctions, only LPS caused cell damage, reflected by increased LDH concentrations in cell culture medium. These results prove a pathogen-specific loss of blood-milk barrier integrity during mastitis, which is characterized by tight junction opening by both LPS and LTA and by additional epithelial cell destruction through LPS. PMID:27060811

  11. Dissociation of cell-associated interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-1 release induced by lipopolysaccharide and lipid A.

    PubMed Central

    Cavaillon, J M; Fitting, C; Caroff, M; Haeffner-Cavaillon, N

    1989-01-01

    The capacities of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipid A to trigger mouse BALB/c peritoneal macrophages and to induce the production of cell-associated interleukin-1 (IL-1) and membrane-associated IL-1 and IL-1 release have been compared. Bordetella pertussis lipid A was 1,000 to 10,000 times less efficient than the native LPS to induce IL-1 release by freshly isolated elicited macrophages. When resident macrophages were studied, lipid A, at high concentrations (greater than 2 micrograms/ml), induced significant levels of cell-associated IL-1 but little or no IL-1 release. With synthetic lipid A built up with the Escherichia coli lipid A structure (compound 506), IL-1 activity was present in the supernatants of elicited peritoneal macrophages and to a lesser extent in those of resident macrophages. However, the release of IL-1 induced by synthetic lipid A 506 remained much lower than those induced by rough LPS. Membrane-associated IL-1 could be induced on BALB/c macrophages with LPS and natural or synthetic lipid A, the LPS being the most active. In C3H/HeJ mice, neither natural nor synthetic lipid A could induce detectable cell-associated IL-1, whereas LPS could induce cell-associated and membrane IL-1 activity but no IL-1 release. Our results indicate that fragments of endotoxins may induce the production of IL-1 but the entire structure of the LPS molecule is the most effective to induce intracellular IL-1 production, expression of membrane IL-1, and release of IL-1. PMID:2537258

  12. First Evidence for a Covalent Linkage between Enterobacterial Common Antigen and Lipopolysaccharide in Shigella sonnei Phase II ECALPS*

    PubMed Central

    Gozdziewicz, Tomasz K.; Lugowski, Czeslaw; Lukasiewicz, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) is expressed by Gram-negative bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae, including emerging drug-resistant pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus spp. Recent studies have indicated the importance of ECA for cell envelope integrity, flagellum expression, and resistance of enteric bacteria to acetic acid and bile salts. ECA, a heteropolysaccharide built from the trisaccharide repeating unit, →3)-α-d-Fucp4NAc-(1→4)-β-d-ManpNAcA-(1→4)-α-d-GlcpNAc-(1→, occurs as a cyclic form (ECACYC), a phosphatidylglycerol (PG)-linked form (ECAPG), and an endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-associated form (ECALPS). Since the discovery of ECA in 1962, the structures of ECAPG and ECACYC have been completely elucidated. However, no direct evidence has been presented to support a covalent linkage between ECA and LPS; only serological indications of co-association have been reported. This is paradoxical, given that ECA was first identified based on the capacity of immunogenic ECALPS to elicit antibodies cross-reactive with enterobacteria. Using a simple isolation protocol supported by serological tracking of ECA epitopes and NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, we have succeeded in the first detection, isolation, and complete structural analysis of poly- and oligosaccharides of Shigella sonnei phase II ECALPS. ECALPS consists of the core oligosaccharide substituted with one to four repeating units of ECA at the position occupied by the O-antigen in the case of smooth S. sonnei phase I. These data represent the first structural evidence for the existence of ECALPS in the half-century since it was first discovered and provide insights that could prove helpful in further structural analyses and screening of ECALPS among Enterobacteriaceae species. PMID:24324266

  13. The possible roles of histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and prostaglandin F2α as mediators of the acute pulmonary effects of endotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Parratt, J.R.; Sturgess, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    1 In an attempt to investigate the possible role of released vasoactive substances in mediating the pulmonary pressor responses to E. coli endotoxin, cats were pretreated with histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or prostaglandin antagonists, with a histamine depleting agent (compound 48/80) or with an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase (sodium meclofenamate). 2 The administration of endotoxin (2 mg/kg) resulted in a rapidly developing pulmonary hypertension (pressure twice normal after 2-3 min), increases in right atrial and intratracheal pressures, systemic hypotension and bradycardia. These effects were unaffected by methysergide in a dose sufficient to prevent the effects of intravenously administered 5-HT. 3 Endotoxin responses were also unaffected by a combination of mepyramine and burimamide in doses sufficient to reduce markedly the effects of intravenously-administered histamine. In cats pretreated (chronically or acutely) with compound 48/80, endotoxin induced a transient pulmonary pressor response which was not maintained. 4 The pulmonary and systemic responses to endotoxin were prevented by the prior administration of the prostaglandin antagonist, polyphloretin phosphate and by pretreatment with the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, sodium meclofenamate. 5 It is concluded that a pulmonary vasoconstrictor prostaglandin is involved in the acute response to endotoxin in the cat. PMID:328105

  14. An anti-sepsis monomer, 2',5,6',7-tetrahydroxyflavanonol (THF), identified from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi neutralizes lipopolysaccharide in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianfeng; Cao, Hongwei; Wang, Ning; Zheng, Xinchun; Lu, Yongling; Liu, Xin; Yang, Dong; Li, Bin; Zheng, Jiang; Zhou, Hong

    2008-12-10

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a known trigger in the pathogenesis of sepsis, lipid A being the toxic component. One of several adjuvant therapeutic approaches for severe sepsis is currently focusing on the neutralization of LPS. In order to obtain the components from traditional Chinese herbs that can neutralize the endotoxin, aqueous extractions of twelve herbs were tested using affinity biosensor technology. From twelve herbs, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang Qin) found to possess high lipid A-binding abilities, and was selected in subsequent experiments. After subjected to macroporous adsorptive resins and HPLC, we obtained 2',5,6',7-tetrahydroxyflavanonol (THF) from S. baicalensis Georgi under the direction of neutralization of LPS and reducing proinflammatory cytokines. In vitro, THF directly bound to LPS and neutralized its activity. THF not only down-regulated TNF-alpha mRNA expression but also decreased TNF-alpha and IL-6 release from RAW264.7 cells induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. THF-mediated inhibition on proinflammatory cytokine release is probably associated with downregulation of LPS-induced TLR4 mRNA augmentation. In vivo, THF could significantly protect mice against a lethal challenge with heat-killed E. coli 35218 (E. coli 35218) in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased the plasma LPS level in endotoxemia mice. These findings provide compelling evidence that THF may be an important potential drug for sepsis treatment. Considering the inhibitory effects of THF on LPS-induced cytokine release are unlikely due to its nonspecific cellular toxicity, THF should be considered as a safe putative candidate for development as a drug for sepsis treatment. PMID:18755299

  15. Removal of endotoxin from dairy wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of various treatments on removing endotoxin (ET) from wastewater was tested by using the treated water to induce a systemic reaction via intratracheal inoculation (20 ml/goat, 6 goats/group). Treatments (T1-T7) of wastewater were as follows: 1) autoclaved 15 min, centrifuged and contain...

  16. Immunization with Lipopolysaccharide-Deficient Whole Cells Provides Protective Immunity in an Experimental Mouse Model of Acinetobacter baumannii Infection

    PubMed Central

    García-Quintanilla, Meritxell; Pulido, Marina R.; Pachón, Jerónimo; McConnell, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing clinical importance of infections caused by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii warrants the development of novel approaches for prevention and treatment. In this context, vaccination of certain patient populations may contribute to reducing the morbidity and mortality caused by this pathogen. Vaccines against Gram-negative bacteria based on inactivated bacterial cells are highly immunogenic and have been shown to produce protective immunity against a number of bacterial species. However, the high endotoxin levels present in these vaccines due to the presence of lipopolysaccharide complicates their use in human vaccination. In the present study, we used a laboratory-derived strain of A. baumannii that completely lacks lipopolysaccharide due to a mutation in the lpxD gene (IB010), one of the genes involved in the first steps of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, for vaccination. We demonstrate that IB010 has greatly reduced endotoxin content (<1.0 endotoxin unit/106 cells) compared to wild type cells. Immunization with formalin inactivated IB010 produced a robust antibody response consisting of both IgG1 and IgG2c subtypes. Mice immunized with IB010 had significantly lower post-infection tissue bacterial loads and significantly lower serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 compared to control mice in a mouse model of disseminated A. baumannii infection. Importantly, immunized mice were protected from infection with the ATCC 19606 strain and an A. baumannii clinical isolate. These data suggest that immunization with inactivated A. baumannii whole cells deficient in lipopolysaccharide could serve as the basis for a vaccine for the prevention of infection caused by A. baumannii. PMID:25485716

  17. Endotoxins in Environmental and Clinical Samples Assessed by GC-Tandem MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szponar, Bogumila

    Bacteria appeared on the Earth millions years before us and human evolution was triggered by the constant presence of pathogenic and symbiotic microorganisms in our surroundings. Interplay occurred between higher organism and microbial consortia residing in the host organs and on the epithelial surfaces; another natural space of bacteria-human interaction is the indoor environment where we spend the majority of our lifetime. Indoor microbial exposure affects our well-being and can result in respiratory symptoms, such as allergies and asthma, since both dead and live microorganisms and their cell constituents, including lipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxins), interact with our immune system. Thus, there is a demand for robust tools for qualitative and quantitative determination of the microbial communities that we are exposed to.

  18. Airborne endotoxin in fine particulate matter in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Tianjia; Yao, Maosheng; Wang, Junxia; Fang, Yanhua; Hu, Songhe; Wang, Yan; Dutta, Anindita; Yang, Junnan; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2014-11-01

    Endotoxin is an important biological component of particulate matter (PM) which, upon inhalation, can induce adverse health effects, and also possibly complicate the diseases in combination with other pollutants. From 1 March 2012 to 27 February 2013 we collected air samples using quartz filters daily for the quantification of airborne endotoxin and also fine PM (PM2.5) in Beijing, China. The geometric means for endotoxin concentration and the fraction of endotoxin in PM were 0.65 EU/m3 (range: 0.10-75.02) and 10.25 EU/mg PM2.5 (range: 0.38-1627.29), respectively. The endotoxin concentrations were shown to vary greatly with seasons, typically with high values in the spring and winter seasons. Temperature and relative humidity, as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were found to be significantly correlated with airborne endotoxin concentrations (p < 0.05). Additionally, positive correlations were also detected between endotoxin concentrations and natural sources of Na+, K+, Mg2+, and F-, while negative correlations were observed between endotoxin concentrations and anthropogenic sources of P, Co, Zn, As, and Tl. Oxidative potential analysis revealed that endotoxin concentrations were positively correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not dithiothreitol (DTT) of PM. This study provided the first continuous time series of airborne endotoxin concentrations in Beijing, and identifies its potential associations with atmospheric factors. The information developed here can assist in the assessment of health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  19. Single-trial conditioning in a human taste-endotoxin paradigm induces conditioned odor aversion but not cytokine responses.

    PubMed

    Grigoleit, Jan-Sebastian; Kullmann, Jennifer S; Winkelhaus, Anne; Engler, Harald; Wegner, Alexander; Hammes, Florian; Oberbeck, Reiner; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2012-02-01

    Immunological responses to bacterial endotoxin can be behaviorally conditioned in rodents. However, it is unclear whether an acute systemic inflammatory response can be behaviorally conditioned in humans. Thus, in a double-blind placebo-controlled study, 20 healthy, male subjects received either a single injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline together with a novel tasting beverage (conditioned stimulus, CS). Five days later, all subjects received a saline injection and were re-exposed to the CS. Blood was drawn prior to as well as 0.5, 1.5, 3, 4, 6, and 24 h after LPS administration or CS re-exposure. Endotoxin administration led to transient increases in plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and to a significant rise in body temperature. Sole presentation of the CS during evocation did induce neither alterations in body temperature nor changes in plasma cytokine levels. However, subjects in the experimental group rated the smell of the CS significantly more aversive compared to the control group. Employing endotoxin as a US in a single trial taste-immune conditioning paradigm in humans shows a behaviorally conditioned smell aversion but no learned alterations in cytokine levels. PMID:21925260

  20. Solution NMR studies provide structural basis for endotoxin pattern recognition by the innate immune receptor CD14

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, Seth; Chen Bin; Holbrook, Kristen; Jain, Nitin U.

    2008-04-04

    CD14 functions as a key pattern recognition receptor for a diverse array of Gram-negative and Gram-positive cell-wall components in the host innate immune response by binding to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) at partially overlapping binding site(s). To determine the potential contribution of CD14 residues in this pattern recognition, we have examined using solution NMR spectroscopy, the binding of three different endotoxin ligands, lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, and a PGN-derived compound, muramyl dipeptide to a {sup 15}N isotopically labeled 152-residue N-terminal fragment of sCD14 expressed in Pichia pastoris. Mapping of NMR spectral changes upon addition of ligands revealed that the pattern of residues affected by binding of each ligand is partially similar and partially different. This first direct structural observation of the ability of specific residue combinations of CD14 to differentially affect endotoxin binding may help explain the broad specificity of CD14 in ligand recognition and provide a structural basis for pattern recognition. Another interesting finding from the observed spectral changes is that the mode of binding may be dynamically modulated and could provide a mechanism for binding endotoxins with structural diversity through a common binding site.

  1. Rutin improves endotoxin-induced acute lung injury via inhibition of iNOS and VCAM-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Chun; Horng, Chi-Ting; Chen, Shyan-Tarng; Lee, Shiuan-Shinn; Yang, Ming-Ling; Lee, Chien-Ying; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang

    2016-02-01

    Endotoxins exist anywhere including in water pools, dust, humidifier systems, and machining fluids. The major causal factor is endotoxins in many serious diseases, such as fever, sepsis, multi-organ failure, meningococcemia, and severe morbidities like neurologic disability, or hearing loss. Endotoxins are also called lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and are important pathogens of acute lung injury (ALI). Rutin has potential beneficial effects including anti-inflammation, antioxidation, anti-hyperlipidemia, and anti-platelet aggregation. Pre-treatment with rutin inhibited LPS-induced neutrophil infiltration in the lungs. LPS-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was suppressed by rutin, but there was no influence on expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and cyclooxygenase-2. In addition, activation of the nuclear factor (NF)κB was reduced by rutin. Furthermore, we found that the inhibitory concentration of rutin on expression of VCAM-1 and iNOS was similar to NFκB activation. In conclusion, rutin is a potential protective agent for ALI via inhibition of neutrophil infiltration, expression of VCAM-1 and iNOS, and NFκB activation. PMID:25080890

  2. Effect of spaceflight on ability of monocytes to respond to endotoxins of gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Indreshpal; Simons, Elizabeth R; Kapadia, Asha S; Ott, C Mark; Pierson, Duane L

    2008-10-01

    Astronauts live and work in relatively crowded, confined environments on the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. They experience a unique set of stressors that contribute to a diminishment of many immune responses. This study investigated the ability of the shuttle crew members' monocytes to respond to gram-negative endotoxin that they could encounter during infections. Blood specimens were collected from 20 crew members and 15 control subjects 10 days before launch, 3 to 4 h after landing, and 15 days after landing and from crew members during their annual medical examination at 6 to 12 months after landing. When challenged with gram-negative endotoxin, the crew member's monocytes collected at all three time points produced lower levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1beta and higher levels of IL-1ra and IL-8 compared to those of control subjects. Cytokines were assessed by measuring the number of cells positive for intracellular cytokines. These values returned to normal 6 to 12 months after landing, except for IL-1ra, which was still higher (five- to sixfold) than in controls. This phenomenon was accompanied by an increased expression of Toll-like receptor 4 and decreased expression of CD14 on the crew members' monocytes at all time points. There were also increased levels of the lipopolysaccharide binding protein in the plasma of the crew members 3 to 4 h and 15 days after landing. This study shows that spaceflight-associated factors (in-flight and preflight) modulate the response of monocytes to gram-negative endotoxins. PMID:18768671

  3. Monocytes from Depressed Patients Display an Altered Pattern of Response to Endotoxin Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Lisi, Lucia; Camardese, Giovanni; Treglia, Mariangela; Tringali, Giuseppe; Carrozza, Cinzia; Janiri, Luigi; Russo, Cinzia Dello; Navarra, Pierluigi

    2013-01-01

    It is now well established that major depression is accompanied and characterized by altered responses of the immune-inflammatory system. In this study we investigated the pro-inflammatory activation of monocytes isolated from depressed patients as a parameter not influenced by such confounds as the time of day, the nutritional and exercise status or the age and gender of patients. Monocytes from depressed patients and from healthy controls were isolated in vitro; after 24-h incubation under basal conditions, cells were exposed for 24-h to 100 ng/ml of endotoxin (bacterial lipopolysaccharide, LPS). We found that monocytes from drug-free depressed patients and controls release the same amounts of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) under basal conditions, whereas monocytes from patients are dramatically less reactive to LPS (8.62-fold increase vs previous 24 hrs) compared to healthy controls (123.3-fold increase vs previous 24 hrs). Such blunted prostanoid production was paralleled by a reduction in COX-2 gene expression, whereas other pro-inflammatory mediators, namely interleukin-1? (IL-1 ?) and -6 (IL-6) showed a trend to increased gene expression. The above changes were not associated to increased levels of circulating glucocorticoids. After 8 months of antidepressive drug treatment, the increase in PGE2 production after the endotoxin challenge was partially restored, whereas the increase in IL-1 ? and -6 levels observed at baseline was completely abolished. In conclusion, our findings show that the reactivity of monocytes from depressed patients might be considered as a marker of the immune-inflammatory disorders associated to depression, although the lack of paired healthy controls at follow-up does not allow to conclude that monocyte reactivity to endotoxin is also a marker of treatment outcome. PMID:23300980

  4. Effect of Spaceflight on Ability of Monocytes To Respond to Endotoxins of Gram-Negative Bacteria?

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Indreshpal; Simons, Elizabeth R.; Kapadia, Asha S.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Astronauts live and work in relatively crowded, confined environments on the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. They experience a unique set of stressors that contribute to a diminishment of many immune responses. This study investigated the ability of the shuttle crew members' monocytes to respond to gram-negative endotoxin that they could encounter during infections. Blood specimens were collected from 20 crew members and 15 control subjects 10 days before launch, 3 to 4 h after landing, and 15 days after landing and from crew members during their annual medical examination at 6 to 12 months after landing. When challenged with gram-negative endotoxin, the crew member's monocytes collected at all three time points produced lower levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1? and higher levels of IL-1ra and IL-8 compared to those of control subjects. Cytokines were assessed by measuring the number of cells positive for intracellular cytokines. These values returned to normal 6 to 12 months after landing, except for IL-1ra, which was still higher (five- to sixfold) than in controls. This phenomenon was accompanied by an increased expression of Toll-like receptor 4 and decreased expression of CD14 on the crew members' monocytes at all time points. There were also increased levels of the lipopolysaccharide binding protein in the plasma of the crew members 3 to 4 h and 15 days after landing. This study shows that spaceflight-associated factors (in-flight and preflight) modulate the response of monocytes to gram-negative endotoxins. PMID:18768671

  5. Analusis by 252Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry of Bordetella pertussis endotoxin after nitrous deamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deprun, C.; Karibian, D.; Caroff, M.

    1993-07-01

    Endotoxic lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are the major components of Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane. Like many amphipathic molecules, they pose problems of heterogeneity, purity, solubility, and aggregation. Nevertheless, PDMS has recently have been applied to unmodified endotoxins composed of LPS having uip to five sugar units in their saccharide chain. The B. Pertussis LPSs, most of which have a dodecasaccharide domain, ahve been analysed by classical methods and the masses of the separate lipid and saccharide domains determined after rupture of the bond linking them. However, the acid treatment employed for these and most chemical analyses can also modify structures in the vicinity of the bond. In order to investigate this biologically-important region, the endotoxin was treated to nitrous deamination, which shortens the saccharide chain to five sugars, but preserves the acid-labile region of the LPS. The PDM spectrum of this derivative, which required new conditions for its desorption, confirmed the structure analysis and demonstrated the presence of at least four molecular species.

  6. Suppression of efflux transporters in the intestines of endotoxin-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Mikio; Takizawa, Yusuke; Kanbayashi, Atsushi; Murata, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Ayako; Nakaike, Mariko; Hatanaka, Megumi; Kai, Tomomi; Hayashi, Masahiro

    2012-05-30

    Infection and inflammation suppress the expression and activity of several drug transporters in the liver. In the intestine, P-glycoprotein (PGP/mdr1) and the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) are important barriers to the absorption of many clinically important drugs. The protein expression and activity of these transporters were examined during inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The transport of rhodamine123 (Rho123) and 5-carboxyfluorescein (5-CF) was determined in isolated ileal segments from endotoxin-treated or control rats in the presence or absence of inhibitors. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to measure mRNA levels. Compared with the controls, the mRNA levels of mdr1a and mrp2 were significantly decreased by approximately 50% in the ilea of the LPS-treated rats. Corresponding reductions in the basolateral-apical efflux of Rho123 and 5-CF were observed, resulting in significant increases in the apical-basolateral absorption of these compounds. Neither the permeability of fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled dextran 4000 (FD-4), a paracellular marker, nor membrane resistance was altered. These results indicate that endotoxin-induced inflammation reduces the intestinal expression and activity of PGP and MRP2 in rats, which eliciting corresponding changes in the intestinal transport of their substrates. Hence, infection and inflammatory diseases may induce variability in drug bioavailability through alterations in the intestinal expression and activity of drug transporters. PMID:22387888

  7. Diet-induced obesity attenuates endotoxin-induced cognitive deficits

    PubMed Central

    Setti, Sharay E.; Littlefield, Alyssa M.; Johnson, Samantha W.; Kohman, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the immune system can impair cognitive function, particularly on hippocampus dependent tasks. Several factors such as normal aging and prenatal experiences can modify the severity of these cognitive deficits. One additional factor that may modulate the behavioral response to immune activation is obesity. Prior work has shown that obesity alters the activity of the immune system. Whether diet-induced obesity (DIO) influences the cognitive deficits associated with inflammation is currently unknown. The present study explored whether DIO alters the behavioral response to the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat (60% fat) or control diet (10% fat) for a total of five months. After consuming their respective diets for four months, mice received an LPS or saline injection and were assessed for alterations in spatial learning. One month later, mice received a second injection of LPS or saline and tissue samples were collected to assess the inflammatory response within the periphery and central nervous system (CNS). Results showed that LPS administration impaired spatial learning in the control diet mice, but had no effect in DIO mice. This lack of a cognitive deficit in the DIO female mice is likely due to a blunted inflammatory response within the brain. While cytokine production within the periphery (i.e., plasma, adipose, and spleen) was similar between the DIO and control mice, the DIO mice failed to show an increase in IL-6 and CD74 in the brain following LPS administration. Collectively, these data indicate that DIO can reduce aspects of the neuroinflammatory response as well as blunt the behavioral reaction to an immune challenge. PMID:25542778

  8. Interception of the endotoxin-induced arterial hyporeactivity to vasoconstrictors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuang; Cui, Ningren; Li, Shanshan; Guo, Lei; Wu, Yang; Zhu, Daling; Jiang, Chun

    2014-01-01

    Septic shock is a severe pathophysiologic condition characterized by vasodilation, hypotension, hypoperfusion, tissue hypoxia, multiple organ failure and death. It is unclear what causes the septic vasodilation that may result from general dysfunction of vascular smooth muscles (VSMs) or selective disruption of vasomotor balances in VSMs. The latter could be due to enhanced vasorelaxation and/or depressed vasoconstriction. Understanding these may lead to pharmacological interventions to septic vasodilation. Therefore, we performed studies in isolated and perfused mesenteric arterial rings. A 20-h exposure of the rings to lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1μg/ml) led to hyporeactivity to phenylephrine (PE). However, the responses of the LPS-treated rings to high concentrations of KCl (60mM) and ATP remained comparable to control rings, suggesting that contractility of VSMs is retained. The hyporeactivity was marginally affected by atropine, indomethacin and L-NAME, suggesting that endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation does not play a major role. In addition to PE, the LPS-treated rings were hyporeactive to dopamine, histamine and angiotensin II. They showed intermediate hyporeactivity to the thromboxane-A2 receptor agonist U46619. Little hyporeactivity to endothelin-1 (ET-1), serotonin (5-HT) and vasopressin was found. ET-1-induced vasoconstriction occurred without endothelium, whereas the effect of serotonin was endothelium dependent. Although rings were hyporeactive to some of the vasopressors, their vasoconstriction effects were significantly potentiated by PE co-application. Taken together, these data suggest that the endotoxin-induced vasodilation may not result from general dysfunction of VSMs, neither from the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. The promising vascular response to various vasoconstrictors found in this study warrants further investigations of therapeutic potentials of these agents. PMID:24792896

  9. Lipopolysaccharide Sequestrants: Structural Correlates of Activity and Toxicity in Novel Acylhomospermines

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kelly A.; Kumar, E.V.K. Suresh; Wood, Stewart J.; Cromer, Jens R.; Datta, Apurba; David*, Sunil A.

    2005-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), otherwise termed ‘endotoxins’, are outer-membrane constituents of Gram-negative bacteria. Lipopolysaccharides play a key role in the pathogenesis of ‘Septic Shock’, a major cause of mortality in the critically ill patient. Therapeutic options aimed at limiting downstream systemic inflammatory processes by targeting lipopolysaccharide do not exist at the present time. We have defined the pharmacophore necessary for small molecules to specifically bind and neutralize LPS and, using animal models of sepsis, have shown that the sequestration of circulatory LPS by small molecules is a therapeutically viable strategy. In this paper, the interactions of a series of acylated homologated spermine compounds with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been characterized. The optimal acyl chain length for effective sequestration of LPS was identified to be C16 for the mono-acyl compounds. The most promising of these compounds, 4e, binds LPS with an ED50 of 1.37 μM. Nitric oxide production in murine J774A.1 cells, as well as TNF-α in human blood, are inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by 4e at concentrations orders of magnitude lower than toxic doses. Administration of 4e to d-galactosamine-sensitized mice challenged with supralethal doses of LPS provided significant protection against lethality. Potent anti-endotoxic activity, low toxicity, and ease of synthesis render this class of compounds candidate endotoxin-sequestering agents of potential significant therapeutic value. PMID:15801849

  10. Isolation, characterization, and biological properties of an endotoxin-like material from the gram-positive organism Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, H; Oppenheim, J D

    1979-01-01

    The bacterial component responsible for the induction of transient cold agglutinin syndrome in rabbits after intravenous injection of heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes type 4B has been purified and biologically and chemically characterized. A purified immunoglobulin M cold agglutinin was prepared from high-titer sera resulting from the immunization of rabbits with heat-killed L. monocytogenes type 4B and was subsequently used to monitor the purification of the bacterial component responsible for its induction. The bacterial component was isolated from a hot phenol-water extract of lyophilized L. monocytogenes type 4B by multiple molecular sieve chromatography. Upon chemical analysis the purified material was found to be strikingly similar in chemical composition to gram-negative lipopolysaccharide endotoxins. The material contained 15% total fatty acid (of which 50% was beta-hydroxymyristic acid), 40 to 45% neutral sugar (glucose, galactose, and rhamnose), 11.5% amino sugar, 12% uronic acid, 2.5% 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonic acid, 2% heptose, 0.87% phosphorus, and 1.6% amino acid, thereby accounting for 85 to 90% of the weight of the component. Electron micrographs of the purified material were similar to those of lipopolysaccharide preparations from gram-negative organisms. The purified material exist in aqueous solutions as large aggregates, but can be dissociated into a single smaller subunit (3.1S) by dialysis against sodium dodecyl sulfate buffer. The listerial component was toxic and pyrogenic to rabbits, producing symptoms typical of gram-negative endotoxins. Activity in the limulus lysate gelation assay and in the carbocyanine dye assay provides a further link of this material with classical gram-negative endotoxins. Images PMID:110684

  11. Effect of vasopressors on organ blood flow during endotoxin shock in pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Breslow, M.J.; Miller, C.F.; Parker, S.D.; Walman, A.T.; Traystman, R.J.

    1987-02-01

    A volume-resuscitated porcine endotoxin shock model was used to evaluate the effect on organ blood flow of increasing systemic arterial blood pressure with vasopressors. Administration of 0.05-0.2 mg/kg of Escherichia coli endotoxin (E) reduced mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) to 50 mmHg, decreased systemic vascular resistance to 50% of control, and did not change cardiac output or heart rate. Blood flow measured with radiolabeled microspheres to brain, kidney, spleen, and skeletal muscle was reduced during endotoxin shock, but blood flow to left ventricle, small and large intestine, and stomach remained at pre-endotoxin levels throughout the study period. Four groups of animals were used to evaluate the effect of vasopressor therapy. Vasopressors were administered starting 60 min after E exposure, and the dose of each was titrated to increase MAP to 75 mmHg. Despite the increase in MAP, brain blood flow did not increase in any group. Norepinephrine alone increased blood flow to the left ventricle. The dose of norepinephrine required to increase MAP by 20-25 mmHg during E shock was 30 times the does required for a similar increase in MAP in animals not receiving E. The authors conclude 1) that hypotension in the fluid resuscitated porcine E shock model is primarily the result of peripheral vasodilatation, 2) that the vascular response to vasoconstrictors in this model is markedly attenuated following E administration, 3) that blood pressure elevation with norepinephrine, dopamine, and phenylephrine neither decreases blood flow to any organs nor increases blood flow to organs with reduced flow, and 4) that norepinephrine, dopamine, and phenylephrine affect regional blood flow similarly in this model.

  12. Endotoxin Inhalation Alters Lung Development in Neonatal Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kulhankova, Katarina; George, Caroline L.S.; Kline, Joel N.; Darling, Melissa; Thorne, Peter S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood asthma is a significant public health problem. Epidemiologic evidence suggests an association between childhood asthma exacerbations and early life exposure to environmental endotoxin. Although the pathogenesis of endotoxin-induced adult asthma is well studied, questions remain about the impact of environmental endotoxin on pulmonary responsiveness in early life. Methods We developed a murine model of neonatal/juvenile endotoxin exposures approximating those in young children and evaluated the lungs inflammatory and remodeling responses. Results Persistent lung inflammation induced by the inhalation of endotoxin in early life was demonstrated by the influx of inflammatory cells and pro-inflammatory mediators to the airways and resulted in abnormal alveolarization. Conclusions Results of this study advance the understanding of the impact early life endotoxin inhalation has on the lower airways, and demonstrates the importance of an experimental design that approximates environmental exposures as they occur in young children. PMID:22576659

  13. Chromatographic removal of endotoxin from protein solutions by polymer particles.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Chuichi; Sakata, Masayo

    2002-12-01

    Endotoxins, constituents of cell walls of gram-negative bacteria, are potential contaminants of the protein solutions originating from biological products. Such contaminants have to be removed from solutions used for intravenous administration, because of their potent biological activities causing pyrogenic reactions. Separation methods used for decontamination of water, such as ultrafiltration, have little effect on endotoxin levels in protein solutions. To remove endotoxin from a solution of high-molecular-mass compounds, such as proteins, the adsorption method has proven to be most effective. In this review, we first introduce endotoxin-specific properties in an aqueous solution, and then provide various methods of chromatographic separation of endotoxins from cellular products using polymer adsorbents. We also provide the design of novel endotoxin-specific polymer adsorbents. PMID:12450672

  14. Pathophysiology of endotoxin tolerance: mechanisms and clinical consequences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Endotoxin tolerance was first described in a study that exposed animals to a sublethal dose of bacterial endotoxin. The animals subsequently survived a lethal injection of endotoxin. This refractory state is associated with the innate immune system and, in particular, with monocytes and macrophages, which act as the main participants. Several mechanisms are involved in the control of endotoxin tolerance; however, a full understanding of this phenomenon remains elusive. A number of recent reports indicate that clinical examples of endotoxin tolerance include not only sepsis but also diseases such as cystic fibrosis and acute coronary syndrome. In these pathologies, the risk of new infections correlates with a refractory state. This review integrates the molecular basis and clinical implications of endotoxin tolerance in various pathologies. PMID:24229432

  15. The effects of the protease inhibitor, aprotinin, on the course of shock induced by endotoxin in cats.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, B.; Parratt, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The administration of endotoxin derived from Escherichia coli to anaesthetized cats resulted, within the first 5 min, in an initial increase in right atrial pressure and a reduction in systemic arterial blood pressure. Over the next 2 h shock was characterized by a reduced cardiac output, tachycardia, reduced arterial pH and an increased level of lactate. The survival rate at the end of the 8 h experimental period was only 10%. The protease inhibitor aprotinin (Trasylol), given as a continuous intravenous infusion 1000 kallikrein inhibitor units (k.i.u.) kg-1h-1 together with a bolus of 40,000 k.i.u. kg-1, significantly inhibited the severity and incidence of the initial endotoxin response (increase in right atrial pressure and systemic hypotension), perhaps suggesting the direct or indirect involvement of kinins. Aprotinin did not reduce the delayed effects of endotoxin (sustained reduction in cardiac output, lacticacidosis), nor did it improve survival at 8 h. Indeed, there was some evidence that aprotinin exaggerated the delayed effects of endotoxin in this model. PMID:2413945

  16. Comparative aspects of the endotoxin- and cytokine-induced endocrine cascade influencing neuroendocrine control of growth and reproduction in farm animals.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, B K; Daniel, J A; Wilborn, R R; Elsasser, T H; Carroll, J A; Sartin, J L

    2008-07-01

    Disease in animals is a well-known inhibitor of growth and reproduction. Earlier studies were initiated to determine the effects of endotoxin on pituitary hormone secretion. These studies found that in sheep, growth hormone (GH) concentration was elevated, whereas insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) was inhibited, as was luteinizing hormone (LH). Examination of the site of action of endotoxin in sheep determined that somatotropes expressed the endotoxin receptor (CD14) and that both endotoxin and interleukin-I beta activated GH secretion directly from the pituitary. In the face of elevated GH, there is a reduction of IGF-I in all species examined. As GH cannot activate IGF-I release during disease, there appears to be a downregulation of GH signalling at the liver, perhaps related to altered nitration of Janus kinase (JAK). In contrast to GH downregulation, LH release is inhibited at the level of the hypothalamus. New insights have been gained in determining the mechanisms by which disease perturbs growth and reproduction, particularly with regard to nitration of critical control pathways, with this perhaps serving as a novel mechanism central to lipopolysaccharide suppression of all signalling pathways. This pathway-based analysis is critical to the developing novel strategies to reverse the detrimental effect of disease on animal production. PMID:18638141

  17. Predictors of Endotoxin Levels in U.S. Housing

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Peter S.; Cohn, Richard D.; Mav, Deepak; Arbes, Samuel J.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2009-01-01

    Background The relationship of domestic endotoxin exposure to allergy and asthma has been widely investigated. However, few studies have evaluated predictors of household endotoxin, and none have done so for multiple locations within homes and on a national scale. Objectives We assayed 2,552 house dust samples in a nationwide study to understand the predictors of household endotoxin in bedroom floors, family room floors, beds, kitchen floors, and family room sofas. Methods Reservoir house dust from five locations within homes was assayed for endotoxin and demographic and housing information was assessed through questionnaire and onsite evaluation of 2,456 residents of 831 homes selected to represent national demographics. We performed repeated-measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) for 37 candidate variables to identify independent predictors of endotoxin. Meteorologic data were obtained for each primary sampling unit and tested as predictors of indoor endotoxin to determine if wetter or warmer microclimates were associated with higher endotoxin levels. Results Weighted geometric mean endotoxin concentration ranged from 18.7 to 80.5 endotoxin units (EU)/mg for the five sampling locations, and endotoxin load ranged from 4,160 to 19,500 EU/m2. Bivariate analyses and rANOVA demonstrated that major predictors of endotoxin concentration were sampling location in the home, census division, educational attainment, presence of children, current dog ownership, resident-described problems with cockroaches, food debris, cockroach stains, and evidence of smoking observed by field staff. Low household income entered the model if educational attainment was removed. Conclusion Increased endotoxin in household reservoir dust is principally associated with poverty, people, pets, household cleanliness, and geography. PMID:19479019

  18. Detection of endotoxin in cases of equine colic.

    PubMed

    King, J N; Gerring, E L

    1988-09-01

    The Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay was used to test for the presence of endotoxin in 37 clinical cases of equine colic. Positive plasma titres were detected in 10 cases and the presence of endotoxin was significantly correlated with a high heart rate, a high packed cell volume and a poor prognosis. High levels of endotoxin were detected in gut contents taken from several sites in the gastrointestinal tract of normal horses. PMID:3188348

  19. Effects of endotoxin on monoamine metabolism in the rat.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorecky, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.; Taam, D.; Fine, J.

