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1

Lipopolysaccharide Endotoxins  

PubMed Central

Summary Since lipopolysaccharide endotoxins of Gram-negative bacteria were last reviewed in this series in 1990, much has been learned about the assembly and signaling functions of these remarkable glycoconjugates. Lipopolysaccharides typically consist of a hydrophobic domain known as lipid A (or endotoxin), a non-repeating “core” oligosaccharide, and a distal polysaccharide (or O-antigen). The flood of recent genomic data has made it possible to study lipopolysaccharide assembly in diverse Gram-negative bacteria, many of which are human or plant pathogens, and to create mutants or hybrid constructs with novel properties. Unexpectedly, key genes for lipid A biosynthesis have also been found in higher plants, indicating that eucaryotic lipid A-like molecules may exist. The carbohydrate diversity of lipopolysaccharides is better appreciated now than ten years ago, but much remains to be learned about function. Sequence comparisons suggest that extensive lateral transfer of genes for the assembly of O-antigens has occurred among bacteria. The most significant finding in the field of endotoxin biology since 1990 has been the identification of the plasma membrane protein TLR4 as the lipid A signaling receptor of animal cells. The latter belongs to a family of innate immunity receptors, all of which possess a large extracellular domain of leucine-rich repeats, a single trans-membrane segment and a smaller cytoplasmic signaling region that engages the adaptor protein MyD88. The expanding knowledge of TLR4 specificity and its downstream signaling pathways should provide new opportunities for blocking the inflammatory side effects of sepsis. Future progress will require insights into lipopolysaccharide-protein recognition at the atomic level, greater understanding of intra- and inter-cellular lipopolysaccharide trafficking, and incisive biological approaches that combine the tools of bacterial and animal genetics. PMID:12045108

Raetz, Christian R. H.; Whitfield, Chris

2008-01-01

2

Effects of Aging on Endotoxin Tolerance Induced by Lipopolysaccharides Derived from Porphyromonas gingivalis and Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Background Periodontitis is a bacterially induced chronic inflammatory disease. Exposure of the host to periodontal pathogens and their virulence factors induces a state of hyporesponsiveness to subsequent stimulations, termed endotoxin tolerance. Aging has a profound effect on immune response to bacteria challenge. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of aging on endotoxin tolerance induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) LPS in murine peritoneal macrophages. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied the cytokine production (TNF-?and IL-10) and Toll-like receptor 2, 4 (TLR2, 4) gene and protein expressions in peritoneal macrophages from young (2-month-old) and middle-aged (12-month-old) ICR mice following single or repeated P. gingivalis LPS or E. coli LPS stimulation. Pretreatment of peritoneal macrophages with P. gingivalis LPS or E. coli LPS resulted in a reduction in TNF-? production and an increase in IL-10 production upon secondary stimulation (p<0.05), and the markedly lower levels of TNF-? and higher levels of IL-10 were observed in macrophages from young mice compared with those from middle-aged mice (p<0.05). In addition, LPS restimulations also led to the significantly lower expression levels of TLR2, 4 mRNA and protein in macrophages from young mice (p<0.05). Conclusions/Significance Repeated LPS stimulations triggered endotoxin tolerance in peritoneal macrophages and the ability to develop tolerance in young mice was more excellent. The impaired ability to develop endotoxin tolerance resulted from aging might be related to TLR2, 4 and might lead to the incontrollable periodontal inflammation in older adults. PMID:22723968

Sun, Ying; Li, Hui; Yang, Mi-Fang; Shu, Wei; Sun, Meng-Jun; Xu, Yan

2012-01-01

3

Endotoxin-free protein production--ClearColiTM A new Escherichia coli strain with a genetically modified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecule has been  

E-print Network

Endotoxin-free protein production--ClearColiTM technology A new Escherichia coli strain without the endotoxin. Proteins expressed and purified from ClearColiTM BL21(DE3) cells will not trigger purification. Additionally, the endotoxin can compromise many basic research experiments involving human cells

Cai, Long

4

Endotoxin-like activities of mycoplasmal lipopolysaccharides (lipoglycans).  

PubMed

Lipoglycans (previously designated lipopolysaccharides) from several species of Acholeplasma and from Thermoplasma acidophilum were examined for endotoxin-like activities as measured by the standard rabbit fever test and the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. The lipoglycans from Acholeplasma granularum, Achloplasma laidlawii, Acholeplasma modicum, and Acholeplasma oculi caused a febrile response at concentrations of 1 ng/ml per kg or greater, whereas with control Escherichia coli EC-2 lipopolysaccharides, 6.25 ng/ml per kg was required. Similar results were obtained in the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test. The minimum concentrations in nanograms per milliliter required to stimulate formation of a solid clot were: Acholeplasma axanthum, 0.22; A. granularum, 0.85; A. modicum, 0.51; A. laidlawii, 1.05; A. oculi, 0.74. Standard E. coli 1B lipopolysaccharide required a concentration of 0.125 ng/ml. Thermoplasma lipoglycan was least active, requiring 4.25 ng/ml. Clotting of the Limulus lysate proceeds by the activation by lipopolysaccharide plus Ca(2+) of a proenzyme which cleaves an arginine-lysine peptide bond of the coagulogen. The clotting and amidase activities are inactivated by deoxycholate and can be reactivated by addition of lipopolysaccharide and Ca(2+). As with E. coli 1B lipopolysaccharide, acholeplasmal lipoglycans were shown to restore both clotting and amidase activities of the deoxycholate-inactivated Limulus clotting enzyme. The degree of restoration of amidase activity by mycoplasmal lipoglycans relative to E. coli lipopolysaccharide (1.00) were: A. axanthum, 1.71; A. modicum, 1.22; A. granularum, 0.61; and Thermoplasma, 0.37. The coagulating enzyme, restored with either E. coli lipopolysaccharide or mycoplasmal lipoglycans, was able to react with the synthetic peptide benzoyl-Ile-Glu-(gamma-OCH(3))-Gly-p-nitroaniline (an analog of the coagulogen) or with the purified coagulogen itself to form the clot. The mycoplasmal lipoglycans alone were incapable of promoting these reactions when incubated with the synthetic peptide or with the purified coagulogen, thereby ruling out the contamination of these lipoglycans with proteases capable of cleaving the same Arg-Lys peptide bond of the coagulogen. These results show that acholeplasmal lipoglycans possess endotoxin-like activities. Their passive or active role in disease remains to be established. PMID:7429642

Seid, R C; Smith, P F; Guevarra, G; Hochstein, H D; Barile, M F

1980-09-01

5

Endotoxin-Like Activities of Mycoplasmal Lipopolysaccharides (Lipoglycans)  

PubMed Central

Lipoglycans (previously designated lipopolysaccharides) from several species of Acholeplasma and from Thermoplasma acidophilum were examined for endotoxin-like activities as measured by the standard rabbit fever test and the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. The lipoglycans from Acholeplasma granularum, Achloplasma laidlawii, Acholeplasma modicum, and Acholeplasma oculi caused a febrile response at concentrations of 1 ng/ml per kg or greater, whereas with control Escherichia coli EC-2 lipopolysaccharides, 6.25 ng/ml per kg was required. Similar results were obtained in the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test. The minimum concentrations in nanograms per milliliter required to stimulate formation of a solid clot were: Acholeplasma axanthum, 0.22; A. granularum, 0.85; A. modicum, 0.51; A. laidlawii, 1.05; A. oculi, 0.74. Standard E. coli 1B lipopolysaccharide required a concentration of 0.125 ng/ml. Thermoplasma lipoglycan was least active, requiring 4.25 ng/ml. Clotting of the Limulus lysate proceeds by the activation by lipopolysaccharide plus Ca2+ of a proenzyme which cleaves an arginine-lysine peptide bond of the coagulogen. The clotting and amidase activities are inactivated by deoxycholate and can be reactivated by addition of lipopolysaccharide and Ca2+. As with E. coli 1B lipopolysaccharide, acholeplasmal lipoglycans were shown to restore both clotting and amidase activities of the deoxycholate-inactivated Limulus clotting enzyme. The degree of restoration of amidase activity by mycoplasmal lipoglycans relative to E. coli lipopolysaccharide (1.00) were: A. axanthum, 1.71; A. modicum, 1.22; A. granularum, 0.61; and Thermoplasma, 0.37. The coagulating enzyme, restored with either E. coli lipopolysaccharide or mycoplasmal lipoglycans, was able to react with the synthetic peptide benzoyl-Ile-Glu-(?-OCH3)-Gly-p-nitroaniline (an analog of the coagulogen) or with the purified coagulogen itself to form the clot. The mycoplasmal lipoglycans alone were incapable of promoting these reactions when incubated with the synthetic peptide or with the purified coagulogen, thereby ruling out the contamination of these lipoglycans with proteases capable of cleaving the same Arg-Lys peptide bond of the coagulogen. These results show that acholeplasmal lipoglycans possess endotoxin-like activities. Their passive or active role in disease remains to be established. PMID:7429642

Seid, Robert C.; Smith, Paul F.; Guevarra, Gabriel; Hochstein, H. Donald; Barile, Michael F.

1980-01-01

6

Endotoxin Removal Kit Product Insert Product # 21900  

E-print Network

Endotoxin Removal Kit Product Insert Product # 21900 Norgen's Endotoxin Removal Kit is designed for the rapid removal of endotoxins from up to 1 mg of previously purified DNA. Endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharides, are cell- membrane components of Gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli. Endotoxins are released

Lebendiker, Mario

7

Effects of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides) on survival and metabolism of cultured precision-cut rat liver slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli, LPS) on cellular metabolism and drug biotransformation was studied in precision-cut rat liver slices (PCLS). Xenobiotic metabolism by PCLS was assessed by measuring phase I (midazolam hydroxylation) and phase II (paracetamol conjugates) enzyme activities. Nitrites formation was used as an indirect way to assess LPS-mediated activation of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS,

E. Evdokimova; H. Taper; P. Buc Calderon

2002-01-01

8

EndoLISA: a novel and reliable method for endotoxin A new test for the sensitive detection of endotoxin has been developed, based on a lipopolysaccharide-  

E-print Network

EndoLISA®: a novel and reliable method for endotoxin detection A new test for the sensitive detection of endotoxin has been developed, based on a lipopolysaccharide- selective, precoated microplate.The new endotoxin test EndoLISA has a detection range from 0.05 EU/ml up to 500 EU/ml. Endotoxins are heat

Lebendiker, Mario

9

The influence of sanitizers on the lipopolysaccharide composition of Escherichia coli O111  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on the influence of typical sanitizers on the composition of the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) produced by the verocytotoxin-producing (VTEC) Escherichia coli O111. We also aimed to cast light on the applicability of O-antigen-based serotyping and endotoxin based Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assays applied in the food industry for the identification and quantification of Gram-negative bacteria. E. coli O111

P. Venter; M. Abraham; J. F. R. Lues; I. Ivanov

2006-01-01

10

Inactivation of Escherichia coli Endotoxin by Soft Hydrothermal Processing?  

PubMed Central

Bacterial endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharides, are a fever-producing by-product of gram-negative bacteria commonly known as pyrogens. It is essential to remove endotoxins from parenteral preparations since they have multiple injurious biological activities. Because of their strong heat resistance (e.g., requiring dry-heat sterilization at 250°C for 30 min) and the formation of various supramolecular aggregates, depyrogenation is more difficult than sterilization. We report here that soft hydrothermal processing, which has many advantages in safety and cost efficiency, is sufficient to assure complete depyrogenation by the inactivation of endotoxins. The endotoxin concentration in a sample was measured by using a chromogenic limulus method with an endotoxin-specific limulus reagent. The endotoxin concentration was calculated from a standard curve obtained using a serial dilution of a standard solution. We show that endotoxins were completely inactivated by soft hydrothermal processing at 130°C for 60 min or at 140°C for 30 min in the presence of a high steam saturation ratio or with a flow system. Moreover, it is easy to remove endotoxins from water by soft hydrothermal processing similarly at 130°C for 60 min or at 140°C for 30 min, without any requirement for ultrafiltration, nonselective adsorption with a hydrophobic adsorbent, or an anion exchanger. These findings indicate that soft hydrothermal processing, applied in the presence of a high steam saturation ratio or with a flow system, can inactivate endotoxins and may be useful for the depyrogenation of parenterals, including end products and medical devices that cannot be exposed to the high temperatures of dry heat treatments. PMID:19502435

Miyamoto, Toru; Okano, Shinya; Kasai, Noriyuki

2009-01-01

11

Respiratory burst activated by Escherichia coli in human neutrophils primed with different lipopolysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endotoxic shock is a dangerous complication of infection caused by gram-negative bacteria. Searching for agents capable to\\u000a block the effects of endotoxins is a fundamental scientific and medical problem. Here we studied the effects of neutrophil\\u000a priming with non-toxic lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter capsulatus (LPS\\u000a Rb. caps.\\u000a ) and toxic LPS from Escherichia coli (LPS\\u000a E. coli\\u000a ) on the respiratory

I. R. Prokhorenko; E. V. Zolotushchenko; N. V. Tarasevich; N. V. Avkhacheva; V. G. Safronova; S. V. Grachev

2007-01-01

12

Tiratricol neutralizes bacterial endotoxins and reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha production in the cell.  

PubMed

The screening of a commercially available library of compounds has proved a successful strategy for the identification of a lead compound in a drug discovery programme. Here, we analysed 880 off-patent drugs, which initially comprised the Prestwick Chemical library, as sources of bacterial endotoxin neutralizers. We identified 3,3',5-triiodo-thyroacetic acid (tiratricol) as a non-antibacterial compound that neutralizes the toxic lipopolysaccharide. PMID:18844678

Cascales, Laura; Mas-Moruno, Carlos; Tamborero, Silvia; Aceña, José Luis; Sanz-Cervera, Juan F; Fustero, Santos; Cruz, Luis J; Mora, Puig; Albericio, Fernando; Pérez-Payá, Enrique

2008-10-01

13

Effect of Escherichia coli endotoxin on cochlear potentials following its application to the chinchilla middle ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compound action potential (CAP) of the eighth nerve and the endocochlear potential (EP) were examined in the chinchilla as an animal model when Escherichia coli endotoxin (100µg) was applied to the middle ear cavity. A significant elevation of the CAP threshold at 2, 3, and 4 kHz was observed 48h after the instillation of endotoxin, but this hearing loss

T. Morizono; K. Ikeda

1990-01-01

14

Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide inhibits renin activity in human mesangial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperactivation of systemic renin–angiotensin system (RAS) during sepsis is well documented. However, the behavior of intrarenal RAS in the context of endotoxemia is yet to be defined. The present study evaluates the direct effect of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on immortalized human mesangial cell (HMC) RAS. Quiescent HMC were incubated with vehicle or LPS (1–100 ?g\\/ml), and levels of angiotensin

W S Almeida; T T Maciel; G S Di Marco; D E Casarini; A H Campos; N Schor

2006-01-01

15

Capture of lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) by the blood clot: a comparative study.  

PubMed

In vertebrates and arthropods, blood clotting involves the establishment of a plug of aggregated thrombocytes (the cellular clot) and an extracellular fibrillar clot formed by the polymerization of the structural protein of the clot, which is fibrin in mammals, plasma lipoprotein in crustaceans, and coagulin in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Both elements of the clot function to staunch bleeding. Additionally, the extracellular clot functions as an agent of the innate immune system by providing a passive anti-microbial barrier and microbial entrapment device, which functions directly at the site of wounds to the integument. Here we show that, in addition to these passive functions in immunity, the plasma lipoprotein clot of lobster, the coagulin clot of Limulus, and both the platelet thrombus and the fibrin clot of mammals (human, mouse) operate to capture lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin). The lipid A core of LPS is the principal agent of gram-negative septicemia, which is responsible for more than 100,000 human deaths annually in the United States and is similarly toxic to arthropods. Quantification using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test shows that clots capture significant quantities of LPS and fluorescent-labeled LPS can be seen by microscopy to decorate the clot fibrils. Thrombi generated in the living mouse accumulate LPS in vivo. It is suggested that capture of LPS released from gram-negative bacteria entrapped by the blood clot operates to protect against the disease that might be caused by its systemic dispersal. PMID:24282521

Armstrong, Margaret T; Rickles, Frederick R; Armstrong, Peter B

2013-01-01

16

TOPOMIMETICS OF AMPHIPATHIC ?-SHEET AND HELIX-FORMING BACTERICIDAL PEPTIDES NEUTRALIZE LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE ENDOTOXINS  

PubMed Central

Release of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin from Gram negative bacterial membranes triggers macrophages to produce large quantities of cytokines that can lead to septic shock and eventual death. Agents that bind to and neutralize LPS may provide a means to clinically prevent septic shock upon bacterial infection. Previously, we reported the design of antibacterial helix peptide SC4 and ?-sheet-forming ?pep peptides that neutralize LPS in vitro. We hypothesized that the ability of these and other such peptides to neutralize LPS rested in the common denominator of positively charged amphipathic structure. Here, we describe the design and synthesis of non-peptide, calixarene-based helix/sheet topomimetics that mimic the folded conformations of these peptides in their molecular dimensions, amphipathic surface topology, and compositional properties. From a small library of topomimetics, we identified several compounds that neutralize LPS in the 10?8 M range, making them as effective as bactericidal/permeability increasing (BPI) protein and polymyxin B. In an endotoxemia mouse model, three of the most in vitro effective topomimetics are shown to be at least partially protective against challenges of LPS from different bacterial species. NMR studies provide mechanistic insight by suggesting the site of molecular interaction between topomimetics and the lipid A component of LPS, with binding being mediated by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. This research contributes to the development of pharmaceutical agents against endotoxemia and septic shock. PMID:17181157

Chen, Xuemei; Dings, Ruud P.M.; Nesmelova, Irina; Debbert, Stefan; Haseman, Judith R.; Maxwell, Jacques; Hoye, Thomas R.; Mayo, Kevin H.

2008-01-01

17

Comparison of the limulus amebocyte lysate test and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for measuring lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins) in airborne dust from poultry-processing industries.  

PubMed Central

The lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) content in airborne dust samples from three different poultry slaughterhouses was determined with both the chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of lipopolysaccharide-derived 3-hydroxy fatty acids. Gram-negative cell walls were also measured by using two-dimensional gas chromatography/electron-capture analysis of diaminopimelic acid originating from the peptidoglycan. The correlation between the results of the Limulus assay and those of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for determination of the lipopolysaccharide content in the dust samples was poor, whereas a good correlation was obtained between lipopolysaccharide and diaminopimelic acid concentrations with the gas chromatographic methods. The results suggest that it is predominantly cell-wall-dissociated lipopolysaccharides that are measured with the Limulus assay, whereas the gas chromatographic methods allow determination of total concentrations of lipopolysaccharide, including Limulus-inactive lipopolysaccharide, gram-negative cells, and cellular debris. PMID:2187411

Sonesson, A; Larsson, L; Schütz, A; Hagmar, L; Hallberg, T

1990-01-01

18

Distribution of Core Oligosaccharide Types in Lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

In the lipopolysaccharides of Escherichia coli there are five distinct core oligosaccharide (core OS) structures, designated K-12 and R1 to R4. The objective of this work was to determine the prevalences of these core OS types within the species. Unique sequences in the waa (core OS biosynthesis) gene operon were used to develop a PCR-based system that facilitated unequivocal determination of the core OS types in isolates of E. coli. This system was applied to the 72 isolates in the E. coli ECOR collection, a compilation of isolates that is considered to be broadly representative of the genetic diversity of the species. Fifty (69.4%) of the ECOR isolates contained the R1 core OS, 8 (11.1%) were representatives of R2, 8 (11.1%) were R3, 2 (2.8%) were R4, and only 4 (5.6%) were K-12. R1 is the only core OS type found in all four major phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D) in the ECOR collection. Virulent extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli isolates tend to be closely related to group B2 and, to a lesser extent, group D isolates. All of the ECOR representatives from the B2 and D groups had the R1 core OS. In contrast, commensal E. coli isolates are more closely related to group A, which contains isolates representing each of the five core OS structures. R3 was the only core OS type found in 38 verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) isolates from humans and cattle belonging to the common enterohemorrhagic E. coli serogroups O157, O111, and O26. Although isolates from other VTEC serogroups showed more core OS diversity, the R3 type (83.1% of all VTEC isolates) was still predominant. When non-VTEC commensal isolates from cattle were analyzed, it was found that most possessed the R1 core OS type. PMID:10678915

Amor, Karen; Heinrichs, David E.; Frirdich, Emilisa; Ziebell, Kim; Johnson, Roger P.; Whitfield, Chris

2000-01-01

19

Effects of endotoxin on mammary secretion of lactating cows. [Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

The objectives were to describe the magnitude and time course of changes in milk pH, Na, K, lactose, and somatic cells and to determine if paracellular pathways were altered after infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin (serotype 0128:AB12) to produce inflammation in one-half of the udder of the goat. Intramammary infusion of endotoxin increased pH, number of somatic cells, and Na and decreased K and lactose in milk. Sodium and number of somatic cells were increased by as little as .1..mu..g of endotoxin; .25 ..mu..g produced changes in most of the other parameters; maximal effect was elicited by 1..mu..g of endotoxin. The gland response peaked from 5 to 7 h after infusion of endotoxin with an increase in milk cellularity as the only significant effect noted in the control gland. Infusion of (/sup 14/C)lactose into the gland and (/sup 99m/Tc)albumin into the blood demonstrated that large molecules were more able to cross into and out of udder halves after endotoxin treatment. It is suggested that ion interchange rather than bulk flow across paracellular paths is responsible for changes. In addition, endotoxin appeared to reduce lactose secretion and synthesis.

Lengemann, F.W.; Pitzrick, M.

1986-05-01

20

Differential responses of the endothelial and epithelial barriers of the lung in sheep to Escherichia coli endotoxin.  

PubMed Central

Although intravenous Escherichia coli endotoxin has been used extensively in experimental studies to increase lung endothelial permeability, the effect of E. coli endotoxin on lung epithelial permeability has not been well studied. To examine this issue in sheep, bidirectional movement of protein across the lung epithelial barrier was studied by labeling the vascular space with 131I-albumin and by instilling 3 ml/kg of an isosmolar protein solution with 125I-albumin into the alveoli. E. coli endotoxin was administered according to one of three protocols: intravenous alone (5-500 micrograms/kg), intravenous (5 micrograms/kg) plus low-dose alveolar endotoxin (10 micrograms/kg), and high-dose alveolar endotoxin alone (50-100 micrograms/kg). Alveolar liquid clearance was estimated based on the concentration of the instilled native protein. Sheep were studied for either 4 or 24 h. Although intravenous E. coli endotoxin produced a marked increase in transvascular protein flux and interstitial pulmonary edema, there was no effect on the clearance of either the vascular (131I-albumin) or the alveolar (125I-albumin) protein tracer across the epithelial barrier. High-dose alveolar E. coli endotoxin caused a 10-fold increase in the number of leukocytes, particularly neutrophils, that accumulated in the air spaces. In spite of the marked chemotactic effect of alveolar endotoxin, there was no change in the permeability of the epithelial barrier to the vascular or alveolar protein tracers. Also, alveolar epithelial liquid clearance was normal. Morphologic studies confirmed that the alveolar epithelial barrier was not injured by either intravenous or alveolar E. coli endotoxin. Thus, the alveolar epithelium in sheep is significantly more resistant than the lung endothelium to the injurious effects of E. coli endotoxin. Images PMID:1885774

Wiener-Kronish, J P; Albertine, K H; Matthay, M A

1991-01-01

21

Effect of linezolid on cytokine production capacity and plasma endotoxin levels in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation of whole blood.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cytokine production in the presence of linezolid (LZD) in comparison with the drug effect on the plasma endotoxin level. Peripheral venous whole-blood samples collected from five healthy subjects were stimulated with 10 microg/ml of LPS. LZD was then added to the LPS-stimulated blood samples at concentrations of 0, 2, 4, and 15 microg/ml , followed by incubation for 24 h at 37 degrees C in a 5% CO(2)-95% air atmosphere. Supernatants of the resultant cultures were assayed to determine the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and endotoxin. Significant decreases in the levels of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma were observed in the LZD 2, 4, and 15 microg/ml groups as compared with that in the 0 microg/ml group (Dunnett's procedure; P < 0.05). The level of IL-10 tended to increase irrespective of the LZD concentration; however, no significant intergroup differences were observed [analysis of variance (ANOVA); P = 0.68]. No significant decrease of the endotoxin level was observed in the LZD 2, 4, or 15 microg/ml groups as compared with that in the 0 microg/ml group, with no significant intergroup differences (ANOVA; P = 0.83). No change in the MCP-1 levels was observed irrespective of the LZD concentration (ANOVA; P = 0.82). To conclude: (1) it appears possible that LZD inhibits the production of INF-gamma and TNF-alpha to a limited extent; (2) LZD did not exert any inhibitory effect on endotoxin production by bacteria, while suppressing cytokine production. The results indicate that LZD may have a significant role in saving the lives of patients with sepsis. PMID:20094752

Takahashi, Gaku; Sato, Nobuhiro; Yaegashi, Yasunori; Kojika, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Naoya; Kikkawa, Tomohiro; Shozushima, Tatsuyori; Akitomi, Shinji; Aoki, Kiichi; Ito, Naoko; Hoshikawa, Koichi; Suzuki, Yasushi; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Wakabayashi, Go; Endo, Shigeatsu

2010-04-01

22

Structural and antigenic properties of Campylobacter coli lipopolysaccharides.  

PubMed Central

Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from O-serotype reference strains and from serotyped isolates of Campylobacter coli were examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in combination with silver staining and immunoblotting to elucidate the molecular basis for the thermostable antigenic diversity in C. coli. Electrophoresed low-Mr LPS was detectable by silver staining and immunoblotting, but high-Mr LPS was demonstrable only by immunoblotting. Eight different antigenic specificities of low-Mr LPS were defined among the 18 serotype reference strains. In some cases, the LPSs from serotype reference strains and from field isolates of the same serotype had virtually identical low-Mr and high-Mr molecules. In other cases, the high-Mr molecules of the LPS were virtually the same for both the isolates and the corresponding serotype reference strains but low-Mr LPS of the isolate differed in both its antigenicity and it structure. The antigenic specificities of high-Mr LPS but not low-Mr LPS are the serotypic markers of the species that are identified when serotyping is performed by passive hemagglutination. Images PMID:2807533

Mandatori, R; Penner, J L

1989-01-01

23

Saccharomyces boulardii produces in rat small intestine a novel protein phosphatase that inhibits Escherichia coli endotoxin by dephosphorylation.  

PubMed

Using a polyclonal antibody raised against a highly conserved sequence of 38 amino acids containing the activation site (VTDSAAGAT) common to mammalian and yeast alkaline phosphatases (AP), we identified in decapsidated Saccharomyces boulardii a protein phosphatase detected by autoradiography as a single signal (63 kD). Using an affinity chromatography column, the protein phosphatase could be concentrated 39.1-fold and presented as a doublet of two subunits. Compared with rat and bovine purified intestinal AP, the enzyme from S. boulardii had a greater ability to dephosphorylate the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia coli 055B5. When tested in vivo, intraperitoneal injection of intact LPS to rats produced, after 9 h, 100 ng/mL of circulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha with inflammatory lesions and apoptotic bodies in the liver and the heart, whereas rats injected with partially dephosphorylated LPS produced only 40 ng/mL tumor necrosis factor-alpha without organic lesions. In conclusion, S. boulardii is able to inhibit toxicity of E. coli surface endotoxins by the release of a protein phosphatase exhibiting a great capacity of dephosphorylation. PMID:16690953

Buts, Jean-Paul; Dekeyser, Nadine; Stilmant, Catherine; Delem, Emilie; Smets, Francoise; Sokal, Etienne

2006-07-01

24

Increased antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli in bovine serum after the induction of endotoxin tolerance.  

PubMed

Small amounts of endotoxin injected intramuscularly into cows induced endotoxin pyrogenic tolerance and an increase in the rate at which the serum killed a strain of Escherichia coli. Most of the difference between normal serum and serum from the endotoxin-tolerant animal was shown to be due to a bentonite-adsorbable factor other than lysozyme or beta-lysin. The antibacterial activity was not completely removed from either type of serum after bentonite adsorption. Electron microscope studies and measurement of the rate of release of radioactively labeled cytoplasmic contents showed that the bentonite-adsorbable factor was important in the final breakdown of the cell membrane and release of cellular contents. The antibacterial system was totally dependent on complement, and the importance of antibodies could not be entirely ruled out because adsorption at O C with homologous cells eliminated the killing activity. PMID:780275

Hill, A W; Shears, A L; Hibbitt, K G

1976-07-01

25

Endotoxin of Escherichia coli and permeability of the mammary glands of goats  

SciTech Connect

Serial collections of milk were used to determine where in the mammary gland endotoxin of Escherichia coli was effective in altering the transfer of selected milk components into blood and blood components into milk. Lactating goats had half the gland infused with 1 ..mu..g of endotoxin and the other half served as a control. Sodium-24 and /sup 42/K or (/sup 14/C) lactose were included with /sup 141/Ce in the infusate in some experiments, whereas in others /sup 99m/Tc-labelled albumin or /sup 24/Na and /sup 42/K were given intravenously 2 h after the endotoxin infusion. Milk was collected 3 h after endotoxin infusion. Endotoxin increased the loss of /sup 24/Na, /sup 42/K, and (/sup 14/C) lactose from the mammary gland and increased the transfer of /sup 24/Na and /sup 99m/Tc-albumin into the gland. The transfer in of /sup 42/K was reduced compared with control halves. Movement of stable Na and K was in accord with the movement of the /sup 24/Na and /sup 42/K. Endotoxin was effective in all parts of the gland but particularly from the mid-portion upward to the alveoli. For the control halves there was evidence that some /sup 24/Na and /sup 42/K crossed the ductal or cisternal epithelium into blood outside of the alveoli, whereas only /sup 42/K provided evidence for transfer from blood to milk in these same regions. There was no demonstrable transfer of lactose and albumin in regions other than the alveoli.

Lengemann, F.W.; Pitzrick, M.

1987-01-01

26

Underlying mechanisms involved in the decrease of milk secretion during Escherichia coli endotoxin induced mastitis in lactating mice  

PubMed Central

Mastitis, the inflammation of mammary glands resulting from bacterial infection, disrupts milk production in lactating mammary glands. In this study, we injected lipopolysaccharide (LPS), one of the endotoxins from Escherichia coli into mouse mammary glands to disrupt milk production, and we investigated the influence of LPS on nutrient uptake, synthesis, and secretion processes for milk component production in alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). The expression of genes relevant to the three-staged milk component production process (nutrient uptake, synthesis, and secretion of milk components) were down-regulated within 12 h after LPS injection in AEC. The internalization of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) from the basolateral membrane to the cytoplasm occurred in accordance with the down-regulation of gene expression 3 h after LPS injection. The abnormal localization of adipophilin and beta-casein was also observed in the LPS-injected mammary glands. SLC7A1, an amino acid transporter, was up-regulated 3 and 6 h after LPS injection. Furthermore, the inactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and the activation of STAT3 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NFkappaB) occurred 3 h after LPS injection. These results indicate that the nutrient uptake, synthesis, and secretion of milk components in AEC are rapidly shut down in the lactating mammary glands after LPS injection. PMID:24308795

2013-01-01

27

Effect of E coli endotoxin on the leakage of /sup 14/C-sucrose from phosphatidylcholine liposomes  

SciTech Connect

The effect of E coli endotoxin on the leakage of /sup 14/C-sucrose from phosphatidylcholine liposomes in the absence or presence of Ca/sup 2 +/ was studied. Endotoxin decreased the leakage from liposomes from 27% to 4% in 5 hr when Ca/sup 2 +/ (1 mM) was incorporated into liposomes during sonication. The effect of endotoxin on the leakiness of liposomes was concentration dependent. Ca/sup 2 +/ alone increased the leakage of /sup 14/C-sucrose from liposomes. Mg/sup 2 +/ at concentrations higher than 5 mM exhibited an effect similar to that of Ca/sup 2 +/. These findings suggest that endotoxin increases the molecular packing of phosphatidylcholine bilayers in the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/ or Mg/sup 2 +/. A change in the physical state of membrane lipid bilayers induced by endotoxin may affect the function of biological membranes.

Onji, T.; Liu, M.S.

1981-01-01

28

Production of functional inclusion bodies in endotoxin-free Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli is the workhorse for gene cloning and production of soluble recombinant proteins in both biotechnological and biomedical industries. The bacterium is also a good producer of several classes of protein-based self-assembling materials such as inclusion bodies (IBs). Apart from being a relatively pure source of protein for in vitro refolding, IBs are under exploration as functional, protein-releasing materials in regenerative medicine and protein replacement therapies. Endotoxin removal is a critical step for downstream applications of therapeutic proteins. The same holds true for IBs as they are often highly contaminated with cell-wall components of the host cells. Here, we have investigated the production of IBs in a recently developed endotoxin-free E. coli strain. The characterization of IBs revealed this mutant as a very useful cell factory for the production of functional endotoxin-free IBs that are suitable for the use at biological interfaces without inducing endotoxic responses in human immune cells. PMID:25129611

Rueda, Fabián; Cano-Garrido, Olivia; Mamat, Uwe; Wilke, Kathleen; Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; García-Fruitós, Elena; Villaverde, Antonio

2014-11-01

29

Direct and indirect effects of E. Coli lipopolysaccharide on isolated human polymorphonuclear granulocytes and mixed leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMN) may contribute to the lung injury induced by nonpulmonary infections with gram-negative bacteria. The direct effect ofE. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on isolated human PMN or mixed leukocytes (ML), as well as the priming effect of preincubating cells with LPS, was examined in assays measuring the maximal rate of oxygen consumption (OC), cell chemiluminescence (CHML), and aggregation

Helge Opdahl

1993-01-01

30

Distribution of lipopolysaccharide core types among avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in relation to the major phylogenetic groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five distinct lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core types, namely R1–R4 and K12 have been identified in Escherichia coli. The aims of this study were to determine, primarily by means of PCR, the distribution of those oligosaccharide core types among avian pathogenic E. coli and their relationship to phylogenetic groups. To identify putative avian pathogenic E. coli, serum resistance and the presence of

D. R. A. Dissanayake; T. G. Wijewardana; G. A. Gunawardena; I. R. Poxton

2008-01-01

31

Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for the lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli O157.  

PubMed Central

Identification of the O157 antigen is an essential part of the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7, which is recognized as a major etiologic agent of hemorrhagic colitis. However, polyclonal antibodies produced against E. coli O157:H7 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may react with several other bacteria including Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, Yersinia enterocolitica O9, Escherichia hermannii, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. We produced eight monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the LPS of E. coli O157. Western blots (immunoblots) of both the phenol phase (smooth) and the aqueous phase (rough) of hot phenol-water-purified LPS indicated that three of the MAbs were specific for the O antigen and five were reactive with the LPS core. The eight MAbs could be further differentiated by their reactivities to Salmonella O30 LPS (group N), which is reported to be identical to the E. coli O157 antigen. All eight MAbs reacted strongly to all of the 64 strains of E. coli O157 tested, which included 47 isolates of O157:H7 and 17 other O157 strains. None of the eight MAbs cross-reacted with any of the 38 other E. coli serotypes tested, which consisted of 29 different O-antigen serotypes, or with 38 strains (22 genera) of non-E. coli gram-negative enteric bacteria. PMID:9041412

Westerman, R B; He, Y; Keen, J E; Littledike, E T; Kwang, J

1997-01-01

32

Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for the lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli O157.  

PubMed

Identification of the O157 antigen is an essential part of the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7, which is recognized as a major etiologic agent of hemorrhagic colitis. However, polyclonal antibodies produced against E. coli O157:H7 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may react with several other bacteria including Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, Yersinia enterocolitica O9, Escherichia hermannii, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. We produced eight monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the LPS of E. coli O157. Western blots (immunoblots) of both the phenol phase (smooth) and the aqueous phase (rough) of hot phenol-water-purified LPS indicated that three of the MAbs were specific for the O antigen and five were reactive with the LPS core. The eight MAbs could be further differentiated by their reactivities to Salmonella O30 LPS (group N), which is reported to be identical to the E. coli O157 antigen. All eight MAbs reacted strongly to all of the 64 strains of E. coli O157 tested, which included 47 isolates of O157:H7 and 17 other O157 strains. None of the eight MAbs cross-reacted with any of the 38 other E. coli serotypes tested, which consisted of 29 different O-antigen serotypes, or with 38 strains (22 genera) of non-E. coli gram-negative enteric bacteria. PMID:9041412

Westerman, R B; He, Y; Keen, J E; Littledike, E T; Kwang, J

1997-03-01

33

The effect of Escherichia coli endotoxin and culture filtrate on the lactating bovine mammary gland.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of coliform mastitis was studied by observing pathological changes in lactating glands after infusion of either endotoxin or the sterile culture filtrate (CCF) of the medium in which Escherichia coli strain B117 had been grown. Both infusions produced a rapid and intense inflammatory response by 4 h with a marked increase of serum proteins in the milk. Before dispersing into the milk, neutrophils were attached to the ductular epithelium; highest cell counts in the milk were recorded when the tissue reaction had waned. Oedema of the ductular epithelium occurred, particularly where neutrophils were actively migrating. The infusion of CCF produced, in addition to inflammation, degeneration and necrosis of ductular cells. The smallest lesions healed very rapidly. There was evidence of differing cell susceptibility to the necrotising toxin as well as uneven distribution over the epithelial surface. All changes observed were confined to the regions of the teat and lactiferous sinuses with little effect on the secreting tissue. The role of the necrotising toxin in the natural disease remains undetermined. PMID:6378165

Frost, A J; Brooker, B E; Hill, A W

1984-03-01

34

Mammalian nitrate biosynthesis: mouse macrophages produce nitrite and nitrate in response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitrate biosynthesis was studied in LPS-sensitive C3H\\/He and LPS-resistant C3H\\/HeJ mice. Intraperitoneal injection of 15 ..mu..g of LPS led to a temporary 5- to 6-fold increase in blood nitrate concentration in the C3H\\/He strain. Levels of nitrate excreted in the urine were also increased. In contrast, no increase was observed in the C3H\\/HeJ strain with LPS

D. J. Stuehr; M. A. Marletta

1985-01-01

35

Interactions of the Classical and Alternate Complement Pathway with Endotoxin Lipopolysaccharide EFFECT ON PLATELETS AND BLOOD COAGULATION  

PubMed Central

The contributions of the classical and alternate pathways of complement activation to the biological effects of endotoxin have been examined in the guinea pig, with particular reference to thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and the development of the hypercoagulable state. Injection of endotoxin into normal guinea pigs led to a 95% fall in the level of circulating platelets within 15 min as well as a fall in circulating granulocytes. C4-deficient guinea pigs, known to have a complete block in the activity of the classical complement pathway, but with the alternate pathway intact, sustained no fall in platelets. The development of granulocytopenia proceeded normally. Endotoxin did activate the alternate complement pathway in C4D guinea pigs, as evidenced by the fall in C3-9 titers. With restoration of serum C4 levels, endotoxin-induced thrombocytopenia was observed in C4D animals. Thus, function of the classical complement pathway was an absolute requirement for the development of thrombocytopenia. Experiments performed in cobra venom factor (CVF)-treated normal guinea pigs, with normal levels of C1, C4, and C2, but with less than 1% of serum C3-9 demonstrated the importance of the late components in the development of thrombocytopenia but not leukopenia. C4-deficient guinea pigs had normal clotting times demonstrating that C4 was not required for normal clotting. In addition, development of the hypercoagulable state, evidenced by a marked shortening of the clotting time, was not observed on injection of endotoxin into C4D animals. Therefore, development of the hypercoagulable state paralleled the development of thrombocytopenia and required function of the classical complement pathway. Again, the importance of the late components of complement was emphasized by the failure of CVF-treated normal animals to develop hypercoagulability. These results demonstrate that endotoxin is capable of activating both the classical and alternate complement pathways in guinea pigs but that function of the classical pathway is an absolute requirement for the development of thrombocytopenia and the hypercoagulable state. PMID:4683877

Kane, Michael A.; May, Joseph E.; Frank, Michael M.

1973-01-01

36

Production of serum antibodies that recognise epitopes located on the R3 region of Escherichia coli core lipopolysaccharides by patients infected with strains of enterohaemorrhagic E. coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibody-antigen cross-reactions were examined with sera from patients with Escherichia coli O157 infection and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) purified from a range of enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) including those belonging to serogroups O26, O103, O111, O145 and O157. Six of 10 patients infected with an O157 EHEC produced serum antibodies that cross-reacted with common LPS-core epitopes, which were expressed by 23 of

HENRIK CHART; THOMAS CHEASTY; GERALDINE A. WILLSHAW

37

Helical Disposition of Proteins and Lipopolysaccharide in the Outer Membrane of Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

In bacteria, several physiological processes once thought to be the products of uniformly dispersed reactions are now known to be highly asymmetric, with some exhibiting interesting geometric localizations. In particular, the cell envelope of Escherichia coli displays a form of subcellular differentiation in which peptidoglycan and outer membrane proteins at the cell poles remain stable for generations while material in the lateral walls is diluted by growth and turnover. To determine if material in the side walls was organized in any way, we labeled outer membrane proteins with succinimidyl ester-linked fluorescent dyes and then grew the stained cells in the absence of dye. Labeled proteins were not evenly dispersed in the envelope but instead appeared as helical ribbons that wrapped around the outside of the cell. By staining the O8 surface antigen of E. coli 2443 with a fluorescent derivative of concanavalin A, we observed a similar helical organization for the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) component of the outer membrane. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching indicated that some of the outer membrane proteins remained freely diffusible in the side walls and could also diffuse into polar domains. On the other hand, the LPS O antigen was virtually immobile. Thus, the outer membrane of E. coli has a defined in vivo organization in which a subfraction of proteins and LPS are embedded in stable domains at the poles and along one or more helical ribbons that span the length of this gram-negative rod. PMID:15743937

Ghosh, Anindya S.; Young, Kevin D.

2005-01-01

38

Antibody Responses to Escherichia coli O157 and Other Lipopolysaccharides in Healthy Children and Adults  

PubMed Central

In Mexico, diarrheal disease due to different serotypes of Escherichia coli is highly prevalent, with only sporadic isolation of O157 non-H7 strains. This could be due to exposure to the O157 or related E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), such as O7 or O116, at an early age. By using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting, the present study analyzed 605 serum samples from Mexican adults and infants without clinical symptoms of disease for the presence of antibodies to these three E. coli LPSs. The bactericidal activities of homologous and heterologous rabbit and human serum samples against O7, O116, and O157 E. coli LPSs were also determined. By using a cutoff point of 0.7, it was found by the ELISAs that 28 of 562 (5%) of the serum samples from adolescents and adults and 2 of 43 (5%) of the serum samples from infants less than 1 year of age reacted with the O157 LPS. By using cutoff points between 0.4 and 0.699, the proportion of serum samples from both age groups that reacted with the O157 LPS increased to 20%. Western blotting analysis of selected serum samples that showed an intermediate response against the O157 LPS by the ELISAs showed that 61 of 88 (69%) reacted with the same LPS. A similar result was observed for maternal milk samples. The bactericidal activities of rabbit serum samples against the O7, O116, and O157 LPSs showed that they were positive for both homologous and heterologous antigens. Similar results were observed with the human serum samples. O157 non-H7 strains were identified in only 10% of the E. coli strains isolated from 263 Mexican children with and without diarrhea over the past 15 years. This absence of O157:H7 strains in Mexico may be associated with the presence of antibodies against O157 or related E. coli LPSs. PMID:12965907

Navarro, Armando; Eslava, Carlos; Hernandez, Ulises; Navarro-Henze, Jose Luis; Aviles, Magali; Garcia-de la Torre, Guadalupe; Cravioto, Alejandro

2003-01-01

39

Bladder instillation of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide alters the muscle contractions in rat urinary bladder via a protein kinase C-related pathway  

SciTech Connect

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli is a common cause of urinary tract infection. We determined the effects of intravesical instillation of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) on muscle contractions, protein kinase C (PKC) translocation, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in rat urinary bladder. The contractions of the isolated rat detrusor muscle evoked by electrical field stimulations were measured short-term (1 h) or long-term (24 h) after intravesical instillation of LPS. One hour after LPS intravesical instillation, bladder PKC-{alpha} translocation from cytosolic fraction to membrane fraction and endothelial (e)NOS protein was elevated, and detrusor muscle contractions were significantly increased. PKC inhibitors chelerythrine and Ro32-0432 inhibited this LPS-enhanced contractile response. Application of PKC activator {beta}-phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate enhanced the muscle contractions. Three hours after intravesical instillation of LPS, iNOS mRNA was detected in the bladder. Immunoblotting study also demonstrated that the induction of iNOS proteins is detected in bladder in which LPS was instilled. 24 h after intravesical instillation of LPS, PKC-{alpha} translocation was impaired in the bladder; LPS did not affect PKC-{delta} translocation. Muscle contractions were also decreased 24 h after LPS intravesical instillation. Aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor, blocked the decrease in PKC-{alpha} translocation and detrusor contractions induced by LPS. These results indicate that there are different mechanisms involved in the alteration of urinary bladder contractions after short-term and long-term treatment of LPS; an iNOS-regulated PKC signaling may participate in causing the inhibition of muscle contractions in urinary bladder induced by long-term LPS treatment.

Weng, T.I. [Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Section 1, Jen-Ai Road, Taipei, 10043, Taiwan (China); Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, W.J. [Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, S.H. [Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Section 1, Jen-Ai Road, Taipei, 10043, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: shliu@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

2005-10-15

40

Research paper Simultaneous metal chelate affinity purification and endotoxin  

E-print Network

Research paper Simultaneous metal chelate affinity purification and endotoxin clearance 22 June 2006 Abstract Endotoxins are frequent contaminants of recombinant proteins produced in Escherichia coli. Due to their adverse effects, endotoxins have to be removed from recombinant proteins prior

Lebendiker, Mario

41

Convergent synthesis of the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the cell wall lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli O40  

PubMed Central

Summary A tetrasaccharide repeating unit corresponding to the cell-wall lipopolysaccharide of E. coli O40 was synthesized by using a convergent block glycosylation strategy. A disaccharide donor was coupled to a disaccharide acceptor by a stereoselective glycosylation. A 2-aminoethyl linker was chosen as the anomeric protecting group at the reducing end of the tetrasaccharide. All glycosylation steps are significantly high yielding and stereoselective. PMID:23209539

Sau, Abhijit

2012-01-01

42

In vitro evaluation of the action of irrigating solutions associated with intracanal medications on Escherichia coli and its endotoxin in root canals  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of auxiliary chemical substances and intracanal medications on Escherichia coli and its endotoxin in root canals. Material and Methods Teeth were contaminated with a suspension of E. coli for 14 days and divided into 3 groups according to the auxiliary chemical substance used: G1) 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); G2) 2% chlorhexidine gel (CLX); G3) pyrogen-free solution. After, these groups were subdivided according to the intracanal medication (ICM): A) Calcium hydroxide paste (Calen®), B) polymyxin B, and C) Calcium hydroxide paste+2% CLX gel. For the control group (G4), pyrogen-free saline solution was used without application of intracanal medication. Samples of the root canal content were collected immediately after biomechanical preparation (BMP), at 7 days after BMP, after 14 days of intracanal medication activity, and 7 days after removal of intracanal medication. The following aspects were evaluated for all collections: a) antimicrobial activity; b) quantification of endotoxin by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test (LAL). Results were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s tests at 5% significance level. Results The 2.5% NaOCl and CLX were able to eliminate E. coli from root canal lumen and reduced the amount of endotoxin compared to saline. Conclusions It was concluded that 2.5% NaOCl and CLX were effective in eliminating E. coli. Only the studied intracanal medications were to reduce the amount of endotoxin present in the root canals, regardless of the irrigant used. PMID:21552710

MAEKAWA, Lilian Eiko; VALERA, Marcia Carneiro; de OLIVEIRA, Luciane Dias; CARVALHO, Cláudio Antonio Talge; KOGA-ITO, Cristiane Yumi; JORGE, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

2011-01-01

43

Molecular Dynamics and NMR Spectroscopy Studies of E. coli Lipopolysaccharide Structure and Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes, comprises three regions: lipid A, core oligosaccharide, and O-antigen polysaccharide. Using the CHARMM36 lipid and carbohydrate force fields, we have constructed a model of an Escherichia coli R1 (core) O6 (antigen) LPS molecule. Several all-atom bilayers are built and simulated with lipid A only (LIPA) and varying lengths of 0 (LPS0), 5 (LPS5), and 10 (LPS10) O6 antigen repeating units; a single unit of O6 antigen contains five sugar residues. From 1H,1H-NOESY experiments, cross-relaxation rates are obtained from an O-antigen polysaccharide sample. Although some experimental deviations are due to spin-diffusion, the remaining effective proton-proton distances show generally very good agreement between NMR experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. The simulation results show that increasing the LPS molecular length has an impact on LPS structure and dynamics and also on LPS bilayer properties. Terminal residues in a LPS bilayer are more flexible and extended along the membrane normal. As the core and O-antigen are added, per-lipid area increases and lipid bilayer order decreases. In addition, results from mixed LPS0/5 and LPS0/10 bilayer simulations show that the LPS O-antigen conformations at a higher concentration of LPS5 and LPS10 are more orthogonal to the membrane and less flexible. The O-antigen concentration of mixed LPS bilayers does not have a significant effect on per-lipid area and hydrophobic thickness. Analysis of ion and water penetration shows that water molecules can penetrate inside the inner core region, and hydration is critical to maintain the integrity of the bilayer structure. PMID:24047996

Wu, Emilia L.; Engstrom, Olof; Jo, Sunhwan; Stuhlsatz, Danielle; Yeom, Min Sun; Klauda, Jeffery B.; Widmalm, Goran; Im, Wonpil

2013-01-01

44

Early effects of Escherichia coli endotoxin infusion on vasopressin-stimulated breakdown and metabolism of inositol lipids in rat hepatocytes  

SciTech Connect

The turnover of vasopressin-stimulated 32P-phosphoinositides and 32P-phosphatidic acid and accumulation of (2-3H)-inositol phosphates were examined in hepatocytes from rats infused i.v. with saline and E. coli endotoxin for 3 hrs. Within 60s of VP stimulation the decrease in phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate labeling as well as the increased uptake of 32P into phosphatidic acid were similar in both groups. However, at a later time (300s) the 32P-phosphatidylinositol turnover was greatly decreased concomitantly with a higher labeling of phosphatidic acid. The accumulation of (2-3H)-inositol phosphates in ET-cells was significantly decreased both at 30s and 600s after VP addition. The distribution of (2-3H)-inositol labeling accumulated in the different inositol phosphate fractions over the first 30s of VP stimulation showed a tendency to lower accumulation of inositol trisphosphate, and a significantly lower accumulation of inositol bisphosphate simultaneously with a higher labeling of the inositol tetrakisphosphate fraction. These observations reflect an early effect of ET-infusion on VP-stimulated inositol lipid turnover and on the subsequent metabolism of the released inositol phosphates.

Rodriguez de Turco, E.B.; Spitzer, J.A.

1988-08-30

45

Synthesis of the Tetrasaccharide Motif and Its Structural Analog Corresponding to the Lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli O75  

PubMed Central

Background Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli are mostly responsible for a diverse spectrum of invasive human and animal infections leading to the urinary tract infections. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides are responsible for their pathogenicity and their interactions with host immune responses. In spite of several breakthroughs in the development of therapeutics to combat urinary tract infections and related diseases, the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains is a serious concern. Lipopolysaccharides are attractive targets for the development of long-term therapeutic agents to eradicate the infections. Since the natural sources cannot provide the required amount of oligosaccharides, development of chemical synthetic strategies for their synthesis is relevant to gain access to a reservoir of oligosaccharides and their close analogs. Methodology Two tetrasaccharide derivatives were synthesized from a single disaccharide intermediate. ?-d-mannoside moiety was prepared from ?-d-glucoside moiety following oxidation–reduction methodology. A [2+2] stereoselective block glycosylation strategy has been adopted for the preparation of tetrasaccharide derivative. ?-d-Glucosamine moiety was prepared from ?-d-mannosidic moiety following triflate formation at C-2 and SN2 substitution. A one-pot iterative glycosylation exploiting the orthogonal property of thioglycoside was carried out during the synthesis of tetrasaccharide analog. Results Synthesis of the tetrasaccharide motif (1) and its structural analog (2) corresponding to the lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli O75 was successfully achieved in excellent yield. Most of the reactions are clean and high yielding. Both compounds 1 and 2 were synthesized as their 4-methoxyphenyl glycoside, which can act as a temporary anomeric protecting group for further use of these tetrasaccharides in the preparation of glycoconjugates. PMID:22662142

Sau, Abhijit; Misra, Anup Kumar

2012-01-01

46

Distribution of lipopolysaccharide core types among avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in relation to the major phylogenetic groups.  

PubMed

Five distinct lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core types, namely R1-R4 and K12 have been identified in Escherichia coli. The aims of this study were to determine, primarily by means of PCR, the distribution of those oligosaccharide core types among avian pathogenic E. coli and their relationship to phylogenetic groups. To identify putative avian pathogenic E. coli, serum resistance and the presence of three virulence genes encoding temperature sensitive haemagglutinin (tsh), increased serum survival (iss) and colicin V (cvaC) were determined. Of the 143 clinical isolates examined 62% possessed the R1 core, 22% were R3, 13% were R4 and 3% were R2. Fifty commensal isolates consisted of 58% with R1 core, 38% with R3 core, 4% with R4 core, and none with R2. None of the isolates were of K12 core type. The distribution of core oligosaccharide types in clinical and commensal isolates were not statistically significant (P=0.51). Three genes, tsh, iss and cvaC were found in E. coli of all four core types. The genes tsh (P<0.001) and iss (P=0.03412) were significantly associated with the R4 core oligosaccharide type. The isolates containing R4 core type LPS were mainly confined to phylogenetic group D. The widespread R1 core type showed less ability to possess virulence genes and 83% were in the phylogenetic group A. Results of this study indicated that E. coli with R1, R2, R3 and R4 were important in causing infections in chickens and further, the E. coli with R4 core type were less common among commensals, possessed more virulence genes and were related to phylogenetic groups pathogenic for poultry. PMID:18597955

Dissanayake, D R A; Wijewardana, T G; Gunawardena, G A; Poxton, I R

2008-12-10

47

Naturally occurring hypothermia is more advantageous than fever in severe forms of lipopolysaccharide- and Escherichia coli-induced systemic inflammation  

PubMed Central

The natural switch from fever to hypothermia observed in the most severe cases of systemic inflammation is a phenomenon that continues to puzzle clinicians and scientists. The present study was the first to evaluate in direct experiments how the development of hypothermia vs. fever during severe forms of systemic inflammation impacts the pathophysiology of this malady and mortality rates in rats. Following administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 or 18 mg/kg) or of a clinical Escherichia coli isolate (5 × 109 or 1 × 1010 CFU/kg), hypothermia developed in rats exposed to a mildly cool environment, but not in rats exposed to a warm environment; only fever was revealed in the warm environment. Development of hypothermia instead of fever suppressed endotoxemia in E. coli-infected rats, but not in LPS-injected rats. The infiltration of the lungs by neutrophils was similarly suppressed in E. coli-infected rats of the hypothermic group. These potentially beneficial effects came with costs, as hypothermia increased bacterial burden in the liver. Furthermore, the hypotensive responses to LPS or E. coli were exaggerated in rats of the hypothermic group. This exaggeration, however, occurred independently of changes in inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins. Despite possible costs, development of hypothermia lessened abdominal organ dysfunction and reduced overall mortality rates in both the E. coli and LPS models. By demonstrating that naturally occurring hypothermia is more advantageous than fever in severe forms of aseptic (LPS-induced) or septic (E. coli-induced) systemic inflammation, this study provides new grounds for the management of this deadly condition. PMID:22513748

Liu, Elaine; Lewis, Kevin; Al-Saffar, Hiba; Krall, Catherine M.; Singh, Anju; Kulchitsky, Vladimir A.; Corrigan, Joshua J.; Simons, Christopher T.; Petersen, Scott R.; Musteata, Florin M.; Bakshi, Chandra S.; Romanovsky, Andrej A.; Sellati, Timothy J.

2012-01-01

48

Induction of glomerular alkaline phosphatase after challenge with lipopolysaccharide  

PubMed Central

Alkaline phosphatase (AP) can be considered as a host defence molecule since this enzyme is able to detoxify bacterial endotoxin at physiological pH. The question emerged whether this anti-endotoxin principle is inducible in the glomerulus and if so, which glomerular cells might be involved in the expression of ectoAP after stimulation with pro-inflammatory agents. Therefore kidneys of rats treated with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS), E. coli bacteria or non-toxic monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) were examined for AP activity 6 or 24 h after challenge. In addition cultures of endothelial cells or mesangial cells were evaluated for AP activity after stimulation with either LPS, TNF? or IL-6, and mRNA for AP was studied in TNF?-stimulated and control mesangial cells. The results show significant up-regulation of glomerular AP in LPS- or E. coli-injected rats compared to rats injected with MPLA. Endothelial and mesangial cells in vitro showed significant up-regulation of AP activity following stimulation with LPS, TNF? or IL-6, whereas increased mRNA for AP was observed in mesangial cells after TNF? stimulation compared to non-stimulated control cells. Since it appeared that hydrolysis occurred when endotoxin was used as a substrate in the histochemical staining, we concluded that inducible glomerular ectoAP may reflect a local endotoxin detoxifying principle of the kidney. PMID:12974943

Kapojos, Jola J; Poelstra, Klaas; Borghuis, Theo; Van Den Berg, Anke; Baelde, Hans J; Klok, Pieter A; Bakker, Winston W

2003-01-01

49

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced autophagy is involved in the restriction of Escherichia coli in peritoneal mesothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Host cell autophagy is implicated in the control of intracellular pathogen. Escherichia coli (E.coli) is the most common organism caused single-germ enterobacterial peritonitis during peritoneal dialysis. In this study, we investigated autophagy of peritoneal mesothelial cells and its role in defense against E.coli. Results Autophagy in human peritoneal mesothelial cell line (HMrSV5) was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a dose-dependent and time-dependent way, which was demonstrated by increased expression of Beclin-1 and light chain 3 (LC3)-II, the accumulation of punctate green fluorescent protein-LC3, and a higher number of monodansylcadaverine-labeled autophagic vacuoles. After incubation of HMrSV5 cells with E.coli following LPS stimulation, both the intracellular bactericidal activity and the co-localization of E.coli (K12-strain) with autophagosomes were enhanced. Conversely, blockade of autophagy with 3-methyladenine, wortmannin or Beclin-1 small-interfering RNA (siRNA) led to a significant reduction in autophagy-associated protein expression, attenuation of intracellular bactericidal activity, and reduced co-localization of E.coli with monodansylcadaverine-labeled autophagosomes. In addition, treatment of HMrSV5 cells with LPS caused a dose-dependent and time-dependent increase in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression. Both knockdown of TLR4 with siRNA and pharmacological inhibition of TLR4 with Polymyxin B significantly decreased LPS-induced autophagy. Furthermore, TLR4 siRNA attenuated remarkably LPS-induced intracellular bactericidal activity. Conclusions Our findings demonstrated for the first time that LPS-induced autophagy in peritoneal mesothelial cells could enhance the intracellular bactericidal activity and the co-localization of E.coli with autophagosomes. The activation of TLR4 signaling was involved in this process. These results indicate that LPS-induced autophagy may be a cell-autonomous defense mechanism triggered in peritoneal mesothelial cells in response to E.coli infection. PMID:24219662

2013-01-01

50

Antigenic relationships of the lipopolysaccharides of Escherichia hermannii strains with those of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Brucella melitensis, and Brucella abortus.  

PubMed

Clinical isolates of Escherichia hermannii which showed serological cross-reaction with polyclonal antisera to the O-polysaccharide portion of the lipopolysaccharide of E. coli O157 strains and with antisera to the O antigens of Brucella abortus and B. melitensis were found by chemical and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses to have lipopolysaccharide O chains composed of linear polymers containing 1,2- and 1,3-linked 4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl (alpha-D-Rhap4NAc) residues. Two O-antigen structures were identified; each had an unbranched pentasaccharide repeating unit, and one was composed of three 1,2- and two 1,3-linked alpha-D-Rhap4NAc residues and the other had two 1,2- and three 1,3-linked alpha-D-Rhap4NAc residues. The above-described cross-serological reactivities, which have led to false-positive identifications, are related to the common occurrence of epitopes involving the presence of N-acyl derivatives of 4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-D-mannopyranosyl residues in the O-polysaccharide portions of the respective lipopolysaccharides of the organisms. Strains of E. hermannii which did not show serological cross-reactions with E. coli O157 and Brucella antisera were found to have unique lipopolysaccharide O chains devoid of D-Rhap4NAc residues, demonstrating the existence of serotypes of E. hermannii that are distinct on the basis of their lipopolysaccharide components. PMID:1691146

Perry, M B; Bundle, D R

1990-05-01

51

Extraction of cyanobacterial endotoxin.  

PubMed

To simplify our efforts in acquiring toxicological information on endotoxins produced by cyanobacteria, a method development study was undertaken to identify relatively hazard-free and efficient procedures for their extraction. One article sourced and two novel methods were evaluated for their ability to extract lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) or endotoxins from cyanobacteria. The Limulus polyphemus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay was employed to compare the performance of a novel method utilizing a 1-butanol-water (HBW) solvent system to that of Westphal's (1965) phenol-water system (HPW) for the extraction of endotoxin from various cyanobacteria. The traditional HPW method extracted from 3- to 12-fold more endotoxin from six different cyanobacterial blooms and culture materials than did the novel HBW method. In direct contrast, the novel HBW method extracted ninefold more endotoxin from a non-microcystin producing Microcystis aeruginosa culture as compared to the HPW method. A solvent system utilizing N,N'-dimethylformamide-water (HDW) was compared to both the HPW and HBW methods for the extraction of endotoxin from natural samples of Anabaena circinalis, Microcystis flos-aquae, and a 1:1 mixture of Microcystis aeruginosa/Microcystisflos-aquae. The LAL activities of these extracts showed that the novel HDW method extracted two- and threefold more endotoxin from the Anabaena sample that did the HBW and HPW methods, respectively. The HDW method also extracted approximately 1.5-fold more endotoxin from the Microcystis flos-aquae sample as compared to both the HBW and HPW methods. On the other hand, the HBW method extracted 2- and 14-fold more endotoxin from the Microcystis flos-aquae/Microcystis aeruginosa mixture than did the HPW and HDW methods, respectively. Results of this study demonstrate that significant disparities exist between the physicochemical properties of the cell wall constituents not only of different cyanobacterial species but also of different strains of the same cyanobacterial species, as showing by the varying effectiveness of the solvent systems investigated. Therefore, a sole method cannot be regarded as universal and superior for the extraction of endotoxins from cyanobacteria. Nevertheless, the ability of the novel HBW and HDW methods to utilize easily handled organic solvents that are less hazardous than phenol render them attractive alternatives to the standard HPW method. PMID:14758595

Papageorgiou, John; Linke, Thomas A; Kapralos, Con; Nicholson, Brenton C; Steffensen, Dennis A

2004-02-01

52

Licochalcone A isolated from licorice suppresses lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory reactions in RAW264.7 cells and endotoxin shock in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Licochalcone A (LicA), a major phenolic constituent of the licorice species Glycyrrhiza inflata, exhibits various biological properties, including chemopreventive, anti-bacterial, and anti-spasmodic activity. We report\\u000a that LicA inhibits inflammatory reactions in macrophages and protects mice from endotoxin shock. Our in vitro experiments\\u000a showed that LicA suppressed not only the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG)E2, but also the

Hyuck-Se Kwon; Jun Hong Park; Dae Hwan Kim; Yoon Hee Kim; Jung Han Yoon Park; Hyun-Kyung Shin; Jin-Kyung Kim

2008-01-01

53

Efficacy of a novel endotoxin adsorber polyvinylidene fluoride fiber immobilized with (L)-serine ligand on septic pigs.  

PubMed

A novel adsorber, polyvinylidene fluoride matrix immobilized with L-serine ligand (PVDF-Ser), was developed in the present study to evaluate its safety and therapeutic efficacy in septic pigs by extracorporeal hemoperfusion. Endotoxin adsorption efficiency (EAE) of the adsorber was firstly measured in vitro. The biocompatibility and hemodynamic changes during extracorporeal circulation were then evaluated. One half of 16 pigs receiving lipopolysaccharide (Escherichia coli O111:B4, 5 ?g/kg) intravenously in 1 h were consecutively treated by hemoperfusion with the new adsorber for 2 h. The changes of circulating endotoxin and certain cytokines and respiratory function were analyzed. The 72 h-survival rate was assessed eventually. EAE reached 46.3% (100 EU/ml in 80 ml calf serum) after 2 h-circulation. No deleterious effect was observed within the process. The plasma endotoxin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) levels were decreased during the hemoperfusion. Arterial oxygenation was also improved during and after the process. Furthermore, the survival time was significantly extended (>72 h vs. 47.5 h for median survival time). The novel product PVDF-Ser could adsorb endotoxin with high safety and efficacy. Early use of extracorporeal hemoperfusion with the new adsorber could reduce the levels of circulating endotoxin, IL-6, and TNF-?, besides improve respiratory function and consequent 72 h-survival rate of the septic pigs. Endotoxin removal strategy with blood purification using the new adsorber renders a potential promising future in sepsis therapy. PMID:21462381

Gao, Jian-ping; Huang, Man; Li, Ning; Wang, Peng-fei; Chen, Huan-Lin; Xu, Qiu-ping

2011-04-01

54

Recent advances in biosensor based endotoxin detection.  

PubMed

Endotoxins also referred to as pyrogens are chemically lipopolysaccharides habitually found in food, environment and clinical products of bacterial origin and are unavoidable ubiquitous microbiological contaminants. Pernicious issues of its contamination result in high mortality and severe morbidities. Standard traditional techniques are slow and cumbersome, highlighting the pressing need for evoking agile endotoxin detection system. The early and prompt detection of endotoxin assumes prime importance in health care, pharmacological and biomedical sectors. The unparalleled recognition abilities of LAL biosensors perched with remarkable sensitivity, high stability and reproducibility have bestowed it with persistent reliability and their possible fabrication for commercial applicability. This review paper entails an overview of various trends in current techniques available and other possible alternatives in biosensor based endotoxin detection together with its classification, epidemiological aspects, thrust areas demanding endotoxin control, commercially available detection sensors and a revolutionary unprecedented approach narrating the influence of omics for endotoxin detection. PMID:23934306

Das, A P; Kumar, P S; Swain, S

2014-01-15

55

The Lipopolysaccharide Export Pathway in Escherichia coli: Structure, Organization and Regulated Assembly of the Lpt Machinery  

PubMed Central

The bacterial outer membrane (OM) is a peculiar biological structure with a unique composition that contributes significantly to the fitness of Gram-negative bacteria in hostile environments. OM components are all synthesized in the cytosol and must, then, be transported efficiently across three compartments to the cell surface. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a unique glycolipid that paves the outer leaflet of the OM. Transport of this complex molecule poses several problems to the cells due to its amphipatic nature. In this review, the multiprotein machinery devoted to LPS transport to the OM is discussed together with the challenges associated with this process and the solutions that cells have evolved to address the problem of LPS biogenesis. PMID:24549203

Polissi, Alessandra; Sperandeo, Paola

2014-01-01

56

Promoter Region of the Escherichia coli O7Specific Lipopolysaccharide Gene Cluster: Structural and Functional Characterization of an Upstream Untranslated mRNA Sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the identification of the promoter region of the Escherichia coli O7-specific lipopolysaccharide (LPS) gene cluster (wbEcO7). Typical 210 and 235 sequences were found to be located in the intervening region between galF and rlmB, the first gene of the wbEcO7 cluster. Data from RNase protection experiments revealed the existence of an untranslated leader mRNA segment of 173 bp,

CRISTINA L. MAROLDA; MIGUEL A. VALVANO

1998-01-01

57

Lipopolysaccharide interaction is decisive for the activity of the antimicrobial peptide NK-2 against Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Phosphatidylglycerol is a widely used mimetic to study the effects of AMPs (antimicrobial peptides) on the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. However, the antibacterial activities of novel NK-2-derived AMPs could not be sufficiently explained by using this simple model system. Since the LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-containing outer membrane is the first barrier of Gram-negative bacteria, in the present study we investigated interactions of NK-2 and a shortened variant with viable Escherichia coli WBB01 and Proteus mirabilis R45, and with model membranes composed of LPS isolated from these two strains. Differences in net charge and charge distribution of the two LPS have been proposed to be responsible for the differential sensitivity of the respective bacteria to other AMPs. As imaged by TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and AFM (atomic force microscopy), NK-2-mediated killing of these bacteria was corroborated by structural alterations of the outer and inner membranes, the release of E. coli cytoplasma, and the formation of unique fibrous structures inside P. mirabilis, suggesting distinct and novel intracellular targets. NK-2 bound to and intercalated into LPS bilayers, and eventually induced the formation of transient heterogeneous lesions in planar lipid bilayers. However, the discriminative activity of NK-2 against the two bacterial strains was independent of membrane intercalation and lesion formation, which both were indistinguishable for the two LPS. Instead, differences in activity originated from the LPS-binding step, which could be demonstrated by NK-2 attachment to intact bacteria, and to solid-supported LPS bilayers on a surface acoustic wave biosensor. PMID:20187872

Hammer, Malte U; Brauser, Annemarie; Olak, Claudia; Brezesinski, Gerald; Goldmann, Torsten; Gutsmann, Thomas; Andrä, Jörg

2010-05-01

58

Thoracic epidural anesthesia decreases endotoxin-induced endothelial injury  

PubMed Central

Background The sympathetic nervous system is considered to modulate the endotoxin-induced activation of immune cells. Here we investigate whether thoracic epidural anesthesia with its regional symapathetic blocking effect alters endotoxin-induced leukocyte-endothelium activation and interaction with subsequent endothelial injury. Methods Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized, cannulated and hemodynamically monitored. E. coli lipopolysaccharide (Serotype 0127:B8, 1.5 mg x kg-1 x h-1) or isotonic saline (controls) was infused for 300 minutes. An epidural catheter was inserted for continuous application of lidocaine or normal saline in endotoxemic animals and saline in controls. After 300 minutes we measured catecholamine and cytokine plasma concentrations, adhesion molecule expression, leukocyte adhesion, and intestinal tissue edema. Results In endotoxemic animals with epidural saline, LPS significantly increased the interleukin-1? plasma concentration (48%), the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules E-selectin (34%) and ICAM-1 (42%), and the number of adherent leukocytes (40%) with an increase in intestinal myeloperoxidase activity (26%) and tissue edema (75%) when compared to healthy controls. In endotoxemic animals with epidural infusion of lidocaine the values were similar to those in control animals, while epinephrine plasma concentration was 32% lower compared to endotoxemic animals with epidural saline. Conclusions Thoracic epidural anesthesia attenuated the endotoxin-induced increase of IL-1? concentration, adhesion molecule expression and leukocyte-adhesion with subsequent endothelial injury. A potential mechanism is the reduction in the plasma concentration of epinephrine. PMID:24708631

2014-01-01

59

ENDOTOXINS, ALGAE AND 'LIMULUS' AMOEBOCYTE LYSATE TEST IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the distribution of algae and bacteria, and investigate sources of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) in drinking water. The field survey was performed on five drinking water systems located in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania ...

60

ToxinEraserTM Endotoxin Removal Resin Cat. No. L00402  

E-print Network

ToxinEraserTM Endotoxin Removal Resin Cat. No. L00402 Technical Manual No. 0366 Version 12012008 I. DESCRIPTION Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a bacterial endotoxin, and a major constituent of the cell walls coagulation, and fatal shock in mammalian hosts. The removal of these endotoxins is highly necessary

Lebendiker, Mario

61

Endotoxin exposure during late pregnancy alters ovine offspring febrile and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness later in life.  

PubMed

A growing number of studies indicate that maternal infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse fetal development and neonatal health. In this study, late gestating sheep (day 135) were challenged systemically with saline (0.9%) or Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (400 ng/kg x 3 consecutive days, or 1.2 microg/kg x 1 day) in order to assess the impact of maternal endotoxemia on the developing fetal neuroendocrine-immune system. During adulthood, cortisol secretion and febrile responses of female offspring and the cortisol response of the male offspring to endotoxin (400 ng/kg), as well as the female cortisol response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge, were measured to assess neuroendocrine-immune function. These studies revealed that maternal endotoxin treatment during late gestation altered the female febrile and male and female cortisol response to endotoxin exposure later in life; however, the response was dependent on the endotoxin treatment regime that the pregnant sheep received. The follow-up ACTH challenge suggests that programing of the adrenal gland may be altered in the female fetus during maternal endotoxemia. The long-term health implications of these changes warrant further investigation. PMID:20536335

Fisher, Rebecca E; Karrow, Niel A; Quinton, Margaret; Finegan, Esther J; Miller, Stephan P; Atkinson, Jim L; Boermans, Herman J

2010-07-01

62

Endotoxin-neutralizing activity of hen egg phosvitin.  

PubMed

Endotoxin, also known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is responsible for initiating host responses leading to inflammation and sometimes unwanted sepsis, which is associated with high mortality in patients. No therapeutic agents to date are efficacious enough to protect patients from LPS-mediated tissue damage and organ failure. Previously, egg yolk protein phosvitin (Pv) in zebrafish has been shown to act as a pattern recognition receptor, capable of binding to the microbial cell wall components including LPS, we therefore wonder if it has the capacity to block LPS toxicity. In this study we first demonstrated that hen Pv, a naturally occurring protein rich in egg yolk, had antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus under thermal stress, and then showed that Pv was able to bind to LPS, lipoteichoic acid and peptidoglycan as well as the microbes E. coli and S. aureus. More importantly, we revealed that Pv significantly inhibited LPS-induced tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-? release from murine RAW264.7 cells and considerably reduced serum TNF-? level in mice. Additionally, hen Pv could promote the survival rate of the endotoxemia mice. Furthermore, hen Pv displayed no cytotoxicity to murine RAW264.7 macrophages and no hemolytic activity towards human red blood cells. Taken together, these data suggest that Pv is an endotoxin-neutralizing agent with a therapeutic potential in clinical treatment of LPS-induced sepsis. PMID:23079731

Ma, Jie; Wang, Hongmiao; Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Shicui

2013-04-01

63

The effects of berberine on the magnitude of the acute inflammatory response induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

One hundred twenty-six 19-d-old male broiler chickens were used to determine the effects of berberine on the magnitude of the acute inflammatory response induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The birds were weighed and randomly allotted to 1 of 3 treatments at d 19 (3 treatments x 7 replicates x 6 birds). The treatments comprised a control group in which saline was injected at d 21, an LPS-treated group in which LPS (3 mg/kg of BW) was injected at d 21, and finally a berberine and LPS-treated group in which berberine (15 mg/kg of BW) was orally administered from d 19 to d 24 with LPS injection (3 mg/kg of BW) at d 21. Injection of LPS alone decreased (P < 0.01) weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion compared with the control and the berberine-administered group. Relative liver weight was increased (P < 0.05) in the LPS-treated group 72 h postinjection compared with the control and the berberine-treated group. Total counts of white blood cells and lymphocytes were also increased (P < 0.05) in the LPS-treated group 72 h postinjection. The heterophil concentration of the LPS-treated group was greater (P < 0.05) than that of both the control and the berberine-administered group 24 h postinjection. Broilers in the LPS-treated group had greater (P < 0.05) total serum protein compared with birds in the control and the berberine-administered group both 24 and 72 h postinjection. In addition, the plasma interleukin-6 level of the LPS-treated group was significantly elevated (P < 0.01) at 24 h compared with that of the control and the berberine-administered group. Our results indicate that LPS injection initiated a series of physiological changes typical of an acute phase response in broiler chickens. These effects were largely mitigated by oral administration of berberine. PMID:20008797

Shen, Y B; Piao, X S; Kim, S W; Wang, L; Liu, P

2010-01-01

64

Both group 4 capsule and lipopolysaccharide O-antigen contribute to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli resistance to human ?-defensin 5.  

PubMed

Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC) are food-borne pathogens that colonize the small intestine and colon, respectively. To cause disease, these pathogens must overcome the action of different host antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) secreted into these distinct niches. We have shown previously that EHEC expresses high levels of the OmpT protease to inactivate the human cathelicidin LL-37, an AMP present in the colon. In this study, we investigate the mechanisms used by EPEC to resist human ?-defensin 5 (HD-5), the most abundant AMP in the small intestine. Quantitative PCR was used to measure transcript levels of various EPEC surface structures. High transcript levels of gfcA, a gene required for group 4 capsule (G4C) production, were observed in EPEC, but not in EHEC. The unencapsulated EPEC ?gfcA and EHEC wild-type strains were more susceptible to HD-5 than EPEC wild-type. Since the G4C is composed of the same sugar repeats as the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen, an -antigen ligase (waaL) deletion mutant was generated in EPEC to assess its role in HD-5 resistance. The ?waaL EPEC strain was more susceptible to HD-5 than both the wild-type and ?gfcA strains. The ?gfcA?waaL EPEC strain was not significantly more susceptible to HD-5 than the ?waaL strain, suggesting that the absence of -antigen influences G4C formation. To determine whether the G4C and -antigen interact with HD-5, total polysaccharide was purified from wild-type EPEC and added to the ?gfcA?waaL strain in the presence of HD-5. The addition of exogenous polysaccharide protected the susceptible strain against HD-5 killing in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that HD-5 binds to the polysaccharides present on the surface of EPEC. Altogether, these findings indicate that EPEC relies on both the G4C and the -antigen to resist the bactericidal activity of HD-5. PMID:24324796

Thomassin, Jenny-Lee; Lee, Mark J; Brannon, John R; Sheppard, Donald C; Gruenheid, Samantha; Le Moual, Hervé

2013-01-01

65

Endotoxin removal by radio frequency gas plasma (glow discharge)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contaminants remaining on implantable medical devices, even following sterilization, include dangerous fever-causing residues of the outer lipopolysaccharide-rich membranes of Gram-negative bacteria such as the common gut microorganism E. coli. The conventional method for endotoxin removal is by Food & Drug Administration (FDA)-recommended dry-heat depyrogenation at 250°C for at least 45 minutes, an excessively time-consuming high-temperature technique not suitable for low-melting or heat-distortable biomaterials. This investigation evaluated the mechanism by which E. coli endotoxin contamination can be eliminated from surfaces during ambient temperature single 3-minute to cumulative 15-minute exposures to radio-frequency glow discharge (RFGD)-generated residual room air plasmas activated at 0.1-0.2 torr in a 35MHz electrodeless chamber. The main analytical technique for retained pyrogenic bio-activity was the Kinetic Chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) Assay, sufficiently sensitive to document compliance with FDA-required Endotoxin Unit (EU) titers less than 20 EU per medical device by optical detection of enzymatic color development corresponding to < 0.5 EU/ml in sterile water extracts of each device. The main analytical technique for identification of chemical compositions, amounts, and changes during sequential reference Endotoxin additions and subsequent RFGD-treatment removals from infrared (IR)-transparent germanium (Ge) prisms was Multiple Attenuated Internal Reflection (MAIR) infrared spectroscopy sensitive to even monolayer amounts of retained bio-contaminant. KimaxRTM 60 mm x 15 mm and 50mm x 15mm laboratory glass dishes and germanium internal reflection prisms were inoculated with E. coli bacterial endotoxin water suspensions at increments of 0.005, 0.05, 0.5, and 5 EU, and characterized by MAIR-IR spectroscopy of the dried residues on the Ge prisms and LAL Assay of sterile water extracts from both glass and Ge specimens. The Ge prism MAIR-IR measurements were repeated after employing 3-minute RFGD treatments sequentially for more than 10 cycles to observe removal of deposited matter that correlated with diminished EU titers. The results showed that 5 cycles, for a total exposure time of 15 minutes to low-temperature gas plasma, was sufficient to reduce endotoxin titers to below 0.05 EU/ml, and correlated with concurrent reduction of major endotoxin reference standard absorption bands at 3391 cm-1, 2887 cm-1, 1646 cm -1 1342 cm-1, and 1103 cm-1 to less than 0.05 Absorbance Units. Band depletion varied from 15% to 40% per 3-minute cycle of RFGD exposure, based on peak-to-peak analyses. In some cases, 100% of all applied biomass was removed within 5 sequential 3-minute RFGD cycles. The lipid ester absorption band expected at 1725 cm-1 was not detectable until after the first RFGD cycle, suggesting an unmasking of the actual bacterial endotoxin membrane induced within the gas plasma environment. Future work must determine the applicability of this low-temperature, quick depyrogenation process to medical devices of more complicated geometry than the flat surfaces tested here.

Poon, Angela

66

A comparison of the endotoxin biosynthesis and protein oxidation pathways in the biogenesis of the outer membrane of Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis  

PubMed Central

The Gram-negative bacterial cell envelope consists of an inner membrane (IM) that surrounds the cytoplasm and an asymmetrical outer-membrane (OM) that forms a protective barrier to the external environment. The OM consists of lipopolysaccahride (LPS), phospholipids, outer membrane proteins (OMPs), and lipoproteins. Oxidative protein folding mediated by periplasmic oxidoreductases is required for the biogenesis of the protein components, mainly constituents of virulence determinants such as pili, flagella, and toxins, of the Gram-negative OM. Recently, periplasmic oxidoreductases have been implicated in LPS biogenesis of Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis. Differences in OM biogenesis, in particular the transport pathways for endotoxin to the OM, the composition and role of the protein oxidation, and isomerization pathways and the regulatory networks that control them have been found in these two Gram-negative species suggesting that although form and function of the OM is conserved, the pathways required for the biosynthesis of the OM and the regulatory circuits that control them have evolved to suit the lifestyle of each organism. PMID:23267440

Piek, Susannah; Kahler, Charlene M.

2012-01-01

67

Pulmonary Endotoxin Tolerance Protects against Cockroach Allergen-Induced Asthma-Like Inflammation in a Mouse Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Compounds which activate the innate immune system, such as lipopolysaccharide, are significant components of ambient air, and extremely difficult to remove from the environment. It is currently unclear how prior inhalation of endotoxin affects allergen sensitization. We examined whether lung-specific endotoxin tolerance induction prior to sensitization can modulate the response to allergen. Methods: Endotoxin tolerance was induced by repeated

Sudha Natarajan; Jiyoun Kim; Jacqueline Bouchard; William Cruikshank; Daniel G. Remick

2012-01-01

68

A dual negative regulation model of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling for endotoxin preconditioning in human endotoxemia  

E-print Network

A dual negative regulation model of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling for endotoxin preconditioning Keywords: Mathematical modeling Lipopolysaccharide Endotoxin Potentiation Tolerance Humans a b s t r a c t We discuss a model illustrating how the outcome of repeated endotoxin administration experiments can

Androulakis, Ioannis (Yannis)

69

Particle size distributions and concentrations of airborne endotoxin using novel collection methods in homes during the winter and  

E-print Network

Particle size distributions and concentrations of airborne endotoxin using novel collection methods in homes during the winter and summer seasons Introduction Endotoxin is a measure of the biologic activity of lipopolysaccharide, which is a component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. Endotoxin is increasingly

Pace, Norman

70

Reaction of Endotoxin and Surfactants I. Physical and Biological Properties of Endotoxin Treated with Sodium Deoxycholate  

PubMed Central

Ribi, E. (Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Mont.), R. L. Anacker, R. Brown, W. T. Haskins, B. Malmgren, K. C. Milner, and J. A. Rudbach. Reaction of endotoxin and surfactants. I. Physical and biological properties of endotoxin treated with sodium desoxycholate. J. Bacteriol. 92:1493–1509. 1966.—Endotoxins from three species of gram-negative bacteria were shown to be dissociated by the bile salt sodium deoxycholate (NaD) into nontoxic subunits with molecular weights of about 20,000. When the bile salt was removed by dialysis, the subunits reaggregated in an orderly manner to form a relatively uniform population of biologically active endotoxin particles with average molecular weights of 500,000 to 1,000,000. If a small amount of human plasma was added to the dissociated endotoxin before removal of the NaD, reassociation apparently did not occur and the preparation remained nonpyrogenic. However, the plasma protein could subsequently be removed from the endotoxin subunits, and reaggregation to the toxic form would then occur. The studies on the physical nature of endotoxin performed with biophysical solution techniques were supplemented and confirmed by direct examination of the endotoxin polymers by electron microscopy. The results of these studies were consonant with the theory that the biologically active endotoxic elements are composed of micellar aggregates of linear lipopolysaccharide subunits. Images PMID:4288609

Ribi, E.; Anacker, R. L.; Brown, R.; Haskins, W. T.; Malmgren, B.; Milner, K. C.; Rudbach, J. A.

1966-01-01

71

Fetal plasma prostaglandin F(2alpha) and cortisol responses to high-dose endotoxin administration in fetal goats.  

PubMed

Intrauterine inflammation/infection has been associated with prenatal mortality and morbidity. However, few studies have been performed to investigate how the fetus responds to intrauterine inflammation/infection in utero. In the present study, fetal plasma prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha) and cortisol responses to high-dose fetal endotoxin administration were evaluated in late gestation goats (n=8). After 160 microg/kg of fetal weight of endotoxin (Escherichia coli, O111:B4 lipopolysaccharide) administration via the fetal jugular vein over a 5-min period, fetal plasma PGF(2alpha) and cortisol levels, fetal blood gases and pH were measured periodically. After endotoxin administration, fetal plasma cortisol levels significantly increased to 9.5+/-0.8 ng/mL and 9.3+/-0.7 ng/mL after 1 and 3h, respectively (p<0.05) and plasma PGF(2alpha) levels did not change throughout the study. These results suggest that absent PGF(2alpha) and attenuated cortisol responses to high-dose fetal endotoxin administration, relative to the adult, may be a self-protective mechanism that diminishes premature delivery and fetal asphyxia. PMID:12802376

Miura, Atsushi; Yoneyama, Yoshio; Sawa, Rintaro; Araki, Tsutomu

2003-04-01

72

In vivo effects of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide on regulation of immune response and protein expression in striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).  

PubMed

Lipolysaccharide (LPS), a component of outer membrane protein of gram-negative bacteria, reportedly stimulates fish immune system. However, mechanisms driving this immunomodulatory effect are yet unknown. To determine effects of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide on regulation of immune response and protein expression of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus), juvenile fish (20-25 g) were injected with 3, 15 or 45 mg E.coli LPS/kg and challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri. Plasma cortisol and glucose were rather low and did not differ (p<0.05) among treatments. All LPS treatments differed regarding blood cell count and immune variables such as plasma and spleen lysozyme, complement activity and antibody titer, 3mg LPS/kg yielding best results; red blood cell count was not affected by LPS treatment. Accumulated mortalities after bacterial challenge were 23.4, 32.8, 37.7 and 52.5% for treatment 3, 15, 45 mg LPS/kg fish and control respectively. Proteomic analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) confirmed that LPS induced differentially over-expressed immune proteins such as complement component C3 and lysozyme C2 precursor. Regulation of other proteins such as Wap65, alpha-2 macroglobulin-3 and transferrin precursor was also demonstrated. Striped catfish injected with E.coli LPS enhanced innate immune responses. PMID:23207480

Hang, Bui Thi Bich; Milla, Sylvain; Gillardin, Virginie; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick

2013-01-01

73

The O4 specific antigen moiety of lipopolysaccharide but not the K54 group 2 capsule is important for urovirulence of an extraintestinal isolate of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

Group 2 capsules and lipopolysaccharides are regarded as important virulence factors in extraintestinal isolates of Escherichia coli, but their specific contributions to bladder and renal infections, if any, are unknown. Proven isogenic derivatives deficient in the K54 antigen alone (CP9.137), the O4 antigen alone (CP921), or both the K54 and O4 antigens (CP923) were compared with their wild-type parent (CP9 [O4/K54JH5]) for growth in human urine in vitro and for virulence in vivo in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection (UTI). Growth of CP9.137 and CP921 was equivalent to that of CP9 in human urine. CP923 demonstrated a small but reproducible decrease in log-phase growth but achieved the same plateau density. In the mouse model of UTI, the isogenic mutant deficient in the 04 antigen alone (CP921) and, to a greater degree, the derivative deficient in both the K54 and O4 antigens (CP923) were significantly less virulent in nearly all parameters measured. In contrast, the K54 knockout derivative was as virulent as its parent, CP9, in causing bladder infection and nearly as virulent in causing renal infection. These results demonstrate an important role for the O4 antigen moiety of lipopolysaccharide in the pathogenesis of UTI. The possibility that the K54 antigen also plays a minor role cannot be excluded. PMID:8675348

Russo, T; Brown, J J; Jodush, S T; Johnson, J R

1996-01-01

74

Can a bacterial endotoxin be a key factor in the kinetics of amyloid fibril formation?  

PubMed

Data found in literature have reported that bacterial endotoxins may be involved in the inflammatory and pathological processes associated with amyloidosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In fact, it has been observed that the chronic infusion of the bacterial lipopolysaccharide, the outer cell wall component of Gram negative bacteria, into the fourth ventricle of rats reproduces many of the inflammatory and pathological features seen in the brain of AD patients. In this context, a key player in the pathogenesis of AD is the amyloid-? peptide (A?) that is capable of aggregating in fibrils that represent the main component of amyloid plaques. These deposits that accumulate among brain cells are indeed one of the hallmarks of AD. This aggregation in fibrils seems to correlate with A? toxic effects. However, recent data have shown that amyloid fibril formation not only results in toxic aggregates but also provides biologically functional molecules; such amyloids have been identified on the surface of fungi and bacteria. The aim of this work was to gain insight into the influence of bacterial endotoxins on A? fibrillogenesis; factors that influence fibril formation may be important for A? toxic potential. Following three days of incubation at 37°C, A? was organized in compact fibrils and the in vitro A? fibrillogenesis was potentiated by the Escherichia coli endotoxin. This suggests the importance of infectious events in the pathogenesis of AD and proposes a new aspect related to the putative pathological factors that can be implicated in the mechanisms involved in A?25-35 fibrillogenesis. PMID:24150108

Asti, Annalia; Gioglio, Luciana

2014-01-01

75

Influence of sanitizers on the lipopolysaccharide toxicity of Escherichia coli strains cultivated in the presence of Zygosaccharomyces bailii.  

PubMed

The influence of sublethal concentrations of two sanitizers, liquid iodophor and liquid hypochlorite (LH), on the growth rates and toxicity of food-borne pathogenic Escherichia coli strains grown in the presence of spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was assessed. When grown in combination with Z. bailii both E. coli O113 and E. coli O26 exhibited slower growth rates, except when E. coli O113 was grown in combination with Z. bailii at 0.2% LH. The growth rate of Z. bailii was not impacted by the addition of the sanitizers or by communal growth with E. coli strains. LAL and IL-6 results indicated a decrease in toxicity of pure E. coli cultures with comparable profiles for control and sanitizer exposed samples, although the LAL assay proved to be more sensitive. Interestingly, pure cultures of Z. bailii showed increased toxicity measured by LAL and decreased toxicity measured by IL-6. LAL analysis showed a decrease in toxicity of both E. coli strains grown in combination with Z. bailii, while IL-6 analysis of the mixed cultures showed an increase in toxicity. The use of LAL for toxicity determination in a mixed culture overlooks the contribution made by spoilage yeast, thus demonstrating the importance of using the appropriate method for toxicity testing in mixed microbe environments. PMID:24977173

Mogotsi, Lerato; De Smidt, Olga; Venter, Pierre; Groenewald, Willem

2014-01-01

76

Dose-dependent changes in the antigenicity of bacterial endotoxin exposed to ionizing radiation. Report No. 2, 1986-1987  

SciTech Connect

The antigenic properties of the highly purified US reference standard endotoxin (RSE) exposed to varying doses of ionizing radiation were studied with double immuno-diffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, and immunoblotting. Rabbit RSE antisera identified 2 distinct major antigenic components for untreated RSE: one related to the O-polysaccharide side chain (O-antigenic specificity), the other to the R-core. Based on a serologic cross-reactivity of R-core of RSE (Escherichia coli 0113) with the R-core of the lipopolysaccharide from E. coli 0111, the core type of E. coli 0113 was identified as coli R3. Increasing exposure of RSE to ionizing radiation progressively destroyed all antigenic reactivities; at lower doses of radiation the rate of elimination differed for the 2 antigen classes. The O-polysaccharide was more sensitive to gamma radiation than the R-core and the O-antigenicity was lost before that of the R-core. Endotoxin molecules containing incomplete R-core (radiation-induced or mutant) did not react with the RSE antiserum. Keywords: Antigenicity, Reprints. (KT/KR)

Csako, G.; Suba, E.A.; Tsai, C.M.; Mocca, L.F.; Elin, R.J.

1987-01-01

77

Concentration, physical state, and purity of bacterial endotoxin affect its detoxification by ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

Increasing concentrations of a highly purified bacterial lipopolysaccharide preparation, the U.S. Reference Standard Endotoxin, were exposed to increasing doses of ionizing radiation from a 60Co source. At identical radiation doses both the structural change and Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) reactivity were progressively smaller with increasing concentrations of the lipopolysaccharide in an aqueous medium. Under the experimental conditions used, there was a linear relationship between the endotoxin concentration and radiation dose for the structural changes. In contrast to endotoxin in aqueous medium, endotoxin irradiated in its dry state showed no decrease in LAL reactivity and rabbit pyrogenicity. Endotoxin exposed to radiation in water in the presence of albumin showed a much smaller decrease in LAL and pyrogenic activities than expected. The results show that the concentration, physical state, and purity of endotoxin influence its structural and functional alteration by ionizing radiation.

Csako, G.; Tsai, C.M.; Hochstein, H.D.; Elin, R.J.

1986-11-01

78

[Exposure to endotoxins in the environment. Occurrence and health hazards].  

PubMed

Endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides from the outer cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. Exposure to endotoxins can take place in industries where organic material is handled, in agriculture, in garbage handling, and sewage treatment. Byssinosis defined as Monday chest tightness and slight dyspnoea in the work place has been related to endotoxin exposure in cotton mills, but studies indicate that similar symptoms may be found in other work places. Other symptoms are: Headache, nausea, gastrointestinal symptoms and influenza-like symptoms. Several studies have shown a decrease in FEV1 following exposure to endotoxins. The relationship between exposure to organic dust, microorganisms, endotoxins and other chemicals in the work place and disease needs further research. PMID:9182380

Rix, B A

1997-04-21

79

Effects of endotoxin on the lactating mouse  

SciTech Connect

The regulation of endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) sequences in trans by a host gene, the Lps locus on mouse chromosome 4, was suspected from a genetic linkage analysis. The Lps locus mediates the mouse's response to the injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the responder mouse while mice with the deficient allele are incapable of responding. Others have found that endotoxin exposure reduces milk production in lactating animals. This observation was confirmed in mice and extended by examining /sup 125/I-prolactin binding to liver membranes of lactating mice. Endotoxin treatment of responder mice increases liver prolactin binding within 15 minutes, followed by a decline over 6 hours. Scatchard analysis shows that the immediate increase comes from both increased affinity and abundance of the prolactin receptor. No such change in prolactin binding is seen in the non-responder following endotoxin treatment nor in /sup 125/I-insulin binding in responders.

Carr, J.K.

1985-01-01

80

Lipopolysaccharide neutralization by a novel peptide derived from phosvitin.  

PubMed

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also known as endotoxin, is the primary trigger of sepsis, which is associated with high mortality in patients. No therapeutic agents are currently efficacious enough to protect patients from sepsis characterized by LPS-mediated tissue damage and organ failure. Previously, a phosvitin-derived peptide, Pt5, which consists of the C-terminal 55 residues of zebrafish phosvitin, has been shown to function as an antibacterial agent. In this study, we have generated six mutants by site-directed mutagenesis based on the sequence of Pt5, and found that one of the six mutants, Pt5e, showed the strongest bactericidal activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. We then demonstrated that Pt5e was able to bind to LPS and lipoteichoic acid (LTA). More importantly, we showed that Pt5e significantly inhibited LPS-induced tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1? release from murine RAW264.7 cells and considerably reduced serum TNF-? and IL-1? levels in mice. Additionally, Pt5e protected the liver from damage by LPS, and remarkably promoted the survival rate of the endotoxemia mice. Furthermore, Pt5e displayed no cytotoxicity to murine RAW264.7 macrophages and no hemolytic activity toward human red blood cells. These data together indicate that Pt5e is an endotoxin-neutralizing agent with a therapeutic potential in clinical treatment of LPS-induced sepsis. PMID:24028820

Hu, Lili; Sun, Chen; Wang, Shengnan; Su, Feng; Zhang, Shicui

2013-11-01

81

Distribution of radiolabeled endotoxin with particular reference to the eye: concise communication  

SciTech Connect

A single systemic injection of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide or LPS) reproducibly induces a cellular infiltrate in the uveal tract of the rat eye within 24 hr. Other organs are not comparably sensitive to systemic endotoxin. One hypothesis to explain this unique sensitivity is that endotoxin is preferentially bound by ocular tissue. Researchers tested this hypothesis by studying the distribution in the rat of intravenously injected endotoxin that had been radiolabeled with /sup 99m/Tc or /sup 32/P. With either radionuclide the concentration of endotoxin per gram of tissue at a variety of times after injection ranging from 5 min to 3 hr and 45 min, was markedly less in the eye than in liver, kidney, or spleen. A study with radiolabeled albumin indicated that these differences could not be ascribed solely to the organ's blood volume. They demonstrate, therefore, that the eye does not preferentially bind endotoxin, and they are compatible with the hypothesis that endotoxin's ocular effects are indirectly mediated.

Rosenbaum, J.T.; Hendricks, P.A.; Shively, J.E.; McDougall, I.R.

1983-01-01

82

Isolation and characterization of murine monoclonal antibodies specific for gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide: association of cross-genus reactivity with lipid A specificity.  

PubMed Central

Somatic cell hybrids secreting monoclonal antibodies against the core-glycolipid portion of enterobacterial endotoxin were derived from mice immunized with Escherichia coli J5 or Salmonella minnesota R595 heat-killed organisms or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Eight antibodies were selected for their ability to cross-react with several members of a panel of gram-negative bacterial antigens in a radioimmunoassay. This panel represented five genera and two families of organisms: E. coli O111:B4, E. coli O55:B5, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella minnesota, and Serratia marcescens. The binding sites for six of the antibodies were unequivocally localized within the lipid A moiety of the endotoxin molecule by using the radioimmunoassay on LPS and free lipid A. The anti-lipid A antibodies were further characterized for their ability to interact with LPS variants by using a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunostaining procedure. The monoclonal antibodies bound almost exclusively to the low-molecular-weight species of LPS on the polyacrylamide gel. These components corresponded to LPS isolated from rough strains of organisms (strains which lack O-specific carbohydrate). These results suggested that the cross-reactive component of antisera raised against rough mutants of gram-negative bacteria contain antibodies of lipid A specificity. Moreover, the determinant within the lipid A moiety of LPS may have been accessible to the monoclonal antibodies only in those endotoxin molecules on the outer membrane surface which lack the O-specific carbohydrate. Images PMID:3549565

Bogard, W C; Dunn, D L; Abernethy, K; Kilgarriff, C; Kung, P C

1987-01-01

83

Hepatic response to the oxidative stress induced by E. coli endotoxin: Glutathione as an index of the acute phase during the endotoxic shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive oxygen species are important mediators of cellular damage during endotoxic shock. In order to investigate the hepatic response to the oxidative stress induced by endotoxin, hepatic and plasma glutathione (total, GSH and GSSG), GSSG\\/GSH ratio as well as Mn-superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were determined during the acute and recovery phases of reversible endotoxic shock in the rat. A

M. Teresa Portolés; Myriam Catalfi; Adolfo Antón; Raffaella Pagani

1996-01-01

84

Effects of Lipopolysaccharide, Lipid A, Lipid X, and Phorbol Ester on Cultured Bovine Endothelial Cells,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In pursuing the mechanism of endotoxin action, we examined the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and its chemically defined components, lipid A and lipid X on cultured bovine endothelial cells. We report that LPS and lipid A caused detachment and altered...

S. L. Gartner, D. G. Sieckmann, Y. H. Kang, L. P. Watson, L. D. Homer

1988-01-01

85

Antibodies to lipopolysaccharide block adherence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli to human intestinal epithelial (Henle 407) cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shiga toxin-producingEscherichia coli(STEC) are a diverse group of organisms known to cause diarrhoea, haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) in humans. During the early stage of infection, numbers of STEC in the gut may be very high (of the order of 109\\/g faeces), but as disease progresses, the numbers may drop rapidly such that STEC are undetectable within a

Adrienne W Paton; Elena Voss; Paul A Manning; James C Paton

1998-01-01

86

Quantitative Limulus lysate assay for endotoxin activity: aggregation of radioiodinated coagulogen monomers.  

PubMed

This communication describes a modification of the Limulus lysate assay which allows precise quantitation of picograms of bacterial lipopolysaccharide activity. The method measures the incorporation of 125I-labeled coagulogen monomers into the lysate clot as a function of lipopolysaccharide concentration. The method is more precise and requires less lysate than the previously described quantitative assays for endotoxin activity. PMID:9762137

Munford, R S

1978-12-01

87

Loss of the O4 antigen moiety from the lipopolysaccharide of an extraintestinal isolate of Escherichia coli has only minor effects on serum sensitivity and virulence in vivo.  

PubMed Central

The O-specific antigen in extraintestinal isolates of Escherichia coli is believed to be an important virulence factor. To assess its role in the pathogenic process, proven isogenic derivatives with either a complete (CP921) or nearly complete (CP920) deficiency of the O4 antigen were obtained by TnphoA'1-mediated transposon mutagenesis of an O4/K54/H5 blood isolate (CP9). By utilizing a previously reported isogenic K54 capsule-deficient derivative (CP9.137), additional isogenic derivatives deficient in both the K54 capsular antigen and either all (CP923) or nearly all (CP922) of the O4 antigen were also constructed. These strains and their wild-type parent were evaluated in vitro for serum sensitivity and in vivo by intraperitoneal challenge of outbred mice. The complete or nearly complete loss of the O4 antigen (CP920 and CP921) resulted in only a minor increase in serum sensitivity. In contrast, CP9.137 had a significant increase in serum sensitivity, and CP922 and CP923 were extremely serum sensitive. When tested in vivo, the complete or nearly complete loss of the O4 antigen resulted in a small but significant increase (P < or = 0.05), not the expected decrease, in virulence compared with its wild-type parent. In contrast, CP9.137 and CP922 were significantly less virulent (P < or = 0.05). These studies do not exclude a role for the O4 antigen moiety of lipopolysaccharide in the pathogenesis of extraintestinal E. coli infection; however, they demonstrate that the O4 antigen plays only a minor role in serum resistance in vitro and that its loss does not diminish and perhaps enhances the virulence of CP9 in vivo after intraperitoneal challenge. PMID:7890383

Russo, T A; Sharma, G; Brown, C R; Campagnari, A A

1995-01-01

88

B-cell subsets responsive to fluorescein-conjugated antigens. III. Differential effect of E. Coli lipopolysaccharide on T-dependent and T-independent responses in vivo.  

PubMed Central

The effect of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the induction of both hapten-specific immunity and tolerance was studied in an in vivo system utilizing putative T-cell dependent (TD) or T-cell independent (TI) challenge antigens. The administration of LPS 1 day prior to challenge preempted the response of C3D2 mice to a TD antigen (FL-KLH) but had little effect on the response to FL-Ficoll, a TI antigen. LPS did not affect the responsiveness of C3H/HeJ mice, an LPS-unresponsive strain, to either antigen. The reduction of the response to a putative T-dependent antigen by LPS pre-treatment was only temporary since mice challenged 7 days after LPS responded normally in vivo. We also confirmed that LPS administered shortly after a tolerogen prevented FL-specific IgG tolerence induction and produced B-cell priming to a subsequent T-dependent antigenic challenge. LPS, however, did not significantly interfere with tolerance induction in terms of the IgM responce to either challenge antigen. These results suggest that LPS acts either directly or indirectly on a subpopulation of B cells responsive to a TD antigen. Our data further reflect the heterogeneity of B-cell subpopulations responsive to various polyclonal activators. PMID:93080

Venkataraman, M; Scott, D W

1979-01-01

89

A model for the proteolytic regulation of LpxC in the lipopolysaccharide pathway of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an essential structural component found in Gram-negative bacteria. The molecule is comprised of a highly conserved lipid A and a variable outer core consisting of various sugars. LPS plays important roles in membrane stability in the bacterial cell and is also a potent activator of the human immune system. Despite its obvious importance, little is understood regarding the regulation of the individual enzymes involved or the pathway as a whole. LpxA and LpxC catalyze the first two steps in the LPS pathway. The reaction catalyzed by LpxA possesses a highly unfavourable equilibrium constant with no evidence of coupling to an energetically favourable reaction. In our model the presence of the second enzyme LpxC was sufficient to abate this unfavourable reaction and confirming previous studies suggesting that this reaction is the first committed step in LPS synthesis. It is believed that the protease FtsH regulates LpxC activity via cleavage. It is also suspected that the activity of FtsH is regulated by a metabolite produced by the LPS pathway; however, it is not known which one. In order to investigate these mechanisms, we obtained kinetic parameters from literature and developed estimates for other simulation parameters. Our simulations suggest that under modest increases in LpxC activity, FtsH is able to regulate the rate of product formation. However, under extreme increases in LpxC activities such as over-expression or asymmetrical cell division then FtsH activation may not be sufficient to regulate this first stage of synthesis. PMID:23831517

Emiola, Akintunde; Falcarin, Paolo; Tocher, Joanne; George, John

2013-12-01

90

Cultured astrocytoma cells generate a nitric oxide-like factor from endogenous L-arginine and glyceryl trinitrate: effect of E. coli lipopolysaccharide.  

PubMed Central

1. The inhibitory activity of astrocytoma cells (0.25-3 x 10(5)) treated with indomethacin (10 microM) on platelet aggregation was enhanced by incubating the cells with E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5 micrograms ml-1) for 18 h. This effect was attenuated when cycloheximide (10 micrograms ml-1) was incubated together with LPS. The inhibition of platelet aggregation by cells treated with LPS was potentiated by superoxide dismutase (60 u ml-1) and ablated by oxyhaemoglobin (oxyHb, 10 microM) or NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 30-300 microM). The effects of L-NMMA were reversed by co-incubation with L-arginine (L-Arg, 100 microM) but not D-arginine (D-Arg, 100 microM). LPS also increased the levels of nitrite in the culture media and this increase was ablated by co-incubation with L-NMMA (300 microM) or cycloheximide (10 micrograms ml-1). 2. Astrocytoma cells (0.5 x 10(5)) treated with indomethacin (10 microM) enhanced the platelet inhibitory activity of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN, 11-352 microM) but not that of sodium nitroprusside (4 microM). Furthermore, when incubated with GTN (200 microM) a 4 fold increase in the levels of guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) was observed. These effects were abrogated by co-incubation with oxyHb (10 microM) but not with L-NMMA (300 microM). Treatment of the cells with LPS (0.5 micrograms ml-1) for 18 h did not enhance their capacity to form NO from GTN. 3. Thus, in cultured astrocytoma cells, LPS enhances the formation of nitric oxide from endogenous L-arginine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1327394

Salvemini, D.; Mollace, V.; Pistelli, A.; Anggard, E.; Vane, J.

1992-01-01

91

Neutralizing and cross-reactive antibodies against enterobacterial lipopolysaccharide.  

PubMed

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) elicits an immune reaction which is responsible for many of the harmful effects seen in septic shock patients. The eradication of bacteria by antibiotics is insufficient to resolve the pathology due to the lack of LPS neutralization. LPS-neutralizing antibodies have been described; however, these were specific for the serotype of the infecting bacteria and thus not useful for the treatment of septic shock patients. Structural analyses revealed that the LPS structures of Escherichia coli and Salmonella are structurally conserved in the inner core region. Using whole LPS and a panel of neoglycoconjugates containing purified LPS oligosaccharides, which we have obtained from all E. coli core types (K-12, R1, R2, R3 and R4), Salmonella enterica, and the mutant strain E. coli J-5, we have identified an epitope which is bound with high affinity by the monoclonal antibody WN1 222-5, which has been shown previously shown to be cross-reactive against a large collection of blood, fecal, and urinary isolates of E. coli, S. enterica, some Citrobacter, independently of the serotype [Di Padova, F.E., Brade, H., Barclay, G.R., Poxton, I.R., Liehl, E., Schuetze, E., Kocher, H.P., Ramsay, G., Schreier, M.H., McClelland, D.B., Rietschel, E.T., 1993. A broadly cross-protective monoclonal antibody binding to Escherichia coli and Salmonella lipopolysaccharides. Infect. Immun. 61, 3863-3872]. Importantly, WN1 222-5 was protective in various models of endotoxic shock. The minimal structural element necessary for high-affinity binding consists of R(1)-alpha-d-Glcp-(1-->3)-[l-alpha-d-Hepp-(1-->7)]-l-alpha-d-Hepp 4P-(1-->3)-R(2) (R(1), R(2)=additional sugars of LPS) in which the side-chain heptose and the 4-phosphate on the branched heptose are the main determinants of the epitope. Additional sugars of the outer core (R(1)) enhance the affinity, whereas loss of an intact Kdo region and/or lipid A (R(2)) prevent binding. The identification of the epitope provides the structural basis for the rational development of a potential vaccine against E. coli LPS. PMID:17544324

Müller-Loennies, Sven; Brade, Lore; Brade, Helmut

2007-09-01

92

MODIFICATION OF HOST RESPONSES TO BACTERIAL ENDOTOXINS  

PubMed Central

Evidence is presented suggesting that the apparent non-specificity of pyrogenic tolerance observed with Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins is due to related antigenic determinants associated with the macromolecular toxins. This is based on results obtained in rabbits from pyrogenic cross-tolerance tests with selected endotoxins. In these tests, purified endotoxins from Escherichia coli (COO8) and Chromobacterium violaceum (CV) gave results one might expect with non-reciprocal cross-reacting antigens in classical immune systems. Additional evidence for an immune mechanism in tolerance is suggested by the highly significant anamnestic response observed. Lipid A, a toxic derivative of the purified COO8 endotoxin, failed to induce pyrogenic tolerance against the parent toxin. These results are explained by assuming that endotoxins have two interdependent activities associated with different portions of the macromolecule; one is assumed to be responsible for the primary toxicity, and the other is involved in secondary toxicity. The latter is dependent on the hypersensitive state of the host. Additional evidence for the role of hypersensitivity in secondary toxicity is based on the observation that adult rabbits are highly sensitive to the pyrogenic, lethal, and skin-reacting activities of endotoxin in contrast to young animals which are more resistant to all of these attributes of toxicity. In adults, the host responses to pyrogenicity, lethality, and skin reactivity could be partially inhibited by the early exposure of the animals to massive doses of endotoxin equivalent to a LD50. The pyrogenic tolerance shown in these animals was specific indicating that the inhibition of the hypersusceptibility to endotoxin involved an immunological mechanism. A mechanism of endotoxin tolerance is proposed and discussed based on the induction of specific antibodies capable of assisting the RES in the clearance and destruction of endotoxin. It is suggested that the present inconsistencies relative to the chemical nature and biological activities of endotoxins might be explained on the basis of these two activities and the failure to recognize the importance of the immunological state of the host in which the toxins are tested. PMID:14078002

Watson, Dennis W.; Kim, Yoon Berm

1963-01-01

93

Contamination of nanoparticles by endotoxin: evaluation of different test methods  

PubMed Central

Background Nanomaterials can be contaminated with endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) during production or handling. In this study, we searched for a convenient in vitro method to evaluate endotoxin contamination in nanoparticle samples. We assessed the reliability of the commonly used limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay and an alternative method based on toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 reporter cells when applied with particles (TiO2, Ag, CaCO3 and SiO2), or after extraction of the endotoxin as described in the ISO norm 29701. Results Our results indicate that the gel clot LAL assay is easily disturbed in the presence of nanoparticles; and that the endotoxin extraction protocol is not suitable at high particle concentrations. The chromogenic-based LAL endotoxin detection systems (chromogenic LAL assay and Endosafe-PTS), and the TLR4 reporter cells were not significantly perturbed. Conclusion We demonstrated that nanoparticles can interfere with endotoxin detection systems indicating that a convenient test method must be chosen before assessing endotoxin contamination in nanoparticle samples. PMID:23140310

2012-01-01

94

Inflammatory response after inhalation of bacterial endotoxin assessed by the induced sputum technique  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Organic dusts may cause inflammation in the airways. This study was performed to assess the usefulness of the induced sputum technique for evaluating the presence of airways inflammation using inhaled endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) as the inducer of inflammation.?METHODS—To characterise the inflammatory response after inhalation of endotoxin, 21 healthy subjects inhaled 40 µg lipopolysaccharide and were examined before and 24 hours after exposure. Examinations consisted of a questionnaire for symptoms, spirometric testing, blood sampling, and collection of induced sputum using hypertonic saline. Eleven of the subjects inhaled hypertonic saline without endotoxin exposure as controls. Cell counts, eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were determined in blood and sputum.?RESULTS—A significantly higher proportion of subjects reported respiratory and general symptoms after endotoxin inhalation. MPO and the number of neutrophils in the blood were higher and spirometric values were decreased after the lipopolysaccharide challenge. In the sputum MPO, ECP, and the numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes were higher after the lipopolysaccharide challenge. No significant differences were found after the inhalation of hypertonic saline compared with before, except for a significantly lower number of lymphocytes in the sputum.?CONCLUSIONS—The results support previous studies that inhaled endotoxin causes an inflammation at the exposure site itself, as well as general effects. Sampling of sputum seems to be a useful tool for assessing the presence of airways inflammation, and the inhalation of hypertonic saline used to induce sputum did not significantly interfere with the results found after inhalation of lipopolysaccharide.?? PMID:10195077

Thorn, J.; Rylander, R.

1998-01-01

95

Endotoxin-induced uveitis in rodents.  

PubMed

Uveitis is a common cause of vision loss, accounting for 10-15 % of all cases of blindness worldwide and affects individuals of all ages, genders, and races. Uveitis represents a broad range of intraocular inflammatory conditions due to complications of autoimmune diseases, bacterial infections, viral infections, and chemical and metabolic injuries. Endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rodents is an efficient experimental model to investigate the pathological mechanism and pharmacological efficacy of potential drug agents. EIU is characterized by clinically relevant classical signs of inflammation, including inflammatory exudates and cells in the anterior and vitreous chambers. EIU in small animal models such as rats, mice, and rabbits is a short-lived uveal inflammation that can be developed subsequent to administration of bacterial endotoxin, such as lipopolysaccharide. Here, we present a reproducible, reliable, and simplified protocol to induce EIU in mice. This method could be used with similar efficacy for EIU induction in other small animals as well. PMID:23824898

Yadav, Umesh C S; Ramana, Kota V

2013-01-01

96

Growth inhibitory effects of endotoxins from Bacteroides gingivalis and intermedius on human gingival fibroblasts in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Purified endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide from Bacteroides gingivalis and Bacteroides intermedius caused a similar dose-dependent inhibition of growth of cultured human gingival fibroblasts as determined by /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation and direct cell count. Approximately 200 micrograms/ml endotoxin caused a 50% reduction in /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake of logarithmically growing cells. Inhibition of growth was similar in cultures of fibroblasts derived from either healthy or diseased human gingiva. When examining the change in cell number with time of exposure in culture, the rate of proliferation was significantly suppressed during the logarithmic phase of growth. However, the cells recovered so that the rate of proliferation, although reduced, was sufficient to produce a cell density similar to the control cells with prolonged culture. The endotoxins were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The profiles of the Bacteroides endotoxins were different. B. gingivalis endotoxin showed a wide range of distinct bands indicating a heterogeneous distribution of molecular species. Endotoxin from B. intermedius exhibited a few discrete low molecular weight bands, but the majority of the lipopolysaccharides electrophoresed as a diffuse band of high molecular weight material. The apparent heterogeneity of the two Bacteroides endotoxins and the similarity in growth inhibitory capacity suggest that growth inhibitory effects of these substances cannot be attributed to any polysaccharide species of endotoxin.