    1972-01-01

    Examination of effects of administered endotoxin on catecholamine metabolism in the rat brain, sympathetic neurons, and adrenal medulla. It is found that endotoxin, administered intraperitoneally, lowers the norepinephrine content in peripheral sympathetic neurons and the brain, and the catecholamine content in the adrenal medulla. It also accelerates the disappearance of H3-norepinephrine from all these tissues. It is therefore suggested that the effects of endotoxin on body temperature may be mediated in part by central non-adrenergic neurons.

  20. Proteinase K digestion of proteins improves detection of bacterial endotoxins by the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay: application for endotoxin removal from cationic proteins.

    PubMed

    Petsch, D; Deckwer, W D; Anspach, F B

    1998-05-15

    Cationic proteins, such as lysozyme, ribonuclease A, and human IgG, impaired the detection of endotoxins with the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay (LAL assay) through formation of endotoxin-protein complexes, demonstrating pronounced masking of endotoxins. Methods, such as phenol extraction, dilution heating, and perchloric acid treatment failed to demask the endotoxins. Also, digestion with trypsin, chymotrypsin, or pronase recovered only 10 to 20% of the applied endotoxins. However, endotoxin recoveries up to 100% were obtained with proteinase K digestion of the samples prior to the LAL assay. This method was then applied to examine the impact of endotoxin masking on endotoxin removal from protein solutions by selective adsorption on membrane adsorbers. It was found that poly-L-lysine and poly(ethyleneimine) as endotoxin-selective ligands were able to pull endotoxins off the proteins studied, thereby guaranteeing successful decontamination. PMID:9606141

  1. In Vitro Attachment of Radioactive Endotoxins to Lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Bona, C.; Chedid, L.; Lamensans, A.

    1971-01-01

    The experiments reported here demonstrate that under certain conditions endotoxin can interact with lysosomes in vitro. After incubation of large granular fraction with 51Cr-labeled antigen under the conditions required for acid hydrolytic activity, radioactivity was associated with the pellet after centrifugation. This effect can be inhibited by preincubation of the large granular fraction with unlabeled homologous or heterologous endotoxins. High resolution autoradiography showed that 14C-labeled endotoxin was predominantly attached to the lysosomes contained in the large granular fraction. The mechanism of this interaction and its relationship to the toxic effect of endotoxins on lysosomes are discussed. Images PMID:4949505

  2. Endotoxin removal and prevention for pre-clinical biologics production.

    PubMed

    Serdakowski London, Anne; Kerins, Brendan; Tschantz, William R; Eisfeld, Jochen; Mackay, Kasey

    2012-12-01

    The removal of endotoxin from protein solutions and its prevention are key to the success of recombinant protein production due to the possible pyogenic response in mammals caused by contaminated samples. In the pre-clinical situation, protein production is often carried out in a non-good manufacturing practice (GMP) setting, utilizing bacterial DNA for transient transfection and non-validated cleaning techniques. Here, we present our findings evaluating various options for endotoxin removal, and propose strategies for endotoxin prevention with emphasis on chromatographic separations, endotoxin-removing membranes and on-column wash strategies. PMID:23081824

  3. CD14 and lipopolysaccharide binding protein expression in a rat model of alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Su, G. L.; Rahemtulla, A.; Thomas, P.; Klein, R. D.; Wang, S. C.; Nanji, A. A.

    1998-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and CD14 play key intermediary roles in the activation of cells by endotoxin. As endotoxin has been postulated to participate in promoting pathological liver injury in alcoholic liver disease, we investigated the role of LBP and CD14 in alcoholic liver injury. Rats were fed intragastrically ethanol or dextrose and either medium-chain triglycerides, corn oil, or fish oil for 4 weeks. Kupffer cells, endothelial cells, and hepatocytes were isolated. LBP and CD14 mRNA levels were measured in liver and individual cell types. The highest levels of LBP and CD14 mRNA levels in the liver were found in the fish oil/ethanol group, which was also the group with the greatest degree of pathological injury and inflammation. CD14 mRNA levels were also significantly elevated in groups fed unsaturated fatty acids with dextrose. CD14 expression was localized to the Kupffer cells and LBP expression to the hepatocytes. Expression of CD14 mRNA was also found in nonmyeloid cells in the two experimental groups (fish oil/ethanol and corn oil/ethanol) that had liver necrosis and inflammation. Our results suggest that enhanced LBP and CD14 expression correlates with the presence of pathological liver injury in alcoholic liver injury. Furthermore, unsaturated fatty acids may prime cells to respond to endotoxin by enhancing CD14 expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9502426

  4. [Orienting endotoxin measurement in the atmosphere].

    PubMed

    Hartung, J; Seedorf, J

    1999-12-01

    Airborne endotoxins are supposed to influence the respiratory health of animal and man in animal housings as well as at certain work places in agriculture. Little is known about the usual concentrations of endotoxin in the outdoor atmosphere. Therefore in a field study 30 air samples were taken, 22 samples in a rural region, and 8 in a more residential and industrial area. The samples were taken by impingement and filtration. The analysis was carried out by means of the chromogen-kinetic limulus amoebocyte lysate test (LAL-Test). The median concentration of all samples was 0.36 ng/m3. The highest median concentration of 0.49 ng/m3 was found in summer with a maximum value of 1.80 ng/m3 indicating large variations. In the other seasons the median concentrations (ng/m3) were distinctly lower (spring: 0.30, n = 11; autumn: 0.26, n = 5; winter: 0.19, n = 3). No significant differences were observed between farming and residential areas at this low concentration level. The concentrations of endotoxin found in this study were far below all threshold limits which are presently discussed for work places. PMID:10666935

  5. Environmental heat stress modulates thyroid status and its response to repeated endotoxin challenge in steers.

    PubMed

    Kahl, S; Elsasser, T H; Rhoads, R P; Collier, R J; Baumgard, L H

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in cattle, the effects of acute exposure to a heat stress (HS) environment on the status of the pituitary (thyrotropin, TSH)-thyroid (thyroxine, T4)-peripheral tissue T4 deiodination (type 1 5'-deiodinase [D1]; triiodothyronine [T3]; reverse-triiodothyronine [rT3]) axis, and the further response of this pituitary-thyroid-peripheral tissue axis (PTTA) to perturbation caused by the induction of the proinflammatory innate immune state provoked by the administration of gram-negative bacteria endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]). Ten steers (318 ± 49 kg body weight) housed in controlled environment chambers were subjected to either a thermoneutral (TN: constant 19°C) or HS temperature conditions (cyclical daily temperatures: 32.2°C-40.0°C) for a total period of 9 d. To minimize the effects of altered plane of nutrition due to HS, steers in TN were pair-fed to animals in HS conditions. Steers received 2 LPS challenges 3 d apart (LPS1 and LPS2; 0.2 μg/kg body weight, intravenously, Escherichia coli 055:B5) with the first challenge administered on day 4 relative to the start of the environmental conditioning. Jugular blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, and 24 h relative to the start of each LPS challenge. Plasma TSH, T4, T3, and rT3 were measured by radioimmunoassay. Liver D1 activity was measured in biopsy samples collected before the LPS1 (0 h) and 24 h after LPS2. Before the start of LPS1, HS decreased (P < 0.01 vs TN) plasma TSH (40%), T4 (45.4%), and T3 (25.9%), but did not affect rT3 concentrations. In TN steers, the LPS1 challenge decreased (P < 0.01 vs 0 h) plasma concentrations of TSH between 1 and 7 h and T4 and T3 at 7 and 24 h. In HS steers, plasma TSH concentrations were decreased at 2 h only (P < 0.05), whereas plasma T3 was decreased at 7 and 24 h (P < 0.01). Whereas plasma T4 concentrations were already depressed in HS steers at 0 h, LPS1 did not further affect the levels. Plasma rT3 concentrations were increased in all steers at 4, 7, and 24 h after LPS1 (P < 0.01). The patterns of concentration change of T4, T3, and rT3 during LPS2 mirrored those observed in LPS1; the responses in plasma TSH were of smaller magnitude than those incurred after LPS1. The LPS challenges reduced (P < 0.01) hepatic activity of D1 in all animals but no differences were observed between steers subjected to TN or HS environment. The data are consistent with the concept that acute exposure of cattle to a HS environment results in the depression of the pituitary and thyroid components of the PTTA, whereas a normal capacity to generate T3 from T4 in the liver is preserved. The data also suggest that LPS challenge further suppresses all components of the PTTA including liver T3 generation, and these PTTA perturbations are more pronounced in steers that encounter a HS exposure. PMID:25804834

  6. Immuno-Stimulatory Activity of Escherichia coli Mutants Producing Kdo2-Monophosphoryl-Lipid A or Kdo2-Pentaacyl-Monophosphoryl-Lipid A

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Biwen; Han, Yaning; Li, Ye; Li, Yanyan; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Lipid A is the active center of lipopolysaccharide which also known as endotoxin. Monophosphoryl-lipid A (MPLA) has less toxicity but retains potent immunoadjuvant activity; therefore, it can be developed as adjuvant for improving the strength and duration of the immune response to antigens. However, MPLA cannot be chemically synthesized and can only be obtained by hydrolyzing lipopolysaccharide (LPS) purified from Gram-negative bacteria. Purifying LPS is difficult and time-consuming and can damage the structure of MPLA. In this study, Escherichia coli mutant strains HWB01 and HWB02 were constructed by deleting several genes and integrating Francisella novicida gene lpxE into the chromosome of E. coli wild type strain W3110. Compared with W3110, HWB01 and HWB02 synthesized very short LPS, Kdo2-monophosphoryl-lipid A (Kdo2-MPLA) and Kdo2-pentaacyl-monophosphoryl-lipid A (Kdo2-pentaacyl-MPLA), respectively. Structural changes of LPS in the outer membranes of HWB01 and HWB02 increased their membrane permeability, surface hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation ability and sensitivity to some antibiotics, but the abilities of these strains to activate the TLR4/MD-2 receptor of HKE-Blue hTLR4 cells were deceased. Importantly, purified Kdo2-MPLA and Kdo2-pentaacyl-MPLA differed from wild type LPS in their ability to stimulate the mammalian cell lines THP-1 and RAW264.7. The purification of Kdo2-MPLA and Kdo2-pentaacyl-MPLA from HWB01 and HWB02, respectively, is much easier than the purification of LPS from W3110, and these lipid A derivatives could be important tools for developing future vaccine adjuvants. PMID:26710252

  7. Immuno-Stimulatory Activity of Escherichia coli Mutants Producing Kdo2-Monophosphoryl-Lipid A or Kdo2-Pentaacyl-Monophosphoryl-Lipid A.

    PubMed

    Wang, Biwen; Han, Yaning; Li, Ye; Li, Yanyan; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Lipid A is the active center of lipopolysaccharide which also known as endotoxin. Monophosphoryl-lipid A (MPLA) has less toxicity but retains potent immunoadjuvant activity; therefore, it can be developed as adjuvant for improving the strength and duration of the immune response to antigens. However, MPLA cannot be chemically synthesized and can only be obtained by hydrolyzing lipopolysaccharide (LPS) purified from Gram-negative bacteria. Purifying LPS is difficult and time-consuming and can damage the structure of MPLA. In this study, Escherichia coli mutant strains HWB01 and HWB02 were constructed by deleting several genes and integrating Francisella novicida gene lpxE into the chromosome of E. coli wild type strain W3110. Compared with W3110, HWB01 and HWB02 synthesized very short LPS, Kdo2-monophosphoryl-lipid A (Kdo2-MPLA) and Kdo2-pentaacyl-monophosphoryl-lipid A (Kdo2-pentaacyl-MPLA), respectively. Structural changes of LPS in the outer membranes of HWB01 and HWB02 increased their membrane permeability, surface hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation ability and sensitivity to some antibiotics, but the abilities of these strains to activate the TLR4/MD-2 receptor of HKE-Blue hTLR4 cells were deceased. Importantly, purified Kdo2-MPLA and Kdo2-pentaacyl-MPLA differed from wild type LPS in their ability to stimulate the mammalian cell lines THP-1 and RAW264.7. The purification of Kdo2-MPLA and Kdo2-pentaacyl-MPLA from HWB01 and HWB02, respectively, is much easier than the purification of LPS from W3110, and these lipid A derivatives could be important tools for developing future vaccine adjuvants. PMID:26710252

  8. Effect of Sodium Butyrate on Growth Performance and Response to Lipopolysaccharide in Weanling Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary sodium butyrate on growth performance and response to E. coli. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in weanling pigs. In the first 28 d experiment, 180 pigs (initial BW 6.3 kg) were fed 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4% sodium butyrate, or 110 mg/kg d...

  9. Regional blood flow during continuous low-dose endotoxin infusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, R.E.; Lang, C.H.; Spitzer, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Escherichia coli endotoxin (ET) was administered to adult rats by continuous IV infusion from a subcutaneously implanted osmotic pump (Alzet). Cardiac output and regional blood flow were determined by the radiolabeled microsphere method after 6 and 30 hr of ET or saline infusion. Cardiac output (CO) of ET rats was not different from time-matched controls, whereas arterial pressure was 13% lower after 30 hr of infusion. After both 6 and 30 hr of ET, pancreatic blood flow and percentage of cardiac output were lower than in controls. Estimated portal venous flow was decreased at each time point, and an increased hepatic arterial flow (significant after 30 hr) resulted in an unchanged total hepatic blood flow. Blood flow to most other tissues, including epididymal fat, muscle, kidneys, adrenals, and gastrointestinal tract, was similar between treatments. Maintenance of blood flow to metabolically important tissues indicates that the previously reported alterations in in vitro cellular metabolism are not due to tissue hypoperfusion. Earlier observations of in vitro myocardial dysfunction, coexistent with the significant impairment in pancreatic flow, raise the possibility that release of a myocardial depressant factor occurs not only in profound shock but also under less severe conditions of sepsis and endotoxemia.

  10. Leptin selectively augments thymopoiesis in leptin deficiency and lipopolysaccharide-induced thymic atrophy.

    PubMed

    Hick, Ryan W; Gruver, Amanda L; Ventevogel, Melissa S; Haynes, Barton F; Sempowski, Gregory D

    2006-07-01

    The thymus is a lymphoid organ that selects T cells for release to the peripheral immune system. Unfortunately, thymopoiesis is highly susceptible to damage by physiologic stressors and can contribute to immune deficiencies that occur in a variety of clinical settings. No treatment is currently available to protect the thymus from stress-induced involution. Leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice have severe thymic atrophy and this finding suggests that this hormone is required for normal thymopoiesis. In this study, the ability of leptin to promote thymopoiesis in wild-type C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, as well as in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) and endotoxin-stressed (Escherichia coli LPS) mice, was determined. Leptin administration induced weight loss and stimulated thymopoiesis in ob/ob mice, but did not stimulate thymopoiesis in wild-type C57BL/6 nor BALB/c mice. In endotoxin-stressed mice, however, leptin prevented LPS-induced thymus weight loss and stimulated TCRalpha gene rearrangement. Coadministration of leptin with LPS blunted endotoxin-induced systemic corticosterone response and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Thus, leptin has a selective thymostimulatory role in settings of leptin deficiency and endotoxin administration, and may be useful for protecting the thymus from damage and augmenting T cell reconstitution in these clinical states. PMID:16785512

  11. Airborne Endotoxin Concentrations in Homes Burning Biomass Fuel

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Sean; Devakumar, Delan; Fullerton, Duncan G.; Thorne, Peter S.; Metwali, Nervana; Costello, Anthony; Gordon, Stephen B.; Manandhar, Dharma S.; Ayres, Jon G.

    2010-01-01

    Background About half of the world’s population is exposed to smoke from burning biomass fuels at home. The high airborne particulate levels in these homes and the health burden of exposure to this smoke are well described. Burning unprocessed biological material such as wood and dried animal dung may also produce high indoor endotoxin concentrations. Objective In this study we measured airborne endotoxin levels in homes burning different biomass fuels. Methods Air sampling was carried out in homes burning wood or dried animal dung in Nepal (n = 31) and wood, charcoal, or crop residues in Malawi (n = 38). Filters were analyzed for endotoxin content expressed as airborne endotoxin concentration and endotoxin per mass of airborne particulate. Results Airborne endotoxin concentrations were high. Averaged over 24 hr in Malawian homes, median concentrations of total inhalable endotoxin were 24 endotoxin units (EU)/m3 in charcoal-burning homes and 40 EU/m3 in wood-burning homes. Short cooking-time samples collected in Nepal produced median values of 43 EU/m3 in wood-burning homes and 365 EU/m3 in dung-burning homes, suggesting increasing endotoxin levels with decreasing energy levels in unprocessed solid fuels. Conclusions Airborne endotoxin concentrations in homes burning biomass fuels are orders of magnitude higher than those found in homes in developed countries where endotoxin exposure has been linked to respiratory illness in children. There is a need for work to identify the determinants of these high concentrations, interventions to reduce exposure, and health studies to examine the effects of these sustained, near-occupational levels of exposure experienced from early life. PMID:20308032

  12. Role of endotoxemia in cardiovascular dysfunction and mortality. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus challenges in a canine model of human septic shock.

    PubMed Central

    Natanson, C; Danner, R L; Elin, R J; Hosseini, J M; Peart, K W; Banks, S M; MacVittie, T J; Walker, R I; Parrillo, J E

    1989-01-01

    Using different types of bacteria and a canine model simulating human septic shock, we investigated the role of endotoxin in cardiovascular dysfunction and mortality. Either Escherichia coli (a microorganism with endotoxin) or Staphylococcus aureus (a microorganism without endotoxin) were placed in an intraperitoneal clot in doses of viable or formalin-killed bacteria. Cardiovascular function of conscious animals was studied using simultaneous radionuclide heart scans and thermodilution cardiac outputs. Serial plasma endotoxin levels were measured. S. aureus produced a pattern of reversible cardiovascular dysfunction over 7-10 d that was concordant (P less than 0.01) with that of E. coli. Although this cardiovascular pattern was not altered by formalin killing (S. aureus and E. coli), formalin-killed organisms produced a lower mortality and less myocardial depression (P less than 0.01). S. aureus, compared to E. coli, produced higher postmortem concentrations of microorganisms and higher mortality (P less than 0.025). E. coli produced significant endotoxemia (P less than 0.01), though viable organisms (versus nonviable) resulted in higher endotoxin blood concentrations (P less than 0.05). Significant endotoxemia did not occur with S. aureus. Thus, in the absence of endotoxemia, S. aureus induced the same cardiovascular abnormalities of septic shock as E. coli. These findings indicate that structurally and functionally distinct microorganisms, with or without endotoxin, can activate a common pathway resulting in similar cardiovascular injury and mortality. PMID:2642920

  13. Endotoxin stimulates expression of the murine urokinase receptor gene in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Almus-Jacobs, F.; Varki, N.; Sawdey, M. S.; Loskutoff, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    The regulation of urokinase receptor (u-PAR) gene expression during endotoxemia was studied in vivo with a murine model system. Northern blot analysis demonstrated relatively high levels of u-PAR mRNA in mouse placenta, with intermediate levels in lung and spleen and very low levels in heart and kidney. No u-PAR mRNA could be detected in liver, gut, thymus, brain, or skeletal muscle. Intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) increased the steady-state levels of u-PAR mRNA in most tissues examined. The greatest induction (sevenfold) was observed in the lung at 1 hour after injection. The cellular localization of u-PAR mRNA was assessed by in situ hybridization. In control mice, u-PAR mRNA was detected primarily in alveolar macrophages of the lung and lymphocytes of the spleen and thymus, although a specific signal was also present in other cell types. In general, endothelial cells lacked detectable u-PAR mRNA. The induction of u-PAR mRNA by lipopolysaccharide was apparent within 30 minutes and was localized to tissue macrophages, lymphocytes, and endothelial cells lining arteries and veins. At later times (1 to 3 hours), specialized epithelial cells present in gastrointestinal tract, bile ducts, and uterus were also positive for u-PAR mRNA. Induction of u-PAR in vivo by lipopolysaccharide may facilitate the extravasation and migration of leukocytes during inflammation. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7677180

  14. Removal of lipopolysaccharides from protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes by nonflammable solvents.

    PubMed

    Lin, Miao-Fang; Williams, Christie; Murray, Michael V; Ropp, Philip A

    2005-02-25

    During the recovery of recombinant proteins from gram negative bacteria, many of the methods used to extract proteins from cells release lipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxin) along with the protein of interest. In many instances, LPS will co-purify with the target protein due to specific or non-specific protein-LPS interactions. We have investigated the ability of alkanediols to effect the separation of LPS from protein-LPS complexes while the complexes are immobilized on ion exchange chromatographic resins. Proteins were complexed with fluorescently labeled LPS and bound to ion exchange resin. Alkanediol washes of the resins were preformed and the proteins eluted. Column eluates were monitored for LPS and protein by fluorescence and UV spectroscopy, respectively. Alkanediols were effective agents for dissociating LPS from protein-LPS complexes. The efficiency of LPS removal increased with increasing alkanediol chain length. The 1,2-alkanediol isomers were more effective than terminal alkanediol isomers in the separation of LPS from protein-LPS complexes, while the separation of LPS from protein-LPS complexes was more efficient on cation exchangers than on anion exchangers. In addition, it was noted during these investigations that the 1,2-alkanediols increased the retention time of the proteins on the ion exchange resins. Alkanediols provide a safer alternative to the use of other organics such as alcohols or acetonitrile for the separation of LPS from protein due to their lower toxicity and decreased inflammability. In addition, they are less costly than many of the detergents that have been used for similar purposes. PMID:15664347

  15. Anti-inflammatory effect of desoxo-narchinol-A isolated from Nardostachys jatamansi against lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Shin, Joon Yeon; Bae, Gi-Sang; Choi, Sun-Bok; Jo, Il-Joo; Kim, Dong-Goo; Lee, Dong-Sung; An, Ren-Bo; Oh, Hyuncheol; Kim, Youn-Chul; Shin, Yong Kook; Jeong, Hyun-Woo; Song, Ho-Joon; Park, Sung-Joo

    2015-12-01

    We previously reported that Nardostachys jatamansi (NJ) exhibits anti-inflammatory activity against lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, the active compound in NJ is unknown. Therefore, here, we examined the effects of desoxo-narchinol-A (DN) isolated from NJ against LPS-induced inflammation. To demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effect of DN against LPS, we used two models; murine endotoxin shock model for in vivo model, and peritoneal macrophage responses for in vitro. In endotoxin shock model, DN was administrated intraperitoneally 1h before LPS challenge, then we evaluated mice survival rates and organ damages. Pretreatment with DN (0.05mg/kg, 0.1mg/kg, or 0.5mg/kg) dramatically reduced mortality in a murine LPS-induced endotoxin shock model. Furthermore, DN inhibited tissue injury and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), in the liver and lung. In in vitro macrophage model, we examined the inflammatory mediators and regulatory mechanisms such as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B). DN inhibited the production of inflammatory mediators, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and its derivative nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? and H3 protein acetylation in murine peritoneal macrophages. DN also inhibited p38 activation, but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and NF-?B. These results suggest that DN from NJ exhibits protective effects against LPS-induced endotoxin shock and inflammation through p38 deactivation. PMID:26371857

  16. Milk Thistle Extract and Silymarin Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide Induced Lamellar Separation of Hoof Explants in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Reisinger, Nicole; Schaumberger, Simone; Nagl, Veronika; Hessenberger, Sabine; Schatzmayr, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of laminitis is not completely identified and the role of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) in this process remains unclear. Phytogenic substances, like milk thistle (MT) and silymarin, are known for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and might therefore have the potential to counteract endotoxin induced effects on the hoof lamellar tissue. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of endotoxins on lamellar tissue integrity and to test if MT and silymarin are capable of inhibiting LPS-induced effects in an in vitro/ex vivo model. In preliminary tests, LPS neutralization efficiency of these phytogenics was determined in an in vitro neutralization assay. Furthermore, tissue explants gained from hooves of slaughter horses were tested for lamellar separation after incubation with different concentrations of LPS. By combined incubation of explants with LPS and either Polymyxin B (PMB; positive control), MT or silymarin, the influence of these substances on LPS-induced effects was assessed. In the in vitro neutralization assay, MT and silymarin reduced LPS concentrations by 64% and 75%, respectively, in comparison PMB reduced 98% of the LPS concentration. In hoof explants, LPS led to a concentration dependent separation. Accordantly, separation force was significantly decreased by 10 µg/mL LPS. PMB, MT and silymarin could significantly improve tissue integrity of explants incubated with 10 µg/mL LPS. This study showed that LPS had a negative influence on the structure of hoof explants in vitro. MT and silymarin reduced endotoxin activity and inhibited LPS-induced effects on the lamellar tissue. Hence, MT and silymarin might be used to support the prevention of laminitis and should be further evaluated for this application. PMID:25290524

  17. An elastography analytical method for the rapid detection of endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haixuan; Miao, Peng; Tang, Yuguo; Wang, Bidou; Qian, Jun; Wang, Danyi

    2015-07-01

    We present a flexible analytical method for the study of coagulation systems by monitoring elastography (EG). The rapid detection of endotoxin is achieved by the EG analysis of endotoxin-induced limulus amebocyte lysate coagulation. This method is superior to other methods using the same reagents in not only sensitivity but also detecting time. PMID:25985752

  18. EFFECTS OF LIME (CAO) ON THE ENDOTOXIN LEVELS OF BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lime addition is a common practice for treating biosolids in order to meet EPA 503 requirements for land application. Since this treatment kills the majority of microorganisms, will it increase the level of endotoxins present in biosolids? And, if endotoxin levels are increased, ...

  19. General effect of endotoxin on glucocorticoid receptors in mammalian tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Stith, R.D.; McCallum, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Considering the ubiquitous nature of glucocorticoid actions and the fact that endotoxin inhibits glucocorticoid action in the liver, we proposed to examine whether endotoxin affected extrahepatic actions of glucocorticoids. Fasted C57BL/6J mice were injected intraperitoneally with endotoxin (LD50) at 0800 and were killed 6 h later. Control mice were injected with an equal volume of saline. /sup 3/H-dexamethasone binding, measured by a new cytosol exchange assay utilizing molybdate plus dithiothreitol, in liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, spleen, lung, and heart tissue was significantly lower in treated than in control mice. The equilibrium dissociation constants were not significantly different, but the number of available binding sites in each tissue was reduced by endotoxin treatment. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity was significantly reduced in liver but not in kidney. Endotoxin treatment lowered glycogen content in liver but not in skeletal muscle. The reduction observed in the a form of liver glycogen synthase due to endotoxin was not seen in skeletal muscle glycogen synthase a. These data support the proposal that endotoxin or a mediator of its action inhibits systemic glucocorticoid action. The results also emphasize the central role of the liver in the metabolic disturbances of the endotoxin-treated mouse.

  20. Evaluation of endotoxin retention by adsorptive-based filtration media.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Thomas P; Conway, Robert; Chen, Hsiao-Lin; Buckland, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Control of endotoxin contamination is an important issue in pharmaceutical and bioprocess manufacturing. Endotoxins can contaminate process intermediates used in pharmaceutical formulations, aqueous- and non-aqueous-based CIP fluids used in equipment and vial cleaning, and process fluids such as buffers used for chromatographic elution, diafiltration, and suspension of therapeutic protein-based drugs. A study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of adsorptive-based depth and membrane filtration media in removing suspended endotoxin. The following variables were examined in order to determine their effects on endotoxin reduction: absorptive media type, residence time (flux), challenge solution pH, and interferences in endotoxin reduction as the result of challenge solution composition-water for injection, process buffer, and the presence of protein. The endotoxin removal capacities of the various media studied were also determined. The results of the study demonstrated differences in the effect on endotoxin removal of the variables evaluated. In addition, the results provide a strategy for conducting studies to select and validate an appropriate adsorptive filter media for control of endotoxin contamination. PMID:17479715

  1. Colony-stimulating factor 1-dependent resident macrophages play a regulatory role in fighting Escherichia coli fecal peritonitis.

    PubMed Central

    Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W; Dzwigala, B; Szperl, M; Maruszynski, M; Urbanowska, E; Szwech, P

    1996-01-01

    Osteopetrotic op/op mice have less than 5% of the normal number of macrophages in the peritoneal cavity (W. Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, A. Ahmed, C. Szczylik, and R.R. Skelly, J. Exp. Med. 156:1516-1527, 1982). Fecal peritonitis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml of 5% autoclaved feces in saline along with Escherichia coli grown from feces of mice of the same colony and added in doses ranging between 10 and 10(6) CFU. Such infection led to a septic shock and either was lethal within 24 h or became cured without additional treatment of the mice. The op/op mice survived administration of 30-times-smaller doses of bacteria compared with their normal littermates. Analysis of the kinetics of cellular changes in the peritoneal cavity associated with such infection revealed that this increased susceptibility of macrophage-deficient mice cannot be explained by a direct role of macrophages in combating the infection. Instead, it appeared that the increased susceptibility to fatal fecal peritonitis was most likely due to delayed and impaired recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection in mutant mice. The increased susceptibility of the op/op mice to E. coli fecal peritonitis was not due to their possible increased sensitivity to endotoxin, since the mutant mice tolerated lipopolysaccharide doses more than twice those tolerated by control littermates. On the other hand, their susceptibility to exogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 alpha was increased. Both mutant op/op and control mice were able to survive secondary challenge with 10(6) E. coli (administered along with feces) lethal for both types of mice on primary challenge. These data suggest that colony-stimulating factor 1-dependent resident peritoneal macrophages play a role in controlling primary infection by recruiting neutrophils and are not required for efficient response to secondary infection. PMID:8613363

  2. Differences in cytokine response and induction of nitric oxide synthase in endotoxin-resistant and endotoxin-sensitive mice after intravenous gram-negative infection.

    PubMed

    Evans, T J; Strivens, E; Carpenter, A; Cohen, J

    1993-06-01

    Previous reports have suggested that the endotoxin-resistant C3H/HeJ strain of mouse is more susceptible to infection than is the endotoxin-sensitive parent strain, C3H/HeN, although they have never been compared in an i.v. model of sepsis. We therefore have used these mouse strains in an i.v. model of Gram-negative sepsis to compare their sensitivities to infection, their cytokine responses, and the levels of induction of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase assayed in their livers. By using i.v. infection with Escherichia coli we have found that both strains are approximately equally sensitive to this organism, despite the C3H/HeJ mice having a markedly attenuated TNF-alpha response. IFN-gamma levels after infection were identical in the two strains; the levels of nitric oxide synthase induced in their livers were about fourfold greater in the C3H/HeJ mice. This difference could not be explained by differences in bacterial load. These experiments suggest that factors other than TNF-alpha are important in determining outcome from Gram-negative sepsis and that TNF-alpha is not a major factor in the induction of hepatic nitric oxide synthase after infection in vivo. PMID:7684416

  3. Escherichia coli (E. coli)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food & Water Healthy Swimming E. coli Infection & Farm Animals General Information Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... normally live in the intestines of people and animals. Most E. coli are harmless and actually are ...

  4. ORIGIN AND PROPERTIES OF NATURALLY OCCURRING HAPTEN FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, R. L.; Finkelstein, R. A.; Haskins, W. T.; Landy, M.; Milner, K. C.; Ribi, E.; Stashak, P. W.

    1964-01-01

    Anacker, R. L. (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Mont.), R. A. Finkelstein, W. T. Haskins, M. Landy, K. C. Milner, E. Ribi, and P. W. Stashak. Origin and properties of naturally occurring hapten from Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 88:1705–1720. 1964.—Haptens found in preparations of endotoxin and in fractions of disrupted cells, particularly one termed “native hapten,” which appeared to be associated with the protoplasm of cells rather than with cell walls, have been further investigated with a view to establishing their origin and composition as well as their host-reactive properties. For this purpose, cells from a smooth strain of Escherichia coli O111:B4 were either extracted directly or disrupted and separated into cell-wall and protoplasmic fractions. Haptens were obtained by gel filtration of endotoxins, by trichloroacetic acid extraction of protoplasm, and by a mild acid hydrolysis of endotoxin. Several lines of evidence indicated that native hapten originated in the protoplasm rather than by autolysis or degradation of cell-wall endotoxin during procedures employed in disruption. In gel diffusion and quantitative precipitin tests, no hapten was identical with endotoxin, but native hapten was serologically the most complex of the haptens and precipitated the most antibody. Native and acid haptens, on a weight basis, fixed about 1% of the quantity of complement fixed by homologous endotoxin. Haptens did not stimulate the production of antibodies in mice or rabbits and did not elicit endotoxic host reactions. Chemically, native hapten differed from endotoxin and from acid hapten in that it lacked phosphorus, heptose, long-chain fatty acids, and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate. These substances did not appear to be determinants of antigenic specificity, but they may provide necessary bonds for assembling hapten-like units into fully antigenic and toxic macromolecules. Images PMID:14240961

  5. The origin of 8-amino-3,8-dideoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo8N) in the lipopolysaccharide of Shewanella oneidensis.

    PubMed

    Gattis, Samuel G; Chung, Hak Suk; Trent, M Stephen; Raetz, Christian R H

    2013-03-29

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; endotoxin) is an essential component of the outer monolayer of nearly all Gram-negative bacteria. LPS is composed of a hydrophobic anchor, known as lipid A, an inner core oligosaccharide, and a repeating O-antigen polysaccharide. In nearly all species, the first sugar bridging the hydrophobic lipid A and the polysaccharide domain is 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo), and thus it is critically important for LPS biosynthesis. Modifications to lipid A have been shown to be important for resistance to antimicrobial peptides as well as modulating recognition by the mammalian innate immune system. Therefore, lipid A derivatives have been used for development of vaccine strains and vaccine adjuvants. One derivative that has yet to be studied is 8-amino-3,8-dideoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo8N), which is found exclusively in marine bacteria of the genus Shewanella. Using bioinformatics, a candidate gene cluster for Kdo8N biosynthesis was identified in Shewanella oneidensis. Expression of these genes recombinantly in Escherichia coli resulted in lipid A containing Kdo8N, and in vitro assays confirmed their proposed enzymatic function. Both the in vivo and in vitro data were consistent with direct conversion of Kdo to Kdo8N prior to its incorporation into the Kdo8N-lipid A domain of LPS by a metal-dependent oxidase followed by a glutamate-dependent aminotransferase. To our knowledge, this oxidase is the first enzyme shown to oxidize an alcohol using a metal and molecular oxygen, not NAD(P)(+). Creation of an S. oneidensis in-frame deletion strain showed increased sensitivity to the cationic antimicrobial peptide polymyxin as well as bile salts, suggesting a role in outer membrane integrity. PMID:23413030

  6. Increased histamine sensitivity in mice after administration of endotoxins.

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, R K; Munoz, J J

    1977-01-01

    CFW mice given submicrogram doses of endotoxins intravenously became highly susceptible to the lethal effects of 0.5 mg of histamine given intraperitoneally 1 to 2 h later. The histamine-sensitizing effects of the endotoxins were transitory and disappeared within 6 to 8 h. L-Epinephrine administered intravenously immediately after histamine challenge protected mice from death, but aterenol and isoproterenol were ineffective. The histamine-sensitizing effect in endotoxins was precipitated by anti-endotoxin sera with a concomitant eightfold loss in activity. However, dissociation of the immune complex in 0.25 M acetic acid fully restored histamine-sensitizing activity. The transitory nature of the hypersensitivity produced by endotoxin and the high heat resistance of the active material prove that it is different from the histamine-sensitizing effects of pertussigen. PMID:188767

  7. In vitro toxicity and interactions of environmental contaminants (Arochlor 1254 and mercury) and immunomodulatory agents (lipopolysaccharide and cortisol) on thymocytes from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Gregory G.; Sweet, Leonard I.; Adams, Jean V.; Omann, Geneva M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Meier, Peter G.