Layman, D.L.; Diedrich, D.L.

1987-06-01

97

Metabolism of glyceryl trinitrate to nitric oxide by endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells and its induction by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.  

PubMed Central

Here, we demonstrate that the metabolism of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) to nitric oxide (NO) occurs not only in bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) but also in endothelial cells (ECs) and that this biotransformation is enhanced by pretreatment with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Two bioassay systems were used: inhibition of platelet aggregation and measurement of cGMP after stimulation by NO of guanylate cyclase in SMCs or ECs. In addition, NO produced from GTN by cells was measured as nitrite (NO2-), one of its breakdown products. Indomethacin (10 microM)-treated SMCs or ECs enhanced the platelet inhibitory activity of GTN. This effect was abrogated by coincubation with oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb; 10 microM), indicating release of NO from GTN. LPS (0.5 microgram/ml; 18 h) enhanced at least 2- to 3-fold the capacity of SMCs or ECs to form NO from GTN, and this enhancement was attenuated when cycloheximide (10 micrograms/ml) was incubated together with LPS. Furthermore, when incubated with GTN (200 microM) SMCs or ECs treated with LPS (0.5 microgram/ml; 18 h) released more NO from GTN than nontreated cells as indicated by a much higher (8- to 9-fold) increase in the levels of cGMP. Exposure of SMCs to GTN (600 microM) for 30 min led to an increase in the levels of NO2- dependent on cell numbers, which was enhanced when SMCs were treated with LPS. Incubation of nontreated or LPS-treated cells with NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (300 microM; 60 min) did not influence the metabolism of GTN to NO. SMCs failed to enhance the antiplatelet activity of sodium nitroprusside. Anesthetized rats treated with an intraperitoneal injection of LPS (20 mg/kg) 18 h beforehand showed enhanced hypotensive responses to GTN (0.25-1 mg/kg). These effects were blocked by methylene blue (10 mg/kg) but not by indomethacin (3 mg/kg). LPS did not alter the hypotensive responses induced by phentolamine, verapamil, or SIN-1. Thus, both in vitro and in vivo, LPS induces the enzyme(s) metabolizing GTN to NO. PMID:1310543

Salvemini, D; Mollace, V; Pistelli, A; Anggard, E; Vane, J

1992-01-01

98

Biochemical principle of Limulus test for detecting bacterial endotoxins  

PubMed Central

A hemocyte lysate from horseshoe crab (Limulus) produced a gel, when exposed to Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins, lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This gelation reaction of the lysate, so-called Limulus test, has been widely employed as a simple and very sensitive assay method for endotoxins. Recent biochemical studies on the principle of Limulus test indicate that the hemocytes contain several serine protease zymogens, which constitute a coagulation cascade triggered by endotoxins, and that there is a (1,3)-?-D-glucan-mediated coagulation pathway which also results in the formation of gel. Up to now, six protein components, designated coagulogen, proclotting enzyme, factor B, factor C, and factor G, all of which are closely associated with the endotoxin-mediated coagulation pathway, have been purified and biochemically characterized. The molecular structures of these proteins have also been elucidated. Moreover, the reconstitution experiments using the isolated clotting factors, factor C, factor B, proclotting enzyme and coagulogen in the presence of endotoxin, leads to the formation of coagulin gel. Here, I will focus on the biochemical principle of Limulus test for detecting bacterial endotoxins, and its activation and regulation mechanism on the LPS-mediated coagulation cascade. PMID:24019589

Iwanaga, Sadaaki

2007-01-01

99

Biochemical principle of Limulus test for detecting bacterial endotoxins.  

PubMed

A hemocyte lysate from horseshoe crab (Limulus) produced a gel, when exposed to Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins, lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This gelation reaction of the lysate, so-called Limulus test, has been widely employed as a simple and very sensitive assay method for endotoxins. Recent biochemical studies on the principle of Limulus test indicate that the hemocytes contain several serine protease zymogens, which constitute a coagulation cascade triggered by endotoxins, and that there is a (1,3)-?-D-glucan-mediated coagulation pathway which also results in the formation of gel. Up to now, six protein components, designated coagulogen, proclotting enzyme, factor B, factor C, and factor G, all of which are closely associated with the endotoxin-mediated coagulation pathway, have been purified and biochemically characterized. The molecular structures of these proteins have also been elucidated. Moreover, the reconstitution experiments using the isolated clotting factors, factor C, factor B, proclotting enzyme and coagulogen in the presence of endotoxin, leads to the formation of coagulin gel. Here, I will focus on the biochemical principle of Limulus test for detecting bacterial endotoxins, and its activation and regulation mechanism on the LPS-mediated coagulation cascade. PMID:24019589

Iwanaga, Sadaaki

2007-05-01

100

Binding of /sup 125/I-labeled endotoxin to bovine, canine, and equine platelets and endotoxin-induced agglutination of canine platelets  

SciTech Connect

Endotoxin from Escherichia coli O127:B8, Salmonella abortus-equi and S minnesota induced clumping of some canine platelets (PLT) at a final endotoxin concentration of 1 microgram/ml. Endotoxin-induced clumping of canine PLT was independent of PLT energy-requiring processes, because clumping was observed with canine PLT incubated with 2-deoxy-D-glucose and antimycin A. The PLT responded to adenosine diphosphate before, but not after, incubation with the metabolic inhibitors. Endotoxin induced a slight and inconsistant clumping of bovine and equine PLT at high (mg/ml) endotoxin concentration. High-affinity binding sites could not be demonstrated on canine, bovine, and equine PLT, using /sup 125/I-labeled E coli O127:B8 endotoxin. Nonspecific binding was observed and appeared to be due primarily to an extraneous coat on the PLT surface that was removed by gel filtration. The endotoxin that was bound to PLT did not appear to modify PLT function. An attempt to identify plasma proteins that bound physiologically relevant amounts of endotoxin was not successful. The significance of the endotoxin-induced clumping or lack of it on the pathophysiology of endotoxemia is discussed.

Meyers, K.M.; Boehme, M.; Inbar, O.

1982-10-01

101

Chronic systemic endotoxin exposure: an animal model in experimental hepatic encephalopathy.  

PubMed

Plasma levels of gut-derived endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) are often elevated in cirrhotics and are thought to contribute to hepatic encephalopathy. Circulating LPS activates macrophages to produce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and other potentially cytotoxic proinflammatory mediators. A pathogenic role for endotoxins is supported by studies showing that treatment with Lacto-bacillusor antibiotics, both of which reduce LPS-producing intestinal Gram-negative bacteria, alleviates experimental liver damage. To mimic the "leaky gut" syndrome with endotoxin translocation into the circulation in cirrhotics, a new animal model was developed. Rats were chronically exposed to ethanol and for the four last weeks also infused with endotoxin into the jugular vein from subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps. Animals receiving endotoxin had elevated hepatic expression of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, but compared to ethanol treatment alone hepatic steatosis and inflammatory changes were only marginally increased. This demonstrates marked endotoxin tolerance, probably as a consequence of a counteracting anti-inflammatory cytokine response. The role of gut-derived endotoxin in hepatic encephalopathy has recently received considerable attention. To further delineate the role and actions of endotoxin and its extrahepatic effects, studies applying both acute challenge and chronic infusion seem warranted. The chronic endotoxin model, mimicking the "leaky gut," may best be combined with more robust ways to impair liver function, such as carbon tetrachloride treatment, bile duct ligation, or galactosamine administration. PMID:16382349

Lindros, Kai O; Järveläinen, Harri A

2005-12-01

102

Potent suppression of IL-12 production from monocytes and dendritic cells during endotoxin tolerance.  

PubMed

Endotoxin tolerance, the down-regulation of a subset of endotoxin-driven responses after an initial exposure to endotoxin, may provide protection from the uncontrolled immunological activation of acute endotoxic shock. Recent data suggest, however, that the inhibition of monocyte/macrophage function associated with endotoxin tolerance can lead to an inability to respond appropriately to secondary infections in survivors of endotoxic shock. IL-12 production by antigen-presenting cells is central to the orchestration of both innate and acquired cell-mediated immune responses to many pathogens. IL-12 has also been shown to play an important role in pathological responses to endotoxin. We therefore examined the regulation of IL-12 during endotoxin tolerance. Priming doses of lipopolysaccharide ablate the IL-12 productive capacity of primary human monocytes. This suppression of IL-12 production is primarily transcriptional. Unlike the down-regulation of TNF-alpha under such conditions, the mechanism of IL-12 suppression during endotoxin tolerance is not dependent upon IL-10 or transforming growth factor-beta, nor is IL-12 production rescued by IFN-gamma or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Of note, human dendritic cells also undergo endotoxin tolerance, with potent down-regulation of IL-12 production. Endotoxin tolerance-related suppression of IL-12 production provides a likely mechanism for the anergy seen during the immunological paralysis which follows septic shock. PMID:9808181

Karp, C L; Wysocka, M; Ma, X; Marovich, M; Factor, R E; Nutman, T; Armant, M; Wahl, L; Cuomo, P; Trinchieri, G

1998-10-01

103

Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertebrates achieve internal homeostasis during infection or injury by balancing the activities of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), produced by all gram-negative bacteria, activates macrophages to release cytokines that are potentially lethal. The central nervous system regulates systemic inflammatory responses to endotoxin through humoral mechanisms. Activation of afferent vagus nerve fibres by endotoxin or cytokines stimulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal anti-inflammatory responses. However, comparatively little is known about the role of efferent vagus nerve signalling in modulating inflammation. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized, parasympathetic anti-inflammatory pathway by which the brain modulates systemic inflammatory responses to endotoxin. Acetylcholine, the principle vagal neurotransmitter, significantly attenuated the release of cytokines (tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6 and IL-18), but not the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human macrophage cultures. Direct electrical stimulation of the peripheral vagus nerve in vivo during lethal endotoxaemia in rats inhibited TNF synthesis in liver, attenuated peak serum TNF amounts, and prevented the development of shock.

Borovikova, Lyudmila V.; Ivanova, Svetlana; Zhang, Minghuang; Yang, Huan; Botchkina, Galina I.; Watkins, Linda R.; Wang, Haichao; Abumrad, Naji; Eaton, John W.; Tracey, Kevin J.

2000-05-01

104

Removing Endotoxin from Metallic Biomaterials with Compressed Carbon Dioxide-Based Mixtures.  

PubMed

Bacterial endotoxins have strong affinity for metallic biomaterials because of surface energy effects. Conventional depyrogenation methods may not eradicate endotoxins and may compromise biological properties and functionality of metallic instruments and implants. We evaluated the solubilization and removal of E. coli endotoxin from smooth and porous titanium (Ti) surfaces and stainless steel lumens using compressed CO(2)-based mixtures having water and/or surfactant Ls-54. The CO(2)/water/Ls-54 ternary mixture in the liquid CO(2) region (25 °C and 27.6 MPa) with strong mixing removed endotoxin below detection levels. This suggests that the ternary mixture penetrates and dissolves endotoxins from all the tested substrates. The successful removal of endotoxins from metallic biomaterials with compressed CO(2) is a promising cleaning technology for biomaterials and reusable medical devices. PMID:21499532

Tarafa, Pedro J; Williams, Eve; Panvelker, Samir; Zhang, Jian; Matthews, Michael A

2011-01-01

105

Temperature-sensitive lesions in the Francisella novicida valA gene cloned into an Escherichia coli msbA lpxK mutant affecting deoxycholate resistance and lipopolysaccharide assembly at the restrictive temperature.  

PubMed Central

The valAB locus of Francisella novicida has previously been found to be highly similar at the deduced amino acid level to msbA lpxK of Escherichia coli. Both ValA and MsbA are members of the superfamily of ABC transporters, and they appear to have similar functions. In this study we describe the isolation of a temperature-sensitive valAB locus. DNA sequence analysis indicates that the only changes to the ValAB deduced amino acid sequence are changes of S453 to an F and T458 to an I in ValA. E. coli strains defective in msbA and expressing temperature-sensitive ValA rapidly ceased growth when shifted from a permissive temperature to a restrictive temperature. After 1 h at the restrictive temperature, cells were much more sensitive to deoxycholate treatment. To test the hypothesis that ValA is responsible for the transport or assembly of lipopolysaccharide, we introduced gseA, a Kdo (3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid) transferase from Chlamydia trachomatis, into a strain with a temperature-sensitive valA allele and a nonfunctional msbA locus. These recombinants were defective in cell surface expression of the chlamydial genus-specific epitope within 15 min of a shift to the nonpermissive temperature. Also, there was enhanced association of the epitope with the inner membrane after a shift to the nonpermissive temperature. Thus, we propose that ValA is involved in the transport of lipopolysaccharide to the outer membrane. PMID:9401020

McDonald, M K; Cowley, S C; Nano, F E

1997-01-01

106

Physical and biological properties of U. S. standard endotoxin EC after exposure to ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

Techniques that reduce the toxicity of bacterial endotoxins are useful for studying the relationship between structure and biological activity. We used ionizing radiation to detoxify a highly refined endotoxin preparation. U.S. standard endotoxin EC. Dose-dependent changes occurred by exposure to /sup 60/Co-radiation in the physical properties and biological activities of the endotoxin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis showed gradual loss of the polysaccharide components (O-side chain and R-core) from the endotoxin molecules. In contrast, although endotoxin revealed a complex absorption pattern in the UV range, radiation treatment failed to modify that pattern. Dose-related destruction of the primary toxic component, lipid A, was suggested by the results of activity tests: both the pyrogenicity and limulus reactivity of the endotoxin were destroyed by increasing doses of radiation. The results indicate that the detoxification is probably due to multiple effects of the ionizing radiation on bacterial lipopolysaccharides, and the action involves (i) the destruction of polysaccharide moieties and possibly (ii) the alteration of lipid A component of the endotoxin molecule.

Csako, G.; Elin, R.J.; Hochstein, H.D.; Tsai, C.M.

1983-07-01

107

Generation of slow-reacting substance (leukotrienes) by endotoxin and lipid A from human polymorphonuclear granulocytes.  

PubMed Central

Leukotrienes were released from human polymorphonuclear granulocytes on incubation with endotoxins and lipid A. The analysis was performed by their smooth muscle contracting properties, reversed phase high-pressure liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay for leukotrienes C4 and D4. The active component of the lipopolysaccharides seems to be the lipid A portion. PMID:6490085

Bremm, K D; Konig, W; Spur, B; Crea, A; Galanos, C

1984-01-01

108

Generation of slow-reacting substance (leukotrienes) by endotoxin and lipid A from human polymorphonuclear granulocytes.  

PubMed

Leukotrienes were released from human polymorphonuclear granulocytes on incubation with endotoxins and lipid A. The analysis was performed by their smooth muscle contracting properties, reversed phase high-pressure liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay for leukotrienes C4 and D4. The active component of the lipopolysaccharides seems to be the lipid A portion. PMID:6490085

Bremm, K D; König, W; Spur, B; Crea, A; Galanos, C

1984-10-01

109

Recognition of Gram-negative bacteria and endotoxin by the innate immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until about 10 years ago the exact mechanisms controlling cellular responses to the endotoxin – or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) – of Gram-negative bacteria were unknown. Now a considerable body of evidence supports a model where LPS or LPS-containing particles (including intact bacteria) form complexes with a serum protein known as LPS-binding protein; the LPS in this complex is subsequently transferred to

Richard J Ulevitch; Peter S Tobias

1999-01-01

110

Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects on eukaryotic signal transduction1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid A domain of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a unique, glucosamine-based phospholipid that makes up the outer monolayer of the outer membrane of most gram-negative bacteria. Because of its profound pharmacological effects on animal cells, especially those of the immune system, lipid A is also known as endo- toxin. Despite decades of earlier work, the precise chemistry of endotoxins and

CHRISTIAN R. H. RAETZ; RICHARD J. ULEVITCH; SAMUEL D. WRIGHT; CAROL H. SIBLEY; CARL F. NATHAN

111

Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the Stimulation of Lipopolysaccharide  

PubMed Central

Lipopolysaccharide, known as endotoxin, can stimulate potent host immune responses through the complex of Toll-like-receptor 4 and myeloid differentiation protein 2; but its influence on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a model organism for studying eukaryotes, is not clear. In this study, we found that lipopolysaccharide-treated S. cerevisiae cells could be stained by methylene blue, but did not die. Transcriptional profiling of the lipopolysaccharide-treated S. cerevisiae cells showed that 5745 genes were modulated: 2491 genes up-regulated and 3254 genes down-regulated. Significantly regulated genes (460 up-regulated genes and 135 down-regulated genes) in lipopolysaccharide-treated S. cerevisiae cells were analyzed on Gene Ontology, and used to establish physical protein-protein interaction network and protein phosphorylation network. Based on these analyses, most of the regulated genes in lipopolysaccharide-treated S. cerevisiae cells were related to cell wall, membrane, peroxisome and mitochondrion. Further experiments demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide stimulation caused the exposure of phosphatidylserine and the increase of mitochondrial membrane potential in S. cerevisiae cells, but levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and metacaspase activation were not increased. This study demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide stimulation causes significant changes in S. cerevisiae cells, and the results would contribute to understand the response of eukaryotic cells to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. PMID:25105496

Shen, Lulu; Li, Ye; Jiang, Linghuo; Wang, Xiaoyuan

2014-01-01

112

Growth and Development Symposium: Endotoxin, inflammation, and intestinal function in livestock.  

PubMed

Endotoxin, also referred to as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), can stimulate localized or systemic inflammation via the activation of pattern recognition receptors. Additionally, endotoxin and inflammation can regulate intestinal epithelial function by altering integrity, nutrient transport, and utilization. The gastrointestinal tract is a large reservoir of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, of which the gram-negative bacteria serve as a source of endotoxin. Luminal endotoxin can enter circulation via two routes: 1) nonspecific paracellular transport through epithelial cell tight junctions, and 2) transcellular transport through lipid raft membrane domains involving receptor-mediated endocytosis. Paracellular transport of endotoxin occurs through dissociation of tight junction protein complexes resulting in reduced intestinal barrier integrity, which can be a result of enteric disease, inflammation, or environmental and metabolic stress. Transcellular transport, via specialized membrane regions rich in glycolipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol, and saturated fatty acids, is a result of raft recruitment of endotoxin-related signaling proteins leading to endotoxin signaling and endocytosis. Both transport routes and sensitivity to endotoxin may be altered by diet and environmental and metabolic stresses. Intestinal-derived endotoxin and inflammation result in suppressed appetite, activation of the immune system, and partitioning of energy and nutrients away from growth toward supporting the immune system requirements. In livestock, this leads to the suppression of growth, particularly suppression of lean tissue accretion. In this paper, we summarize the evidence that intestinal transport of endotoxin and the subsequent inflammation leads to decrease in the production performance of agricultural animals and we present an overview of endotoxin detoxification mechanisms in livestock. PMID:22247110

Mani, V; Weber, T E; Baumgard, L H; Gabler, N K

2012-05-01

113

Endotoxin contamination in fetal bovine serum and its influence on tumor necrosis factor production by macrophage-like cells J774.1 cultured in the presence of the serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace amounts of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide:LPS) are assumed to contaminate commercially available fetal bovine serum (FBS) for tissue or cell culture during the manufacturing process. We examined how cultured cells were affected by the endotoxin and how much endotoxin was in the FBS. Macrophage-like J774.1 cells maintained in RPMI1640 medium supplemented with FBS containing low doses of LPS for 15 or

Teruo Kirikae; Hiroshi Tamura; Mami Hashizume; Fumiko Kirikae; Yayoi Uemura; Shigenori Tanaka; Takashi Yokochi; Masayasu Nakano

1997-01-01

114

Endotoxin and Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective Exposure to endotoxin, a component of gram-negative bacterial cell walls, is widespread in many industrial settings and in the ambient environment. Heavy-exposure environments include livestock farms, cotton textile facilities, and saw mills. Concentrations are highly variable in non-occupational indoor and outdoor environments. Endotoxin is a potent inflammagen with recognized health effects, including fever, shaking chills, septic shock, toxic pneumonitis, and respiratory symptoms. Somewhat paradoxically, given the putative role of inflammation in carcinogenesis, various lines of evidence suggest that endotoxin may prevent cancer initiation or limit tumor growth. The hypothesis that components of bacteria may retard cancer progression dates back to William B. Coley’s therapeutic experiments (“bacterial vaccine”) in the 1890s. Data sources In this article, we review epidemiologic, clinical trial, and experimental studies pertinent to the hypothesis that endotoxin prevents cancer. Since the 1970s, epidemiologic studies of cotton textile and other endotoxin-exposed occupational groups have consistently demonstrated reduced lung cancer risks. Experimental animal toxicology research and some limited therapeutic trials in cancer patients offer additional support for an anticarcinogenic potential. The underlying biological mechanisms of anticarcinogenesis are not entirely understood but are thought to involve the recruitment and activation of immune cells and proinflammatory mediators (e.g., tumor necrosis factor ? and interleukin-1 and -6). Conclusions In view of the current state of knowledge, it would be premature to recommend endotoxin as a cancer-chemopreventive agent. Nonetheless, further epidemiologic and experimental investigations that can clarify further dose–effect and exposure–timing relations could have substantial public health and basic biomedical benefits. PMID:19750096

Lundin, Jessica I.; Checkoway, Harvey

2009-01-01

115

Comparison of the immune response to sheep erythrocytes, tetanus toxoid and endotoxin in different strains of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary immune response in 7 inbred and 2 outbred mouse strains to SRBC, tetanus toxin and ‘E.coliendotoxin is compared. Significant variations are found in the different strains concerning their antibody response to these antigens. The differences in antibody production reached with SRBC (direct and indirect PFC) and tetanus toxin are on a quantitative level, those with endotoxin also

J. F. Borel

1974-01-01

116

Removal of endotoxin from water by microfiltration through a microporous polyethylene hollow-fiber membrane  

SciTech Connect

The microporous polyethylene hollow-fiber membrane has a unique microfibrile structure throughout its depth and has been found to possess the functions of filtration and adsorption of endotoxin in water. The membrane has a maximum pore diameter of approximately 0.04 micron, a diameter which is within the range of microfiltration. Approximately 10 and 20% of the endotoxin in tap water and subterranean water, respectively, was smaller than 0.025 micron. Endotoxin in these water sources was efficiently removed by the microporous polyethylene hollow-fiber membrane. Escherichia coli O113 culture broth contained 26.4% of endotoxin smaller than 0.025 micron which was also removed. Endotoxin was leaked into the filtrate only when endotoxin samples were successively passed through the membrane. These results indicate that endotoxin smaller than the pore size of the membrane was adsorbed and then leaked into the filtrate because of a reduction in binding sites. Dissociation of /sup 3/H-labeled endotoxin from the membrane was performed, resulting in the removal of endotoxin associated with the membrane by alcoholic alkali at 78% efficiency.

Sawada, Y.; Fujii, R.; Igami, I.; Kawai, A.; Kamiki, T.; Niwa, M.

1986-04-01

117

Biosensor of endotoxin and sepsis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the relation between biosensor of endotoxin and endotoxin of plasma in sepsis. Method: biosensor of endotoxin was designed with technology of quartz crystal microbalance bioaffinity sensor ligand of endotoxin were immobilized by protein A conjugate. When a sample soliton of plasma containing endotoxin 0.01, 0.03, 0.06, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0Eu, treated with perchloric acid and injected into slot of quartz crystal surface respectively, the ligand was released from the surface of quartz crystal to form a more stable complex with endotoxin in solution. The endotoxin concentration corresponded to the weight change on the crystal surface, and caused change of frequency that occurred when desorbed. The result was biosensor of endotoxin might detect endotoxin of plasma in sepsis, measurements range between 0.05Eu and 0.5Eu in the stop flow mode, measurement range between 0.1Eu and 1Eu in the flow mode. The sensor of endotoxin could detect the endotoxin of plasm rapidly, and use for detection sepsis in clinically.

Shao, Yang; Wang, Xiang; Wu, Xi; Gao, Wei; He, Qing-hua; Cai, Shaoxi

2001-09-01

118

Examining Associations of Circulating Endotoxin with Nutritional Status, Inflammation and Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective Lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin constitutes most part of the outer portion of the cell wall in the gram negative bacteria. Sub-clinical endotoxemia could contribute to increased inflammation and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Endotoxin level and clinical effect are determined by its soluble receptor sCD14 and high density lipoprotein. We examine the hypothesis that endotoxin level correlates with mortality. Methods In this cohort study, endotoxin levels were measured in 306 long-term hemodialysis patients who were then followed for up to 42 months. Soluble CD14 and cytokines levels were also measured. Results The mean (±SD) endotoxin level was 2.31±3.10 EU/ml (min: 0.26 EU/ml, max: 22.94 EU/ml, inter-quartile range: 1.33EU/ml, median: 1.27EU/ml). Endotoxin correlated with C-reactive protein (r = 0.11, p<0.04). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, high body mass index (BMI) and low HDL cholesterol levels were associated with higher endotoxinemia (endotoxin below or above of median). In multivariable Cox regression analysis adjusted for case-mix and nutritional/inflammatory confounders, endotoxin levels in the 3rd quartile vs. 1st quartile was associated with a trend towards increased hazard ratio (HR) for death (HR 1.83, 95% confidence interval: 0.93–3.6, p=0.08). Conclusions In this hemodialysis cohort, we found associations between endotoxinemia and CRP, body composition and HDL. A moderately high endotoxin levels tended to correlate with increased mortality than the highest circulating endotoxin level. Additional studies are required to asses the effect of endotoxemia on mortality in dialysis population. PMID:21880509

Feroze, Usama; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Sterling, Kevin A; Molnar, Miklos Z.; Noori, Nazanin; Benner, Debbie; Shah, Vhalab; Dwivedi, Rama; Becker, Kenneth; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Raj, Dominic S

2011-01-01

119

Endotoxin structures in the psychrophiles Psychromonas marina and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis contain distinctive acyl features.  

PubMed

Lipid A is the essential component of endotoxin (Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide), a potent immunostimulatory compound. As the outer surface of the outer membrane, the details of lipid A structure are crucial not only to bacterial pathogenesis but also to membrane integrity. This work characterizes the structure of lipid A in two psychrophiles, Psychromonas marina and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis, and also two mesophiles to which they are related using MALDI-TOF MS and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) GC-MS. P. marina lipid A is strikingly similar to that of Escherichia coli in organization and total acyl size, but incorporates an unusual doubly unsaturated tetradecadienoyl acyl residue. P. cryohalolentis also shows structural organization similar to a closely related mesophile, Acinetobacter baumannii, however it has generally shorter acyl constituents and shows many acyl variants differing by single methylene (-CH2-) units, a characteristic it shares with the one previously reported psychrotolerant lipid A structure. This work is the first detailed structural characterization of lipid A from an obligate psychrophile and the second from a psychrotolerant species. It reveals distinctive structural features of psychrophilic lipid A in comparison to that of related mesophiles which suggest constitutive adaptations to maintain outer membrane fluidity in cold environments. PMID:25010385

Sweet, Charles R; Alpuche, Giancarlo M; Landis, Corinne A; Sandman, Benjamin C

2014-07-01

120

Endotoxin Structures in the Psychrophiles Psychromonas marina and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis Contain Distinctive Acyl Features  

PubMed Central

Lipid A is the essential component of endotoxin (Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide), a potent immunostimulatory compound. As the outer surface of the outer membrane, the details of lipid A structure are crucial not only to bacterial pathogenesis but also to membrane integrity. This work characterizes the structure of lipid A in two psychrophiles, Psychromonas marina and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis, and also two mesophiles to which they are related using MALDI-TOF MS and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) GC-MS. P. marina lipid A is strikingly similar to that of Escherichia coli in organization and total acyl size, but incorporates an unusual doubly unsaturated tetradecadienoyl acyl residue. P. cryohalolentis also shows structural organization similar to a closely related mesophile, Acinetobacter baumannii, however it has generally shorter acyl constituents and shows many acyl variants differing by single methylene (-CH2-) units, a characteristic it shares with the one previously reported psychrotolerant lipid A structure. This work is the first detailed structural characterization of lipid A from an obligate psychrophile and the second from a psychrotolerant species. It reveals distinctive structural features of psychrophilic lipid A in comparison to that of related mesophiles which suggest constitutive adaptations to maintain outer membrane fluidity in cold environments. PMID:25010385

Sweet, Charles R.; Alpuche, Giancarlo M.; Landis, Corinne A.; Sandman, Benjamin C.

2014-01-01

121

Endotoxin detection--from limulus amebocyte lysate to recombinant factor C.  

PubMed

Gram negative bacterial endotoxin is a biological pyrogen that causes fever when introduced intravenously. The endotoxin, also known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. During Gram-negative sepsis, endotoxin stimulates host macrophages to release inflammatory cytokines. However, excessive inflammation causes multiple organ failure and death. Endotoxins, which are ubiquitous pathogenic molecules, are a bane to the pharmaceutical industry and healthcare community. Thus early and sensitive detection of endotoxin is crucial to prevent endotoxaemia. The limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) has been widely used for ~30 years for the detection of endotoxin in the quality assurance of injectable drugs and medical devices. The LAL constitutes a cascade of serine proteases which are triggered by trace levels of endotoxin, culminating in a gel clot at the end of the reaction. The Factor C, which normally exists as a zymogen, is the primer of this coagulation cascade. In vivo, Factor C is the perfect biosensor, which alerts the horseshoe crab of the presence of a Gram-negative invader. The hemostatic end-point entraps the invader, killing it and limiting further infection. However, as an in vitro endotoxin detection tool, variations in the sensitivity and specificity of LAL to endotoxin, and the dwindling supply of horseshoe crabs are posing increasing challenges to the biotechnology industry. This has necessitated the innovation of an alternative test for endotoxin. Thus, Factor C became the obvious, albeit tricky target for the recombinant technology effort. This chapter documents the backwater of mining the natural blood lysate of the endangered species to the monumental effort of genetic engineering, to produce recombinant Factor C (rFC). The rFC is a 132 kDa molecule, which was produced as a proenzyme inducible by the presence of trace levels of endotoxin. The rFC forms the basis of the "PyroGene" kit, which is a novel micro-enzymatic endotoxin diagnostic assay for high-throughput screens of endotoxin. Using the rFC, Lonza Inc. has spawned the "PyroSense" which serves as checkpoints of the biotechnology production line. Thus, from cloning to commercial applications, the rFC has initiated a new era in endotoxin-testing for the quality assurance of biomedical products and for the healthcare industry, whilst sparing the endangered horseshoe crabs. PMID:20593268

Ding, Jeak Ling; Ho, Bow

2010-01-01

122

Proteogenomics of selective susceptibility to endotoxin using circulating acute phase biomarkers and bioassay development in sheep: a review  

PubMed Central

Scientists have injected endotoxin into animals to investigate and understand various pathologies and novel therapies for several decades. Recent observations have shown that there is selective susceptibility to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin in sheep, despite having similar breed characteristics. The reason behind this difference is unknown, and has prompted studies aiming to explain the variation by proteogenomic characterisation of circulating acute phase biomarkers. It is hypothesised that genetic trait, biochemical, immunological and inflammation marker patterns contribute in defining and predicting mammalian response to LPS. This review discusses the effects of endotoxin and host responses, genetic basis of innate defences, activation of the acute phase response (APR) following experimental LPS challenge, and the current approaches employed in detecting novel biomarkers including acute phase proteins (APP) and micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) in serum or plasma. miRNAs are novel targets for elucidating molecular mechanisms of disease because of their differential expression during pathological, and in healthy states. Changes in miRNA profiles during a disease challenge may be reflected in plasma. Studies show that gel-based two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with either matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) or liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are currently the most used methods for proteome characterisation. Further evidence suggests that proteomic investigations are preferentially shifting from 2-DE to non-gel based LC-MS/MS coupled with data extraction by sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH) approaches that are able to identify a wider range of proteins. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and most recently proteomic methods have been used to quantify low abundance proteins such as cytokines. qRT-PCR and next generation sequencing (NGS) are used for the characterisation of miRNA. Proteogenomic approaches for detecting APP and novel miRNA profiling are essential in understanding the selective resistance to endotoxin in sheep. The results of these methods could help in understanding similar pathology in humans. It might also be helpful in the development of physiological and diagnostic screening assays for determining experimental inclusion and endpoints, and in clinical trials in future. PMID:24580811

2014-01-01

123

Detection of free endotoxin in cerebrospinal fluid by the Limulus lysate test.  

PubMed Central

We used a rabbit model of Escherichia coli meningitis to study the basis for positive Limulus lysate tests in infected cerebrospinal fluid. The results indicated that positive Limulus tests are due to endotoxins in cerebrospinal fluid and not to leukocyte proteases or other possible activators of the Limulus clotting system. The results also suggest that bacteria-free endotoxin may be present in localized gram-negative bacterial infections. PMID:6378802

Munford, R S; Hall, C L; Grimm, L

1984-01-01

124

Effect of radio-detoxified endotoxin on the liver microsomal drug metabolizing enzyme system in rats  

SciTech Connect

E. coli endotoxin (LPS) depresses the hepatic microsomal mono-oxygenase activity. Radio-detoxified LPS (TOLERIN: /sup 60/Co irradiated endotoxin preparation) decreases this biotransforming activity to a smaller extent. Phenobarbital, an inducer of this mono-oxygenase system, failed to induce in LPS-treated animals. In radio-detoxified LPS-treated rats, phenobarbital induced the mono-oxygenase and almost fully restored the biotransformation.

Bertok, L.; Szeberenyi, S.

1983-06-01

125

Grape seed procyanidin extract reduces the endotoxic effects induced by lipopolysaccharide in rats.  

PubMed

Acute inflammation is a response to injury, infection, tissue damage, or shock. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin implicated in triggering sepsis and septic shock, and LPS promotes the inflammatory response, resulting in the secretion of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as the interleukins (IL-6, IL-1?, and IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor-? by the immune cells. Furthermore, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species levels increase rapidly, which is partially due to the activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase in several tissues in response to inflammatory stimuli. Previous studies have shown that procyanidins, polyphenols present in foods such as apples, grapes, cocoa, and berries, have several beneficial properties against inflammation and oxidative stress using several in vitro and in vivo models. In this study, the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of two physiological doses and two pharmaceutical doses of grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) were analyzed using a rat model of septic shock by the intraperitoneal injection of LPS derived from Escherichia coli. The high nutritional (75mg/kg/day) and the high pharmacological doses (200mg/kg/day) of GSPE showed anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing the proinflammatory marker NOx in the plasma, red blood cells, spleen, and liver. Moreover, the high pharmacological dose also downregulated the genes Il-6 and iNos; and the high nutritional dose decreased the glutathione ratio (GSSG/total glutathione), further illustrating the antioxidant capability of GSPE. In conclusion, several doses of GSPE can alleviate acute inflammation triggered by LPS in rats at the systemic and local levels when administered for as few as 15 days before the injection of endotoxin. PMID:23439188

Pallarès, Victor; Fernández-Iglesias, Anabel; Cedó, Lídia; Castell-Auví, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat; Ardévol, Anna; Salvadó, Maria Josepa; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Blay, Mayte

2013-07-01

126

Single session of Nd:YAG laser intracanal irradiation neutralizes endotoxin in dental root dentin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endotoxins released in the dental root by Gram-negative microorganisms can be neutralized by calcium hydroxide, when this medication is applied inside the root canal for at least seven days. However, several clinical situations demand faster root canal decontamination. Thus, for faster endotoxin neutralization, endodontists are seeking additional treatments. The in vitro study tested whether or not intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation would be able to neutralize endotoxin within the human dental root canal in a single session. Twenty-four human teeth with one root were mounted between two chambers. After conventional endodontic treatment, root canals were contaminated with Escherichia coli endotoxin. Then they were irradiated or not (controls) in contact mode with an Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 15 Hz, 100 mJ and pulse fluency of 124 J/cm2). The endotoxin activity was measured using the limulus lysate technique and data were statistically compared (p?0.05). The concentration of active endotoxin measured in the negative control group was significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.04). The concentrations of endotoxin in both irradiated groups were significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.027) and similar to that of negative control group (p=0.20). A single session of intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation is able to neutralize endotoxin in the dental root tissues.

Archilla, José R. F.; Moreira, Maria S. N. A.; Miyagi, Sueli P. H.; Bombana, Antônio C.; Gutknecht, Norbert; Marques, Márcia M.

2012-11-01

127

Equine platelets inhibit E. coli growth and can be activated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid although superoxide anion production does not occur and platelet activation is not associated with enhanced production by neutrophils.  

PubMed

Activated platelets can contribute to host defense through release of products with bactericidal actions such as antimicrobial peptides and reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as by forming heterotypic aggregates with neutrophils and enhancing their antimicrobial properties. Whilst release of vasoactive mediators from equine platelets in response to stimuli including bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been documented, neither ROS production, nor the effects of activated platelets on equine neutrophil ROS production, have been reported. This study first sought evidence that activated equine platelets inhibit bacterial growth. Platelet superoxide production in response to stimuli including Escherichia coli-derived LPS and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Staphylococcus aureus was then determined. The ability of LPS and LTA to up-regulate platelet P-selectin expression and induce platelet-neutrophil aggregate formation was investigated and the effect of co-incubating activated platelets with neutrophils on superoxide production measured. Growth of E. coli was inhibited in a time-dependent manner, and to a similar extent, by addition of platelet rich plasma (PRP) or platelet poor plasma (PPP) obtained by centrifugation of PRP. Activation of platelets in PRP by addition of thrombin led to a significant increase in the inhibitory action between 0.5 and 2h. Although phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) caused superoxide production by equine platelets in a protein kinase C-dependent manner, thrombin, platelet activating factor (PAF), LPS, LTA and formyl-methionyl-leucyl phenylalanine (FMLP) were without effect. LPS and LTA did induce platelet activation, measured as an increase in P-selectin expression (% positive cells: 17±3 (un-stimulated); 63±6 (1?g/ml LPS); 64±6 (1?g/ml LTA); n=5) but not platelet superoxide production or heterotypic aggregate formation. Co-incubation of activated platelets with neutrophils did not increase neutrophil superoxide production. This study has demonstrated for the first time that when activated, equine platelets, like those of other species, are capable of releasing ROS that could assist in bacterial killing. However, the findings suggest that neither superoxide production by platelets nor enhancement of production by neutrophils is likely to play a significant role. Nevertheless, as has been reported in man, equine PPP and PRP did inhibit E. coli growth in vitro, and addition of thrombin significantly increased the inhibitory effect of PRP. This suggests that products released from activated platelets could contribute to antimicrobial activity in the horse. The factors in equine plasma and released by activated platelets that are responsible for inhibiting bacterial growth have yet to be determined. PMID:23332730

Aktan, I; Dunkel, B; Cunningham, F M

2013-04-15

128

Detection and quantitative evaluation of endotoxin contamination in nanoparticle formulations by LAL-based assays.  

PubMed

Bacterial endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a membrane component of all Gram-negative bacteria. The administration of products contaminated with bacterial endotoxin can cause fever, shock, and even death. Accordingly, the FDA sets limits on the number of endotoxin units (EU) that may be present in a drug or device product. Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) is the extract from amoebocytes of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus, which reacts with bacterial endotoxin. Detection of the products of this reaction is an effective means of quantifying the EU present in a drug formulation. However, nanoparticles frequently interfere with the reactivity of endotoxin, the LAL reaction, or the detection of the reaction products. This interference can be manifested as either an enhancement or an inhibition, causing a respective overestimation or underestimation of the EU in the sample. Here, we present two methods for the detection and quantification of endotoxin in nanoparticle preparations: one is based on an end-point chromogenic LAL assay, and the second approach is based on measuring the turbidity of the LAL extract. PMID:21116960

Neun, Barry W; Dobrovolskaia, Marina A

2011-01-01

129

Removal of endotoxin from deionized water using micromachined silicon nanopore membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endotoxins are lipopolysaccharide components of the cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that trigger the body's innate immune system and can cause shock and death. Water for medical therapy, including parenteral and dialysate solutions, must be free of endotoxin. This purity is challenging to achieve as many Gram-negative bacteria are endemic in the environment, and can thrive in harsh, nutrient-poor conditions. Current methods for removing endotoxin include distillation and reverse osmosis, both of which are resource intensive processes. Membranes that present an absolute barrier to macromolecular passage may be capable of delivering pure water for biomedical applications. In this work, endotoxin has been filtered from aqueous solutions using silicon nanopore membranes (SNMs) with monodisperse pore size distributions. SNMs with critical pore sizes between 26 and 49 nm were challenged with solutions of deionized water spiked with endotoxin and with Pseudomonas cepacia. The filtrate produced by the SNM from Pseudomonas-contaminated water had <1.0 endotoxin unit (EU) ml-1, which meets standards for dialysate purity. This approach suggests a technique for single-step cleanup of heavily contaminated water that may be suitable for field or clinical use.

Smith, Ross A.; Goldman, Ken; Fissell, William H.; Fleischman, Aaron J.; Zorman, Christian A.; Roy, Shuvo

2011-05-01

130

Endotoxin induction of an inhibitor of plasminogen activator in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells  

SciTech Connect

The effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) on the fibrinolytic activity of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells were examined. Endotoxin suppressed the net fibrinolytic activity of cell extracts and conditioned media in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of endotoxin required at least 6 h for expression. Cell extracts and conditioned media contained a 44-kDa urokinase-like plasminogen activator. Media also contained multiple plasminogen activators with molecular masses of 65-75 and 80-100 kDa. Plasminogen activators in extracts and media were unchanged by treatment of cells with endotoxin. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP)-abolished fibrinolytic activity of extracts and conditioned media. DFP-treated samples from endotoxin-treated but not untreated cells inhibited urokinase and tissue plasminogen activator, but not plasmin. Inhibitory activity was lost by incubation at pH 3 or heating to 56/sup 0/C for 10 min. These treatments did not affect inhibitory activity of fetal bovine serum. Incubation of /sup 125/I-urokinase with DFP-treated medium from endotoxin-treated cells produced an inactive complex with an apparent molecular mass of 80-85 kDa.

Not Available

1986-01-05

131

Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1 as mediators of endotoxin-induced beneficial effects  

SciTech Connect

Bacterial lipopolysaccharides or endotoxins are known to induce tumor necrosis; enhanced nonspecific resistance to bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections and to radiation sickness; and tolerance to lethal doses of endotoxin. These beneficial effects are achieved by pretreatment with minute amounts of endotoxin. Recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) are among the mediators capable of invoking radioprotection or resistance to the consequences of cecal ligation and puncture. Both cytokines are potent inducers of serum colony-stimulating factor (CSF) in C3H/HeJ mice (low responders to endotoxin). The number of splenic granulocyte-macrophage precursors was found to increase 5 days after injection of TNF in these mice. Although with IL-1 no increase in the number of granulocyte-macrophage colonies occurred in culture in the presence of serum CSF, a marked stimulation was observed when TNF was added. This stimulation of myelopoiesis observed in vivo and in vitro may be related to the radioprotective effect of TNF. The data presented suggest that TNF and IL-1 released after injection of endotoxin participate in the mediation of endotoxin-induced enhancement of nonspecific resistance and stimulation of hematopoiesis. 76 references.

Urbaschek, R.; Urbaschek, B.

1987-09-01

132

Bupleurum Polysaccharides Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation via Modulating Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling  

PubMed Central

Background Bupleurum polysaccharides (BPs), isolated from Bupleurum smithii var. parvifolium, possesses immunomodulatory activity, particularly on inflammation. Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggers innate immune responses through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on host cell membrane. The present study was performed to evaluate whether the therapeutic efficacy of BPs on suppression of LPS’s pathogenecity could be associated with the modulating of TLR4 signaling pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings LPS stimulated expression and activation of factors in the TLR4 signaling system, including TLR4, CD14, IRAK4, TRAF6, NF-?B, and JNK, determined using immunocytochemical and/or Western blot assays. BPs significantly inhibited these effects of LPS. LPS increased pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1?, IL-12p40, and IFN-?) and NO production, evaluated using ELISA and Griess reaction assays, respectively. BPs antagonized these effects of LPS. Interestingly, BPs alone augmented secretion of some pro-inflammatory cytokines of non-LPS stimulated macrophages and enhanced phagocytic activity towards fluorescent E.coli bioparticles. In a rat model of acute lung injury (ALI) with pulmonary hemorrhage and inflammation, BPs ameliorated lung injuries and suppressed TLR4 expression. Significance The therapeutic properties of BPs in alleviating inflammatory diseases could be attributed to its inhibitory effect on LPS-mediated TLR4 signaling. PMID:24167596

Wu, Jian; Zhang, Yun-Yi; Guo, Li; Li, Hong; Chen, Dao-Feng

2013-01-01

133

The role of amoebocytes in endotoxin-mediated coagulation in the innate immunity of Achatina fulica snails.  

PubMed

Achatina amoebocyte lysate (AAL) derived from amoebocytes of Achatina fulica was activated by Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins in a time-dependent manner resulting in gel formation/coagulation. The activation and maximum proliferation of amoebocytes was observed 40 min after intramuscular injection (20 microg/snail) of endotoxin. Endotoxin-mediated proteolytic activity of AAL towards a serine-protease-specific chromogenic substrate was maximum at pH 8.0, 37 degrees C and within 15 min in a divalent-cation-dependent manner. The AAL activity induced by the endotoxin was directly dependent on the endotoxin concentration, showed a high specificity and saturated at higher endotoxin concentrations. An endotoxin-sensitive factor (ESF) was purified from AAL to apparent homogeneity by single-step affinity chromatography on a heparin-Sepharose 4B column. Native ESF of molecular weight 140 000 was composed of two identical subunits of molecular weight 70 000 attached through non-covalent association. A strong binding to endotoxin (Escherichia coli 055:B5) was exhibited by ESF with a 40-fold higher biological activity than AAL. The ESF was shown to have a unique Phe-Ile active site with regard to its alternate activation by alpha-chymotrypsin instead of endotoxin. The ESF was characterized as a serine protease type as evidenced by potent inhibition with specific inhibitors. PMID:10075016

Biswas, C; Mandal, C

1999-02-01

134

Endotoxin activity of Moraxella osloensis against the grey garden slug, Deroceras reticulatum.  

PubMed

Moraxella osloensis is a gram-negative bacterium associated with Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, a slug-parasitic nematode that has prospects for biological control of mollusk pests, especially the grey garden slug, Deroceras reticulatum. This bacterium-feeding nematode acts as a vector that transports M. osloensis into the shell cavity of the slug, and the bacterium is the killing agent in the nematode-bacterium complex. We discovered that M. osloensis produces an endotoxin(s), which is tolerant to heat and protease treatments and kills the slug after injection into the shell cavity. Washed or broken cells treated with penicillin and streptomycin from 3-day M. osloensis cultures were more pathogenic than similar cells from 2-day M. osloensis cultures. However, heat and protease treatments and 2 days of storage at 22 degrees C increased the endotoxin activity of the young broken cells but not the endotoxin activity of the young washed cells treated with the antibiotics. This suggests that there may be a proteinaceous substance(s) that is structurally associated with the endotoxin(s) and masks its toxicity in the young bacterial cells. Moreover, 2 days of storage of the young washed bacterial cells at 22 degrees C enhanced their endotoxin activity if they were not treated with the antibiotics. Furthermore, purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the 3-day M. osloensis cultures was toxic to slugs, with an estimated 50% lethal dose of 48 microg per slug, thus demonstrating that the LPS of M. osloensis is an endotoxin that is active against D. reticulatum. This appears to be the first report of a biological toxin that is active against mollusks. PMID:12147494

Tan, Li; Grewal, Parwinder S

2002-08-01

135

Endotoxin Activity of Moraxella osloensis against the Grey Garden Slug, Deroceras reticulatum  

PubMed Central

Moraxella osloensis is a gram-negative bacterium associated with Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, a slug-parasitic nematode that has prospects for biological control of mollusk pests, especially the grey garden slug, Deroceras reticulatum. This bacterium-feeding nematode acts as a vector that transports M. osloensis into the shell cavity of the slug, and the bacterium is the killing agent in the nematode-bacterium complex. We discovered that M. osloensis produces an endotoxin(s), which is tolerant to heat and protease treatments and kills the slug after injection into the shell cavity. Washed or broken cells treated with penicillin and streptomycin from 3-day M. osloensis cultures were more pathogenic than similar cells from 2-day M. osloensis cultures. However, heat and protease treatments and 2 days of storage at 22°C increased the endotoxin activity of the young broken cells but not the endotoxin activity of the young washed cells treated with the antibiotics. This suggests that there may be a proteinaceous substance(s) that is structurally associated with the endotoxin(s) and masks its toxicity in the young bacterial cells. Moreover, 2 days of storage of the young washed bacterial cells at 22°C enhanced their endotoxin activity if they were not treated with the antibiotics. Furthermore, purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the 3-day M. osloensis cultures was toxic to slugs, with an estimated 50% lethal dose of 48 ?g per slug, thus demonstrating that the LPS of M. osloensis is an endotoxin that is active against D. reticulatum. This appears to be the first report of a biological toxin that is active against mollusks. PMID:12147494

Tan, Li; Grewal, Parwinder S.

2002-01-01

136

The Chemical Composition of Endotoxin Isolated from Intestinal Strain of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans  

PubMed Central

Desulfovibrio desulfuricans anaerobes are constituents of human alimentary tract microflora. There are suggestions that they take part in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and some gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. Endotoxin is one of Gram-negative bacteria cellular components that influence these microorganisms pathogenicity. Endotoxin is a lipid-polisaccharide heteropolymer consisting of three elements: lipid A, core oligosaccharide, and O-specific polysaccharide, also called antigen-O. The biological activity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is determined by its structure. In this study, we show that rhamnose, fucose, mannose, glucose, galactose, heptose, and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid (Kdo) are constituents of D. desulfuricans endotoxin oligosaccharide core and O-antigen. Lipid A of these bacteria LPS is composed of glucosamine disaccharide substituted by 3-acyloxyacyl residues: ester-bound 3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoic, 3-(hexadecanoyloxy)tetradecanoic acid, and amide-bound 3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanoic acid. PMID:22629175

Lodowska, Jolanta; Wolny, Daniel; Jaworska-Kik, Marzena; Kurkiewicz, S?awomir; Dzier?ewicz, Zofia; W?glarz, Ludmi?a

2012-01-01

137

Lipopolysaccharide O antigen size distribution is determined by a chain extension complex of variable stoichiometry in Escherichia coli O9a  

PubMed Central

The lengths of bacterial polysaccharides can be critical for their biological function. Unlike DNA or protein synthesis, where polymer length is implicit in the nucleic acid template, the molecular mechanisms for regulating polysaccharide length are poorly understood. Two models are commonly cited: a “molecular clock” regulates length by controlling the duration of the polymer extension process, whereas a “molecular ruler” determines length by measurement against a physical structure in the biosynthetic complex. Escherichia coli O9a is a prototype for the biosynthesis of O polysaccharides by ATP-binding cassette transporter-dependent processes. The length of the O9a polysaccharide is determined by two proteins: an extension enzyme, WbdA, and a termination enzyme, WbdD. WbdD is known to self-oligomerize and also to interact with WbdA. Changing either enzyme’s concentration can alter the polysaccharide length. We quantified the O9a polysaccharide length distribution and the enzyme concentration dependence in vivo, then made mathematical models to predict the polymer length distributions resulting from hypothetical length-regulation mechanisms. Our data show qualitative features that cannot be explained by either a molecular clock or a molecular ruler model. Therefore, we propose a “variable geometry” model, in which a postulated biosynthetic WbdA–WbdD complex assembles with variable stoichiometry dependent on relative enzyme concentration. Each stoichiometry produces polymers with a distinct, geometrically determined, modal length. This model reproduces the enzyme concentration dependence and modality of the observed polysaccharide length distributions. Our work highlights limitations of previous models and provides new insight into the mechanisms of length control in polysaccharide biosynthesis. PMID:24733938

King, Jerry D.; Berry, Scott; Clarke, Bradley R.; Morris, Richard J.; Whitfield, Chris

2014-01-01

138

Biophysical Mechanisms of Endotoxin Neutralization by Cationic Amphiphilic Peptides  

PubMed Central

Bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides (LPS)) are strong elicitors of the human immune system by interacting with serum and membrane proteins such as lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and CD14 with high specificity. At LPS concentrations as low as 0.3 ng/ml, such interactions may lead to severe pathophysiological effects, including sepsis and septic shock. One approach to inhibit an uncontrolled inflammatory reaction is the use of appropriate polycationic and amphiphilic antimicrobial peptides, here called synthetic anti-LPS peptides (SALPs). We designed various SALP structures and investigated their ability to inhibit LPS-induced cytokine secretion in vitro, their protective effect in a mouse model of sepsis, and their cytotoxicity in physiological human cells. Using a variety of biophysical techniques, we investigated selected SALPs with considerable differences in their biological responses to characterize and understand the mechanism of LPS inactivation by SALPs. Our investigations show that neutralization of LPS by peptides is associated with a fluidization of the LPS acyl chains, a strong exothermic Coulomb interaction between the two compounds, and a drastic change of the LPS aggregate type from cubic into multilamellar, with an increase in the aggregate sizes, inhibiting the binding of LBP and other mammalian proteins to the endotoxin. At the same time, peptide binding to phospholipids of human origin (e.g., phosphatidylcholine) does not cause essential structural changes, such as changes in membrane fluidity and bilayer structure. The absence of cytotoxicity is explained by the high specificity of the interaction of the peptides with LPS. PMID:21641310

Kaconis, Yani; Kowalski, Ina; Howe, Jörg; Brauser, Annemarie; Richter, Walter; Razquin-Olazarán, Iosu; Iñigo-Pestaña, Melania; Garidel, Patrick; Rössle, Manfred; Martinez de Tejada, Guillermo; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus

2011-01-01

139

Expression of Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and Its Receptor in Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Chemokines play a critical role in inflammation and neurodegenerative disease in the central nervous system. In this study, endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) was induced to test the expression of fractalkine, a special neuronal chemokine, and its receptor CX3CR1 in acute inflammation of the retina. Methods:EIU was induced by footpad injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Eight rats were sacrificed at each time

Liqun Chu; Xiaoxin Li; Wenzen Yu; Tong Qian; Huijun Qi; Luzhen Huang; Yongsheng Xu

2009-01-01

140

Increased intracranial pressure in a porcine model of fulminant hepatic failure using amatoxin and endotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically relevant porcine model of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) by means of administration of amatoxin and endotoxin.Methods: Pigs were intraportally administered only saline in group 1 (n=3), 1 ?g\\/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in group 2 (n=4), 0.1 mg\\/kg of ?-amanitin in group 3 (n=5), and amanitin plus LPS in group

Yasutsugu Takada; Shingo Ishiguro; Kiyoshi Fukunaga; Mei Gu; Hideki Taniguchi; Ken-Ichiro Seino; Kenji Yuzawa; Masaaki Otsuka; Takeshi Todoroki; Katashi Fukao

2001-01-01

141

Effects of endotoxin induced lung injury and exercise in goats/sheep. Final report, 1 February 1992-2 June 1993  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed the effects of exercise performed on animals already injured with E. coli endotoxin. This would tell us whether exercise makes the lung injury worse. It would also tell us how much exercise performance is impaired. These studies were designed to give further insights into the underlying causes of acute lung injury. Premature termination of the study prevented completion of the research project. It appeared from the limited experimentation conducted that maximal exercise was impaired by endotoxin-induced lung injury. Conclusions regarding exacerbation of endotoxin-induced lung injury cannot be made.... Acute lung injury, Maximal exercise, Endotoxin.

Mundie, T.G.

1993-06-02

142

Pathophysiological changes evoked by lipopolysaccharide administration in goats.  

PubMed

To establish an adequate experimental model for the study of immuno-neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying the behavioral changes during the acute infection, temporal relationship of various physiological responses to endotoxin administration was examined in ovariectomized goats. Immediately after intravenous injection of 200 ng/kg of lipopolysaccharide, there were an abrupt decrease of white blood cell number and a gradual increase of rectal temperature, which were followed by elevation of plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, glucose, free fatty acids, and then later by an increase of heart rate. The results suggest that the endotoxin administration would evoke a stereotyped cascade of, febrile, neuroendocrine and metabolic as well as autonomic response to the activation of immune systems in the ruminant species. PMID:9070985

Takeuchi, Y; Kikusui, T; Kizumi, O; Ohnishi, H; Mori, Y

1997-02-01

143

Exacerbation of alcoholic liver injury by enteral endotoxin in rats.  

PubMed

Increased gut permeability (leaky gut) and endotoxin-mediated Kupffer cell activation are proposed as the mechanisms of alcoholic liver injury. Although ethanol feeding is shown to sensitize the liver for injury induced by parental administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), how enteral LPS loading affects alcoholic liver injury is yet to be tested. The present study provides direct evidence for enhanced entrance to portal circulation of LPS enterally administered to the intragastric ethanol infusion model. Portal and systemic blood endotoxin levels increased to 43.0 +/- 4.1 and 6.2 +/- 4.3 pg/mL at 2 hours following enteral LPS administration (5 mg/kg) in alcohol-fed animals, while no such increases were observed in pair-fed controls. However, endotoxin levels in systemic blood of alcohol-fed rats were reduced to 0 to 1. 5 pg/mL 16 hours after LPS administration. Weekly enteral administration of LPS to the model for 9 weeks exacerbated an increase in plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) levels (227 +/- 75 vs. 140 +/- 70; P <.01), mononuclear infiltration (25 +/- 22 vs. 6.4 +/- 4.4/10 mm(2); P =.02), sinusoidal congestion, and spotty necrosis, and induced diffuse coagulative necrosis and centrilobular fibrosis in some animals. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis confirmed the LPS effect at the tissue level by demonstrating accentuated induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and Cox-2 mRNA. In conclusion, enteral LPS administration potentiates alcoholic liver necrosis, inflammation, and fibrosis despite efficient endotoxin clearance by the liver and mild systemic endotoxemia that occurs episodically following enteral LPS challenge. PMID:11050051

Mathurin, P; Deng, Q G; Keshavarzian, A; Choudhary, S; Holmes, E W; Tsukamoto, H

2000-11-01

144

Obesity Increases Sensitivity to Endotoxin Liver Injury: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Steatohepatitis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetically obese fatty/fatty rats and obese/obese mice exhibit increased sensitivity to endotoxin hepatotoxicity, quickly developing steatohepatitis after exposure to low doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Among obese animals, females are more sensitive to endotoxin liver injury than males. LPS induction of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF? ), the proven affecter of endotoxin liver injury, is no greater in the livers, white adipose tissues, or sera of obese animals than in those of lean controls. Indeed, the lowest serum concentrations of TNF occur in female obese rodents, which exhibit the most endotoxin-induced liver injury. Several cytokines that modulate the biological activity of TNF are regulated abnormally in the livers of obese animals. After exposure to LPS, mRNA of interferon ? , which sensitizes hepatocytes to TNF toxicity, is overexpressed, and mRNA levels of interleukin 10, a TNF inhibitor, are decreased. The phagocytic activity of liver macrophages and the hepatic expression of a gene encoding a macrophage-specific receptor are also decreased in obesity. This new animal model of obesity-associated liver disease demonstrates that hepatic macrophage dysfunction occurs in obesity and suggests that this might promote steatohepatitis by sensitizing hepatocytes to endotoxin.

Yang, Shi Qi; Zhi Lin, Hui; Lane, M. Daniel; Clemens, Mark; Diehl, Anna Mae

1997-03-01

145

Toxicologic interactions between ozone and bacterial endotoxin  

SciTech Connect

The effects of acute exposure of mice to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the endotoxin of gram negative microorganisms, and ozone (O3) have been investigated. Intraperitoneal (ip) administration of 5 mg/kg LPS to CD-1 mice followed by exposure to 15 ppm O3 for 1.5 hr produced synergistic effects as measured by pulmonary edemagenesis and lethality assays. In contrast, ip administration of 0.1-1.6 mg/kg LPS to CD-1 mice over 5 consecutive days, a dose regimen resulting in LPS tolerance, protected against a lethal challenge of 20 ppm O3 for 3 hr. A statistically significant increase in catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity was measured in homogenates of lungs obtained from CD-1 mice receiving a tolerance-inducing regimen of LPS. These results demonstrate that two, distinct toxicologic interactions can occur between O3 and bacterial LPS. Synergism between these agents could explain, in part, the increased susceptibility of O3-exposed animals to respiratory infection with gram negative microorganisms. Protection resulting from LPS-induced increases in pulmonary antioxidant activity provides additional evidence that O3 and, possibly, LPS mediate their toxicity through oxidative mechanisms.

Peavy, D.L.; Fairchild, E.J. II

1987-02-01

146

Amelioration of endotoxin-induced uveitis treated with the sea urchin pigment echinochrome in rats  

PubMed Central

Purpose Echinochrome is a pigment present in the shells and spines of sea urchins. It has been reported to have several biologic protective effects, including in experimental models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, for which the proposed mechanisms are scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and chelating iron. Endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) is an animal model of acute anterior segment intraocular inflammation that is induced by the injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In this study, the therapeutic effect of echinochrome was examined in uveitis using the EIU model. Methods EIU was induced in Lewis rats via 200 ?g subcutaneous injections of LPS from Escherichia coli. Echinochrome was administered intravenously in 10, 1, or 0.1 mg/kg doses suspended in PBS (controls were injected with PBS only). Twenty-four hours after LPS injection, the number of infiltrating cells and the protein concentration in aqueous humor were determined. Aqueous tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) concentration was quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, eyes were stained with nuclear factor (NF) ?B antibodies, and ROS production was determined by dihydroethidium staining in fresh frozen samples. Results The number of inflammatory aqueous cells and protein levels were lower in the groups treated with 10 and 1 mg/kg of echinochrome than in the untreated LPS group (p<0.01). Treatment with 10 and 1 mg/kg of echinochrome significantly reduced TNF-? concentrations in aqueous humor (p<0.01). The numbers of NF?B-positive cells and ROS signals were also reduced by echinochrome administration (p<0.05). Conclusions Echinochrome ameliorated intraocular inflammation caused by EIU by reducing ROS production, thereby also decreasing the expression of NF?B and TNF-?. As a natural pigment, echinochrome may therefore be a promising candidate for the safe treatment of intraocular inflammation. The use of sea urchin shells and spines in health foods and medical products is thus both economically and environmentally meaningful. PMID:24520186

Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Noda, Kousuke; Mizuuchi, Kazuomi; Ando, Ryo; Dong, Zhenyu; Fukuhara, Junichi; Kinoshita, Satoshi; Namba, Kenichi; Ohno, Shigeaki; Ishida, Susumu

2014-01-01

147

Stimulus-specific effects of endotoxin on superoxide production by rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

The release of superoxide (O2-) by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) is an important function that contributes to microbial death. Controversy exists as to the effect of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, or LPS) on the production of O2-. We have injected rabbits with 25 micrograms Escherichia coli LPS intravenously and studied PMN function 18 to 24 hours later. Relative to PMN from saline-injected controls, PMN from LPS-treated rabbits released markedly greater amounts of O2- in response to 10 ng/ml phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) as measured by nmol cytochrome C reduced in 20 minutes (40.8 +/- 7.8 for LPS-treated PMN versus 10.1 +/- 1.6 for control, p less than 0.01). LPS injection, however, significantly reduced O2- release in response to C (complement) 5a (1.4 +/- 0.6 nmole/20 minutes for LPS-treated PMN versus 5.6 +/- 1.3 nmole/20 minutes for control, p less than 0.01). O2- release in response to a third stimulus, n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (10(-7) to 10(-9) M), was not affected by LPS. O2- release in response to PMA was enhanced over a wide range of PMA concentrations (10 to 300 ng/ml). Kinetic studies over 30 minutes indicated that, after a brief initial latency in measurable response, LPS enhanced responsiveness to PMA at all time points observed. The reduced responsiveness to C5a corresponds to a previously reported down regulation of receptors for this ligand after intravenous LPS. The observations indicate that intravenous LPS can alter a critical function of PMN for at least 24 hours in a stimulus-specific manner. PMID:2827396

Rosenbaum, J. T.; Enkel, H.

1987-01-01

148

Effect of endotoxin on lipid peroxidation in vivo in selenium and vitamin E deficient rats  

SciTech Connect

The authors have used respiratory ethane production by selenium (Se) and vitamin E (E) deficient rats, an index of lipid peroxidation, to identify oxidant stressors which might precipitate sudden tissue degeneration in deficient animals. Other studies have suggested that endotoxin (gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide-LPS) might be such an oxidant stressor, especially in the lungs. Male weanling rats were fed a Se and E deficient diet for about 80 days. Rats were injected ip with Salmonella typhimurium LPS (.25, .5, or 1.0 mg/kg) or saline, and respiratory ethane was collected for 16 hr. In a representative experiment, mean rate of ethane production (nm/100g/hr) was increased (p < .01) by LPS: saline, .48 +/- .04 (SEM); .25 mg LPS/kg, 1.30 +/- .17; .5, 1.47 +/- .18 and 1.0, 1.68 +/- .18. E. coli and S. minnesota LPS gave similar results. Rats fed a supplemented diet (.2 ppm Se and 200 IU E/kg diet) produced less (p < .01) ethane: saline, .068 +/- .009 and .5 mg LPS/kg, .114 +/- .01. Over all experiments LPS produced a small yet significant increase in ethane in rats receiving Se or E supplementation but produced a marked increase in unsupplemented rats. In further studies with LPS treated rats, Se supplementation alone was 73%, and E supplementation alone 99% as effective as Se + E. These results showed that LPS stimulates lipid peroxidation in Se and E deficient rats and that infections may initiate oxidative cell damage in deficient animals. E was more protective than Se against LPS-induced peroxidation.

Sword, J.T.; Pope, A.L.; Hoekstra, W.G.

1986-03-01

149

Endotoxin-Induced Myocardial Tumor Necrosis Factor-a Synthesis Depresses Contractility of Isolated Rat Hearts Evidence for a Role of Sphingosine and Cyclooxygenase2Derived Thromboxane Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Although endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) is recognized as a mediator of septic cardiodepression, its cardiac effects are still not fully elucidated. Methods and Results—Perfusion of isolated rat hearts with LPS for 180 minutes resulted in a decline of left ventricular contractility after 90 minutes, whereas coronary perfusion pressure remained unaffected. This cardiodepression was paralleled by a release of tumor necrosis factor

Ulrich Grandel; Ludger Fink; Andreas Blum; Martina Heep; Michael Buerke; Hans-Joachim Kraemer; Konstantin Mayer; Rainer M. Bohle; Werner Seeger; Friedrich Grimminger; Ulf Sibelius

150

Treatment of Septic Patients with an Arginine-Based Endotoxin Adsorber Column Improves Hemodynamics and Reduces Oxidative Stress: Results of a Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Mortality of severe sepsis and septic shock is unacceptably high. Adsorptive removal of endotoxin may interrupt the inflammatory cascade triggered by lipopolysaccharide. Methods: Prospective feasibility study with plasma separation and adsorption (PSA) treatment using a novel arginine-coated adsorber column was performed in a tertiary care gastroenterological intensive care unit. Results: 10 patients with severe sepsis\\/septic shock (median APACHE II

Andreas Umgelter; Wolfgang Reindl; Jens Lutz; Bernhard Kreymann; Claudio Ronco; Wolfgang Huber; Helga Frank; Roland M. Schmid; Uwe Heemann

2008-01-01

151

SUBCHRONIC ENDOTOXIN INHALATION CAUSES CHRONIC AIRWAY DISEASE IN ENDOTOXIN-SENSITIVE BUT NOT ENDOTOXIN-RESISTANT MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

SUBCHRONIC ENDOTOXIN INHALATION CAUSES CHRONIC AIRWAY DISEASE IN ENDOTOXIN-SENSITIVE BUT NOT ENDOTOXIN-RESISTANT MICE. D. M. Brass, J. D. Savov, *S. H. Gavett, ?C. George, D. A. Schwartz. Duke Univ Medical Center Durham, NC, *U.S. E.P.A. Research Triangle Park, NC, ?Univ of Iowa,...

152

Endotoxin Studies And Biosolids Stabilization Research  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation has three parts; a review of bench-scale endotoxin research, a review of observations from a field scale endotoxin release study, and discussion of biosolids stabilization and characterization by PLFA/FAME microbial community analysis. Endotoxins are part of th...

153

Experimental Study on Inactivation of Bacterial Endotoxin by Using Dielectric Barrier Discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low-temperature plasma (LTP) generated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was used to sterilize the E.coli endotoxin, which is usually difficult to kill by traditional methods. Three different concentrations of bacterial endotoxin (1 EU/mL, 0.5 EU/mL and 0.25 EU/mL) were treated by LTP for different time (20 s, 40 s and 60 s). Tachypleus amebocyte lysate (TAL) method was employed to detect the concentration variation of bacterial endotoxin before and after the plasma treatment, and endotoxic shock mice model was used to evaluate the inactivation effects of LTP on endotoxin for further study. Experimental results demonstrated that, DBD plasma can inactivate the bacterial endotoxin quickly and effectively, and when the LTP treatment time was increased, the concentrations of bacterial endotoxin decreased gradually (after 60 s plasma treatment, its inactivation effect was beyond the Chinese pharmacopoeia standard), and the average survival time of mice gradually extended. The possible inactivation mechanisms are proposed to be related to reactive oxygen species (ROSs).

Shi, Xingmin; Li, Yaxi; Zhang, Guanjun; Ma, Yue; Shao, Xianjun

2011-12-01

154

Metadherin Mediates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Migration and Invasion of Breast Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBreast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women worldwide and metastatic breast cancer has very poor prognosis. Inflammation has been implicated in migration and metastasis of breast cancer, although the exact molecular mechanism remains elusive.Principal FindingsWe show that the pro-inflammatory endotoxin Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) upregulates the expression of Metadherin (MTDH), a recently identified oncogene, in a number of breast cancer

Yuhan Zhao; Xiaoli Kong; Xiaoyan Li; Shi Yan; Cunzhong Yuan; Wenwei Hu; Qifeng Yang

2011-01-01

155

Modulation of drug-metabolizing systems by bacterial endotoxin in carp liver and immune organs.  

PubMed

This report describes a study of the effects of bacterial endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] on cytochrome P450 levels and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities in liver and two main immune organs of carp: spleen and head kidney. Also studied was the paucity of the carp drug-metabolizing system in an environment subject to pollution by a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), when fish respond to an immune activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In the presence of bacterial endotoxin the basal cytochrome P450 levels were decreased in liver and spleen. EROD activity was increased in liver and basal GST activity was increased in spleen. When fish were treated concomitantly with 3MC and LPS, a suppression of cytochrome P450 induction in liver and head kidney was observed. EROD activity induced by 3MC was not modified by administration of LPS. GST activity was suppressed by treatment with LPS and inducing agent in liver and head kidney. In the present study it was found that endotoxin can have profound and differential effects on fish basal biotransformation of drugs in the liver and immune organs. Also, the induction of biotransformation enzymes by 3MC was modified when fish responded to an immune stimulation. PMID:9756707

Marionnet, D; Chambras, C; Taysse, L; Bosgireaud, C; Deschaux, P

1998-10-01

156

Mononuclear cells in the corneal response to endotoxin  

SciTech Connect

A severe keratitis can be produced after the direct injection of bacterial endotoxin, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in rabbits. Corneal inflammation can progress to scarring and vascularization within a 2 to 3 week period. Pretreatment with systemic adrenal corticosteroids (triamcinolone) prevents this response. Limbal cellular and vascular events were studied during the first 20 hr after injection of LPS in treated and nontreated rabbits. Perivascular limbal inflammatory cells were counted and limbal vascular permeability was assessed by extravasation of 131I-albumin and 125I-fibrinogen in the cornea. Corticosteroids decreased but did not prevent the early protein extravasation and profoundly altered the inflammatory cell population around blood vessels at the limbus. Mononuclear cells, particularly mononuclear phagocytes, were sharply reduced. It is proposed that these cell types play an important role in the perpetuation and amplification of the inflammatory response in this reaction.

Howes, E.L.; Cruse, V.K.; Kwok, M.T.

1982-04-01

157

Endotoxin Removal Kit (Mini) Product Insert Product # 21800  

E-print Network

1 Endotoxin Removal Kit (Mini) Product Insert Product # 21800 Norgen's Endotoxin Removal Kit (Mini) is designed for the rapid removal of endotoxins from up to 40 µg of previously purified DNA. Endotoxins, also. Endotoxins are released during the lysis step of plasmid purification and significantly reduce transfection

Lebendiker, Mario

158

Immobilization of ?-polylysine onto the probe surface for molecular adsorption type endotoxin detection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patients with renal failure become not able to expel the waste product, and they accumulate the toxic products for themselves. They therefore must use the hemodialysis to weed out the metabolic decomposition product. Hemodialysis for chronic renal failure is the most popular treatment method with artificial organs. However, hemodialysis patients must continue the treatment throughout their life, the results of long term extracorporeal dialysis, those patients develop the various complications and diseases, for example, dialysis amyloidosis etc. Dialysis amyloidosis is one of the refractory complications, and the prevention of this complication is important. Recently, endotoxin is thought to be the most likely cause of the complication. Endotoxin is one of the major cell wall components of gram-negative bacteria, and it forms the complex with proteins and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It has various biological activities, e.g. attack of fever, when it gets mixed into human blood. In addition, it is known that large amount of endotoxin exists in living environment, and medicine is often contaminated with endotoxin. When contaminated dialyzing fluids are used to hemodialysis, above-mentioned dialysis amyloidosis is developed. Therefore, it is important that the detection and removal of endotoxin from dialyzing fluids. Until now, the measurement methods using Limulus Amebosyte Lysate (LAL) reagent were carried out as the tests for the presence of endotoxin. However, these methods include several different varieties of measurement techniques. The following are examples of them, gelatinization method, turbidimetric assay method, colorimetric assay method and fluoroscopic method. However, these techniques needed 30-60 minutes for the measurement. From these facts, they are not able to use as a "real-time endotoxin detector". The detection of endotoxin has needed to carry out immediately, for that reason, a new "real-time" detection method is desired. We focused attention to adsorption reaction between ?-polylysine and endotoxin. ?-polylysine has the structure of straight chain molecule composed by 25-30 residues made by lysine, and it is used as an antimicrobial agent, moreover, cellulose beads with immobilized ?-polylysine is used as the barrier filter for endotoxin removal. Therefore, it is expected that the endotoxin be adsorbed to the immobilized ?-polylysine onto the probe. As the result of this reaction, the mass of the probe is increased, and endotoxin can be detected by using of Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM). In our previous research, we have already acquired the proteins immobilization technique onto Au and Si surface. In this report, the proposal of molecular adsorption type endotoxin detection system, and the immobilization of ?-polylysine onto the probe are described. We use X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to confirm the ?-polylysine immobilization, and the adsorptive activity of immobilized ?-polylysine is measured by XPS and AFM. The purpose of this study is to bring about the realization of "Real-time endotoxin detection system".

Ooe, Katsutoshi; Tsuji, Akihito; Nishishita, Naoki; Hirano, Yoshiaki

2007-04-01

159

Comparative Analysis of Hepatic CD14 Expression between Two Different Endotoxin Shock Model Mice: Relation between Hepatic Injury and CD14 Expression  

PubMed Central

CD14 is a glycoprotein that recognizes gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and exists in both membrane-bound and soluble forms. Infectious and/or inflammatory diseases induce CD14 expression, which may be involved in the pathology of endotoxin shock. We previously found that the expression of CD14 protein differs among the endotoxin shock models used, although the reasons for these differences are unclear. We hypothesized that the differences in CD14 expression might be due to liver injury, because the hepatic tissue produces CD14 protein. We investigated CD14 expression in the plasma and liver in the carrageenan (CAR)-primed and D-galN-primed mouse models of endotoxin shock. Our results showed that severe liver injury was not induced in CAR-primed endotoxin shock model mice. In this CAR-primed model, the higher mRNA and protein expression of CD14 was observed in the liver, especially in the interlobular bile duct in contrast to D-galN-primed-endotoxin shock model mice. Our findings indicated that the molecular mechanism(s) underlying septic shock in CAR-primed and D-galN-primed endotoxin shock models are quite different. Because CD14 expression is correlated with clinical observations, the CAR-primed endotoxin shock model might be useful for studying the functions of CD14 during septic shock in vivo. PMID:23308276

Hozumi, Hiroyasu; Tada, Rui; Murakami, Taisuke; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Naohito

2013-01-01

160

Changes in regional plasma extravasation in rats following endotoxin infusion  

SciTech Connect

Regional differences in plasma extravasation during endotoxin shock in rats and a possible relationship with changes in regional blood flow were studied with radioactive isotopes (/sup 125/I-HSA, 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, microspheres) in anesthetized rats (pentobarbital). Shock was induced by intravenous infusion of endotoxin (Eschericia coli; 10 mg X kg-1) for 60 min (starting at t = 0); at t = 120 min, the experiments were terminated. These rats (n = 8) were compared with time-matched control rats (n = 8). A third group (rats killed 7.5 min after injection of /sup 125/I-HSA, i.e., no extravasation; n = 8) served as baseline. The amount of plasma extravasated in 2 hr of endotoxin shock was significantly increased over control values in skin (by 67%), colon (88%), skeletal muscle (105%), stomach (230%), pancreas (300%), and diaphragm (1300%). Losses of /sup 125/I-HSA into intestinal lumen and peritoneal cavity had also increased over control values by 146 and 380%, respectively. Blood flow was compromised in most organs except heart and diaphragm. Extravasation when normalized for total plasma supply was correlated with total blood supply; the more the blood supply decreased, the higher the normalized extravasation. In the diaphragm, however, blood supply and plasma leakage increased together. Decreased blood supply and plasma extravasation may be related but they could also be simultaneously occurring independent phenomena with a common origin.

van Lambalgen, A.A.; van den Bos, G.C.; Thijs, L.G.

1987-07-01

161

Piceatannol Suppresses endotoxin-induced ocular inflammation in Rats  

PubMed Central

Anti-inflammatory effect of piceatannol, a naturally occurring polyphenol and a potent free radical scavenger, on ocular inflammation is not known. We examined the anti-inflammatory role of piceatannol in ocular inflammatory response due to endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats. EIU was induced in Lewis rats by subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 ug/rat). Piceatannol (30 mg/kg body wt, i.p) was injected either 2 h prior to or 1 h post LPS induction. A significant increase in the number of infiltrating cells, total protein, and various cytokines and chemokines in AqH were observed in the EIU rat eyes as compared to control groups. However, pre- or post- treatment of piceatannol significantly blocked the LPS-induced changes. Further, piceatannol also suppressed the expression of Cox-2, iNOS and activation of NF-?B in the ciliary bodies as well as retina. Further, piceatannol also inhibited the expression of Cox-2, iNOS, and phosphorylation of NF-?B in primary human non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cells (HNPECs) treated with LPS. Similarly, piceatannol also diminished LPS-induced level of NO and PGE2 in HNPECs. Thus our results demonstrate an anti-inflammatory role of piceatannol in suppressing ocular inflammation induced by endotoxin in rats. PMID:23892029

Kalariya, Nilesh M.; Shoeb, Mohammad; Reddy, Aramati B. M.; Sawhney, Rahul; Ramana, Kota V.

2013-01-01

162

Lipopolysaccharide dose dependently impairs rapid toxin (LiCl)-induced gustatory conditioning: A taste reactivity examination of the conditioned taste aversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is much debate on how immune activation affects cognitive processing. Research has shown that stimulation of the immune system can significantly impair, have no adverse effects, or enhance learning and memory processes in animals. The present experiment evaluated the effects of the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the acquisition of a rapidly acquired conditioned taste aversion using a toxin-containing

Shelley K. Cross-Mellor; Kelly A. Foley; Linda A. Parker; Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp

2009-01-01

163

Network Topologies and Dynamics Leading to Endotoxin Tolerance and Priming in Innate Immune Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The innate immune system, acting as the first line of host defense, senses and adapts to foreign challenges through complex intracellular and intercellular signaling networks. Endotoxin tolerance and priming elicited by macrophages are classic examples of the complex adaptation of innate immune cells. Upon repetitive exposures to different doses of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) or other stimulants, macrophages show either suppressed or augmented inflammatory responses compared to a single exposure to the stimulant. Endotoxin tolerance and priming are critically involved in both immune homeostasis and the pathogenesis of diverse inflammatory diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. By means of a computational search through the parameter space of a coarse-grained three-node network with a two-stage Metropolis sampling approach, we enumerated all the network topologies that can generate priming or tolerance. We discovered three major mechanisms for priming (pathway synergy, suppressor deactivation, activator induction) and one for tolerance (inhibitor persistence). These results not only explain existing experimental observations, but also reveal intriguing test scenarios for future experimental studies to clarify mechanisms of endotoxin priming and tolerance.

Fu, Yan; Glaros, Trevor; Zhu, Meng; Wang, Ping; Wu, Zhanghan; Tyson, John; Li, Liwu; Xing, Jianhua

2012-01-01

164

Mifepristone (RU486) restores humoral and T cell-mediated immune response in endotoxin immunosuppressed mice.  

PubMed

Sepsis and septic shock can be caused by Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and other microorganisms. In the case of Gram-negative bacteria, endotoxin, a normal constituent of the bacterial wall, also known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), has been considered as one of the principal agents causing the undesirable effects in this critical illness. The response to LPS involves a rapid secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-? and the concomitant induction of anti-inflammatory mediators such as IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-? or glucocorticoids, which render the host temporarily refractory to subsequent lethal doses of LPS challenge in a process known as LPS or endotoxin tolerance. Although protective from the development of sepsis or systemic inflammation, endotoxin tolerance has also been pointed out as the main cause of the non-specific humoral and cellular immunosuppression described in these patients. In this report we demonstrate, using a mouse model, that mifepristone (RU486), a known glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, could play an important role in the restoration of both adaptive humoral and cellular immune response in LPS immunosuppressed mice, suggesting the involvement of endogenous glucocorticoids in this phenomenon. On the other hand, using cyclophosphamide and gemcitabine, we demonstrated that regulatory/suppressor CD4(+) CD25(+) forkhead boxP3(+) and GR-1(+) CD11b(+) cells do not play a major role in the establishment or the maintenance of endotoxin tolerance, a central mechanism for inducing an immunosuppression state. PMID:20964639

Rearte, B; Maglioco, A; Balboa, L; Bruzzo, J; Landoni, V I; Laborde, E A; Chiarella, P; Ruggiero, R A; Fernández, G C; Isturiz, M A

2010-12-01

165

Mifepristone (RU486) restores humoral and T cell-mediated immune response in endotoxin immunosuppressed mice  

PubMed Central

Sepsis and septic shock can be caused by Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and other microorganisms. In the case of Gram-negative bacteria, endotoxin, a normal constituent of the bacterial wall, also known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), has been considered as one of the principal agents causing the undesirable effects in this critical illness. The response to LPS involves a rapid secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-? and the concomitant induction of anti-inflammatory mediators such as IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-? or glucocorticoids, which render the host temporarily refractory to subsequent lethal doses of LPS challenge in a process known as LPS or endotoxin tolerance. Although protective from the development of sepsis or systemic inflammation, endotoxin tolerance has also been pointed out as the main cause of the non-specific humoral and cellular immunosuppression described in these patients. In this report we demonstrate, using a mouse model, that mifepristone (RU486), a known glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, could play an important role in the restoration of both adaptive humoral and cellular immune response in LPS immunosuppressed mice, suggesting the involvement of endogenous glucocorticoids in this phenomenon. On the other hand, using cyclophosphamide and gemcitabine, we demonstrated that regulatory/suppressor CD4+CD25+forkhead boxP3+ and GR-1+CD11b+ cells do not play a major role in the establishment or the maintenance of endotoxin tolerance, a central mechanism for inducing an immunosuppression state. PMID:20964639

Rearte, B; Maglioco, A; Balboa, L; Bruzzo, J; Landoni, V I; Laborde, E A; Chiarella, P; Ruggiero, R A; Fernandez, G C; Isturiz, M A

2010-01-01

166

Network Topologies and Dynamics Leading to Endotoxin Tolerance and Priming in Innate Immune Cells  

PubMed Central

The innate immune system, acting as the first line of host defense, senses and adapts to foreign challenges through complex intracellular and intercellular signaling networks. Endotoxin tolerance and priming elicited by macrophages are classic examples of the complex adaptation of innate immune cells. Upon repetitive exposures to different doses of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) or other stimulants, macrophages show either suppressed or augmented inflammatory responses compared to a single exposure to the stimulant. Endotoxin tolerance and priming are critically involved in both immune homeostasis and the pathogenesis of diverse inflammatory diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. By means of a computational search through the parameter space of a coarse-grained three-node network with a two-stage Metropolis sampling approach, we enumerated all the network topologies that can generate priming or tolerance. We discovered three major mechanisms for priming (pathway synergy, suppressor deactivation, activator induction) and one for tolerance (inhibitor persistence). These results not only explain existing experimental observations, but also reveal intriguing test scenarios for future experimental studies to clarify mechanisms of endotoxin priming and tolerance. PMID:22615556

Fu, Yan; Glaros, Trevor; Zhu, Meng; Wang, Ping; Wu, Zhanghan; Tyson, John J.; Li, Liwu; Xing, Jianhua

2012-01-01

167

Stimulation and release of prostaglandins and thromboxane from macrophages by cotton dust associated lipopolysaccharides.  

PubMed

Decreases in the ventilation capacity of human lungs following the inspiration of cotton dust correlates more closely with the concentration of endotoxin in the dust than with any other parameter measured thus far. A lipopolysaccharide isolated from the endotoxin of Enterobacter agglomerans, a common bacterial contaminant of cotton fiber, stimulated isolated rat macrophages to produce and release prostaglandins 6 keto-PGF1 alpha, PGF2 alpha, PGE2, PGD2, PGA2, and PGB2 and thromboxane B2. If in vivo human pulmonary macrophages respond in a similar fashion by releasing these arachidonic acid metabolites or their immediate precursors in response to stimulation by cotton dust associated lipopolysaccharides, some of the acute pulmonary changes observed in humans following inspiration of cotton dust could be caused by increased release of these biologically active compounds. Daily release of arachidonic acid metabolites at concentrations significantly above normal homeostatic levels could produce some of the pathophysiologic pulmonary changes observed in byssinotics. This paper reports the results of an experiment to quantitate arachidonic acid metabolite production following macrophage stimulation by E. agglomerans lipopolysaccharide. Procedures are described for the stimulation of macrophages by cotton dust associated lipopolysaccharide, for the separation and identification of arachidonic acid and its metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography, and for the quantification of those products by radioisotope techniques. PMID:2270833

Elissalde, M H; Beier, R C

1990-12-01

168

Heterogeneity of Rhizobium lipopolysaccharides.  

PubMed Central

The lipopolysaccharides ( LPSs ) from strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum, Rhizobium trifolii, and Rhizobium phaseoli were isolated and partially characterized by mild acid hydrolysis and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Mild acid hydrolysis results in a precipitate which can be removed by centrifugation or extraction with chloroform. The supernatant contains polysaccharides which, in general, are separated into two fractions ( LPS1 and LPS2 ) by Sephadex G-50 gel filtration chromatography. The higher-molecular-weight LPS1 fractions among the various Rhizobium strains are highly variable in composition and reflect the variability reported in the intact LPSs (R. W. Carlson and R. Lee, Plant Physiol. 71:223-228, 1983; Carlson et al., Plant Physiol. 62:912-917, 1978; Zevenhuizen et al., Arch. Microbiol. 125:1-8, 1980). The LPS1 fraction of R. leguminosarum 128C53 has a higher molecular weight than all other LPS1 fractions examined. All LPS2 fractions examined are oligosaccharides with a molecular weight of ca. 600. The major sugar component of all LPS2 oligosaccharides is uronic acid. The LPS2 compositions are similar for strains of R. leguminosarum and R. trifolii, but the LPS2 from R. phaseoli was different in that it contained glucose, a sugar not found in the other LPS2 fractions or found only in trace amounts. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis shows that each LPS contains two banding regions, a higher-molecular-weight heterogeneous region often containing many bands and a lower-molecular-weight band. The lower-molecular-weight bands of all LPSs have the same electrophoretic mobility, which is greater than that of lysozyme. The banding pattern of the heterogeneous regions varies among the different Rhizobium strains. In the case of R. leguminosarum 128C53 LPS, the heterogeneous region of a higher molecular weight than is this region from all other Rhizobium strains examined and consists of many bands separated from one another by a small and apparently constant molecular weight interval. When the heterogeneous region of R. Leguminosarum 128C53 LPS was cut from the gel and analyzed, its composition was found to be that of the intact LPS, whereas the lower-molecular-weight band contains only sugars found in the LPS2 oligosaccharide. In the case of R. leguminosarum 128C63 and R. trifolii 0403 LPSs, the heterogeneous regions are similar and consist of several band s separated by a large-molecular-weight interval with a the major band of these heterogeneous regions having the lowest molecular weight with an electrophoretic mobility near that of beta-lactoglobulin. The heterogeneous region from R. phaseoli 127K14 consists of several bands with electrophoretic mobilities near that of beta-lactoglobulin, whereas this region from R. trifolii 162S7 shows a continuous staining region, indicating a great deal of heterogeneity. The results described in this paper are discussed with regard to the reported properties of Escherichia coli and Salmonella LPSs. Images PMID:6725208

Carlson, R W

1984-01-01

169

Caspase-7 deficiency protects from endotoxin-induced lymphocyte apoptosis and improves survival  

PubMed Central

Extensive apoptosis of leukocytes during sepsis and endotoxic shock constitutes an important mechanism linked to the excessive mortality associated with these disorders. Caspase inhibitors confer protection from endotoxin-induced lymphocyte apoptosis and improve survival, but it is not clear which caspases mediate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–induced lymphocyte apoptosis and mortality. We report here that the apoptotic executioner caspase-7 was activated in the splenocytes of LPS-injected mice, suggesting a role for caspase-7 in lymphocyte apoptosis. Indeed, caspase-7–deficient mice were resistant to LPS-induced lymphocyte apoptosis and were markedly protected from LPS-induced lethality independently of the excessive production of serum cytokines. These results reveal for the first time a nonredundant role for caspase-7 in vivo and identify caspase-7 inhibition as a component of the mechanism by which caspase inhibitors protect from endotoxin-induced mortality. PMID:19168786

Moreira, Lilian O.; Makena, Patrudu; Spierings, Diana C. J.; Boyd, Kelli; Murray, Peter J.; Green, Douglas R.

2009-01-01

170

Fucoidan extracted from Fucus evanescens prevents endotoxin-induced damage in a mouse model of endotoxemia.  

PubMed

An important problem of treating patients with endotoxemia is to find drugs to reduce the negative effects of endotoxin on the organism. We tested fucoidan (sulfated polysaccharide) from the brown alga Fucus evanescens as a potential drug in a mouse model of endotoxemia inducted by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The survival time of mice injected with LPS increased under fucoidan treatment compared with the group of mice injected with LPS only. The preventive administration of fucoidan to mice with endotoxemia resulted in inhibition of increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF? and IL-6), as well as decreasing of the processes of hypercoagulability. The parenteral or per os administration of fucoidan resulted in decreasing the degree of microcirculatory disorders and secondary dystrophic-destructive changes in parenchymal organs of mice with endotoxemia. Taken together, these results demonstrate that fucoidan prevents endotoxin-induced damage in a mouse model of endotoxemia and increases the mice's resistance to LPS. PMID:24492521

Kuznetsova, Tatyana A; Besednova, Natalya N; Somova, Larisa M; Plekhova, Natalya G

2014-02-01

171

Fucoidan Extracted from Fucus Evanescens Prevents Endotoxin-Induced Damage in a Mouse Model of Endotoxemia  

PubMed Central

An important problem of treating patients with endotoxemia is to find drugs to reduce the negative effects of endotoxin on the organism. We tested fucoidan (sulfated polysaccharide) from the brown alga Fucus evanescens as a potential drug in a mouse model of endotoxemia inducted by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The survival time of mice injected with LPS increased under fucoidan treatment compared with the group of mice injected with LPS only. The preventive administration of fucoidan to mice with endotoxemia resulted in inhibition of increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF? and IL-6), as well as decreasing of the processes of hypercoagulability. The parenteral or per os administration of fucoidan resulted in decreasing the degree of microcirculatory disorders and secondary dystrophic-destructive changes in parenchymal organs of mice with endotoxemia. Taken together, these results demonstrate that fucoidan prevents endotoxin-induced damage in a mouse model of endotoxemia and increases the mice’s resistance to LPS. PMID:24492521

Kuznetsova, Tatyana A.; Besednova, Natalya N.; Somova, Larisa M.; Plekhova, Natalya G.

2014-01-01

172

Lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid induce different immune responses in the bovine mammary gland.  

PubMed

Different pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, can be responsible for different outcomes of mastitis; that is, acute and severe or chronic and subclinical. These differences in the disease could be related to different mammary responses to the pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine if intramammary challenge with the endotoxins lipopolysaccharide (LPS), from E. coli, and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), from Staph. aureus, induce different immune responses in vivo in milk cells and mammary tissue. To provide a reference level for comparing the challenge and to show the different stimulation of the mammary immune system on a quantitatively similar level, dosages of LPS and LTA were chosen that induced an increase of somatic cells in milk to similar maxima. One udder quarter in each of 21 lactating dairy cows was challenged with 0.2 ?g of LPS or 20 ?g of LTA. From these quarters and from respective control quarters, milk cells or tissue biopsies were obtained at 0, 6, and 12h relative to the challenge to measure mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?), IL-1?, IL-8, lactoferrin, and RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted). Furthermore, if no biopsies were performed, hourly milk samples were taken for measurement of somatic cell count, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and TNF?. Somatic cell count increased in all treatments to similar maxima with LPS and LTA treatments. Concentrations of TNF? in milk increased with LPS but not with LTA. The activity of LDH in milk increased in both treatments and was more pronounced with LPS than with LTA. The mRNA expression of TNF?, IL-1?, IL-8, and RANTES showed increases in milk cells, and LPS was a stronger inducer than LTA. Lactoferrin mRNA expression decreased in milk cells with LPS and LTA treatments. The measured factors did not change in either treatment in mammary tissue. Challenge of udder quarters with dosages of LPS and LTA that induce similar increases in SCC stimulate the appearance of different immune factor patterns. This dissimilar response to LPS and LTA may partly explain the different course and intensity of mastitis after infection with E. coli and Staph. aureus, respectively. PMID:22032363

Wellnitz, O; Arnold, E T; Bruckmaier, R M

2011-11-01

173

Health effects due to endotoxin inhalation (review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endotoxins are ubiquitous in the environment and represent important components of bioaerosols. High exposure occurs in rural\\u000a environment and at several workplaces (e.g. waste collecting, textile industry etc.). Adverse effects on human health induced\\u000a by inhalation of endotoxin are described in several studies. Up to now the endotoxin levels are mainly measured using the\\u000a Limulus amoebocyte-lysate (LAL) assay. This assay

V. Liebers; M. Raulf-Heimsoth; T. Brüning

2008-01-01

174

Endotoxin and nanobacteria in polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endotoxin and nanobacteria in polycystic kidney disease.BackgroundMicrobes have been suspected as provocateurs of polycystic kidney disease (PKD), but attempts to isolate viable organisms have failed. Bacterial endotoxin is the most often reported microbial product found in PKD fluids. We assessed potential microbial origins of endotoxin in cyst fluids from 13 PKD patients and urines of PKD and control individuals.MethodsFluids were

J. Thomas Hjelle; Marcia A. Miller-Hjelle; Ian R. Poxton; E. Olavi Kajander; Neva Ciftcioglu; Monica L. Jones; Robert C. Caughey; Robert Brown; Paul D. Millikin; Frank S. Darras

2000-01-01

175

Dephosphorylation of endotoxin by alkaline phosphatase in vivo.  

PubMed Central

Natural substrates for alkaline phosphatase (AP) are at present not identified despite extensive investigations. Difficulties in imagining a possible physiological function involve its extremely high pH optimum for the usual exogenous substrates and its localization as an ecto-enzyme. As endotoxin is a substance that contains phosphate groups and is usually present in the extracellular space, we studied whether AP is able to dephosphorylate this bacterial product at physiological pH levels. We tested this in intestinal cryostat sections using histochemical methods with endotoxin from Escherichia coli and Salmonella minnesota R595 as substrate. Results show that dephosphorylation of both preparations occurs at pH 7.5 by AP activity. As phosphate residues in the lipid A moiety determine the toxicity of the molecule, we examined the effect of the AP inhibitor levamisole in vivo using a septicemia model in the rat. The results show that inhibition of endogenous AP by levamisole significantly reduces survival of rats intraperitoneally injected with E. coli bacteria, whereas this drug does not influence survival of rats receiving a sublethal dose of the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. In view of the endotoxin-dephosphorylating properties of AP demonstrated in vitro, we propose a crucial role for this enzyme in host defense. The effects of levamisole during gram-negative bacterial infections and the localization of AP as an ecto-enzyme in most organs as well as the induction of enzyme activity during inflammatory reactions and cholestasis is in accordance with such a protective role. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 PMID:9327750

Poelstra, K.; Bakker, W. W.; Klok, P. A.; Kamps, J. A.; Hardonk, M. J.; Meijer, D. K.

1997-01-01

176

Lipopolysaccharides: From Erinyes to Charites  

PubMed Central

Following the discovery of endotoxins by Richard Pfeiffer, such bacterial product was associated to many severe disorders produced by an overwhelming inflammatory response and often resulting in endotoxic shock and multiple organ failure. However, recent clinical and basic sciences investigations claimed some beneficial roles of typical as well as atypical endotoxins. The aim of this paper is to focus on recent data supporting a beneficial activity of both typical and atypical endotoxins. Such novel perspective looks promising for development of new drugs for prevention and therapy of several human diseases. PMID:22665953

Foca, Alfredo; Liberto, Maria Carla; Quirino, Angela; Matera, Giovanni

2012-01-01

177

Inhibition of IRAK-4 activity for rescuing endotoxin LPS-induced septic mortality in mice by lonicerae flos extract.  

PubMed

Lonicerae flos extract (HS-23) is a clinical candidate currently undergoing Phase I trial in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected healthy human volunteers, but its molecular basis remains to be defined. Here, we investigated protective effects of HS-23 or its major constituents on Escherichia coli LPS-induced septic mortality in mice. Intravenous treatment with HS-23 rescued LPS-intoxicated C57BL/6J mice under septic conditions, and decreased the levels of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-1? and high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) in the blood. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and its isomers were assigned as major constituents of HS-23 in the protection against endotoxemia. As a molecular mechanism, HS-23 or CGA isomers inhibited endotoxin LPS-induced autophosphorylation of the IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4) in mouse peritoneal macrophages as well as the kinase activity of IRAK-4 in cell-free reactions. HS-23 consequently suppressed downstream pathways critical for LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor (NF)-?B or activating protein 1 (AP-1) in the peritoneal macrophages. HS-23 also inhibited various toll-like receptor agonists-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, and down-regulated LPS-induced expression of NF-?B/AP-1-target inflammatory genes in the cells. Taken together, HS-23 or CGA isomers exhibited anti-inflammatory therapy against LPS-induced septic mortality in mice, at least in part, mediated through the inhibition of IRAK-4. PMID:24269819

Park, Sun Hong; Roh, Eunmiri; Kim, Hyun Soo; Baek, Seung-Il; Choi, Nam Song; Kim, Narae; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Han, Sang-Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

2013-12-13

178

Inhibition of IRAK-4 activity for rescuing endotoxin LPS-induced septic mortality in mice by lonicerae flos extract  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Lonicerae flos extract (HS-23) is a clinical candidate, Phase I for sepsis treatment. •Here, HS-23 or its major constituents rescued LPS-induced septic mortality in mice. •As a mechanism, they directly inhibited IRAK-4-catalyzed kinase activity. •Thus, they suppressed LPS-induced expression of NF-?B/AP-1-target inflammatory genes. -- Abstract: Lonicerae flos extract (HS-23) is a clinical candidate currently undergoing Phase I trial in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected healthy human volunteers, but its molecular basis remains to be defined. Here, we investigated protective effects of HS-23 or its major constituents on Escherichia coli LPS-induced septic mortality in mice. Intravenous treatment with HS-23 rescued LPS-intoxicated C57BL/6J mice under septic conditions, and decreased the levels of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-1? and high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) in the blood. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and its isomers were assigned as major constituents of HS-23 in the protection against endotoxemia. As a molecular mechanism, HS-23 or CGA isomers inhibited endotoxin LPS-induced autophosphorylation of the IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4) in mouse peritoneal macrophages as well as the kinase activity of IRAK-4 in cell-free reactions. HS-23 consequently suppressed downstream pathways critical for LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor (NF)-?B or activating protein 1 (AP-1) in the peritoneal macrophages. HS-23 also inhibited various toll-like receptor agonists-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, and down-regulated LPS-induced expression of NF-?B/AP-1-target inflammatory genes in the cells. Taken together, HS-23 or CGA isomers exhibited anti-inflammatory therapy against LPS-induced septic mortality in mice, at least in part, mediated through the inhibition of IRAK-4.

Park, Sun Hong; Roh, Eunmiri [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Soo [Pharmaceutical R and D Center, Huons Co., Ltd., Anyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Pharmaceutical R and D Center, Huons Co., Ltd., Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Seung-Il [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Nam Song [Pharmaceutical R and D Center, Huons Co., Ltd., Anyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Pharmaceutical R and D Center, Huons Co., Ltd., Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Narae; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Han, Sang-Bae [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngsoo, E-mail: youngsoo@chungbuk.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-12-13

179

Nitric oxide-mediated hyporeactivity to noradrenaline precedes the induction of nitric oxide synthase in endotoxin shock.  

PubMed Central

1. The role of an enhanced formation of nitric oxide (NO) and the relative importance of the constitutive and inducible NO synthase (NOS) for the development of immediate (within 60 min) and delayed (at 180 min) vascular hyporeactivity to noradrenaline was investigated in a model of circulatory shock induced by endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) in the rat. 2. Male Wistar rats were anaesthetized and instrumented for the measurement of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate. In addition, the calcium-dependent and calcium-independent NOS activity was measured ex vivo by the conversion of [3H]-arginine to [3H]-citrulline in homogenates from several organs obtained from vehicle- and LPS-treated rats. 3. E. coli LPS (10 mg kg-1, i.v. bolus) caused a rapid (within 5 min) and sustained fall in MAP. At 30 and 60 min after LPS, pressor responses to noradrenaline (0.3, 1 or 3 micrograms kg-1, i.v.) were significantly reduced. The pressor responses were restored by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 1 mg kg-1, i.v. at 60 min), a potent inhibitor of NO synthesis. In contrast, L-NAME did not potentiate the noradrenaline-induced pressor responses in control animals. 4. Dexamethasone (3 mg kg-1, i.v., 60 min prior to LPS), a potent inhibitor of the induction of NOS, did not alter initial MAP or pressor responses to noradrenaline in control rats, but significantly attenuated the LPS-induced fall in MAP at 15 to 60 min after LPS. Dexamethasone did not influence the development of the LPS-induced immediate (within 60 min) hyporeactivity to noradrenaline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7682137

Szabó, C.; Mitchell, J. A.; Thiemermann, C.; Vane, J. R.

1993-01-01

180

THE TEMPERATURE-LIMITED FED-BATCH TECHNIQUE FOR CONTROL OF ESCHERICHIA COLI CULTURES  

E-print Network

THE TEMPERATURE-LIMITED FED-BATCH TECHNIQUE FOR CONTROL OF ESCHERICHIA COLI CULTURES MARIE SVENSSON The objective of this study was to investigate the physiology and productivity in Escherichia coli cultures of endotoxins were found in the medium of E. coli fed-batch cultures at low specific growth rates (below 0.1 h-1

Enfors, Sven-Olof

181

Endotoxin signal transduction in macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through its action on macrophages, bac- terial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or endotoxm can trigger responses that are protective or injurious to the host. This review examines the effects of LPS on macrophages by following events from the cell sur- face to the nucleus. The involvement of protein tyrosine kinases, mitogen-activated protein kinases, protein kinase C, G proteins, protein kinase A, ceramide-activated

Matthew J. Sweet; David A. Hume

182

Longitudinal Study of Dust and Airborne Endotoxin in the Home  

Microsoft Academic Search

within-home variance) in endotoxin level to improve assessment of exposure to endotoxin at home. However, there are no previous reports of the within- and between-home variance components of endotoxin. In this study we measured dust endotox- in in 20 homes and airborne endotoxin in 15 of those homes at monthly intervals for up to 13 months. With these repeated measure-

Ju-Hyeong Park; Donna L. Spiegelman; Harriet A. Burge; Diane R. Gold; Ginger L. Chew; Donald K. Milton

2000-01-01

183

Comparison of Sampling Media for Endotoxin-Contaminated Aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the influence of collection media and sampling method on endotoxin extraction for a variety of endotoxin-contaminated aerosols was examined. A first set of experiments compared endotoxin concentrations on eight different filter media after sampling from a chamber containing a saline endotoxin aerosol. Glass fiber (GF) and cellulose acetate (CA) filters were equivalent and showed significantly higher amounts

Terry Gordon; Karen Galdanes; Lisa Brosseau

1992-01-01

184

Characterization of the First Molluscicidal Lipopolysaccharide from Moraxella osloensis  

PubMed Central

Moraxella osloensis is a bacterium that is mutualistically associated with Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, a nematode that has potential for the biocontrol of mollusk pests, especially the slug Deroceras reticulatum. We discovered that purified M. osloensis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) possesses a lethal toxicity to D. reticulatum when administered by injection but no contact or oral toxicity to this slug. The toxicity of the LPS resides in the lipid A moiety. M. osloensis LPS was semiquantitated at 6 × 107 endotoxin units per mg. The LPS is a rough-type LPS with an estimated molecular weight of 5,300. Coinjection of galactosamine with the LPS increased the LPS's toxicity to the slug two- to four-fold. The galactosamine-induced sensitization of the slug to the LPS was reversed completely by uridine. PMID:12788774

Tan, Li; Grewal, Parwinder S.

2003-01-01

185

Characterization of the first molluscicidal lipopolysaccharide from Moraxella osloensis.  

PubMed

Moraxella osloensis is a bacterium that is mutualistically associated with Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, a nematode that has potential for the biocontrol of mollusk pests, especially the slug Deroceras reticulatum. We discovered that purified M. osloensis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) possesses a lethal toxicity to D. reticulatum when administered by injection but no contact or oral toxicity to this slug. The toxicity of the LPS resides in the lipid A moiety. M. osloensis LPS was semiquantitated at 6 x 10(7) endotoxin units per mg. The LPS is a rough-type LPS with an estimated molecular weight of 5,300. Coinjection of galactosamine with the LPS increased the LPS's toxicity to the slug two- to four-fold. The galactosamine-induced sensitization of the slug to the LPS was reversed completely by uridine. PMID:12788774

Tan, Li; Grewal, Parwinder S

2003-06-01

186

Binding interactions of bacterial lipopolysaccharide and the cationic amphiphilic peptides polymyxin B and WLBU2.  

PubMed

Passage of blood through a sorbent device for removal of bacteria and endotoxin by specific binding with immobilized, membrane-active, bactericidal peptides holds promise for treating severe blood infections. Peptide insertion in the target membrane and rapid/strong binding is desirable, while membrane disruption and release of degradation products to the circulating blood is not. Here we describe interactions between bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and the membrane-active, bactericidal peptides WLBU2 and polymyxin B (PmB). Analysis of the interfacial behavior of mixtures of LPS and peptide using air-water interfacial tensiometry and optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy strongly suggests insertion of intact LPS vesicles by the peptide WLBU2 without vesicle destabilization. In contrast, dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies show that LPS vesicles appear to undergo peptide-induced destabilization in the presence of PmB. Circular dichroism spectra further confirm that WLBU2, which shows disordered structure in aqueous solution and substantially helical structure in membrane-mimetic environments, is stably located within the LPS membrane in peptide-vesicle mixtures. We therefore expect that presentation of WLBU2 at an interface, if tethered in a fashion which preserves its mobility and solvent accessibility, will enable the capture of bacteria and endotoxin without promoting reintroduction of endotoxin to the circulating blood, thus minimizing adverse clinical outcomes. On the other hand, our results suggest no such favorable outcome of LPS interactions with polymyxin B. PMID:24905681

Ryder, Matthew P; Wu, Xiangming; McKelvey, Greg R; McGuire, Joseph; Schilke, Karl F

2014-08-01

187

Lipopolysaccharide characteristics of pathogenic campylobacters.  

PubMed Central

Most Campylobacter jejuni strains are sensitive and most Campylobacter fetus strains are resistant to the bactericidal activity in normal human serum. We purified lipopolysaccharides from Campylobacter strains to determine whether their composition and structure relate to serum susceptibility. The lipopolysaccharide of two serum-sensitive strains was best isolated by the Galanos procedure, but for two serum-resistant strains a cold-ethanol extraction was optimal. For each lipopolysaccharide preparation, the ratio of 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate to protein was increased by 100 to 1,000-fold over that of whole cells. For serum-resistant strains, total carbohydrates was a high proportion of lipopolysaccharide weight; for serum-sensitive strains, 2-keto-3-deoxyoctanate was a high proportion of total carbohydrates. By polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the lipopolysaccharide of serum-sensitive strains appeared rough, but for serum-resistant strains a smooth-type ladder was seen, with a minimal core region and several high-molecular-weight complexes. Proteinase K-treated whole-cell lysates showed polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiles similar to that of pure lipopolysaccharide. Proteinase K-treated whole-cell lysates from seven serum-sensitive C. jejuni strains all had rough profiles, and five serum-resistant C. fetus strains all had smooth profiles. These studies indicate that lipopolysaccharide composition may be an important determinant of serum susceptibility among Campylobacter species and that serum resistance is usually associated with a smooth-type lipopolysaccharide. Images PMID:3967920

Perez Perez, G I; Blaser, M J

1985-01-01

188

Novel Bacillus thuringiensis ?-Endotoxin Active against Locusta migratoria manilensis ?  

PubMed Central

A novel ?-endotoxin gene was cloned from a Bacillus thuringiensis strain with activity against Locusta migratoria manilensis by PCR-based genome walking. The sequence of the cry gene was 3,432 bp long, and it encoded a Cry protein of 1,144 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 129,196.5 kDa, which exhibited 62% homology with Cry7Ba1 in the amino acid sequence. The ?-endotoxin with five conserved sequence blocks in the amino-terminal region was designated Cry7Ca1 (GenBank accession no. EF486523). Protein structure analysis suggested that the activated toxin of Cry7Ca1 has three domains: 227 residues forming 7 ?-helices (domain I); 213 residues forming three antiparallel ?-sheets (domain II); and 134 residues forming a ?-sandwich (domain III). The three domains, respectively, exhibited 47, 44, and 34% sequence identity with corresponding domains of known Cry toxins. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis showed that Cry7Ca1, encoded by the full-length open reading frame of the cry gene, the activated toxin 1, which included three domains but without the N-terminal 54 amino acid residues and the C terminus, and the activated toxin 2, which included three domains and N-terminal 54 amino acid residues but without the C terminus, could be expressed in Escherichia coli. Bioassay results indicated that the expressed proteins of Cry7Ca1 and the activated toxins (toxins 1 and 2) showed significant activity against 2nd instar locusts, and after 7 days of infection, the estimated 50% lethal concentrations (LC50s) were 8.98 ?g/ml for the expressed Cry7Ca1, 0.87 ?g/ml for the activated toxin 1, and 4.43 ?g/ml for the activated toxin 2. The ?-endotoxin also induced histopathological changes in midgut epithelial cells of adult L. migratoria manilensis. PMID:21441319

Wu, Yan; Lei, Cheng-Feng; Yi, Dan; Liu, Peng-Ming; Gao, Mei-Ying

2011-01-01

189

Biophysical analysis of the interaction of granulysin-derived peptides with enterobacterial endotoxins  

PubMed Central

To combat infections by Gram-negative bacteria, it is not only necessary to kill the bacteria but also to neutralize pathogenicity factors such as endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). The development of antimicrobial peptides based on mammalian endotoxin-binding proteins is a promising tool in the fight against bacterial infections, and septic shock syndrome. Here, synthetic peptides derived from granulysin (Gra-pep) were investigated in microbiological and biophysical assays to understand their interaction with LPS. We analyzed the influence of the binding of Gra-pep on (1) the acyl chain melting of the hydrophobic moiety of LPS, lipid A, by Fourier-transform spectroscopy, (2) the aggregate structure of LPS by small-angle X-ray scattering and cryo-transmission electron microscopy, and 3) the enthalpy change by isothermal titration calorimetry. In addition, the influence of Gra-pep on the incorporation of LPS and LPS-LBP (lipopolysaccharide-binding protein) complexes into negatively charged liposomes was monitored. Our findings demonstrate a characteristic change in the aggregate structure of LPS into multilamellar stacks in the presence of Gra-pep, but little or no change of acyl chain fluidity. Neutralization of LPS by Gra-pep is not due to a scavenging effect in solution, but rather proceeds after incorporation into target membranes, suggesting a requisite membrane-bound step. PMID:17555705

Chen, Xi; Howe, Jorg; Andra, Jorg; Rossle, Manfred; Richter, Walter; Silva, Ana Paula Galvao da; Krensky, Alan M.; Clayberger, Carol; Brandenburg, Klaus

2009-01-01

190

Endotoxin contamination in the dental surgery.  

PubMed

Dental waterlines contain large numbers of Gram-negative bacteria. Endotoxin, a component of such organisms, has significant health implications. Paired samples of dental unit water and the aerosols generated during dental procedures were collected, and assayed for bacteria and endotoxin levels, using heterotrophic plate counts and the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test. Consistent with published studies, the extent of bacterial contamination in the dental waters sampled for this investigation surpassed the levels associated with potable water, with counts in excess of 2.0x10(6) c.f.u. ml(-1) in some samples. Correspondingly high concentrations of endotoxin [up to 15 000 endotoxin units (EU) ml(-1)] were present in the water. A statistically significant Spearman correlation coefficient of rho=0.94 between endotoxin (EU ml(-1)) and bacterial load (c.f.u. ml(-1)) was demonstrated. All of the aerosol samples contained detectable endotoxin. Further studies of the consequences of dental endotoxin exposure, and evaluation of means to prevent exposure, are warranted. PMID:17761488

Huntington, M K; Williams, J F; Mackenzie, C D

2007-09-01

191

Differential effects of glucocorticoids in the establishment and maintenance of endotoxin tolerance.  