    2002-01-01

    The immunotoxicity of chemical combinations commonly encountered by the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) immune system was the focus of this study. It was hypothesised that combinations of an environmental contaminant (mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254) and an immunomodulatory agent (bacterial endotoxin or cortisol) might interact to produce a greater toxicity than that of the environmental contaminant alone at concentrations typically encountered in piscine blood and other tissues. Thus lake trout thymocytes were isolated and treated with mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254 in the presence and absence of cortisol or lipopolysaccharide. Incubations were performed for 6 or 20h at 4A?C or 10A?C. Lipopolysaccharide did not affect the toxicity of either contaminant. In contrast, cortisol enhanced the toxicity of both environmental contaminants. Hence, stressors that lead to increased cortisol production, but not lipopolysaccharide directly, may increase the toxicity of mercury and Aroclor 1254 to lake trout thymocytes.

  8. Endotoxin Exposure Is a Risk Factor for Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Peter S.; Kulhánková, Katarina; Yin, Ming; Cohn, Richard; Arbes, Samuel J.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Although research has shown that early life exposure to household endotoxin protects against development of allergies, studies are less clear on the relationship between household endotoxin exposure and prevalence of wheezing and asthma. We as- sayed 2,552 house dust samples in a representative nationwide sam- ple to explore relationships between endotoxin exposures and risk factors for asthma, asthma symptoms, and medication use. Methods: House dust was vacuum-sampled from five locations within homes and assayed for endotoxin. Health, demographic, and housing information was assessed through questionnaire and on-site evaluation of 2,456 residents of 831 homes selected to represent the demographics of the United States. Results: Endotoxin concentration (EU/mg) and load (EU/m2) were highly correlated (r = 0.73–0.79). Geometric mean endotoxin concentrations were as follows (in EU/mg): bedroom floors, 35.3 (5th–95th percentile, 5.0–260); bedding, 18.7 (2.0–142); family room floors, 63.9 (11.5–331); sofas, 44.8 (6.4–240); and kitchen floors, 80.5 (9.8–512). Multivariate analysis demonstrated significant relationships between increasing endotoxin levels and diagnosed asthma, asthma symptoms in the past year, current use of asthma medications, and wheezing among residents of the homes. These relationships were strongest for bedroom floor and bedding dust and were observed in adults only. Modeling the joint effect of bedding and bedroom floor endotoxin on recent asthma symptoms yielded an adjusted odds ratio of 2.83 (95% confidence interval, 1.01–7.87). When stratified by allergy status, allergic subjects with higher endotoxin exposure were no more likely to have diagnosed asthma or asthma symptoms than nonallergic subjects. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that household endotoxin exposure is a significant risk factor for increased asthma prevalence. PMID:16141442

  9. Endotoxin in the pathogenesis of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John C

    2010-01-01

    The word 'sepsis' is a descriptive term that denotes the clinical syndrome resulting from the activation of an innate host response to infection. Sepsis is a useful concept that underlines the fact that the morbidity of serious infection arises through the response of the host, rather than through intrinsic cytopathic effects of the microorganism. However, it has proven inadequate as a means to delineate a population of patients who might benefit from therapies that modulate this response. The syndrome is variable in its clinical expression, and not specific for infection as a cause. Emerging insights into the biology of the innate host immune response reveal that the cellular response can be evoked by a variety of stimuli - including both microbial products and host-derived molecules that are normally intracellular - that signal danger to the host. The disconnect between concept and disease that has hampered the conduct of clinical trials is nicely exemplified in the host response to endotoxin. Endotoxemia occurs in many patients with sepsis, but also in many clinical settings that are noninfectious in nature. Moreover, the biologic behavior of endotoxin resembles that of a hormone more than that of a toxin, suggesting that low level endotoxemia may, under some circumstances, be beneficial. Future studies of antiendotoxin strategies in acute illness are more likely to succeed if they recruit patients with endotoxemia, and titrate therapy to an optimal level. PMID:20519894

  10. Endotoxin release and cytokine production in acute and chronic meningococcaemia

    PubMed Central

    Prins, J M; Lauw, F N; Derkx, B H F; Speelman, P; Kuijper, E J; Dankert, J; Van Deventer, S J H

    1998-01-01

    Chronic meningococcaemia is a relatively benign manifestation of meningococcal disease. Whether bacterial virulence factors are responsible for this benign course has not been studied. We compared the in vitro endotoxin-liberating ability and cytokine-inducing potential of 31 Neisseria meningitidis isolates obtained from children with acute septic shock with that of nine isolates obtained from patients with chronic meningococcaemia and 12 isolates obtained from carriers with respiratory symptoms. The median endotoxin level released in vitro after 3 h of incubation was significantly higher for isolates causing septic shock compared with isolates from the other two groups (P = 0.01 and 0.02, Mann–Whitney test). This was not explained by differences in bacterial growth rate in vitro. The median IL-6 levels in whole blood ex vivo after 4 h of incubation were also significantly lower for isolates causing chronic meningococcaemia (P = 0.04, Mann–Whitney test). The endotoxin and cytokine levels measured on admission in the 31 children with acute meningococcal septic shock showed a 1000-fold variation. No relationship was established between the amount of endotoxin released by the causative microorganisms in vitro and the endotoxin or cytokine levels in the corresponding 31 children. These results suggest a diminished bacterial virulence for isolates causing chronic meningococcaemia. However, other factors than the endotoxin-releasing potential of the microorganism involved are responsible for the wide variation in endotoxin and therefore cytokine levels in patients with acute meningococcal septic shock. PMID:9822279

  11. Endotoxin reduction in monoclonal antibody preparations using arginine.

    PubMed

    Ritzén, Ulrika; Rotticci-Mulder, Joke; Strömberg, Patrik; Schmidt, Stefan R

    2007-09-01

    A monoclonal antibody preparation was found to be contaminated with endotoxin. Several commercial endotoxin removal steps were attempted but failed to produce a significant reduction due to the fact that the endotoxin was associated with the antibody. Here, several methods for endotoxin removal based on immobilizing monoclonal antibodies to chromatographic media have been evaluated. A crucial step in this process was to dissociate the endotoxin from the protein surface for subsequent removal. This was accomplished by introducing different buffer additives in the mobile phase. In agreement with previous reports, non-ionic detergents efficiently removed endotoxin, but it was also found that 0.5M arginine performed equally well. Since arginine is a non-toxic common amino acid that can be readily removed, it was selected and successfully used in large-scale experiments. With this method, endotoxin could be reduced to <0.2 EU mg(-1) with recovery of the target protein being >95%. Since this procedure is easily integrated into the existing processes of mAb purification, it offers advantages in speed, cost and effort. PMID:17644450

  12. Endotoxin-triggered haematological interactions in Fusobacterium necrophorum infections.

    PubMed

    Garcia, G G; Goto, Y; Shinjo, T

    2000-01-01

    The haematological mechanisms in the course of liver abscess formation were evaluated. They were examined by employing viable cells of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme in comparison with their endotoxins. Whole cell infection with F.n. necrophorum led to neutrophilia and to a concomitant monocytosis in parallel with those responses induced by the in vivo injection of its endotoxin. Viable infection with F.n. funduliforme was characterized by a sustained endotoxin-related monocytosis against neutropenia. The stimulatory impact of endotoxin on monocytes when released from a viable F.n. funduliforme infection suggested an inherently peculiar mechanism which differed from the induction of both neutrophilia and monocytosis when F.n. funduliforme endotoxin was administered alone. The neutrophilic inducing capacity of the F.n. necrophorum endotoxin was equally illustrated by its positive chemotactic effect on polymorphonuclear neutrophils in vitro. The data presented here emphasize the virulence of F.n. necrophorum viewed in reference to changes in leucocyte trafficking and as complemented by a relatively high endotoxin content. PMID:10817519

  13. Home endotoxin exposure and wheeze in infants: correction for bias due to exposure measurement error.

    PubMed

    Horick, Nora; Weller, Edie; Milton, Donald K; Gold, Diane R; Li, Ruifeng; Spiegelman, Donna

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of endotoxin in family-room dust was previously observed to be significantly associated with increased wheeze in the first year of life among a cohort of 404 children in the Boston, Massachusetts, metropolitan area. However, it is likely that family-room dust endotoxin was a surrogate for airborne endotoxin exposure. Therefore, a related substudy characterized the relationship between levels of airborne household endotoxin and the level of endotoxin present in house dust, in addition to identifying other significant predictors of airborne endotoxin in the home. We now reexamine the relationship between endotoxin exposure and wheeze under the assumption that the level of airborne endotoxin in the home is the exposure of interest and that the amount of endotoxin in household dust is a surrogate for this exposure. We applied a measurement error correction technique, using all available data to estimate the effect of endotoxin exposure in terms of airborne concentration and accounting for the measurement error induced by using house-dust endotoxin as a surrogate measure in the portion of the data in which airborne endotoxin could not be directly measured. After adjusting for confounding by lower respiratory infection status and race/ethnicity, endotoxin exposure was found to be significantly associated with a nearly 6-fold increase in prevalence of wheeze for a one interquartile range increase in airborne endotoxin (95% confidence interval, 1.2-26) among the 360 children in households with dust endotoxin levels between the 5th and 95th percentiles. PMID:16393671

  14. Beneficial haemodynamic effect of indomethacin during endotoxin shock in anaesthetized pigsputative involvement of nitric oxide?

    PubMed Central

    Gelderen, E. M. van; Mylecharane, E. J.; Saxena, P. R.

    1995-01-01

    Endotoxin shock was induced in 31 anaesthetized pigs by infusion of 5 μg/kg of Escbeicbia coli endotoxin (LPS) over 60 min into the superior mesenteric artery. Fifteen of these pigs died within 30 min of the start of LPS infusion whereas the remaining 16 survived the experimental period of 2 h. In a group of nine pigs indomethacin (2 mg/kg, i.v.)was inected 20–25 rain after the start of LPS infusion at which time mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) had decreased below 40 mmHg indicating imminent death. Indomethacin immediately reversed the hypotension. In another group of five pigs, NG-nitro L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, 1 and 3 mg/kg)was iniected 10 and 5 min, respectively, before the expected death without any beneficial effect on the hypotension. Three rain after the last dose of L-NAME, indomethacin (2 mg/kg, i.v.) was iniected. In three animals the hypotension was reserved by indomethacin, although this beneficial effect was delayed in comparison with the LP-Streated group not receiving L-NAME. Four pigs were pretreated with L-NAME, 3 mg/kg, i.v., 10 min prior to LPS infusion. All pretreated animals tended to die within 30 min of the start of the LPS infusion. Five rain before the expected death (20–25 rain after the start of LPS infusion) indomethacin (2 mg/kg) was inected. In three of these animals indomethacin reversed hypotenston and prevented death. Interestingly, this rise in the MABP developed very slowly. These results suggest that the beneficial effect of indomethacin in endotoxin shock might be related partially to interference with nitric oxide, which is not the only factor determining blood pressure levels during endotoxic shock. PMID:18475627

  15. Visualization and analysis of lipopolysaccharide distribution in binary phospholipid bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, Maria Florencia; Sanchez, Susana; Bakas, Laura; Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP, Calles 47 y 115, 1900 La Plata

    2009-05-22

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin released from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria during infections. It have been reported that LPS may play a role in the outer membrane of bacteria similar to that of cholesterol in eukaryotic plasma membranes. In this article we compare the effect of introducing LPS or cholesterol in liposomes made of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine on the solubilization process by Triton X-100. The results show that liposomes containing LPS or cholesterol are more resistant to solubilization by Triton X-100 than the binary phospholipid mixtures at 4 {sup o}C. The LPS distribution was analyzed on GUVs of DPPC:DOPC using FITC-LPS. Solid and liquid-crystalline domains were visualized labeling the GUVs with LAURDAN and GP images were acquired using a two-photon microscope. The images show a selective distribution of LPS in gel domains. Our results support the hypothesis that LPS could aggregate and concentrate selectively in biological membranes providing a mechanism to bring together several components of the LPS-sensing machinery.

  16. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Hamesch, K; Borkham-Kamphorst, E; Strnad, P; Weiskirchen, R

    2015-04-01

    The intraperitoneal application of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alone or in combination with other hepatotoxins is an experimental model for inducing systemic and hepatic inflammation in rodents applied worldwide. The endotoxin is recognized by the LPS-binding protein. This complex binds together with the lymphocyte antigen 96 (MD2) and the pattern-recognition receptor CD14 to members of the toll-like receptor family. The activated receptor complex in turn transduces signals to well characterized intracellular cascades that result in a multifaceted network of intracellular responses ending in inflammation. The most prominent among these is the activation of the NF-κB pathway and the production of a multitude of inflammatory cytokines. Although the application of LPS is in general easy to perform, unintended variations in preparation of the injection solution or in handling of the animals might affect the reproducibility or the outcome of a specific experiment. Here, we present a well-standardized protocol that allows for an induction of highly reproducible acute hepatic inflammation in mice. Furthermore, examples of appropriate readouts for the resulting inflammatory response are given. PMID:25835737

  17. Lipopolysaccharide, central in vivo biogenic amine variations, and anhedonia.

    PubMed

    Borowski, T; Kokkinidis, L; Merali, Z; Anisman, H

    1998-12-01

    Systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a non-specific activator of proinflammatory cytokine release from macrophages, provokes sickness characterized by anorexia, soporific effects, and disturbances of locomotor activity and exploration. In addition, endotoxin treatment may provoke an anhedonic response. Assessment of anhedonia in appetitive paradigms, however, is compromised by the anorexia provoked by the treatment. The present investigation assessed the anhedonic effects of LPS on rewarding lateral hypothalamic brain stimulation. Using a simultaneous discrimination, current titration procedure in the assessment of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), it was found that acute systemic administration of LPS (50 microg, 100 microg or 200 microg) reduced ICSS during the ascending sequence of current presentations, but had little effect on responding to a series of descending currents. In a parallel experiment, peripheral administration of LPS (100 microg) increased in vivo dopamine (DA) efflux from the nucleus accumbens, a region thought to be involved in goal-directed responding to positively reinforcing stimuli. It is suggested that LPS alters ICSS in a manner different than that observed following stressor exposure or peripheral IL-2 treatment. Furthermore, LPS may engender an anhedonic effect (possibly secondary to sickness), and the decline of responding reflects the relation between the cost of responding given in the face of sickness and the reward received for responding. PMID:9875707

  18. Pulmonary hypertensive responses of broilers to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS): evaluation of LPS source and dose, and impact of pre-existing pulmonary hypertension and cellulose micro-particle selection.

    PubMed

    Chapman, M E; Wang, W; Erf, G F; Wideman, R F

    2005-03-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) triggers pulmonary vasoconstriction leading to pulmonary hypertension (PHS, ascites) in broilers. The lungs of broilers are constantly challenged with LPS that can trigger pulmonary vasoconstriction. Among broilers from a single genetic line, some individuals respond to LPS with large increases in pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), whereas others fail to exhibit any response to the same supramaximal dose of LPS. In the present study we evaluated the impact of a variety of factors on the magnitude of the PAP response of male broilers to LPS, including: (1) the role of the initial PAP (low vs. high initial PAP); (2) the source of the LPS (Salmonella typhimurium vs. Escherichia coli); (3) the dose of LPS (0.02, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/kg of BW); and (4) the role of micro-particle selection for improved pulmonary vascular capacity (cellulose survivors vs. saline-injected controls). Broilers in the low initial PAP group (21 +/- 0.34 mmHg, mean +/- SEM) did not differ in their pulmonary hypertensive response to LPS compared with broilers in the high initial PAP group (29 +/- 0.55 mmHg, mean +/- SEM). Lipopolysaccharide from S. typhimurium elicited pulmonary hypertensive responses qualitatively similar to those elicited by E. coli LPS. A detailed evaluation revealed that an LPS dose of 0.1 mg/kg of BW elicits a maximal pulmonary hypertensive response in male broilers, and broilers selected by micro-particle injection for a robust pulmonary vascular capacity did not differ in their pulmonary hypertensive response to LPS compared with unselected broilers. This research confirms that the variable pulmonary hypertensive responses among broilers cannot be attributed to the source or dosage of LPS, or to differences in the baseline pulmonary arterial pressure or micro-particle selection before injecting LPS. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that innate rather than acquired variability may influence the profile of chemical mediators released during the inflammatory cascade. PMID:15782912

  19. The Immunobiology of TLR4 Agonists: From Endotoxin Tolerance to Immunoadjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Bohannon, Julia K.; Hernandez, Antonio; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Adams, William L.; Sherwood, Edward R.

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) is a structural component of the Gram negative outer membrane. The lipid A moiety of LPS binds to the LPS receptor complex expressed by leukocytes, endothelial cells and parenchymal cells and is the primary component of Gram negative bacteria that is recognized by the immune system. Activation of the LPS receptor complex by native lipid A induces robust cytokine production, leukocyte activation and inflammation, which is beneficial for clearing bacterial infections at the local level but can cause severe systemic inflammation and shock at higher challenge doses. Interestingly, prior exposure to LPS renders the host resistant to shock caused by subsequent LPS challenge, a phenomenon known as endotoxin tolerance. Treatment with lipid A has also been shown to augment the host response to infection and to serve as a potent vaccine adjuvant. However, the side effects associated with the pronounced inflammatory response limits the use of native lipid A as a clinical immunomodulator. More recently, analogs of lipid A have been developed that possess attenuated pro-inflammatory activity but retain attractive immunomodulatory properties. The lipid A analog monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) exhibits approximately 1/1000th of the toxicity of native lipid A but retains potent immunoadjuvant activity. As such, MPLA is currently employed as an adjuvant in several human vaccine preparations. Due to the potency of lipid A analogs as immunoadjuvants, numerous laboratories are actively working to identify and develop new lipid A mimetics and to optimize their efficacy and safety. Based on those characteristics, lipid A analogs represent an attractive family of immunomodulators. PMID:23989337

  20. Endotoxin-Induced Tryptophan Degradation along the Kynurenine Pathway: The Role of Indolamine 2,3-Dioxygenase and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Mediated Immunosuppressive Effects in Endotoxin Tolerance and Cancer and Its Implications for Immunoparalysis

    PubMed Central

    Wirthgen, Elisa; Hoeflich, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The degradation of tryptophan (TRP) along the kynurenine pathway plays a crucial role as a neuro- and immunomodulatory mechanism in response to inflammatory stimuli, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS). In endotoxemia or sepsis, an enhanced activation of the rate-limiting enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is associated with a higher mortality risk. It is assumed that IDO induced immunosuppressive effects provoke the development of a protracted compensatory hypoinflammatory phase up to a complete paralysis of the immune system, which is characterized by an endotoxin tolerance. However, the role of IDO activation in the development of life-threatening immunoparalysis is still poorly understood. Recent reports described the impact of inflammatory IDO activation and aryl hydrocarbon receptor- (AhR-) mediated pathways on the development of LPS tolerance and immune escape of cancer cells. These immunosuppressive mechanisms offer new insights for a better understanding of the development of cellular dysfunctions in immunoparalysis. This review provides a comprehensive update of significant biological functions of TRP metabolites along the kynurenine pathway and the complex regulation of LPS-induced IDO activation. In addition, the review focuses on the role of IDO-AhR-mediated immunosuppressive pathways in endotoxin tolerance and carcinogenesis revealing the significance of enhanced IDO activity for the establishment of life-threatening immunoparalysis in sepsis. PMID:26881062

  1. The role of prostanoids and nitric oxide in endotoxin-induced hyporesponsiveness of equine digital blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Bailey, S R; Elliott, J

    1999-05-01

    Endotoxin has been implicated in the pathophysiology of acute laminitis. The aim of this study was to examine the direct effects of endotoxin on isolated equine digital blood vessels. Equine digital veins (EDV), incubated in Krebs-Henseleit solution containing lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 microg/ml) became hyporesponsive to 5-HT after 16 h. Cycloheximide and ibuprofen blocked this effect of LPS and increased the maximum response obtained to 5-HT when compared to control vessels. L-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) reversed the hyporesponsiveness caused by LPS. Vessels maintained in culture medium containing LPS also became hyporesponsive to 5-HT, an effect which was completely prevented by ibuprofen but only partially reversed by L-NAME. Measurements were made of 6-keto PGF1alpha and nitrite production by segments of equine digital artery and vein in culture medium alone or co-cultured with peripheral blood leucocytes. LPS did not stimulate nitrite production from vessel segments but increased nitrite release from leucocytes, an effect which was inhibited by cycloheximide and L-NAME. Lipopolysaccharide increased 6-keto PGF1alpha production by blood vessels, an effect which was inhibited by cycloheximide and ibuprofen but not L-NAME. No synergistic effect on release of nitrite or 6-keto PGF1alpha was noted in co-cultures of blood vessels and leucocytes. These data suggest that induction of cyclo-oxygenase by LPS was a major cause of hyporesponsiveness of digital blood vessels to 5-HT. Release of nitric oxide was not detectable in LPS-stimulated blood vessels maintained in culture even in the presence of activated leucocytes yet L-NAME did protect against LPS-induced hyporesponsiveness indicating nitric oxide synthase induction may play some role in the effect of LPS. These findings are important in furthering our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the vascular changes which occur in acute laminitis. PMID:10402134

  2. Estrogen receptor ? mediates the effects of notoginsenoside R1 on endotoxin-induced inflammatory and apoptotic responses in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Lei; Zhou, Xing-Lu; Liu, Yan-Song; Wang, Yi-Min; Ma, Fei; Guo, Bao-Liang; Yan, Zhao-Qi; Zhang, Qing-Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) are important for preventing endotoxin-induced myocardial dysfunction. Therefore, plant-derived phytoestrogens, which target ERs may also affect endotoxin-induced toxicity in cardiomyocytes. Our previous study revealed that notoginsenoside-R1 (NG-R1), a predominant phytoestrogen from Panax notoginseng, protects against cardiac dysfunction. However, the effects of NG-R1 on cardiomyocytes and the precise cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying its action remain to be elucidated. In the present study, pretreatment with NG-R1 suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced degradation of inhibitor of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) ?, the activation of NF-?B and caspase-3, and the subsequent myocardial inflammatory and apoptotic responses in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. An increase in the mRNA and protein expression of ER? was also observed in the NG-R1-treated cardiomyocytes. However, the expression pattern of ER? remained unaltered. Furthermore, the cardioprotective properties of NG-R1 against LPS-induced apoptosis and the inflammatory response in cardiomyocytes were attenuated by ICI 182780, a non-selective ER? antagonist, and methyl-piperidino-pyrazole, a selective ER? antagonist. These findings suggested that NG-R1 reduced endotoxin-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the inflammatory response via the activation of ER?. Therefore, NG-R1 exerted direct anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects on the cardiomyocytes, representing a potent agent for the treatment of myocardial inflammation during septic shock. PMID:25738436

  3. Effects of afferent and efferent denervation of vagal nerve on endotoxin-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Abdel-Rahman, Rehab Fawzy; Sleem, Amany A; Mosry, Fatma Adly; Sharaf, Hafiza A

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the role of vagal innervation in oxidative stress after systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin. Control rats and rats subjected to bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy, perivagal capsaicin application (5 mg/ml) or cholinergic receptor blockade with subcutaneous atropine (1 mg/kg), were intraperitoneally injected with 300 μg/kg of LPS and euthanized 4 h later. Results indicated that; (1) surgical vagotomy and sensory denervation by perivagal capsaicin increased brain oxidative stress and decreased reduced glutathione in basal condition (saline-treated rats) and following endotoxin challenge; (2) oxidative stress decreased after cholinergic blockade with atropine in endotoxemic rats; (3) nitric oxide decreased by abdominal vagotomy, sensory deafferentation and cholinergic blockade after endotoxin injection; (4) liver lipid peroxidation decreased after surgical vagotomy and cholinergic blockade but increased after sensory deafferentation; (5) liver reduced glutathione decreased following vagotomy and sensory denervation in basal state and by cholinergic blockade in basal state and during endotoxemia; (6) nitric oxide increased by vagotomy in basal state and by sensory denervation and cholinergic blockade in basal state and during endotoxemia; (7) liver histological damage increased by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy, sensory denervation or cholinergic blockade. These findings suggest that: (1) sensory fibers (signals from the periphery) running in the vagus nerves are important in maintaining the redox status of the brain; (2) capsaicin vagal sensory nerves are likely to maintain nitric oxide tone in basal conditions; (3) the vagus nerve modulates liver redox status and nitric oxide release, (4) the vagus nerve mediates protective role in the liver with both cholinergic and capsaicin-sensitive mechanisms being involved. PMID:23794033

  4. Men and women differ in inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses to endotoxin but not in the severity of sickness symptoms.

    PubMed

    Engler, Harald; Benson, Sven; Wegner, Alexander; Spreitzer, Ingo; Schedlowski, Manfred; Elsenbruch, Sigrid

    2016-02-01

    Impaired mood and increased anxiety represent core symptoms of sickness behavior that are thought to be mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, excessive inflammation seems to be implicated in the development of mood/affective disorders. Although women are known to mount stronger pro-inflammatory responses during infections and are at higher risk to develop depressive and anxiety disorders compared to men, experimental studies on sex differences in sickness symptoms are scarce. Thus, the present study aimed at comparing physiological and psychological responses to endotoxin administration between men and women. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers (14 men, 14 women) were intravenously injected with a low dose (0.4ng/kg) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and plasma concentrations of cytokines and neuroendocrine factors as well as negative state emotions were measured before and until six hours after LPS administration. Women exhibited a more profound pro-inflammatory response with significantly higher increases in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6. In contrast, the LPS-induced increase in anti-inflammatory IL-10 was significantly higher in men. The cytokine alterations were accompanied by changes in neuroendocrine factors known to be involved in inflammation regulation. Endotoxin injection induced a significant increase in noradrenaline, without evidence for sex differences. The LPS-induced increase in cortisol was significantly higher in woman, whereas changes in dehydroepiandrosterone were largely comparable. LPS administration also increased secretion of prolactin, but only in women. Despite these profound sex differences in inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses, men and women did not differ in endotoxin-induced alterations in mood and state anxiety or non-specific sickness symptoms. This suggests that compensatory mechanisms exist that counteract the more pronounced inflammatory response in women, preventing an exaggerated sickness response. Disturbance of these compensatory mechanisms by environmental factors such as stress may promote the development of affective disorders in women. PMID:26291403

  5. Endotoxin (LPS) increases mesenteric vascular resistance (MVR) and bacterial translocation (BT).

    PubMed

    Navaratnam, R L; Morris, S E; Traber, D L; Flynn, J; Woodson, L; Linares, H; Herndon, D N

    1990-09-01

    Endotoxemia is responsible for many of the pathophysiologic alterations that occur with Gram-negative sepsis. We utilized a chronic ovine model to determine the hemodynamic disturbances in the gastrointestinal tract during endotoxemia. Sheep with indwelling arterial, venous, and pulmonary arterial catheters were used. An ultrasonic flow probe was placed on the cephalic mesenteric artery. The animals were subjected to: 1) Ringer's lactate infusion (sham n = 6); or 2) 1.5 mcg/kg E. coli endotoxin (n = 6) over over a period of one half hour and were monitored for 48 hours. They were then sacrificed and specimens of mesenteric lymph node, liver, spleen, kidney, and lung obtained for bacteriologic cultures and histologic analysis. Sheep receiving endotoxin showed more than 50% reduction in the mesenteric blood flow. Mesenteric vascular resistance increased while non-mesenteric systemic vascular resistance decreased. The increase in the total systemic vascular resistance, noted during endotoxemia, was thus likely due to the increase in the mesenteric vascular resistance. At autopsy there were positive cultures for microorganism in the mesenteric lymph nodes in six out of six sheep with endotoxemia as compared to one out of six of control. Thus the vasoconstriction in the mesenteric areas may have resulted in bacterial translocation from the GI tract. PMID:2213944

  6. Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 down-regulates inflammatory responses and protects against endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiao; Shetty, Sreerama; Zhang, Ping; Gao, Rong; Hu, Yuxin; Wang, Shuxia; Li, Zhenyu; Fu, Jian

    2014-06-01

    The presence of endotoxin in blood can lead to acute kidney injury (AKI) and septic shock. Resolvins, the endogenous lipid mediators derived from docosahexaenoic acid, have been reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory action. Using a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI, we investigated the effects of aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) on inflammatory kidney injury. Administration of AT-RvD1 1 h after LPS challenge protected the mice from kidney injury as indicated by the measurements of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and morphological alterations associated with tubular damage. The protective effects were evidenced by decreased neutrophil infiltration in the kidney indicating reduction in inflammation. AT-RvD1 treatment restored kidney cell junction protein claudin-4 expression, which was otherwise reduced after LPS challenge. AT-RvD1 treatment inhibited endotoxin-induced NF-κB activation and suppressed LPS-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in the kidney. Moreover, AT-RvD1 treatment markedly decreased LPS-induced IL-6 level in the kidney and blocked IL-6-mediated signaling including STAT3 and ERK phosphorylation. Our findings demonstrate that AT-RvD1 is a potent anti-inflammatory mediator in LPS-induced kidney injury, and AT-RvD1 has therapeutic potential against AKI during endotoxemia.

  7. [Effect of clindamycin on stimulation of cell adhesion molecules by endotoxins and enterotoxin of Bacteroides fragilis strains].

    PubMed

    Meisel-Mikołajczyk, F; Rokosz, A; Kot, K; Zawidzka, E; Malchar, C; Nowaczyk, M; Górski, A

    2001-01-01

    The influence of clindamycin on expression of B. fragilis endotoxins (LPS) and enterotoxin stimulated cell adhesion molecules: ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin on HMEC-1 (human microvascular endothelial cell line) was tested. Lipopolysaccharides from four Bacteroides fragilis strains: one nonenterotoxigenic (NTBF) and three enterotoxigenic (ETBF) were extracted by hot phenol-water method and purified. B. fragilis enterotoxin was prepared according to the method described by van Tassel et al. (1992). All bacterial preparations were used for stimulation at concentration 10 micrograms/ml. Clindamycin was used in concentration of 2 micrograms/ml. The influence of antimicrobial agent on the endotoxins and enterotoxin stimulation and expression of adhesion molecules was tested by ELISA, using monoclonal mouse anti-human antibodies (Genzyme, USA). Peroxidase-conjugated rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulins (DAKO A/S Denmark) and OPD (Sigma USA) were used. The coloured reaction product was measured by reading the absorbance at 492 nm in SPECTRA II reader (SLT, Austria). It was observed that clindamycin influenced the expression of cell adhesion molecules on resting cell line. HMEC-1 cells stimulated with Bacteroides fragilis LPS preparations have suppressive effect on ICAM-1 expression. ICAM-1 expression was augmented when stimulated with Tox 1 and Tox 2 preparations. Clindamycin augmented the VCAM-1 expression in tests with all bacterial preparations. All used bacterial preparations of Bacteroides fragilis LPS and enterotoxin enhanced the expression of E-selectin with exception of LPS of NTBF strain. PMID:11757424

  8. Effects of thalidomide on neutrophil respiratory burst, chemotaxis, and transmigration of cytokine- and endotoxin-activated endothelium.