PubMed

Gram-negative infections can result in endotoxic shock, which is the most common cause of death in intensive care units. Most of the undesirable effects in sepsis and septic shock have been ascribed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a normal constituent of the bacterial wall. The response to LPS involves rapid secretion of proinflammatory cytokines [tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, interferon-gamma] and the concomitant induction of anti-inflammatory mediators such as IL-10 and transforming growth factor-beta and glucocorticoids (GC), which render the host temporarily refractory to subsequent lethal doses of LPS challenge in a process known as LPS or endotoxin tolerance. Although protective from the development of sepsis or systemic inflammation, endotoxin tolerance has also been pointed out as the principal cause of the non-specific immunosuppression described in these patients. In this report we demonstrate, using a mouse model, that while the maintenance of tolerance is dependent upon GC, the establishment of tolerance by LPS could be inhibited by dexamethasone (Dex), a synthetic GC. Conversely, we demonstrated that mifepristone (RU486), a known GC receptor antagonist, was capable of inducing a transient and reversible disruption of endotoxin tolerance, also permitting partial restoration of the humoral immune response in LPS tolerant/immunosuppressed mice. These results are encouraging for the management of immunosuppression in sepsis and/or non-infectious shock, and deserve further investigation in the future. PMID:19912256

Rearte, B; Landoni, V; Laborde, E; Fernández, G; Isturiz, M

2010-02-01

192

Differential effects of glucocorticoids in the establishment and maintenance of endotoxin tolerance  

PubMed Central

Gram-negative infections can result in endotoxic shock, which is the most common cause of death in intensive care units. Most of the undesirable effects in sepsis and septic shock have been ascribed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a normal constituent of the bacterial wall. The response to LPS involves rapid secretion of proinflammatory cytokines [tumour necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, interferon-?] and the concomitant induction of anti-inflammatory mediators such as IL-10 and transforming growth factor-? and glucocorticoids (GC), which render the host temporarily refractory to subsequent lethal doses of LPS challenge in a process known as LPS or endotoxin tolerance. Although protective from the development of sepsis or systemic inflammation, endotoxin tolerance has also been pointed out as the principal cause of the non-specific immunosuppression described in these patients. In this report we demonstrate, using a mouse model, that while the maintenance of tolerance is dependent upon GC, the establishment of tolerance by LPS could be inhibited by dexamethasone (Dex), a synthetic GC. Conversely, we demonstrated that mifepristone (RU486), a known GC receptor antagonist, was capable of inducing a transient and reversible disruption of endotoxin tolerance, also permitting partial restoration of the humoral immune response in LPS tolerant/immunosuppressed mice. These results are encouraging for the management of immunosuppression in sepsis and/or non-infectious shock, and deserve further investigation in the future. PMID:19912256

Rearte, B; Landoni, V; Laborde, E; Fernandez, G; Isturiz, M

2010-01-01

193

Endotoxins in urban air in Stockholm, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endotoxins, i.e. components originating from the outer membrane in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, activate the human immune system, which may result in airway symptoms such as shortness of breath and airway inflammation. Endotoxins are present in the environment, both outdoors and indoors, and stay airborne for a long time. In order to investigate the levels of endotoxins in urban air and the influence of traffic and meteorological factors, particles (PM 10 and PM 2.5) were collected at five sites in Stockholm, Sweden on four occasions per site between May and September 2009. Endotoxins were extracted from the filters and analysis was conducted with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL)-assay. Endotoxins were present in urban air in Stockholm, albeit in low levels, and were similar to levels found in urban areas outside Sweden. To our knowledge, this is the northernmost location where endotoxins have been measured. The endotoxin levels found in PM 10 ranged from 0.020 to 0.107 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.050 EU m -3 and the levels found in PM 2.5 ranged from 0.005 to 0.064 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.015 EU m -3. No obvious effects of traffic or meteorological factors on endotoxin levels were observed, although a moderate correlation could be seen with soot. The small number of sampling sites is however a shortcoming of the present study. In future studies, more sites and sampling during all seasons would be preferable in order to get a better picture of the influence of different sources on endotoxin levels.

Nilsson, S.; Merritt, A. S.; Bellander, T.

2011-01-01

194

Relation of structure to function for the US reference standard endotoxin after exposure to /sup 60/Co radiation  

SciTech Connect

The structure and function of the highly purified US reference standard endotoxin (RSE) were studied after exposure to ionizing radiation from a /sup 60/Co source. With increasing doses of radiation, the trilaminar ribbon-like structure of untreated endotoxin exhibited focal swelling, after which only spherical particles were seen by electron microscopy. These morphological changes were paralleled by the respective loss of O-side chain repeating units and pieces of the R-core from the lipopolysaccharide molecules, as demonstrated by electrophoresis. The biologic function of the irradiated endotoxin was assessed with a variety of tests. At higher doses of radiation, a direct relation was observed between the degradation of the molecular and supramolecular structure and the loss of biologic function. At lower doses of radiation, however, there was variability among the functional assays in their rate of change with progressive irradiation of the RSE. The results suggest that the carbohydrate moiety plays an important role both in determining the supramolecular structure and in modulating certain biologic activities of bacterial endotoxins.

Csako, G.; Suba, E.A.; Ahlgren, A.; Tsai, C.M.; Elin, R.J.

1986-01-01

195

Effect of Zingiber officinale and propolis on microorganisms and endotoxins in root canals  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of glycolic propolis (PRO) and ginger (GIN) extracts, calcium hydroxide (CH), chlorhexidine (CLX) gel and their combinations as ICMs (ICMs) against Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and endotoxins in root canals. Material and Methods: After 28 days of contamination with microorganisms, the canals were instrumented and then divided according to the ICM: CH+saline; CLX, CH+CLX, PRO, PRO+CH; GIN; GIN+CH; saline. The antimicrobial activity and quantification of endotoxins by the chromogenic test of Limulus amebocyte lysate were evaluated after contamination and instrumentation at 14 days of ICM application and 7 days after ICM removal. Results and Conclusion: After analysis of results and application of the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn statistical tests at 5% significance level, it was concluded that all ICMs were able to eliminate the microorganisms in the root canals and reduce their amount of endotoxins; however, CH was more effective in neutralizing endotoxins and less effective against C. albicans and E. faecalis, requiring the use of medication combinations to obtain higher success. PMID:23559108

MAEKAWA, Lilian Eiko; VALERA, Marcia Carneiro; de OLIVEIRA, Luciane Dias; CARVALHO, Claudio Antonio Talge; CAMARGO, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro; JORGE, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

2013-01-01

196

Effect of naloxone on regional cerebral blood flow during endotoxin shock in conscious rats  

SciTech Connect

Maintenance of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is vital during cardiovascular shock. Since opioids have been implicated in the pathophysiology of endotoxin shock and have been shown to alter cerebral perfusion patterns, the authors determined whether opioids were responsible for any of the changes in regional CBF observed during endotoxin shock and whether the use of naloxone might impair or aid in the maintenance of CBF. When blood flow (BF) is studied with radioactively-labeled microspheres in rats, the left ventricle of the heart is often cannulated via the right carotid artery. Questions have arisen concerning the potential adverse effects of this method on CBF in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the ligated artery. They measured right and left regional CBF by use of this route of cannulation. Twenty-four hours after cannulations were performed, flow measurements were made using radiolabeled microspheres in conscious unrestrained male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-400 g) before and 10, 30, and 60 min after challenging with 10 mg/kg Escherichia coli endotoxin (etx) or saline. Naloxone (2 mg/kg) or saline was given as a treatment 25 min post-etx. They found no significant differences between right and left cortical, midbrain, or cerebellar BF at any time in any treatment group. Therefore naloxone treatment of endotoxin shock may be beneficial in preventing decreases in regional CBF.

Law, W.R.; Ferguson, J.L. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (USA))

1987-09-01

197

Endotoxin protects the gastric mucosa against ulcerogenic stimuli.  

PubMed

It is well-documented that large amounts of endotoxin produce hemorrhagic mucosal lesions in the stomach. To determine whether endotoxin, when injected at small doses, similarly exerts ulcerogenic actions, endotoxin (0.4-40 micrograms/kg) was injected into 24 hr-fasted rats. These small doses of endotoxin did not affect the integrity of the gastric mucosa. Unexpectedly, however, pretreatment with these minute amounts of endotoxin protected the gastric mucosa against various ulcerogenic stimuli such as stress, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and ethanol. The anti-ulcer actions of endotoxin were not observed in endotoxin-insensitive animals (C3H/HeJ mice), thereby suggesting that endogenous cytokines such as interleukin-1 may mediate these protective actions. These findings stand in contrast to the toxic effect of endotoxin as an ulcerogen and indicate that endotoxin, albeit its term "toxin," may have a beneficial effect for the host. PMID:8280150

Tsuji, K; Uehara, A; Santos, S B; Namiki, M

1993-12-30

198

Covalent binding of (/sup 14/C)thiourea to protein in lungs from endotoxin-treated rats  

SciTech Connect

Administration of thiourea to mature male rats at a dosage of 3.5 mg/kg (ip) produced marked pleural effusion by 2 hr (3-4 ml). Pretreatment with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) significantly reduced this pleural effusion (less than 0.5 ml). Despite this unequivocal effect, there was no corresponding reduction in the covalent binding of (/sup 14/C)thiourea to lung protein. These data indicate that the protective effect of endotoxin against the initial stages of thiourea pneumotoxicity does not involve a reduction in binding of the (/sup 14/C)thiourea or a metabolite to lung protein. However, alterations in low levels of binding to specific cell types or particular protein(s) relative to covalent binding cannot be ruled out.

Hollinger, M.A.

1983-08-01

199

Lipoteichoic acid from Lactobacillus plantarum inhibits the expression of platelet-activating factor receptor induced by Staphylococcus aureus lipoteichoic acid or Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide in human monocyte-like cells.  

PubMed

Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) plays an important role in bacterial infection and inflammation. We examined the effect of the bacterial cell wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Lactobacillus plantarum (pLTA) and Staphylococcus aureus (aLTA) on PAFR expression in THP-1, a monocyte-like cell line. LPS and aLTA, but not pLTA, significantly increased PAFR expression, whereas priming with pLTA inhibited LPSmediated or aLTA-mediated PAFR expression. Expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4, and CD14 increased with LPS and aLTA treatments, but was inhibited by pLTA pretreatment. Neutralizing antibodies against TLR2, TLR4, and CD14 showed that these receptors were important in LPS-mediated or aLTA-mediated PAFR expression. PAFR expression is mainly regulated by the nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway. Blocking PAF binding to PAFR using a PAFR inhibitor indicated that LPS-mediated or aLTA-mediated PAF expression affected TNF-? production. In the mouse small intestine, pLTA inhibited PAFR, TLR2, and TLR4 expression that was induced by heat-labile toxin. Our data suggested that pLTA has an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the expression of PAFR that was induced by pathogenic ligands. PMID:24786530

Kim, Hangeun; Jung, Bong Jun; Jeong, Jihye; Chun, Honam; Chung, Dae Kyun

2014-08-28

200

Failure of protection against endotoxin hepatotoxicity by selenium.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken in rats to test the ability of selenium to prevent endotoxin hepatotoxicity. There were no significant morphological changes in the liver and no abnormalities of liver function in rats given 0, 6.25 or 12.5 mumol of selenium. Endotoxin administration to these rats induced focal hepatocellular coagulative necrosis and increased serum transaminase activities. However, endotoxin hepatotoxicity and mortality of the rats given endotoxin after treatment with 6.25 or 12.5 mumol of selenium were not significantly lower than in those given endotoxin alone. These facts suggest that selenium does not prevent endotoxin hepatotoxicity. PMID:7987065

Shibayama, Y; Urano, T; Asaka, S; Nakata, K

1994-07-01

201

Endotoxins in cotton: washing effects and size distribution  

SciTech Connect

Endotoxin contamination was measured in washed and unwashed cottons from three distinct growing areas, California, Mississippi, and Texas. The data show differences in endotoxin contamination based upon the geographic source of the cotton. It is also shown that washing bulk cotton before the carding process results in lower endotoxin in the cotton dust. Washing conditions can affect the endotoxin levels, and all size fractions of the airborne dust contain quantifiable endotoxin contamination. Endotoxin analyses provide a simple and reliable method for monitoring the cleanliness of cotton or airborne cotton dusts.

Olenchock, S.A.; Mull, J.C.; Jones, W.G.

1983-01-01

202

Plasma concentrations of endotoxin and platelet activation in the developmental stage of oligofructose-induced laminitis.  

PubMed

The link between the fermentation of carbohydrate in the equine large intestine and the development of acute laminitis is poorly understood. Absorption of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) into the plasma has been observed in one experimental model of laminitis, but does not cause laminitis when administered alone. Thus, the potential role of endotoxin is unclear. Platelet activation has previously been demonstrated in the developmental stage of laminitis. Equine platelets are more sensitive than leukocytes to activation by endotoxin, and can be activated directly by LPS in the low pg/ml range, activating p38 MAP kinase and releasing serotonin (5-HT) and thromboxane. The objectives of this study were firstly to determine whether endotoxin and platelet activation could be measured in the plasma of horses in the developmental phase of laminitis induced with oligofructose. Secondly, the time course of events involving platelet activation and platelet-derived vasoactive mediator production was investigated. Laminitis was induced in six Standardbred horses by the administration of 10 g/kg bwt of oligofructose. Plasma samples were obtained every 4h, and platelet pellets were obtained by centrifugation. LPS was measured using a kinetic limulus amebocyte lysate assay, and platelet activation was assessed by Western blotting for the phosphorylated form of p38 MAP kinase. Plasma 5-HT was assayed by HPLC with electrochemical detection and thromboxane B(2) was measured by radioimmunoassay. Clinical signs of laminitis and histopathologic changes were observed in lamellar sections from five of the six horses. Onset of lameness was between 20 and 30 h after the administration of oligofructose. LPS increased above the limit of detection (0.6 pg/ml) to reach a peak of 2.4+/-1.0 pg/ml at 8 h. TNFalpha was also detectable in the plasma from 12 to 24 h. There was a time-dependent increase in platelet p38 MAPK phosphorylation, which peaked at approximately 12 h (3.8+/-1.3 fold increase); plasma 5-HT and thromboxane increased steadily after this time (2.9+/-0.6 and 11.3+/-5.0 fold increases, respectively). These data indicate that small quantities of endotoxin may move into the circulation from the large intestine after the sharp decrease in pH that occurs as a result of carbohydrate fermentation. Correlating these findings with in vitro studies suggests that LPS may primarily activate platelets, leading indirectly to the activation of leukocytes. Therefore, endotoxin may contribute in the initiation of the early inflammatory changes observed in experimental models of acute laminitis. PMID:19091426

Bailey, S R; Adair, H S; Reinemeyer, C R; Morgan, S J; Brooks, A C; Longhofer, S L; Elliott, J

2009-06-15

203

Possible mechanism for preterm labor associated with bacterial infection. I. Stimulation of phosphoinositide metabolism by endotoxin in endometrial fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect

Growing evidence suggests an association between intra-amniotic infection and premature initiation of parturition. We recently demonstrated that some factor(s) including endotoxin produced by the organism stimulates endogenous phospholipase A2 resulting in liberation of arachidonic acid and prostaglandin formation. The studies presented in this report were designated to evaluate the mechanism for endotoxin to stimulate phospholipase A2 using human endometrial fibroblasts. Exposure of the fibroblasts to endotoxin from Escherichia coli in the presence of ({sup 32}P) phosphate increased {sup 32}P-labeling of phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidyl-inositol (PI) in a dose-dependent and a time-dependent manners. The PA labeling occurred without a measurable lag time. These findings demonstrate that the endotoxin stimulates phosphoinositide metabolism in human endometrial fibroblasts by a receptor-mediated mechanism. Membrane phosphoinositide turnover stimulated by endotoxin results in cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} increment, liberation of arachidonic acid, which may be involved in the initiation of parturition.

Khan, A.A.; Imai, A.; Tamaya, T. (Gifu Univ. School of Medicine (Japan))

1990-07-01

204

Endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor challenges in dogs simulate the cardiovascular profile of human septic shock  

PubMed Central

Survivors of both human and animal bacterial shock develop a characteristic pattern of progressive changes in cardiovascular function over a period of 7-10 d. In this present study, we examined whether endotoxin (a product of Gram-negative bacteria) or TNF (a cytokine released from macrophages) could reproduce the same complex cardiovascular changes observed in septic shock over a period of 7-10 d. To test this hypothesis, we implanted a thrombin-fibrin clot containing purified endotoxin from E. coli into the peritoneal cavity of eight dogs, and infused TNF into eight different dogs. Over the next 10 d, serial simultaneous heart scans and thermodilution cardiac outputs were performed in these awake nonsedated animals. By day 2 after challenge with either endotoxin or TNF, animals developed a decrease (p less than 0.05) in both mean arterial pressure and left ventricular ejection fraction. With fluid resuscitation, animals manifested left ventricular dilatation (increased [p less than 0.05] end diastolic volume index), increased or normal cardiac index, and decreased or normal systemic vascular resistance index. In surviving animals, these changes returned to normal with 7-10 d. The time course of these changes was concordant (p less than 0.05) with that previously described in a canine model of septic shock using viable bacteria. During the 10-d study, control animals receiving sterile clots or heat- inactivated TNF had not significant changes in hemodynamics. The results from this canine model demonstrate that either endotoxin or TNF alone can produce many of the same hemodynamic abnormalities seen in human septic shock and in a canine septic shock model induced by live bacteria. These findings support the hypothesis that the action of endogenous mediators (TNF) responding to bacterial products (endotoxin) is the common pathway that produces the serial cardiovascular changes found in septic shock. PMID:2647895

1989-01-01

205

Altered Toll-like Receptor 2-mediated Endotoxin Tolerance Is Related to Diminished Interferon ? Production  

PubMed Central

Induction of endotoxin tolerance leads to a reduced inflammatory response after repeated challenge by LPS and is important for resolution of inflammation and prevention of tissue damage. Enterobacterial LPS is recognized by the TLR4 signaling complex, whereas LPS of some non-enterobacterial organisms is capable of signaling independently of TLR4 utilizing TLR2-mediated signal transduction instead. In this study we report that Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS, a TLR2 agonist, fails to induce a fully endotoxin tolerant state in a human monocytic cell line (THP-1) and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. In contrast to significantly decreased production of human IL-8 and TNF-? and, in mice, keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), and TNF-? after repeated challenge with Escherichia coli LPS, cells repeatedly exposed to P. gingivalis LPS responded by producing less TNF-? but sustained elevated secretion of IL-8, KC, and MIP-2. Furthermore, in endotoxin-tolerant cells, production of IL-8 is controlled at the signaling level and correlates well with NF-?B activation, whereas TNF-? expression is blocked at the gene transcription level. Interferon ? plays an important role in attenuation of chemokine expression in endotoxin-tolerized cells as shown in interferon regulatory factor-3 knock-out mice. In addition, human gingival fibroblasts, commonly known not to display LPS tolerance, were found to be tolerant to repeated challenge by LPS if pretreated with interferon ?. The data suggest that the inability of the LPS-TLR2 complex to induce full endotoxin tolerance in monocytes/macrophages is related to diminished production of interferon ? and may partly explain the involvement of these LPS isoforms in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:21705332

Zaric, Svetislav S.; Coulter, Wilson A.; Shelburne, Charles E.; Fulton, Catherine R.; Zaric, Marija S.; Scott, Aaron; Lappin, Mark J.; Fitzgerald, Denise C.; Irwin, Christopher R.; Taggart, Clifford C.

2011-01-01

206

Electrophoretic analysis of endotoxin-activated gelation reaction of Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda amoebocyte lysate.  

PubMed

Electrophoretic analysis of a 60 min reaction between E. coli endotoxin and the amoebocyte lysate showed that the coagulation reaction was complete by 15 min, with the conversion of coagulogen (21 kDa) to coagulin (17 kDa). Coincident with this observation was the maximal activities at 15 min, of Factor C and proclotting enzyme. On agitation of the coagulin gel clots, bioactive endotoxin was recovered. Densitometric scan of the electrophoretically-resolved proteins showed that the sum of coagulogen and coagulin remained almost constant at various time intervals of the coagulation reaction. Electrophoresis serves as a convincing and visually discernible method of studying the kinetics of coagulation, and defining the onset and completion of gelation. Furthermore, it is a useful means of examining the integrity of fresh lysate preparations based on the presence or absence of the 17 kDa coagulin band. PMID:8490576

Ho, B; Kim, J C; Ding, J L

1993-03-01

207

INCREASED RESISTANCE TO INFECTION AND ACCOMPANYING ALTERATION IN PROPERDIN LEVELS FOLLOWING ADMINISTRATION OF BACTERIAL LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that injection of lipopolysaccharides, derived from a variety of Gram-negative bacterial species, evokes in mice a rapidly developing rise in resistance to infection with Gram-negative pathogens. This is accompanied by an elevation in properdin titer, at times to levels 2 to 3 times the normal. The rate, magnitude, and duration of these responses are dependent on many factors, the most important of which are the quantity and timing of the lipopolysaccharide administered. The increased resistance to infection evoked in mice by lipopolysaccharides was effective against infections produced by endotoxin-bearing organisms-bacterial species highly susceptible in vitro to the bactericidal action of the properdin system. Properdin titers of mice prior to infection provide an incomplete picture of the subsequent reaction of the host to the infective agent. Following infection with Gram-negative organisms, properdin levels accurately reflect the bacteriologic course and outcome of the infection. Thus, in control animals, properdin titers progressively declined and the animals died, while in mice appropriately treated with lipopolysaccharide, properdin levels were either maintained in the normal range or increased, depending on the dose and time of administration of lipopolysaccharide; this was always accompanied by successful management of the infection. The complex nature of the alterations produced in the host by lipopolysaccharides is stressed. It is pointed out that the increase in the ability of the host to cope with Gram-negative infections may be the result of stimulation of other defense mechanisms, in addition to the properdin system. PMID:13357692

Landy, Maurice; Pillemer, Louis

1956-01-01

208

Lipopolysaccharides Modulate Allergen-Specific Immune Regulation in a Murine Model of Mucosal Tolerance Induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Farming has been widely reported to be associated with decreased risk of developing atopic disorders, but underlying immunomodulatory mechanisms are still not fully defined. We delineated T-cell functions after induction of mucosal tolerance in the context of intranasally delivered organic dust compounds, lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Methods: BALB\\/c mice were pretreated intranasally with ovalbumin (OVA) with or without LPS (Escherichia coli)

Kerstin Gerhold; Angela Avagyan; Eva Reichert; Katharina Blümchen; Ulrich Wahn; Eckard Hamelmann

2008-01-01

209

Mammalian Nitrate Biosynthesis: Incorporation of 15NH3 into Nitrate is Enhanced by Endotoxin Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incorporation of an oral dose of [15N]ammonium acetate into urinary [15N]nitrate has been demonstrated in the rat. Investigation of the regulation of nitrate synthesis has shown that Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide potently stimulates urinary nitrate excretion (9-fold increase). It was further shown that the enhanced rate of nitrate excretion by lipopolysaccharide was due not to a reduction in nitrate metabolic loss but rather to an increased rate of synthesis. This conclusion was based on finding a proportionally increased incorporation of [15N]ammonium into nitrate nitrogen with lipopolysaccharide treatment. Nitrate biosynthesis was also increased by intraperitoneal injection of carrageenan and subcutaneous injection of turpentine. It is proposed that the pathway of nitrate biosynthesis may be the result of oxidation of reduced nitrogen compounds by oxygen radicals generated by an activated reticuloendothelial system.

Wagner, David A.; Young, Vernon R.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.

1983-07-01

210

Original article Local and systemic effects of endotoxin mastitis  

E-print Network

Original article Local and systemic effects of endotoxin mastitis on the chemiluminescence of milk). The decreased CL activity of blood PMN and the enhanced CL activity of milk PMN during endotoxin-induced mas of the CL curve suggests that the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2O2 system is impaired during endotoxin

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

211

Original article The effect of endotoxin-contaminated medium  

E-print Network

Original article The effect of endotoxin-contaminated medium on in vitro fertilization of the content of endotoxin. The proportion of penetrated ova was significantly greater (P > 0.0005) for the endotoxin-contaminated group (89%) versus the non-contaminated group (61!°), but this was probably not due

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

212

EEnnddooTTrraapp 55//11 Endotoxin removal system  

E-print Network

profos EEnnddooTTrraapp®® 55//11 Endotoxin removal system Introduction EndoTrap is a brand new affinity matrix for the efficient removal of bacterial endotoxins from solutions. EndoTrap can be employed both in batch or chromatography mode. EndoTrap has been developed for the removal of endotoxins from

Lebendiker, Mario

213

Comparison of anti-endotoxin activity of apoE and apoA mimetic derivatives of a model amphipathic peptide 18A.  

PubMed

Endotoxemia is a major cause of chronic inflammation, and is an important pathogenic factor in the development of metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) and apoA-I are protein components of high-density lipoprotein, which have strong anti-endotoxin activity. Here, we compared anti-endotoxin activity of Ac-hE18A-NH2 and 4F peptides, modified from model amphipathic helical 18A peptide, to mimic, respectively, apoE and apoA-I properties. Ac-hE18A-NH2, stronger than 4F, inhibited endotoxin activity and disaggregated Escherichia coli 055:B5 (wild smooth serotype). Ac-hE18A-NH2 and 4F inhibited endotoxin activity of E. coli 026:B6 (rough-like serotype) to a similar degree. This suggests that Ac-hE18A-NH2 as a dual-domain molecule might interact with both the lipid A and headgroup of smooth LPS, whereas 4F binds lipid A. In C57BL/6 mice, Ac-hE18A-NH2 was superior to 4F in inhibiting the inflammatory responses mediated by E. coli 055:B5, but not E. coli 026:B6. However, in THP-1 cells, isolated human primary leukocytes, and whole human blood, Ac-hE18A-NH2 reduced responses more strongly than 4F to both E. coli serotypes either when peptides were pre-incubated or co-incubated with LPS, indicating that Ac-hE18A-NH2 also has strong anti-inflammatory effects independent of endotoxin-neutralizing properties. In conclusion, Ac-hE18A-NH2 is more effective than 4F in inhibiting LPS-mediated inflammation, which opens prospective clinical applications for Ac-hE18A-NH2. PMID:24323453

Sharifov, Oleg F; Nayyar, Gaurav; Ternovoy, Vladimir V; Palgunachari, Mayakonda N; Garber, David W; Anantharamaiah, Gm; Gupta, Himanshu

2014-11-01

214

Citric acid effects on brain and liver oxidative stress in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice.  

PubMed

Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in the greatest amounts in citrus fruits. This study examined the effect of citric acid on endotoxin-induced oxidative stress of the brain and liver. Mice were challenged with a single intraperitoneal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 200 ?g/kg). Citric acid was given orally at 1, 2, or 4?g/kg at time of endotoxin injection and mice were euthanized 4?h later. LPS induced oxidative stress in the brain and liver tissue, resulting in marked increase in lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA]) and nitrite, while significantly decreasing reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) showed a pronounced increase in brain tissue after endotoxin injection. The administration of citric acid (1-2?g/kg) attenuated LPS-induced elevations in brain MDA, nitrite, TNF-?, GPx, and PON1 activity. In the liver, nitrite was decreased by 1?g/kg citric acid. GPx activity was increased, while PON1 activity was decreased by citric acid. The LPS-induced liver injury, DNA fragmentation, serum transaminase elevations, caspase-3, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression were attenuated by 1-2?g/kg citric acid. DNA fragmentation, however, increased after 4?g/kg citric acid. Thus in this model of systemic inflammation, citric acid (1-2?g/kg) decreased brain lipid peroxidation and inflammation, liver damage, and DNA fragmentation. PMID:24433072

Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Youness, Eman R; Mohammed, Nadia A; Morsy, Safaa M Youssef; Omara, Enayat A; Sleem, Amany A

2014-05-01

215

Preventive Effects of Ethyl Pyruvate on Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Recent studies indicate that ethyl pyruvate (EP) exerts anti-inflammatory properties; however, the effect of EP on ocular inflammation is not known. The efficacy of EP in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats was investigated. Methods. EIU in Lewis rats was developed by the subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 ?g). EP (30 mg/kg body weight) or its carrier was injected intraperitoneally 1 hour before or 2 hours after lipopolysaccharide injection. Animals were killed after 3 and 24 hours followed by enucleation of eyes and collection of the aqueous humor (AqH). The number of infiltrating cells and levels of proteins in the AqH were determined. The rat cytokine/chemokine multiplex method was used to determine level of cytokines and chemokines in the AqH. TNF-? and phospho-nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) expression in ocular tissues were determined immunohistochemically. Human primary nonpigmented ciliary epithelial cells (HNPECs) were used to determine the in vitro efficacy of EP on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response. Results. Compared to controls, AqH from the EIU rat eyes had a significantly higher number of infiltrating cells, total protein, and inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, and the treatment of EP prevented EIU-induced increases. In addition, EP also prevented the expression of TNF-? and activation of NF-?B in the ciliary bodies and retina of the eye. Moreover, in HNPECs, EP inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-?B and expression of Cox-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and TNF-?. Conclusions. Our results indicate that EP prevents ocular inflammation in EIU, suggesting that the supplementation of EP could be a novel approach for the treatment of ocular inflammation, specifically uveitis. PMID:21551413

Kalariya, Nilesh M.; Reddy, Aramati B. M.; Ansari, Naseem H.; VanKuijk, Frederik J. G. M.

2011-01-01

216

Lymphoid procoagulant response to bacterial endotoxin in the rat.  

PubMed Central

A number of species respond to bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) wherein cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage are rapidly induced either directly or via T-cell collaboration to initiate the extrinsic coagulation protease pathway. This results in fibrin formation and deposition as well as consumption of plasma coagulation proteins. It has been claimed that this cellular response, basic to the Shwartzman reaction, is lacking in rats and may account for the more limited severity of the Shwartzman reaction in this species. We examined the in vitro lymphoid procoagulant response in Fischer 344, Brown Norway, and Lewis rats. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM) were stimulated in vitro with LPS, a procoagulant activity (PCA) response was observed when assayed by acceleration of clotting of recalcified human or rat platelet-poor plasma. The response was rapid, with a maximum achieved at 4 h. PCA was not physically dissociated from viable PBM by 5 mM EDTA, which is consistent with the presence of an intrinsic plasma membrane initiator molecule rather than calcium-bound gamma-carboxylated glutamic acid-containing proteases. The induction of monocyte PCA was prevented by incubation of cells with cycloheximide or actinomycin D, implicating a new biosynthetic requirement. Cultivation of PBM with warfarin did not diminish the function of the effector PCA, nor did vitamin K augment the function of the endotoxin-induced PCA, indicating that the functional activity was not attributable to gamma-carboxylated glutamic acid-containing proteins. No inhibition of the cellular PCA molecule was produced by serine protease inhibitors. The LPS-induced PCA appeared to involve a tissue factor-like molecule since both factors X and VII were required in mediating PCA. Isolation of monocytes and T lymphocytes from LPS-stimulated PBM demonstrated that PCA was present in the monocyte-rich fraction. When isolated rat T lymphocytes and monocytes were separately exposed to LPS, PCA was not induced. In contrast, when the cells were combined, LPS induced PCA, indicating that the PCA response involved cellular collaboration between cells present in T lymphocyte and monocyte populations. PMID:3840772

Lando, P A; Edgington, T S

1985-01-01

217

Endotoxin-free purification for the isolation of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus E2 protein from insoluble inclusion body aggregates  

PubMed Central

Background Protein expression in Escherichia coli may result in the recombinant protein being expressed as insoluble inclusion bodies. In addition, proteins purified from E. coli contain endotoxins which need to be removed for in vivo applications. The structural protein, E2, from Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) is a major immunogenic determinant, and is an ideal candidate as a subunit vaccine. The E2 protein contains 17 cysteine residues creating difficulties in E. coli expression. In this report we outline a procedure for successfully producing soluble and endotoxin-free BVDV E2 protein from inclusion bodies (IB). Results The expression of a truncated form of BVDV-E2 protein (E2-T1) in E. coli resulted in predominantly aggregated insoluble IB. Solubilisation of E2-T1 with high purity and stability from IB aggregates was achieved using a strong reducing buffer containing 100 mM Dithiothreitol. Refolding by dialysis into 50 mM Tris (pH 7.0) containing 0.2% Igepal CA630 resulted in a soluble but aggregated protein solution. The novel application of a two-phase extraction of inclusion body preparations with Triton X-114 reduced endotoxin in solubilised E2-T1 to levels suitable for in vivo use without affecting protein yields. Dynamic light scattering analyses showed 37.5% of the protein was monomeric, the remaining comprised of soluble aggregates. Mice immunised with E2-T1 developed a high titre antibody response by ELISA. Western hybridisation analysis showed E2-T1 was recognised by sera from immunised mice and also by several BVDV-E2 polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Conclusion We have developed a procedure using E. coli to produce soluble E2-T1 protein from IB, and due to their insoluble nature we utilised a novel approach using Triton X-114 to efficiently remove endotoxin. The resultant protein is immunogenic and detectable by BVDV-E2 specific antibodies indicating its usefulness for diagnostic applications and as a subunit vaccine. The optimised E. coli expression system for E2-T1 combined with methodologies for solubilisation, refolding and integrated endotoxin removal presented in this study should prove useful for other vaccine applications. PMID:21787435

2011-01-01

218

Biosynthesis of the Polymannose Lipopolysaccharide O-antigens from Escherichia coli Serotypes O8 and O9a Requires a Unique Combination of Single- and Multiple-active Site Mannosyltransferases*  

PubMed Central

The Escherichia coli O9a and O8 O-antigen serotypes represent model systems for the ABC transporter-dependent synthesis of bacterial polysaccharides. The O9a and O8 antigens are linear mannose homopolymers containing conserved reducing termini (the primer-adaptor), a serotype-specific repeat unit domain, and a terminator. Synthesis of these glycans occurs on the polyisoprenoid lipid-linked primer, undecaprenol pyrophosphoryl-GlcpNAc, by two conserved mannosyltransferases, WbdC and WbdB, and a serotype-specific mannosyltransferase, WbdA. The glycan structure and pattern of conservation in the O9a and O8 mannosyltransferases are not consistent with the existing model of O9a biosynthesis. Here we establish a revised pathway using a combination of in vivo (mutant complementation) experiments and in vitro strategies with purified enzymes and synthetic acceptors. WbdC and WbdB synthesize the adaptor region, where they transfer one and two ?-(1?3)-linked mannose residues, respectively. The WbdA enzymes are solely responsible for forming the repeat unit domains of these O-antigens. WbdAO9a has two predicted active sites and polymerizes a tetrasaccharide repeat unit containing two ?-(1?3)- and two ?-(1?2)-linked mannopyranose residues. In contrast, WbdAO8 polymerizes trisaccharide repeat units containing single ?-(1?3)-, ?-(1?2)-, and ?-(1?2)-mannopyranoses. These studies illustrate assembly systems exploiting several mannosyltransferases with flexible active sites, arranged in single- and multiple-domain formats. PMID:22875852

Greenfield, Laura K.; Richards, Michele R.; Li, Jianjun; Wakarchuk, Warren W.; Lowary, Todd L.; Whitfield, Chris

2012-01-01

219

Longitudinal study of dust and airborne endotoxin in the home.  

PubMed

To characterize the seasonal variability of endotoxin levels, we measured endotoxin in dust from the bed, bedroom floor, and kitchen floor in 20 homes, and in air from the bedroom in 15 of the homes. All homes were located in the greater Boston, Massachusetts, area and were sampled each month from April 1995 to June 1996. Outdoor air was collected at two locations. We found greater within-home than between-home variance for bedroom floor, kitchen floor, and airborne endotoxin. However, the reverse was true for bed dust endotoxin. Thus, studies using single measurements of dust endotoxin are most likely to reliably distinguish between homes if bed dust is sampled. Dust endotoxin levels were not significantly associated with airborne endotoxin. Airborne endotoxin was significantly (p = 0. 04) and positively associated with absolute humidity in a mixed-effect model adjusting for a random home effect and fixed effect of sampling month and home characteristics. This finding implies that indoor humidity may be an important factor controlling endotoxin exposure. We found a significant (p < 0.05) seasonal effect in kitchen floor dust (spring > fall) and bedroom airborne endotoxin (spring > winter), but not in the other indoor samples. We found significant seasonal pattern in outdoor airborne endotoxin (summer > winter). PMID:11102291

Park, J H; Spiegelman, D L; Burge, H A; Gold, D R; Chew, G L; Milton, D K

2000-11-01

220

Longitudinal study of dust and airborne endotoxin in the home.  

PubMed Central

To characterize the seasonal variability of endotoxin levels, we measured endotoxin in dust from the bed, bedroom floor, and kitchen floor in 20 homes, and in air from the bedroom in 15 of the homes. All homes were located in the greater Boston, Massachusetts, area and were sampled each month from April 1995 to June 1996. Outdoor air was collected at two locations. We found greater within-home than between-home variance for bedroom floor, kitchen floor, and airborne endotoxin. However, the reverse was true for bed dust endotoxin. Thus, studies using single measurements of dust endotoxin are most likely to reliably distinguish between homes if bed dust is sampled. Dust endotoxin levels were not significantly associated with airborne endotoxin. Airborne endotoxin was significantly (p = 0. 04) and positively associated with absolute humidity in a mixed-effect model adjusting for a random home effect and fixed effect of sampling month and home characteristics. This finding implies that indoor humidity may be an important factor controlling endotoxin exposure. We found a significant (p < 0.05) seasonal effect in kitchen floor dust (spring > fall) and bedroom airborne endotoxin (spring > winter), but not in the other indoor samples. We found significant seasonal pattern in outdoor airborne endotoxin (summer > winter). PMID:11102291

Park, J H; Spiegelman, D L; Burge, H A; Gold, D R; Chew, G L; Milton, D K

2000-01-01

221

Sirt1 Deletion Leads to Enhanced Inflammation and Aggravates Endotoxin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury  

PubMed Central

Bacterial endotoxin has been known to induce excessive inflammatory responses and acute kidney injury. In the present study, we used a mouse model of endotoxemia to investigate the role of Sirt1 in inflammatory kidney injury. We examined molecular and cellular responses in inducible Sirt1 knockout (Sirt1?/?) mice and wild type littermates (Sirt1+/+) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced kidney injury. Our studies demonstrated that Sirt1 deletion caused aggravated kidney injury, which was associated with increased inflammatory responses including elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and increased ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. Inflammatory signaling such as STAT3/ERK phosphorylation and NF-?B activation was markedly elevated in kidney tissues of Sirt1 knockout mice after LPS challenge. The results indicate that Sirt1 is protective against LPS-induced acute kidney injury by suppressing kidney inflammation and down-regulating inflammatory signaling. PMID:24896770

Gao, Rong; Chen, Jiao; Hu, Yuxin; Li, Zhenyu; Wang, Shuxia; Shetty, Sreerama; Fu, Jian

2014-01-01

222

COX-2 mediated induction of endothelium-independent contraction to bradykinin in endotoxin-treated porcine coronary artery.  

PubMed

This study examined the vascular effects of bradykinin in health and vascular inflammation comparing responses of isolated pig coronary arteries in the absence and presence of endotoxins. Bradykinin induced contractions in lipopolysaccharide-treated, but not untreated, arterial rings without endothelium. The B2-receptor antagonist HOE140, but not the B1-receptor inhibitor SSR240612, blocked these endothelium-independent contractions in response to bradykinin. The bradykinin-induced contractions were blocked by indomethacin, celecoxib, and terbogrel but not valeryl salicylate, AH6809, AL 8810, or RO1138452. They were attenuated by N-(p-amylcinnamoyl) anthranilic acid, and by diethyldithiocarbamate plus tiron but not by L-NAME. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed significant upregulations of messenger RNA expressions of B1 receptors, COX-2, and thromboxane A synthase 1 (TBXAS1) following lipopolysaccharide incubation but not of B2 receptors or COX-1. The present data demonstrate that bradykinin induces contractions mediated by the COX-2 pathway in endotoxin-treated pig coronary arteries. These results support differential roles of bradykinin in health and disease. PMID:25192543

More, Amar S; Kim, Hye Min; Zhao, Ru; Khang, Gilson; Hildebrandt, Tobias; Bernlöhr, Christian; Doods, Henri; Lee, Dongwon; Lee, Seung Hee; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Wu, Dongmei

2014-09-01

223

Modification of the chemical composition and structure of the US Reference Standard Endotoxin (RSE) by /sup 60/Co radiation  

SciTech Connect

A highly purified bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preparation was exposed in water to megadoses of ionizing radiation from a /sup 60/Co source. As evidenced by electrophoresis, the radiation treatment progressively degraded the lipopolysaccharide molecules by removing first the O-side chain units and then components of the R-core. Chemical analysis of the irradiated (LPS) preparations showed that, in accord with the structural changes, the most profound effects of ionizing radiation occurred in the hydrophilic oligo/polysaccharide moieties (R-core and O-side chain). Progressively higher doses of radiation degraded the simple sugars in decreasing order of galactose, galactosamine, glucosamine, glucose, and heptose. The R-core component 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate was the most resistant sugar derivative to ionizing radiation. Due to its central position in the LPS aggregates in water, even at comparatively high doses of radiation the hydrophobic lipid A moiety of endotoxin was less affected than the sugar components. Of the fatty acids of lipid A, however, either partial conversion of beta-hydroxymyristic acid into myristic acid or selective loss of the former occurred. The observed structural and chemical changes of LPS are consistent with the effect of active oxygen radicals of radiolysis. In addition, the extensive physicochemical changes explain the altered biological reactivity of radiation-treated endotoxins.

Csako, G.; Tsai, C.M.; Slomiany, B.L.; Herp, A.; Elin, R.J.

1986-03-01

224

The Origin of 8-Amino-3,8-dideoxy-d-manno-octulosonic Acid (Kdo8N) in the Lipopolysaccharide of Shewanella oneidensis*  

PubMed Central

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; endotoxin) is an essential component of the outer monolayer of nearly all Gram-negative bacteria. LPS is composed of a hydrophobic anchor, known as lipid A, an inner core oligosaccharide, and a repeating O-antigen polysaccharide. In nearly all species, the first sugar bridging the hydrophobic lipid A and the polysaccharide domain is 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo), and thus it is critically important for LPS biosynthesis. Modifications to lipid A have been shown to be important for resistance to antimicrobial peptides as well as modulating recognition by the mammalian innate immune system. Therefore, lipid A derivatives have been used for development of vaccine strains and vaccine adjuvants. One derivative that has yet to be studied is 8-amino-3,8-dideoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo8N), which is found exclusively in marine bacteria of the genus Shewanella. Using bioinformatics, a candidate gene cluster for Kdo8N biosynthesis was identified in Shewanella oneidensis. Expression of these genes recombinantly in Escherichia coli resulted in lipid A containing Kdo8N, and in vitro assays confirmed their proposed enzymatic function. Both the in vivo and in vitro data were consistent with direct conversion of Kdo to Kdo8N prior to its incorporation into the Kdo8N-lipid A domain of LPS by a metal-dependent oxidase followed by a glutamate-dependent aminotransferase. To our knowledge, this oxidase is the first enzyme shown to oxidize an alcohol using a metal and molecular oxygen, not NAD(P)+. Creation of an S. oneidensis in-frame deletion strain showed increased sensitivity to the cationic antimicrobial peptide polymyxin as well as bile salts, suggesting a role in outer membrane integrity. PMID:23413030

Gattis, Samuel G.; Chung, Hak Suk; Trent, M. Stephen; Raetz, Christian R. H.

2013-01-01

225

Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in hematopoietic cell transplant patients affecting early recognition of, and response to, endotoxin.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is a life-saving therapy for many malignant and non-malignant bone marrow diseases. Associated morbidities are often due to transplant-related toxicities and infections, exacerbated by regimen-induced immune suppression and systemic incursion of bacterial products. Patients undergoing myeloablative conditioning for HCT become endotoxemic and display blood/plasma changes consistent with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic innate immune activation. Herein, we addressed whether patients scheduled for HCT display differences in recognition/response to LPS ex vivo traceable to specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Two SNPs of LPS binding protein (LBP) were associated with changes in plasma LBP levels, with one LBP SNP also associating with differences in efficiency of extraction and transfer of endotoxin to myeloid differentiation factor-2 (MD-2), a step needed for activation of TLR4. None of the examined SNPs of CD14, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), TLR4 or MD-2 were associated with corresponding protein plasma levels or endotoxin delivery to MD-2, but CD14 and BPI SNPs significantly associated with differences in LPS-induced TNF-? release ex vivo and infection frequency, respectively. These findings suggest that specific LBP, CD14 and BPI SNPs might be contributory assessments in studies where clinical outcome may be affected by host response to endotoxin and bacterial infection. PMID:24107515

Guinan, Eva C; Palmer, Christine D; Mancuso, Christy J; Brennan, Lisa; Stoler-Barak, Liat; Kalish, Leslie A; Suter, Eugenie E; Gallington, Leighanne C; Huhtelin, David P; Mansilla, Maria; Schumann, Ralf R; Murray, Jeffrey C; Weiss, Jerrold; Levy, Ofer

2014-10-01

226

The Effect of Taurine on the Relationship Between NO, ADMA and Homocysteine in Endotoxin-Mediated Inflammation in HUVEC Cultures.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of taurine on the relationship between nitric oxide (NO), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and homocysteine (Hcy) in endotoxin-induced human umblical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) cultures. For this reason, four groups were formed (n?=?12). Control group consists of HUVEC cultures without any treatment. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS?+?taurine groups were treated with 10 ?g/mL endotoxin, 5 ?g/mL taurine and endotoxin?+?taurine (same doses), respectively. Nitrite/nitrate (NOx), ADMA and Hcy levels were measured. There was a significant increase of NOx, ADMA and Hcy in endotoxemia (p?

Pasaoglu, Ozge Tugce; Turkozkan, Nurten; Ark, Mustafa; Polat, Belgin; Agilli, Mehmet; Yaman, Halil

2014-10-01

227

Solution NMR studies provide structural basis for endotoxin pattern recognition by the innate immune receptor CD14  

SciTech Connect

CD14 functions as a key pattern recognition receptor for a diverse array of Gram-negative and Gram-positive cell-wall components in the host innate immune response by binding to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) at partially overlapping binding site(s). To determine the potential contribution of CD14 residues in this pattern recognition, we have examined using solution NMR spectroscopy, the binding of three different endotoxin ligands, lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, and a PGN-derived compound, muramyl dipeptide to a {sup 15}N isotopically labeled 152-residue N-terminal fragment of sCD14 expressed in Pichia pastoris. Mapping of NMR spectral changes upon addition of ligands revealed that the pattern of residues affected by binding of each ligand is partially similar and partially different. This first direct structural observation of the ability of specific residue combinations of CD14 to differentially affect endotoxin binding may help explain the broad specificity of CD14 in ligand recognition and provide a structural basis for pattern recognition. Another interesting finding from the observed spectral changes is that the mode of binding may be dynamically modulated and could provide a mechanism for binding endotoxins with structural diversity through a common binding site.

Albright, Seth; Chen Bin; Holbrook, Kristen [Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology Department, University of Tennessee, M407 Walters Life Sciences, 1410 Cumberland Avenue, Knoxville, TN 37996-0840 (United States); Jain, Nitin U. [Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology Department, University of Tennessee, M407 Walters Life Sciences, 1410 Cumberland Avenue, Knoxville, TN 37996-0840 (United States)], E-mail: njain@utk.edu

2008-04-04

228

Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress by capsaicin.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of capsaicin (the active principle of hot red pepper and a sensory excitotoxin) on oxidative stress after systemic administration of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (100 ?g/kg, i.p.) in rats. Capsaicin (15, 150 or 1,500 ?g/kg; 10, 100 or 400 ?g/mL) was given via intragastric (i.g.) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes at time of endotoxin administration. Rats were killed 4 h later. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured in brain, liver, and lungs. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), nitric oxide, and glucose were measured in serum. In addition, histopathological examination of liver tissue was performed. In LPS-treated rats, hepatic GSH increased significantly by 40.8% after i.p. capsaicin at 1,500 ?g/kg. Liver MDA increased significantly by 32.9% after the administration of i.g. capsaicin at 1,500 ?g/kg and by 27.8 and 37.6% after the administration of i.p. capsaicin at 150 and 1,500 ?g/kg, respectively. In lung tissue, both MDA and GSH were decreased by capsaicin administration. MDA decreased by 19-20.8% after i.g. capsaicin and by 17.5-23.2% after i.p. capsaicin (150-1,500 ?g/kg), respectively. GSH decreased by 39.3-64.3% and by 35.7-41.1% after i.g. or i.p. capsaicin (150-1,500 ?g/kg), respectively. Brain GSH increased significantly after the highest dose of i.g. or i.p. capsaicin (by 20.6 and 15.9%, respectively). The increase in serum ALT and ALP after endotoxin administration was decreased by oral or i.p. capsaicin. Serum nitric oxide showed marked increase after LPS injection, but was markedly decreased after capsaicin (1,500 ?g/kg, i.p.). Serum glucose increased markedly after the administration of LPS, and was normalized by capsaicin treatment. It is suggested that in the presence of mild systemic inflammation, acute capsaicin administration might alter oxidative status in some tissues and exert an anti-inflammatory effect. Capsaicin exerted protective effects in the liver and lung against the LPS-induced tissue damage. PMID:22127606

Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Abdel-Rahman, Rehab Fawzy; Sleem, Amany A; Farrag, Abdel Razik

2012-08-01

229

Milk Thistle Extract and Silymarin Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide Induced Lamellar Separation of Hoof Explants in Vitro  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of laminitis is not completely identified and the role of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) in this process remains unclear. Phytogenic substances, like milk thistle (MT) and silymarin, are known for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and might therefore have the potential to counteract endotoxin induced effects on the hoof lamellar tissue. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of endotoxins on lamellar tissue integrity and to test if MT and silymarin are capable of inhibiting LPS-induced effects in an in vitro/ex vivo model. In preliminary tests, LPS neutralization efficiency of these phytogenics was determined in an in vitro neutralization assay. Furthermore, tissue explants gained from hooves of slaughter horses were tested for lamellar separation after incubation with different concentrations of LPS. By combined incubation of explants with LPS and either Polymyxin B (PMB; positive control), MT or silymarin, the influence of these substances on LPS-induced effects was assessed. In the in vitro neutralization assay, MT and silymarin reduced LPS concentrations by 64% and 75%, respectively, in comparison PMB reduced 98% of the LPS concentration. In hoof explants, LPS led to a concentration dependent separation. Accordantly, separation force was significantly decreased by 10 µg/mL LPS. PMB, MT and silymarin could significantly improve tissue integrity of explants incubated with 10 µg/mL LPS. This study showed that LPS had a negative influence on the structure of hoof explants in vitro. MT and silymarin reduced endotoxin activity and inhibited LPS-induced effects on the lamellar tissue. Hence, MT and silymarin might be used to support the prevention of laminitis and should be further evaluated for this application. PMID:25290524

Reisinger, Nicole; Schaumberger, Simone; Nagl, Veronika; Hessenberger, Sabine; Schatzmayr, Gerd

2014-01-01

230

Milk thistle extract and silymarin inhibit lipopolysaccharide induced lamellar separation of hoof explants in vitro.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of laminitis is not completely identified and the role of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) in this process remains unclear. Phytogenic substances, like milk thistle (MT) and silymarin, are known for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and might therefore have the potential to counteract endotoxin induced effects on the hoof lamellar tissue. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of endotoxins on lamellar tissue integrity and to test if MT and silymarin are capable of inhibiting LPS-induced effects in an in vitro/ex vivo model. In preliminary tests, LPS neutralization efficiency of these phytogenics was determined in an in vitro neutralization assay. Furthermore, tissue explants gained from hooves of slaughter horses were tested for lamellar separation after incubation with different concentrations of LPS. By combined incubation of explants with LPS and either Polymyxin B (PMB; positive control), MT or silymarin, the influence of these substances on LPS-induced effects was assessed. In the in vitro neutralization assay, MT and silymarin reduced LPS concentrations by 64% and 75%, respectively, in comparison PMB reduced 98% of the LPS concentration. In hoof explants, LPS led to a concentration dependent separation. Accordantly, separation force was significantly decreased by 10 µg/mL LPS. PMB, MT and silymarin could significantly improve tissue integrity of explants incubated with 10 µg/mL LPS. This study showed that LPS had a negative influence on the structure of hoof explants in vitro. MT and silymarin reduced endotoxin activity and inhibited LPS-induced effects on the lamellar tissue. Hence, MT and silymarin might be used to support the prevention of laminitis and should be further evaluated for this application. PMID:25290524

Reisinger, Nicole; Schaumberger, Simone; Nagl, Veronika; Hessenberger, Sabine; Schatzmayr, Gerd

2014-01-01

231

STUDIES ON THE BIOLOGIC RELATIONSHIP OF ENDOTOXIN AND OTHER TOXIC PROTEINS  

PubMed Central

1. Agkistrodon piscivorus venom and E. coli endotoxin were shown to be immunologically distinct, and to differ in certain biologic properties: effects on immune response, body temperature, and circulating leukocyte count, and capacity to prepare for and provoke the local and generalized Shwartzman reaction. 2. Neither a single prior injection of venom nor the existence of hyperimmunity to lethal doses of venom protected rabbits against the local and generalized Shwartzman reaction. 3. Serial intravenous injections of sublethal doses of venom produced enhanced susceptibility to venom rather than refractoriness. 4. Preparation for both the local and generalized Shwartzman reaction with endotoxin appeared to enhance susceptibility of rabbits to challenge with venom. 5. Tolerance to bacterial pyrogens established by repeated injections of endotoxin is paralleled by increased resistance to snake venom given at least 1 week later, in mice and rabbits. 6. Zymosan failed to enhance susceptibility of rabbits to venom, but thorotrast increased the number of late deaths from venom. 7. Exposure of venom to ferrous sulfate interferes with its toxicity. PMID:13880807

Condie, Richard M.; Staab, Edward V.; Good, Robert A.

1962-01-01

232

Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in caprine milk during experimentally induced endotoxin mastitis.  

PubMed

The goal of the current study was to identify proteins in goat milk before and at 18 h following intramammary challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Initial evaluation of protein profiles generated using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis on skim milk samples from a group of 6 goats collected before challenge and at 18, 24, and 48 h after LPS challenge revealed little change in the abundance of casein proteins, and minimal changes in the presence or abundance of the plasma protein serum albumin, which is known to leak into milk during coliform mastitis in dairy cattle. Proteins in baseline milk samples and in milk from the same goats 18 h post-LPS challenge were excised from the gels, and peptides were sequenced using nano-flow liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Despite the overwhelming presence of casein proteins and ?-lactoglobulin, the lower abundance proteins ?-2-microglobulin, fatty acid-binding protein, serum albumin, and retinol-binding protein were detected in skim milk samples from healthy goats. Skim milk samples 18 h postchallenge were characterized by the sustained presence and abundance of the casein proteins, and by the presence of haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, lactoferrin, cathelicidin-1, and cathelicidin-3. No marked differences in the intensity of the spot corresponding to serum albumin were observed in gels of skim milk samples 18 h postchallenge, which could indicate that the breakdown of the blood-milk barrier during endotoxin mastitis may not be as profound in goats as has been observed in dairy cattle. Nonetheless, the occurrence of an inflammatory response was supported by elevated somatic cell counts in the goat milk following inoculation with endotoxin, as well as by the presence of both antimicrobial and acute phase proteins. The results provide information about the composition of proteins in goat milk as well as added knowledge of the host response during endotoxin mastitis in goats. PMID:23498005

Olumee-Shabon, Z; Swain, T; Smith, E A; Tall, E; Boehmer, J L

2013-05-01

233

Analusis by 252Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry of Bordetella pertussis endotoxin after nitrous deamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endotoxic lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are the major components of Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane. Like many amphipathic molecules, they pose problems of heterogeneity, purity, solubility, and aggregation. Nevertheless, PDMS has recently have been applied to unmodified endotoxins composed of LPS having uip to five sugar units in their saccharide chain. The B. Pertussis LPSs, most of which have a dodecasaccharide domain, ahve been analysed by classical methods and the masses of the separate lipid and saccharide domains determined after rupture of the bond linking them. However, the acid treatment employed for these and most chemical analyses can also modify structures in the vicinity of the bond. In order to investigate this biologically-important region, the endotoxin was treated to nitrous deamination, which shortens the saccharide chain to five sugars, but preserves the acid-labile region of the LPS. The PDM spectrum of this derivative, which required new conditions for its desorption, confirmed the structure analysis and demonstrated the presence of at least four molecular species.

Deprun, C.; Karibian, D.; Caroff, M.

1993-07-01

234

Prolonged elevation in hippocampal A? and cognitive deficits following repeated endotoxin exposure in the mouse.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal cell death and atrophy in regions of the adult brain, including the hippocampus and cortex, due to formation of amyloid beta (A?) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The presence of these pathologies can limit normal signaling properties and ultimately lead to learning and memory deficits. Chronic inflammation has been implicated in the onset and progression of these AD-related pathologies. Our study was designed to assess the effects of peripheral inflammation on pathologies associated with AD by using the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). C57BL/6J mice were given intraperitoneal injections of LPS or saline for 1, 3, or 7 consecutive days. Hippocampal tissue from animals receiving LPS contained significantly higher levels of A?1-42, a peptide component of AD plaques, than did those from saline control animals. Central and peripheral pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were increased following a single injection of LPS, but retuned to baseline levels before cognitive testing began. We show that one injection of LPS leads to sickness behavior, but 7 consecutive days does not, indicating tolerance to the endotoxin. Cognitive testing was then conducted to determine if whether deficits from increased A?1-42 was evident. Results from both Morris water maze and contextual fear conditioning revealed cognitive deficits in LPS-treated mice. In summary, multiple injections of LPS resulted in increased A?1-42 in the hippocampus and cognitive deficits in mice. PMID:22249135

Kahn, Marielle S; Kranjac, Dinko; Alonzo, Chris A; Haase, Jennifer H; Cedillos, Rudy O; McLinden, Kristina A; Boehm, Gary W; Chumley, Michael J

2012-04-01

235

Effect of UHMWPE particle size, dose, and endotoxin on in vitro macrophage response.  

PubMed

Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene wear debris generated by a prosthetic hip or knee has been linked to osteolysis and the limited lifespan of the implant. However, research results are conflicting with regard to which characteristics of the polyethylene wear debris are most inflammatory. The goal of this study was to determine whether particle size, number, and the presence of endotoxin significantly contribute to increased secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by macrophages in vitro in response to polyethylene wear debris generated by a hip simulator. The results show that the prevailing inflammatory factor is endotoxin. The macrophages released only minimal levels of TNF-? and IL-6 in response to cleaned polyethylene particles, but these cytokines were released in significantly higher amounts in response to particles spiked with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The number (up to 500 particles per cell) and size of the particles tested in this study had no significant influence on any of the measured outputs (macrophage viability, TNF-?, IL-6, or PGE?) unless associated with LPS. PMID:24941405

Alley, Carie; Haggard, Warren; Smith, Richard

2014-01-01

236

Relation of structure to function for the US reference standard endotoxin after exposure to /sup 60/Co radiation, Interim report, September 1984-December 1985  

SciTech Connect

The structure and function of the highly purified U.S. reference standard endotoxin (RSE) were studied after exposure to ionizing radiation from a /sup 60/Co source. With increasing doses of radiation, the trilaminar ribbon-like structure of untreated endotoxin exhibited focal swelling, after which only spherical particles were seen by electron microscopy. These morphological changes were paralleled by the respective loss of O-side chain-repeating units and pieces of the R-core from the lipopolysaccharide molecules, as demonstrated by electrophoresis. The biologic function of the irradiated endotoxin was assessed with a variety of tests. At higher doses of radiation, a direct relation was observed between the degradation of the molecular and supramolecular structure and the loss of biologic function. At lower doses of radiation, however, there was variability among the functional assays in their rate of change with progressive irradiation of the RSE. The results suggest that the carbohydrate moiety plays an important role both in determining the supramolecular structure and in modulating certain biologic activities of bacterial endotoxins.