    PubMed

    Dunzendorfer, S; Schratzberger, P; Reinisch, N; Kähler, C M; Wiedermann, C J

    1997-11-01

    Vascular endothelium activated by endotoxin and cytokines plays an important role in organ inflammation and blood leukocyte recruitment. Neutrophils, which are a homogeneous population of effector cells, are rapidly attracted in large numbers to sites of inflammation where they form an early response to infection or injury. Excessive production of various interleukins, TNF, arachidonic acid metabolites, and other substances by neutrophils and macrophages results in systemic endothelial cell injury, a fundamental problem. In the present study, we investigated in vitro the effects of thalidomide (THD) on activation of endothelial cells for enhanced transmigration of neutrophils by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and interleukin-1 (IL-1). Modulation of endotoxin- and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemotaxis and respiratory burst by THD were also studied. Treatment of HUVEC with THD in combination with LPS, TNF, and IL-1, respectively, antagonized LPS-activated transmigration of neutrophils but stimulated the effects of TNF and IL-1. All of the agents used-THD, LPS, TNF, and IL-1-inhibited neutrophil chemotaxis. Addition of THD to the neutrophils had no effect on LPS-inhibited chemotaxis whereas the TNF- and IL-1-induced chemotaxis was modulated in a bimodal manner. However, THD failed to influence neutrophil respiratory burst activity. Results demonstrate that THD differentially affects mediator-induced activation of HUVEC and neutrophils. PMID:9402031

  9. The Transfer of Endotoxin Induced Immunity from Hens to Poults

    PubMed Central

    Truscott, R. B.; Friars, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    Turkey hens were vaccinated six times with Salmonella typhimurium endotoxin prior to and during their egg production cycle. The resultant poults possessed a significant degree of immunity to challenge with S. typhimurium. PMID:4258548

  10. Role of cardiac- and myeloid-MyD88 signaling in endotoxin shock – a study with tissue-specific deletion models

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yan; Zou, Lin; Chen, Chan; Li, Dan; Chao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an adaptor molecule critical for host innate immunity. Studies have shown that signaling via MyD88 contributes to cytokine storm, cardiac dysfunction, and high mortality during endotoxin shock. However, the specific contribution of MyD88 signaling of immune and cardiac origins to endotoxin shock remains unknown. METHODS Tissue-specific MyD88 deletion models Cre recombinase transgenic mice with α-myosin heavy chain (α-MHC) or lysozyme M promoters were cross-bred with MyD88-loxP (MyD88fl/fl) mice, respectively, to generate cardiomyocyte- (α-MHC-MyD88−/−) or myeloid-specific (Lyz-MyD88−/−) MyD88 deletion models and their respective MyD88fl/fl littermates. Endotoxin shock model Mice were subjected to 15 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (intra-peritoneal injection). Cardiac function was measured by echocardiography and cytokines by multiplex assay and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). RESULTS α-MHC-MyD88−/− mice had 61% and 87% reduction in MyD88 gene and protein expression in cardiomyocytes, respectively, whereas Lyz-MyD88−/− had 73% and 67% decrease, respectively, in macrophages (n=3/group). Following lipopolysaccharide treatment, the two groups of MyD88fl/fl littermates had 46% (n=10) and 60% (n=15) of mortality, respectively. Both α-MHC- MyD88−/− and Lyz-MyD88−/− mice had markedly improved survival. Compared to the MyD88fl/fl littermates, Lyz-MyD88−/− mice had warmer body temperature, attenuated systemic and cardiac inflammatory cytokine production, and significantly improved cardiac function, whereas α-MHC-MyD88−/− mice had decreased myocardial inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induction and modestly preserved cardiac function. CONCLUSIONS Both cardiomyocyte- and myeloid-MyD88 signaling play a role in cardiac dysfunction and mortality during endotoxin shock. Myeloid MyD88 signaling plays a predominant role in systemic and cardiac inflammation following endotoxin challenge. PMID:25089642

  11. Pellino-3 promotes endotoxin tolerance and acts as a negative regulator of TLR2 and TLR4 signaling.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michael B; Xiong, Yanbao; Pattabiraman, Goutham; Manavalan, Tissa T; Qiu, Fu; Medvedev, Andrei E

    2015-12-01

    Development of endotoxin tolerance in macrophages during sepsis reprograms Toll-like receptor 4 signaling to inhibit proinflammatory cytokines without suppressing anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial mediators and protects the host from excessive inflammation and tissue damage. However, endotoxin tolerance renders septic patients immunocompromised and unable to control secondary infections. Although previous studies have revealed the importance of several negative regulators of Toll-like receptor signaling in endotoxin tolerance, the role of Pellino proteins has not been addressed. The present report shows that the induction of endotoxin tolerance in vivo in mice and in vitro in human monocytes and THP-1 and MonoMac-6 macrophages increases the expression of Pellino-3. Overexpression of Pellino-3 in human embryonic kidney 293/Toll-like receptor 2 or 293/Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor-2 cells inhibited Toll-like receptor 2/4-mediated activation of nuclear factor-κB and induction of CXCL-8 mRNA, and Pellino-3 ablation increased these responses. Pellino-3-deficient THP-1 cells had elevated Toll-like receptor 2/4-driven tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 mRNA, and Toll-like receptor 4-driven CCL5 gene expression in response to Toll-like receptor agonists and heat-killed Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, cytokines controlled by the MyD88 and Toll-interleukin-1R domain-containing protein inducing interferon-β-mediated pathways, respectively. In addition, deficiency in Pellino-3 slightly increased phagocytosis of heat-killed bacteria. Transfected Pellino-3 inhibited nuclear factor-κB activation driven by overexpression of MyD88, TIR domain-containing adapter inducing interferon-β, interleukin-1R-associated kinase-1, and tumor necrosis factor receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB-binding kinase-1, TGF-β-activated kinase 1, and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-6, and inhibited interleukin-1R-associated kinase 1 modifications and tumor necrosis factor receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB-binding kinase 1 phosphorylation. Finally, Pellino-3 ablation in THP-1 decreased the extent of endotoxin tolerization. Thus, Pellino-3 is involved in endotoxin tolerance and functions as a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor 2/4 signaling. PMID:26310831

  12. Determinants of endotoxin levels in carpets in New Zealand homes.

    PubMed

    Wickens, K; Douwes, J; Siebers, R; Fitzharris, P; Wouters, I; Doekes, G; Mason, K; Hearfield, M; Cunningham, M; Crane, J

    2003-06-01

    Endotoxin in house dust has been shown to be associated with asthma severity. Little is known about the influence of housing characteristics on endotoxin distribution. Using standardized methods, dust was sampled from a 1m(2) site and the whole accessible carpet area in selected Wellington, New Zealand homes (n = 77). Endotoxin was measured using a Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate assay. Relative humidity and temperature were recorded using sensors placed in carpet bases. Questionnaires were used to collect information on housing characteristics. All analyses were performed for endotoxin units (EU)/mg and EU/m2 for each site. Geometric mean endotoxin levels were 22.7 EU/mg [geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 2.4] or 30,544 EU/m2 (GSD = 3.2) from the 1m(2) site, and 28.4 EU/mg (GSD = 3.4) or 5653 EU/m2 (GSD = 6.4) from the whole room. After controlling for confounding, endotoxin was positively associated with dogs inside [geometric mean ratio (GMR): 0.9-2.0], total household occupants (GMR: 1.7-2.0, for 1 m2 sample only), vacuum cleaners <1-year old (GMR: 2.3-2.7), reusing vacuum dust collection bags (GMR: 1.4-3.1), steamcleaning or shampooing the carpet (GMR: 1.4-2.2) and high relative humidity (GMR: 1.4-1.6). Lower endotoxin was associated with floor insulation (GMR: 0.4-0.8), and north-facing living rooms (GMR: 0.4-0.8). This study has identified home characteristics that could be modified to reduce endotoxin exposure. PMID:12756006

  13. Bacteriostatic effect of serum: role of antibody to lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, S P; Rogers, H J

    1980-01-01

    Previous work has shown that antibody and transferrin, acting together, exert a bacteriostatic effect on certain pathogenic Escherichia coli. This effect may be due to the ability of the antibody to interfere with the release of the iron chelator, enterochelin, from the bacterial cell. Enterochelin is essential for the transport of iron from transferrin to the bacterial cell. The nature of the bacterial antigen against which the antibody is directed has now been determined by means of adsorption experiments. It was found that absorption of serum either with hear-killed cells of E. coli O111 or with Boivin antigen abolished the bacteriostatic effect. A monosaccharide, which proved to be colitose (3,6-dideoxy-L-galactose), was isolated after acetic acid hydrolysis of the Boivin antigen. Colitose is the terminal monosaccharide of the O-specific side chain of the lipopolysaccharide from E. coli O111. This monosaccharide abolished the bacteriostatic effect of both whole serum and mixtures of antibody and iron-binding proteins. When administered by the intraperitoneal route, it reduced the resistance of mice to subsequent infection with E. coli O111. This ability of colitose to interfere with antibacterial mechanisms is in accord with published immunochemical studies. PMID:6991411

  14. Diurnal variations in the human host response to endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Pollmächer, T; Mullington, J; Korth, C; Schreiber, W; Hermann, D; Orth, A; Galanos, C; Holsboer, F

    1996-11-01

    To investigate diurnal variations in the host response to endotoxin, Salmonella abortus equi endotoxin (0.8 ng/kg) was given intravenously to healthy men in a placebo-controlled design at 0900 or 1900 h. The time course of rectal temperature and the plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol were monitored for 11 h following the injections. The time of day did not affect the endotoxin-induced increase in plasma TNF-alpha or IL-6. However, subjects who received endotoxin in the evening, when endogenous glucocorticoid levels were low, showed about twice the increases in rectal temperature and plasma ACTH and cortisol levels as those who received endotoxin in the morning, when endogenous glucocorticoid levels were high. These results demonstrate diurnal variations in the human susceptibility to endotoxin that may be due to a suppression of the biologic effects of TNF-alpha and IL-6 by endogenous glucocorticoids. PMID:8896506

  15. Inverse association between endotoxin exposure and canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Looringh van Beeck, Frank A; Hoekstra, Hilde; Brunekreef, Bert; Willemse, Ton

    2011-11-01

    The development of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) may be related to exposure to mite allergens, bacterial endotoxin and/or fungal glucans. In this study, indoor exposure levels of house dust mite allergens, endotoxins and fungal glucans were measured to determine their possible association with CAD. A case-control study including adult Labrador retrievers with (n=28) and without (controls; n=65) CAD was conducted. Dust samples were collected from the living room floor and the bedding and coat of the dog and these were analyzed for house dust mite allergens Der p1 and Der f1, endotoxin and (1→3)-β-d-glucan levels. Dog owners were also required to return a questionnaire regarding their home characteristics. The endotoxin exposure level in the coats of dogs was significantly inversely associated with CAD (odds ratio 0.38; 95% confidence interval 0.15-0.97; P<0.05). No significant difference was found in exposure levels to house dust mite allergens and fungal glucans. The results indicated that endotoxin exposure is inversely associated with CAD, suggesting a protective effect of high indoor endotoxin exposure towards the development of the condition. PMID:21130010

  16. MiR-146a activates WAVE2 expression and enhances phagocytosis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhongwei; Yao, Qunyan; Zhang, Shuncai

    2015-01-01

    MiR-146a has been shown to play a critical role in cell immunity and phagocytosis, processes that require rearrangement of the cytoskeleton. However, the detailed mechanism by which miR-146a regulates these events remains elusive. Here, we used luciferase reporter and protein assays to show that the cytoskeleton-regulatingprotein verprolin-homologous protein 2 (WAVE2), is a direct target of miR-146a. MiR-146a overexpression resulted in a decrease in WAVE2 protein expression under endotoxin-free culture conditions. Unexpectedly, however, miR-146a activated rather than repressed the expression of WAVE2 in macrophage RAW264.7 cells when cultured continuously in the presence of endotoxin. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-146a induced WAVE2 expression and enhanced phagocytosis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Our study suggests that lipopolysaccharide- induced miR146a indirectly activates WAVE2 expression; thus, facilitating cytoskeletal reorganization and phagocytosis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. PMID:26396677

  17. MiR-146a activates WAVE2 expression and enhances phagocytosis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhongwei; Yao, Qunyan; Zhang, Shuncai

    2015-01-01

    MiR-146a has been shown to play a critical role in cell immunity and phagocytosis, processes that require rearrangement of the cytoskeleton. However, the detailed mechanism by which miR-146a regulates these events remains elusive. Here, we used luciferase reporter and protein assays to show that the cytoskeleton-regulatingprotein verprolin-homologous protein 2 (WAVE2), is a direct target of miR-146a. MiR-146a overexpression resulted in a decrease in WAVE2 protein expression under endotoxin-free culture conditions. Unexpectedly, however, miR-146a activated rather than repressed the expression of WAVE2 in macrophage RAW264.7 cells when cultured continuously in the presence of endotoxin. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-146a induced WAVE2 expression and enhanced phagocytosis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Our study suggests that lipopolysaccharide- induced miR146a indirectly activates WAVE2 expression; thus, facilitating cytoskeletal reorganization and phagocytosis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. PMID:26396677

  18. Enhancing the selective extracellular location of a recombinant E. coli domain antibody by management of fermentation conditions.

    PubMed

    Voulgaris, Ioannis; Finka, Gary; Uden, Mark; Hoare, Mike

    2015-10-01

    The preparation of a recombinant protein using Escherichia coli often involves a challenging primary recovery sequence. This is due to the inability to secrete the protein to the extracellular space without a significant degree of cell lysis. This results in the release of nucleic acids, leading to a high viscosity, difficulty to clarify, broth and also to contamination with cell materials such as lipopolysaccharides and host cell proteins. In this paper, we present different fermentation strategies to facilitate the recovery of a V H domain antibody (13.1 kDa) by directing it selectively to the extracellular space and changing the balance between domain antibody to nucleic acid release. The manipulation of the cell growth rate in order to increase the outer cell membrane permeability gave a small ~1.5-fold improvement in released domain antibody to nucleic acid ratio without overall loss of yield. The introduction during fermentation of release agents such as EDTA gave no improvement in the ratio of released domain antibody to nucleic acid and a loss of overall productivity. The use of polyethyleneimine (PEI) during fermentation was with the aim to (a) permeabilise the outer bacterial membrane to release selectively domain antibody and (b) remove selectively by precipitation nucleic acids released during cell lysis. This strategy resulted in up to ~4-fold increase in the ratio of domain antibody to soluble nucleic acid with no reduction in domain antibody overall titre. In addition, a reduction in host cell protein contamination was achieved and there was no increase in endotoxin levels. Similar results were demonstrated with a range of other antibody products prepared in E. coli. PMID:26184976

  19. All Accessible Epitopes in the Salmonella Lipopolysaccharide Core Are Associated with Branch Residues

    PubMed Central

    Nnalue, Ndubisi Anthony

    1999-01-01

    Antisera generated against each of the nine known chemotypes of Salmonella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core were characterized in order to delineate cross-reactive epitopes and define the bases for their accessibility. Strongly cross-reactive epitopes were associated with three chemotypes: Ra and Rb4, which recognized α-GlcNAc-1→2-α-Glc, and Rd1, which recognized l-α-d-heptose-1→7-l-α-d-heptose. Both these disaccharides and the more weakly cross-reactive α-Gal-1→6-α-Glc terminal in Rb3 LPS represent branch points along the core oligosaccharide. Therefore, branch points in endotoxin core oligosaccharides may generally be cross-reactive. PMID:9916124

  20. Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Detoxifies Lipopolysaccharide and Prevents Inflammation in Response to the Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Jennifer M.; Akerlund, Janie; Mittge, Erika; Guillemin, Karen

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Vertebrates harbor abundant lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or endotoxin in their gut microbiota. Here we demonstrate that the brush border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (Iap), which dephosphorylates LPS, is induced during establishment of the microbiota and plays a crucial role in promoting mucosal tolerance to gut bacteria in zebrafish. We demonstrate that Iap deficient animals are hypersensitive to LPS toxicity through a mechanism mediated by Myd88 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor (Tnfr). We further show that the endogenous microbiota establish the normal homeostatic level of neutrophils in the intestine through a process involving Myd88 and Tnfr. Iap deficient animals exhibit excessive intestinal neutrophil influx, similar to wild type animals exposed to LPS. When reared germ-free, however, the intestines of Iap deficient animals are devoid of neutrophils, demonstrating that Iap functions to prevent inflammatory responses to resident gut bacteria. PMID:18078689

  1. Citric Acid Effects on Brain and Liver Oxidative Stress in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Youness, Eman R.; Mohammed, Nadia A.; Morsy, Safaa M. Youssef; Omara, Enayat A.; Sleem, Amany A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in the greatest amounts in citrus fruits. This study examined the effect of citric acid on endotoxin-induced oxidative stress of the brain and liver. Mice were challenged with a single intraperitoneal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 200 μg/kg). Citric acid was given orally at 1, 2, or 4 g/kg at time of endotoxin injection and mice were euthanized 4 h later. LPS induced oxidative stress in the brain and liver tissue, resulting in marked increase in lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA]) and nitrite, while significantly decreasing reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) showed a pronounced increase in brain tissue after endotoxin injection. The administration of citric acid (1–2 g/kg) attenuated LPS-induced elevations in brain MDA, nitrite, TNF-α, GPx, and PON1 activity. In the liver, nitrite was decreased by 1 g/kg citric acid. GPx activity was increased, while PON1 activity was decreased by citric acid. The LPS-induced liver injury, DNA fragmentation, serum transaminase elevations, caspase-3, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression were attenuated by 1–2 g/kg citric acid. DNA fragmentation, however, increased after 4 g/kg citric acid. Thus in this model of systemic inflammation, citric acid (1–2 g/kg) decreased brain lipid peroxidation and inflammation, liver damage, and DNA fragmentation. PMID:24433072

  2. Interactions between chensinin-1, a natural antimicrobial peptide derived from Rana chensinensis, and lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Dong, Weibing; Sun, Yue; Shang, Dejing

    2015-12-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of sepsis caused by gram-negative bacterial infections. Therefore, LPS-neutralizing molecules would have important clinical applications. Chensinin-1, a novel antimicrobial peptide with atypical structural features, was found in the skin secretions of the Chinese brown frog Rana chensinensis. To understand the role of LPS in the bacterial susceptibility to chensinin-1 and to investigate its anti-endotoxin effects, the interactions of chensinin-1 with LPS were investigated in this study using circular dichroism, in situ IR, isothermal titration calorimetry, and zeta potential. This study is the first to use in situ IR spectroscopy to evaluate the secondary structural changes of this peptide. The capacity of chensinin-1 to block the LPS-dependent cytokine secretion of macrophages was also investigated. Our results show that chensinin-1 can form α-helical structures in LPS suspensions. LPS can affect the antimicrobial activity of chensinin-1, and chensinin-1 was able to mitigate the effects of LPS. These data may facilitate the development of antimicrobial peptides with potent antimicrobial and anti-endotoxin activities. PMID:26340228

  3. Lipopolysaccharide Inhibits the Channel Activity of the P2X7 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Leiva-Salcedo, Elias; Coddou, Claudio; Rodríguez, Felipe E.; Penna, Antonello; Lopez, Ximena; Neira, Tanya; Fernández, Ricardo; Imarai, Mónica; Rios, Miguel; Escobar, Jorge; Montoya, Margarita; Huidobro-Toro, J. Pablo; Escobar, Alejandro; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    The purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) plays an important role during the immune response, participating in several events such as cytokine release, apoptosis, and necrosis. The bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the strongest stimuli of the immune response, and it has been shown that P2X7R activation can modulate LPS-induced responses. Moreover, a C-terminal binding site for LPS has been proposed. In order to evaluate if LPS can directly modulate the activity of the P2X7R, we tested several signaling pathways associated with P2X7R activation in HEK293 cells that do not express the TLR-4 receptor. We found that LPS alone was unable to induce any P2X7R-related activity, suggesting that the P2X7R is not directly activated by the endotoxin. On the other hand, preapplication of LPS inhibited ATP-induced currents, intracellular calcium increase, and ethidium bromide uptake and had no effect on ERK activation in HEK293 cells. In splenocytes-derived T-regulatory cells, in which ATP-induced apoptosis is driven by the P2X7R, LPS inhibited ATP-induced apoptosis. Altogether, these results demonstrate that LPS modulates the activity of the P2X7R and suggest that this effect could be of physiological relevance. PMID:21941410

  4. Lipopolysaccharide inhibits the channel activity of the P2X7 receptor.

    PubMed

    Leiva-Salcedo, Elias; Coddou, Claudio; Rodrguez, Felipe E; Penna, Antonello; Lopez, Ximena; Neira, Tanya; Fernndez, Ricardo; Imarai, Mnica; Rios, Miguel; Escobar, Jorge; Montoya, Margarita; Huidobro-Toro, J Pablo; Escobar, Alejandro; Acua-Castillo, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    The purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) plays an important role during the immune response, participating in several events such as cytokine release, apoptosis, and necrosis. The bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the strongest stimuli of the immune response, and it has been shown that P2X7R activation can modulate LPS-induced responses. Moreover, a C-terminal binding site for LPS has been proposed. In order to evaluate if LPS can directly modulate the activity of the P2X7R, we tested several signaling pathways associated with P2X7R activation in HEK293 cells that do not express the TLR-4 receptor. We found that LPS alone was unable to induce any P2X7R-related activity, suggesting that the P2X7R is not directly activated by the endotoxin. On the other hand, preapplication of LPS inhibited ATP-induced currents, intracellular calcium increase, and ethidium bromide uptake and had no effect on ERK activation in HEK293 cells. In splenocytes-derived T-regulatory cells, in which ATP-induced apoptosis is driven by the P2X7R, LPS inhibited ATP-induced apoptosis. Altogether, these results demonstrate that LPS modulates the activity of the P2X7R and suggest that this effect could be of physiological relevance. PMID:21941410

  5. Abnormal lipopolysaccharide binding protein as marker of gastrointestinal inflammation in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Gian D.; Shaikh, Maliha; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Ouyang, Bichun; Keshavarzian, Ali; Shannon, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: An inflammation-driven model of PD has been proposed based on the endotoxin lipopolysaccaride (LPS), a potential source of inflammation in the gastrointestinal system linked to neurotoxicity. Systemic exposure to bacterial endotoxin (LPS) can be determined by measuring plasma LPS binding protein (LBP). We aimed to evaluate whether lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) can be used to distinguish PD subjects from control subjects and to assess whether LBP levels correlate with PD disease severity. Methods: We measured plasma LBP (ng/ml) using an ELISA kit in 94 PD subjects of various stages and 97 control subjects. Disease severity was assessed using the UPDRS and Hoehn and Yahr staging. The LBP level between the PD and control groups was compared using analysis of covariance. Spearman correlation was used to explore the relationship between LBP level and disease severity. Results: The mean LBP level in PD subjects (n = 94) was significantly different from control subjects (n = 95, p = 0.018). In PD subjects, we did not find a correlation between mean LBP level and disease severity. Conclusions: Our data suggests that LBP is one GI biomarker related to LPS induced neurotoxicity. However, there was significant variability in LBP levels within the PD and control groups, limiting its utility as a stand-alone biomarker. This study supports the role of LPS induced neurotoxicity in PD and further exploration of this pathway may be useful in developing sensitive and specific biomarkers for PD. PMID:26388718

  6. Interactions of a designed peptide with lipopolysaccharide: Bound conformation and anti-endotoxic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Bhunia, Anirban; Chua, Geok Lin; Domadia, Prerna N.; Warshakoon, Hemamali; Cromer, Jens R.; David, Sunil A.; Bhattacharjya, Surajit

    2008-05-09

    Designed peptides that would selectively interact with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or endotoxin and fold into specific conformations could serve as important scaffolds toward the development of antisepsis compounds. Here, we describe solution structure of a designed amphipathic peptide, H{sub 2}N-YVKLWRMIKFIR-CONH{sub 2} (YW12D) in complex with endotoxin as determined by transferred nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy. The conformation of the isolated peptide is highly flexible, but undergoes a dramatic structural stabilization in the presence of LPS. Structure calculations reveal that the peptide presents two amphipathic surfaces in its bound state to LPS whereby each surface is characterized by two positive charges and a number of aromatic and/or aliphatic residues. ITC data suggests that peptide interacts with two molecules of lipid A. In activity assays, YW12D exhibits neutralization of LPS toxicity with very little hemolysis of red blood cells. Structural and functional properties of YW12D would be applicable in designing low molecular weight non-toxic antisepsis molecules.

  7. Endotoxin removal using a synthetic adsorbent of crystalline calcium silicate hydrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, John P; Wang, Qun; Smith, Timothy R; Hurst, William E; Sulpizio, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    A synthetic adsorbent of crystalline calcium silicate hydrate, the product LRA by Advanced Minerals Corp., has been studied for endotoxin removal from aqueous solutions. This adsorbent removes endotoxin effectively, and the removal is greatly enhanced by the presence of an electrolyte such as NaCl, Tris-HCl, or Na2HPO4. It has an endotoxin removal capacity as high as 6 million endotoxin units (EU) per gram. Its endotoxin removal kinetics is fast, and for instance, over 99.9% endotoxin in a 5000 EU/mL solution was removed by mixing for 2 min at an adsorbent usage of 10 g/L. Using the chromatographic column method to treat a 5000 EU/mL solution, an endotoxin log-reduction factor of 6.2 was achieved with a single pass. This adsorbent also demonstrated significantly better performance when compared to many commonly used endotoxin removal agents, such as ActiClean Etox Endotoxin Removal Resin, Affi-Prep Polymyxin Support, Detroxi-Gel Endotoxin Removing Gel, Q Sepharose Fast Flow Media, and Sigma Endotoxin Removal Solution. Furthermore, it demonstrated a high selective removal of endotoxin from a solution of lambda DNA. This adsorbent provides opportunities for developing disposable, scaleable, and cost-effective methods for endotoxin reduction in many biotechnological and pharmaceutical processes. PMID:16080705

  8. Cow allergen (Bos d2) and endotoxin concentrations are higher in the settled dust of homes proximate to industrial-scale dairy operations.

    PubMed

    Williams, D' Ann L; McCormack, Meredith C; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Diette, Gregory B; McKenzie, Shawn E; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N

    2016-01-01

    Airborne contaminants produced by industrial agricultural facilities contain chemical and biological compounds that can impact the health of residents living in close proximity. Settled dust can be a reservoir for these contaminants and can influence long-term exposures. In this study, we sampled the indoor- and outdoor-settled dust from 40 homes that varied in proximity to industrial-scale dairies (ISD; industrial-scale dairy, a term used in this paper to describe a large dairy farm and adjacent waste sprayfields, concentrated animal feeding operation or animal feeding operation, that uses industrial processes) in the Yakima Valley, Washington. We analyzed settled dust samples for cow allergen (Bos d2, a cow allergen associated with dander, hair, sweat and urine, it is a member of the lipocalin family of allergens associated with mammals), mouse allergen (Mus m1; major mouse allergen, a mouse urinary allergen, in the lipocalin family), dust mite allergens (Der p1 (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus 1) and Der f1 (Dermatophagoides farinae 1)), and endotoxin (a component of the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, which can be found in air and dust and can produce a strong inflammatory response). A concentration gradient was observed for Bos d2 and endotoxin measured in outdoor-settled dust samples based on proximity to ISD. Indoor-settled dust concentrations of Bos d2 and endotoxin were also highest in proximal homes. While the associated health effects of exposure to cow allergen in settled dust is unknown, endotoxin at concentrations observed in these proximal homes (100 EU/mg) has been associated with increased negative respiratory health effects. These findings document that biological contaminants emitted from ISDs are elevated in indoor- and outdoor-settled dust samples at homes close to these facilities and extend to as much as three miles (4.8 km) away. PMID:25138294

  9. Cow allergen (Bos d2) and endotoxin concentrations are higher in the settled dust of homes proximate to industrial-scale dairy operations

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D' Ann L; McCormack, Meredith C; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Diette, Gregory B; McKenzie, Shawn E; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N

    2016-01-01

    Airborne contaminants produced by industrial agricultural facilities contain chemical and biological compounds that can impact the health of residents living in close proximity. Settled dust can be a reservoir for these contaminants and can influence long-term exposures. In this study, we sampled the indoor- and outdoor-settled dust from 40 homes that varied in proximity to industrial-scale dairies (ISD; industrial-scale dairy, a term used in this paper to describe a large dairy farm and adjacent waste sprayfields, concentrated animal feeding operation or animal feeding operation, that uses industrial processes) in the Yakima Valley, Washington. We analyzed settled dust samples for cow allergen (Bos d2, a cow allergen associated with dander, hair, sweat and urine, it is a member of the lipocalin family of allergens associated with mammals), mouse allergen (Mus m1; major mouse allergen, a mouse urinary allergen, in the lipocalin family), dust mite allergens (Der p1 (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus 1) and Der f1 (Dermatophagoides farinae 1)), and endotoxin (a component of the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, which can be found in air and dust and can produce a strong inflammatory response). A concentration gradient was observed for Bos d2 and endotoxin measured in outdoor-settled dust samples based on proximity to ISD. Indoor-settled dust concentrations of Bos d2 and endotoxin were also highest in proximal homes. While the associated health effects of exposure to cow allergen in settled dust is unknown, endotoxin at concentrations observed in these proximal homes (100 EU/mg) has been associated with increased negative respiratory health effects. These findings document that biological contaminants emitted from ISDs are elevated in indoor- and outdoor-settled dust samples at homes close to these facilities and extend to as much as three miles (4.8 km) away. PMID:25138294

  10. Endotoxin-induced cytokine gene expression in vivo. II. Regulation of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 alpha/beta expression and suppression.

    PubMed Central

    Ulich, T. R.; Guo, K. Z.; Irwin, B.; Remick, D. G.; Davatelis, G. N.

    1990-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) mRNA is present in a preformed intracellular pool in the spleen, liver, and small bowel of naive rats. Endotoxin (Salmonella typhus lipopolysaccharide) injected intravenously induces little or no increase in whole-organ TNF mRNA levels at 15', 30', 1 degree, 2 degrees, or 4 degrees, whereas serum TNF levels are markedly elevated at 1 and 2 hours. Dexamethasone pretreatment of rats suppresses LPS-induced serum TNF concentrations, but does not suppress TNF mRNA levels in the spleen or bowel. Tachyphylaxis experiments demonstrate that a second injection of endotoxin 2 hours after an initial injection fails to induce a second peak of serum TNF, although TNF mRNA levels in the spleen and bowel remain at the levels found in naive rats. Corynebacterium parvum upregulates endotoxin-induced serum TNF release and intravenous injection of IL-1 induces the release of serum TNF but neither alters whole-organ TNF mRNA levels. Interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) mRNA was not constitutively detected in whole-organ RNA preparations of the spleen, liver, and small bowel of naive rats. Endotoxin induces IL-1 alpha mRNA most easily appreciated in the spleen beginning at 1 hour, peaking at 2 to 4 hours, and disappearing by 6 hours. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) mRNA was not constitutively detected in the organs examined or was present in small amounts. Endotoxin induces IL-1 beta mRNA beginning at 0.5 hours, peaking at 1 hour, and disappearing by 6 hours. Dexamethasone pretreatment prevents the LPS-induced appearance of IL-1 alpha mRNA and suppresses but does not completely inhibit the appearance of IL-1 beta mRNA. C. parvum upregulates endotoxin-induced IL-1 mRNA expression. Intravenous injection of TNF or IL-1 both induce IL-1 mRNA expression. In conclusion, TNF mRNA is constitutively expressed and TNF mRNA levels as analyzed in whole-organ RNA preparations do not change in concert with serum TNF protein levels during conditions of endotoxemia, dexamethasone treatment, tachyphylaxis, priming with C. parvum, or after injection of IL-1. In contrast, IL-1 mRNA expression during endotoxemia, dexamethasone treatment, priming with C. parvum, or after injection of TNF or IL-1 shows clear increases and decreases in whole-organ RNA preparations. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:2240164

  11. Use of two-dimensional gas chromatography with electron-capture detection for the measurement of lipopolysaccharides in peritoneal fluid and plasma from rats with induced peritonitis.

    PubMed Central

    Sonesson, A; Larsson, L; Andersson, R; Adner, N; Tranberg, K G

    1990-01-01

    The content of 3-hydroxymyristic acid from Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide in peritoneal fluid and plasma from rats was determined by two-dimensional gas chromatography with electron-capture detection of the 3-O-pentafluorobenzoyl methyl ester derivative. The detection limit of lipopolysaccharide in peritoneal fluid was 3 ng/ml. An experimental model of E. coli peritonitis in the rat was used, with and without coinjection of bile. The concentrations of lipopolysaccharide were highest in both peritoneal fluid and plasma samples from rats injected with E. coli and bile, reaching a maximum 1 h after injection by the gas chromatographic method. Corresponding Limulus assay results for peritoneal samples showed a small increase of lipopolysaccharide concentrations during the first 4 h after injection, followed by a substantial increase. The results indicate that bile salts cause an increased release of lipopolysaccharide from gram-negative bacterial cells in vivo and that this may be responsible for the high mortality caused by peritonitis. In contrast to the Limulus assay, gas chromatography enables the total amount of lipopolysaccharide in a clinical sample to be determined. PMID:2199489

  12. E. Coli

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foodborne Illness General Public Health Departments Health Professionals Timeline for Reporting of Cases General Information General Information ... Information Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) Diarrheagenic E. coli Timeline for Reporting Cases of E. coli O157 Infection ...

  13. E. Coli

    MedlinePlus

    ... E. coli is short for the medical term Escherichia coli . The strange thing about these bacteria — and lots ... cause a very serious infection. Someone who has E. coli infection may have these symptoms: bad stomach cramps and ...

  14. E. Coli

    MedlinePlus

    ... this: Main Content Area E. coli​ Hundreds of Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) strains are harmless, including those that ... fenugreek seeds used to grow sprouts. Because STEC E. coli infections can be spread from person-to-person, the ...

  15. Influence of endotoxin on daytime sleep in humans.

    PubMed

    Korth, C; Mullington, J; Schreiber, W; Pollmächer, T

    1996-04-01

    Administration of endotoxin in the evening has been shown to transiently suppress rapid eye movement (REM) and to promote non-REM sleep in humans. In a single-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, we assessed the effects of Salmonella abortus equi endotoxin administered intravenously in the morning on the primary host response and on daytime sleep by use of a multiple napping protocol in healthy volunteers. The extent of the host response achieved by 0.8 ng of endotoxin per kg of body weight given at 0900 h was comparable to that previously reported to result from the administration of 0.4 ng/kg at 1900 h. However, sleep was only slightly influenced. Endotoxin reduced the amount of REM sleep and increased REM latency. Non-REM sleep amount in the first nap, although not significantly changed, correlated negatively with the individual peak levels of interleukin-6 (r = -0.73, P < 0.05). Subjective tiredness, sleep onset latency, total sleep time, and the amounts of slow-wave and non-REM sleep were not affected by endotoxin throughout the entire experiment. Spectral analysis of the electroencephalogram obtained during non-REM sleep yielded no condition differences. We conclude that endotoxin administration in the morning to healthy volunteers, while activating the host defense to the same extent as a lower dose that has been reported to promote non-REM sleep when given in the evening, does not affect non-REM sleep. REM sleep suppression is, to date, the most consistently reported effect of endotoxin on human sleep. PMID:8606066

  16. Role of bacterial adherence and the mucus barrier on bacterial translocation: effects of protein malnutrition and endotoxin in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, M; Xu, D; Specian, R D; Deitch, E A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential relations between mucosal bacterial adherence, intestinal mucus and mucin content, and bacterial translocation. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The attachment of bacteria to mucosal surfaces is the initial event in the pathogenesis of most bacterial infections that originate at mucosal surfaces, such as the gut. The intestinal mucus layer appears to function as a defensive barrier limiting micro-organisms present in the intestinal lumen from colonizing enterocytes. Consequently, studies focusing on the biology of bacterial adherence to the intestinal mucosa likely are to be important in clarifying the pathogenesis of gut origin sepsis. METHODS: To explore the relations between intestinal bacterial adherence, mucus bacterial binding, and bacterial translocation, two models were used. One (protein malnutrition) in which profound alterations in intestinal morphology occurs in the absence of significant translocation and one (endotoxin challenge) in which bacterial translocation occurs and intestinal morphology is relatively normal. RESULTS: Protein malnutrition was not associated with bacterial translocation and measurement of enteroadherent, mucosally associated bacterial population levels documented that the total number of gram-negative enteric bacilli adherent to the ileum and cecum was less in the protein-malnourished rats than in the normally nourished animals (p < 0.01). Furthermore, there was an inverse relation between the duration of protein malnutrition and bacterial adherence to the intestinal mucosa (r = 0.62, p < 0.002). In contrast, after endotoxin challenge, the level of enteroadherent bacteria was increased and bacterial translocation was observed. The binding of Escherichia coli to immobilized ileal mucus in vitro was decreased significantly in protein-malnourished rats, whereas E. coli binding to insoluble ileal mucus was increased in the rats receiving endotoxin. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the adherence of bacteria to the intestinal mucosal surface is an important factor in bacterial translocation, that intestinal mucus modulates bacterial adherence, and that increased levels of mucosally associated bacteria are associated with a loss intestinal barrier function to bacteria. PMID:9060589

  17. Determination of water quality variables, endotoxin concentration, and Enterobacteriaceae concentration and identification in southern High Plains dairy lagoons.

    PubMed

    Purdy, C W; Clark, R N; Straus, D C

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration of endotoxin, determine 20 water quality variables, and identify and enumerate fungal and bacterial pathogens from United States southern High Plains dairy lagoons and control lakes during summer and winter. Water samples were collected in triplicate from the north, south, east, and west quadrants of each body of water. The mean (+/- SEM) winter dairy lagoon endotoxin concentration was significantly higher (9,678+/-1,834 ng/mL) than the summer concentration (3,220+/-810 ng/mL). The mean endotoxin concentration of the 2 control lakes (summer: 58.1+/-8.8 ng/mL; winter: 38.6+/-4.2 ng/mL) was significantly less than that of the dairy lagoons. Two hundred-one Salmonella enterica spp. isolates were identified, 7 serovars were recovered from the dairy lagoons, and 259 Salmonella ssp. were identified from 5 other dairy locations (milk barn, ditch effluent, settling basin, feed alley pad flush, and center pivots). Twenty-eight Salmonella spp. were identified from center pivot water. Escherichia coli O157:H7 pathogens were isolated from other dairy locations but not from lagoons. Neither Salmonella spp. nor E. coli O157:H7 were identified from control lakes. Enterobacteriaceae opportunistic pathogens were isolated from both dairies and control lakes. Important mesophilic and thermophilic catabolic (to manure biosolids) fungal isolates were identified from dairy effluent locations, but no thermophilic fungal isolates were cultured from the control lakes. Adequate curing of green forage following center pivot irrigation is important to kill lagoon water enteric pathogens, even though the lagoon water is mixed with fresh water. Recirculating lagoon water to flush the feed alley pad, where cows stand while eating, to remove manure and using lagoon water to abate dairy dust in loafing pens and unimproved dairy roads is inconsistent with good environmental practice management. PMID:20338428

  18. Heterogeneity of epigenetic changes at ischemia/reperfusion- and endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury genes

    PubMed Central

    Mar, Daniel; Gharib, Sina A.; Zager, Richard A.; Johnson, Ali; Denisenko, Oleg; Bomsztyk, Karol

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant gene expression is a molecular hallmark of acute kidney injury (AKI). Since epigenetic processes control gene expression in a cell- and environment-defined manner, understanding the epigenetic pathways that regulate genes altered by AKI may open vital new insights into the complexities of disease pathogenesis and identify possible therapeutic targets. Here we used matrix chromatin immunoprecipitation and integrative analysis to study twenty key permissive and repressive epigenetic histone marks at transcriptionally induced Tnf, Ngal, Kim-1 and Icam-1 genes in mouse models of AKI; unilateral renal ischemia/reperfusion, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and their synergistically injurious combination. Results revealed unexpected heterogeneity of transcriptional and epigenetic responses. Tnf and Ngal were transcriptionally upregulated in response to both treatments individually, and to combination treatment. Kim-1 was induced by ischemia/reperfusion and Icam-1 by LPS only. Epigenetic alterations at these genes exhibited distinct time-dependent changes that shared some similarities, such as reduction in repressive histone modifications, but also had major ischemia/reperfusion vs. endotoxin differences. Thus, diversity of changes at AKI genes in response to different insults indicates involvement of several epigenetic pathways. This could be exploited pharmacologically through rational-drug design to alter the course and improve clinical outcomes of this syndrome. PMID:26061546

  19. Effects of the immunomodulator, VGX-1027, in endotoxin-induced uveitis in Lewis rats

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, K; Sardesai, N Y; Quattrocchi, C; Mazzon, E; Cuzzocrea, S; Bendtzen, K; Meroni, P L; Kim, J J; Nicoletti, F

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: VGX-1027 is a novel, low molecular weight, immunomodulatory compound that has shown efficacy against a variety of immuno-inflammatory disease models in animals including autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice, collagen-induced arthritis and chemically induced inflammatory colitis. Here, we have studied the effects of VGX-1027 on the development of endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in male Lewis rats, as a model of inflammatory ocular diseases in humans. Experimental approach: EIU was induced by a single footpad injection of 200??g lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Groups of rats were treated with either VGX-1027 (25?mg?kg?1) or its vehicle at different time points (30?min, 6?h or 12?h) after the challenge with LPS or, as positive control, with dexamethasone. The rats were killed within 16?h after LPS challenge, and the eyes and aqueous humor were collected to study serological, immunological and histological signs of EIU. Key results: The rats treated with VGX-1027 within 6?h after LPS challenge exhibited milder clinical, histological and laboratory signs of EIU than those treated with vehicle. Conclusion and implications: This study provides the first evidence that systemic treatment with VGX-1027 counteracts the uveitis-inducing effect of LPS in rats and suggests that this drug may have potential in the treatment of immuno-inflammatory conditions of the eye in humans. PMID:18776919

  20. Maternal endotoxin exposure results in abnormal neuronal architecture in the newborn rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Bindu; Dai, Hui; Janisse, James; Romero, Roberto; Kannan, Sujatha

    2014-01-01

    Maternal intrauterine inflammation/infection is a potential risk factor for the development of neurologic disorders such as cerebral palsy in preterm and term infants. Cerebral palsy is associated with white matter and grey matter injury. In the current study, we used a rabbit model of cerebral palsy in which pregnant rabbits are administered intrauterine injections of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide. We then investigated the extent of neuronal damage in the newborn kit brain. We observed an overall decrease in number of MAP2-stained neurons and an increase in Fluoro-Jade C-stained cells in the anterior thalamus of 1-day-old rabbit brain. We also observed an overall decrease in the number of branching points and spine density in the retrosplenial cortex, a major output region of the anterior thalamus that is involved in cognition and memory. The loss of spines and dendritic atrophy in the retrosplenial cortex may be caused by loss of presynaptic input from the thalamus. Our study indicates that the cognitive impairments seen in patients with cerebral palsy may be related to degeneration of neurons and abnormal arborization of the thalamic and cortical neurons. PMID:23988854

  1. Diurnal variation in endotoxin-induced mortality in mice: correlation with proinflammatory factors.

    PubMed

    Marpegan, Luciano; Leone, María Juliana; Katz, Marcelo E; Sobrero, Patricio M; Bekinstein, Tristan A; Golombek, Diego A

    2009-10-01

    Many immune parameters exhibit daily and circadian oscillations, including the number of circulating cells and levels of cytokines in the blood. Mice also have a differential susceptibility to lipopolysaccharide (LPS or endotoxin)-induced endotoxic shock, depending on the administration time in the 24 h light-dark (LD) cycle. We replicated these results in LD, but we did not find temporal differences in LPS-induced mortality in constant darkness (DD). Animals challenged with LPS showed only transient effects on their wheel locomotor activity rhythm without modification of circadian period and phase. Levels of several key factors involved in the pathology of sepsis and septic shock were tested in LD. We found that LPS-induced levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, JE (MCP-1), and MIP1alpha were significantly higher at zeitgeber time (ZT) 11 (time of increased mortality) than at ZT19 (ZT12 = time of lights-off in the animal quarters for the 12L:12D condition). Our results indicate that the differences found in mortality that are dependent on the time of LPS-challenge are not directly related to an endogenous circadian clock, and that some relevant immune factors in the development of sepsis are highly induced at ZT11, the time of higher LPS-induced mortality, compared to ZT19. PMID:19916840

  2. γ-Cyclodextrin-polyurethane copolymer adsorbent for selective removal of endotoxin from DNA solution.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Masayo; Uezono, Koji; Kimura, Kasane; Todokoro, Masami

    2013-12-01

    Copolymer particles for removal of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPSs) were prepared by suspension copolymerization of γ-cyclodextrin (CyD) and 1,6-hexamethylenediisocyanate. The LPS-removing activity of the copolymer particles was compared with that of poly(ε-lysine)-immobilized Cellufine (cationic adsorbent) or polystyrene particles (hydrophobic adsorbent) by a batch method. When DNA was present in solution with LPSs under physiological conditions (pH 6.0, ionic strength of μ = 0.05-0.8), LPS-removing activity of the cationic or hydrophobic adsorbent was unsatisfactory because both the DNA and the LPSs were adsorbed onto each adsorbent. By contrast, the copolymer particles with γ-CyD cavity (CyD content: 14-20 mol%) could selectively remove LPSs from a DNA solution (50 μg ml(-1), pH 6.0, and μ = 0.05-0.2) containing LPSs (15 EU ml(-1)) without the adsorption of DNA. The residual concentration of LPSs in the treated DNA solution was below 0.1 EU ml(-1), and the recovery of DNA was 99%. PMID:23969015

  3. Top-Down Strategies for the Structural Elucidation of Intact Gram-negative Bacterial Endotoxins

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, John P.; Needham, Brittany D.; Brown, Dusty B.; Trent, M. Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Re-modelling of lipopolysaccharides, which are the primary constituent of the outer cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, modulates pathogenesis and resistance to microbials. Reported herein is the characterization of intact Gram-negative bacterial lipooligosaccharides (LOS) via a new strategy utilizing online liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) mass spectrometry. Compared to collision-based MS/MS methods, UVPD and UVPD/HCD promoted a greater array of cleavages within both the glycan and lipid moieties, including C-C, C-N, C-O cleavages in the acyl chains as well as glycosidic and cross-ring cleavages, thus providing the most far-reaching structural characterization of LOS. This LC-MS/MS strategy affords a robust analytical method to structurally characterize complex mixtures of bacterial endotoxins that maintains the integrity of the core oligosaccharide and lipid A domains of LOS, providing direct feedback about the cell envelope architectures and LOS modification strategies involved in resistance host innate immune defense. PMID:25386333

  4. Hepatic prolactin binding is rapidly altered by endotoxin in lactating mice

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, J.K.; Keefer, L.M.; Cohen, J.C.

    1987-09-21

    Endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, produces profound physiologic changes in most mammals. The effects of LPS on ovine prolactin (oPRL) binding by hepatic membranes of lactating mice is explored in this report. Specific /sup 125/I-oPRL binding by liver membranes from LPS-responder C3HfB/HeN mice increased two-fold within fifteen minutes of the injection of LPS, while no change was observed in the non-responder C3H/HeJ mice. Specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding did not change. Scatchard analysis of equilibrium binding of oPRL to C3HfB/HeN liver membranes indicated that within fifteen minutes of LPS injection, a receptor of differing binding affinity appears and then disappears by one hour post-injection. The authors propose that these rapid alterations in the specific binding of oPRL by liver membranes from LPS-injected, lactating C3HfB/HeN mice are due to the transient creation or unmasking of a novel class of PRL receptor. 32 references, 6 figures.

  5. LOW-DOSE AIRBORNE ENDOTOXIN EXPOSURE ENHANCES BRONCHIAL RESPONSIVENESS TO INHALED ALLERGEN IN ATOPIC ASTHMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endotoxin exposure has been associated with both protection against development of TH2-immune responses during childhood and exacerbation of asthma in persons who already have allergic airway inflammation.1 Occupational and experimental inhalation exposures to endotoxin have been...

  6. The macrophage mediates the renoprotective effects of endotoxin preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Hato, Takashi; Winfree, Seth; Kalakeche, Rabih; Dube, Shataakshi; Kumar, Rakesh; Yoshimoto, Momoko; Plotkin, Zoya; Dagher, Pierre C

    2015-06-01

    Preconditioning is a preventative approach, whereby minimized insults generate protection against subsequent larger exposures to the same or even different insults. In immune cells, endotoxin preconditioning downregulates the inflammatory response and yet, preserves the ability to contain infections. However, the protective mechanisms of preconditioning at the tissue level in organs such as the kidney remain poorly understood. Here, we show that endotoxin preconditioning confers renal epithelial protection in various models of sepsis in vivo. We also tested the hypothesis that this protection results from direct interactions between the preconditioning dose of endotoxin and the renal tubules. This hypothesis is on the basis of our previous findings that endotoxin toxicity to nonpreconditioned renal tubules was direct and independent of immune cells. Notably, we found that tubular protection after preconditioning has an absolute requirement for CD14-expressing myeloid cells and particularly, macrophages. Additionally, an intact macrophage CD14-TRIF signaling pathway was essential for tubular protection. The preconditioned state was characterized by increased macrophage number and trafficking within the kidney as well as clustering of macrophages around S1 proximal tubules. These macrophages exhibited increased M2 polarization and upregulation of redox and iron-handling molecules. In renal tubules, preconditioning prevented peroxisomal damage and abolished oxidative stress and injury to S2 and S3 tubules. In summary, these data suggest that macrophages are essential mediators of endotoxin preconditioning and required for renal tissue protection. Preconditioning is, therefore, an attractive model to investigate novel protective pathways for the prevention and treatment of sepsis. PMID:25398784

  7. Endotoxin Neutralization as a Biomonitor for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Keith; Chiu, Laura; Ferbas, John; Pepe, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin is a potent immunostimulant implicated in the development and/or progression of a variety of diseases. The mammalian immune system has both innate and adaptive immune responses to neutralize endotoxin. In this study, a system was developed to monitor bacterial exposure by measuring the extent and nature of endotoxin neutralization in plasma. In control patients, females had higher levels of endotoxin neutralization than males, mirroring clinical outcomes from bacterial infection and sepsis. In addition to the total amount of neutralization, we used inactivation techniques to elucidate the nature of this activity and develop a system to compare early and late immune responses. Using this method to monitor patients with inflammatory bowel disease, we found a more robust total response that relies more on long-term, adaptive components of the immune system and less on early, innate components. Our results indicate that endotoxin neutralization is a valuable method to discern inflammatory bowel disease patients from a control population. Additionally, the nature of neutralization may be valuable in monitoring disease severity and/or the role of medication. PMID:23826338

  8. Hypercapnic acidosis attenuates endotoxin-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Laffey, John G; Honan, Dave; Hopkins, Natalie; Hyvelin, Jean-Marc; Boylan, John F; McLoughlin, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Deliberate induction of prophylactic hypercapnic acidosis protects against lung injury after in vivo ischemia-reperfusion and ventilation-induced lung injury. However, the efficacy of hypercapnic acidosis in sepsis, the commonest cause of clinical acute respiratory distress syndrome, is not known. We investigated whether hypercapnic acidosis--induced by adding CO2 to inspired gas--would be protective against endotoxin-induced lung injury in an in vivo rat model. Prophylactic institution of hypercapnic acidosis (i.e., induction before endotoxin instillation) attenuated the decrement in arterial oxygenation, improved lung compliance, and attenuated alveolar neutrophil infiltration compared with control conditions. Therapeutic institution of hypercapnic acidosis, that is, induction after endotoxin instillation, attenuated the decrement in oxygenation, improved lung compliance, and reduced alveolar neutrophil infiltration and histologic indices of lung injury. Therapeutic hypercapnic acidosis attenuated the endotoxin-induced increase in the higher oxides of nitrogen and nitrosothiols in the lung tissue and epithelial lining fluid. Lung epithelial lining fluid nitrotyrosine concentrations were increased with hypercapnic acidosis. We conclude that hypercapnic acidosis attenuates acute endotoxin-induced lung injury, and is efficacious both prophylactically and therapeutically. The beneficial actions of hypercapnic acidosis were not mediated by inhibition of peroxynitrite-induced nitration within proteins. PMID:12958048

  9. The action of low dose endotoxin on equine bowel motility.

    PubMed

    King, J N; Gerring, E L

    1991-01-01

    Post operative ileus (POI) is a common and serious complication of colic surgery in the horse. There is a high correlation between the incidence of POI and the presence of ischaemic bowel, suggesting a role for endotoxin. 0.1 micrograms/kg endotoxin was administered intravenously to six ponies with chronically implanted gastrointestinal electromechanical recording devices. It produced profound disruption of normal fasting bowel motility patterns, with an inhibition of gastric contraction amplitude and rate, left dorsal colon contraction product and small colon spike rate. In the small intestine an increase in abnormally arranged regular activity and a decrease in irregular activity was observed. There was no significant prolongation in stomach to anus transit time as assessed by the passage of plastic spheres. The bowel motility patterns induced by endotoxin could be mimicked by the intravenous infusion of PGE2 and less potently by PGI2 (prostacyclin), but not by PGF2 alpha. This study provides evidence that systematic endotoxin present in clinical cases of colic may play a role in the pathogenesis of equine ileus. The acute effects of endotoxin on bowel motility appear to be mediated indirectly by prostaglandins, and the inhibitory effects may be mediated mainly by PGE2. PMID:2015801

  10. Biliary secretion of endotoxin and pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sakisaka, S.; Koga, H.; Sasatomi, K.; Mimura, Y.; Kawaguchi, T.; Tanikawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies suggested endotoxin, derived from the intestine through the portal blood to the liver, was predominantly metabolized by Kupffer cells. In the present study, fluorescent-labeled endotoxin injected into the rat portal vein was demonstrated not only in Kupffer cells but also in hepatocytes. Furthermore a great amount of labeled endotoxin was recovered in bile. In the livers of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), immunohistochemistry demonstrated significant retention of endotoxin in the biliary epithelial cells, and treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid significantly reduced the retention in those cells. The study for detection of apoptosis demonstrated increased rates of apoptosis in hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells in PBC liver, and the rate of apoptosis in biliary epithelial cells was significantly reduced after treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid. Immunohistochemistry in PBC liver demonstrated significant reduction of fluorescence intensity for a 7H6 antigen in biliary epithelial cells, indicating the increased paracellular permeability of bile ducts, because cellular immunolocalization of that antigen has been shown to be inversely correlated with the paracellular permeability of the tight junction. These results suggest that, in biliary epithelial cells, retention of endotoxin, increased apoptosis, and increased permeability of tight junctions may be involved in the pathogenesis of PBC. Images Figure 1 PMID:9626760

  11. Airborne endotoxin concentrations at a large open-lot dairy in southern Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endotoxins are derived from Gram-negative bacteria and are a potential respiratory health risk for animals and humans. To determine the potential for endotoxin transport from a large open lot dairy, airborne endotoxin concentrations were determined at an upwind location (background) and five downwi...

  12. Endotoxin inhibits the surge secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone via a prostaglandin-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Breen, Kellie M; Billings, Heather J; Debus, Nathalie; Karsch, Fred J

    2004-01-01

    Immune/inflammatory challenges, such as bacterial endotoxin, disrupt gonadotropin secretion and ovarian cyclicity. We previously determined that endotoxin can block the estradiol-induced LH surge in the ewe. Here, we investigated mechanisms underlying this suppression. First, we tested the hypothesis that endotoxin blocks the estradiol-induced LH surge centrally, by preventing the GnRH surge. Artificial follicular phases were created in ovariectomized ewes, and either endotoxin or vehicle was administered together with a surge-inducing estradiol stimulus. In each ewe in which endotoxin blocked the LH surge, the GnRH surge was also blocked. Given this evidence that endotoxin blocks the estradiol-induced LH surge at the hypothalamic level, we began to assess underlying central mechanisms. Specifically, in view of the prior demonstration that prostaglandins mediate endotoxin-induced suppression of pulsatile GnRH secretion in ewes, we tested the hypothesis that prostaglandins also mediate endotoxin-induced blockade of the surge. The prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor flurbiprofen was delivered together with endotoxin and the estradiol stimulus. Although flurbiprofen abolished endotoxin-induced fever, which is a centrally generated, prostaglandin-mediated response, it failed to reverse blockade of the LH surge. Collectively, these results indicate endotoxin blocks the LH surge centrally, suppressing GnRH secretion via a mechanism not requiring prostaglandins. This contrasts with the suppressive effect of endotoxin on GnRH pulses, which requires prostaglandins as intermediates. PMID:14551234

  13. Prevention of cardiac damage induced by formyl-leurosine, a potent cytostatic agent, by radio-detoxified endotoxin (Tolerin) in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Bertok, L.; Juhasz-Nagy, A.; Sotonyi, P.

    1984-08-01

    Radio-detoxified endotoxin (Tolerin), produced by /sup 60/Co-gamma irradiation of Escherichia coli 089 endotoxin, can protect dogs against the acute cardiotoxic side-effects of formyl-leurosine, a semi-synthetic Vinca derivative with promising antineoplastic potency. Formyl-leurosine induces a rapid decrease in arterial blood pressure and diminishes the contractile force of the myocardium in the anaesthetized dog. These responses indicate a direct pharmacologic relaxant effect of the drug on the heart and vasculature smooth muscle. The early cardiovascular depression is of short duration and is unaffected by Tolerin. Tolerin can prevent, however, the secondary, more dangerous phase of circulatory depression that is associated with the severe cardiotoxic manifestations of the drug, as demonstrated by hemodynamic and morphologic (light and electronmicroscopic) patterns.

  14. Prevention of cardiac damage induced by formyl-leurosine, a potent cytostatic agent, by radio-detoxified endotoxin (Tolerin) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bertók, L; Juhász-Nagy, A; Sótonyi, P

    1984-08-01

    Radio-detoxified endotoxin (Tolerin), produced by 60Co-gamma irradiation of Escherichia coli 089 endotoxin, can protect dogs against the acute cardiotoxic side-effects of formyl-leurosine, a semi-synthetic Vinca derivative with promising antineoplastic potency. Formyl-leurosine induces a rapid decrease in arterial blood pressure and diminishes the contractile force of the myocardium in the anaesthetized dog. These responses indicate a direct pharmacologic relaxant effect of the drug on the heart and vasculature smooth muscle. The early cardiovascular depression is of short duration and is unaffected by Tolerin. Tolerin can prevent, however, the secondary, more dangerous phase of circulatory depression that is associated with the severe cardiotoxic manifestations of the drug, as demonstrated by hemodynamic and morphologic (light and electronmicroscopic) patterns. PMID:6490357

  15. Increased expression of p38 MAPK in human bronchial epithelium after lipopolysaccharide exposure.

    PubMed

    Roos-Engstrand, E; Wallin, A; Bucht, A; Pourazar, J; Sandström, T; Blomberg, A

    2005-05-01

    Bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides (LPS)) is normally present in the wall of Gram-negative bacteria and has potent pro-inflammatory properties. Exposure to LPS has been shown to induce neutrophilic airway inflammation in humans. The aim of this investigation was to study the early inflammatory responses to LPS exposure in human airway mucosa in vivo. In total, 15 healthy nonsmoking volunteers participated. Bronchoscopy was performed on two separate occasions, 3 h after saline inhalation and after inhalation of 50 mug LPS in saline. Endobronchial mucosal biopsy specimens were taken and stained immunohistochemically using a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), transcription factors, cytokines, adhesion molecules and inflammatory cells. Expression of p38 MAPK increased as a consequence of LPS exposure, as determined by both total epithelial staining and nuclear location. These two responses were strongly associated. Epithelial expression of interleukin-8 showed a tendency towards a significant increase after LPS compared to saline. Epithelial mast cell numbers were increased after LPS, whereas neutrophil numbers were unchanged. Inhalation of lipopolysaccharide induced activation of the bronchial epithelium, as demonstrated 3 h after exposure by increased expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and interleukin-8, and may represent early regulatory steps in the subsequent development of a neutrophilic bronchial inflammation. PMID:15863635

  16. Ragweed pollen extract intensifies lipopolysaccharide-induced priming of NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Varga, Aliz; Budai, Marietta M; Milesz, Sándor; Bácsi, Attila; Tőzsér, József; Benkő, Szilvia

    2013-04-01

    Ragweed pollen extract (RWE) possesses intrinsic NADPH oxidase activity that induces oxidative stress by initiating the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS are important contributors to the manifestation of allergic inflammation; furthermore, concomitant exposure to an allergen and an endotoxin trigger a stronger inflammatory response. One of the main pro-inflammatory cytokines produced in inflammatory responses is interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and its production is associated with caspase-1-containing inflammasome complexes. Intracellular ROS have been implicated in NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β production, therefore, we aimed to study whether RWE influences the function of NLRP3 inflammasome. Here we describe that, in the presence of NADPH, RWE significantly elevates lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-1β production of THP-1 cells as well as human primary macrophages and dendritic cells. We also demonstrate that increased IL-1β production is mediated through NLRP3 inflammasome in THP-1 macrophages. We provide evidence that RWE elevates cytosolic ROS level in these cells, and ROS inhibitors abolish IL-1β production. Furthermore, we show that RWE enhances lipopolysaccharide-induced gene transcription/expression of pro-IL-1β and key components of the inflammasome via a ROS-dependent mechanism. PMID:23278511

  17. Ragweed pollen extract intensifies lipopolysaccharide-induced priming of NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Aliz; Budai, Marietta M; Milesz, Sándor; Bácsi, Attila; Tőzsér, József; Benkő, Szilvia

    2013-01-01

    Ragweed pollen extract (RWE) possesses intrinsic NADPH oxidase activity that induces oxidative stress by initiating the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS are important contributors to the manifestation of allergic inflammation; furthermore, concomitant exposure to an allergen and an endotoxin trigger a stronger inflammatory response. One of the main pro-inflammatory cytokines produced in inflammatory responses is interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and its production is associated with caspase-1-containing inflammasome complexes. Intracellular ROS have been implicated in NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β production, therefore, we aimed to study whether RWE influences the function of NLRP3 inflammasome. Here we describe that, in the presence of NADPH, RWE significantly elevates lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-1β production of THP-1 cells as well as human primary macrophages and dendritic cells. We also demonstrate that increased IL-1β production is mediated through NLRP3 inflammasome in THP-1 macrophages. We provide evidence that RWE elevates cytosolic ROS level in these cells, and ROS inhibitors abolish IL-1β production. Furthermore, we show that RWE enhances lipopolysaccharide-induced gene transcription/expression of pro-IL-1β and key components of the inflammasome via a ROS-dependent mechanism. PMID:23278511

  18. Lumican overexpression exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced renal injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Mei; Ma, Ling; Jin, Yu-Nan; Yu, Yan-Qiu

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of lumican in mice with endotoxin-induced acute renal failure (ARF). Lumican transgenic mice and wild‑type mice were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 mg/kg) to establish a model of ARF. The mice were sacrificed at 24 h and the blood and renal tissue samples were collected. The value of serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured to determine renal function. An ELISA was used to determined the concentrations of renal cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑4 and IL‑10. The protein expression levels of Toll-like receptor (TLR4) and nuclear factor (NF)κB in renal tissues were assessed using western blot analysis. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling was performed to monitor apoptosis of renal tissue. Light microscopy and electron microscopy were used to observe structural changes in the renal tissues. Following the administration of LPS, the SCr and BUN values of mice in the lumican transgenic group were higher compared with those in the control group. The expression levels of renal TLR4, NFκB, TNFα, IL‑6, IL‑4 and IL‑10 were upregulated in the lumican transgenic mice compared with those in the wild‑type control group. Apoptosis was detected predominantly on the renal tubule. There was a significant difference in the optical density of apoptotic bodies between the control mice and the lumican transgenic mice. Light and electron microscopy demonstrated more severe renal tissue injury in the lumican transgenic mice compared with that in the control mice. In conclusion, LPS may cause excessive apoptosis in the renal tubular cells via the TLR4 signal transduction pathway, a decrease in the number of renal tubular cells and ARF. Lumican may be important in mice with LPS-induced ARF. PMID:26081832

  19. Differential regulation of cytokine production in lipopolysaccharide tolerance in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Erroi, A; Fantuzzi, G; Mengozzi, M; Sironi, M; Orencole, S F; Clark, B D; Dinarello, C A; Isetta, A; Gnocchi, P; Giovarelli, M

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the pattern of down-regulation of cytokine production in endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) tolerance. A 4-day treatment with LPS (35 micrograms per mouse) was followed by a challenge on day 6 with one more injection of LPS. Circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) could not be induced (> 99% inhibition) by LPS in LPS-tolerant mice; colony-stimulating factor (CSF) was also down-regulated by more than 95%, whereas interferon (IFN) and IL-1 syntheses were only partially inhibited. To study the mechanism of cytokine down-regulation in tolerance, we attempted to reverse the tolerant state by pretreatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (4 micrograms per mouse) 10 min before the LPS challenge. PMA completely restored IL-6 production and partially that of CSF. PMA had no effect on IFN production and inhibited the induction of IL-1. TNF production was also not restored by PMA. To investigate the role of endogenously produced cytokines in the development of LPS tolerance, we administered IL-6, TNF, or IL-1 alpha, using the same treatment schedule as that for LPS. Whereas IL-6 had no effect, IL-1 alpha or TNF induced partial tolerance to LPS in terms of inhibition of LPS-stimulated TNF and IL-6 production. However, a full LPS-tolerant state could not be induced by administration of recombinant cytokines, suggesting the existence of additional mechanisms, such as a loss of LPS receptors or changes in release of soluble binding proteins. PMID:8406825

  20. Differential regulation of cytokine production in lipopolysaccharide tolerance in mice.

    PubMed

    Erroi, A; Fantuzzi, G; Mengozzi, M; Sironi, M; Orencole, S F; Clark, B D; Dinarello, C A; Isetta, A; Gnocchi, P; Giovarelli, M

    1993-10-01

    We investigated the pattern of down-regulation of cytokine production in endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) tolerance. A 4-day treatment with LPS (35 micrograms per mouse) was followed by a challenge on day 6 with one more injection of LPS. Circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) could not be induced (> 99% inhibition) by LPS in LPS-tolerant mice; colony-stimulating factor (CSF) was also down-regulated by more than 95%, whereas interferon (IFN) and IL-1 syntheses were only partially inhibited. To study the mechanism of cytokine down-regulation in tolerance, we attempted to reverse the tolerant state by pretreatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (4 micrograms per mouse) 10 min before the LPS challenge. PMA completely restored IL-6 production and partially that of CSF. PMA had no effect on IFN production and inhibited the induction of IL-1. TNF production was also not restored by PMA. To investigate the role of endogenously produced cytokines in the development of LPS tolerance, we administered IL-6, TNF, or IL-1 alpha, using the same treatment schedule as that for LPS. Whereas IL-6 had no effect, IL-1 alpha or TNF induced partial tolerance to LPS in terms of inhibition of LPS-stimulated TNF and IL-6 production. However, a full LPS-tolerant state could not be induced by administration of recombinant cytokines, suggesting the existence of additional mechanisms, such as a loss of LPS receptors or changes in release of soluble binding proteins. PMID:8406825

  1. Male adolescent rats display blunted cytokine responses in the CNS after acute ethanol or lipopolysaccharide exposure.

    PubMed

    Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Gano, Anny; Paniccia, Jacqueline E; Deak, Terrence

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol induces widespread changes in cytokine expression, with recent data from our laboratory having demonstrated that, during acute ethanol intoxication, adult rats exhibit consistent increases in interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA expression in several brain regions, while showing reductions in IL-1 and TNFα expression. Given evidence indicating that adolescence may be an ontogenetic period in which some neuroimmune processes and cells may not yet have fully matured, the purpose of the current experiments was to examine potential age differences in the central cytokine response of adolescent (P31-33days of age) and adult (69-71days of age) rats to either an acute immune (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) or non-immune challenge (ethanol). In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of either sterile saline, LPS (250μg/kg), or ethanol (4-g/kg), and then trunk blood and brain tissue were collected 3h later for measurement of blood ethanol concentrations (BECs), plasma endotoxin, and central mRNA expression of several immune-related gene targets. In Experiment 2, the response to intragastrically (i.g.) administered ethanol was examined and compared to animals given tap water (i.g.). Results showed that LPS stimulated robust increases in expression of IL-1, IL-6, TNFα, and IκBα in the hippocampus, PVN, and amygdala, and that these increases were generally less pronounced in adolescents relative to adults. Following an i.p. ethanol challenge, IL-6 and IκBα expression was significantly increased in both ages in the PVN and amygdala, and adults exhibited even greater increases in IκBα than adolescents. I.g. administration of ethanol also increased IL-6 and IκBα expression in all three brain regions, with hippocampal IL-6 elevated even more so in adults compared to adolescents. Furthermore, assessment of plasma endotoxin concentrations revealed (i) whereas robust increases in plasma endotoxin were observed in adults injected with LPS, no corresponding elevations were seen in adolescents after LPS; and (ii) neither adolescents nor adults demonstrated increases in plasma endotoxin concentrations following i.p. or i.g. ethanol administration. Analysis of BECs indicated that, for both routes of exposure, adolescents exhibited lower BECs than adults. Taken together, these data suggest that categorically different mechanisms are involved in the central cytokine response to antigen exposure versus ethanol administration. Furthermore, these findings confirm once again that acute ethanol intoxication is a potent activator of brain cytokines, and calls for future studies to identify the mechanisms underlying age-related differences in the cytokine response observed during ethanol intoxication. PMID:25708278

  2. Lipopolysaccharide mutants of Rhizobium meliloti are not defective in symbiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Clover, R.H.; Kieber, J.; Signer, E.R. )

    1989-07-01

    Mutants of Rhizobium meliloti selected primarily for bacteriophage resistance fall into 13 groups. Mutants in the four best-characterized groups (class A, lpsB, lpsC, and class D), which map to the rhizobial chromosome, appear to affect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as judged by the reactivity with monoclonal antibodies and behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels of extracted LPS. Mutations in all 13 groups, in an otherwise wild-type genetic background, are Fix{sup +} on alfalfa. This suggests that LPS does not play a major role in symbiosis. Mutations in lpsB, however, are Fix{sup {minus}} in one particular genetic background, evidently because of the cumulative effect of several independent background mutations. In addition, an auxotrophic mutation evidently equivalent to Escherichia coli carAB is Fix{sup {minus}} on alfalfa.

  3. Personal endotoxin exposure in a panel study of school children with asthma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Endotoxin exposure has been associated with asthma exacerbations and increased asthma prevalence. However, there is little data regarding personal exposure to endotoxin in children at risk, or the relation of personal endotoxin exposure to residential or ambient airborne endotoxin. The relation between personal endotoxin and personal air pollution exposures is also unknown. Methods We characterized personal endotoxin exposures in 45 school children with asthma ages 9-18 years using 376 repeated measurements from a PM2.5 active personal exposure monitor. We also assayed endotoxin in PM2.5 samples collected from ambient regional sites (N = 97 days) and from a subset of 12 indoor and outdoor subject home sites (N = 109 and 111 days, respectively) in Riverside and Whittier, California. Endotoxin was measured using the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate kinetic chromogenic assay. At the same time, we measured personal, home and ambient exposure to PM2.5 mass, elemental carbon (EC), and organic carbon (OC). To assess exposure relations we used both rank correlations and mixed linear regression models, adjusted for personal temperature and relative humidity. Results We found small positive correlations of personal endotoxin with personal PM2.5 EC and OC, but not personal PM2.5 mass or stationary site air pollutant measurements. Outdoor home, indoor home and ambient endotoxin were moderately to strongly correlated with each other. However, in mixed models, personal endotoxin was not associated with indoor home or outdoor home endotoxin, but was associated with ambient endotoxin. Dog and cat ownership were significantly associated with increased personal but not indoor endotoxin. Conclusions Daily fixed site measurements of endotoxin in the home environment may not predict daily personal exposure, although a larger sample size may be needed to assess this. This conclusion is relevant to short-term exposures involved in the acute exacerbation of asthma. PMID:21810249

  4. Metal ions potentiate microglia responsiveness to endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Rachmawati, Dessy; Peferoen, Laura A N; Vogel, Daphne Y S; Alsalem, Inás W A; Amor, Sandra; Bontkes, Hetty J; von Blomberg, B Mary E; Scheper, Rik J; van Hoogstraten, Ingrid M W

    2016-02-15

    Oral metal exposure has been associated with diverse adverse reactions, including neurotoxicity. We showed previously that dentally applied metals activate dendritic cells (MoDC) via TLR4 (Ni, Co, Pd) and TLR3 (Au). It is still unknown whether the low levels of dental metals reaching the brain can trigger local innate cells or prime them to become more responsive. Here we tested whether dentally applied metals (Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Au, Hg) activate primary human microglia in vitro and, as a model, monocytic THP-1-cells, in high non-toxic as well as near-physiological concentrations. In addition the effects of 'near-physiological' metal exposure on endotoxin (LPS) responsiveness of these cells were evaluated. IL-8 and IL-6 production after 24h was used as read out. In high, non-toxic concentrations all transition metals except Cr induced IL-8 and IL-6 production in microglia, with Ni and Co providing the strongest stimulation. When using near-physiological doses (up to 10× the normal plasma concentration), only Zn and Cu induced significant IL-8 production. Of note, the latter metals also markedly potentiated LPS responsiveness of microglia and THP-1 cells. In conclusion, transition metals activate microglia similar to MoDCs. In near-physiological concentrations Zn and Cu are the most effective mediators of innate immune activation. A clear synergism between innate responses to Zn/Cu and LPS was observed, shedding new light on the possible relation between oral metal exposure and neurotoxicity. PMID:26857501

  5. Effect of endotoxin and radio-detoxified endotoxin on the serum T4 level of rats and response of their thyroid gland to exogenous TSH

    SciTech Connect

    Bertok, L.; Nagy, S.U.

    1984-12-01

    Experiments were performed to demonstrate that, while the shock-inducing dose of parent (toxic) endotoxin significantly decreases the serum T4 level of rats and inhibits the T4 response given to exogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), the radio-detoxified (/sup 60/Co-gamma, 150 kGy) endotoxin preparation does not inhibit the response to exogenous TSH. It also decreases serum T4 level to a lesser extent than untreated endotoxin.