Suba, E.A.; Elin, R.J.

1986-01-01

237

Role for circulating lipoproteins in protection from endotoxin toxicity.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS])-induced death can be prevented by preincubating LPS with lipoproteins in vitro or by infusing large quantities of lipids into animals prior to LPS administration. In the present study we determined whether physiological levels of lipids also provide protection. Serum lipid levels were decreased by two different mechanisms: administration of 4-aminopyrolo-(3,4-D)pyrimide, which prevents the hepatic secretion of lipoproteins, and administration of pharmacological doses of estradiol, which increases the number of hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptors, leading to increased lipoprotein clearance. In both hypolipidemic models, LPS-induced mortality is markedly increased compared with that of controls with normal serum lipid levels. In both hypolipidemic models, administration of exogenous lipoproteins, which increase levels of serum lipids into the physiological range, reduces the increased mortality to levels similar to that seen in normal animals. In normal lipidemic animals, 63% of 125I-LPS in plasma is associated with lipoproteins, where it would not be capable of stimulating cytokine production. In contrast, in hypolipidemic animals, very little LPS (12 to 17%) is associated with lipoproteins. Rather, more LPS is in the lipoprotein-free plasma compartment, where it could exert biological effects. In both hypolipidemic models, LPS produces a greater increase in serum tumor necrosis factor levels than it does in controls (three- to fivefold increase), and administration of exogenous lipoproteins prevents this increase. Cytokines, in particular tumor necrosis factor, are responsible for most of the toxic effects of LPS. These data provide evidence that physiological levels of serum lipids protect animals from LPS toxicity. Thus, lipoproteins, in addition to playing a role in lipid transport, may have protective functions. Moreover, as part of the immune response, cytokine-induced increases in serum lipid levels may play a role in host defense by decreasing the toxicities of biological and chemical agents. PMID:7729918

Feingold, K R; Funk, J L; Moser, A H; Shigenaga, J K; Rapp, J H; Grunfeld, C

1995-01-01

238

Antidiabetic Drug Metformin Suppresses Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To investigate the therapeutic effects of metformin, a commonly used antidiabetic drug, in preventing endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats. Methods. EIU in Lewis rats was developed by subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 ?g). Metformin (300 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) or its carrier was injected either 12 hours before or 2 hours after LPS induction. Three and 24 hours after EIU, eyes were enucleated and aqueous humor (AqH) was collected. The MILLIPLEX-MAG Rat cytokine-chemokine magnetic bead array was used to determine inflammatory cytokines. The expression of Cox-2, phosphorylation of AMPK, and NF-?B (p65) were determined immunohistochemically. Primary human nonpigmented ciliary epithelial cells (HNPECs) were used to determine the in vitro efficacy of metformin. Results. Compared with controls, the EIU rat AqH had significantly increased number of infiltrating cells and increased levels of various cytokines and chemokines (TNF-?, MCP-1, IL-1?, MIP-1?, IL-6, Leptin, and IL-18) and metformin significantly prevented the increase. Metformin also prevented the expression of Cox-2 and phosphorylation of p65, and increased the activation of AMPK in the ciliary bodies and retinal tissues. Moreover, metformin prevented the expression of Cox-2, iNOS, and activation of NF-kB in the HNPECs and decreased the levels of NO and PGE2 in cell culture media. Conclusions. Our results for the first time demonstrate a novel role of the antidiabetic drug, metformin, in suppressing uveitis in rats and suggest that this drug could be developed to prevent uveitis complications. PMID:22562515

Kalariya, Nilesh M.; Shoeb, Mohammad; Ansari, Naseem H.; Srivastava, Satish K.; Ramana, Kota V.

2012-01-01

239

Airborne endotoxin in fine particulate matter in Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endotoxin is an important biological component of particulate matter (PM) which, upon inhalation, can induce adverse health effects, and also possibly complicate the diseases in combination with other pollutants. From 1 March 2012 to 27 February 2013 we collected air samples using quartz filters daily for the quantification of airborne endotoxin and also fine PM (PM2.5) in Beijing, China. The geometric means for endotoxin concentration and the fraction of endotoxin in PM were 0.65 EU/m3 (range: 0.10-75.02) and 10.25 EU/mg PM2.5 (range: 0.38-1627.29), respectively. The endotoxin concentrations were shown to vary greatly with seasons, typically with high values in the spring and winter seasons. Temperature and relative humidity, as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were found to be significantly correlated with airborne endotoxin concentrations (p < 0.05). Additionally, positive correlations were also detected between endotoxin concentrations and natural sources of Na+, K+, Mg2+, and F-, while negative correlations were observed between endotoxin concentrations and anthropogenic sources of P, Co, Zn, As, and Tl. Oxidative potential analysis revealed that endotoxin concentrations were positively correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not dithiothreitol (DTT) of PM. This study provided the first continuous time series of airborne endotoxin concentrations in Beijing, and identifies its potential associations with atmospheric factors. The information developed here can assist in the assessment of health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

Guan, Tianjia; Yao, Maosheng; Wang, Junxia; Fang, Yanhua; Hu, Songhe; Wang, Yan; Dutta, Anindita; Yang, Junnan; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Zhu, Tong

2014-11-01

240

Effect of vasopressors on organ blood flow during endotoxin shock in pigs  

SciTech Connect

A volume-resuscitated porcine endotoxin shock model was used to evaluate the effect on organ blood flow of increasing systemic arterial blood pressure with vasopressors. Administration of 0.05-0.2 mg/kg of Escherichia coli endotoxin (E) reduced mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) to 50 mmHg, decreased systemic vascular resistance to 50% of control, and did not change cardiac output or heart rate. Blood flow measured with radiolabeled microspheres to brain, kidney, spleen, and skeletal muscle was reduced during endotoxin shock, but blood flow to left ventricle, small and large intestine, and stomach remained at pre-endotoxin levels throughout the study period. Four groups of animals were used to evaluate the effect of vasopressor therapy. Vasopressors were administered starting 60 min after E exposure, and the dose of each was titrated to increase MAP to 75 mmHg. Despite the increase in MAP, brain blood flow did not increase in any group. Norepinephrine alone increased blood flow to the left ventricle. The dose of norepinephrine required to increase MAP by 20-25 mmHg during E shock was 30 times the does required for a similar increase in MAP in animals not receiving E. The authors conclude 1) that hypotension in the fluid resuscitated porcine E shock model is primarily the result of peripheral vasodilatation, 2) that the vascular response to vasoconstrictors in this model is markedly attenuated following E administration, 3) that blood pressure elevation with norepinephrine, dopamine, and phenylephrine neither decreases blood flow to any organs nor increases blood flow to organs with reduced flow, and 4) that norepinephrine, dopamine, and phenylephrine affect regional blood flow similarly in this model.

Breslow, M.J.; Miller, C.F.; Parker, S.D.; Walman, A.T.; Traystman, R.J.

1987-02-01

241

Downregulation effects of beta-elemene on the levels of plasma endotoxin, serum TNF-alpha, and hepatic CD14 expression in rats with liver fibrosis.  

PubMed

It has been demonstrated that ?-elemene could protect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver fibrosis in our laboratory work, and the aim of this paper is to reveal the protective mechanisms of ?-elemene. The hepatic fibrosis experimental model was induced by the hypodermical injection of CCl(4) in Wistar male rats. ?-elemene was intraperitoneally administered into rats for 8 weeks (0.1 mL/100 g bodyweight per day), and plasma endotoxin content was assayed by biochemistry. The serum TNF-? level was detected using radioactive immunity. CD14 expression in rat livers was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The results showed that ?-elemene can downregulate the levels of plasma endotoxins, serum TNF-?, and hepatic CD14 expression in rats with liver fibrosis. ?-elemene plays an important role in downregulating the lipopolysaccharide signal transduction pathway, a significant pathway in hepatic fibrosis development. PMID:21681682

Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Zhe; Gao, Jiechang; Xie, Jiwen; Yang, Lin; Hu, Shenjun

2011-03-01

242

Visualization and analysis of lipopolysaccharide distribution in binary phospholipid bilayers  

SciTech Connect

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin released from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria during infections. It have been reported that LPS may play a role in the outer membrane of bacteria similar to that of cholesterol in eukaryotic plasma membranes. In this article we compare the effect of introducing LPS or cholesterol in liposomes made of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine on the solubilization process by Triton X-100. The results show that liposomes containing LPS or cholesterol are more resistant to solubilization by Triton X-100 than the binary phospholipid mixtures at 4 {sup o}C. The LPS distribution was analyzed on GUVs of DPPC:DOPC using FITC-LPS. Solid and liquid-crystalline domains were visualized labeling the GUVs with LAURDAN and GP images were acquired using a two-photon microscope. The images show a selective distribution of LPS in gel domains. Our results support the hypothesis that LPS could aggregate and concentrate selectively in biological membranes providing a mechanism to bring together several components of the LPS-sensing machinery.

Henning, Maria Florencia [Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquimicas La Plata (INIBIOLP), CCT-La Plata, CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, UNLP, Calles 60 y 120, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)] [Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquimicas La Plata (INIBIOLP), CCT-La Plata, CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, UNLP, Calles 60 y 120, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Sanchez, Susana [Laboratory for Fluorescence Dynamics, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States)] [Laboratory for Fluorescence Dynamics, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States); Bakas, Laura, E-mail: lbakas@biol.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquimicas La Plata (INIBIOLP), CCT-La Plata, CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, UNLP, Calles 60 y 120, 1900 La Plata (Argentina) [Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquimicas La Plata (INIBIOLP), CCT-La Plata, CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, UNLP, Calles 60 y 120, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP, Calles 47 y 115, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

2009-05-22

243

Lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins of Limulus amebocyte lysate.  

PubMed Central

Limulus amebocyte lysate, obtained from horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) blood cells, contains a coagulation system which is activated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A chromatographic fraction of Limulus lysate, containing the endotoxin-sensitive factor(s) which initiates the coagulation cascade, was studied. We utilized a photoreactive, cleavable, radiolabeled derivative of Salmonella minnesota LPS, LPS-(p-azidosalicylamido)-1,3'-dithiopropionamide (LPS-ASD), to identify LPS-binding proteins. The lysate fraction was incubated with LPS-ASD, and LPS-binding proteins were identified by autoradiography of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. An 82-kDa protein, a major protein component of this fraction from Limulus lysate, was identified as a LPS-binding protein in a majority of lysates. Incubation of whole Limulus lysate with antiserum to this protein resulted in enhanced sensitivity of the lysate to LPS, suggesting that this 82-kDa protein is a negative regulator of coagulation. A minor 50-kDa protein component of lysate also was identified as a LPS-binding protein and is a candidate for the LPS-sensitive coagulation protein in L. polyphemus. Images PMID:8432586

Roth, R I; Tobias, P S

1993-01-01

244

Glial response to lipopolysaccharide: possible role of endothelins.  

PubMed

Glial inflammation plays a major role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Although endothelins (ETs) are known as modulators of inflammation in the periphery, little is known about their possible role in brain inflammation. Previously, we demonstrated that all three endothelins (ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3) enhanced unstimulated synthesis of the glial pro-inflammatory mediators, prostaglandin E? (PGE?) and nitric oxide (NO). In the present study, glial cells were stimulated in an in vitro model of inflammation by incubation with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Indeed, the present study shows that ETs regulate basal and LPS-induced glial inflammation in an opposite fashion. Here we demonstrate that ETs significantly inhibited the LPS-induced glial synthesis of PGE? and NO, and each of the selective antagonists for ETA and ETB receptors (BQ123 and BQ788 respectively), significantly inhibited the ETs effects in LPS-treated cells. Similar results were observed when expression of key enzymes namely, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in PG and NO synthesis respectively, was measured. ET-1 significantly enhanced the expression of both COX-2 and iNOS. Whereas, it inhibited the LPS-induced expression of both enzymes. These observations suggest a novel neuro-immune feedback pathway through which inflammatory mediators' synthesis is initially enhanced by ETs and are eventually blocked by the same neuropeptide when excessive production of inflammatory mediators occurs following an inflammatory insult. PMID:20863865

Filipovich-Rimon, Talia; Fleisher-Berkovich, Sigal

2010-12-01

245

Human endotoxin administration as an experimental model in drug development.  

PubMed

Linking human physiology to inflammatory mechanisms discovered in vitro or in animal models is essential to determine their importance. Innate immunity underlies many of these inflammatory responses in health and disease. Bacterial endotoxin is the quintessential trigger of innate immune responses. When administered to humans, endotoxin has been an important means of demonstrating key inflammatory mechanisms in vivo. Furthermore, endotoxin challenges have provided opportunities to test the effects of novel inflammation-modifying agents in humans. PMID:25236665

Suffredini, A F; Noveck, R J

2014-10-01

246

Effects of endotoxin on monoamine metabolism in the rat.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Examination of effects of administered endotoxin on catecholamine metabolism in the rat brain, sympathetic neurons, and adrenal medulla. It is found that endotoxin, administered intraperitoneally, lowers the norepinephrine content in peripheral sympathetic neurons and the brain, and the catecholamine content in the adrenal medulla. It also accelerates the disappearance of H3-norepinephrine from all these tissues. It is therefore suggested that the effects of endotoxin on body temperature may be mediated in part by central non-adrenergic neurons.

Pohorecky, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.; Taam, D.; Fine, J.

1972-01-01

247

Predictors of Endotoxin Levels in U.S. Housing  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship of domestic endotoxin exposure to allergy and asthma has been widely investigated. However, few studies have evaluated predictors of household endotoxin, and none have done so for multiple locations within homes and on a national scale. Objectives We assayed 2,552 house dust samples in a nationwide study to understand the predictors of household endotoxin in bedroom floors, family room floors, beds, kitchen floors, and family room sofas. Methods Reservoir house dust from five locations within homes was assayed for endotoxin and demographic and housing information was assessed through questionnaire and onsite evaluation of 2,456 residents of 831 homes selected to represent national demographics. We performed repeated-measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) for 37 candidate variables to identify independent predictors of endotoxin. Meteorologic data were obtained for each primary sampling unit and tested as predictors of indoor endotoxin to determine if wetter or warmer microclimates were associated with higher endotoxin levels. Results Weighted geometric mean endotoxin concentration ranged from 18.7 to 80.5 endotoxin units (EU)/mg for the five sampling locations, and endotoxin load ranged from 4,160 to 19,500 EU/m2. Bivariate analyses and rANOVA demonstrated that major predictors of endotoxin concentration were sampling location in the home, census division, educational attainment, presence of children, current dog ownership, resident-described problems with cockroaches, food debris, cockroach stains, and evidence of smoking observed by field staff. Low household income entered the model if educational attainment was removed. Conclusion Increased endotoxin in household reservoir dust is principally associated with poverty, people, pets, household cleanliness, and geography. PMID:19479019

Thorne, Peter S.; Cohn, Richard D.; Mav, Deepak; Arbes, Samuel J.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

2009-01-01

248

Infusion of freshly isolated autologous bone marrow derived mononuclear cells prevents endotoxin-induced lung injury in an ex-vivo perfused swine model  

PubMed Central

Introduction The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), affects up to 150,000 patients per year in the United States. We and other groups have demonstrated that bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal stem cells prevent ARDS induced by systemic and local administration of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) in mice. Methods A study was undertaken to determine the effects of the diverse populations of bone marrow derived cells on the pathophysiology of ARDS, using a unique ex-vivo swine preparation, in which only the ventilated lung and the liver are perfused with autologous blood. Six experimental groups were designated as: 1) endotoxin alone, 2) endotoxin + total fresh whole bone marrow nuclear cells (BMC), 3) endotoxin + non-hematopoietic bone marrow cells (CD45 neg), 4) endotoxin + hematopoietic bone marrow cells (CD45 positive), 5) endotoxin + buffy coat and 6) endotoxin + in vitro expanded swine CD45 negative adherent allogeneic bone marrow cells (cultured CD45neg). We measured at different levels the biological consequences of the infusion of the different subsets of cells. The measured parameters were: pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), gas exchange (PO2), lung edema (lung wet/dry weight), gene expression and serum concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, TNF-? and IL-6. Results Infusion of freshly purified autologous total BMCs, as well as non-hematopoietic CD45(-) bone marrow cells significantly reduced endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension and hypoxemia and reduced the lung edema. Also, in the groups that received BMCs and cultured CD45neg we observed a decrease in the levels of IL-1? and TNF-? in plasma. Infusion of hematopoietic CD45(+) bone marrow cells or peripheral blood buffy coat cells did not protect against LPS-induced lung injury. Conclusions We conclude that infusion of freshly isolated autologous whole bone marrow cells and the subset of non-hematopoietic cells can suppress the acute humoral and physiologic responses induced by endotoxemia by modulating the inflammatory response, mechanisms that do not involve engraftment or trans-differentiation of the cells. These observations may have important implications for the design of future cell therapies for ARDS. PMID:23497755

2013-01-01

249

In Vitro Attachment of Radioactive Endotoxins to Lysosomes  

PubMed Central

The experiments reported here demonstrate that under certain conditions endotoxin can interact with lysosomes in vitro. After incubation of large granular fraction with 51Cr-labeled antigen under the conditions required for acid hydrolytic activity, radioactivity was associated with the pellet after centrifugation. This effect can be inhibited by preincubation of the large granular fraction with unlabeled homologous or heterologous endotoxins. High resolution autoradiography showed that 14C-labeled endotoxin was predominantly attached to the lysosomes contained in the large granular fraction. The mechanism of this interaction and its relationship to the toxic effect of endotoxins on lysosomes are discussed. Images PMID:4949505

Bona, C.; Chedid, L.; Lamensans, A.

1971-01-01

250

The role of endotoxin and its receptors in allergic disease  

PubMed Central

Objective To summarize the existing literature on the association of endotoxin with respiratory diseases and allergic sensitization and to review the potentially modifying effects of endotoxin receptor polymorphisms. Data Sources English-language articles were identified from the MEDLINE and PubMed databases using combinations of the following search terms: endotoxin, toll-like receptor, polymorphisms, atopy, asthma, and allergy. Other sources included experts in the field and the bibliographies of pertinent articles. Study Selection Relevant articles were selected based on the authors’ expert opinion. Results Cross-sectional studies, particularly those of children raised in rural European communities, suggest that early endotoxin exposure may protect against the development of allergic sensitization and atopic asthma. However, endotoxin exposure may also contribute to other nonatopic respiratory disorders and may exacerbate disease in individuals with preexisting asthma. Paradoxically, among individuals exposed to high levels of endotoxin, carriers of a functional mutation in toll-like receptor 4, which reduces cellular responsiveness to endotoxin, may be at lower risk of developing allergic sensitization. Conclusions The effect of endotoxin exposure on allergic sensitization and asthma appears to be influenced by the timing of exposure, the presence or absence of preexisting disease, and polymorphisms in the genes that encode endotoxin receptors. Further studies are needed to define the window period for this effect, as well as the underlying immunologic mechanism. PMID:15801242

Williams, L. Keoki; Ownby, Dennis R.; Maliarik, Mary J.; Johnson, Christine C.

2005-01-01

251

Fluorescent nanodiamonds as highly stable biomarker for endotoxin verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescent nanodiamonds (ND) provide advantageous properties as a fluorescent biomarker for in vitro and in vivo studies. The maximum fluorescence occurs around 700 nm, they do not show photobleaching or blinking and seem to be nontoxic. After a pretreatment with strong acid fluorescent ND can be functionalized and coupled to endotoxin. Endotoxin is a decay product of bacteria and causes strong immune reactions. Therefore endotoxin has to be removed for most applications. An effective removal procedure is membrane filtration. The endotoxin, coupled to fluorescent ND can be visualized by using confocal microscopy which allows the investigation of the separation mechanisms of the filtration process within the membranes.

Bergmann, Thorsten; Burg, Jan Michael; Lilholt, Maria; Maeder, Ulf; Beer, Sebastian; Salzig, Denise; Ebrahimi, Mehrdad; Czermak, Peter; Fiebich, Martin

2012-03-01

252

Key structures of bacterial peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide triggering the innate immune system of higher animals: Chemical synthesis and functional studies  

PubMed Central

Chemistry-based investigation is reviewed which led to identification of the active entities responsible for the immunostimulating potencies of peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide. Though these glycoconjugates which ubiquitously occur in wide range of bacteria as the essential components of their cell envelopes have long been known to enhance the immunological responses of higher animals, neither the precise chemical structures required nor the mechanism of their action remained to be elucidated until early 1970s. Chemical synthesis of partial structures of peptidoglycan proved N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine to be the minimum structure responsible for the activity and led to later identification of its receptor protein Nod2 present in animal cells. Another active partial structure of peptidoglycan, ?-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid, and its receptor Nod1 were also identified as well. With regard to lipopolysaccharide, its glycolipid part named lipid A was purified and the structure studied. Chemically synthesized lipid A according to the newly elucidated structure exhibited full activity described for lipopolysaccharide known as endotoxin. Synthetic homogeneous lipid A and its structural analogues and labeled derivatives enabled precise studies of their interaction with receptor proteins and the mechanism of their action. Chemical synthesis of homogeneous partial structures of peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide gave unequivocal evidences for the concept that definite small molecular parts of these complex macromolecular bacterial glycoconjugates are specifically recognized by their respective receptors and trigger our defense system now widely recognized as innate immunity. PMID:20431259

Kusumoto, Shoichi; Fukase, Koichi; Shiba, Tetsuo

2010-01-01

253

Airborne Endotoxin Concentrations in Homes Burning Biomass Fuel  

PubMed Central

Background About half of the world’s population is exposed to smoke from burning biomass fuels at home. The high airborne particulate levels in these homes and the health burden of exposure to this smoke are well described. Burning unprocessed biological material such as wood and dried animal dung may also produce high indoor endotoxin concentrations. Objective In this study we measured airborne endotoxin levels in homes burning different biomass fuels. Methods Air sampling was carried out in homes burning wood or dried animal dung in Nepal (n = 31) and wood, charcoal, or crop residues in Malawi (n = 38). Filters were analyzed for endotoxin content expressed as airborne endotoxin concentration and endotoxin per mass of airborne particulate. Results Airborne endotoxin concentrations were high. Averaged over 24 hr in Malawian homes, median concentrations of total inhalable endotoxin were 24 endotoxin units (EU)/m3 in charcoal-burning homes and 40 EU/m3 in wood-burning homes. Short cooking-time samples collected in Nepal produced median values of 43 EU/m3 in wood-burning homes and 365 EU/m3 in dung-burning homes, suggesting increasing endotoxin levels with decreasing energy levels in unprocessed solid fuels. Conclusions Airborne endotoxin concentrations in homes burning biomass fuels are orders of magnitude higher than those found in homes in developed countries where endotoxin exposure has been linked to respiratory illness in children. There is a need for work to identify the determinants of these high concentrations, interventions to reduce exposure, and health studies to examine the effects of these sustained, near-occupational levels of exposure experienced from early life. PMID:20308032

Semple, Sean; Devakumar, Delan; Fullerton, Duncan G.; Thorne, Peter S.; Metwali, Nervana; Costello, Anthony; Gordon, Stephen B.; Manandhar, Dharma S.; Ayres, Jon G.

2010-01-01

254

Acute respiratory response of guinea pigs to lipopolysaccharide, lipid A, and monophosphoryl lipid A from Salmonella minnesota.  

PubMed

Exposure to endotoxin has been associated with systemic toxicity, including pulmonary disorders such as byssinosis, as well as with beneficial biologic activities such as adjuvanticity and mitogenicity. The purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from endotoxin has been employed to investigate structure-activity relationships for various biologic effects. The current study was undertaken to examine the relationship between LPS structure and its ability to cause respiratory toxicity in guinea pigs after inhalation exposure. Animals were exposed to atmospheres containing 0.076 to 2.1 micrograms/m3 Salmonella minnesota LPS (S. minn. LPS), LPS from the mutant S. minn. Re595, S. minn. Re595 lipid A, and monophosphoryl S. minn. Re595 lipid A (S. minn. Re595 MPL). Each of the LPS aerosols caused increased breathing frequency (f), decreased tidal volume (VT), and airflow disturbance when measured 18 h after the 6-h inhalation exposure. The LPS preparations had equivalent toxicity, whereas the lipid A aerosol had slightly reduced toxicity. The MPL preparation did not produce this respiratory toxicity response. The results indicated that absence of the terminal phosphate group from the reducing end of the lipid A disaccharide destroyed its ability to cause the respiratory effect. These results initiate structure-activity studies of defined LPS in the lung and indicate the possibility of chemically treating endotoxins to remove adverse pulmonary effects. PMID:2817607

Ryan, L K; Karol, M H

1989-11-01

255

Expression of a Bacillus thuringiensis ?-endotoxin gene by Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ?-endotoxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis were introduced into a rhizosphere-inhabiting Bacillus pumilus isolate to create a ?-endotoxin expression and delivery system for subterranean feeding insects such as the larvae of pale western cutworm (Agrotis orthogonia Morrison (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)). Preliminary experiments indicated that Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki cultures were toxic to pale western cutworm larvae. Three different cry genes from

L. B. Selinger; G. G. Khachatourians; J. R. Byers; M. F. Hynes

1998-01-01

256

General effect of endotoxin on glucocorticoid receptors in mammalian tissues  

SciTech Connect

Considering the ubiquitous nature of glucocorticoid actions and the fact that endotoxin inhibits glucocorticoid action in the liver, we proposed to examine whether endotoxin affected extrahepatic actions of glucocorticoids. Fasted C57BL/6J mice were injected intraperitoneally with endotoxin (LD50) at 0800 and were killed 6 h later. Control mice were injected with an equal volume of saline. /sup 3/H-dexamethasone binding, measured by a new cytosol exchange assay utilizing molybdate plus dithiothreitol, in liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, spleen, lung, and heart tissue was significantly lower in treated than in control mice. The equilibrium dissociation constants were not significantly different, but the number of available binding sites in each tissue was reduced by endotoxin treatment. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity was significantly reduced in liver but not in kidney. Endotoxin treatment lowered glycogen content in liver but not in skeletal muscle. The reduction observed in the a form of liver glycogen synthase due to endotoxin was not seen in skeletal muscle glycogen synthase a. These data support the proposal that endotoxin or a mediator of its action inhibits systemic glucocorticoid action. The results also emphasize the central role of the liver in the metabolic disturbances of the endotoxin-treated mouse.

Stith, R.D.; McCallum, R.E.

1986-01-01

257

Endotoxin assay by bioluminescence using mutant firefly luciferase.  

PubMed

The Limulus reaction is an application of the defense mechanism of horseshoe crab for endotoxin detection. Endotoxin is a component of the cell wall in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, and causes fever or shock when it enters the human blood stream. For endotoxin detection, gel formation or turbidity of the coagulation factor chromogen or fluorescence-modified peptide is used. However, these conventional methods have problems with regard to their measurement time or sensitivity. We recently obtained a mutant firefly luciferase that has a luminescence intensity over 10-fold higher than that of the wild type. Therefore, we developed a new endotoxin detection method that combines the Limulus reaction and bioluminescence using mutant luciferase. The new method detects 0.0005EU/ml of endotoxin within 15min. PMID:19850001

Noda, Kenichi; Goto, Hitoshi; Murakami, Yuji; Ahmed, Abo Bakr F; Kuroda, Akio

2010-02-15

258

Endotoxin Augments Myeloid Dendritic Cell Influx into the Airways in Patients with Allergic Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Epidemiologic studies have shown that exacerbation of asthma is modulated by environmental endotoxin. High levels of endotoxin are associated with asthma symptoms and the current use of asthma medication. However, the underlying mechanisms by which endotoxin modulates asthma are not completely understood. Objectives: The aim of the study was to test whether endotoxin enhances the response of individuals with

Frank Schaumann; Meike Muller; Armin Braun; Birgit Luettig; David B. Peden; Jens M. Hohlfeld; Norbert Krug

2008-01-01

259

Endotoxin Exposure Is a Risk Factor for Asthma  

PubMed Central

Background: Although research has shown that early life exposure to household endotoxin protects against development of allergies, studies are less clear on the relationship between household endotoxin exposure and prevalence of wheezing and asthma. We as- sayed 2,552 house dust samples in a representative nationwide sam- ple to explore relationships between endotoxin exposures and risk factors for asthma, asthma symptoms, and medication use. Methods: House dust was vacuum-sampled from five locations within homes and assayed for endotoxin. Health, demographic, and housing information was assessed through questionnaire and on-site evaluation of 2,456 residents of 831 homes selected to represent the demographics of the United States. Results: Endotoxin concentration (EU/mg) and load (EU/m2) were highly correlated (r = 0.73–0.79). Geometric mean endotoxin concentrations were as follows (in EU/mg): bedroom floors, 35.3 (5th–95th percentile, 5.0–260); bedding, 18.7 (2.0–142); family room floors, 63.9 (11.5–331); sofas, 44.8 (6.4–240); and kitchen floors, 80.5 (9.8–512). Multivariate analysis demonstrated significant relationships between increasing endotoxin levels and diagnosed asthma, asthma symptoms in the past year, current use of asthma medications, and wheezing among residents of the homes. These relationships were strongest for bedroom floor and bedding dust and were observed in adults only. Modeling the joint effect of bedding and bedroom floor endotoxin on recent asthma symptoms yielded an adjusted odds ratio of 2.83 (95% confidence interval, 1.01–7.87). When stratified by allergy status, allergic subjects with higher endotoxin exposure were no more likely to have diagnosed asthma or asthma symptoms than nonallergic subjects. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that household endotoxin exposure is a significant risk factor for increased asthma prevalence. PMID:16141442

Thorne, Peter S.; Kulhankova, Katarina; Yin, Ming; Cohn, Richard; Arbes, Samuel J.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

2005-01-01

260

L-4F Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Activation of Primary Human Neutrophils.  

PubMed

Human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic L-4F inhibits acute inflammation in endotoxemic animals. Since neutrophils play a crucial role in septic inflammation, we examined the effects of L-4F, compared to apoA-I, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated activation of human neutrophils. We performed bioassays in human blood, isolated human neutrophils (incubated in 50 % donor plasma), and isolated human leukocytes (incubated in 5 and 50 % plasma) in vitro. In whole blood, both L-4F and apoA-I inhibited LPS-mediated elevation of TNF-? and IL-6. In LPS-stimulated neutrophils, L-4F and apoA-I (40 ?g/ml) also decreased myeloperoxidase and TNF-? levels; however, L-4F tended to be superior in inhibiting LPS-mediated increase in IL-6 levels, membrane lipid rafts abundance and CD11b expression. In parallel experiments, when TNF-? and IL-8, instead of LPS, was used for cell stimulation, L-4F and/or apoA-I revealed only limited efficacy. In LPS-stimulated leukocytes, L-4F was as effective as apoA-I in reducing superoxide formation in 50 % donor plasma, and more effective in 5 % donor plasma (P?endotoxin activity more effectively than apoA-I (P?endotoxin effects in whole blood, it demonstrates superior efficacy to apoA-I in aqueous solutions and fluids with limited plasma components. This study rationalizes the utility of L-4F in the treatment of inflammation that is mediated by endotoxin-activated neutrophils. PMID:24647607

Sharifov, Oleg F; Xu, Xin; Gaggar, Amit; Tabengwa, Edlue M; White, C Roger; Palgunachari, Mayakonda N; Anantharamaiah, G M; Gupta, Himanshu

2014-10-01

261

Lipopolysaccharide Inhibits the Channel Activity of the P2X7 Receptor  

PubMed Central

The purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) plays an important role during the immune response, participating in several events such as cytokine release, apoptosis, and necrosis. The bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the strongest stimuli of the immune response, and it has been shown that P2X7R activation can modulate LPS-induced responses. Moreover, a C-terminal binding site for LPS has been proposed. In order to evaluate if LPS can directly modulate the activity of the P2X7R, we tested several signaling pathways associated with P2X7R activation in HEK293 cells that do not express the TLR-4 receptor. We found that LPS alone was unable to induce any P2X7R-related activity, suggesting that the P2X7R is not directly activated by the endotoxin. On the other hand, preapplication of LPS inhibited ATP-induced currents, intracellular calcium increase, and ethidium bromide uptake and had no effect on ERK activation in HEK293 cells. In splenocytes-derived T-regulatory cells, in which ATP-induced apoptosis is driven by the P2X7R, LPS inhibited ATP-induced apoptosis. Altogether, these results demonstrate that LPS modulates the activity of the P2X7R and suggest that this effect could be of physiological relevance. PMID:21941410

Leiva-Salcedo, Elias; Coddou, Claudio; Rodríguez, Felipe E.; Penna, Antonello; Lopez, Ximena; Neira, Tanya; Fernández, Ricardo; Imarai, Mónica; Rios, Miguel; Escobar, Jorge; Montoya, Margarita; Huidobro-Toro, J. Pablo; Escobar, Alejandro; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio

2011-01-01

262

Lipopolysaccharide inhibits the channel activity of the P2X7 receptor.  

PubMed

The purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) plays an important role during the immune response, participating in several events such as cytokine release, apoptosis, and necrosis. The bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the strongest stimuli of the immune response, and it has been shown that P2X7R activation can modulate LPS-induced responses. Moreover, a C-terminal binding site for LPS has been proposed. In order to evaluate if LPS can directly modulate the activity of the P2X7R, we tested several signaling pathways associated with P2X7R activation in HEK293 cells that do not express the TLR-4 receptor. We found that LPS alone was unable to induce any P2X7R-related activity, suggesting that the P2X7R is not directly activated by the endotoxin. On the other hand, preapplication of LPS inhibited ATP-induced currents, intracellular calcium increase, and ethidium bromide uptake and had no effect on ERK activation in HEK293 cells. In splenocytes-derived T-regulatory cells, in which ATP-induced apoptosis is driven by the P2X7R, LPS inhibited ATP-induced apoptosis. Altogether, these results demonstrate that LPS modulates the activity of the P2X7R and suggest that this effect could be of physiological relevance. PMID:21941410

Leiva-Salcedo, Elias; Coddou, Claudio; Rodríguez, Felipe E; Penna, Antonello; Lopez, Ximena; Neira, Tanya; Fernández, Ricardo; Imarai, Mónica; Rios, Miguel; Escobar, Jorge; Montoya, Margarita; Huidobro-Toro, J Pablo; Escobar, Alejandro; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio

2011-01-01

263

Interactions of a designed peptide with lipopolysaccharide: Bound conformation and anti-endotoxic activity  

SciTech Connect

Designed peptides that would selectively interact with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or endotoxin and fold into specific conformations could serve as important scaffolds toward the development of antisepsis compounds. Here, we describe solution structure of a designed amphipathic peptide, H{sub 2}N-YVKLWRMIKFIR-CONH{sub 2} (YW12D) in complex with endotoxin as determined by transferred nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy. The conformation of the isolated peptide is highly flexible, but undergoes a dramatic structural stabilization in the presence of LPS. Structure calculations reveal that the peptide presents two amphipathic surfaces in its bound state to LPS whereby each surface is characterized by two positive charges and a number of aromatic and/or aliphatic residues. ITC data suggests that peptide interacts with two molecules of lipid A. In activity assays, YW12D exhibits neutralization of LPS toxicity with very little hemolysis of red blood cells. Structural and functional properties of YW12D would be applicable in designing low molecular weight non-toxic antisepsis molecules.

Bhunia, Anirban; Chua, Geok Lin; Domadia, Prerna N. [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Warshakoon, Hemamali; Cromer, Jens R.; David, Sunil A. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Kansas, 2030 Becker Drive, Lawrence, KS 66047 (United States); Bhattacharjya, Surajit [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore)], E-mail: surajit@ntu.edu.sg

2008-05-09

264

Escherichia coli (E. coli)  

MedlinePLUS

... so you might hear about E. coli being found in drinking water, which are not themselves harmful, but indicate the ... Infections start when you swallow STEC—in other words, when you get tiny ... consumption of water that has not been disinfected, contact with cattle, ...

265

Lipopolysaccharide mutants of Rhizobium meliloti are not defective in symbiosis.  

PubMed Central

Mutants of Rhizobium meliloti selected primarily for bacteriophage resistance fall into 13 groups. Mutants in the four best-characterized groups (class A, lpsB, lpsC, and class D), which map to the rhizobial chromosome, appear to affect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as judged by the reactivity with monoclonal antibodies and behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels of extracted LPS. Mutations in all 13 groups, in an otherwise wild-type genetic background, are Fix+ on alfalfa. This suggests that LPS does not play a major role in symbiosis. Mutations in lpsB, however, are Fix- in one particular genetic background, evidently because of the cumulative effect of several independent background mutations. In addition, an auxotrophic mutation evidently equivalent to Escherichia coli carAB is Fix- on alfalfa. Images PMID:2738026

Clover, R H; Kieber, J; Signer, E R

1989-01-01

266

Lipopolysaccharide mutants of Rhizobium meliloti are not defective in symbiosis  

SciTech Connect

Mutants of Rhizobium meliloti selected primarily for bacteriophage resistance fall into 13 groups. Mutants in the four best-characterized groups (class A, lpsB, lpsC, and class D), which map to the rhizobial chromosome, appear to affect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as judged by the reactivity with monoclonal antibodies and behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels of extracted LPS. Mutations in all 13 groups, in an otherwise wild-type genetic background, are Fix{sup +} on alfalfa. This suggests that LPS does not play a major role in symbiosis. Mutations in lpsB, however, are Fix{sup {minus}} in one particular genetic background, evidently because of the cumulative effect of several independent background mutations. In addition, an auxotrophic mutation evidently equivalent to Escherichia coli carAB is Fix{sup {minus}} on alfalfa.

Clover, R.H.; Kieber, J.; Signer, E.R. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA))

1989-07-01

267

Pretreatment of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ameliorates D-GalN/LPS induced acute liver failure through TLR4 signaling pathway  

PubMed Central

Endotoxin tolerance (ET) is an important phenomenon, which affects inflammation and phagocytosis. Pretreatment with low dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can protect liver injury from various hepatotoxicants such as acetaminophen and pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A. The current study aimed to investigate the protecting mechanisms of endotoxin tolerance in acute liver failure induced by D-galactosamine (D-GalN)/LPS and possible role of toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway in this phenomenon. Acute liver failure was induced by Injection of D-GalN/LPS. To mimic endotoxin tolerance, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with low dose of LPS (0.1 mg/kg once a day intraperitoneally for consecutive five days) before subsequent injection of D-GalN/LPS. Rat survival was determined by survival rate. Liver injury was confirmed by serum biochemical and liver histopathological examination. Inflammatory cytokines were determined by ELISA and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) (P65), toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) and Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1) were measured by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blot respectively. Pretreatment of LPS significantly improved rat survival. Moreover, rats pretreated with LPS exhibited lower serum enzyme (ALT, AST and TBiL) level, lower production of inflammatory cytokines and more minor liver histopathological damage than rats without pretreatment of LPS. LPS pretreatment suppressed production of TLR4 and IRAK-1. LPS pretreatment also inhibited activation of hepatic NF-?B. These results indicated that endotoxin tolerance contributed to liver protection against D-GalN/LPS induced acute liver failure through down-regulation of TLR4 and NF-?B pathway.

Zhang, Sainan; Yang, Naibin; Ni, Shunlan; Li, Wenyuan; Xu, Lanman; Dong, Peihong; Lu, Mingqin

2014-01-01

268

Selective endothelin-A receptor blockade attenuates endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Abstract Endothelin-1 is a potent mediator of sepsis-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). The pulmonary vascular effects of selective blockade of endothelin receptor subtype A (ETAR) during endotoxemia remain unknown. We hypothesized that selective ETAR antagonism attenuates endotoxin-induced PH and improves pulmonary artery (PA) vasoreactivity. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (250–450 g) received lipopolysaccharide (LPS; Salmonella typhimurium; 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or vehicle 6 hours before hemodynamic assessment and tissue harvest. The selective ETAR antagonist sitaxsentan (10 or 20 mg/kg) or vehicle was injected intravenously 3 hours after receipt of LPS. Right ventricular systolic pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), oxygenation (P/F ratio), and serum bicarbonate were measured. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell differential and lung wet-to-dry ratios were obtained. Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasorelaxations were determined in isolated PA rings. PA interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) messenger RNA (mRNA) were measured. LPS caused PH, decreased MAP, CO, and serum bicarbonate, and increased PA IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, and iNOS mRNA. Sitaxsentan attenuated sepsis-induced PH and increased MAP. The P/F ratio, CO, serum bicarbonate, and BAL neutrophilia were not affected by sitaxsentan. In isolated PA rings, while not affecting phenylephrine-induced vasocontraction or endothelium-dependent relaxation, sitaxsentan dose-dependently attenuated LPS-induced alterations in endothelium-independent relaxation. PA cytokine mRNA levels were not significantly attenuated by ETAR blockade. We conclude that ETAR blockade attenuates endotoxin-induced alterations in systemic and PA pressures without negatively affecting oxygenation. This protective effect appears to be mediated not by attenuation of sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction, acidosis, or alveolar inflammation but rather by improved endothelium-independent vasorelaxation. PMID:25006449

2014-01-01

269

Supplementation with ?-tocopherol attenuates endotoxin-induced airway neutrophil and mucous cell responses in rats.  

PubMed

Neutrophil-mediated tissue injury is a shared pathogenesis of both chronic pulmonary diseases and acute responses to pathogens, allergens, and airborne pollutants. Interventions to minimize toxic effects of neutrophil-derived oxidants and proteases are usually limited to corticosteroids, which can have adverse side effects. We used a rodent model of endotoxin-induced lung injury to test the hypothesis that the dietary supplement ?-tocopherol (?T), a natural form of vitamin E with antioxidant and novel anti-inflammatory properties, will protect from adverse nasal and pulmonary inflammatory responses induced by endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS). Male Fisher F344 rats were intranasally (i.n.) instilled with LPS for 2 consecutive days. Beginning 2 days before i.n. LPS, the rats were gavaged daily with 30mg/kg ?T. Twenty-four hours after the last i.n. LPS, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected, and pulmonary and nasal tissues were analyzed for gene expression and morphometric analyses of neutrophils and intraepithelial mucosubstances (IM). LPS caused increased BALF total cells (70% increase), neutrophils (300%), protein (35%), PGE2 (500%), and secreted mucins (75%). Robust increases in neutrophils and IM were detected in conducting airways. Pulmonary expression of MUC5AC, MIP-2, CINC-1, and MCP-1 was elevated three- to eightfold by LPS. Treatment with ?T inhibited LPS-induced increases in BALF total cells, neutrophils, protein, PGE2, and secreted mucins, as well as IM and tissue neutrophil influx. Furthermore ?T induced the expression of the regulatory cytokines IL-10 and IFN-? while decreasing MUC5AC, MIP-2, CINC-1, and MCP-1. These data demonstrate novel therapeutic effects of the dietary vitamin E ?T promoting anti-inflammatory pathways to protect from neutrophil-mediated lung injury. PMID:24333275

Wagner, James G; Birmingham, Neil P; Jackson-Humbles, Daven; Jiang, Qing; Harkema, Jack R; Peden, David B

2014-03-01

270

FXR agonist GW4064 alleviates endotoxin-induced hepatic inflammation by repressing macrophage activation  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine the effect of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation by GW4064 on endotoxin-induced hepatic inflammation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Six-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet or a high-fat (HF) diet for 8 wk. HF diet-fed mice were intraperitoneally injected with GW4064 (30 mg/kg) or DMSO (vehicle) once daily for a week and then sacrificed after lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50 ?g/mouse) administration. Hepatic inflammation, levels of the macrophage marker F4/80, and apoptosis were measured at the end of the study. Additionally, the expression of proinflammatory genes involved in NAFLD (interleukin-6, interleukin-1?, interferon-?, MCP-1) were analyzed by real-time PCR in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 cultured with or without GW4064 (2 ?mol/L) before treatment with LPS. RESULTS: In patients with NAFLD, the expression of FXR was detected by immunohistochemical staining and the relation between FXR expression and NAFLD activity score (NAS) was analyzed. Activation of FXR by GW4064 alleviated hepatic inflammation induced by endotoxin in a murine NAFLD model fed an HF diet as reflected by reduced serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. Apoptosis and proinflammatory cytokine levels in liver tissues were also reduced by GW4064, and GW4064 could reduce induction of proinflammatory cytokines by LPS in vitro. FXR levels were reduced in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis compared with healthy controls and were negatively correlated with NAS. CONCLUSION: FXR activation attenuates LPS-induced hepatic inflammation in murine NAFLD by reducing expression of proinflammatory cytokines in macrophages. PMID:25339829

Yao, Jun; Zhou, Chun-Suo; Ma, Xiong; Fu, Bai-Qing; Tao, Li-Sheng; Chen, Miao; Xu, Ya-Ping

2014-01-01

271

Biophysical investigations into the interactions of endotoxins with bile acids.  

PubMed

The interaction of selected endotoxin preparations (lipid A from Erwinia carotovora and LPS Re and Ra from Salmonella enterica sv. Minnesota strains R595 and R60, respectively) with selected bile acids was investigated biophysically. Endotoxin aggregates were analyzed for their gel-to-liquid crystalline phase behavior, the type of their aggregates, the conformation of particular functional groups, and their Zeta potential in the absence and presence of the bile acids by applying Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, measurements of the electrophoretic mobility, and synchrotron radiation X-ray scattering. In addition, the ability of the endotoxins to induce cytokines in human mononuclear cells was tested in the absence and presence of varying concentrations of bile acids. The data show that the endotoxin:bile acid interaction is not governed by Coulomb forces, rather a hydrophobic interaction takes place. This leads to an enhanced formation of the inherent cubic aggregate structures of the endotoxins, concomitant with a slight disaggregation, as evidenced by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Parallel to this, the addition of bile acids increased the bioactivity of lipid A and, to a lower degree, also that of the tested rough mutant LPS at lower concentrations of the endotoxin preparation, a finding similar as reported for the interaction of other agents such as hemoglobin. These data imply that there are general mechanisms that govern the expression of biological activities of endotoxins. PMID:21954318

Fukuoka, Satoshi; Richter, Walter; Howe, Jörg; Andrä, Jörg; Rössle, Manfred; Alexander, Christian; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus

2012-04-01

272

Streptomycetes in house dust: associations with housing characteristics and endotoxin  

PubMed Central

In addition to mold, indoor bioaerosols also contain bacterial components that may have implications for human health. Endotoxin is a cell wall component in Gram-negative bacteria present at varying levels indoors that has been found to have respiratory health implications. Streptomyces is a large genus of Gram-positive bacteria, and some species have been shown to produce inflammatory reactions in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of streptomycetes levels in house dust, and to compare the variation in streptomycetes levels with that in endotoxin levels. Dust was collected by floor vacuuming from 178 homes in the Cincinnati metropolitan area. streptomycetes levels were measured by quantitative PCR and endotoxin was assayed by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate method. Associations between home characteristics and bacterial contaminants, expressed as concentration and load, were investigated through multiple regression analyses. The presence of two or more dogs was a strong predictor of both streptomycetes and endotoxin levels. Season of dust collection and levels of outdoor molds were predictors of streptomycetes but not endotoxin levels. In contrast, number of inhabitants was a significant predictor of endotoxin load only. Neither streptomycetes nor endotoxin levels were associated with metrics of moisture damage. PMID:21204988

Johansson, Elisabet; Vesper, Stephen; Levin, Linda; LeMasters, Grace; Grinshpun, Sergey; Reponen, Tiina

2011-01-01

273

Specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis Delta-Endotoxin  

PubMed Central

The insecticidal activity of the delta-endotoxins of 14 Bacillus thuringiensis strains belonging to 12 subspecies was determined against Pieris brassicae, Heliothis virescens, and Spodoptera littoralis. Larvae of P. brassicae were highly susceptible to purified crystals of strains of B. thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis and B. thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni, whereas H. virescens responded best to B. thuringiensis subsp. kenyae and B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. The crystals of the B. thuringiensis subsp. entomocidus strain were the most potent against S. littoralis. It was shown that the solubility of the crystals within the gut of the three insect species is a first important step in the mode of action. Predissolution of the crystals especially enhanced the insecticidal activity against H. virescens. When in vitro-activated toxins were applied, the relative potency range varied greatly from one insect species to another. It can be concluded that at least three factors influence the potency of B. thuringiensis delta-endotoxins: the strain-related origin of the toxin, the degree of solubility of the crystals in the gut juice, and the intrinsic susceptibility of the insect to the toxin. PMID:16347299

Jaquet, Francoise; Hutter, Ralf; Luthy, Peter

1987-01-01

274

Intestinal radiation syndrome: sepsis and endotoxin  

SciTech Connect

Rats were whole-body irradiated with 8-MeV cyclotron-produced neutrons and /sup 137/Cs ..gamma.. rays to study the role of enteric bacteria and endotoxin in the intestinal radiation syndrome. Decrease in intestinal weight was used as an index of radiation-induced breakdown of the mucosa. Neutron and ..gamma..-ray doses that were sublethal for intestinal death resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in intestinal weight, reaching minimal values 2 to 3 days after exposure, followed by recovery within 5 days after irradiation. Neutron and photon doses that caused intestinal death resulted in greater mucosal breakdown with little or no evidence of mucosal recovery. The presence of fluid in the intestine and diarrhea, but not bacteremia or endotoxemia, were related to mucosal breakdown and recovery. Neither sepsis nor endotoxin could be detected in liver samples taken at autopsy from animals which died a short time earlier from intestinal injury. These results suggest that overt sepsis and endotoxemia do not play a significant role in the intestinal radiation syndrome.

Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

1985-03-01

275

MitoQ administration prevents endotoxin-induced cardiac dysfunction.  

PubMed

Sepsis elicits severe alterations in cardiac function, impairing cardiac mitochondrial and pressure-generating capacity. Currently, there are no therapies to prevent sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that administration of a mitochondrially targeted antioxidant, 10-(6'-ubiquinonyl)-decyltriphenylphosphonium (MitoQ), would prevent endotoxin-induced reductions in cardiac mitochondrial and contractile function. Studies were performed on adult rodents (n = 52) given either saline, endotoxin (8 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)), saline + MitoQ (500 microM), or both endotoxin and MitoQ. At 48 h animals were killed and hearts were removed for determination of either cardiac mitochondrial function (using polarography) or cardiac pressure generation (using the Langendorf technique). We found that endotoxin induced reductions in mitochondrial state 3 respiration rates, the respiratory control ratio, and ATP generation. Moreover, MitoQ administration prevented each of these endotoxin-induced abnormalities, P < 0.001. We also found that endotoxin produced reductions in cardiac pressure-generating capacity, reducing the systolic pressure-diastolic relationship. MitoQ also prevented endotoxin-induced reductions in cardiac pressure generation, P < 0.01. One potential link between mitochondrial and contractile dysfunction is caspase activation; we found that endotoxin increased cardiac levels of active caspases 9 and 3 (P < 0.001), while MitoQ prevented this increase (P < 0.01). These data demonstrate that MitoQ is a potent inhibitor of endotoxin-induced mitochondrial and cardiac abnormalities. We speculate that this agent may prove a novel therapy for sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction. PMID:19657095

Supinski, G S; Murphy, M P; Callahan, L A

2009-10-01

276

Effects of afferent and efferent denervation of vagal nerve on endotoxin-induced oxidative stress in rats.  

PubMed

This study investigated the role of vagal innervation in oxidative stress after systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin. Control rats and rats subjected to bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy, perivagal capsaicin application (5 mg/ml) or cholinergic receptor blockade with subcutaneous atropine (1 mg/kg), were intraperitoneally injected with 300 ?g/kg of LPS and euthanized 4 h later. Results indicated that; (1) surgical vagotomy and sensory denervation by perivagal capsaicin increased brain oxidative stress and decreased reduced glutathione in basal condition (saline-treated rats) and following endotoxin challenge; (2) oxidative stress decreased after cholinergic blockade with atropine in endotoxemic rats; (3) nitric oxide decreased by abdominal vagotomy, sensory deafferentation and cholinergic blockade after endotoxin injection; (4) liver lipid peroxidation decreased after surgical vagotomy and cholinergic blockade but increased after sensory deafferentation; (5) liver reduced glutathione decreased following vagotomy and sensory denervation in basal state and by cholinergic blockade in basal state and during endotoxemia; (6) nitric oxide increased by vagotomy in basal state and by sensory denervation and cholinergic blockade in basal state and during endotoxemia; (7) liver histological damage increased by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy, sensory denervation or cholinergic blockade. These findings suggest that: (1) sensory fibers (signals from the periphery) running in the vagus nerves are important in maintaining the redox status of the brain; (2) capsaicin vagal sensory nerves are likely to maintain nitric oxide tone in basal conditions; (3) the vagus nerve modulates liver redox status and nitric oxide release, (4) the vagus nerve mediates protective role in the liver with both cholinergic and capsaicin-sensitive mechanisms being involved. PMID:23794033

Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Abdel-Rahman, Rehab Fawzy; Sleem, Amany A; Mosry, Fatma Adly; Sharaf, Hafiza A

2013-12-01

277

Protective effect of aescin from the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum on liver injury induced by endotoxin in mice.  

PubMed

To investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of aescin on acute liver injury induced by endotoxin, liver injury was established by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. Animals were assigned to seven groups: the control group and groups treated with LPS (40 mg/kg), aescin (3.6 mg/kg), LPS plus dexamethasone (4 mg/kg) and LPS plus aescin (0.9, 1.8 or 3.6 mg/kg). Hepatic histopathological changes were examined under a light microscope. Activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum were determined. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), nitric oxide (NO) and antioxidative parameters in liver homogenate were measured. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR), 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1) and 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11?-HSD2) expressions in liver were determined by western blotting. Treatment with escin could inhibit immigration of inflammatory cells, alleviate the degree of necrosis, and decrease serum ALT and AST activities. Aescin also down-regulated levels of inflammation mediators (TNF-?, IL-1? and NO) and 11?-HSD2 expression in liver, up-regulated GR expression, enhanced endogenous antioxidative capacity, but have no obvious effect on 11?-HSD1 expression in liver. The findings suggest aescin has protective effects on endotoxin-induced liver injury, and the underlying mechanisms were associated with its anti-inflammatory effects, up-regulating GR expression, down-regulating 11?-HSD2 experssion, and antixoidation. PMID:21802269

Jiang, Na; Xin, Wenyu; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Leiming; Fan, Huaying; Du, Yuan; Li, Chong; Fu, Fenghua

2011-11-15

278

Impact of TREM-2 gene silencing on inflammatory response of endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in mice.  

PubMed

Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of the critical clinical respiratory diseases, of which infection is the main cause and the first risk factor. This study investigated the impact of triggering receptor of myeloid cells expression (TREM)-2 gene silencing on inflammatory response of endotoxin-induced ALI in mice. Lentivirus-mediated TREM-2-shRNA was transfected into healthy male C57BL/6 mice, and the lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI model was established. The immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, fluorescence quantitative PCR, western blot, and ELISA were applied to detect the pathological changes of lung tissue and expressions of TREM-2, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin 10 (IL-10) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The lentivirus group, saline control group, ALI model group, blank control group, and negative control group were set up at the same time. Results found that, in lentivirus group, the pathological change of lung tissue was significantly lighter than ALI model group (P < 0.05), and the expression of TREM-2 was significantly reduced compared with all control groups (P < 0.05). The levels of TNF-? and IL-10 were significantly increased than all control groups (P < 0.05), while above indexes in negative control group and blank control group showed no significant difference with ALI group (P > 0.05). This study indicates that TREM-2 has a protective effect on inflammatory response of endotoxin-induced ALI in mice, which has provided new potential targets for prevention and treatment of ALI. PMID:24916365

Liu, Dai; Dong, Yanting; Liu, Zhuola; Niu, Bo; Wang, Yaowei; Gao, Xiaoling

2014-09-01

279

Transcriptional regulation of the rat sperm-associated antigen 11e (Spag 11e) gene during endotoxin challenge.  

PubMed

The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inducible expression of antimicrobial proteins of the Sperm-Associated Antigen 11 (Spag11) family is dependent on nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation and epigenetic factors. However, the regulatory mechanisms that govern their gene expression during endotoxin challenge are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the Spag11e gene upstream sequence contains binding sites for androgen receptor (AR), NF-?B, nuclear factor-1, E-twenty-six and activator protein 2. The role of these transcription factors in inducing Spag11e gene during LPS challenge was analysed by measuring luciferase activity in HEK cells transiently transfected with deletion constructs that lacked one or more of the binding sites. Deletion of AR-binding site resulted in loss of luciferase activity and no further decrease was observed when progressive deletions of the other transcription factor binding sites were made. Mutations in AR or NF-?B binding site resulted in loss of luciferase activity. Electrophoretic gel-mobility shift assays indicated that AR and NF-?B proteins bind to the synthesised radio-labelled oligomers used as probes and the mobility shifted when respective antibodies were added. Results of this study indicate the direct involvement of AR and NF-?B in LPS-induced Spag11e expression, thereby expanding our understanding of antimicrobial gene expression during endotoxin challenge. PMID:24777385

Biswas, Barnali; Yenugu, Suresh

2014-10-01

280

Identification of cyclophilin as a proinflammatory secretory product of lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages.  

PubMed Central

We have isolated an 18-kDa peptide (designated sp18, for 18-kDa secreted protein) from the conditioned medium of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Purified sp18 had in vivo inflammatory activity and in vitro chemotactic activity for human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes. Surprisingly, N-terminal sequencing and tryptic mapping studies revealed that sp18 and cyclophilin, an intracellular protein that binds the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A, are highly homologous. The in vitro chemotactic activity of sp18 on monocytes was blocked by cyclosporin A but not by cyclosporin H, a structural analog of cyclosporin A that does not bind cyclophilin. Like purified porcine cyclophilin, mouse sp18 exhibited peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity. Medium conditioned by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated resident peritoneal exudate macrophages isolated from C57BL/6 mice contained substantially higher levels of sp18/cyclophilin than medium conditioned by nonstimulated macrophages. The observation that sp18/cyclophilin exhibits proinflammatory activity and is secreted by macrophages in response to endotoxin suggests that this protein may function as a cytokine, and invites the hypothesis that the immunosuppressive action of cyclosporin A results in part from interaction with an extracellular form of cyclophilin released as a mediator of immune and inflammatory functions. Images PMID:1565646

Sherry, B; Yarlett, N; Strupp, A; Cerami, A

1992-01-01

281

Ragweed pollen extract intensifies lipopolysaccharide-induced priming of NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages  

PubMed Central

Ragweed pollen extract (RWE) possesses intrinsic NADPH oxidase activity that induces oxidative stress by initiating the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS are important contributors to the manifestation of allergic inflammation; furthermore, concomitant exposure to an allergen and an endotoxin trigger a stronger inflammatory response. One of the main pro-inflammatory cytokines produced in inflammatory responses is interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and its production is associated with caspase-1-containing inflammasome complexes. Intracellular ROS have been implicated in NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1? production, therefore, we aimed to study whether RWE influences the function of NLRP3 inflammasome. Here we describe that, in the presence of NADPH, RWE significantly elevates lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-1? production of THP-1 cells as well as human primary macrophages and dendritic cells. We also demonstrate that increased IL-1? production is mediated through NLRP3 inflammasome in THP-1 macrophages. We provide evidence that RWE elevates cytosolic ROS level in these cells, and ROS inhibitors abolish IL-1? production. Furthermore, we show that RWE enhances lipopolysaccharide-induced gene transcription/expression of pro-IL-1? and key components of the inflammasome via a ROS-dependent mechanism. PMID:23278511

Varga, Aliz; Budai, Marietta M; Milesz, Sándor; Bácsi, Attila; T?zsér, József; Benk?, Szilvia

2013-01-01

282

Use of magnesium to increase sensitivity of Limulus amoebocyte lysate for detection of endotoxin.  

PubMed Central

Increased sensitivity of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay for the detection of endotoxin was attained by the reconstitution of commercially available LAL reagent with a magnesium-containing solution. As little as 2 to 6 pg (0.002 to 0.006 ng) of Escherichia coli O127:B8 endotoxin per ml was detected, an increase in sensitivity of 10 to 30 times. The optimum magnesium concentration range for the LAL reagent used and the optimum pH range were approximately 50 to 65 mM and pH 6.0 to 8.0, respectively. Reconstitution of five commercially available brands of LAL with a solution containing magnesium resulted in greater assay sensitivity than the identical LAL reconstituted with pyrogen-free water. Use of LAL reconstituted with a solution containing magnesium is crucial for the assay of some parenteral products, wherein increased sensitivity is essential to meet the requirement for the maximum valid dilution criteria. The mode of action of magnesium for enhanced sensitivity of LAL has been postulated. Images PMID:6859851

Tsuji, K; Steindler, K A

1983-01-01

283

Macrophages and MHC class II positive cells in the choroid during endotoxin induced uveitis  

PubMed Central

AIMS/BACKGROUND—Endotoxin induced uveitis has been regarded as a model for acute anterior uveitis and until now little was known about choroidal involvement. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in macrophages and MHC class II positive cells in the choroid of Lewis rats during endotoxin induced uveitis.?METHODS—Choroid-sclera wholemounts were isolated from normal Lewis rats and at different time points—4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours, and 7, 10, and 14 days after a footpad injection of 200 µg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Immunohistochemistry was performed using the monoclonal antibodies ED1 (monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells), and OX6 (MHC class II antigen).?RESULTS—In normal rats, two layers of macrophages were identified in the choroid; a layer located immediately beneath the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and a layer bordering the sclera. The density of ED1 positive cells in the layer bordering the RPE cells was 902 (SD 132) cells/mm2 whereas the scleral layer had a cell density of 389 (73) cells/mm2. Based on morphology, positive cells could be divided into two main categories; pleomorphic/round cells and dendritiform cells with varying appearances, with the latter being predominant in normal eyes. A network of MHC class II positive dendritic cells was found in the choroid, beneath the RPE, with a density of 659 (96) cells/mm2. No MHC class II positive cells were found in the macrophage layer bordering the sclera. LPS injection caused a massive influx of ED1 positive macrophages in the area below the RPE cells but did not result in an influx of macrophages at the scleral side of the choroid. The infiltrate reached a maximum at 16 hours following LPS injection and decreased at 96 hours. The morphology of the infiltrating cells was pleomorphic/round at early stages of inflammation and changed into a dendritiform cell population later. The number of MHC class II positive cells on the anterior side of the choroid increased 8 hours after injection and reached a peak at 72-96 hours. MHC class II positive cells were not observed in the vicinity of the sclera at any time after LPS injection. Both resident and MHC class II positive dendritic cell numbers returned to normal values at day 14 following LPS injection.?CONCLUSIONS—These results indicate that the choroid is severely inflamed after systemic LPS administration to Lewis rats and suggests that endotoxin induced uveitis may serve as a model for generalised uveitis in humans.?? PMID:9227206

Yang, P.; de Vos, A. F; Kijlstra, A.

1997-01-01

284

Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis of lipopolysaccharide in detergent micelles.  

PubMed Central

Bacterial endotoxins or lipopolysaccharides (LPS), cell wall components of gram-negative bacteria, are involved in septic shock. LPS consists of a lipid A tail attached to core and O-antigen polysaccharides, but little is known about the supramolecular structure of LPS in blood. We have developed an approach to locate donor and acceptor probes in sulfobetaine palmitate detergent micelles using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer. C18-fluorescein and several LPS species of varying molecular weight labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-LPS) were the donor probes. Acceptor probes were 1,1-dilinoleyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethyl indocarbocyanine perchlorate (Fast C18-Dil, Ro approximately 68 A), and octadecyl B rhodamine chloride (C18-Rhd, Ro approximately 58 A). With either acceptor, the transfer was of similar high efficiency when FITC-LPS Salmonella minnesota Re 595 (2,500 mol wt, lacking both core and O-antigen) or C18-fluorescein were the fluorescent donor probes. Thus, the donor FITC-LPS with short polysaccharide chain S. minnesota Re 595 and the control donor C18-fluorescein appear to be close to the micelle surface. The transfer efficiency decreased as the molecular weight of the LPS increased. Separation distances between the longest FITC-LPS, S. minnesota (20,000 mol wt, with a long O-antigen), and the micelle were estimated to be 1.5 Ro or more (approximately 100 A), consistent with an extended conformation for the longer O-antigen polysaccharide chain in the detergent. PMID:8789116

Wistrom, C A; Jones, G M; Tobias, P S; Sklar, L A

1996-01-01

285

Assay for proteolytic activity using a new fluorogenic substrate (peptidyl-3-amino-9-ethyl-carbazole); quantitative determination of lipopolysaccharide at the level of one picogram.  

PubMed Central

A new sensitive fluorimetric assay has been developed using peptidyl-3-amino-9-ethyl-carbazole as substrate. The fluorescence intensity of free 3-amino-9-ethyl-carbazole (AEC) at 460 nm is between two and three orders of magnitude higher than the fluorescence intensity of acyl-AEC. The release of AEC from a peptidyl derivative by proteases may be monitored continuously during the hydrolysis step or may be quantified upon addition of a general inhibitor such as benzamidinium chloride. Using N-benzoyl-arginyl-AEC as substrate, as little as 1 ng trypsin may be detected. Using t-butyloxycarbonyl-Val-Leu-Gly-Arg-AEC and the amoebocyte lysate of Limulus polyphemus, as little as 1 pg lipopolysaccharide can be detected. This fluorimetric method allows detection of trace amounts of lipopolysaccharide (endotoxins) in various biological materials, including sera. PMID:7188184

Monsigny, M; Kieda, C; Maillet, T

1982-01-01

286

Endotoxin-Induced Structural Transformations in Liquid Crystalline Droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ordering of liquid crystals (LCs) is known to be influenced by surfaces and contaminants. Here, we report that picogram per milliliter concentrations of endotoxin in water trigger ordering transitions in micrometer-size LC droplets. The ordering transitions, which occur at surface concentrations of endotoxin that are less than 10-5 Langmuir, are not due to adsorbate-induced changes in the interfacial energy of the LC. The sensitivity of the LC to endotoxin was measured to change by six orders of magnitude with the geometry of the LC (droplet versus slab), supporting the hypothesis that interactions of endotoxin with topological defects in the LC mediate the response of the droplets. The LC ordering transitions depend strongly on glycophospholipid structure and provide new designs for responsive soft matter.

Lin, I.-Hsin; Miller, Daniel S.; Bertics, Paul J.; Murphy, Christopher J.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Abbott, Nicholas L.

2011-06-01

287

Adsorption of Endotoxin from Aqueous Solution Using Bone Char  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is the removal of endotoxin from aqueous solution using bone char (BC) as an adsorbent material. The\\u000a BC was prepared from cattle animal bone by pyrolysis in a furnace at 850°C. The morphology and physico-chemical characteristics\\u000a of the adsorbent were investigated. Kinetic studies revealed that the adsorption of endotoxin is rapid. The adsorption mechanisms\\u000a in

A. Rezaee; Gh. Ghanizadeh; Gh. Behzadiyannejad; A. Yazdanbakhsh; S. D. Siyadat

2009-01-01

288

An Anti-Interleukin-2 Receptor Drug Attenuates T- Helper 1 Lymphocytes-Mediated Inflammation in an Acute Model of Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of Daclizumab, an anti-interleukin-2 receptor drug, in an experimental uveitis model upon a subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide into Lewis rats, a valuable model for ocular acute inflammatory processes. The integrity of the blood-aqueous barrier was assessed 24 h after endotoxin-induced uveitis by evaluating two parameters: cell count and protein concentration in aqueous humors. The histopathology of all the ocular structures (cornea, lens, sclera, choroid, retina, uvea, and anterior and posterior chambers) was also considered. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of the aqueous humor samples were performed to quantify the levels of the different chemokine and cytokine proteins. Similarly, a biochemical analysis of oxidative stress-related markers was also assessed. The inflammation observed in the anterior chamber of the eyes when Daclizumab was administered with endotoxin was largely prevented since the aqueous humor protein concentration substantially lowered concomitantly with a significant reduction in the uveal and vitreous histopathological grading. Th1 lymphocytes-related cytokines, such as Interleukin-2 and Interferon-?, also significantly reduced with related anti-oxidant systems recovery. Daclizumab treatment in endotoxin-induced uveitis reduced Th1 lymphocytes-related cytokines, such as Interleukin-2 and Interferon gamma, by about 60–70% and presented a preventive role in endotoxin-induced oxidative stress. This antioxidant protective effect of Daclizumab may be related to several of the observed Daclizumab effects in our study, including IL-6 cytokine regulatory properties and a substantial concomitant drop in INF?. Concurrently, Daclizumab treatment triggered a significant reduction in both the uveal histopathological grading and protein concentration in aqueous humors, but not in cellular infiltration. PMID:24595020

Navea, Amparo; Almansa, Inmaculada; Muriach, Maria; Bosch-Morell, Francisco

2014-01-01

289

Endotoxin-inactivating activity in normal and pathological human blood samples.  

PubMed Central

The endotoxin-specific chromogenic test revealed that plasma endotoxin-inactivating activity was markedly diminished by endotoxemia, but not by fungemia or by dialysis with cellulose membranes, suggesting that fungal polysaccharides and other nonendotoxic, Limulus-reactive materials do not consume endotoxin-inactivating factors in the blood. There was a close negative correlation between plasma endotoxin concentration and endotoxin-inactivating activity. The specificity of the test was improved by fractionating amebocyte lysate and using only the factors that constitute the endotoxin-sensitive coagulation pathway of the horseshoe crab. This test was able to differentiate endotoxemia from fungemia and from contamination with other nonendotoxic, Limulus-reactive materials. PMID:3733219

Obayashi, T; Tamura, H; Tanaka, S; Ohki, M; Takahashi, S; Kawai, T

1986-01-01

290

Coarse particulate matter and airborne endotoxin within wood stove homes.  

PubMed

Emissions from indoor biomass burning are a major public health concern in developing areas of the world. Less is known about indoor air quality, particularly airborne endotoxin, in homes burning biomass fuel in residential wood stoves in higher income countries. A filter-based sampler was used to evaluate wintertime indoor coarse particulate matter (PM????.?) and airborne endotoxin (EU/m³, EU/mg) concentrations in 50 homes using wood stoves as their primary source of heat in western Montana. We investigated number of residents, number of pets, dampness (humidity), and frequency of wood stove usage as potential predictors of indoor airborne endotoxin concentrations. Two 48-h sampling events per home revealed a mean winter PM????.? concentration (± s.d.) of 12.9 (± 8.6) ?g/m³, while PM?.? concentrations averaged 32.3 (± 32.6) ?g/m³. Endotoxin concentrations measured from PM????.? filter samples were 9.2 (± 12.4) EU/m³ and 1010 (± 1524) EU/mg. PM????.? and PM?.? were significantly correlated in wood stove homes (r = 0.36, P < 0.05). The presence of pets in the homes was associated with PM????.? but not with endotoxin concentrations. Importantly, none of the other measured home characteristics was a strong predictor of airborne endotoxin, including frequency of residential wood stove usage. PMID:23551341

McNamara, M; Thornburg, J; Semmens, E; Ward, T; Noonan, C

2013-12-01

291

Endotoxins-the invisible companion in biomaterials research.  

PubMed

Metal implants and polymeric devices for the application in the clinical treatment of orthopedic tissue injuries are increasingly coated with bioactive biomaterials derived from natural substances to induce desirable biological effects. Many metals and polymers used in biomaterials research show high affinity for endotoxins, which are abundant in the environment. Endotoxin contamination is indicated in the pathology of periodontitis and aseptic implant loosening, but may also affect the evaluation of a biomaterial's bioactivity by inducing strong inflammatory reactions. In this review, we discuss the high affinity of three commonly used implant biomaterials for endotoxins and how the contamination can affect the outcome of the orthopedic fixation. The chemical nature of bacterial endotoxins and some of the clinical health implications are described, as this knowledge is critically important to tackle the issues associated with the measurement and removal of endotoxins from medical devices. Commonly used methods for endotoxin testing and removal from natural substances are examined and the lack of standard guidelines for the in vitro evaluation of biomaterials is discussed. PMID:23350734

Lieder, Ramona; Petersen, Pétur Henry; Sigurjónsson, Ólafur Eysteinn

2013-10-01

292

Biosynthesis of mycobacterial methylglucose lipopolysaccharides.  

PubMed

Mycobacterial pathogenesis is closely associated with a unique cell envelope rich in complex carbohydrates and unique lipids, among which are the mycolic acids. Mycobacteria also synthesize unique intracellular polymethylated polysaccharides (PMPSs), namely methylglucose lipopolysaccharides (MGLPs), which are acylated with short-chain fatty acids, and methylmannose polysaccharides (MMPs). Since PMPSs modulate the synthesis of long-chain fatty acids in vitro, the possibility of a similar role in vivo and the regulation of mycolic acids assembly have been anticipated. Unlike MGLPs, MMPs have been identified in M. smegmatis and other fast-growing mycobacteria but not in M. tuberculosis, implying an essential role for MGLPs in this pathogen and turning the biosynthetic enzymes into attractive drug targets. The genome of M. tuberculosis was decoded 14 years ago but only recently has the identity of the genes involved in MGLPs biosynthesis been investigated. Two gene clusters (Rv1208-Rv1213 and Rv3030-Rv3037c) containing a few genes considered to be essential for M. tuberculosis growth, have initially been proposed to coordinate MGLPs biosynthesis. Among these genes, only the product of Rv1208 for the first step in the MGLPs pathway has, so far, been crystallized and its three-dimensional structure been determined. However, recent results indicate that at least three additional clusters may be involved in this pathway. The functional assignment of authentic roles to some of these M. tuberculosis H37Rv genes sheds new light on the intricacy of MGLPs biogenesis and renewed interest on their biological role. PMID:22678749

Mendes, Vitor; Maranha, Ana; Alarico, Susana; Empadinhas, Nuno

2012-08-01

293

Matrix metalloproteinases contribute to endotoxin and interleukin-1? induced vascular dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: The acute vascular inflammatory dysfunction associated with endotoxaemia may reflect an imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their natural inhibitors (TIMPs), induced by the endotoxin. This possibility was tested in rat aortic tissue. Experimental approaches: Tone induced by phenylephrine in aortic rings was measured after exposure in vitro to ambient lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1? (IL-1?) for 6h, with or without MMP inhibitors (doxycycline or GM6001). Gelatinase and MMP activities, TIMP proteins and contractility were measured in aortae taken from rats 6h after receiving LPS in vivo. Key results: Inhibition of MMP prevented the loss of phenylephrine–induced tone in aortic rings after LPS or IL-1?. IL-1? also increased release of MMP-2 activity from aortic tissue. In aortae exposed in vivo to LPS, net gelatinase, MMP-9 activities and TIMP-1 protein levels were increased, whereas TIMP-4 was reduced. These aortae were hypocontractile to both phenylephrine and KCl. Hypocontractility was partially reversed by doxycycline ex vivo. Conclusions and Implications: MMP inhibitors ameliorate vascular hyporeactivity induced by either LPS or IL-1? in vitro. LPS in vivo alters the balance between MMPs and TIMPs, contributing to vascular dysfunction which is partially reversed by MMP inhibitors. Vascular MMPs are activated as a result of LPS or IL-1?-induced stress and contribute to the hyporeactivity of blood vessels to vasoconstrictors. PMID:16880766

Lalu, M M; Cena, J; Chowdhury, R; Lam, A; Schulz, R

2006-01-01

294

The Aldosterone-Mineralocorticoid Receptor Pathway Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that the eye is a mineralocorticoid-sensitive organ and we now question the role of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in ocular inflammation. The endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU), a rat model of human intraocular inflammation, was induced by systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Evaluations were made 6 and 24 hours after intraocular injection of aldosterone (simultaneous to LPS injection). Three hours after onset of EIU, the MR and the glucocorticoid metabolizing enzyme 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11?-HSD2) expression were down-regulated in iris/ciliary body and the corticosterone concentration was increased in aqueous humor, altering the normal MR/glucocorticoid receptor (GR) balance. At 24 hours, the GR expression was also decreased. In EIU, aldosterone reduced the intensity of clinical inflammation in a dose-dependent manner. The clinical benefit of aldosterone was abrogated in the presence of the MR antagonist (RU26752) and only partially with the GR antagonist (RU38486). Aldosterone reduced the release of inflammatory mediators (6 and 24 hours: TNF-?, IFN-?, MIP-1?) in aqueous humor and the number of activated microglia/macrophages. Aldosterone partly prevented the uveitis-induced MR down-regulation. These results suggest that MR expression and activation in iris/ciliary body could protect the ocular structures against damages induced by EIU. PMID:23152847

Ly, Andre; Leroux les Jardins, Guillaume; Goldenberg, Brigitte; Naud, Marie-Christine; Jonet, Laurent; Besson-Lescure, Bernadette; Jaisser, Frederic; Farman, Nicolette; De Kozak, Yvonne; Behar-Cohen, Francine

2012-01-01

295

Hepatic prolactin binding is rapidly altered by endotoxin in lactating mice  

SciTech Connect

Endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, produces profound physiologic changes in most mammals. The effects of LPS on ovine prolactin (oPRL) binding by hepatic membranes of lactating mice is explored in this report. Specific /sup 125/I-oPRL binding by liver membranes from LPS-responder C3HfB/HeN mice increased two-fold within fifteen minutes of the injection of LPS, while no change was observed in the non-responder C3H/HeJ mice. Specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding did not change. Scatchard analysis of equilibrium binding of oPRL to C3HfB/HeN liver membranes indicated that within fifteen minutes of LPS injection, a receptor of differing binding affinity appears and then disappears by one hour post-injection. The authors propose that these rapid alterations in the specific binding of oPRL by liver membranes from LPS-injected, lactating C3HfB/HeN mice are due to the transient creation or unmasking of a novel class of PRL receptor. 32 references, 6 figures.

Carr, J.K.; Keefer, L.M.; Cohen, J.C.

1987-09-21

296

Prevention of cardiac damage induced by formyl-leurosine, a potent cytostatic agent, by radio-detoxified endotoxin (Tolerin) in dogs  

SciTech Connect

Radio-detoxified endotoxin (Tolerin), produced by /sup 60/Co-gamma irradiation of Escherichia coli 089 endotoxin, can protect dogs against the acute cardiotoxic side-effects of formyl-leurosine, a semi-synthetic Vinca derivative with promising antineoplastic potency. Formyl-leurosine induces a rapid decrease in arterial blood pressure and diminishes the contractile force of the myocardium in the anaesthetized dog. These responses indicate a direct pharmacologic relaxant effect of the drug on the heart and vasculature smooth muscle. The early cardiovascular depression is of short duration and is unaffected by Tolerin. Tolerin can prevent, however, the secondary, more dangerous phase of circulatory depression that is associated with the severe cardiotoxic manifestations of the drug, as demonstrated by hemodynamic and morphologic (light and electronmicroscopic) patterns.

Bertok, L.; Juhasz-Nagy, A.; Sotonyi, P.

1984-08-01

297

Endotoxin increases pulmonary vascular protein permeability in the dog  

SciTech Connect

Endotoxin increases pulmonary vascular permeability consistently in some species but fails to reliably cause injury in the dog. We wondered whether this phenomenon depended on the method of injury assessment, as others have relied on edema measurement; we quantified injury by monitoring the rate of extravascular protein accumulation. /sup 113m/In-labeled protein and /sup 99m/Tc-labeled erythrocytes were injected into anesthetized dogs and monitored by an externally placed lung probe. A protein leak index, the rate of extravascular protein accumulation, was derived from the rate of increase in lung protein counts corrected for changes in intravascular protein activity. After administration of Salmonella enteriditis endotoxin (4 micrograms/kg), the protein leak index was elevated 2.5-fold (41.1 +/- 4.6 X 10(-4) min-1) compared with control (16.0 +/- 2.8 X 10(-4) min-1). In contrast, wet-to-dry weight ratios failed to increase after endotoxin (4.6 +/- 0.8 vs. control values of 4.2 +/- 0.5 g/g dry bloodless lung). However, we observed that endotoxin increased lung dry weight (per unit body weight), which may have attenuated the change in wet-to-dry weight ratios. To determine whether low microvascular pressures following endotoxin attenuated edema formation, we increased pulmonary arterial wedge pressures in five dogs by saline infusion, which caused an increase in wet-to-dry weight ratios following endotoxin but no change in the five controls. We conclude that low dose endotoxin causes pulmonary vascular protein leak in the dog while edema formation is minimal or absent.

Welsh, C.H.; Dauber, I.M.; Weil, J.V.

1986-10-01

298

Effects of Cotton Expressing the 'Bacillus thuringiensis' var. 'kurstaki' Endotoxin on Soil Microorganisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many agriculturally important plants have been engineered to produce endotoxins from different subspecies of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.). The endotoxin Bacillus thuringensis var. kurstake (B.t.k.) has demonstrated insecticidal activity aga...

K. K. Donegan, R. J. Seidler

1996-01-01

299

ALLERGEN PROVOCATION AUGMENTS ENDOTOXIN-INDUCED NASAL INFLAMMATION IN ATOPIC ASTHMATICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Recent epidemiologic and in vivo studies have suggested that inhaled endotoxin plays an important role in asthma pathogenesis. Objective: The present study examines the effect of nasal allergen provocation on subsequent endotoxin challenges in subjects with atopi...

300

BIOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTS AND PROCESS ENGINEERING Engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum as an endotoxin-free  

E-print Network

as an endotoxin-free platform strain for lactate-based polyester production Yuyang Song & Ken'ichiro Matsumoto Corynebacterium glutamicum as an endotoxin-free platform. We designed metabolic path- ways in C. glutamicum

Sinskey, Anthony J.

301

Galactosamine-Induced Sensitization to the Lethal Effects of Endotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of rabbits, rats, and mice with D-galactosamine increased their sensitivity to the lethal effects of lipopolysaccharide several thousand fold. The susceptibility of the animals was highest when the lipopolysacharide was injected together with galactosamine and decreased successively when injection was carried out 1, 2, and 3 hr later. Sensitization was absent when the lipopolysaccharide was administered 1 hr before

Chris Galanos; Marina A. Freudenberg; Werner Reutter

1979-01-01

302

Something old, something new: indoor endotoxin, allergens and asthma.  

PubMed

Endotoxin and allergen exposure have been explored in the context of asthma for more than a century. Building upon a pyramid of knowledge are recent observations that provide new insights to the effect of these exposures on the development of asthma. Some of these studies challenge some previously held concepts of the role of these exposures in asthma inception. Indoor allergens are well established as the basis of inflammation in sensitised asthmatics, contributing to disease severity. Then does greater exposure to indoor allergens cause allergen sensitisation and asthma as well? While risk of sensitisation to house dust mites generally increases with higher levels of exposure, this does not seem to hold for cats, where higher levels of cat allergen exposure are associated with less sensitisation. Indeed, several recent studies suggest that early childhood exposure to animals, as indoor pets or in farming stables, are associated with a lower prevalence of asthma, hay fever, and inhalant allergen sensitisation. Endotoxin in asthma provides a similar paradox. Endotoxin is a potent immune-stimulatory component of the bacterial cell wall of all gram-negative bacteria. As such, endotoxin is ubiquitous in our environment. Endotoxin exposure has been well demonstrated to underlie "Monday Asthma" or byssinosis in cotton workers, and has since emerged as a frequent cause of asthma-like symptoms in a wide range of occupational settings. Asthmatics are particularly sensitive to inhaled endotoxin, and inhalation induces both immediate and sustained airflow obstruction. The paradox of endotoxin exposure is that higher levels of exposure in early life might mitigate the development of allergy and persistent asthma. With endotoxin exposure being significantly higher in homes with animals and in farming households, where allergy and asthma are less likely to develop, endotoxin and other microbial exposures in early life may keep allergen sensitisation and asthma from developing by promoting Th1-type immune development. These observations, consistent with the "Hygiene Hypothesis" of allergy and asthma, are an encouraging glimpse of the potential for early immune modulatory approaches to asthma therapy and prevention. PMID:14980246

Liu, Andrew H

2004-01-01

303

High volume hemofiltration improves right ventricular function in endotoxin-induced shock in the pig  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the influence of continuous high volume hemofiltration on right ventricular function of pigs with endotoxin induced shock. Eighteen anesthetized and ventilated pigs were studied for 240 min after the start of infusion of 0.5 mg\\/kg endotoxin over 30 min. Right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) was measured by rapid response thermodilution technique. After endotoxin infusion, the pigs were

A. F. Grootendorst; E. F. H. van Bommel; B. van der Hoven; L. A. M. G. van Leengoed; A. L. M. van Osta

1992-01-01

304

40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki...From Tolerances § 180.1107 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki...requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety...

2012-07-01

305

Expression of a Bacillus thuringiensis d-endotoxin gene by Bacillus pumilus  

E-print Network

Expression of a Bacillus thuringiensis d-endotoxin gene by Bacillus pumilus L.B. Selinger, G.G. Khachatourians, J.R. Byers, and M.F. Hynes Abstract: The -endotoxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis were introduced into a rhizosphere-inhabiting Bacillus pumilus isolate to create a -endotoxin expression

Selinger, Brent

306

40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki...From Tolerances § 180.1107 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki...requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety...

2013-07-01

307

A hydrocarbon ruler measures palmitate in the enzymatic acylation of endotoxin  

E-print Network

A hydrocarbon ruler measures palmitate in the enzymatic acylation of endotoxin Victoria E Ahn1 a phos- pholipid to lipid A (endotoxin). PagP can distinguish lipid acyl chains that differ by a single; membranes & transport Keywords: crystal structure; endotoxin; lipid A; phospholipids; signal transduction

Bishop, Russell

308

Modeling endotoxin-induced systemic inflammation using an indirect response approach  

E-print Network

Modeling endotoxin-induced systemic inflammation using an indirect response approach P.T. Foteinou Inflammation Modeling Human a b s t r a c t A receptor mediated model of endotoxin-induced human inflammation is proposed. The activation of the innate immune system in response to the endotoxin stimulus involves

Androulakis, Ioannis (Yannis)

309

40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki...From Tolerances § 180.1107 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki...requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety...

2011-07-01

310

Agent-Based Modeling of Endotoxin-Induced Acute Inflammatory Response in Human Blood Leukocytes  

E-print Network

Agent-Based Modeling of Endotoxin-Induced Acute Inflammatory Response in Human Blood Leukocytes Xu of endotoxin signaling at the cellular response level. The simulation results are in accordance with our prior, Calvano SE, Lowry SF, Androulakis IP (2010) Agent-Based Modeling of Endotoxin-Induced Acute Inflammatory

Androulakis, Ioannis (Yannis)

311

Endotoxin adsorption therapy for septic shock using polymyxin B-immobilized fibers (PMX): evaluation by high-sensitivity endotoxin assay and measurement of the cytokine production capacity.  

PubMed

Because of its low sensitivity, the conventional measurement method for endotoxin (ET) is not the most appropriate for monitoring the effect of ET adsorption therapy. Thus, the efficacy of ET adsorption therapy was investigated using a newly developed high-sensitivity ET assay method. The changes in the cytokine production capacity of whole blood were also examined. We treated 24 peritonitis patients who had developed postoperative septic shock with ET adsorption therapy using a column of polymyxin B-immobilized fibers (PMX) and their serum ET levels were measured using the high-sensitivity ET assay based on the kinetic turbidimetric Limulus assay. In addition, the changes in the tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-alpha) production capacity of whole blood following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and clinical outcome in the study patients were also examined. The 28-day mortality rate was 12%. PMX-direct hemoperfusion (PMX-DHP) was associated with elevation of the mean arterial pressure and urine output, reduction in the mean dose requirement of vasopressor agents, and recovery from the shock state in all the patients. The PaO2/FIO2 ratio also showed significant improvement. Using the high-sensitivity ET assay, ET was detected in the blood of 20 out of the 24 patients (80%) before the PMX-DHP, and a significant reduction in the ET level was noted after the PMX-DHP. The TNF-alpha production capacity of whole blood, which was found to be lower in the septic shock patients than in healthy subjects, was significantly increased after PMX-DHP. Elimination of ET by PMX-DHP in septic shock patients was confirmed by the high-sensitivity ET assay. PMX-DHP is thus considered to be a useful adjuvant therapeutic technique in the treatment of septic shock. Also, PMX-DHP might alleviate the immunosuppression associated with severe sepsis. PMID:16556131

Kojika, Masahiro; Sato, Nobuhiro; Yaegashi, Yasunori; Suzuki, Yasusi; Suzuki, Kenji; Nakae, Hajime; Endo, Sigeatu

2006-02-01

312

Endotoxin Neutralization as a Biomonitor for Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

PubMed Central

Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin is a potent immunostimulant implicated in the development and/or progression of a variety of diseases. The mammalian immune system has both innate and adaptive immune responses to neutralize endotoxin. In this study, a system was developed to monitor bacterial exposure by measuring the extent and nature of endotoxin neutralization in plasma. In control patients, females had higher levels of endotoxin neutralization than males, mirroring clinical outcomes from bacterial infection and sepsis. In addition to the total amount of neutralization, we used inactivation techniques to elucidate the nature of this activity and develop a system to compare early and late immune responses. Using this method to monitor patients with inflammatory bowel disease, we found a more robust total response that relies more on long-term, adaptive components of the immune system and less on early, innate components. Our results indicate that endotoxin neutralization is a valuable method to discern inflammatory bowel disease patients from a control population. Additionally, the nature of neutralization may be valuable in monitoring disease severity and/or the role of medication. PMID:23826338

Champion, Keith; Chiu, Laura; Ferbas, John; Pepe, Michael

2013-01-01

313

Endotoxin neutralization as a biomonitor for inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed

Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin is a potent immunostimulant implicated in the development and/or progression of a variety of diseases. The mammalian immune system has both innate and adaptive immune responses to neutralize endotoxin. In this study, a system was developed to monitor bacterial exposure by measuring the extent and nature of endotoxin neutralization in plasma. In control patients, females had higher levels of endotoxin neutralization than males, mirroring clinical outcomes from bacterial infection and sepsis. In addition to the total amount of neutralization, we used inactivation techniques to elucidate the nature of this activity and develop a system to compare early and late immune responses. Using this method to monitor patients with inflammatory bowel disease, we found a more robust total response that relies more on long-term, adaptive components of the immune system and less on early, innate components. Our results indicate that endotoxin neutralization is a valuable method to discern inflammatory bowel disease patients from a control population. Additionally, the nature of neutralization may be valuable in monitoring disease severity and/or the role of medication. PMID:23826338

Champion, Keith; Chiu, Laura; Ferbas, John; Pepe, Michael

2013-01-01

314

Lipopolysaccharide preconditioning facilitates M2 activation of resident microglia after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

The inflammatory response following spinal cord injury (SCI) has both harmful and beneficial effects; however, it can be modulated for therapeutic benefit. Endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning, a well-established method for modifying the immune reaction, has been shown to attenuate damage induced by stroke and brain trauma in rodent models. Although such effects likely are conveyed by tissue-repairing functions of the inflammatory response, the mechanisms that control the effects have not yet been elucidated. The present study preconditioned C57BL6/J mice with 0.05 mg/kg of LPS 48 hr before inducing contusion SCI to investigate the effect of LPS preconditioning on the activation of macrophages/microglia. We found that LPS preconditioning promotes the polarization of M1/M2 macrophages/microglia toward an M2 phenotype in the injured spinal cord on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemical analyses. Flow cytometric analyses reveal that LPS preconditioning facilitates M2 activation in resident microglia but not in infiltrating macrophages. Augmented M2 activation was accompanied by vascularization around the injured lesion, resulting in improvement in both tissue reorganization and functional recovery. Furthermore, we found that M2 activation induced by LPS preconditioning is regulated by interleukin-10 gene expression, which was preceded by the transcriptional activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3, as demonstrated by Western blotting and an IRF-3 binding assay. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that LPS preconditioning has a therapeutic effect on SCI through the modulation of M1/M2 polarization of resident microglia. The present study suggests that controlling M1/M2 polarization through endotoxin signal transduction could become a promising therapeutic strategy for various central nervous system diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25044014

Hayakawa, Kentaro; Okazaki, Rentaro; Morioka, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Kozo; Tanaka, Sakae; Ogata, Toru

2014-12-01

315

Effect of endotoxin and radio-detoxified endotoxin on the serum T4 level of rats and response of their thyroid gland to exogenous TSH  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were performed to demonstrate that, while the shock-inducing dose of parent (toxic) endotoxin significantly decreases the serum T4 level of rats and inhibits the T4 response given to exogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), the radio-detoxified (/sup 60/Co-gamma, 150 kGy) endotoxin preparation does not inhibit the response to exogenous TSH. It also decreases serum T4 level to a lesser extent than untreated endotoxin.

Bertok, L.; Nagy, S.U.

1984-12-01

316

The anti-idiotypic antibody 1F7 stimulates monocyte interleukin-10 production and induces endotoxin tolerance  

PubMed Central

Background Pathogens that establish chronic infection elicit immune responses with suppressive cytokines dominating over pro-inflammatory cytokines. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection are associated with high levels of antiviral antibodies expressing a common idiotype specifically recognized by the 1F7 monoclonal antibody (mAb). The 1F7 mAb is a murine IgM? antibody raised against immunoglobulin pooled from the plasma of multiple HIV-infected individuals. In this study, we investigated direct effects of the 1F7 mAb itself on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Methods Isolated monocytes or PBMC from healthy controls were incubated with the 1F7 mAb or IgM? mAb control. Cytokine production was measured in cell culture supernatants by ELISA and cells producing interleukin-10 (IL-10) were identified by subset depletion and intracellular flow cytometry. Endotoxin tolerance was assessed by exposing monocytes to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) following 1F7 mAb or IgM? mAb control pre-treatment and comparing tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? levels in cell culture supernatants. Results The 1F7 mAb stimulated monocytes and CD36+ lymphocytes to produce IL-10 in a time and dose-dependent manner. Treatment of monocytes with 1F7 mAb also reduced their subsequent responsiveness to LPS stimulation. Conclusions Induction of antibodies expressing the 1F7 idiotype by chronic pathogens may facilitate IL-10 production and progression to chronic infection. Direct effects of IL-10 from human monocytes stimulated by 1F7-like antibodies, followed by monocyte transition to an alternatively activated phenotype illustrated by endotoxin tolerance, are two complementary features favouring a tolerogenic or non-responsive immunological environment. PMID:23561395

2013-01-01

317

Bacterial endotoxin both enhances and inhibits the toxicity of Shiga-like toxin II in rabbits and mice.  

PubMed Central

The ability of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to enhance the toxicity of Shiga-like toxin II (SLT-II) was investigated in rabbits and mice. Rabbits were continuously infused with 0.5 50% lethal dose (LD50) of SLT-II per day. Rabbits that received a 30-micrograms/kg dose of LPS (0.02 LD50) on day 3 of infusion were significantly more likely to die than were rabbits receiving SLT-II only. Rabbits receiving SLT-II and a lower dose of LPS (3 micrograms/kg) did not die but lost an average 3.3% +/- 1.0% of initial body weight during the first 5 days of infusion, compared with weight gains of 4.2% +/- 0.6% and 17.1% +/- 0.9% for rabbits receiving only SLT-II or LPS, respectively. Rabbits that were pretreated with LPS 20 h before challenge with a single dose of SLT-II showed highly significant protection from both the diarrheagenic and lethal effects of SLT-II. Pretreatment of endotoxin-responsive C3H/HeN mice protected the animals from challenge with an LD50 but not an LD100 of SLT-II. LPS enhanced the lethal toxicity of SLT-II for C3H/HeN mice when it was given at 8 or 24 h but not 0 or 72 h after SLT-II challenge. LPS did not affect the lethal toxicity of SLT-II for endotoxin-resistant C3H/HeJ mice. These results suggest that LPS enhances the effects of SLT-II in vivo. Since cecal changes that increase mucosal permeability occur in response to SLT in rabbits, this synergy may be directly relevant to disease processes. PMID:2680974

Barrett, T J; Potter, M E; Wachsmuth, I K

1989-01-01

318

Endotoxin suppresses expression of apoprotein E by mouse macrophages in vivo and in culture: a biochemical and genetic study  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis and secretion of apo-E, a component of plasma lipoproteins, are suppressed in mouse macrophages exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) in culture or in vivo. Control mouse macrophages contained intracellular immunofluorescent apo-E, and apo-E represented about 10% of secreted protein. After intraperitoneal injection of LPS, freshly lavaged macrophages neither contained intracellular apo-E nor secreted apo-E. The suppressive effects of LPS and apo-E synthesis in culture were selective, and secretion of many other major macrophage proteins was not affected. When then LPS-elicited macrosphages were cultured for 24-72 h in the absence of LPS, synthesis of apo-E was initiated. Treatment of bone marrow-derived or peritoneal macrophages in culture with less than 1 ng of LPS/ml inhibited apo-E synthesis and secretion by 18 h of treatment. Although LPS stimulates prostaglandin E/sub 2/ synthesis, prostaglandin E/sub 2/ itself did not suppress apo-E synthesis. Macrophages from C3H/HeJ (Lps/sup d//Lps/sup d/) mice, which are resistant to LPS, were neither primed for H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production nor suppressed for apo-E synthesis in response to LPS in vivo (30 ..mu..g/mouse) or in culture (1..mu../ml), whereas macrophages from the co-isogenic C3H/HeN (Lps/sup n//Lps/sup n/) strain were induced for H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ secretion and had suppressed synthesis of apo-E. Because apo-E serves as a recognition determinant for the receptor-mediated clearance of lipoproteins, the decreased synthesis of apo-E after LPS treatment may in part explain the hyperlipoproteinemia associated with endotoxins in vivo.

Werb, Z.; Chin, J.R.

1983-09-10

319

Determination of endotoxin in injectable antibiotic preparations by the chromogenic assay method using a Limulus reagent (Tachypleus hemocyte lysate) and a chromogenic substrate.  

PubMed Central

The effects of 50 antibiotics on the detection and determination of bacterial endotoxins by the chromogenic method using a Limulus reagent (Tachypleus hemocyte lysate) and a chromogenic substrate of p-nitroaniline derivatives were tested, and the antibiotic concentration for 50% inhibition of the chromogenic reaction in the presence of 0.5 ng of endotoxin (Escherichia coli 0111:B4) per ml was estimated. All the antibiotic preparations were depyrogenized by ultrafiltration treatment before they were subjected to the test. The reaction was conducted in the presence of a high concentration (0.5 M) of Tris buffer to constantly maintain the pH of the reaction mixture, and liberated p-nitroaniline was determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Several aminoglycosides (amikacin, bekanamycin, kanamycin, and streptomycin sulfate), bleomycin hydrochloride, and fosfomycin disodium showed no inhibition of the reaction up to 20 mg/ml. However, other antibiotics, including penicillins, cephalosporins, macrolides, and tetracyclines, inhibited the reaction concentration dependently. Polymyxin B sulfate was the most potent inhibitor, with less than 8 micrograms/ml for 50% inhibition. It was concluded that the chromogenic method can be applied to the detection and determination of endotoxin in most of the antibiotic preparations. An application of this method to carbenicillin disodium preparations was exemplified. PMID:3700595

Yano, S; Hotta, Y; Takahashi, S

1986-01-01

320

A pilot investigation of the relative toxicity of indoor and outdoor fine particles: in vitro effects of endotoxin and other particulate properties.  

PubMed Central

In this study we assessed the in vitro toxicity of 14 paired indoor and outdoor PM(2.5) samples (particulate matter < or =2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) collected in 9 Boston-area homes. Samples were collected as part of a large indoor particle characterization study that included the simultaneous measurement of indoor and outdoor PM(2.5), particle size distributions, and compositional data (e.g., elemental/organic carbon, endotoxin, etc.). Bioassays were conducted using rat alveolar macrophages (AMs), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was measured to assess particle-induced proinflammatory responses. Additional experiments were also conducted in which AMs were primed with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to simulate preexisting pulmonary inflammation such as that which might exist in sick and elderly individuals. Significant TNF production above that of negative controls was observed for AMs exposed to either indoor or outdoor PM(2.5). TNF releases were further amplified for primed AMs, suggesting that preexisting inflammation can potentially exacerbate the toxicity of not only outdoor PM(2.5) (as shown by previous studies) but also indoor PM(2.5). In addition, indoor particle TNF production was found to be significantly higher than outdoor particle TNF production in unprimed AMs, both before and after normalization for endotoxin concentrations. Our results suggest that indoor-generated particles may be more bioactive than ambient particles. Endotoxin was demonstrated to mediate proinflammatory responses for both indoor and outdoor PM(2.5), but study findings suggest the presence of other proinflammatory components of fine particles, particularly for indoor-generated particles. Given these study findings and the fact that people spend 85-90% of their time indoors, future studies are needed to address the toxicity of indoor particles. PMID:11689347

Long, C M; Suh, H H; Kobzik, L; Catalano, P J; Ning, Y Y; Koutrakis, P

2001-01-01

321

Study of the role of epidermal growth factor on lung fluid transport in rabbits with acute lung injury caused by endotoxin  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the lung fluid transport of rabbits with acute lung injury caused by endotoxin and evaluate its therapeutic action. A total of 24 rabbits were randomly divided into control, simple acute lung injury (ALI) and EGF only treatment groups. ALI rabbit models were constructed by the administration of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and subsequent treatment with EGF. Arterial partial pressure of oxygen, lung pathomorphological changes and wet/dry weight (W/D) of the left lobe of lung tissue were observed at various time points. Results showed that following treatment with EGF, the breathing status of the rabbits continued to improve. An increase was noted in PaO2 at 12 h after EGF treatment and 24 h later PaO2 had significantly increased. A marked decrease was observed in the value of W/D and the exudation was reduced. The extrinsic EGF decreased the exudation of pulmonary capillaries and improved lung water transport. Our findings verified that epidermal growth factor had repaired the effect of ALI through continuous 48-h observation. Therefore, the present study demonstrated the therapeutic action of EGF. PMID:23170113

YANG, BINOU; HUANG, WEIQING; HAN, JIEYUN; LIANG, ZIJING

2012-01-01

322

Effect of the Toll-Like Receptor 4 Antagonist Eritoran on Retinochoroidal Inflammatory Damage in a Rat Model of Endotoxin-Induced Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Purpose. We investigated the effect of eritoran, a Toll-like receptor 4 antagonist, on retinochoroidal inflammatory damage in an endotoxin-induced inflammatory rat model. Methods. Endotoxin-induced inflammatory model was obtained by intraperitoneal injection of 1.5?mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Group 1 had control rats; in groups 2-3 LPS and 0.5?mg/kg sterile saline were injected; and in groups 4-5 LPS and 0.5?mg/kg eritoran were injected. Blood samples were taken and eyes were enucleated after 12 hours (h) (groups 2 and 4) or 24 hours (Groups 3 and 5). Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the serum and retinochoroidal tissue and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF?B) levels in retinochoroidal tissue were determined. Histopathological examination was performed and retinochoroidal changes were scored. Results. Eritoran treatment resulted in lower levels of TNF-?, MDA, and NF?B after 12?h which became significant after 24 h. Serum TNF-? and retinochoroidal tissue NF?B levels were similar to control animals at the 24th?h of the study. Eritoran significantly reversed histopathological damage after 24 h. Conclusions. Eritoran treatment resulted in less inflammatory damage in terms of serum and retinochoroidal tissue parameters. PMID:25165412

Karaca, Emine Esra; Korkmaz, Safak; Yuksel, Osman; Gulbahar, Ozlem; Alper, Murat; Ercan, Sevim; Or, Meral

2014-01-01

323

Toxicity of intratracheally instilled cotton dust, cellulose, and endotoxin.  

PubMed

Cotton dust includes respirable particles containing endotoxin and elastase, agents associated with emphysema. To examine whether a respirable fraction of cotton dust could produce emphysema in an animal model, we intratracheally instilled hamsters with respirable cotton dust particles (0.75 mg/100-g animal), mass median aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 4.8 microns, twice weekly for 6 wk. We also examined whether instilled endotoxin (255 micrograms/100-g animal) could produce emphysema in hamsters and whether cellulose (0.75 mg/100-g animal) is an appropriate inert comparison dust. A saline-instilled group was the control. Hamsters were killed 8 wk after the last instillation. Static pressure-volume deflation curves of air-filled excised lungs were analyzed to measure lung distensibility. Lungs were fixed in inflation using glutaraldehyde and were examined morphometrically to obtain surface area and numbers of granulomata. Endotoxin-treated animals had increased distensibility, reduced surface-to-volume (S/V) ratio, and morphologically apparent mild centrilobular emphysema. Cellulose-treated animals had decreased distensibility, normal S/V ratio, and significant numbers of granulomata with patchy areas of thickened interalveolar septa. Cotton-dust-instilled animals had normal distensibility, reduced S/V ratio, significant numbers of granulomata, and mild centrilobular emphysema. These data suggest that cotton dust produces a significant parenchymal lesion with elements similar to both the emphysematous response to endotoxin and the fibrotic nodular response to cellulose. PMID:2368968

Milton, D K; Godleski, J J; Feldman, H A; Greaves, I A

1990-07-01

324

Streptomycetes in house dust: associations with housing characteristics and endotoxin  

EPA Science Inventory

In addition to mold, indoor bioaerosols also contain bacterial components that may have implications for human health. Endotoxin is a cell wall component in Gram-negative bacteria present at varying levels indoors that has been found to have respiratory health implications. Stre...

325

Endotoxin-induced mortality in rats is reduced by nitrones  

SciTech Connect

The goal of these investigations was to determine if nitrone spin-trapping agents can alter mortality associated with endotoxemia in the rat. Reactive free radicals attack nitrone spin-trapping agents forming relatively reactive, persistent free radical spin adducts. We administered 85 mM (10 ml/kg) of alpha-phenyl N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN), alpha-4-pyridyl-N-oxide N-tert-butyl nitrone (4-POBN), 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO), or vehicle (saline i.p.) 30 min before endotoxin (25 mg/kg i.p.) or vehicle to Sprague-Dawley (SD) or Holtzman virus-free (HVF) rats (n = 10-17/group). All vehicle-treated rats receiving endotoxin were dead by 1 day. At 7 days, 83% of PBN-treated SD, 42% of PBN- or POBN-treated HVF, and 25% of DMPO-treated HVF rats were alive. The difference in survival of PBN-treated animals between strains may reflect the higher susceptibility of HVF rats to endotoxin. The observed reduction in mortality may be related to the well-established capacity of spin-trapping agents to capture reactive free radicals that may be generated in target tissues in response to endotoxin, and that would otherwise react with cell components and produce tissue injury.

Hamburger, S.A.; McCay, P.B. (Oklahoma Medical Researh Foundation, Oklahoma City (USA))

1989-12-01

326

Alkaline phosphatases contribute to uterine receptivity, implantation, decidualization and defense against bacterial endotoxin in hamsters  

PubMed Central

Alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity has been demonstrated in the uterus of several species, but its importance in the uterus, in general and during pregnancy, is yet to be revealed. In this study, we focused on identifying AP isozyme types, and their hormonal regulation, cell-type and event-specific expression and possible functions in the hamster uterus during the cycle and early pregnancy. Our RT-PCR and in situ hybridization studies demonstrated that among the known Akp2, Akp3, Akp5 and Akp6 murine AP isozyme genes, hamster uteri express only Akp2 and Akp6; and both genes are co-expressed in luminal epithelial cells. Studies in cyclic and ovariectomized hamsters established that while progesterone is the major uterine Akp2 inducer, both progesterone and estrogen are strong Akp6 regulators. Studies in preimplantation uteri showed induction of both genes and the activity of their encoded isozymes in luminal epithelial cells during uterine receptivity. However, at the beginning of implantation, Akp2 showed reduced expression in luminal epithelial cells surrounding the implanted embryo. In contrast, expression of Akp6 and its isozyme was maintained in luminal epithelial cells adjacent to, but not away from, the implanted embryo. Following implantation, stromal transformation to decidua was associated with induced expressions of only Akp2 and its isozyme. We next demonstrated that uterine APs dephosphorylate and detoxify endotoxin lipopolysaccharide at their sites of production and activity. Taken together, our findings suggest that uterine APs contribute to uterine receptivity, implantation, and decidualization in addition to their role in protection of the uterus and pregnancy against bacterial infection. PMID:23929901

Lei, Wei; Nguyen, Heidi; Brown, Naoko; Ni, Hua; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Reese, Jeff; Millan, Jose Luis; Paria, Bibhash C.

2013-01-01

327

Leucine metabolism in TNF-alpha- and endotoxin-treated rats: contribution of hepatic tissue.  

PubMed

The effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha; cachectin) and lipopolysaccharide of Salmonella enteritidis (LPS; endotoxin) on leucine metabolism in rats were evaluated in the whole body using intravenous infusion of L-[1-14C]leucine and in isolated perfused liver (IPL) using the single-pass perfusion technique with alpha-keto[1-14C]isocaproate as a tracer for measurement of ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) oxidation, and the recirculation technique for measurement of hepatic amino acid exchanges. The data obtained in TNF-alpha and LPS groups were compared with those obtained in controls. Both TNF-alpha and LPS treatment induced an increase of whole body leucine turnover, oxidation, and clearance. As the result of a higher increase of leucine oxidation than of incorporation into the pool of body proteins, the fractional oxidation of leucine was increased. The fractional rate of protein synthesis increased significantly in the spleen (both in TNF-alpha and LPS rats), in blood plasma, liver, colon, kidneys, gastrocnemius muscle (in LPS rats), and in lungs (TNF-alpha-treated rats), whereas it decreased in the jejunum (LPS rats). In IPL of TNF-alpha- and LPS-treated rats a decrease of KIC oxidation and higher uptake of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) were observed when compared with control animals. We hypothesize that the negative consequences of increased whole body proteolysis and of increased oxidation of BCAA induced by TNF-alpha and/or LPS are reduced by decreased activity of hepatic branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase that can help resupply BCAA to the body. PMID:9435518

Holecek, M; Sprongl, L; Skopec, F; Andrýs, C; Pecka, M

1997-12-01

328

Mechanisms of endotoxin-induced airway and pulmonary vascular hyperreactivity in mice.  

PubMed

Endotoxin is thought to contribute to pulmonary hyperresponsiveness in byssinosis, asthma, and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of this phenomenon in the isolated, blood-free perfused mouse lung. Perfusion with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) had no effect on pulmonary resistance or pulmonary artery pressure, but induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR) to methacholine (MCh) and pulmonary vascular hyperreactivity (VHR) to platelet-activating factor (PAF). Blockade of the thromboxane/endoperoxide (TP) receptor with SQ29.548 completely protected against LPS-induced AHR and VHR. Blockade of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) abolished LPS-induced VHR but suppressed LPS-induced AHR only marginally. COX-2 messenger RNA was upregulated in LPS-treated lungs, and inhibition of transcription with actinomycin D or of protein biosynthesis with cycloheximide protected against LPS-induced VHR but not AHR. Pretreatment with the radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine partly protected against LPS-induced AHR. In addition, perfusion of mouse lungs with the isoprostane 8-epiprostaglandin F(2alpha) (8-epi-PGF(2alpha)), which may be formed as a consequence of oxidative stress in the lung, elicited AHR, which was completely blocked by SQ29.548. Enzyme immunoassay did not detect either 8-epi-PGF(2alpha )or thromboxane B(2) in perfusate samples. Our findings show that LPS induces AHR and VHR in mouse lungs via activation of the TP receptor. Although induction of VHR depends on COX-2 activity, AHR is largely mediated by a non-COX-derived TP agonist, which might be a product of radical-induced lipid peroxidation. PMID:11029375

Held, H D; Uhlig, S

2000-10-01

329

Modulation of endotoxin-induced neutrophil transendothelial migration by alveolar epithelium in a defined bilayer model.  

PubMed

Within the alveolus, epithelial cells, due to their close association with endothelial cells, can potentially influence endothelial cell responsiveness during inflammation and their interaction with leukocytes. To investigate this, three lung epithelial cell lines (A549, Calu-3, or NCI-H441) were grown with endothelium on opposing surfaces of Transwell filters and the formation and stability of bilayers was rigorously evaluated. All epithelial lines disrupted endothelial monolayer formation on filters with 3- or 5-microm pores by breaching the filter, and this occurred regardless of seeding density, matrix composition, or duration of culture. Endothelial disruption was not detectable by electrical resistance or permeability measurements but required cell-specific staining with immunofluorescence and microscopy. Distinct bilayers formed only on filters with 0.4-microm pores and only with A549 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) stimulation of bilayers (4 hours) enhanced neutrophil transendothelial migration, but this was significantly decreased compared with the response of endothelium grown alone, irrespective of whether LPS exposure was via the epithelial or endothelial side of the bilayer. Down-modulation required epithelial-endothelial approximation and was not seen when these cells were separated by 0.5 to 1 mm. This study defines optimal conditions required for generation of intact bilayers of lung epithelial cells with endothelium for the study of leukocyte-transendothelial migration. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that lung epithelial cells can modulate endothelial cell responsiveness to an environmental inflammatory stimulus such as LPS and thus may have an important role in minimizing excessive and deleterious neutrophilic inflammation in the lung alveolus. PMID:17169854

Weppler, Amy; Rowter, Derek; Hermanns, Iris; Kirkpatrick, C James; Issekutz, Andrew C

2006-01-01

330

Short-term effects of an endotoxin on substantia nigra dopamine neurons.  

PubMed

Inflammation has been implicated in the pathology of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson?s disease (PD). Studies using the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent inflammogen, show that systemic insults can trigger prolonged microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production leading to degeneration of substantia nigra (SN) dopamine (DA) neurons, mimicking idiopathic PD. Because rapid effects of LPS on SN neurons had not been investigated previously, the focus of this study is to assess time-dependent alterations in SN neuroinflammation, DAergic neurons, and neuronal signaling cascades following LPS administration. LPS (5mg/kg, i.p.) or saline (0.9% NaCl) was administered to 8-month-old male mice. At 3h, 5h, and 12h post-injection, the morphology of the SN was assessed using antibodies directed against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, DAergic marker), Iba-1 (pan-microglial marker), phospho-ERK, and phospho-CREB (signaling). LPS administration significantly reduced TH-immunoreactivity (ir) at all time-points with the greatest reduction observed at 12h post-injection. Reduced TH-ir was accompanied by a significant increase in activated microglia at all time-points following LPS. By 12h post-injection, LPS-treated mice exhibited activated as well as reactive microglia, which can result in neuronal damage. These data demonstrate that the initial reduction in TH-ir observed after an LPS injection was not concomitant with morphological alterations in microglial cells, even though a significant increase in phospho-ERK was observed in glial cells as soon as 3h post-injection. It is possible that the initial alteration in DA phenotype (TH reduction) may perpetuate an inflammatory response that persists and leads to further DAergic damage. PMID:24513404

Reinert, Kaela R S; Umphlet, Claudia D; Quattlebaum, Ariana; Boger, Heather A

2014-04-01

331

Protective effects of erythropoietin on endotoxin-related organ injury in rats.  

PubMed

The protective effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on tissues following ischemia and reperfusion injuries remains poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the effect of EPO in preventing endotoxin-induced organ damage. Rat model of multiple organ failure (MOF) was established by tail vein injection of 10 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Recombinant human EPO treatment (5000 U/kg) was administered by tail vein injection at 30 min after LPS challenge. Twenty-four h after EPO treatment, changes in serum enzyme levels, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr), were evaluated by biochemical analysis. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were determined by using immunoradiometric assay. Histological examination of tissue sections was carried out by hematoxylin and eosin staining, while ultrastructure evaluation of organ tissues was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Protein expression levels were detected by using Western blotting. EPO treatment showed a modest effect in preventing LPS-induced elevation of AST, ALT, BUN, Cr, and TNF-? levels, and in protecting against LPS-induced tissue degeneration and injured ultrastructure in the lung, liver, and kidney. Moreover, LPS promoted phosphorylation of alanine aminotransferase (AKT) and increased nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation in the lung, liver, and kidney (P<0.05 vs. control). However, EPO treatment significantly decreased the LPS-induced pAKT up-regulation in these tissues (P<0.05 vs. LPS treatment alone). The present study demonstrates that EPO may play a protective role against LPS-induced MOF by reducing the inflammatory response and tissue degeneration, possibly via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT and NF-?B signaling pathways. PMID:24142720

Li, Xiu-jiang; Zhang, Guo-xing; Sun, Ni; Sun, Yu; Yang, Li-zhi; Du, Yu-jun

2013-10-01

332

Effects of propofol on damage of rat intestinal epithelial cells induced by heat stress and lipopolysaccharides  

PubMed Central

Gut-derived endotoxin and pathogenic bacteria have been proposed as important causative factors of morbidity and death during heat stroke. However, it is still unclear what kind of damage is induced by heat stress. In this study, the rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) was treated with heat stress or a combination of heat stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, propofol, which plays an important role in anti-inflammation and organ protection, was applied to study its effects on cellular viability and apoptosis. Heat stress, LPS, or heat stress combined with LPS stimulation can all cause intestinal epithelial cell damage, including early apoptosis and subsequent necrosis. However, propofol can alleviate injuries caused by heat stress, LPS, or the combination of heat stress and LPS. Interestingly, propofol can only mitigate LPS-induced intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and has no protective role in heat-stress-induced apoptosis. This study developed a model that can mimic the intestinal heat stress environment. It demonstrates the effects on intestinal epithelial cell damage, and indicated that propofol could be used as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of heat-stress-induced intestinal injuries. PMID:23802227

Tang, J.; Jiang, Y.; Tang, Y.; Chen, B.; Sun, X.; Su, L.; Liu, Z.

2013-01-01

333

Cordyceps sinensis prevents apoptosis in mouse liver with D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure.  

PubMed

Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) has long been considered to be an herbal medicine and has been used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. The present study examined the cytoprotective properties of C. sinensis on D(+)-galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fulminant hepatic failure. Mice were randomly assigned into control, GalN/LPS, CS 20 mg and CS 40 mg groups (C. sinensis, oral gavage, five days/week, four weeks). After receiving saline or C. sinensis, mice were intraperitoneally given GalN (800 mg/kg)/LPS (10 ?g/kg). The effects of C. sinensis on TNF-?, IL-10, AST, NO, SOD, and apoptoticrelated proteins after the onset of endotoxin intoxication were determined. Data demonstrated that GalN/LPS increased hepatocyte degeneration, circulating AST, TNF-?, IL-10, and hepatic apoptosis and caspase activity. C. sinensis pre-treatment reduced AST, TNF-?, and NO and increased IL-10 and SOD in GalN/LPS induced fulminant hepatic failure. C. sinensis attenuated the apoptosis of hepatocytes, as evidenced by the TUNEL and capase-3, 6 activity analyses. In summary, C. sinensis alleviates GalN/LPS-induced liver injury by modulating the cytokine response and inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:24707872

Cheng, Yu-Jung; Cheng, Shiu-Min; Teng, Yi-Hsien; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Lee, Shin-Da

2014-01-01

334

Beneficial Effects of Fractions of Nardostachys jatamansi on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response  

PubMed Central

It has been previously shown that Nardostachys jatamansi (NJ) exhibits anti-inflammatory properties against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenges. However, the potency of NJ constituents against LPS-induced inflammatory responses has not been examined. In this present study, we determined which NJ extract fractions exhibit inhibitory effects against LPS-induced inflammatory responses. Among the NJ fractions, NJ-1, NJ-3, NJ-4, and NJ-6 inhibited LPS-induced production of NO. The NJ-3, NJ-4, and NJ-6 fractions also inhibited the production of cytokines, such as IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?. However, NJ-1, NJ-3, NJ-4, and NJ-6 showed differential inhibitory mechanisms against LPS-induced inflammatory responses. NJ-1, NJ-3, and NJ-4 inhibited LPS-induced activation of c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 but did not affect activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) or NF-?B. On the other hand, NJ-6 inhibited activation of MAPKs and NF-?B. In addition, in vivo experiments revealed that administration of NJ-1, NJ-3, NJ-4, and NJ-6 reduced LPS-induced endotoxin shock, with NJ-6 especially showing a marked protective effect. Taken together, these results provide the evidence for the potential of selective NJ fractions against LPS-induced inflammation. Thus, it will be advantageous to further isolate and determine single effective compounds from these potent fractions. PMID:24795771

Heo, Kwang-Ho; Choi, Sun Bok; Jo, Il-Joo; Kim, Dong-Goo; Shin, Joon-Yeon; Seo, Seung-Hee; Park, Kyoung-Chel; Lee, Dong-Sung; Oh, Hyuncheol; Kim, Youn-Chul; Song, Ho-Joon; Shin, Byung-Cheul

2014-01-01

335

Molecular and Cellular Regulation of Toll-Like Receptor-4 Activity Induced by Lipopolysaccharide Ligands  

PubMed Central

As well as being the primary signaling receptor for bacterial endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide Toll-like receptor-4 function is modulated by numerous factors not only in the context of microbial pathogenesis but also autoimmune and allergic diseases. TLR4 is subject to multiple levels of endogenous control and regulation from biosynthesis and trafficking to signal transduction and degradation. On the other hand regulation of TLR4 activity breaks down during Gram ?ve sepsis leading to systemic damage, multi organ failure, and death. In this article, we review how TLR4 traffics from the early secretory pathway, the cis/trans Golgi to the cell surface and endolysosomal compartments. We will present evidence about how these processes influence signaling and can potentially lead to increased sensitivity to ligand-dependent activation as well as ligand-independent constitutive activation that may contribute to pathogenesis in sepsis. We will also discuss how sustained signaling may be coupled to endocytosis and consider the potential molecular mechanisms of immuno-modulators that modify TLR4 signaling function including the cat allergen FelD1 and endogenous protein ligands such as the extracellular matrix protein tenascin C and calprotectin (MRP8/14). PMID:25339952

Liaunardy-Jopeace, Ardiyanto; Gay, Nicholas J.

2014-01-01

336

Fc gamma receptor-dependent clearance is enhanced following lipopolysaccharide in vivo treatment.  

PubMed Central

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) occupy centre stage in the pathogenesis of gram-negative sepsis. Although LPS are potent stimulators of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), their effects on immune complex (IC)-specific clearance have not yet been reported. In order to evaluate this issue, we examined the MPS function after LPS treatment by measuring intravascular removal rate of syngeneic erythrocytes sensitized with specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) (EA). Our findings showed that LPS, directly or through the release of endogenous cytokines, enhance Fc gamma receptor (Fc gamma R)-dependent clearance. The EA uptake by liver, spleen and bone marrow was significantly increased leading to an effective clearance of immune complexes. Splenic antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), an in vitro indicator of Fc gamma R functionality, was also increased after in vivo LPS treatment. However, cytometric studies showed that endotoxin did not modify Fc gamma R expression on splenocytes, but markedly enhanced the expression of CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1), an adhesion molecule closely related to Fc gamma R activity. We conclude that LPS enhance Fc gamma R-dependent effector functions and suggest that this effect is mediated through alterations in adhesion molecules. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9497496

Palermo, M S; Alves Rosa, F; Fernandez Alonso, G; Isturiz, M A

1997-01-01

337

Endotoxin inactivation via steam-heat treatment in dilute simethicone emulsions used in biopharmaceutical processes.  

PubMed

Simethicone emulsion is used to regulate foaming in cell culture operations in biopharmaceutical processes. It is also a potential source of endotoxin contamination. The inactivation of endotoxins in dilute simethicone emulsions was assessed as a function of time at different steam temperatures using a Limulus amebocyte lysate kinetic chromogenic technique. Endotoxin inactivation from steam-heat treatment was fit to a four-parameter double exponential decay model, which indicated that endotoxin inactivation was biphasic, consisting of fast and slow regimes. In the fast regime, temperature-related effects were dominant. Transitioning into the slow regime, the observed temperature dependence diminished, and concentration-related effects became increasingly significant. The change in the Gibbs free energy moving through the transition state indicated that a large energy barrier must be overcome for endotoxin inactivation to occur. The corresponding Arrhenius pre-exponential factor was >10(12) s(-1) suggesting that endotoxins in aqueous solution exist as aggregates. The disorder associated with the endotoxin inactivation reaction pathway was assessed via the change in entropy moving through the transition state. This quantity was positive indicating that endotoxin inactivation may result from hydrolysis of individual endotoxin molecules, which perturbs the conformation of endotoxin aggregates, thereby modulating the biological activity observed. Steam-heat treatment decreased endotoxin levels by 1-2 logarithm (log) reduction (LRV), which may be practically relevant depending on incoming raw material endotoxin levels. Antifoam efficiency and cell culture performance were negligibly impacted following steam-heat treatment. The results from this study show that steam-heat treatment is a viable endotoxin control strategy that can be implemented to support large-scale biopharmaceutical manufacturing. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:1145-1160, 2014. PMID:24623631

Britt, Keith A; Galvin, Jeffrey; Gammell, Patrick; Nti-Gyabaah, Joseph; Boras, George; Kolwyck, David; Ramirez, José G; Presente, Esther; Naugle, Gregory

2014-09-01

338

In vivo quantitation of the rat liver's ability to eliminate endotoxin from portal vein blood  

SciTech Connect

The in vivo uptake of endotoxin by the liver from portal vein blood was assessed during a single passage through the liver. /sup 51/Cr labeled and unlabeled endotoxin were infused in different amounts into the femoral vein of three groups of lead-sensitized rats: a nonoperated, a sham-operated, and a surgically created reversed Eck fistula (REF) group. Whereas in the former two the infused endotoxin encounters the lung as the first filter organ, the liver performs this function in the latter experimental model. The mortality rates observed in control and sham-operated, lead-sensitized rats were found to correlate closely and reproducibly to the degree of endotoxemia. This assay was then applied to determine the amount of endotoxin eliminated by the liver by establishing, in the REF rat, the amounts of endotoxin that escaped hepatic clearance. The capacity of the liver to eliminate endotoxin from portal vein blood during a single passage increases as the portal vein endotoxin level rises; it approaches a maximum, suggesting that endotoxin's interaction with the Kupffer cells conforms to classical saturation kinetics. A Lineweaver-Burk plot prepared from these data indicates that the maximal in vivo capacity of the liver to remove endotoxin from portal vein blood approximates 1.5 micrograms/gm liver/hr. Data obtained with the use of radiolabeled endotoxin corroborate the information obtained with the bioassay technique. Endotoxin eliminated by the Kupffer cells in these quantities is slowly disintegrated; 4 hr after termination of the endotoxin infusion, less than 4% of the radiolabel is found in the urine and none in the bile. These observations indicate that the Kupffer cell's functional capacity to sequester and detoxify endotoxin is extensive and far exceeds the requirements imposed by physiological and most pathological conditions.

Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamaguchi, K.; Babb, J.L.; Gans, H.

1982-12-01

339

Use of indium-111 oxine to study pulmonary and hepatic leukocyte sequestration in endotoxin shock and effects of the beta-2 receptor agonist terbutaline  

SciTech Connect

The dynamic behavior of indium-111 oxine-labeled leukocytes was simultaneously recorded in multiple organs during endotoxin shock in sheep. Also, the effects of the beta-2 receptor agonist terbutaline were studied. An experimental protocol was designed to mimic a clinical condition in an intensive care setting as far as possible. The animals were ventilated with 50% oxygen to avoid hypoxemia and were given large amounts of intravenous fluids to reduce adverse effects of hypovolemia. A moderate dose of E. coli endotoxin (10 micrograms/kg bwt) was given by intravenous infusion to 14 adult sheep, seven of them receiving continuous intravenous infusion of terbutaline (20 micrograms/kg/hr) during 4 hr, starting 30 min after endotoxin, when signs of lung injury had developed. The other seven acted as controls. A marked pulmonary and hepatic leukocyte sequestration together with a sharp drop in leukocyte counts in peripheral blood occurred within minutes after start of the endotoxin infusion in both groups. However, no changes were observed in the kidneys or the gut. After 60 min and until the end of the experiment, there was a significantly lower activity in the lungs and in the liver of the animals treated with terbutaline than in the controls (P less than .01). Furthermore, less marked hemodynamic and respiratory alterations occurred in the terbutaline group compared with the controls. This study confirms the results of other investigators showing that significant leukocyte sequestration occurs in the lungs during endotoxemia, but it also demonstrates that leukocytes sequestrate in the liver, although slightly less than in the lungs.

Sigurdsson, G.H.; Christenson, J.T.; al-Mousawi, M.; Owunwanne, A. (Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait))

1989-01-01

340

Investigation on interaction of Achatinin, a 9-O-acetyl sialic acid-binding lectin, with lipopolysaccharide in the innate immunity of Achatina fulica snails.  

PubMed

Achatinin, a 9-O-acetyl sialic acid (9-O-AcSA) binding lectin, has been demonstrated to be synthesized in amoebocytes of Achatina fulica snails. This lectin was affinity-purified from Achatina amoebocytes lysate (AAL); it appeared as a single band on native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and showed 16 identical subunits of M.W. 15 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-PAGE. It was found to be homologous with an earlier reported lectin, Achatinin-H, derived from hemolymph of A. fulica snails (Sen, G., Mandal, C., 1995. The specificity of the binding site of Achatinin-H, a sialic-acid binding lectin from Achantia fulica. Carbohydr. Res., 268, 115-125). Homology between both lectins was confirmed by their similar electrophoretic mobilities, carbohydrate specificity and cross reactivity on immunodiffusion. Achatinin showed in vitro calcium dependent binding to two 9-O-acetylated sialoglyoconjugates (9-O-AcSG) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (Escherichia coli 055: B5) of M.W. 40 kDa and 27.5 kDa, which was abolished following de-O-acetylation. Based on the previously defined narrow sugar specificity of Achatinin towards 9-O-AcSAalpha2-->6GalNAc [Sen, G., Mandal, C., 1995. The specificity of the binding site of Achatinin-H, a sialic-acid binding lectin from Achatina fulica. Carbohydr. Res., 268, 115-125], we conclude that LPS contains this lectinogenic epitope at the terminal sugar moiety. The Achatinin-mediated hemagglutination inhibition of rabbit erythrocytes by LPS further confirmed it. The lectin exhibited bacteriostatic effect on Gram-negative bacteria E. coli, DH5alpha and C600. AAL was earlier reported to undergo coagulation in presence of pg level of LPS (Biswas, C., Mandal, C., 1999. The role of amoebocytes in the endotoxin-mediated coagulation in the innate immunity of Achatina fulica snail, Scand. J. Immunol. 49, 131-138). We now demonstrate that Achatinin participates in LPS-mediated coagulation of AAL as indicated by enhanced release of Achatinin from the LPS stimulated amoebocytes and most importantly, by exhibiting a 77% decline in the coagulation of AAL when depleted of Achatinin. Level of Achatinin sharply declined (17-fold) following injection of LPS (20 microg per snail) to the snails, which was reversible by simultaneous injection of LPS and leupeptin implying the presence of LPS-mediated serine protease activity in Achatinin. This was substantiated when purified Achatinin in vitro showed serine protease activity in the presence of LPS followed by its complete blockage in the presence of leupeptin and phenyl methyl sulphonyl fluoride. Therefore, Achatinin, an abundantly available lectin at multiple sites of A. fulica, by virtue of its interaction with LPS, essentially plays a crucial role in the innate immune protection of A. fulica snails. PMID:11275259

Biswas, C; Sinha, D; Mandal, C

2000-01-01

341

Acute phase response in two consecutive experimentally induced E. coli intramammary infections in dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) have suggested to be suitable inflammatory markers for bovine mastitis. The aim of the study was to investigate acute phase markers along with clinical parameters in two consecutive intramammary challenges with Escherichia coli and to evaluate the possible carry-over effect when same animals are used

Leena Suojala; Toomas Orro; Hanna Järvinen; Johanna Saatsi; Satu Pyörälä

2008-01-01

342

E. coli  

MedlinePLUS

... sure that ground beef has reached a safe internal temperature of 160° F. Wash hands before preparing food, after diapering infants, and after contact with cows, sheep, or goats, their food or treats, or their living environment . General Information E. coli Infections (NIH MedlinePlus) Trusted ...

343

Indoor Pollutant Exposures Modify the Effect of Airborne Endotoxin on Asthma in Urban Children  

PubMed Central

Rationale: The effect of endotoxin on asthma morbidity in urban populations is unclear. Objectives: To determine if indoor pollutant exposure modifies the relationships between indoor airborne endotoxin and asthma health and morbidity. Methods: One hundred forty-six children and adolescents with persistent asthma underwent repeated clinical assessments at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Home visits were conducted at the same time points for assessment of airborne nicotine, endotoxin, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations. The effect of concomitant pollutant exposure on relationships between endotoxin and asthma outcomes were examined in stratified analyses and statistical models with interaction terms. Measurements and Main Results: Both air nicotine and NO2 concentrations modified the relationships between airborne endotoxin and asthma outcomes. Among children living in homes with no detectable air nicotine, higher endotoxin was inversely associated with acute visits and oral corticosteroid bursts, whereas among those in homes with detectable air nicotine, endotoxin was positively associated with these outcomes (interaction P value = 0.004 and 0.07, respectively). Among children living in homes with lower NO2 concentrations (<20 ppb), higher endotoxin was positively associated with acute visits, whereas among those living in homes with higher NO2 concentrations, endotoxin was negatively associated with acute visit (interaction P value = 0.05). NO2 also modified the effect of endotoxin on asthma symptom outcomes in a similar manner. Conclusions: The effects of household airborne endotoxin exposure on asthma are modified by coexposure to air nicotine and NO2, and these pollutants have opposite effects on the relationships between endotoxin and asthma-related outcomes. PMID:24066676

Hansel, Nadia N.; Aloe, Charles; Schiltz, Allison M.; Peng, Roger D.; Rabinovitch, Nathan; Ong, Mary Jane; Williams, D’Ann L.; Breysse, Patrick N.; Diette, Gregory B.; Liu, Andrew H.

2013-01-01

344

Treatment Characteristics of Polysaccharides and Endotoxin Using Oxygen Plasma Produced by RF Discharge  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of polysaccharides and endotoxin were attempted using oxygen plasma produced by RF discharge. Oxygen radicals observed by optical light emission spectra are factors of decomposition of polysaccharides and endotoxin. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicate that most of chemical bonds in the polysaccharides are dissociated after irradiation of the oxygen plasma. Also, the decomposition rate of endotoxin was approximately 90% after irradiation of the oxygen plasma for 180 min.

Kitazaki, Satoshi; Hayashi, Nobuya [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga-shi, Saga, 840-8502 (Japan); Goto, Masaaki [Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga-shi, Saga, 849-8501 (Japan)

2010-10-13

345

Treatment Characteristics of Polysaccharides and Endotoxin Using Oxygen Plasma Produced by RF Discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Treatment of polysaccharides and endotoxin were attempted using oxygen plasma produced by RF discharge. Oxygen radicals observed by optical light emission spectra are factors of decomposition of polysaccharides and endotoxin. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicate that most of chemical bonds in the polysaccharides are dissociated after irradiation of the oxygen plasma. Also, the decomposition rate of endotoxin was approximately 90% after irradiation of the oxygen plasma for 180 min.

Kitazaki, Satoshi; Hayashi, Nobuya; Goto, Masaaki

2010-10-01

346

Bioactive and total endotoxins in atmospheric aerosols in the Pearl River Delta region, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endotoxin, a toxic and pyrogenic substance in gram-negative bacteria in atmospheric aerosols was measured over a period of one year at Nansha, Guangzhou and Hong Kong in the Pearl River Delta region, China. Atmospheric aerosols were collected by high-volume samplers. The bioactive endotoxin levels in the samples were determined using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay after extraction with pyrogen-free water while the total endotoxin levels were measured by quantifying the biomarker, 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFAs) with GC-MS. Results showed that there was no significant difference (0.19 < p < 0.81) in the bioactive endotoxin level in PM 10 among sites (average concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 0.39 EU m -3). However, Hong Kong showed a significantly lower ( p < 0.05) total endotoxin level in PM 10 (average of 17.4 ng m -3) compared with Nansha's 29.4 ng m -3 and Guangzhou's 32.7 ng m -3. The bioactive endotoxins were found to be associated with the coarse mode (PM 2.5-10) of the particulates of natural origins while the total endotoxins were associated more with the fine mode (PM 2.5) of the particulates of anthropogenic origins. When normalized with particulate mass, the endotoxin loading is much higher in summer as a result of the increased growth of the bacteria when climatic conditions are favorable. The chemically determined total endotoxins were 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than the bioactive endotoxins quantified using the LAL assay. Correlation analyses between the bioactive endotoxins and 3-OHFAs with different carbon length were analyzed. Results showed that the correlations detected vary among sites and particulate sizes. Although no generalization between the total and bioactive endotoxins can be drawn from the study, the levels reported in this study suggests that the discrepancies between the two measurement approaches, and the bioactive potential of 3-OHFAs with individual carbon chains deserve further investigation.

Cheng, Jessica Y. W.; Hui, Esther L. C.; Lau, Arthur P. S.

2012-02-01

347

Endotoxin-induced basal respiration alterations of renal HK-2 cells: A sign of pathologic metabolism down-regulation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A HK-2 cells model of inflammation-induced acute kidney injury. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two oximetry methods: high resolution respirometry and ESR spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen consumption rates of renal cells decrease when treated with LPS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cells do not recover normal respiration when the LPS treatment is removed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This basal respiration alteration is a sign of pathologic metabolism down-regulation. -- Abstract: To study the mechanism of oxygen regulation in inflammation-induced acute kidney injury, we investigate the effects of a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) on the basal respiration of proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) both by high-resolution respirometry and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. These two complementary methods have shown that HK-2 cells exhibit a decreased oxygen consumption rate when treated with LPS. Surprisingly, this cellular respiration alteration persists even after the stress factor was removed. We suggested that this irreversible decrease in renal oxygen consumption after LPS challenge is related to a pathologic metabolic down-regulation such as a lack of oxygen utilization by cells.

Quoilin, C., E-mail: cquoilin@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory of Biomedical Spectroscopy, Department of Physics, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Mouithys-Mickalad, A. [Center of Oxygen Research and Development, Department of Chemistry, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium)] [Center of Oxygen Research and Development, Department of Chemistry, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Duranteau, J. [Department of Anaesthesia and Surgical ICU, CHU Bicetre, University Paris XI Sud, 94275 Le Kremlin Bicetre (France)] [Department of Anaesthesia and Surgical ICU, CHU Bicetre, University Paris XI Sud, 94275 Le Kremlin Bicetre (France); Gallez, B. [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)] [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Hoebeke, M. [Laboratory of Biomedical Spectroscopy, Department of Physics, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium)] [Laboratory of Biomedical Spectroscopy, Department of Physics, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

2012-06-29

348

Suppressive effects of histamine H1 receptor antagonist diphenhydramine on the leukocyte infiltration during endotoxin-induced uveitis.  

PubMed

Histamine has been shown to play an important role in the step of leukocyte rolling, the initial step to leukocyte infiltration into an inflamed region. We investigated the roles of histamine in the leukocyte recruitment during endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in vivo using acridine orange digital fluorography. An injection of histamine into the vitreous cavity of a Lewis rat induced leukocyte rolling along the major retinal veins. In other experiments, EIU was induced in Lewis rats by footpad injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Leukocyte rolling was also observed in the retinal veins of EIU rats. To block the histamine H1 receptor, diphenhydramine (DPH) was administered intraperitoneally 15 min before the LPS injection. DPH significantly inhibited leukocyte rolling along the major retinal veins of EIU rats, suppressing leukocyte infiltration into the vitreous cavity. The vasodilation in EIU was also significantly suppressed with DPH. Moreover, leukocyte infiltration into aqueous humor was significantly suppressed in DPH-treated rats. Although the inhibitory effects of DPH was less obvious at later time points, addition of DPH every 12 hr showed prolonged anti-inflammatory effects up to 48 hr after LPS injection. In contrast, protein leakage into the aqueous humor was not suppressed as much as leukocyte infiltration with DPH. These results suggest that histamine would play a pivotal role in leukocyte recruitment during EIU in rats. Blocking the histamine H1 receptor might help to prevent or minimize leukocyte infiltration in uveitis. PMID:11428864

Yamashiro, K; Kiryu, J; Tsujikawa, A; Nonaka, A; Honjo, M; Tanihara, H; Nishiwaki, H; Honda, Y; Ogura, Y

2001-07-01

349

Protection against hyperoxia by serum from endotoxin treated rats: absence of superoxide dismutase induction  

SciTech Connect

Endotoxin greatly reduces lung injury and pleural effusions in adult rats exposed to normobaric hyperoxia (> 98% oxygen for 60 hours). This study reports that serum from endotoxin treated donor rats protects serum recipients against hyperoxic lung injury without altering lung superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Rats pretreated with endotoxin alone were protected and exhibited an increase in lung SOD activity as previously reported by others. Protection by serum was not due to the transfer of residual endotoxin or SOD. These results show, that protection from oxygen toxicity can occur in rats without an increase in lung SOD and suggest that a serum factor may be involved.

Berg, J.T.; Smith, R.M.

1988-01-01

350

Influence of endotoxin induced fever on the pharmacokinetics of intramuscularly administered cefepime in rabbits  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effect of experimentally induced fever on the pharmacokinetics of cefepime (75 mg/kg BW) administered intramuscularly to six rabbits. The study was carried out in two consecutive phases separated by a two-week washout period. An infection was induced by an intravenous inoculation of 5 × 108 colony-forming units of Escherichia coli 24 h before the pharmacokinetic investigation. A quantitative microbiological assay was employed to measure the plasma cefepime concentrations using an agar-gel diffusion method with Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 as the test organism. Twenty-four hour after the injection, the rectal temperature in the infected animals increased by 1–. There was a significant reduction in the elimination half-life by 21.8% in the febrile rabbits compared to healthy animals. In addition, the infection significantly increased the peak plasma concentrations by 11.9%, the mean residence time by 19.9%, the area under the plasma-concentration-time curve by 53.6% and the area under the moment curve by 62.3%. In conclusion, the endotoxin-induced febrile state produced significant changes in the plasma levels as well as some of the pharmacokinetic variables of cefepime in rabbits. PMID:16645340

Goudah, Ayman; Mouneir, Samar M.; Shim, Jae-Han

2006-01-01

351

Beneficial effect of a platelet-activating factor antagonist, WEB 2086, on endotoxin-induced lung injury.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that platelet-activating factor plays an important role in promoting endotoxin-induced lung injury by studying the effect of WEB 2086, a specific platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist, on lung vascular leak in endotoxin-treated rats. Intraperitoneal injection of Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin (2 mg/kg) increased the extravascular leakage of 125I-labeled albumin in perfused lungs at 30 min, 2 h, 6 h, and 48 h. Treatment with WEB 2086 (10 mg/kg ip) either 20 min before or 30 min after endotoxin injection significantly reduced lung injury at 2 h after endotoxin (leak index: control 0.74 +/- 0.03, endotoxin 1.79 +/- 0.14, endotoxin + pretreated WEB 1.23 +/- 0.09, endotoxin + posttreated WEB 1.21 +/- 0.13). In addition, posttreatment with WEB 2086 starting at 90 min after endotoxin injection markedly reduced lung leak at 6 h (control 0.74 +/- 0.03, endotoxin 1.29 +/- 0.14, endotoxin + WEB 0.71 +/- 0.06). The protective effect of WEB 2086 was not the result of cyclooxygenase blockade because the release of thromboxane B2 by endotoxin-treated lungs was not affected by WEB 2086. Furthermore, neither pretreatment nor posttreatment with WEB 2086 significantly reduced the endotoxin-induced increase in plasma glutathione disulfide, a marker of in vivo oxidative stress. In rats given a lethal dose of endotoxin (20 mg/kg ip), posttreatment with WEB 2086, starting at 2 h after endotoxin, significantly improved survival compared with vehicle treatment. We conclude that WEB 2086 ameliorated endotoxin-induced lung injury without reducing oxidative stress in the rat and suggest that blockade of platelet-activating factor receptor may be an important therapeutic consideration in sepsis-induced acute lung vascular injury. PMID:2301603

Chang, S W; Fernyak, S; Voelkel, N F

1990-01-01

352

Helicobacter pylori and Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharides are poorly transferred to recombinant soluble CD14.  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori and Porphyromonas gingivalis are gram-negative bacteria associated with chronic inflammatory diseases. These bacteria possess lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) that are able to activate human monocytes to produce tumor necrosis factor alpha but fail to activate human endothelial cells to express E-selectin. With Escherichia coli LPS, tumor necrosis factor alpha activation requires membrane-bound CD14 and E-selectin expression requires soluble CD14 (sCD14). Therefore, the ability of H. pylori and P. gingivalis LPSs to transfer to and bind sCD14 was examined by using immobilized recombinant sCD14 and human serum or recombinant LPS-binding protein (LBP). H. pylori and P. gingivalis LPSs were transferred to sCD14 when serum or LBP was present. However, the transfer of these LPSs to CD14 in serum was significantly slower than the transfer of E. coli LPS. Quantitation of the transfer rates by Michaelis-Menten kinetics yielded K(m) values of 6 and 0.1 nM for H. pylori and E. coli LPSs, respectively. The amount of P. gingivalis LPS required to obtain half-maximum binding to CD14 was approximately 10-fold greater than the amount of E. coli LPS required. The slower transfer rates displayed by these LPSs can be explained by the poor binding to LBP observed in direct binding assays. These results are consistent with the proportionately lower ability of these LPSs to activate monocytes compared with E. coli LPS. However, the ability of H. pylori and P. gingivalis LPSs to bind LBP and transfer to sCD14 demonstrates that the lack of endothelial cell CD14-dependent cell activation by these LPSs occurs distal to sCD14 binding. PMID:8751905

Cunningham, M D; Seachord, C; Ratcliffe, K; Bainbridge, B; Aruffo, A; Darveau, R P

1996-01-01

353

Low-grade endotoxemia contributes to chronic inflammation in hemodialysis patients: examination with a novel lipopolysaccharide detection method.  

PubMed

Chronic inflammation has recently been proposed to play a major role in the development of cardiovascular disease and mortality among advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients; however, why advanced CKD promotes chronic inflammation is still unclear. We hypothesized that a very low level of plasma endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) contributes to chronic inflammation in advanced CKD patients. We measured the plasma LPS levels using a novel LPS detection method (ESP method, a method for endotoxin detection using laser scattering photometry) concurrently with serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and various blood tests in 17 stable hemodialysis (HD) patients. As a result, the median LPS levels measured by the ESP method was 0.23 pg/mL (range, 0.01-3.89) (inflow, start of HD), 0.22 pg/mL (<0.01-9.97) (outflow, start of HD), 0.37 pg/mL (<0.01-7.42) (inflow, end of HD), and 1.07 pg/mL (<0.01-10.66) (dialysate), respectively; statistically significant differences were not detected between them. The predialysis median CRP level was 0.19 mg/dL (0.04-3.02). The logarithm of plasma LPS independently correlated with serum CRP (R = 0.595, P = 0.0103). In multiple (forward stepwise) regression analysis, in which CRP was determined to be the criterion variable, LPS (log), albumin, and the white blood cell count were adopted as independent explanatory variables (R = 0.401, -0.397 and 0.387, respectively). In conclusion, the present study revealed a significant relationship between LPS and CRP using the novel ESP method, and suggested that very low-grade endotoxemia is contributing to systemic inflammation in HD patients. PMID:21175546

Terawaki, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Keitaro; Yamada, Yukiko; Maruyama, Yukio; Iida, Rinako; Hanaoka, Kazushige; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Obata, Toru; Hosoya, Tatsuo

2010-10-01

354

Personal Exposure to Dust and Endotoxin in Robusta and Arabica Coffee Processing Factories in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Endotoxin exposure associated with organic dust exposure has been studied in several industries. Coffee cherries that are dried directly after harvest may differ in dust and endotoxin emissions to those that are peeled and washed before drying. The aim of this study was to measure personal total dust and endotoxin levels and to evaluate their determinants of exposure in coffee processing factories. Methods: Using Sidekick Casella pumps at a flow rate of 2l/min, total dust levels were measured in the workers’ breathing zone throughout the shift. Endotoxin was analyzed using the kinetic chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Separate linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate exposure determinants for dust and endotoxin. Results: Total dust and endotoxin exposure were significantly higher in Robusta than in Arabica coffee factories (geometric mean 3.41mg/m3 and 10 800 EU/m3 versus 2.10mg/m3 and 1400 EU/m3, respectively). Dry pre-processed coffee and differences in work tasks explained 30% of the total variance for total dust and 71% of the variance for endotoxin exposure. High exposure in Robusta processing is associated with the dry pre-processing method used after harvest. Conclusions: Dust and endotoxin exposure is high, in particular when processing dry pre-processed coffee. Minimization of dust emissions and use of efficient dust exhaust systems are important to prevent the development of respiratory system impairment in workers. PMID:23028014

Sakwari, Gloria

2013-01-01

355

Activation of lung vagal sensory receptors by circulatory endotoxin in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although endotoxin is known to induce various pulmonary responses that are linked to the function of lung vagal sensory receptors, its effects on these pulmonary receptors are still not clear. This study investigated the effects of circulatory endotoxin on the afferent activity of lung vagal sensory receptors in rats. We recorded afferent activity arising from vagal pulmonary C fibers (CFs),

Ching Jung Lai; Ching-Yin Ho; Yu Ru Kou

2002-01-01

356

Automation of chromogenic substrate Limulus amebocyte lysate assay method for endotoxin by robotic system.  

PubMed Central

The chromogenic substrate Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay method for the detection of endotoxin was automated by a Zymate robotic system. The software developed enables the robot to automatically dilute a stock reference endotoxin standard (20,000 endotoxin units per ml) for the construction of a five-point standard curve, make sample dilutions to the proper testing concentration, and perform chromogenic substrate LAL assays in duplicate. The linearity of the standard curve and the endotoxin concentration in each sample are calculated and results are printed automatically. In 48 min the automated system assays three samples and a reference standard in duplicate along with a water blank. Sensitivity of the assay is a function of incubation time. The assay is linear (r greater than 0.99) in the region of 0 to 1.0 endotoxin units per ml or 0 to 0.2 endotoxin units per ml with incubation times of 10 or 16 min, respectively. The method can be made very sensitive, detecting as low as 0.003 endotoxin units per ml with 30 min of incubation. The precision of the assay method, determined by assaying an endotoxin reference solution eight times, is ca. 6%. The LAL reagent designed for gel-clot assay was modified for the chromogenic substrate assay. We describe the optimum conditions for the performance of the chromogenic substrate LAL assay and stability of the LAL reagent. PMID:6388501

Tsuji, K; Martin, P A; Bussey, D M

1984-01-01

357

Endotoxin, Coliform, and Dust Levels in Various Types of Rodent Bedding  

PubMed Central

Endotoxins in grain dust, household dust, and animal bedding may induce respiratory symptoms in rodents and humans. We assayed the endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in 20 types of rodent bedding. Endotoxin concentrations were measured by using a commercial test kit, coliform counts were determined by using conventional microbiologic procedures, and dust content was evaluated by using a rotating–tapping shaker. Paper bedding types contained significantly less endotoxin than did other bedding types; the highest levels of endotoxin were detected in hardwood and corncob beddings. The range of endotoxin content for each bedding type was: corncob bedding, 1913 to 4504 endotoxin units per gram (EU/g); hardwood bedding, 3121 to 5401 EU/g; corncob–paper mixed bedding, 1586 to 2416 EU/g; and paper bedding, less than 5 to 105 EU/g. Coliform counts varied from less than 10 to 7591 cfu/g in corncob beddings, 90 to 4010 cfu/g in corncob–paper mixed beddings, less than 10 to 137 cfu/g in hardwood beddings, and less than 10 cfu/g in paper beddings. Average dust content was less than 0.15% in all commercial bedding types. We conclude that paper bedding is the optimal bedding type for conducting LPS inhalation studies and that rodent bedding containing high levels of endotoxin may alter the results of respiratory and immunologic studies in rodents. PMID:20353693

Whiteside, Tanya E; Thigpen, Julius E; Kissling, Grace E; Grant, Mary G; Forsythe, Diane B

2010-01-01

358

Marine aerosol as a possible source for endotoxins in coastal areas.  

PubMed

Marine aerosols, that are very common in the highly populated coastal cities and communities, may contain biological constituents. Some of this biological fraction of marine aerosols, such as cyanobacteria and plankton debris, may influence human health by inflammation and allergic reactions when inhaled. In this study we identify and compare sources for endotoxins sampled on filters in an on-shore and more-inland site. Filter analysis included endotoxin content, total bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and cyanobacteria genome concentrations as well as ion content in order to identify possible sources for the endotoxins. Satellite images of chlorophyll-a levels and back trajectory analysis were used to further study the cyanobacteria blooms in the sea, close to the trajectory of the sampled air. The highest endotoxin concentrations found in the shoreline site were during winter (3.23±0.17 EU/m(3)), together with the highest cyanobacteria genome (1065.5 genome/m(3)). The elevated endotoxin concentrations were significantly correlated with cyanobacterial levels scaled to the presence of marine aerosol (r=0.90), as well as to chlorophyll-a (r=0.96). Filters sampled further inland showed lower and non-significant correlation between endotoxin and cyanobacteria (r=0.70, P value=0.19), suggesting decrease in marine-originated endotoxin, with possible contributions from other sources of gram-negative non-cyanobacteria. We conclude that marine cyanobacteria may be a dominant contributor to elevated endotoxin levels in coastal areas. PMID:25201818

Lang-Yona, Naama; Lehahn, Yoav; Herut, Barak; Burshtein, Noa; Rudich, Yinon

2014-11-15

359

Clinical Responses to Intramammary Endotoxin Infusion in Dairy Cows Subjected to Feed Restriction1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpregnant, midlactation primiparous Holstein cows were fed ad libitum (n = 12) or at 80% of mainte- nance energy requirements (n = 12) to determine whether feed restriction influences clinical response to endotoxin-induced mastitis. After 2 wk of ad libitum or restricted feeding, one mammary quarter per cow was infused with 100 µg of endotoxin. Within 3 to 6 h

K. H. Perkins; M. J. VandeHaar; J. L. Burton; J. S. Liesman; R. J. Erskine; T. H. Elsasser

2002-01-01

360

Are Cats and Dogs the Major Source of Endotoxin in Homes?  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have suggested that exposure to cats and dogs during early childhood reduces the risk of allergic disease, possibly by increasing home endotoxin exposure. This study asked the question of whether cats and dogs are the dominant influence on dust endotoxin concentrations in homes after considering other variables reportedly associated with endotoxin. The presence of cats or dogs in homes, household and home characteristics, and dust endotoxin concentrations from 5 locations were assessed in 966 urban and suburban homes. Whether considered together as pets or as cats and dogs separately, the presence of cats and dogs significantly contributed to living room and bedroom floor endotoxin concentrations but not to bed endotoxin concentrations. However, the two variables consistently related to endotoxin in all home sites were the home occupant density (occupants/room) and cleanliness of the home. Our data suggests that reducing occupant density and improving home cleanliness would reduce home endotoxin concentrations more than removing pet cats or dogs from the home. PMID:23167871

Ownby, Dennis R.; Peterson, Edward L.; Wegienka, Ganesa; Woodcroft, Kimberley J.; Nicholas, Charlotte; Zoratti, Edward; Johnson, Christine C.

2014-01-01

361

Effect of Extraction and Assay Media on Analysis of Airborne Endotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 10 November 2007\\/Accepted 18 April 2008 The measurement of airborne endotoxins is thus far not standardized. Earlier studies reported higher endotoxin yields when Tween 20 was added to the media used for filter extraction and in the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. This study compared four common media and assessed the effects of Tween during extraction and analysis separately.

Suzanne Spaan; Gert Doekes; Dick Heederik; Peter S. Thorne; Inge M. Wouters

2008-01-01

362

Effect of dietary bovine colostrum on the responses of immune cells to stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide.  

PubMed

Previous studies have revealed that ingestion of bovine colostrum is effective in preventing pathogens from invading through the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and modulating the mucosal immunity of the GI tract, indicating that its effect is principally local. Thus it is unclear if ingestion of bovine colostrum can affect the systemic immune system. In this study, we investigated the effect of taking bovine colostrum (vs phosphate-buffered saline) for 14 days on the behavior of the immune cells of mice. Isolated splenocytes, which are pivotal cells of systemic immunity, were then stimulated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. Bovine colostrum significantly reduced NK cell and monocyte activities and lymphoproliferaltive responses to LPS stimulation. Thus dietary bovine colostrum renders immune cells less responsive to LPS stimulation. Dietary bovine colostrum thus affects the systemic immune system and may have anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:24234910

Xu, Mei Ling; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hong-Jin

2014-04-01

363

Analysis of plasmids cloned from a virulent avian Escherichia coli and transformed into Escherichia coli DH5 alpha.  

PubMed

Three of four plasmids from a virulent wild-type avian Escherichia coli were cloned or transformed into an avirulent laboratory recipient E. coli DH5 alpha and tested for the ability to confer a virulence phenotype. The three plasmids transformed into E. coli DH5 alpha were 5, 6, and 56 kb. A fourth plasmid of 64 kb was not successfully transformed. Parameters used to measure virulence included presence of type 1 pili and a smooth lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer, motility, production of Colicin V, resistance to host complement, and embryo lethality. The 5-kb plasmid encoded for ampicillin resistance, whereas the 6-kb plasmid encoded for tetracycline resistance. The 56-kb plasmid encoded for streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline resistance. Twelve-day embryos inoculated with 467 colony-forming units of E. coli DH5 alpha containing the 56-kb plasmid had increased death rates (45%) in the embryo lethality assay and a decreased weight of surviving embryos with cranial hemorrhages as compared with embryos inoculated with similar amounts of E. coli DH5 alpha (0%) and phosphate-buffered saline (0%). Embryos inoculated with the wild-type virulent E. coli had 90% deaths. The 56-kb plasmid also had homology with a probe for Colicin V production (cvaC). No differences in LPS layer, complement resistance, motility, Colicin V activity, type 1 pili, cell-free supernatant proteins, or outer membrane proteins were observed in the transformants when compared with nontransformed E. coli DH5 alpha. PMID:8883780

Wooley, R E; Gibbs, P S; Dickerson, H W; Brown, J; Nolan, L K

1996-01-01

364

Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Ambient Endotoxin Concentrations in Fresno, California  

PubMed Central

Background Endotoxins are found in indoor dust generated by human activity and pets, in soil, and adsorbed onto the surfaces of ambient combustion particles. Endotoxin concentrations have been associated with respiratory symptoms and the risk of atopy and asthma in children. Objective We characterized the temporal and spatial variability of ambient endotoxin in Fresno/Clovis, California, located in California’s Central Valley, to identify correlates and potential predictors of ambient endotoxin concentrations in a cohort of children with asthma [Fresno Asthmatic Children’s Environment Study (FACES)]. Methods Between May 2001 and October 2004, daily ambient endotoxin and air pollutants were collected at the central ambient monitoring site of the California Air Resources Board in Fresno and, for shorter time periods, at 10 schools and indoors and outdoors at 84 residences in the community. Analyses were restricted to May–October, the dry months during which endotoxin concentrations are highest. Results Daily endotoxin concentration patterns were determined mainly by meteorologic factors, particularly the degree of air stagnation. Overall concentrations were lowest in areas distant from agricultural activities. Highest concentrations were found in areas immediately downwind from agricultural/pasture land. Among three other measured air pollutants [fine particulate matter, elemental carbon (a marker of traffic in Fresno), and coarse particulate matter (PMc)], PMc was the only pollutant correlated with endotoxin. Endotoxin, however, was the most spatially variable. Conclusions Our data support the need to evaluate the spatial/temporal variability of endotoxin concentrations, rather than relying on a few measurements made at one location, in studies of exposure and and respiratory health effects, particularly in children with asthma and other chronic respiratory diseases. PMID:20494854

Tager, Ira B.; Lurmann, Frederick W.; Haight, Thaddeus; Alcorn, Siana; Penfold, Bryan; Hammond, S. Katharine

2010-01-01

365

Exposure to Dust and Endotoxin of Employees in Cucumber and Tomato Nurseries  

PubMed Central

Exposure to bioaerosols in occupational settings is associated with a range of adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure levels to dust and endotoxin of people working in two cucumber nurseries and two tomato nurseries. Exposure was measured for greenhouse workers (n?=?70) mainly working on harvesting cucumbers and tomatoes and clearing the plants after the harvest season. The people were exposed to between 0.2 and 15 mg inhalable dust m?3 (median?=?1.6 mg m?3) and between 0.5 and 400 ng inhalable endotoxin m?3 (median?=?32 ng m?3). The exposure to ‘total dust’ and endotoxin measured by stationary samplers (n?=?30) in the greenhouses was low. Endotoxin was present in relatively high concentrations on cucumber leaves compared with leaves on pot plants. The Danish occupational exposure limit (OEL) for total organic dust is 3 mg m?3 and 36% and 17% of the cucumber and tomato workers, respectively, were exposed to >3.0 mg inhalable dust m?3. There is no OEL for endotoxin, but ‘no effect levels’ at ?15 ng m?3 have been found. The majority of subjects (65%) were exposed to >15 ng m?3. Significantly higher exposure was found for employees in cucumber nurseries than for employees in tomato nurseries. Clearing tomato plants after the harvest season caused a higher exposure to endotoxin than tomato harvesting. In conclusion, people working in cucumber and tomato nurseries were often exposed to high levels of inhalable dust and endotoxin. Cucumber harvest workers were exposed to significantly more dust and endotoxin than tomato harvest workers. The dust and endotoxin aerosolized during the working processes were only transported to other areas in the greenhouses to a very low degree. Cucumber and tomato leaves were identified as endotoxin reservoirs. PMID:19033558

Madsen, A. M.; Hansen, V. M.; Nielsen, S. H.; Olsen, T. T.

2009-01-01

366

Core region in Proteus mirabilis lipopolysaccharide.  

PubMed

Four R mutants of P. mirabilis were isolated. The composition of their degraded polysaccharides (PS) obtained from the respective lipopolysaccharides (LPS) as well as the composition and properties of the PS-fractions separated by column chromatography were examined. The results were compared with those obtained with PS of the wild type. One of the mutants could be classified as an Ra-type mutant, presenting a complete LPS core. This polysaccharide core contains: galacturonic acid, glucosamine, glucose, D-glycero-D-mannoheptose, L-glycero-D-mannoheptose in a molar ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 : 1 : 2 and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate. Taking into consideration the common sugars described previously in the LPS chemotypes of P. hauseri, the composition of the complete core region mentioned above represents the LPS core part of all the chemotypes, containing two different heptoses. PMID:342599

Kote?ko, K; Gromska, W; Papierz, M; Sidorczyk, Z; Krajewska, D; Szer, K

1977-01-01

367

Modulation of granulocyte functions by bacterial exotoxin and endotoxins.  

PubMed

The modulation of granulocyte functions by bacterial exotoxins (Streptolysin O, alveolysin, theta toxin) and endotoxins from salmonella and lipid A is described here. Incubation of polymorphonuclear granulocytes with thiol-activated toxins resulted in an increased leukotriene generation. Toxin-pretreated PMNs revealed an increased omega oxidation of LTB4, which may explain why toxin-stimulated cells release more LTC4 than LTB4. Furthermore, toxin-pretreated PMNs showed a decreased leukotriene generation on subsequent stimulation with the Ca-ionophore A 23187 or opsonized zymosan. PMID:2889665

Bremm, K D; König, W; Thelestam, M; Alouf, J E

1987-11-01

368

Modulation of granulocyte functions by bacterial exotoxin and endotoxins.  

PubMed Central

The modulation of granulocyte functions by bacterial exotoxins (Streptolysin O, alveolysin, theta toxin) and endotoxins from salmonella and lipid A is described here. Incubation of polymorphonuclear granulocytes with thiol-activated toxins resulted in an increased leukotriene generation. Toxin-pretreated PMNs revealed an increased omega oxidation of LTB4, which may explain why toxin-stimulated cells release more LTC4 than LTB4. Furthermore, toxin-pretreated PMNs showed a decreased leukotriene generation on subsequent stimulation with the Ca-ionophore A 23187 or opsonized zymosan. PMID:2889665

Bremm, K D; Konig, W; Thelestam, M; Alouf, J E

1987-01-01

369

Mycoepoxydiene Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses through the of TRAF6 Polyubiquitination  

PubMed Central

Mycoepoxydiene (MED) is a polyketide isolated from a marine fungus associated with mangrove forests. MED has been shown to be able to induce cell cycle arrest and cancer cell apoptosis. However, its effects on inflammatory response are unclear. Herein we showed that MED exhibited inhibitory effect on inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). MED significantly inhibited LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and nitric oxide (NO) in macrophages. MED inhibited LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-?B (NF-?B) p65, I?B degradation, I?B kinase (IKK) phosphorylation, and the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38, suggesting that MED blocks the activation of both NF-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Furthermore, the effects of MED on LPS-induced activation of upstream signaling molecules such as transforming growth factor-?–activated kinase 1 (TAK1), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and IL-1 receptor associated kinases1 (IRAK1) were investigated. MED significantly inhibited TAK1 phosphorylation and TRAF6 polyubiquitination, but not IRAK1 phosphorylation and TRAF6 dimerization, indicating that MED inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory responses at least in part through suppression of TRAF6 polyubiquitination. Moreover, MED protected mice from LPS-induced endotoxin shock by reducing serum inflammatory cytokines. These results suggest that MED is a potential lead compound for the development of a novel nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. PMID:22984582

Li, Wenjiao; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Jingwei; Li, Yang; Huang, Yaojian; Shen, Yuemao; Yu, Chundong

2012-01-01

370

Exogenous normal lymph reduces liver injury induced by lipopolysaccharides in rats  

PubMed Central

The liver is one of the target organs damaged by septic shock, wherein the spread of endotoxins begins. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exogenous normal lymph (ENL) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham, LPS, and LPS+ENL groups. LPS (15 mg/kg) was administered intravenously via the left jugular vein to the LPS and LPS+ENL groups. At 15 min after the LPS injection, saline or ENL without cell components (5 mL/kg) was administered to the LPS and LPS+ENL groups, respectively, at a rate of 0.5 mL/min. Hepatocellular injury indices and hepatic histomorphology, as well as levels of P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and Na+-K+-ATPase, were assessed in hepatic tissues. Liver tissue damage occurred after LPS injection. All levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in plasma as well as the wet/dry weight ratio of hepatic tissue in plasma increased. Similarly, P-selectin, ICAM-1, and MPO levels in hepatic tissues were elevated, whereas Na+-K+-ATPase activity in hepatocytes decreased. ENL treatment lessened hepatic tissue damage and decreased levels of AST, ALT, ICAM-1, and MPO. Meanwhile, the treatment increased the activity of Na+-K+-ATPase. These results indicated that ENL could alleviate LPS-induced liver injury, thereby suggesting an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of liver injury accompanied by severe infection or sepsis. PMID:24519128

Zhao, Z.G.; Zhang, L.L.; Niu, C.Y.; Zhang, J.

2014-01-01

371

Activated protein C suppresses adrenomedullin and ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced hypotension.  

PubMed

Activated protein C (APC) is an important modulator of vascular function that has antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Studies in humans have shown modulation of endotoxin-induced hypotension by recombinant human APC, drotrecogin alfa (activated), however, the mechanism for this effect is unclear. We have found that APC suppresses the induction of the potent vasoactive peptide adrenomedullin (ADM) and could downregulate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ADM messenger RNA (mRNA) and nitrite levels in cell culture. This effect was dependent on signaling through protease-activated receptor 1. Addition of 1400W, an irreversible inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, inhibited LPS-induced ADM mRNA, suggesting that ADM induction is NO mediated. Furthermore, in a rat model of endotoxemia, APC (100 microg/kg, i.v.) prevented LPS (10 mg/kg, i.v.)-induced hypotension, and suppressed ADM mRNA and protein expression. APC also inhibited iNOS mRNA and protein levels along with reduction in NO by-products (NOx). We also observed a significant reduction in iNOS-positive leukocytes adhering to vascular endothelium after APC treatment. Moreover, we found that APC inhibited the expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), a potent activator of iNOS. In a human study of LPS-induced hypotension, APC reduced the upregulation of plasma ADM levels, coincident with protection against the hypotensive response. Overall, we demonstrate that APC blocks the induction of ADM, likely mediated by IFN-gamma and iNOS, and suggests a mechanism that may account for ameliorating LPS-induced hypotension. Furthermore, our data provide a new understanding for the role of APC in modulating vascular response to insult. PMID:17558353

Gupta, Akanksha; Berg, David T; Gerlitz, Bruce; Richardson, Mark A; Galbreath, Elizabeth; Syed, Samreen; Sharma, Avadhesh C; Lowry, Stephen F; Grinnell, Brian W

2007-10-01

372

San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang reduces lipopolysaccharides-induced hypotension and inflammatory mediators.  

PubMed

San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXT) is a traditional Chinese medicinal formula containing Coptidis rhizoma, Scutellariae radix and Rhei rhizoma. The present study aimed to determine the preventive effects of standardized SHXT on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced arterial hypotension, protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cytokines formation and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. LPS-induced activation of iNOS has been recognized to increase cytokines and nitric oxide, some of them play predominant roles in sepsis. Intravenous injection of LPS (10 mg/kg) caused a marked decrease of the mean arterial pressure in normotensive rats. However, the LPS-induced arterial hypotension was inhibited by SHXT (0.01 and 0.03 g/kg), when it was given 30 min before LPS. Moreover, plasma level of cytokines and PGE2 were lowered by SHXT. In RAW 264.7 cells, SHXT (20-200 microg/ml) dose-dependently inhibited LPS (1 microg/ml)-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression, and it also significantly decreased LPS-induced cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, our data suggest that SHXT prevented LPS-induced arterial hypotension, which might be mediated through its inhibition activities on the expression of iNOS and COX-2, cytokines formation and PGE2 production. Therefore, its protection activity against LPS-induced arterial hypotension and inflammatory mediators release might be beneficial in the treatment of endotoxin shock and/or associated inflammation. PMID:15588656

Lo, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Pei-Ling; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Shen, Kuo-Pyng; Tsai, Yi-Hung; Wu, Yang-Chang; Lai, Yung-Hsiung; Chen, Ing-Jun

2005-01-01

373

Investigation of plague lipopolysaccharide complex formation with artificial phospholipid vesicles by elastic laser radiation scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the investigation of incorporation processes of the plague lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into artificial phospholipid vesicles (PLV) on the basis of elastic laser radiation scattering. For this purpose, the angular light scattering dependencies of PLV suspensions, containing various LPS concentrations (0 - 5 mg/ml), were measured using the polarization nephelometer. The design of the polarization nephelometer and the measurement technique are described in detail. Measuring results are compared with electron microscopy data. The most pronounced variation as a result of LPS incorporation into PLV appeared to be the light scattering integral intensity (LSII) at angles exceeding 100. It is shown that the LPS adding into the PLV suspension causes the LSII to increase by a factor 2 - 6 for a LPS concentration range from 0.5 to 5 mg/ml as compared with `empty' PLV. Proceeding from the electron microscopy data it was found that the LSII increase, in general case, is conditioned by variation of the PLV membrane refraction index and formation of PLV aggregates. It was shown that the LSII measurement for the PLV suspension containing LPS can be used as a qualitative express analysis for the LPS incorporation into PLV as well as procedure for determination of the aggregate formation stage from PLV. The LPS of the plague, which as determinants being common for various gram-negative bacteria, is of great interest from the viewpoint of creating preparations for prophylactic measures against the endotoxin infections. However, the LPS toxicity due to the lipid A presence is a disadvantage of this weak antigen. Incorporation of the LPS int bilayer phospholipid membranes leads to its lower toxicity and higher immunization ability. The immunization ability and toxicity of the LPS complexes with bilayer membranes depend essentially on the LPS quantity sorbed in the membrane, as well as on the shapes and sizes of aggregates formed by the LPS and membranes in water environment.

Gusev, V. V.; Guseva, N. P.; Tatarintsev, S. N.

1995-01-01

374

Gene expression profiling of liver from dairy cows treated intra-mammary with lipopolysaccharide  

PubMed Central

Background Liver plays a profound role in the acute phase response (APR) observed in the early phase of acute bovine mastitis caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli). To gain an insight into the genes and pathways involved in hepatic APR of dairy cows we performed a global gene expression analysis of liver tissue sampled at different time points before and after intra-mammary (IM) exposure to E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. Results Approximately 20% target transcripts were differentially expressed and eight co-expression clusters were identified. Each cluster had a unique time-dependent expression profile and consisted of genes involved in different biological processes. Our findings suggest that APR in the liver is triggered by the activation of signaling pathways that are involved with common and hepatic-specific transcription factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These mediators in turn stimulated or repressed the expression of genes encoding acute phase proteins (APP), collectins, complement components, chemokines, cell adhesion molecules and key metabolic enzymes during the APR. Hormones, anti-inflammatory and other hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) linked mediators also seemed to participate in APR. Conclusion Performing global gene expression analysis on liver tissue from IM LPS treated cows verified that the liver plays a major role in the APR of E. coli mastitis, and that the bovine hepatic APR follows the same pattern as other mammals when they are challenged with LPS. Our work presents the first insight into the dynamic changes in gene expression in the liver that influences the induction, kinetics and clinical outcome of the APR in dairy cows. PMID:18816405

Jiang, Li; S?rensen, Peter; R?ntved, Christine; Vels, Lotte; Ingvartsen, Klaus L

2008-01-01

375

Variation in the ovine cortisol response to systemic bacterial endotoxin challenge is predominantly determined by signalling within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis  

SciTech Connect

Bi-directional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems is designed, in part, to maintain or restore homeostasis during physiological stress. Exposure to endotoxin during Gram-negative bacterial infection for example, elicits the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). The secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids subsequently down regulates the host inflammatory response, minimizing potential tissue damage. Sequence and epigenetic variants in genes involved in regulating the neuroendocrine and immune systems are likely to contribute to individual differences in the HPAA response, and this may influence the host anti-inflammatory response to toxin exposure and susceptibility to inflammatory disease. In this study, high (HCR) and low (LCR) cortisol responders were selected from a normal population of 110 female sheep challenged iv with Escherichia coli endotoxin (400 ng/kg) to identify potential determinants that contribute to variation in the cortisol response phenotype. This phenotype was stable over several years in the HCR and LCR animals, and did not appear to be attributed to differences in expression of hepatic immune-related genes or system