  6. A Cytophaga species endotoxin as a putative agent of occupation-related lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, D K; Deck, F H; Hood, M A; Liebert, C; Singleton, F; Winzenburger, P; Bishop, K; Smith, L R; Bynum, L M; Witmer, W B

    1984-01-01

    A previous study suggested that a biologically active bacterial endotoxin was a putative agent of lung disease in a textile-producing facility. The endotoxin was isolated from the biomass growing in a chilled-water spray air humidification system. The bacterial flora of the air humidification system were isolated and taxonomically identified to the genus level. By using indirect immunofluorescence assays, a serologically reactive Cytophaga species was identified. A serologically reactive, biologically active (Limulus assay) endotoxin was purified from phenol extracts of the Cytophaga species. The endotoxin contained sugars, hexosamines, and lipids identical to those found in the humidifier biomass endotoxin. All subjects with biopsy-proven and suspected lung disease had antibodies directed toward the purified Cytophaga endotoxin. The data suggest that the Cytophaga endotoxin is the putative agent of lung disease in the textile facility. PMID:6360896

  7. Endotoxin-Induced Endothelial Fibrosis Is Dependent on Expression of Transforming Growth Factors ?1 and ?2

    PubMed Central

    Echeverra, Csar; Montorfano, Ignacio; Tapia, Pablo; Riedel, Claudia; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    During endotoxemia-induced inflammatory disease, bacterial endotoxins circulate in the bloodstream and interact with endothelial cells (ECs), inducing dysfunction of the ECs. We previously reported that endotoxins induce the conversion of ECs into activated fibroblasts. Through endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis, ECs change their morphology and their protein expression pattern, thereby suppressing endothelial markers and upregulating fibrotic proteins. The most commonly used fibrotic inducers are transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) and TGF-?2. However, whether TGF-?1 and TGF-?2 participate in endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis remains unknown. We have shown that the endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis process is dependent on the TGF-? receptor, ALK5, and the activation of Smad3, a protein that is activated by ALK5 activation, thus suggesting that endotoxin elicits TGF-? production to mediate endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis. Therefore, we investigated the dependence of endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis on the expression of TGF-?1 and TGF-?2. Endotoxin-treated ECs induced the expression and secretion of TGF-?1 and TGF-?2. TGF-?1 and TGF-?2 downregulation inhibited the endotoxin-induced changes in the endothelial marker VE-cadherin and in the fibrotic proteins ?-SMA and fibronectin. Thus, endotoxin induces the production of TGF-?1 and TGF-?2 as a mechanism to promote endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that endotoxin induces endothelial fibrosis via TGF-? secretion, which represents an emerging source of vascular dysfunction. These findings contribute to understanding the molecular mechanism of endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis, which could be useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:24935972

  8. Integrating Murine Gene Expression Studies to Understand Obstructive Lung Disease Due to Chronic Inhaled Endotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Peggy S.; Hofmann, Oliver; Baron, Rebecca M.; Cernadas, Manuela; Meng, Quanxin Ryan; Bresler, Herbert S.; Brass, David M.; Yang, Ivana V.; Schwartz, David A.; Christiani, David C.; Hide, Winston

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Endotoxin is a near ubiquitous environmental exposure that that has been associated with both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These obstructive lung diseases have a complex pathophysiology, making them difficult to study comprehensively in the context of endotoxin. Genome-wide gene expression studies have been used to identify a molecular snapshot of the response to environmental exposures. Identification of differentially expressed genes shared across all published murine models of chronic inhaled endotoxin will provide insight into the biology underlying endotoxin-associated lung disease. Methods We identified three published murine models with gene expression profiling after repeated low-dose inhaled endotoxin. All array data from these experiments were re-analyzed, annotated consistently, and tested for shared genes found to be differentially expressed. Additional functional comparison was conducted by testing for significant enrichment of differentially expressed genes in known pathways. The importance of this gene signature in smoking-related lung disease was assessed using hierarchical clustering in an independent experiment where mice were exposed to endotoxin, smoke, and endotoxin plus smoke. Results A 101-gene signature was detected in three murine models, more than expected by chance. The three model systems exhibit additional similarity beyond shared genes when compared at the pathway level, with increasing enrichment of inflammatory pathways associated with longer duration of endotoxin exposure. Genes and pathways important in both asthma and COPD were shared across all endotoxin models. Mice exposed to endotoxin, smoke, and smoke plus endotoxin were accurately classified with the endotoxin gene signature. Conclusions Despite the differences in laboratory, duration of exposure, and strain of mouse used in three experimental models of chronic inhaled endotoxin, surprising similarities in gene expression were observed. The endotoxin component of tobacco smoke may play an important role in disease development. PMID:23675439

  9. Optimizing the extraction, storage, and analysis of airborne endotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay is part of most procedures to assess airborne endotoxin exposure, there is no universally agreed upon standard procedure. The purpose of this study was to fill in additional knowledge gaps with respect to the extraction, storage, and analysis of endotox...

  10. Alteco endotoxin hemoadsorption in Gram-negative septic shock patients

    PubMed Central

    Shum, Hoi Ping; Leung, Yuk Wah; Lam, Sin Man; Chan, King Chung; Yan, Wing Wa

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Severe sepsis and septic shock are common causes of mortality and morbidity in an intensive care unit setting. Endotoxin, derived from the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, is considered a major factor in the pathogenesis of sepsis. This study investigated the effect of Alteco endotoxin hemoadsorption device on Gram-negative septic shock patients. Materials and Methods: An open, controlled, prospective, randomized, single-center trial was conducted between February 2010 and June 2012. Patients with septic shock due to intra-abdominal sepsis were randomized to either conventional therapy (n = 8) or conventional therapy plus two 2-hourly sessions of Alteco endotoxin hemoadsorption (n = 7). Primary endpoint was the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score changes from 0 to 72 h. Secondary end points included vasopressor requirement, PaO2/FiO2 ratio (PFR), length of stay (LOS), and 28-day mortality. Results: This study was terminated early as interim analysis showed a low probability of significant findings. No significant difference was noted between the two groups with respect to change in SOFA score, vasopressor score, PFR, LOS, and 28-day mortality. Side-effect was minimal. Conclusions: We could not identify any clinical benefit on the addition of Alteco endotoxin hemoadsorption to conventional therapy in patients who suffered from intra-abdominal sepsis with shock. The side effect profile of this novel device was acceptable. PMID:25538412

  11. Endotoxin-induced mortality in rats is reduced by nitrones

    SciTech Connect

    Hamburger, S.A.; McCay, P.B. )

    1989-12-01

    The goal of these investigations was to determine if nitrone spin-trapping agents can alter mortality associated with endotoxemia in the rat. Reactive free radicals attack nitrone spin-trapping agents forming relatively reactive, persistent free radical spin adducts. We administered 85 mM (10 ml/kg) of alpha-phenyl N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN), alpha-4-pyridyl-N-oxide N-tert-butyl nitrone (4-POBN), 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO), or vehicle (saline i.p.) 30 min before endotoxin (25 mg/kg i.p.) or vehicle to Sprague-Dawley (SD) or Holtzman virus-free (HVF) rats (n = 10-17/group). All vehicle-treated rats receiving endotoxin were dead by 1 day. At 7 days, 83% of PBN-treated SD, 42% of PBN- or POBN-treated HVF, and 25% of DMPO-treated HVF rats were alive. The difference in survival of PBN-treated animals between strains may reflect the higher susceptibility of HVF rats to endotoxin. The observed reduction in mortality may be related to the well-established capacity of spin-trapping agents to capture reactive free radicals that may be generated in target tissues in response to endotoxin, and that would otherwise react with cell components and produce tissue injury.

  12. [Endotoxin Is a Companent in Pathogenesis of Chronic Viral Diseases].

    PubMed

    Anikhovskaya, I; Kubatiev, A; Khasanova, G; Yakovlev, M

    2015-01-01

    The level of endotoxin and indicators of activity of antiendotoxin immunity (antibody concentration to glycolipid Re-chemotype and general antigen of enterobacteria) were estimated in serum of 174 patients with persistent viral infections (viruses: herpes simplex, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency). The presence of markers of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (interleukin IL-1β) and acquired immunodeficiency (CD4+) in HIV-infected patients were also determined. Persistent viral infections are accompanied by endotoxin aggression intestinal origin (caused by them), which is able to induce the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome. In HIV-infected patients with this syndrome is cyclical, when the phase of hyperactivity replaced immunodeficiency. Schematically, this process can be represented as the following sequence of events: HIV-mediated damage to the intestinal barrier--the development of endotoxin aggression--induction ofsystemic inflammatory response syndrome--the depletion of the immune system, which is transient and is related to the duration of activity of the virus replication cycle, i.e., with damage to enterocytes. Using antiendotoxin component (means of reducing levels of endotoxin in the blood) in the scheme of treatment of persistent viral infections can serve as an element of a successful prevention of complications. PMID:26237956

  13. Streptomycetes in house dust: associations with housing characteristics and endotoxin

    EPA Science Inventory

    In addition to mold, indoor bioaerosols also contain bacterial components that may have implications for human health. Endotoxin is a cell wall component in Gram-negative bacteria present at varying levels indoors that has been found to have respiratory health implications. Stre...

  14. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part II. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens - focus on grain dust, other agricultural dusts and wood dust.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Skórska, Czesława; Góra-Florek, Anna; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-03-01

    Pantoea agglomerans, a Gram-negative bacterium developing in a variety of plants as epiphyte or endophyte is particularly common in grain and grain dust, and has been identified by an interdisciplinary group from Lublin, eastern Poland, as a causative agent of work-related diseases associated with exposure to grain dust and other agricultural dusts. The concentration of P. agglomerans in grain as well as in the settled grain and flour dust was found to be high, ranging from 10(4) -10(8) CFU/g, while in the air polluted with grain or flour dust it ranged from 10(3) -10(5) CFU/m(3) and formed 73.2-96% of the total airborne Gram-negative bacteria. The concentration of P. agglomerans was also relatively high in the air of the facilities processing herbs and other plant materials, while it was lower in animal farms and in wood processing facilities. Pantoea agglomerans produces a biologically-potent endotoxin (cell wall lipopolysaccharide, LPS). The significant part of this endotoxin occurs in dusts in the form of virus-sized globular nanoparticles measuring 10-50 nm that could be described as the 'endotoxin super-macromolecules'. A highly significant relationship was found (R=0.804, P=0.000927) between the concentration of the viable P. agglomerans in the air of various agricultural and wood industry settings and the concentration of bacterial endotoxin in the air, as assessed by the Limulus test. Although this result may be interfered by the presence of endotoxin produced by other Gram-negative species, it unequivocally suggests the primary role of the P. agglomerans endotoxin as an adverse agent in the agricultural working environment, causing toxic pneumonitis (ODTS). Numerous experiments by the inhalation exposure of animals to various extracts of P. agglomerans strains isolated from grain dust, including endotoxin isolated with trichloroacetic acid (LPS-TCA), endotoxin nanoparticles isolated in sucrose gradient (VECN), and mixture of proteins and endotoxin obtained by extraction of bacterial mass in saline (CA-S), showed the ability of these extracts to evoke inflammatory and fibrotic changes in the lungs, to stimulate alveolar macrophages to produce superoxide anion (O2(-) ), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and chemotactic factors for other macrophages and neutrophils, and to increase the pulmonary concentrations of toll-like receptors and chemokines. The most potent properties showed the CA-S which may be attributed to the allergenic properties of P. agglomerans proteins enhanced by the presence of the autologous endotoxin. The results of these experiments are in accord with the clinical studies which revealed a high reactivity of the agricultural and grain industry workers to allergenic extracts of P. agglomerans, and the presence in these populations of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and asthma cases caused by this bacterium. P. agglomerans has been also identified as a potential causative agent of allergic dermatitis in farmers and of allergic pulmonary disorders in cattle. In conclusion, similar to the cotton industry, also in the grain industry and in agriculture, Pantoea agglomerans should be regarded as one of the major causative agents of work-related diseases, caused by the adverse effects of protein allergens and endotoxin produced by this bacterium. PMID:27007514

  15. Role of tumour necrosis factor in the induction of nitric oxide synthase in a rat model of endotoxin shock.

    PubMed Central

    Thiemermann, C.; Wu, C. C.; Szabó, C.; Perretti, M.; Vane, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    1. This study investigates the role of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in the induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) by bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) in a rat model of endotoxin shock. 2. In anaesthetized rats, pretreatment with a monoclonal antibody for TNF (TNFab; 20 mg kg-1, s.c., at 16 h prior to LPS) ameliorated the fall in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) in response to LPS (2 mg kg-1, i.v.). For instance, endotoxaemia for 180 min resulted in a fall in MAP from 114 +/- 6 (control) to 84 +/- 5 mmHg (P < 0.01; n = 7). In contrast, animals pretreated with TNFab prior to LPS injection maintained significantly higher MAP when compared to LPS-control (MAP at 180 min; 118 +/- 3 mmHg; P < 0.01, n = 5). 3. Three hours of endotoxaemia was also associated with a significant reduction of the contractile effects of noradrenaline (NA) (10(-8)-10(-6) M) on the thoracic aorta ex vivo. This hyporeactivity to NA was partially restored by in vitro treatment of the vessels with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 20 min, 3 x 10(-4) M). Pretreatment of rats with TNFab (20 mg kg-1; at 16 h prior to LPS) significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated the LPS-induced hyporeactivity of rat aortic rings ex vivo. L-NAME did not enhance the contractions of aortic rings obtained from TNFab pretreated LPS-rats. 4. At 180 min after LPS there was a significant elevation of the induced NOS activity in the lung (5.14 +/- 0.57 pmol citrulline mg-1 min-1, n = 8).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7693276

  16. Post-treatment with N-acetylcysteine ameliorates endotoxin shock-induced organ damage in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Bang-Gee; Lee, Ru-Ping; Yang, Fwu-Lin; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Chen, Hsing I

    2006-10-19

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant and cytoprotective agent with scavenging action against reactive oxygen species and inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory cytokines. In a previous study, we found that pretreatment with NAC attenuated organ dysfunction and damage, reduced the production of free radicals, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) following endotoxemia elicited by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In the present study, we tested the effects of post-treatment with NAC on the sepsis-induced change. Post-treatment imitates clinical therapeutic regimen with administration of drug after endotoxemia. Endotoxin shock was induced by intravenous injection of Klebsiella pneumoniae LPS (10 mg/kg) in conscious rats. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored for 48 h after LPS administration. NAC was given 20 min after LPS. Measurements of biochemical substances were taken to reflect organ functions. Biochemical factors included blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cre), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate transferase (GOT), alanine transferase (GPT), TNF-alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10). LPS significantly increased blood BUN, Cre, LDH, CPK, GOT, GPT, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10 levels and HR, and decreased MAP. Post-treatment with NAC diminished the decrease in MAP, increased the HR, and decreased the markers of organ injury (BUN, Cre, LDH, CPK, GOT, GPT) and inflammatory biomarkers (TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10) after LPS. We conclude that post-treatment with NAC suppresses the release of plasma TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10 in endotoxin shock, and decreases the markers of organ injury. These beneficial effects protect against LPS-induced kidney, heart and liver damage in conscious rats. The beneficial effects may suggest a potential chemopreventive effect of this compound after sepsis. PMID:16860347

  17. Protective phenotypes of club cells and alveolar macrophages are favored as part of endotoxin-mediated prevention of asthma.

    PubMed

    García, Luciana N; Leimgruber, Carolina; Uribe Echevarría, Elisa M; Acosta, Patricio L; Brahamian, Jorge M; Polack, Fernando P; Miró, María S; Quintar, Amado A; Sotomayor, Claudia E; Maldonado, Cristina A

    2015-07-01

    Atopic asthma is a chronic allergic disease that involves T-helper type 2 (Th2)-inflammation and airway remodeling. Bronchiolar club cells (CC) and alveolar macrophages (AM) are sentinel cells of airway barrier against inhaled injuries, where allergy induces mucous metaplasia of CC and the alternative activation of AM, which compromise host defense mechanisms and amplify Th2-inflammation. As there is evidence that high levels of environmental endotoxin modulates asthma, the goal of this study was to evaluate if the activation of local host defenses by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) previous to allergy development can contribute to preserving CC and AM protective phenotypes. Endotoxin stimulus before allergen exposition reduced hallmarks of allergic inflammation including eosinophil influx, Interleukin-4 and airway hyperreactivity, while the T-helper type 1 related cytokines IL-12 and Interferon-γ were enhanced. This response was accompanied by the preservation of the normal CC phenotype and the anti-allergic proteins Club Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP) and Surfactant-D, thereby leading to lower levels of CC metaplasia and preventing the increase of the pro-Th2 cytokine Thymic stromal lymphopoietin. In addition, classically activated alveolar macrophages expressing nitric oxide were promoted over the alternatively activated ones that expressed arginase-1. We verified that LPS induced a long-term overexpression of CCSP and the innate immune markers Toll-like receptor 4, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, changes that were preserved in spite of the allergen challenge. These results demonstrate that LPS pre-exposition modifies the local bronchioalveolar microenvironment by inducing natural anti-allergic mechanisms while reducing local factors that drive Th2 type responses, thus modulating allergic inflammation. PMID:25504013

  18. Endotoxin suppresses expression of apoprotein E by mouse macrophages in vivo and in culture: a biochemical and genetic study

    SciTech Connect

    Werb, Z.; Chin, J.R.

    1983-09-10

    The synthesis and secretion of apo-E, a component of plasma lipoproteins, are suppressed in mouse macrophages exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) in culture or in vivo. Control mouse macrophages contained intracellular immunofluorescent apo-E, and apo-E represented about 10% of secreted protein. After intraperitoneal injection of LPS, freshly lavaged macrophages neither contained intracellular apo-E nor secreted apo-E. The suppressive effects of LPS and apo-E synthesis in culture were selective, and secretion of many other major macrophage proteins was not affected. When then LPS-elicited macrosphages were cultured for 24-72 h in the absence of LPS, synthesis of apo-E was initiated. Treatment of bone marrow-derived or peritoneal macrophages in culture with less than 1 ng of LPS/ml inhibited apo-E synthesis and secretion by 18 h of treatment. Although LPS stimulates prostaglandin E/sub 2/ synthesis, prostaglandin E/sub 2/ itself did not suppress apo-E synthesis. Macrophages from C3H/HeJ (Lps/sup d//Lps/sup d/) mice, which are resistant to LPS, were neither primed for H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production nor suppressed for apo-E synthesis in response to LPS in vivo (30 ..mu..g/mouse) or in culture (1..mu../ml), whereas macrophages from the co-isogenic C3H/HeN (Lps/sup n//Lps/sup n/) strain were induced for H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ secretion and had suppressed synthesis of apo-E. Because apo-E serves as a recognition determinant for the receptor-mediated clearance of lipoproteins, the decreased synthesis of apo-E after LPS treatment may in part explain the hyperlipoproteinemia associated with endotoxins in vivo.

  19. The effects of rewarding ventral tegmental area stimulation and environmental enrichment on lipopolysaccharide-induced sickness behavior and cytokine expression in female rats.

    PubMed

    Kentner, A C; Takeuchi, A; James, J S; Miki, T; Seino, S; Hayley, S; Bielajew, C

    2008-06-27

    Responding for rewarding brain stimulation has been used to track hedonic status in animals. In addition to neurochemical alterations, stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus or ventral tegmentum has been shown to influence immunological processes, including elevation of peripheral natural killer cell activity. In the present study, we examined whether ventral tegmental area (VTA) stimulation or environmental enrichment altered the severity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness behaviors and the provocation of cytokine expression induced by the endotoxin. Accordingly, rats received either trials of brain stimulation reward or exposure to an enriched environment and subsequently challenged with 150 ug/kg i.p. of LPS. Groups receiving LPS and saline injections without further manipulation were also included. Using the real-time RT-PCR and a multiplex bead assay, mRNA and protein levels for several cytokines and their receptors were determined to evaluate how these may vary as a consequence of reward. Both brain stimulation and environmental enrichment similarly diminished sickness behaviors associated with the endotoxin. Receptor gene levels were generally stable across groups. Levels of IL-6 within the VTA were increased in the group receiving LPS challenge alone and environmental enrichment was associated with modestly reduced IL-6 levels within this brain region. Taken together, these data suggest that rewarding brain stimulation and environmental enrichment buffer against malaise provoked by endotoxin challenge. Moreover, IL-6 expression within the VTA may influence the development of sickness behavior following inflammatory stimuli. PMID:18511025

  20. Crystal structure of an endotoxin-neutralizing protein from the horseshoe crab, Limulus anti-LPS factor, at 1.5 A resolution.

    PubMed Central

    Hoess, A; Watson, S; Siber, G R; Liddington, R

    1993-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or endotoxin, is the major mediator of septic shock, a serious complication of Gram-negative bacterial infections in humans. Molecules that bind LPS and neutralize its biological effects or enhance its clearance could have important clinical applications. Limulus anti-LPS factor (LALF) binds LPS tightly, and, in animal models, reduces mortality when administered before or after LPS challenge or bacterial infection. Here we present the high resolution structure of a recombinant LALF. It has a single domain consisting of three alpha-helices packed against a four-stranded beta-sheet. The wedge-shaped molecule has a striking charge distribution and amphipathicity that suggest how it can insert into membranes. The binding site for LPS probably involves an extended amphipathic loop, and we propose that two mammalian LPS-binding proteins will have a similar loop. The amphipathic loop structure may be used in the design of molecules with therapeutic properties against septic shock. Images PMID:8253062

  1. Antigenicity of Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, S D; Kurjanczyk, L A; Penner, J L

    1992-01-01

    An investigation of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profiles of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) extracted from seven strains of Helicobacter pylori revealed that these molecules were silver stainable and exhibited a high degree of variability in their patterns. Two strains synthesized a variety of sizes of LPS molecules such that fractionation by SDS-PAGE resulted in a stepwise gradation of bands which extended from the top to the bottom of the silver-stained gel. The LPSs from the remaining five strains were made up of molecules which were more homogeneous in size and clustered around two separate areas of the gel. Antigenic analyses of phenol-water-extracted LPSs by immunoblotting and the passive hemagglutination assay suggested that, in addition to strain-specific antigens, all of the LPSs carried a common antigen. Antibodies to this common antigen could be removed from antisera by absorption, and the resulting antisera were used to differentiate strains on the basis of their O antigens by the passive hemagglutination assay technique. The finding that LPSs from 3 of 10 clinical isolates reacted specifically in one or two of the typing antisera suggested that the development of a scheme for differentiating H. pylori on the basis of O antigens is feasible. Images PMID:1280651

  2. Hyperbilirubinemia exaggerates endotoxin-induced hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Pakai, Eszter; Garami, Andras; Nucci, Tatiane B; Ivanov, Andrei I; Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2015-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is accompanied by an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and by either fever or hypothermia (or both). To study aseptic systemic inflammation, it is often induced in rats by the intravenous administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Knowing that bilirubin is a potent ROS scavenger, we compared responses to LPS between normobilirubinemic Gunn rats (heterozygous, asymptomatic; J/+) and hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rats (homozygous, jaundiced; J/J) to establish whether ROS mediate fever and hypothermia in aseptic systemic inflammation. These two genotypes correspond to undisturbed versus drastically suppressed (by bilirubin) tissue accumulation of ROS, respectively. A low dose of LPS (10?g/kg) caused a typical triphasic fever in both genotypes, without any intergenotype differences. A high dose of LPS (1,000?g/kg) caused a complex response consisting of early hypothermia followed by late fever. The hypothermic response was markedly exaggerated, whereas the subsequent fever response was strongly attenuated in J/J rats, as compared to J/+ rats. J/J rats also tended to respond to 1,000?g/kg with blunted surges in plasma levels of all hepatic enzymes studied (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase), thus suggesting an attenuation of hepatic damage. We propose that the reported exaggeration of LPS-induced hypothermia in J/J rats occurs via direct inhibition of nonshivering thermogenesis by bilirubin and possibly via a direct vasodilatatory action of bilirubin in the skin. This hypothermia-exaggerating effect might be responsible, at least in part, for the observed tendency of J/J rats to be protected from LPS-induced hepatic damage. The attenuation of the fever response to 1,000?g/kg could be due to either direct actions of bilirubin on thermoeffectors or the ROS-scavenging action of bilirubin. However, the experiments with 10?g/kg strongly suggest that ROS signaling is not involved in the fever response to low doses of LPS. PMID:25774749

  3. Endotoxins in indoor air and settled dust in primary schools in a subtropical climate.

    PubMed

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-09-01

    Endotoxins can significantly affect the air quality in school environments. However, there is currently no reliable method for the measurement of endotoxins, and there is a lack of reference values for endotoxin concentrations to aid in the interpretation of measurement results in school settings. We benchmarked the "baseline" range of endotoxin concentration in indoor air, together with endotoxin load in floor dust, and evaluated the correlation between endotoxin levels in indoor air and settled dust, as well as the effects of temperature and humidity on these levels in subtropical school settings. Bayesian hierarchical modeling indicated that the concentration in indoor air and the load in floor dust were generally (<95th percentile) <13 EU/m(3) and <24,570 EU/m(2), respectively. Exceeding these levels would indicate abnormal sources of endotoxins in the school environment and the need for further investigation. Metaregression indicated no relationship between endotoxin concentration and load, which points to the necessity for measuring endotoxin levels in both the air and settled dust. Temperature increases were associated with lower concentrations in indoor air and higher loads in floor dust. Higher levels of humidity may be associated with lower airborne endotoxin concentrations. PMID:23927534

  4. Endotoxin inactivation via steam-heat treatment in dilute simethicone emulsions used in biopharmaceutical processes.

    PubMed

    Britt, Keith A; Galvin, Jeffrey; Gammell, Patrick; Nti-Gyabaah, Joseph; Boras, George; Kolwyck, David; Ramirez, José G; Presente, Esther; Naugle, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Simethicone emulsion is used to regulate foaming in cell culture operations in biopharmaceutical processes. It is also a potential source of endotoxin contamination. The inactivation of endotoxins in dilute simethicone emulsions was assessed as a function of time at different steam temperatures using a Limulus amebocyte lysate kinetic chromogenic technique. Endotoxin inactivation from steam-heat treatment was fit to a four-parameter double exponential decay model, which indicated that endotoxin inactivation was biphasic, consisting of fast and slow regimes. In the fast regime, temperature-related effects were dominant. Transitioning into the slow regime, the observed temperature dependence diminished, and concentration-related effects became increasingly significant. The change in the Gibbs free energy moving through the transition state indicated that a large energy barrier must be overcome for endotoxin inactivation to occur. The corresponding Arrhenius pre-exponential factor was >10(12) s(-1) suggesting that endotoxins in aqueous solution exist as aggregates. The disorder associated with the endotoxin inactivation reaction pathway was assessed via the change in entropy moving through the transition state. This quantity was positive indicating that endotoxin inactivation may result from hydrolysis of individual endotoxin molecules, which perturbs the conformation of endotoxin aggregates, thereby modulating the biological activity observed. Steam-heat treatment decreased endotoxin levels by 1-2 logarithm (log) reduction (LRV), which may be practically relevant depending on incoming raw material endotoxin levels. Antifoam efficiency and cell culture performance were negligibly impacted following steam-heat treatment. The results from this study show that steam-heat treatment is a viable endotoxin control strategy that can be implemented to support large-scale biopharmaceutical manufacturing. PMID:24623631

  5. Determination of endotoxin in injectable antibiotic preparations by the chromogenic assay method using a Limulus reagent (Tachypleus hemocyte lysate) and a chromogenic substrate.

    PubMed Central

    Yano, S; Hotta, Y; Takahashi, S

    1986-01-01

    The effects of 50 antibiotics on the detection and determination of bacterial endotoxins by the chromogenic method using a Limulus reagent (Tachypleus hemocyte lysate) and a chromogenic substrate of p-nitroaniline derivatives were tested, and the antibiotic concentration for 50% inhibition of the chromogenic reaction in the presence of 0.5 ng of endotoxin (Escherichia coli 0111:B4) per ml was estimated. All the antibiotic preparations were depyrogenized by ultrafiltration treatment before they were subjected to the test. The reaction was conducted in the presence of a high concentration (0.5 M) of Tris buffer to constantly maintain the pH of the reaction mixture, and liberated p-nitroaniline was determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Several aminoglycosides (amikacin, bekanamycin, kanamycin, and streptomycin sulfate), bleomycin hydrochloride, and fosfomycin disodium showed no inhibition of the reaction up to 20 mg/ml. However, other antibiotics, including penicillins, cephalosporins, macrolides, and tetracyclines, inhibited the reaction concentration dependently. Polymyxin B sulfate was the most potent inhibitor, with less than 8 micrograms/ml for 50% inhibition. It was concluded that the chromogenic method can be applied to the detection and determination of endotoxin in most of the antibiotic preparations. An application of this method to carbenicillin disodium preparations was exemplified. PMID:3700595

  6. Rat area postrema microglial cells act as sensors for the toll-like receptor-4 agonist lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Wuchert, Florian; Ott, Daniala; Murgott, Jolanta; Rafalzik, Sandra; Hitzel, Norma; Roth, Joachim; Gerstberger, Rüdiger

    2008-11-15

    The area postrema (AP) represents the sensory circumventricular organ lacking endothelial blood-brain barrier function in direct vicinity to the 4th cerebral ventricle. Administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as opposed to muramyldipeptide (MDP) or fibroblast-stimulating lipopeptide-1 (FSL-1), caused fast transient rises in intracellular calcium concentrations in 10-12% of the microglial cells investigated in a primary microculture of the rat AP,with limited responses of neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In addition, a marked release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 was determined in LPS-treated AP microcultures. Pre-incubation of AP microcultures with LPS for 18 h suppressed LPS-induced calcium signaling and attenuated cytokine secretion. Evidently, the AP can act as a sensor for circulating LPS and has the capacity to develop endotoxin-tolerance. PMID:18786731

  7. Endotoxin-induced skeletal muscle wasting is prevented by angiotensin-(1-7) through a p38 MAPK-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Morales, María Gabriela; Olguín, Hugo; Di Capua, Gabriella; Brandan, Enrique; Simon, Felipe; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio

    2015-09-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy induced during sepsis syndrome produced by endotoxin in the form of LPS (lipopolysaccharide), is a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass, an increase in MHC (myosin heavy chain) degradation, and an increase in the expression of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 (muscle-specific RING-finger protein 1), two ubiquitin E3 ligases belonging to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Ang-(1-7) [Angiotensin-(1-7)], through its Mas receptor, has beneficial effects in skeletal muscle. We evaluated in vivo the role of Ang-(1-7) and Mas receptor on the muscle wasting induced by LPS injection into C57BL/10J mice. In vitro studies were performed in murine C2C12 myotubes and isolated myofibres from EDL (extensor digitorum longus) muscle. In addition, the participation of p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) in the Ang-(1-7) effect on the LPS-induced muscle atrophy was evaluated. Our results show that Ang-(1-7) prevents the decrease in the diameter of myofibres and myotubes, the decrease in muscle strength, the diminution in MHC levels and the induction of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expression, all of which are induced by LPS. These effects were reversed by using A779, a Mas antagonist. Ang-(1-7) exerts these anti-atrophic effects at least in part by inhibiting the LPS-dependent activation of p38 MAPK both in vitro and in vivo. We have demonstrated for the first time that Ang-(1-7) counteracts the skeletal muscle atrophy induced by endotoxin through a mechanism dependent on the Mas receptor that involves a decrease in p38 MAPK phosphorylation. The present study indicates that Ang-(1-7) is a novel molecule with a potential therapeutic use to improve muscle wasting during endotoxin-induced sepsis syndrome. PMID:25989282

  8. Determination of endotoxin by the measurement of the acetylated methyl glycoside derivative of Kdo with gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rybka, J; Gamian, A

    2006-02-01

    A gas-liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GLC-MS) method was applied to the detection of 3-deoxy-d-manno-2-octulosonic acid (Kdo), a constituent of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin). Samples containing LPS were dried, methanolyzed with 2 M HCl in methanol at 60 degrees C for 1 h and acetylated with acetic anhydride and pyridine (1:1, v/v) solution at 100 degrees C for 30 min, then the products were analyzed by GLC-MS or GLC-MSMS. Four acetylated methylglycoside methyl ester derivatives of Kdo are formed in these conditions, namely one with pyranose ring (Kdo1), two derivatives in the furanose form (Kdo2 and 3) and one derivative of anhydro Kdo (Kdo4), as results from their mass fragmentation patterns. Synthetic Kdo produced mainly Kdo4 derivative, whereas Kdo1 of pyranose ring shape was the predominating derivative formed from LPS. The ion fragment of m/z 375 was selected for the specific detection of this Kdo1 derivative, which might be applied for the endotoxin determination. That approach was used for the analysis of preparations of bacteria, bacteriophages and samples of animal sera. In order to ensure the removal of phosphate substitutions from Kdo, methanolyzed samples can be treated with alkaline phosphatase (2.6 U, pH 9.2, 37 degrees C, 15 min), what was elaborated on Vibrio LPS preparation. PMID:15932775

  9. Lipopolysaccharide-induced production of tumour necrosis factor and interleukin-1 is differentially regulated at the receptor level: the role of CD14-dependent and CD14-independent pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Netea, M G; Kullberg, B J; van der Meer, J W

    1998-01-01

    Cytokine production induced via CD14-dependent and CD14-independent pathways was investigated in mouse peritoneal macrophages incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipid A. Different LPS receptors appear to be responsible for production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and IL-1 beta. TNF-alpha production is essentially CD14 dependent, both in the presence or absence of plasma. In the presence of plasma, endotoxin-induced IL-1 production is mediated by CD14-dependent mechanisms, while in its absence both CD14-dependent and CD14-independent pathways are involved. Lipid A stimulates cytokine synthesis through both CD14-dependent and CD14-independent mechanisms, but its action is weaker than that of LPS, indicating that the polysaccharide moiety may be necessary for proper stimulation of mouse macrophages by endotoxin. PMID:9767415

  10. Protective effects of erythropoietin on endotoxin-related organ injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-jiang; Zhang, Guo-xing; Sun, Ni; Sun, Yu; Yang, Li-zhi; Du, Yu-jun

    2013-10-01

    The protective effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on tissues following ischemia and reperfusion injuries remains poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the effect of EPO in preventing endotoxin-induced organ damage. Rat model of multiple organ failure (MOF) was established by tail vein injection of 10 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Recombinant human EPO treatment (5000 U/kg) was administered by tail vein injection at 30 min after LPS challenge. Twenty-four h after EPO treatment, changes in serum enzyme levels, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr), were evaluated by biochemical analysis. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were determined by using immunoradiometric assay. Histological examination of tissue sections was carried out by hematoxylin and eosin staining, while ultrastructure evaluation of organ tissues was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Protein expression levels were detected by using Western blotting. EPO treatment showed a modest effect in preventing LPS-induced elevation of AST, ALT, BUN, Cr, and TNF-? levels, and in protecting against LPS-induced tissue degeneration and injured ultrastructure in the lung, liver, and kidney. Moreover, LPS promoted phosphorylation of alanine aminotransferase (AKT) and increased nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation in the lung, liver, and kidney (P<0.05 vs. control). However, EPO treatment significantly decreased the LPS-induced pAKT up-regulation in these tissues (P<0.05 vs. LPS treatment alone). The present study demonstrates that EPO may play a protective role against LPS-induced MOF by reducing the inflammatory response and tissue degeneration, possibly via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT and NF-?B signaling pathways. PMID:24142720

  11. Prevention of Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis in Rats by Plant Sterol Guggulsterone

    PubMed Central

    Kalariya, Nilesh M.; Shoeb, Mohammad; Reddy, Aramati B. M.; Zhang, Min; van Kuijk, Frederik J. G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of guggulsterone, an antioxidant and antitumor agent, in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism or mechanisms related to ocular inflammation. Methods. EIU was induced by subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 μg) into Lewis rats treated with guggulsterone (30 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) or its carrier. After 24 hours the rats were killed, eyes were enucleated, and aqueous humor (AqH) was collected. Numbers of infiltrating cells and levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), nitric oxide (NO), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined in AqH by specific ELISAs. An antibody array was used to measure the expression of various inflammatory cytokines in AqH. The expression of MMP-2, iNOS, Cox-2, phospho-IκB, and phospho-NF-κB was determined immunohistochemically. Human primary nonpigment ciliary epithelial cells (HNPECs) were used to determine the in vitro efficacy of guggulsterone on the LPS-induced inflammatory response. Results. Compared with control, the EIU rat eye AqH had a significantly higher number of infiltrating cells, total protein, and inflammatory markers, such as MMP-2, NO, and PGE2, and the treatment of guggulsterone prevented EIU-induced increases. Guggulsterone also prevented the expression of MMP-2, iNOS, and Cox-2 proteins and of IκB and NF-κB in various eye tissues. Moreover, in cultured HNPECs, guggulsterone inhibited LPS-induced expression of inflammatory proteins. Conclusions. These results for the first time demonstrate that the plant sterol guggulsterone suppresses ocular inflammation in EIU, suggesting that the supplementation of guggulsterone could be a novel approach for the treatment of ocular inflammation. PMID:20435582

  12. Neutrophil CD18 expression and blockade after traumatic shock and endotoxin challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, T C; Croce, M A; Stewart, R M; Dockter, M E; Proctor, K G

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The expression of the leukocyte CD18 adhesion complex on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was measured, and the physiologic effects of blockade of the complex were studied after trauma and sepsis. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Margination of PMNs occurs early during inflammation and depends, in part, on expression of the CD18 adhesion complex. Blockade of this adherence complex can reduce PMN-mediated damage. This study tests the hypothesis that PMN activation after resuscitated trauma produces an occult endothelial injury that increases the vulnerability to a delayed inflammatory stimulus. METHODS: Anesthetized (fentanyl) mongrel pigs were sham injured or fluid resuscitated from soft tissue injury +35% hemorrhage. Systemic blood was collected at 24-hour intervals from awake animals. The CD18 density on circulating PMNs was determined with flow cytometry using mean channel fluorescence (MCF). The CD18 receptors were blocked with monoclonal antibodies either immediately before trauma or immediately before an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) challenge that was administered to all groups 3 days after the shock episode. Bronchoscopy was performed before trauma, pre-LPS, and post-LPS, and protein content was measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). RESULTS: Mean channel fluorescence was reduced on PMNs for 48 hours in animals with trauma versus animals with sham injuries. Anti-CD18 therapy produced higher circulating PMN counts compared with nontreated sham or shock groups. The incremental rise of BAL protein after shock was prevented with anti-CD18; the increment after LPS was attenuated. Anti-CD18 was administered before trauma and reduced the fluids necessary to maintain cardiac filling pressures after LPS. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that PMNs are activated after resuscitation from traumatic shock and that these cells produce an endothelial injury that may increase the vulnerability to a septic challenge. The broad implication is that temporarily blocking PMN adhesiveness at the time of trauma might salvage some host tissue and reduce the incidence of septic complications in the post-trauma period. PMID:7944665

  13. Therapeutic Effects of Procainamide on Endotoxin-Induced Rhabdomyolysis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chih-Chin; Hii, Hiong-Ping; Tsao, Cheng-Ming; Chen, Shiu-Jen; Ka, Shuk-Man; Liao, Mei-Hui; Wu, Chin-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Overt systemic inflammatory response is a predisposing mechanism for infection-induced skeletal muscle damage and rhabdomyolysis. Aberrant DNA methylation plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of excessive inflammatory response. The antiarrhythmic drug procainamide is a non-nucleoside inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) used to alleviate DNA hypermethylation. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of procainamide on the syndromes and complications of rhabdomyolysis rats induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rhabdomyolysis animal model was established by intravenous infusion of LPS (5 mg/kg) accompanied by procainamide therapy (50 mg/kg). During the experimental period, the changes of hemodynamics, muscle injury index, kidney function, blood gas, blood electrolytes, blood glucose, and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were examined. Kidneys and lungs were exercised to analyze superoxide production, neutrophil infiltration, and DNMTs expression. The rats in this model showed similar clinical syndromes and complications of rhabdomyolysis including high levels of plasma creatine kinase, acute kidney injury, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, metabolic acidosis, hypotension, tachycardia, and hypoglycemia. The increases of lung DNMT1 expression and plasma IL-6 concentration were also observed in rhabdomyolysis animals induced by LPS. Treatment with procainamide not only inhibited the overexpression of DNMT1 but also diminished the overproduction of IL-6 in rhabdomyolysis rats. In addition, procainamide improved muscle damage, renal dysfunction, electrolytes disturbance, metabolic acidosis, hypotension, and hypoglycemia in the rats with rhabdomyolysis. Moreover, another DNMT inhibitor hydralazine mitigated hypoglycemia, muscle damage, and renal dysfunction in rhabdomyolysis rats. These findings reveal that therapeutic effects of procainamide could be based on the suppression of DNMT1 and pro-inflammatory cytokine in endotoxin-induced rhabdomyolysis. PMID:26918767

  14. Alkaline phosphatases contribute to uterine receptivity, implantation, decidualization and defense against bacterial endotoxin in hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Wei; Nguyen, Heidi; Brown, Naoko; Ni, Hua; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Reese, Jeff; Millán, José Luis; Paria, Bibhash C.

    2013-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity has been demonstrated in the uterus of several species, but its importance in the uterus, in general and during pregnancy, is yet to be revealed. In this study, we focused on identifying AP isozyme types, and their hormonal regulation, cell-type and event-specific expression and possible functions in the hamster uterus during the cycle and early pregnancy. Our RT-PCR and in situ hybridization studies demonstrated that among the known Akp2, Akp3, Akp5 and Akp6 murine AP isozyme genes, hamster uteri express only Akp2 and Akp6; and both genes are co-expressed in luminal epithelial cells. Studies in cyclic and ovariectomized hamsters established that while progesterone is the major uterine Akp2 inducer, both progesterone and estrogen are strong Akp6 regulators. Studies in preimplantation uteri showed induction of both genes and the activity of their encoded isozymes in luminal epithelial cells during uterine receptivity. However, at the beginning of implantation, Akp2 showed reduced expression in luminal epithelial cells surrounding the implanted embryo. In contrast, expression of Akp6 and its isozyme was maintained in luminal epithelial cells adjacent to, but not away from, the implanted embryo. Following implantation, stromal transformation to decidua was associated with induced expressions of only Akp2 and its isozyme. We next demonstrated that uterine APs dephosphorylate and detoxify endotoxin lipopolysaccharide at their sites of production and activity. Taken together, our findings suggest that uterine APs contribute to uterine receptivity, implantation, and decidualization in addition to their role in protection of the uterus and pregnancy against bacterial infection. PMID:23929901

  15. Application of thrombelastography in liver injury induced by endotoxin in rat.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsin-Jung; Tsao, Cheng-Ming; Liao, Mei-Hui; Ka, Shuk-Man; Liaw, Wen-Jinn; Wu, Chin-Chen

    2012-03-01

    Liver injury developing in patients with sepsis may lead to an increased risk of mortality. Thrombelastography (TEG) is generally applied to evaluate hemostatic disturbance in patients undergoing liver transplantation or cardiopulmonary bypass. The aim of this study was to investigate the development of liver injury and coagulopathy in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced animal model and to assess the relationship between TEG variables and liver injury. Male Wistar rats received LPS (30  mg/kg over a 4-h intravenous infusion) to induce experimental liver injury or isotonic saline as a control. Variables of hemodynamics and liver biochemistry were measured during the subsequent 6 h after the start of infusion. TEG variables (R-time, K-time, α-angle and maximal amplitude), thrombin-antithrombin complex and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were also measured. After LPS infusion, liver injury [examined by biochemical variables (e.g. alanine aminotransferase, ALT) and histological studies] was developed and inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6) were raised. At the initial period of LPS infusion, R-time was shortened and α-angle was increased. Thereafter, α-angle and maximal amplitude were decreased progressively, demonstrating that endotoxin induced coagulation disturbances. Furthermore, there were strong positive correlation between K-time and natural log (Ln)(ALT) (r = 0.823, P = 0.001); also, there were strong negative correlations between α-angle and Ln(ALT) (r = -0.762, P = 0.002) as well as maximal amplitude and Ln(ALT) (r = -0.732, P = 0.004) at 6 h after LPS infusion. These results demonstrated that TEG could be a potential tool to evaluate the development of liver injury in endotoxemia. PMID:22227956

  16. Therapeutic Effects of Procainamide on Endotoxin-Induced Rhabdomyolysis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Chih-Chin; Hii, Hiong-Ping; Tsao, Cheng-Ming; Chen, Shiu-Jen; Ka, Shuk-Man; Liao, Mei-Hui; Wu, Chin-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Overt systemic inflammatory response is a predisposing mechanism for infection-induced skeletal muscle damage and rhabdomyolysis. Aberrant DNA methylation plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of excessive inflammatory response. The antiarrhythmic drug procainamide is a non-nucleoside inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) used to alleviate DNA hypermethylation. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of procainamide on the syndromes and complications of rhabdomyolysis rats induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rhabdomyolysis animal model was established by intravenous infusion of LPS (5 mg/kg) accompanied by procainamide therapy (50 mg/kg). During the experimental period, the changes of hemodynamics, muscle injury index, kidney function, blood gas, blood electrolytes, blood glucose, and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were examined. Kidneys and lungs were exercised to analyze superoxide production, neutrophil infiltration, and DNMTs expression. The rats in this model showed similar clinical syndromes and complications of rhabdomyolysis including high levels of plasma creatine kinase, acute kidney injury, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, metabolic acidosis, hypotension, tachycardia, and hypoglycemia. The increases of lung DNMT1 expression and plasma IL-6 concentration were also observed in rhabdomyolysis animals induced by LPS. Treatment with procainamide not only inhibited the overexpression of DNMT1 but also diminished the overproduction of IL-6 in rhabdomyolysis rats. In addition, procainamide improved muscle damage, renal dysfunction, electrolytes disturbance, metabolic acidosis, hypotension, and hypoglycemia in the rats with rhabdomyolysis. Moreover, another DNMT inhibitor hydralazine mitigated hypoglycemia, muscle damage, and renal dysfunction in rhabdomyolysis rats. These findings reveal that therapeutic effects of procainamide could be based on the suppression of DNMT1 and pro-inflammatory cytokine in endotoxin-induced rhabdomyolysis. PMID:26918767

  17. Hyperbilirubinemia exaggerates endotoxin-induced hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Pakai, Eszter; Garami, Andras; Nucci, Tatiane B; Ivanov, Andrei I; Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2015-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is accompanied by an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and by either fever or hypothermia (or both). To study aseptic systemic inflammation, it is often induced in rats by the intravenous administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Knowing that bilirubin is a potent ROS scavenger, we compared responses to LPS between normobilirubinemic Gunn rats (heterozygous, asymptomatic; J/+) and hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rats (homozygous, jaundiced; J/J) to establish whether ROS mediate fever and hypothermia in aseptic systemic inflammation. These two genotypes correspond to undisturbed versus drastically suppressed (by bilirubin) tissue accumulation of ROS, respectively. A low dose of LPS (10 μg/kg) caused a typical triphasic fever in both genotypes, without any intergenotype differences. A high dose of LPS (1,000 μg/kg) caused a complex response consisting of early hypothermia followed by late fever. The hypothermic response was markedly exaggerated, whereas the subsequent fever response was strongly attenuated in J/J rats, as compared to J/+ rats. J/J rats also tended to respond to 1,000 μg/kg with blunted surges in plasma levels of all hepatic enzymes studied (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase), thus suggesting an attenuation of hepatic damage. We propose that the reported exaggeration of LPS-induced hypothermia in J/J rats occurs via direct inhibition of nonshivering thermogenesis by bilirubin and possibly via a direct vasodilatatory action of bilirubin in the skin. This hypothermia-exaggerating effect might be responsible, at least in part, for the observed tendency of J/J rats to be protected from LPS-induced hepatic damage. The attenuation of the fever response to 1,000 μg/kg could be due to either direct actions of bilirubin on thermoeffectors or the ROS-scavenging action of bilirubin. However, the experiments with 10 μg/kg strongly suggest that ROS signaling is not involved in the fever response to low doses of LPS. PMID:25774749

  18. Use of indium-111 oxine to study pulmonary and hepatic leukocyte sequestration in endotoxin shock and effects of the beta-2 receptor agonist terbutaline

    SciTech Connect

    Sigurdsson, G.H.; Christenson, J.T.; al-Mousawi, M.; Owunwanne, A. )

    1989-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of indium-111 oxine-labeled leukocytes was simultaneously recorded in multiple organs during endotoxin shock in sheep. Also, the effects of the beta-2 receptor agonist terbutaline were studied. An experimental protocol was designed to mimic a clinical condition in an intensive care setting as far as possible. The animals were ventilated with 50% oxygen to avoid hypoxemia and were given large amounts of intravenous fluids to reduce adverse effects of hypovolemia. A moderate dose of E. coli endotoxin (10 micrograms/kg bwt) was given by intravenous infusion to 14 adult sheep, seven of them receiving continuous intravenous infusion of terbutaline (20 micrograms/kg/hr) during 4 hr, starting 30 min after endotoxin, when signs of lung injury had developed. The other seven acted as controls. A marked pulmonary and hepatic leukocyte sequestration together with a sharp drop in leukocyte counts in peripheral blood occurred within minutes after start of the endotoxin infusion in both groups. However, no changes were observed in the kidneys or the gut. After 60 min and until the end of the experiment, there was a significantly lower activity in the lungs and in the liver of the animals treated with terbutaline than in the controls (P less than .01). Furthermore, less marked hemodynamic and respiratory alterations occurred in the terbutaline group compared with the controls. This study confirms the results of other investigators showing that significant leukocyte sequestration occurs in the lungs during endotoxemia, but it also demonstrates that leukocytes sequestrate in the liver, although slightly less than in the lungs.

  19. Endotoxin contamination: a key element in the interpretation of nanosafety studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Boraschi, Diana

    2016-02-01

    The study of toxicity and potential risks of engineered nanoparticles is of particular importance in nanomedicine. Endotoxin, a common contaminant of bacterial origin, has biological effects that can mask the true biological effects of nanoparticles, if its presence is overlooked. In this review, we report the features of nanoparticle contamination by endotoxin, and the different biological effects of endotoxin-contaminated nanoparticles. We will describe different methods for endotoxin detection applied to nanoparticles, and discuss their pros and cons. Eventually, we describe various methods for eliminating endotoxin contamination in nanoparticles. Although there is no universal technique for efficiently removing endotoxin from nanoparticles, specific solutions can be found case by case, which can allow us to perform nanosafety studies in biologically relevant conditions. PMID:26787429

  20. Involvement of the membrane form of tumour necrosis factor-alpha in lipopolysaccharide-induced priming of mouse peritoneal macrophages for enhanced nitric oxide response to lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Ancuta, P; Fahmi, H; Pons, J F; Le Blay, K; Chaby, R

    1997-01-01

    We studied the pathways of macrophage response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). When mouse macrophages pre-exposed to LPS were restimulated with this agent, reduced tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) responses (desensitization/endotoxin tolerance) were accompanied by increased (priming) nitric oxide (NO) responses. Priming was also inducible with recombinant interferon-beta (IFN-beta). The requirement of TNF-alpha biosynthesis in the LPS-induced priming was also suggested by the observation that both anti-TNF-alpha serum and pentoxifylline inhibited this effect. However, addition of mouse recombinant TNF-alpha (mrTNF-alpha) did not enhance the priming induced by LPS or IFN-beta, and preincubation with mrTNF-alpha alone, or in association with other cytokines produced by macrophages (interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, or leukaemia inhibitory factor), did not induce a priming effect. We found however, that pentoxifylline, which blocked the priming, also decreased the level of membrane-bound TNF-alpha. Furthermore, exposure to compound BB-3103 (a metalloproteinase inhibitor that blocks the processing of membrane-bound TNF-alpha yielding to the secreted cytokine) enhanced the priming effect, the expression of membrane TNF-alpha and the specific binding of LPS. These observations suggest that the membrane form of TNF-alpha is involved in the interaction of LPS with a receptor required for LPS-induced priming. PMID:9415035

  1. Short communication: Ovine leukocyte telomere length is associated with variation in the cortisol response to systemic bacterial endotoxin challenge.

    PubMed

    Yip, L; Oh, S Y; Li, Z; You, Q; Quinton, V M; Gilchrist, G C; Karrow, N A

    2016-04-01

    Stress has been associated with biological aging and numerous age-related diseases. This may be due, in part, to accelerated shortening of telomeres, which are critical genomic structures that cap and protect chromosomal ends. Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may indirectly contribute to telomere shortening if an animal reacts too strongly or weakly to a stressor, leading to accelerated biological aging. In this study, outbred Rideau-Arcott sheep were stress challenged with Escherichia coli endotoxin and classified as high, middle, or low cortisol responders to investigate a potential relationship between cortisol response and age, and telomere length. In the present study, no association was found between age and telomere length. The study, however, revealed shorter telomeres in high and low cortisol responders compared with the middle cortisol responders, which suggests that health and longevity may be compromised in extreme high- and low-stress-responding sheep. PMID:26805999

  2. Indoor Pollutant Exposures Modify the Effect of Airborne Endotoxin on Asthma in Urban Children

    PubMed Central

    Hansel, Nadia N.; Aloe, Charles; Schiltz, Allison M.; Peng, Roger D.; Rabinovitch, Nathan; Ong, Mary Jane; Williams, D’Ann L.; Breysse, Patrick N.; Diette, Gregory B.; Liu, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: The effect of endotoxin on asthma morbidity in urban populations is unclear. Objectives: To determine if indoor pollutant exposure modifies the relationships between indoor airborne endotoxin and asthma health and morbidity. Methods: One hundred forty-six children and adolescents with persistent asthma underwent repeated clinical assessments at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Home visits were conducted at the same time points for assessment of airborne nicotine, endotoxin, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations. The effect of concomitant pollutant exposure on relationships between endotoxin and asthma outcomes were examined in stratified analyses and statistical models with interaction terms. Measurements and Main Results: Both air nicotine and NO2 concentrations modified the relationships between airborne endotoxin and asthma outcomes. Among children living in homes with no detectable air nicotine, higher endotoxin was inversely associated with acute visits and oral corticosteroid bursts, whereas among those in homes with detectable air nicotine, endotoxin was positively associated with these outcomes (interaction P value = 0.004 and 0.07, respectively). Among children living in homes with lower NO2 concentrations (<20 ppb), higher endotoxin was positively associated with acute visits, whereas among those living in homes with higher NO2 concentrations, endotoxin was negatively associated with acute visit (interaction P value = 0.05). NO2 also modified the effect of endotoxin on asthma symptom outcomes in a similar manner. Conclusions: The effects of household airborne endotoxin exposure on asthma are modified by coexposure to air nicotine and NO2, and these pollutants have opposite effects on the relationships between endotoxin and asthma-related outcomes. PMID:24066676

  3. Abrogation of Nuclear Factor-κB Activation Is Involved in Zinc Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Production and Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhanxiang; Wang, Lipeng; Song, Zhenyuan; Saari, Jack T.; McClain, Craig J.; James Kang, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) release from Kupffer cells is critically involved in the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced liver injury. We recently reported that inhibition of alcohol-induced plasma endotoxin elevation contributes to the protective action of zinc against alcoholic hepatotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to determine whether zinc interferes with the endotoxin-TNF-α signaling pathway, and possible mechanism(s) by which zinc modulates the endotoxin-TNF-α signaling. Administration of LPS to metallothionein (MT)-knockout (MT-KO) mice and 129/Sv wild-type (WT) controls at 4 mg/kg induced hepatic TNF-α elevation at 1.5 hours, followed by liver injury at 3 hours. Zinc pretreatment (two doses at 5 mg/kg) attenuated TNF-α production and liver injury in both MT-KO and WT mice, indicating a MT-independent action of zinc. Immunohistochemical detection of the phosphorylation of I-κB and nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the liver of MT-KO mice demonstrated that zinc pretreatment abrogated LPS-induced NF-κB activation in the Kupffer cells. Fluorescent microscopy of superoxide by dihydroethidine and of zinc ions by Zinquin in the liver of MT-KO mice showed that zinc pretreatment increased the intracellular labile zinc ions and inhibited LPS-induced superoxide generation. These results demonstrate that zinc inhibits LPS-induced hepatic TNF-α production through abrogation of oxidative stress-sensitive NF-κB pathway, and the action of zinc is independent of MT. Thus, zinc may be beneficial in the treatment of LPS-induced liver injuries, such as sepsis and alcoholism. PMID:15111301

  4. Isolation of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli from a South American Camelid (Lama guanicoe) with Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, E. C.; Rodríguez, S. M.; Elizondo, A. M.; Marcoppido, G.; Parreño, V.

    2004-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli belonging to serotype O26:H11 was isolated from a 2-month-old guanaco with severe watery diarrhea. E. coli colonies carried the stx1 and eae genes, showed localized adherence to HEp-2 cells, and produced enterohemolysin. A serological response to lipopolysaccharide O26 was observed at the onset of diarrhea. PMID:15472347

  5. Isolation of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from a South American camelid (Lama guanicoe) with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Mercado, E C; Rodríguez, S M; Elizondo, A M; Marcoppido, G; Parreño, V

    2004-10-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli belonging to serotype O26:H11 was isolated from a 2-month-old guanaco with severe watery diarrhea. E. coli colonies carried the stx1 and eae genes, showed localized adherence to HEp-2 cells, and produced enterohemolysin. A serological response to lipopolysaccharide O26 was observed at the onset of diarrhea. PMID:15472347

  6. Relationship between bacterial counts and endotoxin concentrations in the air of wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed Central

    Laitinen, S; Nevalainen, A; Kotimaa, M; Liesivuori, J; Martikainen, P J

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between bacterial counts and endotoxin concentrations in air samples was studied. Selective EMB medium favored the growth of a larger portion of airborne gram-negative bacteria than LES Endo or MacConkey medium and was a good predictor of the endotoxin levels determined with a chromogenic Limulus assay of the air of wastewater treatment plants. The bacterial counts determined with nonselective media correlated poorly with airborne endotoxin levels; however, R2A medium yielded higher viable bacterial counts than TYG medium. Direct counting by epifluorescence microscopy yielded the highest bacterial counts, but no correlation was obtained between total bacterial counts and endotoxin concentrations. PMID:1482197

  7. Detection of bacterial endotoxin in drinking tap and bottled water in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Abdulraheem, Abdulkareem; Mustafa, Seham; Al-Saffar, Nabeel; Shahjahan, Muhammed

    2012-12-01

    This study was carried out to measure and compare the concentration of bacterial endotoxin in a variety of samples from drinking tap and bottled water available in Kuwait by using the Limulus Amoebocyte lysate test. A total of 29 samples were tested. Samples were collected from a variety of locations throughout the six governorates of Kuwait and 23 brands of local and imported bottled water samples were collected from the local market. The concentration of bacterial endotoxin was measured by using the standard Limulus Amoebocyte lysate test, gel clot method. This study showed that measured endotoxin concentrations in tap drinking water varied from 2.4 to 33.8 EU/ml with the average endotoxin concentration of 14.2 EU/ml. While the results of endotoxin concentrations in the bottled water were <0.03 to 20.1 EU/ml with an average of 1.96 EU/ml. The average concentration of endotoxin in bottled water is 13.5 % of the average concentration of endotoxin in tap drinking water. This experimental investigation has proved that drinking bottled water has less endotoxin as compared to tap water in Kuwait. It is also demonstrated that the endotoxin concentration did not exceed the acceptable level in drinking tap water. PMID:22270589

  8. Protection against hyperoxia by serum from endotoxin treated rats: absence of superoxide dismutase induction

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J.T.; Smith, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Endotoxin greatly reduces lung injury and pleural effusions in adult rats exposed to normobaric hyperoxia (> 98% oxygen for 60 hours). This study reports that serum from endotoxin treated donor rats protects serum recipients against hyperoxic lung injury without altering lung superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Rats pretreated with endotoxin alone were protected and exhibited an increase in lung SOD activity as previously reported by others. Protection by serum was not due to the transfer of residual endotoxin or SOD. These results show, that protection from oxygen toxicity can occur in rats without an increase in lung SOD and suggest that a serum factor may be involved.

  9. Comparison of endotoxin levels in cow's milk samples derived from farms and shops.

    PubMed

    Sipka, Sándor; Béres, Andrea; Bertók, Lóránd; Varga, Tamara; Bruckner, Geza

    2015-07-01

    The observations on the protective effect of bacterial endotoxin in farm-derived cow's milk on childhood asthma and allergy are contradictory. The aim of this study was to determine the endotoxin levels in 'farm-derived whole raw' and 'processed shop' sources of cow's milk, and to test how the temperature and storing conditions might alter their endotoxin concentrations. Milk was collected from farms and shops. The level of endotoxin was measured by micro (gel-clot) Limulus amebocyte lysate test expressed as EU/ml. The concentration ranges of endotoxin were much higher and more widely scattered in the samples of whole raw farm milk than in the processed shop milk. Cold storage or heating increased the endotoxin concentrations in all samples of farm milk, but not in the processed shop milk. These results show that elevated levels of endotoxin in raw farm milk samples can occur from the cowshed or be formed during storage. In processed shop milk, storage does not cause any changes in the amount of endotoxin. Therefore, it is consistent that the handling and storage of raw milk alters the endotoxin concentrations, which may explain previous contradictory findings regarding the beneficial modulating effects on innate immunity toward allergy prevention in early childhood. PMID:25527628

  10. Monoclonal antibodies against Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, B; Rosén, A; Holme, T

    1982-01-01

    A cell line producing monoclonal antibodies directed against the core region of Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide has been established. These antibodies were inhibited by lipopolysaccharide preparations of both O-group 1 vibrios and some non-O-group 1 vibrios as detected in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-inhibition experiments. Coagglutination experiments with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies adsorbed to protein A-carrying staphylococci were performed. All V. cholerae strains tested, regardless of serotype, were agglutinated when mixed with staphylococci coated with the monoclonal antibodies, whereas staphylococci coated with group-specific (O1) polyclonal antibodies only agglutinated with O-group 1 vibrios. Images PMID:6183214

  11. Opsonizing antibodies, host factors, and the limulus assay for endotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Young, L S

    1975-01-01

    The role of endotoxin in the pathophysiology of human gram-negative rod bacteremia is controversial. Gelation of lysates prepared from the amebocytes of Limulus polyphemus is a highly sensitive means for quantifying endotoxin-like activity in vitro, but variable results have been reported in several clinical studies. We performed limulus tests on plasmas obtained simultaneously with culture-positive blood from 68 patients with gram-negative bacteremia and related results to heat-stable opsonizing activity against the autologous infection strain. Overall, limulus positivity was 52% in this series. Positive tests were observed with 78% of plasmas with opsonic titers is less than or greater to 1:20 but with only 27% of plasmas whose titers were is greater than or equal to 1:80 (P less than 0.005). There was a strong association of positive tests with leukopenia. thrombocytopenia, and more severe underlying disease. In vitro study showed a 10-fold reduction in the sensitivity of the gelation test by antibodies against the endotoxin used and an additional 10-fold reduction when the test system included phagocytic cells. PMID:1140855

  12. Salmonella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated neurodegeneration in hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Sara; Bohman, Svante; Radesäter, Ann-Cathrin; Oberg, Caroline; Luthman, Johan

    2005-11-01

    Neuroinflammation has been suggested to play an integral role in the pathophysiology of various neurodegenerative diseases. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxins are general activators of immune-cells, including microglial cells, which induce expression of pro-inflammatory factors. The aim of this study was to characterize neurodegenerative effects of exposure to LPS, derived from Salmonella abortus equi bacteria, in an in vitro brain slice culture system. Quasi-monolayer cultures were obtained using roller-drum incubations of hippocampal slices from neonatal Sprague Dawley rats for three weeks. Microglia/macrophages were identified in the monolayer cultures by CD11b immunostaining, while neuronal populations identified included N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA-R1) receptor immunoreactive pyramidal neurons and smaller GABA-immunoreactive cells. Following exposure to LPS (100 ng/ml) an increased density of CD11b positive cells was found in the cultures. In addition, the LPS exposure produced a concentration-dependent loss of the NMDA-R1 immunoreactive neurons in the cultures which was substantial at 100 ng/ml LPS. The loss of NMDA-R1 cells was apparent already after 24 h exposure to LPS and seemed to be primarily due to necrotic-like cell death. However, a continued loss of cells was found when cultures were analyzed at 72 h, concomitant with an increase in the expression of p53 in the NMDA-R1 cells and TUNEL labeling of a few cells. Also the number of GABA-immunoreactive cells decreased rapidly and to a substantial extent after 24 h exposure to LPS, with a continued decrease up to 72 h. The findings show that Salmonella LPS increases the density of CD11b positive cells and acts as a potent neurotoxin in hippocampal roller-drum slice cultures. The LPS-induced neurodegeneration has both necrotic- and apoptotic-like properties and appears to be non-selective, affecting both pyramidal and GABA neurons. LPS-induced neurotoxicity in slice cultures may be a useful system to study processes involved in inflammatory-mediated neurodegeneration. PMID:16371315

  13. Reverse kinetics of angiopoietin-2 and endotoxins in acute pyelonephritis: Implications for anti-inflammatory treatment?

    PubMed

    Safioleas, Konstantinos; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Carrer, Dionyssia-Pinelopi; Pistiki, Aikaterini; Sabracos, Lambros; Deliveliotis, Charalambos; Chrisofos, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Based on former studies showing an antagonism between angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and bacterial endotoxins (LPS), we investigated the role of Ang-2 as immunomodulatory treatment. At first, kinetics of circulating LPS in Gram-negative pyelonephritis developing after urinary obstruction was studied. Serum LPS, interleukin (IL)-6 and Ang-2 were measured in 25 patients with acute pyelonephritis and sepsis before and after removal of the obstruction performed either with insertion of a pigtail catheter (n=12) or percutaneous drainage (n=13). At a second stage, Ang-2 was given as anti-inflammatory treatment in 40 rabbits one hour after induction of acute pyelonephritis by ligation of the ureter at the level of pelvo-ureteral junction and upstream bacterial inoculation. Survival was recorded; blood mononuclear cells were isolated and stimulated for the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα). The decrease in circulating LPS was significantly greater among patients undergoing drainage than pigtail insertion. This was accompanied by reciprocal changes of Ang-2 and IL-6. Treatment with Ang-2 prolonged survival from Escherichia coli pyelonephritis despite high levels of circulating LPS. When Ang-2 was given as treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyelonephritis, sepsis-induced decrease of TNFα production by circulating mononuclear cells was reversed without an effect on tissue bacterial overgrowth. It is concluded that Ang-2 and LPS follow reverse kinetics in acute pyelonephritis. When given as experimental treatment, Ang-2 prolongs survival through an effect on mononuclear cells. PMID:26844659

  14. A novel delta-endotoxin gene cryIM from Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. wuhanensis.

    PubMed

    Shevelev, A B; Kogan YaN; Bushueva, A M; Voronina, E J; Rebrikov, D V; Novikova, S I; Chestukhina, G G; Kuvshinov, V; Pehu, E; Stepanov, V M

    1997-03-10

    A new cryI-related sequence designated cryIM was cloned using an immunoscreening technique from ssp. wuhanensis of Bacillus thuringiensis (BT), previously reported to produce multiple Cry proteins [Chestukhina et al. (1994) Can. J. Microbiol. 240, 1026-1034]. Analysis of the cryIM nucleotide sequence revealed an ORF, BTII-type promoter-like sequence, peculiar for such genes, a translation initiation element and a putative transcription terminator. Nevertheless, its product was not previously found in the crystals of the host strain [Chestukhina et al. (1994) Can. J. Microbiol. 240, 1026-1034] which shows its weak or absent natural expression. The amino acid sequence of 1151 residues encoded by the continuous reading frame of cryIM is not identical but is essentially similar to the other delta-endotoxins of the CryI class. An IS231-like sequence was found 400 bp downstream of the cryIM stop codon and a fragment of the cryIAb gene was located 3 kb upstream of its initiator codon in the same orientation. Artificial expression of the cloned gene in E. coli under the control of the lacZ promoter allowed us to obtain its hypothetical protein product. PMID:9119053

  15. [Ethanol changes sensitivity of Kupffer cells to endotoxin].

    PubMed

    Yamashina, Shunhei; Ikejima, Kenichi; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Nobuhiro

    2003-10-01

    Gut-derived endotoxin plays an important role in alcoholic liver injury. Intestinal sterilization with antibiotics (polymyxin B and neomycin) or inactivation of Kupffer cells with gadolinium chloride can prevent early alcohol-induced liver injury in the Tsukamoto-French model. Although short-term administration of alcohol enhances endotoxin hepatotoxicity, a majority of studies report that short-term ethanol inactivates Kupffer cells. It is therefore paradoxical that Kupffer cells are involved in alcoholic liver injury based on in vivo data with gadolinium chloride and antibiotics, yet ethanol blunts activation of isolated Kupffer cells. Accordingly, this review focuses on understanding this paradox by studying the temporal effect of ethanol in vivo on the response of subsequently isolated Kupffer cells. Mice were given ethanol intragastrically, and LPS was injected later. One hour after ethanol treatment, serum transaminases after LPS were 60% of control, while ethanol increased these parameters about 3-fold 21 hours after ethanol. Pretreatment with antibiotics blocked these effects of ethanol. Two hours after ethanol administration, the LPS-induced increases in intracellular calcium concentration and TNF alpha release by Kupffer cells was diminished by 50% of control, and these parameters were reciprocally enhanced two-fold at 24 hours. Sterilization of the gut with antibiotics blocked both effects of ethanol on intracellular calcium concentration and TNF alpha release. Twenty-four hours after ethanol, CD14 in Kupffer cells was elevated to about five-fold. In Kupffer cells from mice treated with ethanol 1 hour earlier, IRAK expression and activity and NF kappa B were decreased to 50-60% of control. In contrast, in Kupffer cells from mice treated with ethanol 21 hours earlier, LPS-induced TNF alpha production, expression and activity of IRAK were increased 1.5-fold over controls, while NF kappa B activation was elevated 3-fold. Kupffer cells isolated from rodents early after ethanol exhibited tolerance to LPS, whereas sensitization was observed later. In conclusion, acute ethanol alters the expression of endotoxin receptors and intracellular signaling molecules, and causes both tolerance and sensitization of Kupffer cells to endotoxin. It is postulated that tolerance of Kupffer cells contributes to the impairment of innate immune system in alcoholism, while sensitization to endotoxin enhances progression of alcoholic liver injury. PMID:14639920

  16. Prostaglandins, endotoxin and lipid A on body temperature in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Feldberg, W; Saxena, P N

    1975-01-01

    1. In unanaesthetized restrained rats kept at an ambient temperature of 21-23degrees C, rectal temperature was continuously monitored and the temperature effects of injections of prostaglandins, endotoxin from Salmonella abortus equi, lipid A, and antipyretics were examined. 2. Fever occurred when prostaglandin E1, E2, F1alpha or F2alpha (PGE1, PGE2, PGF1alpha, PGF2alpha) was injected into the cerebral ventricles in doses of 200 ng and 2 mug. PGE2 was the most potent prostaglandin followed in descending order by PGE1, PGF2alpha, and PGF1alpha. The fever produced by 2 mug of PGE1 and PGE2 was short and followed by a fall in temperature to below the pre-injection level. 3. I.V. injections of endotoxin and lipid A in doses of 3 or 10 mug usually caused a long lasting fall in temperature, but when injected into the cerebral ventricles in doses of 400 ng or 1 mug, they produced long lasting fevers. 4. Injected I.V. or I.P., indomethacin and paracetamol had a hypothermic action of their own. Indomethacin was more potent than paracetamol and both were more potent than injected I.P. 5. I.V. and I.P. injections of indomethacin and paracetamol did not reverse the hypothermia in response to I.V. endotoxin or lipid A, but the fever responses to their injection into the cerebral ventricles were prevented and abolished by the antipyretics. 6. It is concluded that in rats endotoxin and lipid A, or the endogenous pyrogens produced by them, do not readily pass through the blood-brain barrier into the brain tissue. If they do reach brain tissue, as when injected into the cerebral ventricles, they stimulate synthesis and release of prostaglandin in rats as they do in other species, and thereby produce fever. The hypothermia in response to I.V. endotoxin or lipid A, on the other hand, is thought to be independent of prostaglandin synthesis and to result from a direct toxic action on the skin vessels. PMID:1177107

  17. Suppression of interleukin-6 production in endotoxin tolerance in a mouse glioma cell line: reversal by phorbol ester.

    PubMed

    Sironi, M; Bianchi, M; Riganti, F; Ghezzi, P

    1993-02-01

    Tolerance to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) was shown to be mediated by an inhibition of cytokine production. We have studied the effect of 3-day pretreatment with LPS on production of IL-6 in response to a subsequent challenge with LPS in a mouse glioma. The results indicated that in this model, a complete blockage of IL-6 production is induced by LPS pretreatment. This is associated with a decrease of LPS-induced IL-6 mRNA levels. LPS-induced IL-6 production can be restored by PMA, as it was previously observed in vivo, suggesting that down-regulation of IL-6 response in LPS tolerance occurs at the transcriptional level, probably by down-regulating protein kinase C or some other PMA-activable signaling system. IL-6 production is also down-regulated by 3-day preincubation with IL-6 and, to a lesser extent, with IL-1 or TNF, indicating that IL-6 can down-regulate its own production. PMID:8457631

  18. Endotoxin-induced basal respiration alterations of renal HK-2 cells: A sign of pathologic metabolism down-regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Quoilin, C.; Mouithys-Mickalad, A.; Duranteau, J.; Gallez, B.; Hoebeke, M.

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A HK-2 cells model of inflammation-induced acute kidney injury. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two oximetry methods: high resolution respirometry and ESR spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen consumption rates of renal cells decrease when treated with LPS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cells do not recover normal respiration when the LPS treatment is removed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This basal respiration alteration is a sign of pathologic metabolism down-regulation. -- Abstract: To study the mechanism of oxygen regulation in inflammation-induced acute kidney injury, we investigate the effects of a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) on the basal respiration of proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) both by high-resolution respirometry and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. These two complementary methods have shown that HK-2 cells exhibit a decreased oxygen consumption rate when treated with LPS. Surprisingly, this cellular respiration alteration persists even after the stress factor was removed. We suggested that this irreversible decrease in renal oxygen consumption after LPS challenge is related to a pathologic metabolic down-regulation such as a lack of oxygen utilization by cells.

  19. Reduced Th1, but Not Th2, Cytokine Production by Lymphocytes after In Vivo Exposure of Healthy Subjects to Endotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Lauw, Fanny N.; ten Hove, Tessa; Dekkers, Pascale E. P.; de Jonge, Evert; van Deventer, Sander J. H.; van der Poll, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) tolerance is characterized by a reduced capacity of monocytes to produce proinflammatory cytokines upon restimulation in vitro. To determine whether LPS exposure induces a change in lymphocyte cytokine production and whether this results in a shift in the T-helper 1 (Th1)/Th2 balance, whole blood obtained from seven healthy subjects before and after an intravenous injection of LPS (4 ng/kg) was stimulated in vitro with the T-cell stimulus anti-CD3/CD28 or staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Whole-blood production of the Th1 cytokines gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) was markedly reduced at 3 and 6 h, while the production of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 was not influenced or was slightly increased. The IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio was strongly decreased at 6 h. Serum obtained after LPS exposure could slightly inhibit the release of IFN-γ but increased IL-4 production during stimulation of blood drawn from subjects not previously exposed to LPS. Normal serum also inhibited IFN-γ production, albeit to a lesser extent. LPS exposure influences lymphocyte cytokine production, resulting in a shift toward a Th2 cytokine response, an effect that may be mediated in part by soluble factors present in serum after LPS administration in vivo. PMID:10678901

  20. Functional and fine structural changes in isolated rat lungs challenged with endotoxin ex vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Uhlig, S.; Brasch, F.; Wollin, L.; Fehrenbach, H.; Richter, J.; Wendel, A.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to relate changes in rat lung functions caused by the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to alterations in structure. The following four experimental groups were used: 1), control in vitro, perfusion for 150 minutes; 2), LPS in vitro, perfusion for 150 minutes and infusion of 5 mg of LPS after 40 minutes; 3), control ex vivo, perfusion for 10 minutes; and 4), LPS ex vivo, lungs perfused for 10 minutes from rats treated for 110 minutes with 20 mg/kg LPS intraperitoneally. Histologically, blood-derived leukocytes were detectable only in lungs from group 4, where neutrophils were found in capillaries, interstitium, and endothelial pouches. LPS treatment increased pulmonary resistance and decreased pulmonary compliance in group 4 (ex vivo), and, to a greater extent, in group 2 (in vitro). In these two groups, formation of giant lamellar bodies in the type II pneumocytes was observed. By histological examination, the bronchoconstriction induced by LPS in vitro was localized to the terminal bronchioles. At 2 hours after LPS treatment, no edema and no change in precapillary and postcapillary resistance, capillary pressure, vascular compliance, capillary permeability, and the wet/dry ratio was observed. Thus, our major findings are that LPS induced constriction of the terminal bronchioles in vitro, formation of giant lamellar bodies in type II pneumocytes ex vivo and in vitro, and trapping of neutrophils in endothelial pouches in vivo. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:7747816

  1. Meningococcal endotoxin in lethal septic shock plasma studied by gas chromatography, mass-spectrometry, ultracentrifugation, and electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Brandtzaeg, P; Bryn, K; Kierulf, P; Ovsteb, R; Namork, E; Aase, B; Jantzen, E

    1992-01-01

    We have compared gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis with the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay to quantify native meningococcal lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in five patient plasmas containing greater than 5 micrograms/liter by LAL. 3-Hydroxy lauric acid (3-OH-12:0) was used as a specific lipid A marker of neisserial LPS. The quantitative LAL results were confirmed by GC-MS (r = 0.98, P = 0.006). Seven patient plasmas were centrifuged at 103,000 g and the sedimentation behavior of native LPS compared with reference plasma proteins and with apo A1 and apo B100 representing high and low density lipoproteins. After 15 min of centrifugation, 84 +/- 2% (mean +/- SE) of the recovered LPS were found in the lower one-third of the centrifuged volume, whereas 6 +/- 1% remained in the upper one-third volume, indicating that meningococcal endotoxin circulates as complexes with high sedimentation coefficients. Bacterial outer membrane fragments were detected in the bottom fractions of three patient plasmas examined by means of electron microscopy. In three patient plasmas ultracentrifuged for 60 min at 103,000 g, the levels of apo A1 and apo B100 revealed minor changes, whereas only 1 +/- 1% of the recovered LPS remained in the upper one-third and 91 +/- 2% were found in the lower one-third volume. Few bioreactive LPS appear to be complexed with high and low density lipoproteins in meningococcal septic shock plasma. Images PMID:1541674

  2. Pantoea agglomerans: a marvelous bacterium of evil and good.Part I. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens - focus on cotton dust.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Enterobacter agglomerans, Erwinia herbicola) is known both as an epiphytic microbe developing on the surface of plants and as an endophytic organism living inside the plants. The bacterium occurs also abundantly in plant and animal products, in the body of arthropods and other animals, in water, soil, dust and air, and occasionally in humans. From the human viewpoint, the role of this organism is ambiguous, both deleterious and beneficial: on one side it causes disorders in people exposed to inhalation of organic dusts and diseases of crops, and on the other side it produces substances effective in the treatment of cancer and other diseases of humans and animals, suppresses the development of various plant pathogens, promotes plant growth, and appears as a potentially efficient biofertilizer and bioremediator. P. agglomerans was identified as a predominant bacterium on cotton plant grown all over the world, usually as an epiphyte, rarely as pathogen. It is particularly numerous on cotton bract after senescence. During processing of cotton in mills, bacteria and their products are released with cotton dust into air and are inhaled by workers, causing respiratory and general disorders, usually defined as byssinosis. The most adverse substance is endotoxin, a heteropolymer macromolecule present in the outermost part of the cell wall, consisting of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a major constituent, phospholipids and protein. The numerous experiments carried out in last quarter of XXth century on laboratory animals and human volunteers supported a convincing evidence that the inhaled endotoxin produced by P. agglomerans causes numerous pathologic effects similar to those elicited by cotton dust, such as influx of free lung cells into airways and activation of alveolar macrophages which secrete mediators (prostaglandins, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor) that cause accumulation of platelets in pulmonary capillaries initiating an acute and chronic inflammation resulting in endothelial cell damage and extravasation of cells and fluids into the lung interstitium. These changes cause bronchoconstriction, the decrement of lung function expressed as reduction of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and/or diffusion capacity, increase in the airway hyperreactivity and subjective symptoms such as fever, airway irritation and chest tightness. The conclusions from these experiments, performed mostly 2-3 decades ago, did not loose their actuality until recently as so far no other cotton dust component was identified as a more important work-related hazard than bacterial endotoxin. Though also other microbial and plant constituents are considered as potential causative agents of byssinosis, the endotoxin produced by Pantoea agglomerans and other Gram-negative bacteria present in cotton dust is still regarded as a major cause of this mysterious disease. PMID:26706959

  3. Airborne Endotoxin from Indoor and Outdoor Environments:Effect of Sample Dilution on the Kinetic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) Assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Airborne endotoxin in occupational environments are a potential respiratory hazard to individuals. In this study, total and inhalable airborne endotoxin samples were collected via filtration from inside animal housing units and downwind from agricultural production sites and a wastewater treatment ...

  4. The Effect of Residual Endotoxin Contamination on the Neuroinflammatory Response to Sterilized Intracortical Microelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    Ravikumar, Madhumitha; Hageman, Daniel J.; Tomaszewski, William H.; Chandra, Gabriella M.; Skousen, John L.; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    A major limitation to the use of microelectrode technologies in both research and clinical applications is our inability to consistently record high quality neural signals. There is increasing evidence that recording instability is linked, in part, to neuroinflammation. A number of factors including extravasated blood products and macrophage released soluble factors are believed to mediate neuroinflammation and the resulting recording instability. However, the roles of other inflammatory stimuli, such as residual endotoxin contamination, are poorly understood. Therefore, to determine the effect of endotoxin contamination we examined the brain tissue response of C57/BL6 mice to non-functional microelectrodes with a range of endotoxin levels. Endotoxin contamination on the sterilized microelectrodes was measured using a limulus amebocyte lysate test following FDA guidelines. Microelectrodes sterilized by autoclave, dry heat, or ethylene oxide gas, resulted in variable levels of residual endotoxins of 0.55 EU/mL, 0.22 EU/mL, and 0.11 EU/mL, respectively. Histological evaluation at two weeks showed a direct correlation between microglia/macrophage activation and endotoxin levels. Interestingly, astrogliosis, neuronal loss, and blood brain barrier dysfunction demonstrated a threshold-dependent response to bacterial endotoxins. However, at sixteen weeks, no histological differences were detected, regardless of initial endotoxin levels. Therefore, our results demonstrate that endotoxin contamination, within the range examined, contributes to initial but not chronic microelectrode associated neuroinflammation. Our results suggest that minimizing residual endotoxins may impact early recording quality. To this end, endotoxins should be considered as a potent stimulant to the neuroinflammatory response to implanted intracortical microelectrodes. PMID:24778808

  5. The Effect of Residual Endotoxin Contamination on the Neuroinflammatory Response to Sterilized Intracortical Microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, Madhumitha; Hageman, Daniel J; Tomaszewski, William H; Chandra, Gabriella M; Skousen, John L; Capadona, Jeffrey R

    2014-05-01

    A major limitation to the use of microelectrode technologies in both research and clinical applications is our inability to consistently record high quality neural signals. There is increasing evidence that recording instability is linked, in part, to neuroinflammation. A number of factors including extravasated blood products and macrophage released soluble factors are believed to mediate neuroinflammation and the resulting recording instability. However, the roles of other inflammatory stimuli, such as residual endotoxin contamination, are poorly understood. Therefore, to determine the effect of endotoxin contamination we examined the brain tissue response of C57/BL6 mice to non-functional microelectrodes with a range of endotoxin levels. Endotoxin contamination on the sterilized microelectrodes was measured using a limulus amebocyte lysate test following FDA guidelines. Microelectrodes sterilized by autoclave, dry heat, or ethylene oxide gas, resulted in variable levels of residual endotoxins of 0.55 EU/mL, 0.22 EU/mL, and 0.11 EU/mL, respectively. Histological evaluation at two weeks showed a direct correlation between microglia/macrophage activation and endotoxin levels. Interestingly, astrogliosis, neuronal loss, and blood brain barrier dysfunction demonstrated a threshold-dependent response to bacterial endotoxins. However, at sixteen weeks, no histological differences were detected, regardless of initial endotoxin levels. Therefore, our results demonstrate that endotoxin contamination, within the range examined, contributes to initial but not chronic microelectrode associated neuroinflammation. Our results suggest that minimizing residual endotoxins may impact early recording quality. To this end, endotoxins should be considered as a potent stimulant to the neuroinflammatory response to implanted intracortical microelectrodes. PMID:24778808

  6. Effect of Tris-acetate buffer on endotoxin removal from human-like collagen used biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huizhi; Fan, Daidi; Deng, Jianjun; Zhu, Chenghui; Hui, Junfeng; Ma, Xiaoxuan

    2014-09-01

    Protein preparation, which has active ingredients designated for the use of biomaterials and therapeutical protein, is obtained by genetic engineering, but products of genetic engineering are often contaminated by endotoxins. Because endotoxin is a ubiquitous and potent proinflammatory agent, endotoxin removal or depletion from protein is essential for researching any biomaterials. In this study, we have used Tris-acetate (TA) buffer of neutral pH value to evaluate endotoxins absorbed on the Pierce high-capacity endotoxin removal resin. The effects of TA buffer on pH, ionic strength, incubation time as well as human-like collagen (HLC) concentration on eliminating endotoxins are investigated. In the present experiments, we design an optimal method for TA buffer to remove endotoxin from recombinant collagen and use a chromogenic tachypleus amebocyte lysate (TAL) test kit to measure the endotoxin level of HLC. The present results show that, the endotoxins of HLC is dropped to 8.3EU/ml at 25 mM TA buffer (pH7.8) with 150 mM NaCl when setting incubation time at 6h, and HLC recovery is about 96%. Under this experimental condition, it is proved to exhibit high efficiencies of both endotoxin removal and collagen recovery. The structure of treated HLC was explored by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), demonstrating that the property and structure of HLC treated by TA buffer are maintained. Compared to the most widely used endotoxin removal method, Triton X-114 extraction, using TA buffer can obtain the non-toxic HLC without extra treatment for removing the toxic substances in Triton X-114. In addition, the present study aims at establishing a foundation for further work in laboratory animal science and providing a foundation for medical grade biomaterials. PMID:25063101

  7. Multiple mechanisms involved in diabetes protection by lipopolysaccharide in non-obese diabetic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jun; Cao, Hui; Wang, Hongjie; Yin, Guoxiao; Du, Jiao; Xia, Fei; Lu, Jingli; Xiang, Ming

    2015-06-15

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation has been proposed to be important for islet cell inflammation and eventually β cell loss in the course of type 1 diabetes (T1D) development. However, according to the “hygiene hypothesis”, bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an agonist on TLR4, inhibits T1D progression. Here we investigated possible mechanisms for the protective effect of LPS on T1D development in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. We found that LPS administration to NOD mice during the prediabetic state neither prevented nor reversed insulitis, but delayed the onset and decreased the incidence of diabetes, and that a multiple-injection protocol is more effective than a single LPS intervention. Further, LPS administration suppressed spleen T lymphocyte proliferation, increased the generation of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T cells (Tregs), reduced the synthesis of strong Th1 proinflammatory cytokines, and downregulated TLR4 and its downstream MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Most importantly, multiple injections of LPS induced a potential tolerogenic dendritic cell (DC) subset with low TLR4 expression without influencing the DC phenotype. Explanting DCs from repeated LPS-treated NOD mice into NOD/SCID diabetic mice conferred sustained protective effects against the progression of diabetes in the recipients. Overall, these results suggest that multiple mechanisms are involved in the protective effects of LPS against the development of diabetes in NOD diabetic mice. These include Treg induction, down-regulation of TLR4 and its downstream MyD88-dependent signaling pathway, and the emergence of a potential tolerogenic DC subset. - Highlights: • Administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) prevented type 1 diabetes in NOD mice. • Downregulating TLR4 level and MyD88-dependent pathway contributed to protection of LPS. • LPS administration also hampered DC maturation and promoted Treg differentiation.

  8. A total internal reflection ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy study of interactions between Proteus mirabilis lipopolysaccharides and antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gleńska-Olender, J; Sęk, S; Dworecki, K; Kaca, W

    2015-07-01

    Specific antigen-antibody interactions play a central role in the human immune system. The objective of this paper is to detect immune complexes using label-free detection techniques, that is, total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based topography and recognition imaging. Interactions of purified rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies with bacterial endotoxins (Proteus mirabilis S1959 O3 lipopolysaccharides) were studied. Lipopolysaccharide was adsorbed on gold surface for TIRE. In the AFM imaging experiments, LPS was attachment to the PEG linker (AFM tip modification). The mica surface was covered by IgG. In TIRE, the optical parameters Ψ and Δ change when a complex is formed. It was found that even highly structured molecules, such as IgG antibodies (anti-O3 LPS rabbit serum), preserve their specific affinity to their antigens (LPS O3). LPS P. mirabilis O3 response of rabbit serum anti-O3 was also tested by topography and recognition imaging. Both TIRE and AFM techniques were recruited to check for possible detection of antigen-antibody recognition event. The presented data allow for determination of interactions between a variety of biomolecules. In future research, this technique has considerable potential for studying a wide range of antigen-antibody interactions and its use may be extended to other biomacromolecular systems. PMID:25854960

  9. Effect of Capparis spinosa Linn. extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ashish; Digvijaya; Garg, Arun; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive disorders in mankind are not uncommon. Apart from neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's (AD), various stresses also affect cognitive functions. Plants are known to be potential source of compounds that ameliorate several diseases including cognitive impairment. Here, we evaluated effect of aqueous extract of caper (Capparis spinosa) buds on lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment in rats using two different oral doses i.e. 10 (pre-treatment) and 30 mg/rat(post-treatment) through assessment of behavioural (Morris Water maze test and Y maze test), biochemical (Cholinesterase assay) and histopathological (H&E staining) parameters. Lipopolysaccharide (from E. coli) administration resulted in an increased neurodegeneration and time taken to reach the platform (in Morris water maze). The increased neurodegeneration in CA1 region of hippocampus was significantly reduced in animals which received caper bud extract; they showed marked reduction in time taken to reach the platform at both the dose levels. The experiment demonstrated that caper bud extract exhibits potential protective effect against learning and memory damage induced by chronic administration of lipopolysaccharide (175 μg/kg) for 7 days. The results suggest that the caper bud extract could be explored for its use in the treatment of cognitive disorders. PMID:26934780

  10. Effects of subacute ruminal acidosis challenges on fermentation and endotoxins in the rumen and hindgut of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Khafipour, E; Krause, D O; Kroeker, A; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Gozho, G N; Plaizier, J C

    2012-01-01

    The effects of a grain-based subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) challenge (GBSC) and an alfalfa-pellet SARA challenge (APSC) on fermentation and endotoxins in the rumen and in the cecum, as well as on endotoxins in peripheral blood, were determined. Six nonlactating Holstein cows with cannulas in the rumen and cecum were used in the study. A 3×3 Latin square arrangement of treatments with 4-wk experimental periods was adopted. During the first 3 wk of each experimental period, all cows received a diet containing 70% forages [dry matter (DM) basis]. In wk 4 of each period, cows received 1 of the following 3 diets: the 70% forage diet fed during wk 1 to 3 (control), a diet in which 34% of the dietary DM was replaced with grain pellets made of 50% ground wheat and 50% ground barely (GBSC), or a diet in which 37% of dietary DM was replaced with pellets of ground alfalfa (APSC). Rumen pH was monitored continuously using indwelling pH probes, and rumen fluid, blood, cecal digesta, and fecal grab samples were collected immediately before feed delivery at 0900 h and at 6 h after feed delivery on d 3 and 5 of wk 4. The time for which rumen pH was below 5.6 was 56.4, 225.2, and 298.8 min/d for the control, APSC, and GBSC treatments, respectively. Compared with the control, SARA challenges resulted in similar reductions in cecal digesta pH, which were 7.07, 6.86, and 6.79 for the control, APSC, and GBSC treatments, respectively. Compared with the control, only GBSC increased starch content in cecal digesta, which averaged 2.8, 2.6, and 7.4% of DM for the control, APSC, and GBSC, respectively. Free lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) concentration in rumen fluid increased from 10,405 endotoxin units (EU)/mL in the control treatment to 30,715 and 168,391 EU/mL in APSC and GBSC, respectively. Additionally, GBSC increased the LPS concentration from 16,508 to 118,522 EU/g in wet cecal digesta, and from 12,832 to 93,154 EU/g in wet feces. The APSC treatment did not affect LPS concentrations in cecal digesta and feces. All concentrations of LPS in blood plasma were below the detection limit of >0.05 EU/mL of the technique used. Despite the absence of LPS in blood, only GBSC increased the concentration of LPS-binding protein in blood plasma, which averaged, 8.9, 9.5, and 12.1mg/L for the control, APSC, and GBSC treatments, respectively. This suggests that GBSC caused translocation of LPS from the digestive tract but that LPS was detoxified before entering the peripheral blood circulation. The higher LPS concentration in cecal digesta in the GBSC compared with the APSC suggests a higher risk of LPS translocation in the large intestine in GBSC than in APSC. PMID:22192209

  11. Ambient Endotoxin Concentrations and Assessment of Offsite Transport at Open-Lot and Open-Freestall Dairies.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endotoxins are derived from gram-negative bacteria and are a potent inducer of inflammatory reactions in the respiratory tract when inhaled. To assess daily fluctuations of airborne endotoxin and their potential for transport from dairies, endotoxin concentrations were monitored over an 8-h period a...

  12. INTERLEUKIN-1B AND TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-A MEDIATION OF ENDOTOXIN ACTION: EFFECT ON GROWTH HORMONE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In humans and sheep, administration of endotoxin results in increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH). Experiments were designed to determine the mechanism by which endotoxin increases concentrations of GH. To determine if cytokines mediated the effect of endotoxin on GH, sheep were challeng...

  13. Enhancement of systemic and sputum granulocyte response to inhaled endotoxin in people with the GSTM1 null genotype

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine if the GSTM1 null genotype is a risk factor for increased inflammatory response to inhaled endotoxin. Methods 35 volunteers who had undergone inhalation challenge with a 20 000 endotoxin unit dose of Clinical Center Reference Endotoxin (CCRE) were genotyped for the G...

  14. Improvement of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins synthesis yields through acquisition of erythromycin resistance.

    PubMed

    Tounsi, Slim; Zouari, Nabil; Ghribi, Dhouha; J'mal, Anis; Jaoua, Samir

    2006-03-01

    The acquisition of the erythromycin resistance by Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki improved yields of delta-endotoxins in sporulating cells ranging from 134 to 215%. Resistance to erythromycin decreased the final spore count by at least 50%. Consequently, erythromycin resistance is an efficient tool for the improvement of bioinsecticides yields with a high ratio of delta-endotoxins to spores. PMID:16614918

  15. Experimental design and Bayesian networks for enhancement of delta-endotoxin production by Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Karim; Ayed, Rayda Ben; Hassen, Hanen Ben; Mazzarello, Maura; Ottaviani, Ennio

    2015-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram-positive bacterium. The entomopathogenic activity of Bt is related to the existence of the crystal consisting of protoxins, also called delta-endotoxins. In order to optimize and explain the production of delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, we studied seven medium components: soybean meal, starch, KH₂PO₄, K₂HPO₄, FeSO₄, MnSO₄, and MgSO₄and their relationships with the concentration of delta-endotoxins using an experimental design (Plackett-Burman design) and Bayesian networks modelling. The effects of the ingredients of the culture medium on delta-endotoxins production were estimated. The developed model showed that different medium components are important for the Bacillus thuringiensis fermentation. The most important factors influenced the production of delta-endotoxins are FeSO₄, K2HPO₄, starch and soybean meal. Indeed, it was found that soybean meal, K₂HPO₄, KH₂PO₄and starch also showed positive effect on the delta-endotoxins production. However, FeSO4 and MnSO4 expressed opposite effect. The developed model, based on Bayesian techniques, can automatically learn emerging models in data to serve in the prediction of delta-endotoxins concentrations. The constructed model in the present study implies that experimental design (Plackett-Burman design) joined with Bayesian networks method could be used for identification of effect variables on delta-endotoxins variation. PMID:26689874

  16. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments

    PubMed Central

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3-Ia+ B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens. PMID:25549222

  17. Time course of endotoxin-induced airways' inflammation in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Doyen, Virginie; Kassengera, Zaina; Dinh, Duc Huy Phong; Michel, Olivier

    2012-02-01

    Few data are available on the kinetic of the airways' inflammation induced by inhaled endotoxin in a given subject. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in healthy subjects the time-related endotoxin-induced airways' inflammation. The cells counts from the induced-sputum were evaluated before, 6 and 24 h, and 7 days after an exposure to 20 mcg inhaled endotoxin, in eight pre-selected volunteers. To avoid interference of the induced-sputum procedure on the response to endotoxin, each time-point was evaluated in randomized order at 2-weeks interval after three separate inhalations of endotoxin. A significant rise of the relative number of lymphocytes (p<0.05) and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN; p<0.02) and of the absolute number of PMN (p<0.05) occurring at 6 h, followed by an increase of the absolute number of the total viable cells (p<0.01), macrophages (p<0.001), neutrophils (p<0.01), and lymphocytes (p<0.05) at 24 h after endotoxin inhalation. The inflammatory response recovered totally after 7 days. In human beings, the inhalation of endotoxin induced a transient airway inflammation after 6 h, peaked at 24 h and recovered after 7 days. When repeated endotoxin inhalations are used as a model of inflammation, a wash-out period of at least 7 days should be applied between each exposure in each subject. PMID:21207124

  18. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus... From Tolerances § 180.1107 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into... Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus... From Tolerances § 180.1107 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into... Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus... From Tolerances § 180.1107 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into... Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from...

  1. MICROWAVE RADIATION (2450 MHZ) ALTERS THE ENDOTOXIN-INDUCED HYPOTHERMIC RESPONSE OF RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The parental administration of bacterial endotoxin to rats causes a hypothermia that is maximal after approximately 90 minutes. When endotoxin-injected rats were held in a controlled environment at 22C and 50% relative humidity and exposed for 90 minutes to microwaves (2450 MHz, ...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... From Tolerances § 180.1107 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into... Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from the... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... From Tolerances § 180.1107 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into... Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of...

  4. [Effect of paeoniflorin on oxidative stress and energy metabolism in mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced brain injury].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ling; Qiu, Xiang-jun; He, Su-na; Yang, Hui; Wang, Deng; Yang, Xue-mei

    2015-07-01

    Paeoniflorin is the main active ingredient of Chinese herbaceous peony. This study is to investigate the protective effect of paeoniflorin (Pae) on acute brain damage induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. The mice were randomly assigned to the normal control, model control (LPS), as well as groups of paeoniflorin and lipopolysaccharide (Pae + LPS). Then the mice were administered intraperitioneally with normal saline or Pae (10, 30 mg · kg(-1)) once daily for 6 d. One hour after intrapertioneally treatment on the seventh day, each group were injected LPS (5 mg · kg(-1)) to establish the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide inflammation model except the normal group. The mice were sacrificed after 6 h and the brain homogenates were prepared and measured. The malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), succinatedehydrogenase (SDH), Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase were dectected by the colorimetric method. The levels of HO-1 and Nrf2 protein in subcellular fractions of brain tissue were detected by Western blot. The results demonstrated that the administration with paeoniflorin reduced the levels of the MDA production; significantly increase the activities of antioxidant enzyme (SOD and GSH-PX). In addition, paeoniflorin could enhance the total antioxidant capacity, decrease the level of H2O2, and increase the activities of SDH, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase. Furthermore, paeoniflorin can increase the expression of HO-1 and activate the nuclear transfer of Nrf2. Taking together, these findings suggest that paeoniflorin alleviate the acute inflammation in mice brain damage induced by LPS, which is related with its antioxidant effect and improvement of energy metabolism. PMID:26666042

  5. Prevotella bivia as a Source of Lipopolysaccharide in the Vagina

    PubMed Central

    Aroutcheva, Alla; Ling, Zaodung; Faro, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To compare vaginal lipopolysaccharides (LPS) concentrations between patients with and without bacterial vaginosis (BV), to evaluate the correlation between Prevotella bivia colonization density and LPS concentration, and to determine the impact of LPS on loss of dopamine neurons (DA). Methods Vaginal washes obtained from patients with (n=43) and without (n=59) BV were tested for quantity of P. bivia cells using quantitative PCR and for concentrations of LPS using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate gel clot method. Prevotella bivia, Gardnerella vaginalis and Escherichia coli sonicated cell extracts were also tested for LPS production. DA neuron cells obtained from embryonic day (E) 14.5 pregnant rats were exposed to fluid from eight vaginal washes; tyrosine hydrolase immunoreactive staining was applied for visualization and cell counts. Results The median LPS concentrations were dramatically higher among patients who had symptoms of BV compared to those who did not have symptoms (3235.0 vs 46.4 EU/ml, respectively, P<0.001); patients who had BV also had much higher colonization densities of P. bivia (0.06±0.36 vs 5.4±2.2 log10 CFU/ml, respectively, P<0.001). Prevotella bivia cell lysates resulted in a higher LPS concentration (10,713.0±306.6 EU/ml) than either E. coli (4,679.0± 585.3 EU/ml) or G. vaginalis (0.07±0.01 EU/ml of LPS). The loss of DA neuron was 20–27% in cultures treated with vaginal washes from BV-negative patients and 58–97% in cultures treated with vaginal washes from patients with BV. Conclusion P. bivia produces high LPS concentration, which may create a toxic vaginal environment that damages DA neurons. PMID:18849004

  6. A new method for concentration analysis of bacterial endotoxins in perfluorocarbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dan-Dan; Feng, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Chun-Ren; Huang, Qing-Quan; Yang, Zhao-Peng; Meng, Qing-Yuan

    2014-12-01

    This communication demonstrates the feasibility of the gel-clot method for the analysis of bacterial endotoxins in water extracts of perfluorocarbon which is a water insoluble liquid medical device. Perfluorocarbon (10 mL) was shaken with 10mL water for 15 min at 2000 r/min and the endotoxin present was extracted to the aqueous phase without interference inhibition/enhancement of the product and the recovery of endotoxin added to perfluorocarbon was determined. A validation study confirmed that endotoxins presented in perfluorocarbon pass over into the aqueous phase at concentrations of 20, 10 and 5 EU/mL with recoveries from 86.8% to 96.8%. Therefore, the gel-clot test is suitable for detecting bacterial endotoxins in perfluorocarbon which is a water insoluble medical device.

  7. Abortifacient effects of Vibrio cholerae exo-enterotoxin and endotoxin in mice.

    PubMed

    Gasic, G J; Gasic, T B; Strauss, J F

    1975-11-01

    To study antifertility properties of microbial toxins, exoenterotoxin and endotoxin from Vibrio cholerae were injected intravenously into mice at different times during pregnancy. The two substances induced termination of pregnancy, but the patterns of abortifacient activity were different. Exotoxin terminated pregnancy in mice when administered between Days 4 and 10 of gestation, but abortifacient activity was reduced in animals more than 10 days pregnant; exogenous progesterone did not protect the pregnancies. Endotoxin was most effective in terminating pregnancy when injected after mid-gestation and the active principle was heat-stable; exogenous progesterone was not able to prevent the effects of endotoxin. Animals treated with endotoxin on Day 17 often gave birth to live young prematurely; indomethacin reduced the incidence of premature littering. The results demonstrate that exo- and endotoxins have antifertility properties and both appear to act on intrauterine targets rather than inducing progestin deficiency. PMID:1206628

  8. Immunomodulation in Sepsis: The Role of Endotoxin Removal by Polymyxin B-Immobilized Cartridge

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Ricard; Artigas, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Severe sepsis results in high morbidity and mortality. Immunomodulation strategies could be an adjunctive therapy to treat sepsis. Endotoxin is a component of gram-negative bacteria and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of septic shock when it is recognized by immune cells. Removal of endotoxin could be an effective adjunctive approach to the management of sepsis. Devices to adsorb endotoxin or inflammatory cytokines have been designed as a strategy to treat severe sepsis, especially sepsis caused by gram-negative bacteria. Polymyxin B-immobilized cartridge has been successfully used to treat patients with sepsis of abdominal origin. Although this cartridge was conceived to adsorb endotoxin, several other immunological mechanisms have been elucidated, and this device has also yielded promising results in patients with nonseptic respiratory failure. In this paper, we summarize the immune modulation actions of Polymyxin B-immobilized cartridge to explore its potential usefulness beyond endotoxin elimination. PMID:24249974

  9. Lipopolysaccharide Is Cleared from the Circulation by Hepatocytes via the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Topchiy, Elena; Cirstea, Mihai; Kong, HyeJin Julia; Boyd, John H.; Wang, Yingjin; Russell, James A.; Walley, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. While decreased Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) function improves clinical outcomes in murine and human sepsis, the mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major Gram-negative bacteria endotoxin, is cleared from the circulation by hepatocyte Low Density Lipoprotein Receptors (LDLR)—receptors downregulated by PCSK9. We directly visualized LPS uptake and found that LPS is rapidly taken up by hepatocytes into the cell periphery. Over the course of 4 hours LPS is transported towards the cell center. We next found that clearance of injected LPS from the blood was reduced substantially in Ldlr knockout (Ldlr-/-) mice compared to wild type controls and, simultaneously, hepatic uptake of LPS was also reduced in Ldlr-/- mice. Specifically examining the role of hepatocytes, we further found that primary hepatocytes isolated from Ldlr-/- mice had greatly decreased LPS uptake. In the HepG2 immortalized human hepatocyte cell line, LDLR silencing similarly resulted in decreased LPS uptake. PCSK9 treatment reduces LDLR density on hepatocytes and, therefore, was another independent strategy to test our hypothesis. Incubation with PCSK9 reduced LPS uptake by hepatocytes. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that hepatocytes clear LPS from the circulation via the LDLR and PCSK9 regulates LPS clearance from the circulation during sepsis by downregulation of hepatic LDLR. PMID:27171436

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO-1 Lipopolysaccharide-Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine: Preparation, Characterization and Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Najafzadeh, Faezeh; Shapouri, Reza; Rahnema, Mehdi; Rokhsartalab Azar, Shadi; Kianmehr, Anvarsadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO-1 infections through immunological means has been proved to be efficient and protective. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to produce a conjugate vaccine composed of detoxified lipopolysaccharide (D-LPS) P. aeruginosa and diphtheria toxoid (DT). Materials and Methods: Firstly, LPS was purified and characterized from P. aeruginosa PAO1 and then detoxified. D-LPS was covalently coupled to DT as a carrier protein via amidation method with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) as a spacer molecule and 1-ethyl-3- (3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDAC) as a linker. The molar ratio of LPS to DT in the prepared conjugate was 3:1. The immunogenicity of D-LPS-DT conjugate vaccine in mice model was evaluated as well. Results: The conjugate was devoid of endotoxin activity and 0.125 U/mL of D-LPS was acceptable for immunization. D-LPS-DT conjugate was nonpyrogenic for rabbits and nontoxic for mice. Mice immunization with D-LPS-DT conjugate vaccine elicited the fourfold higher IgG antibody compared to D-LPS. Anti-LPS IgG antibody was predominantly IgG1 subclass and then IgG3, IgG2a and IgG2b, respectively. Conclusions: Vaccine based on the conjugation of P. aeruginosa PAO-1 LPS with DT increased anti-LPS antibodies and had a significant potential to protect against Pseudomonas infections. PMID:26301059

  11. Cordyceps sinensis prevents apoptosis in mouse liver with D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure.