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Sample records for coli heat labile

  1. Cistrons encoding Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Dallas, W S; Gill, D M; Falkow, S

    1979-01-01

    The structure and products of the two cistrons encoding the Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) were studied. The LT deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) region had been isolated as part of a DNA fragment from the plasmid P307, and this fragment was joined to the cloning vector pBR313. Deletion mutations of various lengths were introduced into the LT DNA region and into the adjacent DNA sequences. Analysis of the deletions indicated that the maximum size of the LT DNA region was 1.2 x 10(6) daltons. Two proteins of 11,500 daltons and 25,500 daltons had been shown to be encoded by the LT DNA region. The functions of these LT gene products were investigated. The 11,500-dalton protein had an adsorption activity for Y-1 adrenal cells, and this protein was shown to form aggregates of four or five monomers. The 25,500-dalton protein was shown to have an adenylate cyclase-activating activity. The two cistrons encoding for each of the LT proteins have been located on a genetic map of the LT DNA region. Both cistrons are probably transcribed from the same promoter. Images PMID:383697

  2. Heat-labile enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and intestinal protozoa in asymptomatic travellers.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, P; Cross, J H

    1977-12-01

    Thirty-two asymptomatic travellers who had recently journeyed in the Near, Middle, and Far East and had experienced a high incidence of diarrhoeal disease were screened for heat-labile enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ent+ E. coli) and other bacterial and parasitic pathogens. Six percent were colonized with ent+ E. coli and while other bacterial pathogens were not found, the intestinal protozoa Giardia lamblia (13%), Entamoeba histolytica (6%), Entamoeba coli (6%), Endolimax nana (6%), and Entamoeba hartmanni (3%) were detected in the stools. Ent+ E. coli, G. lamblia and E. histolytica should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease in travellers returning from the Orient. Furthermore, these travellers may be a potential source for the introduction of ent+ E. coli into communities where such organisms are relatively rare. PMID:351820

  3. Adhesin degradation accelerates delivery of heat-labile toxin by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Roy, Koushik; Kansal, Rita; Bartels, Scott R; Hamilton, David J; Shaaban, Salwa; Fleckenstein, James M

    2011-08-26

    Many enteric pathogens, including enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), produce one or more serine proteases that are secreted via the autotransporter (or type V) bacterial secretion pathway. These molecules have collectively been referred to as SPATE proteins (serine protease autotransporter of the Enterobacteriaceae). EatA, an autotransporter previously identified in ETEC, possesses a functional serine protease motif within its secreted amino-terminal passenger domain. Although this protein is expressed by many ETEC strains and is highly immunogenic, its precise function is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that EatA degrades a recently characterized adhesin, EtpA, resulting in modulation of bacterial adhesion and accelerated delivery of the heat-labile toxin, a principal ETEC virulence determinant. Antibodies raised against the passenger domain of EatA impair ETEC delivery of labile toxin to epithelial cells suggesting that EatA may be an effective target for vaccine development. PMID:21757737

  4. Inhibition of heat-labile cholera and Escherichia coli enterotoxins by brefeldin A.

    PubMed

    Donta, S T; Beristain, S; Tomicic, T K

    1993-08-01

    Cholera enterotoxin and the related heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli enter their target cells through noncoated vesicles, but how the toxins are processed intracellularly and how they get to their targeted enzyme, adenylate cyclase, remain to be defined. Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of the trans-Golgi network, is shown herein to transiently block the morphologic and enzymatic effects of the toxin at a step distal to the initial binding process but prior to activation of adenylate cyclase by the toxin. It is likely, therefore, that these toxins are processed by the Golgi apparatus before trafficking to the membrane adenylate cyclase. PMID:8392970

  5. Inhibition of heat-labile cholera and Escherichia coli enterotoxins by brefeldin A.

    PubMed Central

    Donta, S T; Beristain, S; Tomicic, T K

    1993-01-01

    Cholera enterotoxin and the related heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli enter their target cells through noncoated vesicles, but how the toxins are processed intracellularly and how they get to their targeted enzyme, adenylate cyclase, remain to be defined. Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of the trans-Golgi network, is shown herein to transiently block the morphologic and enzymatic effects of the toxin at a step distal to the initial binding process but prior to activation of adenylate cyclase by the toxin. It is likely, therefore, that these toxins are processed by the Golgi apparatus before trafficking to the membrane adenylate cyclase. Images PMID:8392970

  6. Structure and function of cholera toxin and the related Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Spangler, B D

    1992-01-01

    Cholera and the related Escherichia coli-associated diarrheal disease are important problems confronting Third World nations and any area where water supplies can become contaminated. The disease is extremely debilitating and may be fatal in the absence of treatment. Symptoms are caused by the action of cholera toxin, secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, or by a closely related heat-labile enterotoxin, produced by Escherichia coli, that causes a milder, more common traveler's diarrhea. Both toxins bind receptors in intestinal epithelial cells and insert an enzymatic subunit that modifies a G protein associated with the adenylate cyclase complex. The consequent stimulated production of cyclic AMP, or other factors such as increased synthesis of prostaglandins by intoxicated cells, initiates a metabolic cascade that results in the excessive secretion of fluid and electrolytes characteristic of the disease. The toxins have a very high degree of structural and functional homology and may be evolutionarily related. Several effective new vaccine formulations have been developed and tested, and a growing family of endogenous cofactors is being discovered in eukaryotic cells. The recent elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of the heat-labile enterotoxin has provided an opportunity to examine and compare the correlations between structure and function of the two toxins. This information may improve our understanding of the disease process itself, as well as illuminate the role of the toxin in studies of signal transduction and G-protein function. Images PMID:1480112

  7. Evaluation of commercial antisera for serotyping heat-labile antigens of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, M A; Patton, C M

    1993-01-01

    Commercial antisera for serotyping 22 heat-labile antigens of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were evaluated by using 66 isolates from human and nonhuman sources. Test results were compared with results of tests using antisera produced at the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Atlanta, Ga. All strains (three isolates of each of the 22 serotypes) were typeable with the CDC antisera. Of 66 test strains, 39 (59%) were typed as the same serotype with both sets of antisera. Twenty-four strains (36%), including two heat-labile serotype reference strains, were nonreactive with the commercial antisera, and three strains (4.5%) were typed as serotypes different from those obtained with CDC antisera. Five of the 22 commercial antisera correctly serotyped all homologous strains. Our study indicated that two polyvalent antiserum pools, 7 unabsorbed antisera, and 16 absorbed monovalent antisera are weak and need modification to enhance their antibody titers. Further studies are necessary to explain the antigenic change to a different serotype in three strains. PMID:8463402

  8. Typing of heat-stable and heat-labile antigens of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by coagglutination.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, K H; Skelton, S K; Patton, C M; Feeley, J C; Morris, G

    1985-01-01

    A coagglutination system has been devised for typing heat-stable and heat-labile antigens of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The use of protein A-positive Staphylococcus aureus cells carrying Campylobacter sp. serotype antibody and the treatment of Campylobacter sp. cells with DNase in the antigen suspension permitted rapid and specific coagglutination of rough (autoagglutinable) as well as smooth cultures. Cells of S. aureus were sensitized with Campylobacter sp. serotype antisera. Four to five types of sensitized S. aureus cells were pooled. A strain of Campylobacter sp. was first tested with the pools and then typed with the individual reagents of the reactive pool. After the described procedures, 68 serotype strains tested blindly as unknowns were correctly typed according to their heat-stable or heat-labile antigens. The two most commonly used typing schemes which are based separately on the heat-stable or the heat-labile antigens as assayed by passive hemagglutination and slide agglutination, respectively, can be utilized simultaneously in the coagglutination system for strain characterization. The coagglutination system is simple, yields results rapidly, conserves typing reagents, and offers the flexibility of formulating the pools of reagents according to the experimental design or the prevalence of serotypes in a geographic location. It should be a practical system for the typing of Campylobacter spp. in public health or clinical laboratories. PMID:3998098

  9. Production of Escherichia coli heat labile toxin (LT) B subunit in soybean seed and analysis of its immunogenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expression of the heat-labile toxin B subunit of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (LT) B was directed to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of soybean seed storage parenchyma cells for immunogen sequestration in de novo synthesized, ER-derived protein accretions in transgenic seed. Pentameric LTB accumu...

  10. GM1 erythroimmunoassay for detection and titration of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.

    PubMed

    Germani, Y; Bégaud, E; Guesdon, J L; Moreau, J P

    1986-11-01

    A GM1 ganglioside erythroimmunoassay for the detection of heat-labile Escherichia coli enterotoxin (LT) was developed for use in poorly equipped laboratories in developing countries. This assay is based on the immunological similarity between Vibrio cholerae toxin and LT and uses cholera toxin antiserum and sheep anti-rabbit immunoglobulin covalently coupled to sheep erythrocytes as conjugate. This assay has the following advantages over other currently available techniques: the reagents it uses are stable, in particular, tanned and sensitized sheep erythrocytes; GM1 ganglioside is commercially available; erythro-adsorption can be read with the naked eye; the test can be completed in 1 day; and as little as 4 ng of V. cholerae toxin or LT per ml can be detected accurately. The GM1 ganglioside erythroimmunoassay showed good quantitative and qualitative correlation with the Vero cell assay and the conventional GM1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The GM1 ganglioside erythroimmunoassay was somewhat less sensitive than the GM1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay but more sensitive than the Vero cell assay. Results obtained for 12 LT-positive and 138 LT-negative E. coli strains correlated with results obtained with GM1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent and Vero cell assays. PMID:3533985

  11. Heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli promotes intestinal colonization of Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Verbrugghe, Elin; Van Parys, Alexander; Leyman, Bregje; Boyen, Filip; Arnouts, Sven; Lundberg, Urban; Ducatelle, Richard; Van den Broeck, Wim; Yekta, Maryam Atef; Cox, Eric; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank

    2015-12-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of infantile and travellers' diarrhoea, which poses a serious health burden, especially in developing countries. In addition, ETEC bacteria are a major cause of illness and death in neonatal and recently weaned pigs. The production of a heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) promotes the colonization and pathogenicity of ETEC and may exacerbate co-infections with other enteric pathogens such as Salmonella enterica. We showed that the intraintestinal presence of LT dramatically increased the intestinal Salmonella Typhimurium load in experimentally inoculated pigs. This could not be explained by direct alteration of the invasion or survival capacity of Salmonella in enterocytes, in vitro. However, we demonstrated that LT affects the enteric mucus layer composition in a mucus-secreting goblet cell line by significantly decreasing the expression of mucin 4. The current results show that LT alters the intestinal mucus composition and aggravates a Salmonella Typhimurium infection, which may result in the exacerbation of the diarrhoeal illness. PMID:26616654

  12. Parenteral Adjuvant Effects of an Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Natural Heat-Labile Toxin Variant

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Catarina J. M.; Rodrigues, Juliana F.; Medina-Armenteros, Yordanka; Farinha-Arcieri, Luís E.; Ventura, Armando M.; Boscardin, Silvia B.; Sbrogio-Almeida, Maria E.; Ferreira, Luís C. S.

    2014-01-01

    Native type I heat-labile toxins (LTs) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains exert strong adjuvant effects on both antibody and T cell responses to soluble and particulate antigens following co-administration via mucosal routes. However, inherent enterotoxicity and neurotoxicity (following intra-nasal delivery) had reduced the interest in the use of these toxins as mucosal adjuvants. LTs can also behave as powerful and safe adjuvants following delivery via parenteral routes, particularly for activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes. In the present study, we evaluated the adjuvant effects of a new natural LT polymorphic form (LT2), after delivery via intradermal (i.d.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) routes, with regard to both antibody and T cell responses. A recombinant HIV-1 p24 protein was employed as a model antigen for determination of antigen-specific immune responses while the reference LT (LT1), produced by the ETEC H10407 strain, and a non-toxigenic LT form (LTK63) were employed as previously characterized LT types. LT-treated mice submitted to a four dose-base immunization regimen elicited similar p24-specific serum IgG responses and CD4+ T cell activation. Nonetheless, mice immunized with LT1 or LT2 induced higher numbers of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and in vivo cytotoxic responses compared to mice immunized with the non-toxic LT derivative. These effects were correlated with stronger activation of local dendritic cell populations. In addition, mice immunized with LT1 and LT2, but not with LTK63, via s.c. or i.d. routes developed local inflammatory reactions. Altogether, the present results confirmed that the two most prevalent natural polymorphic LT variants (LT1 or LT2) display similar and strong adjuvant effects for subunit vaccines administered via i.d. or s.c. routes. PMID:24432018

  13. Mutants of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin lacking ADP-ribosyltransferase activity act as nontoxic, mucosal adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Douce, G; Turcotte, C; Cropley, I; Roberts, M; Pizza, M; Domenghini, M; Rappuoli, R; Dougan, G

    1995-02-28

    A nontoxic mutant (LTK7) of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) lacking ADP-ribosylating activity but retaining holotoxin formation was constructed. By using site-directed mutagenesis, the arginine at position 7 of the A subunit was replaced with lysine. This molecule, which was nontoxic in several assays, was able to bind to eukaryotic cells and acted as a mucosal adjuvant for co-administered proteins; BALB/c mice immunized intranasally with LTK7 and ovalbumin developed high levels of serum and local antibodies to ovalbumin and toxin. In addition, mice immunized intranasally with fragment C of tetanus toxin and LTK7 were protected against lethal challenge with tetanus toxin. Thus nontoxic mutants of heat-labile toxin can act as effective intranasal mucosal adjuvants. PMID:7878032

  14. Adjuvant effect of non-toxic mutants of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin following intranasal, oral and intravaginal immunization.

    PubMed

    De Magistris, M T; Pizza, M; Douce, G; Ghiara, P; Dougan, G; Rappuoli, R

    1998-01-01

    Cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) are known to be very effective mucosal adjuvants, but their toxicity limits their use in humans. We genetically detoxified LT by substituting single residues in the active site of the enzymatic A subunit and obtained mutant molecules that retain mucosal adjuvant activity but are devoid of toxicity. These mutant LT molecules induce mucosal and systemic responses to antigens delivered intranasally, orally and intravaginally in mice. Furthermore, mucosal immunization with these molecules confers protection against systemic challenge with tetanus toxin (TT) and mucosal challenge with Helicobacter pylori. PMID:9554265

  15. Evaluation of heat-labile enterotoxins type IIa and type IIb in the pathogenicity of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli for neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Type II heat-labile enterotoxins (LT-II) have been reported in Escherichia coli isolates from humans, animals, food and water samples. The roles of the antigenically distinguishable LT-IIa and LT-IIb subtypes in pathogenesis and virulence of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) have not been previously re...

  16. Mutants of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin as safe and strong adjuvants for intranasal delivery of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Peppoloni, Samuele; Ruggiero, Paolo; Contorni, Mario; Morandi, Maurizio; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Rappuoli, Rino; Podda, Audino; Del Giudice, Giuseppe

    2003-04-01

    Cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin are powerful mucosal adjuvants but their high toxicity hampers their use in humans. Site-directed mutagenesis has allowed the generation of several cholera toxin and E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin mutants with abolished or strongly reduced toxicity that still retain strong mucosal adjuvanticity. Among them, LTK63 (Ser to Lys substitution at position 63 in the A subunit) is completely nontoxic and LTR72 (Ala to Arg at position 72) retains a very low residual enzymatic activity. Both of them have been shown to be safe and effective in enhancing the immunogenicity of intranasally coadministered vaccines, also resulting in protective responses in several animal models. Clinical grade preparations of these mutants have now been produced, tested in animals and proven to be totally safe. Indeed, they did not induce any inflammatory event in the respiratory tract nor, more importantly, in the olfactory bulbs and in the meninges. The fully nontoxic LTK63 mutant has now been successfully tested in human volunteers with a trivalent subunit influenza vaccine. PMID:12899578

  17. Single Chain Variable Fragments Produced in Escherichia coli against Heat-Labile and Heat-Stable Toxins from Enterotoxigenic E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Fernanda B.; Nepomuceno, Roberto; Silva, Anderson; Munhoz, Danielle D.; Yamamoto, Bruno B.; Luz, Daniela; Abreu, Patrícia A. E.; Horton, Denise S. P. Q.; Elias, Waldir P.; Ramos, Oscar H. P.; Piazza, Roxane M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is a prevalent pathological condition frequently associated to the colonization of the small intestine by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains, known to be endemic in developing countries. These strains can produce two enterotoxins associated with the manifestation of clinical symptoms that can be used to detect these pathogens. Although several detection tests have been developed, minimally equipped laboratories are still in need of simple and cost-effective methods. With the aim to contribute to the development of such diagnostic approaches, we describe here two mouse hybridoma-derived single chain fragment variable (scFv) that were produced in E. coli against enterotoxins of ETEC strains. Methods and Findings Recombinant scFv were developed against ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin (ST), from previously isolated hybridoma clones. This work reports their design, construction, molecular and functional characterization against LT and ST toxins. Both antibody fragments were able to recognize the cell-interacting toxins by immunofluorescence, the purified toxins by ELISA and also LT-, ST- and LT/ST-producing ETEC strains. Conclusion The developed recombinant scFvs against LT and ST constitute promising starting point for simple and cost-effective ETEC diagnosis. PMID:26154103

  18. Mass production of somatic embryos expressing Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit in Siberian ginseng.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae-Jin; Lee, Won-Seok; Choi, Eun-Gyung; Kim, Jae-Whune; Kim, Bang-Geul; Yang, Moon-Sik

    2006-01-24

    The B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LTB) is a potent mucosal immunogen and immunoadjuvant for co-administered antigens. In order to produce large scale of LTB for the development of edible vaccine, we used transgenic somatic embryos of Siberian ginseng, which is known as medicinal plant. When transgenic somatic embryos were cultured in 130L air-lift type bioreactor, they were developed to mature somatic embryos through somatic embryogenesis and contained approximately 0.36% LTB of the total soluble protein. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that the somatic embryo-synthesized LTB protein bound specifically to GM1-ganglioside, suggesting the LTB subunits formed active pentamers. Therefore, the use of the bioreactor system for expression of LTB proteins in somatic embryos allows for continuous mass production in a short-term period. PMID:16174540

  19. Inhibition of T-cell Response by Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Treated Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Luciene M.; Maroof, Asher; Dougan, Gordon; Chain, Benjamin M.

    2000-01-01

    Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) is an extensively studied adjuvant of mucosal responses. Nevertheless, its mode of action as an adjuvant remains incompletely understood. In this study, we describe a simplified in vitro model with which to look at some aspects of immunoregulation by LT. The interaction of LT with the apical surface of a monolayer of CaCo-2 epithelial cells induces the release of a soluble factor which inhibits the antigen-induced release of interleukin-2 by T cells cultured at the basolateral side of the cells. The release of this factor requires the ADP-ribosylating activity of LT since the isolated B subunit, as well as an enzymatically silent LT mutant, loses biological activity in this model. The inhibitory activity is likely to be due to prostaglandin release, since it is blocked by indomethacin. The contribution of LT-induced prostaglandin release to the complex immunoregulatory activity of LT is discussed. PMID:11083810

  20. Heterogenic virulence in a diarrheagenic Escherichia coli: evidence for an EPEC expressing heat-labile toxin of ETEC.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Sanjucta; Pazhani, Gururaja P; Nataro, James P; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan

    2015-01-01

    We have encountered an Escherichia coli strain isolated from a child with acute diarrhea. This strain harbored eae and elt genes encoding for E. coli attaching and effacing property and heat-labile enterotoxin of EPEC and ETEC, respectively. Due to the presence of these distinct virulence factors, we named this uncommon strain as EPEC/ETEC hybrid. The elt gene was identified in a conjugally transferable plasmid of the EPEC/ETEC hybrid. In addition, several virulence genes in the locus of enterocyte effacement have been identified, which confirms that the EPEC/ETEC has an EPEC genetic background. The hybrid nature of this strain was further confirmed by using tissue culture assays. In the multi locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, the EPEC/ETEC belonged to the sequence type ST328 and was belonging to ST278 Cplx. Sequence analysis of the plasmid DNA revealed presence of six large contigs with several insertion sequences. A phage integrase gene and the prophages of gp48 and gp49 have been found in the upstream of eltAB. In the downstream of elt, an urovirulence loci adhesion encoding (pap) cluster containing papG, and papC were also identified. Similar to other reports, we have identified a heterogenic virulence in a diarrheagenic E. coli but with different combination of genes. PMID:25465159

  1. Comparative study on characterization of recombinant B subunit of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (rLTB) prepared from E. coli and P. patoris.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xingyuan; Yao, Bi; Zheng, Wenyun; Li, Linfeng

    2010-03-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) was regarded as one of the most powerful mucosal immunoadjuvants eliciting strong immunoresponse to coadministered antigens. In the research, the high-level secretory expression of functional LTB was achieved in P. pastoris through high-density fermentation in a 5-l fermentor. Meanwhile, the protein was expressed in E. coli by the way of inclusion body, although the gene was cloned from E. coli. Some positive yeast and E. coli transformants were obtained respectively by a series of screenings and identifications. Fusion proteins LTB-6x His could be secreted into the supernatant of the medium after the recombinant P. pastoris was induced by 0.5% (v/v) methanol at 30 degrees C, whereas E. coli transformants expressed target protein in inclusion body after being induced by 1 mM IPTG at 37 degrees C. The expression level increased dramatically to 250- 300 mg/l supernatant of fermentation in the former and 80-100 mg/l in the latter. The LTB-6x His were purified to 95% purity by affinity chromatography and characterized by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Adjuvant activity of target protein was analyzed by binding ability with GM1 gangliosides. The MW of LTB-6x His expressed in P. pastoris was greater than that in E. coli, which was equal to the expected 11 kDa, possibly resulted from glycosylation by P. pastoris that would enhance the immunogenicity of co-administered antigens. These data demonstrated that P. pastoris producing heterologous LTB has significant advantages in higher expression level and in adjuvant activity compared with the homologous E. coli system. PMID:20372026

  2. Comparison of two GM1-erythrocyte assays to detect heat-labile Escherichia coli enterotoxin in stool specimens.

    PubMed

    Germani, Y; Guesdon, J L; Phalente, L; Begaud, E; Moreau, J P

    1988-05-01

    Two erythrocyte immunoassay techniques to detect the presence of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LTh) in stool supernatants and cell-free culture supernatants were compared. In the competitive assay, GM1 ganglioside was coated onto V-shaped-well microdilution plates and enterotoxin was coupled to sheep erythrocytes. As little as 0.8 ng of LTh per ml was detected by this method, which was based on the competition between the LTh of the test sample and the sensitized erythrocytes. The second assay made use of chimera antibody prepared by coupling polyclonal anti-LTh antibody to a monoclonal antibody specific for sheep erythrocytes. In this case, LTh, which was specifically bound to a GM1 ganglioside-coated plate, was detected by successively adding the chimera antibody and sheep erythrocytes. The limit of detection of the chimera antibody erythrocyte immunoassay was 0.2 ng/ml. Stool samples were collected from 167 infants hospitalized for diarrhea in the hospital of Noumea, New Caledonia. False-negative reactions due to proteases present in the stool samples were avoided by the addition of phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. PMID:3290242

  3. Participation of ABH glycoconjugates in the secretory response to Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin in rabbit intestine.

    PubMed

    Galván, E M; Roth, G A; Monferran, C G

    1999-08-01

    The ability of membrane ABH blood group-active glycoconjugates to act as receptors of the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LTh) was studied in vitro and in vivo when GM1 was blocked by the cholera toxin B subunit. Rabbits were classified as AB or H based on intestinal ABH-antigenic activities. Brush border membranes from AB rabbits contained 4 times more LTh binding sites than the H ones. LTh interaction could be inhibited by lectins that recognize ABH determinants. LTh induced a similar dose-dependent secretory response in ligated ileal loops of both types of animals. Anti-AB antibodies and Ulex europaeus I lectin could significantly reduce the fluid accumulation in AB and H rabbits, respectively. LTh caused adenylate cyclase activation even when GM1 was blocked, and this effect was abolished by the addition of specific ABH ligands. These results suggest that ABH glycoconjugates are involved in the host secretory response to LTh in rabbit intestine. PMID:10395858

  4. Modulation of dendritic cell endocytosis and antigen processing pathways by Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin and mutant derivatives.

    PubMed

    Petrovska, Liljana; Lopes, Luciene; Simmons, Cameron P; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Dougan, Gordon; Chain, Benjamin M

    2003-03-28

    Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) is known to be a potent adjuvant of both the mucosal and systemic immune systems but the mechanism of action leading to adjuvant activity remains incompletely understood. This study investigates the action of LT and LT mutants with impaired enzymatic activity, on the function of dendritic cells. Wild-type LT and LTR72, which retains some ADP ribosyltransferase activity, induced a selective increase in cell surface expression of B7.1, and a selective decrease of CD40 expression on mouse bone marrow derived dendritic cells. LTK63 and LT-B had no obvious effect on the expression of these antigens on similar dendritic cells. LT-treated dendritic cells also showed a profoundly impaired ability to present protein antigen (ovalbumin) to cognate T cells, although this effect was not observed with non-toxic LT mutants. LT and LTR72-treated cells showed a slower rate of receptor-mediated endocytosis as measured by flow cytometric analysis of uptake of fluorescently labelled dextran. Furthermore, confocal microscopy showed changes in the intracellular distribution of endocytosed molecules, and of the class II containing acidic antigen processing compartments. This response of dendritic cells to toxin is likely to play an important role in determining the adjuvant activity of these molecules. PMID:12615441

  5. Inhibition of Class II Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigen Processing by Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin Requires an Enzymatically Active A Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Matousek, Milita P.; Nedrud, John G.; Cieplak, Witold; Harding, Clifford V.

    1998-01-01

    Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT) were found to inhibit intracellular antigen processing. Processing was not inhibited by mutant LT with attenuated ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, CT B or LT B subunit, which enhanced presentation of preexisting cell surface peptide-class II major histocompatibility complex complexes. Inhibition of antigen processing correlated with A subunit ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. PMID:9632629

  6. Allele variants of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin are globally transmitted and associated with colonization factors.

    PubMed

    Joffré, Enrique; von Mentzer, Astrid; Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Oezguen, Numan; Savidge, Tor; Dougan, Gordon; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Sjöling, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. ETEC-mediated diarrhea is orchestrated by heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxins (STp and STh), acting in concert with a repertoire of more than 25 colonization factors (CFs). LT, the major virulence factor, induces fluid secretion after delivery of a monomeric ADP-ribosylase (LTA) and its pentameric carrier B subunit (LTB). A study of ETEC isolates from humans in Brazil reported the existence of natural LT variants. In the present study, analysis of predicted amino acid sequences showed that the LT amino acid polymorphisms are associated with a geographically and temporally diverse set of 192 clinical ETEC strains and identified 12 novel LT variants. Twenty distinct LT amino acid variants were observed in the globally distributed strains, and phylogenetic analysis showed these to be associated with different CF profiles. Notably, the most prevalent LT1 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS1 + CS3 or CS2 + CS3, and the most prevalent LT2 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS5 + CS6 or CFA/I. LTB allele variants generally exhibited more-stringent amino acid sequence conservation (2 substitutions identified) than LTA allele variants (22 substitutions identified). The functional impact of LT1 and LT2 polymorphisms on virulence was investigated by measuring total-toxin production, secretion, and stability using GM1-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (GM1-ELISA) and in silico protein modeling. Our data show that LT2 strains produce 5-fold more toxin than LT1 strains (P < 0.001), which may suggest greater virulence potential for this genetic variant. Our data suggest that functionally distinct LT-CF variants with increased fitness have persisted during the evolution of ETEC and have spread globally. PMID:25404692

  7. Role of trypsin-like cleavage at arginine 192 in the enzymatic and cytotonic activities of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, C C; Messer, R J; Cieplak, W

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies of cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin have suggested that proteolytic cleavage plays an important role in the expression of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and toxicity. Specifically, several studies have implicated a trypsin-like cleavage at arginine 192, which lies within an exposed region subtended by a disulfide bond in the intact A subunit, in toxicity. To investigate the role of this modification in the enzymatic and cytotonic properties of heat-labile enterotoxin, the response of purified, recombinant A subunit to tryptic activation and the effect of substituting arginine 192 with glycine on the activities of the holotoxin were examined. The recombinant A subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin exhibited significant levels of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity that were only nominally increased (approximately twofold) by prior limited trypsinolysis. The enzymatic activity also did not appear to be affected by auto-ADP-ribosylation that occurs during the high-level synthesis of the recombinant A subunit in E. coli. A mutant form of the holotoxin containing the arginine 192-to-glycine substitution exhibited levels of cytotonic activity for CHO cells that were similar to that of the untreated, wild-type holotoxin but exhibited a marked delay in the ability to increase intracellular levels of cyclic AMP in Caco-2 cells. The results indicate that trypsin-like cleavage of the A subunit of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin at arginine 192 is not requisite to the expression of enzymatic activity by the A subunit and further reveal that this modification, although it enhances the biological and enzymatic activities of the toxin, is not absolutely required for the enterotoxin to elicit cytotonic effects. Images PMID:7927684

  8. Genetically Detoxified Mutants of Heat-Labile Toxin from Escherichia coli Are Able To Act as Oral Adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Douce, Gill; Giannelli, Valentina; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Lewis, David; Everest, Paul; Rappuoli, Rino; Dougan, Gordon

    1999-01-01

    Detoxified mutants of the Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) act as mucosal adjuvants to intranasally presented coadministered antigens. Here, we compare the adjuvant activity of a panel of detoxified derivatives of LT, using both intranasal (i.n.) and oral (p.o.) routes of administration. The mutants used as adjuvants varied in sensitivity to proteases and toxicity. With keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) as the bystander antigen, the immune responses to i.n. immunizations were consistently higher than the equivalent p.o.-delivered proteins. LT-G192, a mutant which demonstrates a 10-fold reduction in toxicity in vitro, demonstrated wild-type adjuvant activity both i.n. and p.o., inducing similar titers of KLH specific antibody in the sera and immunoglobulin A in local mucosal secretions as wild-type LT. In line with previous data, the nontoxic holotoxoid LT-K63 induced intermediate immune responses in both the serum and mucosal secretions which were lower than those achieved with wild-type LT but at least 10-fold higher than those measured when the antigen was administered with LT-B. Although significant levels of local and systemic anti-KLH antibodies were induced following p.o. immunization with LT-K63, cellular proliferative responses to KLH was poor or undetectable. In contrast, LT and LT-G192 induced significant T-cell responses to KLH following p.o. immunization. These proliferating cells secreted both gamma interferon and interleukin-5, suggesting that the type of immune response induced following p.o. coimmunization with LT and purified protein is a mixed Th1/Th2 response. PMID:10456880

  9. Levels of Expression and Immunogenicity of Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strains Expressing Escherichia coli Mutant Heat-Labile Enterotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Covone, M. Giuseppina; Brocchi, Marcelo; Palla, Emanuela; da Silveira, W. Dias; Rappuoli, Rino; Galeotti, Cesira L.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of heterologous gene dosage as well as Salmonella typhimurium strain variability on immune response toward both the heterologous antigen, the nontoxic mutant of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin LTK63, and the carrier Salmonella strain have been analyzed. Effects of a single integration into the host DNA and different-copy-number episomal vectors were compared in S. typhimurium Δcya Δcrp Δasd strains of two different serotypes, UK-1 and SR-11. Expression of the enterotoxin in the different Salmonella isolates in vitro was found to vary considerably and, for the episomal vectors, to correlate with the plasmid copy number. LTK63-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies were highest in mice immunized with the high-level-expression strain. High anti-LTK63 IgG and IgA titers were found to correspond to higher anti-Salmonella immunity, suggesting that LTK63 exerts an adjuvant effect on response to the carrier. Statistically significant differences in anti-LTK63 immune response were observed between groups of mice immunized with the attenuated Δcya Δcrp UK-1 and SR-11 derivatives producing the antigen at the same rate. These data indicate that the same attenuation in S. typhimurium strains of different genetic backgrounds can influence significantly the immune response toward the heterologous antigen. Moreover, delivery of the LTK63 enterotoxin to the immune system by attenuated S. typhimurium strains is effective only when synthesis of the antigen is very high during the initial phase of invasion, while persistence of the S. typhimurium strain in deep tissues has only marginal influence. PMID:9423862

  10. Genetically detoxified mutants of heat-labile toxin from Escherichia coli are able to act as oral adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Douce, G; Giannelli, V; Pizza, M; Lewis, D; Everest, P; Rappuoli, R; Dougan, G

    1999-09-01

    Detoxified mutants of the Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) act as mucosal adjuvants to intranasally presented coadministered antigens. Here, we compare the adjuvant activity of a panel of detoxified derivatives of LT, using both intranasal (i.n.) and oral (p.o.) routes of administration. The mutants used as adjuvants varied in sensitivity to proteases and toxicity. With keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) as the bystander antigen, the immune responses to i. n. immunizations were consistently higher than the equivalent p.o. -delivered proteins. LT-G192, a mutant which demonstrates a 10-fold reduction in toxicity in vitro, demonstrated wild-type adjuvant activity both i.n. and p.o., inducing similar titers of KLH specific antibody in the sera and immunoglobulin A in local mucosal secretions as wild-type LT. In line with previous data, the nontoxic holotoxoid LT-K63 induced intermediate immune responses in both the serum and mucosal secretions which were lower than those achieved with wild-type LT but at least 10-fold higher than those measured when the antigen was administered with LT-B. Although significant levels of local and systemic anti-KLH antibodies were induced following p.o. immunization with LT-K63, cellular proliferative responses to KLH was poor or undetectable. In contrast, LT and LT-G192 induced significant T-cell responses to KLH following p.o. immunization. These proliferating cells secreted both gamma interferon and interleukin-5, suggesting that the type of immune response induced following p.o. coimmunization with LT and purified protein is a mixed Th1/Th2 response. PMID:10456880

  11. Effect of site-directed mutagenic alterations on ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of the A subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Lobet, Y; Cluff, C W; Cieplak, W

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies of the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin, an NAD(+)-dependent ADP-ribosyltransferase, suggested that a small amino-terminal region of amino acid sequence similarity to the active fragments of both cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin represents a region containing critical active-site residues that might be involved in the binding of the substrate NAD+. Other studies of two other bacterial toxins possessing ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, diphtheria toxin and Pseudomonas exotoxin A, have revealed the presence of essential glutamic acid residues vicinal to the active site. To help determine the relevance of these observations to activities of the enterotoxins, the A-subunit gene of the E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin was subjected to site-specific mutagenesis in the region encoding the amino-terminal region of similarity to the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin delineated by residues 6 through 17 and at two glutamic acid residues, 110 and 112, that are conserved in the active domains of all of the heat-labile enterotoxin variants and in cholera toxin. Mutant proteins in which arginine 7 was either deleted or replaced with lysine exhibited undetectable levels of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. However, limited trypsinolysis of the arginine 7 mutants yielded fragmentation kinetics that were different from that yielded by the wild-type recombinant subunit or the authentic A subunit. In contrast, mutant proteins in which glutamic acid residues at either position 110 or 112 were replaced with aspartic acid responded like the wild-type subunit upon limited trypsinolysis, while exhibiting severely depressed, but detectable, ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. The latter results may indicate that either glutamic acid 110 or glutamic acid 112 of the A subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin is analogous to those active-site glutamic acids identified in several other ADP-ribosylating toxins. Images PMID:1908825

  12. Relationship between Heat-Labile Enterotoxin Secretion Capacity and Virulence in Wild Type Porcine-Origin Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains

    PubMed Central

    Wijemanne, Prageeth; Xing, Jun; Berberov, Emil M.; Marx, David B.; Francis, David H.; Moxley, Rodney A.

    2015-01-01

    Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) is an important virulence factor secreted by some strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). The prototypic human-origin strain H10407 secretes LT via a type II secretion system (T2SS). We sought to determine the relationship between the capacity to secrete LT and virulence in porcine-origin wild type (WT) ETEC strains. Sixteen WT ETEC strains isolated from cases of severe diarrheal disease were analyzed by GM1ganglioside enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure LT concentrations in culture supernatants. All strains had detectable LT in supernatants by 2 h of culture and 1 strain, which was particularly virulent in gnotobiotic piglets (3030-2), had the highest LT secretion level all porcine-origin WT strains tested (P<0.05). The level of LT secretion (concentration in supernatants at 6-h culture) explained 92% of the variation in time-to-a-moribund-condition (R2 = 0.92, P<0.0001) in gnotobiotic piglets inoculated with either strain 3030-2, or an ETEC strain of lesser virulence (2534-86), or a non-enterotoxigenic WT strain (G58-1). All 16 porcine ETEC strains were positive by PCR analysis for the T2SS genes, gspD and gspK, and bioinformatic analysis of 4 porcine-origin strains for which complete genomic sequences were available revealed a T2SS with a high degree of homology to that of H10407. Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic trees constructed using T2SS genes gspC, gspD, gspE and homologs showed that strains 2534-86 and 3030-2 clustered together in the same clade with other porcine-origin ETEC strains in the database, UMNK88 and UMN18. Protein modeling of the ATPase gene (gspE) further revealed a direct relationship between the predicted ATP-binding capacities and LT secretion levels as follows: H10407, -8.8 kcal/mol and 199 ng/ml; 3030-2, -8.6 kcal/mol and 133 ng/ml; and 2534-86, -8.5 kcal/mol and 80 ng/ml. This study demonstrated a direct relationship between predicted ATP-binding capacity of GspE and LT secretion, and

  13. Relationship between heat-labile enterotoxin secretion capacity and virulence in wild type porcine-origin enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Wijemanne, Prageeth; Xing, Jun; Berberov, Emil M; Marx, David B; Francis, David H; Moxley, Rodney A

    2015-01-01

    Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) is an important virulence factor secreted by some strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). The prototypic human-origin strain H10407 secretes LT via a type II secretion system (T2SS). We sought to determine the relationship between the capacity to secrete LT and virulence in porcine-origin wild type (WT) ETEC strains. Sixteen WT ETEC strains isolated from cases of severe diarrheal disease were analyzed by GM1ganglioside enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure LT concentrations in culture supernatants. All strains had detectable LT in supernatants by 2 h of culture and 1 strain, which was particularly virulent in gnotobiotic piglets (3030-2), had the highest LT secretion level all porcine-origin WT strains tested (P<0.05). The level of LT secretion (concentration in supernatants at 6-h culture) explained 92% of the variation in time-to-a-moribund-condition (R2 = 0.92, P<0.0001) in gnotobiotic piglets inoculated with either strain 3030-2, or an ETEC strain of lesser virulence (2534-86), or a non-enterotoxigenic WT strain (G58-1). All 16 porcine ETEC strains were positive by PCR analysis for the T2SS genes, gspD and gspK, and bioinformatic analysis of 4 porcine-origin strains for which complete genomic sequences were available revealed a T2SS with a high degree of homology to that of H10407. Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic trees constructed using T2SS genes gspC, gspD, gspE and homologs showed that strains 2534-86 and 3030-2 clustered together in the same clade with other porcine-origin ETEC strains in the database, UMNK88 and UMN18. Protein modeling of the ATPase gene (gspE) further revealed a direct relationship between the predicted ATP-binding capacities and LT secretion levels as follows: H10407, -8.8 kcal/mol and 199 ng/ml; 3030-2, -8.6 kcal/mol and 133 ng/ml; and 2534-86, -8.5 kcal/mol and 80 ng/ml. This study demonstrated a direct relationship between predicted ATP-binding capacity of GspE and LT secretion, and

  14. Identification of a Gene within a Pathogenicity Island of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli H10407 Required for Maximal Secretion of the Heat-Labile Enterotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Fleckenstein, James M.; Lindler, Luther E.; Elsinghorst, Eric A.; Dale, James B.

    2000-01-01

    Studies of the pathogenesis of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) have largely centered on extrachromosomal determinants of virulence, in particular the plasmid-encoded heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable enterotoxins and the colonization factor antigens. ETEC causes illnesses that range from mild diarrhea to severe cholera-like disease. These differences in disease severity are not readily accounted for by our current understanding of ETEC pathogenesis. Here we demonstrate that Tia, a putative adhesin of ETEC H10407, is encoded on a large chromosomal element of approximately 46 kb that shares multiple features with previously described E. coli pathogenicity islands. Further analysis of the region downstream from tia revealed the presence of several candidate open reading frames (ORFs) in the same transcriptional orientation as tia. The putative proteins encoded by these ORFs bear multiple motifs associated with bacterial secretion apparatuses. An in-frame deletion in one candidate gene identified here as leoA (labile enterotoxin output) resulted in marked diminution of secretion of the LT enterotoxin and lack of fluid accumulation in a rabbit ileal loop model of infection. Although previous studies have suggested that E. coli lacks the capacity to secrete LT, our studies show that maximal release of LT from the periplasm of H10407 is dependent on one or more elements encoded on a pathogenicity island. PMID:10768971

  15. Escherichia coli K88ac fimbriae expressing heat-labile and heat-stable (STa) toxin epitopes elicit antibodies that neutralize cholera toxin and STa toxin and inhibit adherence of K88ac fimbrial E. coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengxian; Zhang, Weiping

    2010-12-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and animals. Bacterial adhesins and heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins are the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. It is believed that vaccines inducing anti-adhesin immunity to inhibit bacterial adherence and anti-toxin immunity to eliminate toxin activity would provide broad-spectrum protection against ETEC. In this study, an ETEC fimbrial adhesin was used as a platform to express LT and STa for adhesin-toxin fusion antigens to induce anti-toxin and anti-adhesin immunity. An epitope from the B subunit of LT toxin (LTP1, (8)LCSEYRNTQIYTIN(21)) and an STa toxoid epitope ((5)CCELCCNPQCAGCY(18)) were embedded in the FaeG major subunit of E. coli K88ac fimbriae. Constructed K88ac-toxin chimeric fimbriae were harvested and used for rabbit immunization. Immunized rabbits developed anti-K88ac, anti-LT, and anti-STa antibodies. Moreover, induced antibodies not only inhibited adherence of K88ac fimbrial E. coli to porcine small intestinal enterocytes but also neutralized cholera toxin and STa toxin. Data from this study demonstrated that K88ac fimbriae expressing LT and STa epitope antigens elicited neutralizing anti-toxin antibodies and anti-adhesin antibodies and suggested that E. coli fimbriae could serve as a platform for the development of broad-spectrum vaccines against ETEC. PMID:20980482

  16. Heat-labile- and heat-stable-toxoid fusions (LTR₁₉₂G-STaP₁₃F) of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli elicit neutralizing antitoxin antibodies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Ruan, Xiaosai; Zhang, Chengxian; Lawson, Steve R; Knudsen, David E; Nataro, James P; Robertson, Donald C; Zhang, Weiping

    2011-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and animals. Adhesins and enterotoxins, including heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (STa) toxins, are the key virulence factors. Antigenic adhesin and LT antigens have been used in developing vaccines against ETEC diarrhea. However, STa has not been included because of its poor immunogenicity and potent toxicity. Our recent study showed that porcine-type STa toxoids became immunogenic and elicited neutralizing anti-STa antibodies after being genetically fused to a full-length porcine-type LT toxoid, LT(R₁₉₂G) (W. Zhang et al., Infect. Immun. 78:316-325, 2010). In this study, we mutated human-type LT and STa genes, which are highly homologous to porcine-type toxin genes, for a full-length LT toxoid (LT(R₁₉₂)) and a full-length STa toxoid (STa(P₁₃F)) and genetically fused them to produce LT₁₉₂-STa₁₃ toxoid fusions. Mice immunized with LT₁₉₂-STa₁₃ fusion antigens developed anti-LT and anti-STa IgG (in serum and feces) and IgA antibodies (in feces). Moreover, secretory IgA antibodies from immunized mice were shown to neutralize STa and cholera toxins in T-84 cells. In addition, we fused the STa₁₃ toxoid at the N terminus and C terminus, between the A1 and A2 peptides, and between the A and B subunits of LT₁₉₂ to obtain different fusions in order to explore strategies for enhancing STa immunogenicity. This study demonstrated that human-type LT₁₉₂-STa₁₃ fusions induce neutralizing antitoxin antibodies and provided important information for developing toxoid vaccines against human ETEC diarrhea. PMID:21788385

  17. Simultaneous Exposure to Escherichia coli Heat-Labile and Heat-Stable Enterotoxins Increases Fluid Secretion and Alters Cyclic Nucleotide and Cytokine Production by Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Read, Lisa T.; Hahn, Rachel W.; Thompson, Carli C.; Bauer, David L.; Norton, Elizabeth B.

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a significant cause of diarrheal disease and death, especially in children in developing countries. ETEC causes disease by colonizing the small intestine and producing heat-labile toxin (LT), heat-stable toxin (ST), or both LT and ST (LT+ST). The majority of ETEC strains produce both ST and LT. Despite the prevalence of LT+ST-producing organisms, few studies have examined the physiologic or immunologic consequences of simultaneous exposure to these two potent enterotoxins. In the current report, we demonstrate that when LT and ST are both present, they increase water movement into the intestinal lumen over and above the levels observed with either toxin alone. As expected, cultured intestinal epithelial cells increased their expression of intracellular cyclic GMP (cGMP) when treated with ST and their expression of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) when treated with LT. When both toxins were present, cGMP levels but not cAMP levels were synergistically elevated compared with the levels of expression caused by the corresponding single-toxin treatment. Our data also demonstrate that the levels of inflammatory cytokines produced by intestinal epithelial cells in response to LT are significantly reduced in animals exposed to both enterotoxins. These findings suggest that there may be complex differences between the epithelial cell intoxication and, potentially, secretory outcomes induced by ETEC strains expressing LT+ST compared with strains that express LT or ST only. Our results also reveal a novel mechanism wherein ST production may reduce the hosts' ability to mount an effective innate or adaptive immune response to infecting organisms. PMID:25287923

  18. Evaluation of heat-labile enterotoxins type IIa and type IIb in the pathogenicity of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli for neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Casey, Thomas A; Connell, Terry D; Holmes, Randall K; Whipp, Shannon C

    2012-09-14

    Type II heat-labile enterotoxins (LT-II) have been reported in Escherichia coli isolates from humans, animals, food and water samples. The goal here was to determine the specific roles of the antigenically distinguishable LT-IIa and LT-IIb subtypes in pathogenesis and virulence of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) which has not been previously reported. The prevalence of genes encoding for LT-II was determined by colony blot hybridization in a collection of 1648 E. coli isolates from calves and pigs with diarrhea or other diseases and from healthy animals. Only five isolates hybridized with the LT-II probe and none of these isolates contained genes for other enterotoxins or adhesins associated with porcine or bovine ETEC. Ligated intestinal loops in calves, pigs, and rabbits were used to determine the potential of purified LT-IIa and LT-IIb to cause intestinal secretion. LT-IIa and LT-IIb caused significant secretion in the intestinal loops in calves but not in the intestinal loops of rabbits or pigs. In contrast, neonatal pigs inoculated with isogenic adherent E. coli containing the cloned genes for LT-I, LT-IIa or LT-IIb developed severe watery diarrhea with weight loss that was significantly greater than pigs inoculated with the adherent, non-toxigenic parental or vector only control strains. The results demonstrate that the incidence of LT-II appeared to be very low in porcine and bovine E. coli. However, a potential role for these enterotoxins in E. coli-mediated diarrhea in animals was confirmed because purified LT-IIa and LT-IIb caused fluid secretion in bovine intestinal loops and adherent isogenic strains containing cloned genes encoding for LT-IIa or LT-IIb caused severe diarrhea in neonatal pigs. PMID:22480773

  19. Seroepidemiology of heat-labile enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Norwalk virus infections in Panamanians, Canal Zone residents, Apache Indians, and United States Peace Corps volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, R W; Greenberg, H; Singh, N; Oro, G; de Guardia, A; Sack, R B; Kapikian, A Z

    1982-01-01

    Serum antibody titrations against the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) of Escherichia coli were carried out on Panamanians, U.S. citizens resident in the Panama Canal Zone, Apache Indians living on the reservation in Whiteriver, Arizona, and Peace Corps volunteers before they traveled overseas. Antibody titers to Norwalk virus were also carried out on serum from Panamanian and Canal Zone residents. A high prevalence of low-titer LT antibodies was found in infants and adults from Panama, the Canal Zone, and Whiteriver. Panamanian children aged 1 to 5 years had the highest LT antibody titers. Peace Corps volunteers had a low prevalence and titer of LT antibodies. Prevalence and titer of antibodies to Norwalk virus were generally higher in Panamanians compared with Canal Zone residents of the same age. In the populations we studied, various modes of transmission and mechanisms of immunity likely explain the differences which we observed in antibody prevalence and titer to these two enteric pathogens. PMID:6290396

  20. Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit is a more potent mucosal adjuvant than its vlosely related homologue, the B subunit of cholera toxin.

    PubMed

    Millar, D G; Hirst, T R; Snider, D P

    2001-05-01

    Although cholera toxin (Ctx) and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (Etx) are known to be potent mucosal adjuvants, it remains controversial whether the adjuvanticity of the holotoxins extends to their nontoxic, receptor-binding B subunits. Here, we have systematically evaluated the comparative adjuvant properties of highly purified recombinant EtxB and CtxB. EtxB was found to be a more potent adjuvant than CtxB, stimulating responses to hen egg lysozyme when the two were coadministered to mice intranasally, as assessed by enhanced serum and secretory antibody titers as well as by stimulation of lymphocyte proliferation in spleen and draining lymph nodes. These results indicate that, although structurally very similar, EtxB and CtxB have strikingly different immunostimulatory properties and should not be considered equivalent as prospective vaccine adjuvants. PMID:11292779

  1. Antibodies to heat-labile Escherichia coli enterotoxins in human milk and sera. A study of Ethiopian and Swedish mothers and their children.

    PubMed

    Aust-Kettis, A; Gebre-Medhin, M; Habte, D; Khosla, N; Wadström, T

    1981-09-01

    Maternal serum and cord blood from 50 Ethiopian, 10 Costa Rican and 20 Swedish newly delivered mothers and their babies was examined for the presence of antibodies against heat labile (LT) enterotoxin from a human strain of E. coli. 96% of the Ethiopian, 80% of the Costa Rican and 30% of the Swedish mothers and infants had detectable antibody levels. The titres were significantly higher in the Ethiopian material. Furthermore, antibody titres to E. coli enterotoxin were determined in breast milk collected from Ethiopian mothers at 48 h and at 1 month after delivery. One third of these mothers had detectable levels of antibodies in samples from early lactation. Experiments performed with LT enterotoxin from another human and with LT from a porcine E. coli strain confirmed the results. Neutralization tests with cholera enterotoxin as antigen were all negative in sera and milk samples from all these groups. The material has been collected in three different geographical areas which are nonendemic for cholera. PMID:7032015

  2. Design and characterization of a chimeric multiepitope construct containing CfaB, heat-stable toxoid, CssA, CssB, and heat-labile toxin subunit B of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: a bioinformatic approach.

    PubMed

    Zeinalzadeh, Narges; Salmanian, Ali Hatef; Ahangari, Ghasem; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Amani, Jafar; Bathaie, S Zahra; Jafari, Mahyat

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in children in developing countries and travelers to these areas. Enterotoxins and colonization factors (CFs) are two key virulence factors in ETEC pathogenesis, and the heterogeneity of the CFs is the bottleneck in reaching an effective vaccine. In this study, a candidate subunit vaccine, which is composed of CfaB, CssA and CssB, structural subunits of colonization factor antigen I and CS6 CFs, labile toxin subunit B, and the binding subunit of heat-labile and heat-stable toxoid, was designed to provide broad-spectrum protection against ETEC. The different features of chimeric gene, its mRNA stability, and chimeric protein properties were analyzed by using bioinformatic tools. The optimized chimeric gene was chemically synthesized and expressed successfully in a prokaryotic host. The purified protein was used for assessment of bioinformatic data by experimental methods. PMID:24372617

  3. The LT1 and LT2 variants of the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) heat-labile toxin (LT) are associated with major ETEC lineages.

    PubMed

    Joffré, Enrique; Sjöling, Åsa

    2016-01-01

    The heat-labile toxin (LT) is one of the major virulence factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). We recently described that 20 polymorphic LT variants are present in ETEC strains isolated globally. Two of the variants, LT1 and LT2, are particularly common and we found that they were associated with clonal ETEC lineages that express the colonization factors (CFs), CFA/I, CS1+CS3, CS2+CS3, and CS5+CS6. ETEC expressing these CFs are frequently found among ETEC strains isolated from cases with diarrhea. ETEC expressing the colonization factors CS1+CS3, and CS2+CS3 are found in 2 discrete clonal lineages and express the LT1 variant and heat stable toxin (STh). Although they clearly are virulent they neither produce, nor secrete, high amounts of LT toxin. On the other hand ETEC strains expressing LT, STh, CFA/I and LT, STh, CS5+CS6, carry the LT2 variant and produce and secrete significantly more LT toxin. Despite differences in toxin production, LT1 and LT2 are found in ETEC lineages that have managed to spread globally confirming that these variants are important for ETEC virulence. PMID:26939855

  4. The LT1 and LT2 variants of the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) heat-labile toxin (LT) are associated with major ETEC lineages

    PubMed Central

    Joffré, Enrique; Sjöling, Åsa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The heat-labile toxin (LT) is one of the major virulence factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). We recently described that 20 polymorphic LT variants are present in ETEC strains isolated globally. Two of the variants, LT1 and LT2, are particularly common and we found that they were associated with clonal ETEC lineages that express the colonization factors (CFs), CFA/I, CS1+CS3, CS2+CS3, and CS5+CS6. ETEC expressing these CFs are frequently found among ETEC strains isolated from cases with diarrhea. ETEC expressing the colonization factors CS1+CS3, and CS2+CS3 are found in 2 discrete clonal lineages and express the LT1 variant and heat stable toxin (STh). Although they clearly are virulent they neither produce, nor secrete, high amounts of LT toxin. On the other hand ETEC strains expressing LT, STh, CFA/I and LT, STh, CS5+CS6, carry the LT2 variant and produce and secrete significantly more LT toxin. Despite differences in toxin production, LT1 and LT2 are found in ETEC lineages that have managed to spread globally confirming that these variants are important for ETEC virulence. PMID:26939855

  5. Type II heat-labile enterotoxins from 50 diverse Escherichia coli isolates belong almost exclusively to the LT-IIc family and may be prophage encoded.

    PubMed

    Jobling, Michael G; Holmes, Randall K

    2012-01-01

    Some enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) produce a type II heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-II) that activates adenylate cyclase in susceptible cells but is not neutralized by antisera against cholera toxin or type I heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-I). LT-I variants encoded by plasmids in ETEC from humans and pigs have amino acid sequences that are ≥ 95% identical. In contrast, LT-II toxins are chromosomally encoded and are much more diverse. Early studies characterized LT-IIa and LT-IIb variants, but a novel LT-IIc was reported recently. Here we characterized the LT-II encoding loci from 48 additional ETEC isolates. Two encoded LT-IIa, none encoded LT-IIb, and 46 encoded highly related variants of LT-IIc. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the predicted LT-IIc toxins encoded by these loci could be assigned to 6 subgroups. The loci corresponding to individual toxins within each subgroup had DNA sequences that were more than 99% identical. The LT-IIc subgroups appear to have arisen by multiple recombinational events between progenitor loci encoding LT-IIc1- and LT-IIc3-like variants. All loci from representative isolates encoding the LT-IIa, LT-IIb, and each subgroup of LT-IIc enterotoxins are preceded by highly-related genes that are between 80 and 93% identical to predicted phage lysozyme genes. DNA sequences immediately following the B genes differ considerably between toxin subgroups, but all are most closely related to genomic sequences found in predicted prophages. Together these data suggest that the LT-II loci are inserted into lambdoid type prophages that may or may not be infectious. These findings raise the possibility that production of LT-II enterotoxins by ETEC may be determined by phage conversion and may be activated by induction of prophage, in a manner similar to control of production of Shiga-like toxins by converting phages in isolates of enterohemmorhagic E. coli. PMID:22242186

  6. New Surface-Associated Heat-Labile Colonization Factor Antigen (CFA/II) Produced by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli of Serogroups O6 and O8

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Dolores G.; Evans, Doyle J.

    1978-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) belonging to serogroups O6 and O8 do not possess the H-10407-type colonization factor antigen (CFA/I). However, these frequently isolated ETEC were found to possess a second and distinct heat-labile surface-associated colonization factor antigen, termed CFA/II. Whereas CFA/I mediates mannose-resistant hemagglutination of human group A erythrocytes, CFA/II does not. CFA/II mediates mannose-resistant hemagglutination of bovine erythrocytes, and mannose-resistant hemagglutination is rapid only at reduced temperature (4°C). Because CFA/II, like CFA/I, is spontaneously lost by many ETEC isolates in the laboratory, it was possible to produce specific anti-CFA/II serum by preparing antiserum against living cells of a prototype strain (PB-176) and adsorbing this serum with living and heat-treated cells of its CFA/II-negative derivative strain PB-176-P. This serum, which neutralized the colonization factor activity of CFA/II-positive strains in infant rabbits, was employed to confirm the presence of CFA/II on ETEC which exhibited mannose-resistant hemagglutination of bovine but not human erythrocytes. CFA/II, like CFA/I, mediates adherence of the bacteria to the mucosal surface of the small intestine, as demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence. CFA/II appears to be an important virulence factor for humans since CFA/II-positive ETEC are frequently isolated from diarrhea cases, particularly travelers' diarrhea, in Mexico; these ETEC were not uncommon in a collection of isolates from Bangladesh. The O6:H16 strain of ETEC responsible for an outbreak of diarrhea in the United States was also shown to be CFA/II positive. CFA/I and CFA/II were never found on the same serotypes of ETEC, but 98% of the heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxin-producing ETEC belonging to the frequently isolated serogroups O6, O8, O15, O25, O63, and O78 were positive for either CFA/I or CFA/II. Images PMID:80383

  7. Heat-labile enterotoxin-induced activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in intestinal epithelial cells impacts enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) adherence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Gao, Xiaofei; Hardwidge, Philip R

    2012-08-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causes human morbidity and mortality in developing nations and is an emerging threat to food safety in developed nations. The ETEC heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) not only causes diarrheal disease by deregulating host adenylate cyclase, but also enhances ETEC adherence to intestinal epithelial cells. The mechanism governing this LT pro-adherence phenotype is unclear. Here we investigated intestinal epithelial cell signal transduction pathways activated by ETEC and quantified the relative importance of these host pathways to LT-induced ETEC adherence. We show that ETEC activates both NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways through mechanisms that are primarily dependent upon LT. LT-induced NF-κB activation depends upon the cAMP-dependent activation of the Ras-like GTPase Rap1 but is independent of protein kinase A (PKA). By using inhibitors of these pathways, we demonstrate that inhibiting the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase prevents LT from increasing ETEC adherence. By contrast, the LT pro-adherence phenotype appears unrelated to both LT-induced Rap1 activity and to subsequent NF-κB activation. We speculate that LT may alter host signal transduction to induce the presentation of ligands for ETEC adhesins in such a way that promotes ETEC adherence. Our findings provide insight into previously unexplored functions of LT and their relative importance to ETEC virulence. PMID:22452361

  8. Cooperative role of antibodies against heat-labile toxin and the EtpA Adhesin in preventing toxin delivery and intestinal colonization by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Roy, Koushik; Hamilton, David J; Fleckenstein, James M

    2012-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrheal disease in developing countries, where it is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. Vaccine development for ETEC has been hindered by the heterogeneity of known molecular targets and the lack of broad-based sustained protection afforded by existing vaccine strategies. In an effort to explore the potential role of novel antigens in ETEC vaccines, we examined the ability of antibodies directed against the ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT) and the recently described EtpA adhesin to prevent intestinal colonization in vivo and toxin delivery to epithelial cells in vitro. We demonstrate that EtpA is required for the optimal delivery of LT and that antibodies against this adhesin play at least an additive role in preventing delivery of LT to target intestinal cells when combined with antibodies against either the A or B subunits of the toxin. Moreover, vaccination with a combination of LT and EtpA significantly impaired intestinal colonization. Together, these results suggest that the incorporation of recently identified molecules such as EtpA could be used to enhance current approaches to ETEC vaccine development. PMID:22875600

  9. Oral immunisation of mice with a recombinant rabies virus vaccine incorporating the heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit of Escherichia coli in an attenuated Salmonella strain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuelin; Liu, Juan; Wu, Xiuping; Yu, Lu; Chen, Haiying; Guo, Heng; Zhang, Maolin; Li, Huiping; Liu, Xue; Sun, Shumin; Zhao, Lijing; Zhang, Xinyue; Gao, Lifang; Liu, Mingyuan

    2012-10-01

    To investigate effective new rabies vaccines, a fusion protein consisting of the rabies virus (RV) glycoprotein and the heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit of Escherichia coli (LTB) was successfully constructed and delivered in a live attenuated Salmonella strain LH430. Mice were immunised with LH430 carrying pVAX1-G, pVAX1-G-LTB or pVAX1-ori-G-LTB. The antibody titres of mice immunised with oral LH430 carrying pVAX1-G-LTB or pVAX1-ori-G-LTB were significantly higher than those of pVAX1-G-immunised mice. The results of the challenge with the rabies virus standard strain (CVS-11) showed that the LH430 strain carrying the G-LTB gene induced immunity and elevated IL-2 levels in immunised mice ((∗∗)P<0.01), whereas LH430 carrying pVAX1-G did not contribute to protection. These results show that LH430 carrying recombinant G-LTB could provide overall immunity against challenge with CVS-11 and should be considered to be a potential rabies vaccine. PMID:22019192

  10. Local and systemic immune responses induced by a recombinant chimeric protein containing Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens fused to the B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin LTB.

    PubMed

    Marchioro, Silvana Beutinger; Fisch, Andressa; Gomes, Charles K; Jorge, Sérgio; Galli, Vanessa; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Maes, Dominiek; Dellagostin, Odir; Conceição, Fabricio R

    2014-09-17

    A multi-antigen chimera composed of three antigens of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (R1, P42, and NrdF) and the mucosal adjuvant Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) was constructed, and its antigenic and immunogenic properties were evaluated in mice and pigs. In addition, we compared the effect of the fusion and co-administration of these proteins in mice. Antibodies against each subunit recognized the chimeric protein. Intranasal and intramuscular immunization of mice with the chimeric protein significantly increased IgG and IgA levels in the serum and tracheobronchial lavages, respectively, against some of the antigens present in the chimeric. Swine immunized with the chimeric protein developed an immune response against all M. hyopneumoniae antigens present in the fusion with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). The adjuvant rLTB enhanced the immune response in both fused and co-administered antigens; however, better results were obtained with the chimeric protein. This multi-antigen is a promising vaccine candidate that may help control M. hyopneumoniae infection. PMID:25091529

  11. Discovery of the cell-penetrating function of A2 domain derived from LTA subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Di; Guo, Hua; Zheng, Wenyun; Zhang, Na; Wang, Tianwen; Wang, Ping; Ma, Xingyuan

    2016-06-01

    Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) is a protein toxin produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). As a bacterial toxin, LT holotoxin can enter intestinal epithelial cells and cause diarrhea. In addition, LT is also a powerful mucosal adjuvant capable of enhancing the strong immune responses to co-administered antigens. However, the LT immunological mechanism is still not clear in some aspects, especially with the respect to how the LTA subunit functions alone. Here, we discovered that the A2 domain of LTA could carry a fluorescent protein into cells, whose function is similar to a cell-penetrating peptide. The transmembrane-transporting ability of the A2 domain is non-specific in its cell-penetrating function, which was shown through testing with different cell types. Moreover, the LTA2 fusion protein penetrated a fluorescently labeled cell membrane that identified LTA2 internalization through membrane transport pathways, and showed it finally localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, low-temperature stress and pharmacological agent treatments showed that the LTA2 internalization route is a temperature-dependent process involving the clathrin-mediated endocytosis and the macropinocytosis pathways. These results could explain the internalization of the LTA subunit alone without the LTB pentamer, contributing to a better understanding of LTA working as a mucosal adjuvant; they also suggest that the A2 domain could be used as a novel transport vehicle for research and treatment of disease. PMID:26960316

  12. Characterization of a mutant Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin, LT(R192G/L211A), as a safe and effective oral adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Norton, Elizabeth B; Lawson, Louise B; Freytag, Lucy C; Clements, John D

    2011-04-01

    Despite the fact that the adjuvant properties of the heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli (LT) and Vibrio cholerae (CT) have been known for more than 20 years, there are no available oral vaccines containing these molecules as adjuvants, primarily because they are both very potent enterotoxins. A number of attempts with various degrees of success have been made to reduce or eliminate the enterotoxicity of LT and CT so they can safely be used as oral adjuvants or immunogens. In this report we characterize the structural, enzymatic, enterotoxic, and adjuvant properties of a novel mutant of LT, designated LT(R192G/L211A), or dmLT. dmLT was not sensitive to trypsin activation, had reduced enzymatic activity for induction of cyclic AMP in Caco-2 cells, and exhibited no enterotoxicity in the patent mouse assay. Importantly, dmLT retained the ability to function as an oral adjuvant for a coadministered antigen (tetanus toxoid) and to elicit anti-LT antibodies. In vitro and in vivo data suggest that the reduced enterotoxicity of this molecule compared to native LT or the single mutant, LT(R192G), is a consequence of increased sensitivity to proteolysis and rapid intracellular degradation in mammalian cells. In conclusion, dmLT is a safe and powerful detoxified enterotoxin with the potential to function as a mucosal adjuvant for coadministered antigens and to elicit anti-LT antibodies without undesirable side effects. PMID:21288994

  13. Characterization of a Mutant Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin, LT(R192G/L211A), as a Safe and Effective Oral Adjuvant ▿

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Elizabeth B.; Lawson, Louise B.; Freytag, Lucy C.; Clements, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that the adjuvant properties of the heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli (LT) and Vibrio cholerae (CT) have been known for more than 20 years, there are no available oral vaccines containing these molecules as adjuvants, primarily because they are both very potent enterotoxins. A number of attempts with various degrees of success have been made to reduce or eliminate the enterotoxicity of LT and CT so they can safely be used as oral adjuvants or immunogens. In this report we characterize the structural, enzymatic, enterotoxic, and adjuvant properties of a novel mutant of LT, designated LT(R192G/L211A), or dmLT. dmLT was not sensitive to trypsin activation, had reduced enzymatic activity for induction of cyclic AMP in Caco-2 cells, and exhibited no enterotoxicity in the patent mouse assay. Importantly, dmLT retained the ability to function as an oral adjuvant for a coadministered antigen (tetanus toxoid) and to elicit anti-LT antibodies. In vitro and in vivo data suggest that the reduced enterotoxicity of this molecule compared to native LT or the single mutant, LT(R192G), is a consequence of increased sensitivity to proteolysis and rapid intracellular degradation in mammalian cells. In conclusion, dmLT is a safe and powerful detoxified enterotoxin with the potential to function as a mucosal adjuvant for coadministered antigens and to elicit anti-LT antibodies without undesirable side effects. PMID:21288994

  14. A genetically detoxified derivative of heat-labile Escherichia coli enterotoxin induces neutralizing antibodies against the A subunit.

    PubMed

    Pizza, M; Fontana, M R; Giuliani, M M; Domenighini, M; Magagnoli, C; Giannelli, V; Nucci, D; Hol, W; Manetti, R; Rappuoli, R

    1994-12-01

    Escherichia coli enterotoxin (LT) and the homologous cholera toxin (CT) are A-B toxins that cause travelers' diarrhea and cholera, respectively. So far, experimental live and killed vaccines against these diseases have been developed using only the nontoxic B portion of these toxins. The enzymatically active A subunit has not been used because it is responsible for the toxicity and it is reported to induce a negligible titer of toxin neutralizing antibodies. We used site-directed mutagenesis to inactivate the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of the A subunit and obtained nontoxic derivatives of LT that elicited a good titer of neutralizing antibodies recognizing the A subunit. These LT mutants and equivalent mutants of CT may be used to improve live and killed vaccines against cholera and enterotoxinogenic E. coli. PMID:7964489

  15. Incorporation of membrane-anchored flagellin or Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit enhances the immunogenicity of rabies virus-like particles in mice and dogs.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yinglin; Kang, Hongtao; Zheng, Xuexing; Wang, Hualei; Gao, Yuwei; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2015-01-01

    Rabies remains an important worldwide public health threat, so safe, effective, and affordable vaccines are still being sought. Virus-like particle-based vaccines targeting various viral pathogens have been successfully produced, licensed, and commercialized. Here, we designed and constructed two chimeric rabies virus-like particles (cRVLPs) containing rabies virus (RABV) glycoprotein (G), matrix (M) protein, and membrane-anchored flagellin (EVLP-F) or Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (EVLP-L) as molecular adjuvants to enhance the immune response against rabies. The immunogenicity and potential of cRVLPs as novel rabies vaccine were evaluated by intramuscular vaccination in mouse and dog models. Mouse studies demonstrated that both EVLP-F and EVLP-L induced faster and larger virus-neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) responses and elicited greater numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells secreting IFN-γ or IL-4 compared with a standard rabies VLP (sRVLP) containing only G and M. Moreover, cRVLPs recruited and/or activated more B cells and dendritic cells in inguinal lymph nodes. EVLP-F induced a strong, specific IgG2a response but not an IgG1 response, suggesting the activation of Th1 class immunity; in contrast, Th2 class immunity was observed with EVLP-L. The significantly enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses induced by cRVLPs provided complete protection against lethal challenge with RABV. Most importantly, dogs vaccinated with EVLP-F or EVLP-L exhibited increased VNA titers in sera and enhanced IFN-γ and IL-4 secretion from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Taken together, these results illustrate that when incorporated into sRVLP, membrane-anchored flagellin, and heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit possess strong adjuvant activity. EVLP-F and EVLP-L induce significantly enhanced RABV-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in both mouse and dog. Therefore, these cRVLPs may be developed as safe and more efficacious rabies vaccine

  16. Incorporation of membrane-anchored flagellin or Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit enhances the immunogenicity of rabies virus-like particles in mice and dogs

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yinglin; Kang, Hongtao; Zheng, Xuexing; Wang, Hualei; Gao, Yuwei; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2015-01-01

    Rabies remains an important worldwide public health threat, so safe, effective, and affordable vaccines are still being sought. Virus-like particle-based vaccines targeting various viral pathogens have been successfully produced, licensed, and commercialized. Here, we designed and constructed two chimeric rabies virus-like particles (cRVLPs) containing rabies virus (RABV) glycoprotein (G), matrix (M) protein, and membrane-anchored flagellin (EVLP-F) or Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (EVLP-L) as molecular adjuvants to enhance the immune response against rabies. The immunogenicity and potential of cRVLPs as novel rabies vaccine were evaluated by intramuscular vaccination in mouse and dog models. Mouse studies demonstrated that both EVLP-F and EVLP-L induced faster and larger virus-neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) responses and elicited greater numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells secreting IFN-γ or IL-4 compared with a standard rabies VLP (sRVLP) containing only G and M. Moreover, cRVLPs recruited and/or activated more B cells and dendritic cells in inguinal lymph nodes. EVLP-F induced a strong, specific IgG2a response but not an IgG1 response, suggesting the activation of Th1 class immunity; in contrast, Th2 class immunity was observed with EVLP-L. The significantly enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses induced by cRVLPs provided complete protection against lethal challenge with RABV. Most importantly, dogs vaccinated with EVLP-F or EVLP-L exhibited increased VNA titers in sera and enhanced IFN-γ and IL-4 secretion from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Taken together, these results illustrate that when incorporated into sRVLP, membrane-anchored flagellin, and heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit possess strong adjuvant activity. EVLP-F and EVLP-L induce significantly enhanced RABV-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in both mouse and dog. Therefore, these cRVLPs may be developed as safe and more efficacious rabies vaccine

  17. Escherichia coli K88ac Fimbriae Expressing Heat-Labile and Heat-Stable (STa) Toxin Epitopes Elicit Antibodies That Neutralize Cholera Toxin and STa Toxin and Inhibit Adherence of K88ac Fimbrial E. coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chengxian; Zhang, Weiping

    2010-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and animals. Bacterial adhesins and heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins are the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. It is believed that vaccines inducing anti-adhesin immunity to inhibit bacterial adherence and anti-toxin immunity to eliminate toxin activity would provide broad-spectrum protection against ETEC. In this study, an ETEC fimbrial adhesin was used as a platform to express LT and STa for adhesin-toxin fusion antigens to induce anti-toxin and anti-adhesin immunity. An epitope from the B subunit of LT toxin (LTP1, 8LCSEYRNTQIYTIN21) and an STa toxoid epitope (5CCELCCNPQCAGCY18) were embedded in the FaeG major subunit of E. coli K88ac fimbriae. Constructed K88ac-toxin chimeric fimbriae were harvested and used for rabbit immunization. Immunized rabbits developed anti-K88ac, anti-LT, and anti-STa antibodies. Moreover, induced antibodies not only inhibited adherence of K88ac fimbrial E. coli to porcine small intestinal enterocytes but also neutralized cholera toxin and STa toxin. Data from this study demonstrated that K88ac fimbriae expressing LT and STa epitope antigens elicited neutralizing anti-toxin antibodies and anti-adhesin antibodies and suggested that E. coli fimbriae could serve as a platform for the development of broad-spectrum vaccines against ETEC. PMID:20980482

  18. Protective Mucosal Immunity to Ocular Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection in Mice by Using Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin B Subunit as an Adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Richards, C. M.; Aman, A. T.; Hirst, T. R.; Hill, T. J.; Williams, N. A.

    2001-01-01

    The potential of nontoxic recombinant B subunits of cholera toxin (rCtxB) and its close relative Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (rEtxB) to act as mucosal adjuvants for intranasal immunization with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoproteins was assessed. Doses of 10 μg of rEtxB or above with 10 μg of HSV-1 glycoproteins elicited high serum and mucosal anti-HSV-1 titers comparable with that obtained using CtxB (10 μg) with a trace (0.5 μg) of whole toxin (Ctx-CtxB). By contrast, doses of rCtxB up to 100 μg elicited only meager anti-HSV-1 responses. As for Ctx-CtxB, rEtxB resulted in a Th2-biased immune response with high immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1)/IgG2a antibody ratios and production of interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-10 as well as gamma interferon by proliferating T cells. The protective efficacy of the immune response induced using rEtxB as an adjuvant was assessed following ocular challenge of immunized and mock-immunized mice. Epithelial disease was observed in both groups, but the immunized mice recovered by day 6 whereas mock-immunized mice developed more severe corneal disease leading to stromal keratitis. In addition, a significant reduction in the incidence of lid disease and zosteriform spread was observed in immunized animals and there was no encephalitis compared with 95% encephalitis in mock-immunized mice. The potential of such mucosal adjuvants for use in human vaccines against pathogens such as HSV-1 is discussed. PMID:11160664

  19. Protection of piglets against enteric colibacillosis by intranasal immunization with K88ac (F4ac) fimbriae and heat labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Mateo, Kristina S; Zhao, Mojun; Erickson, Alan K; Garcia, Nuria; He, Dong; Moxley, Rodney A; Francis, David H

    2013-03-23

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important diarrheal agent of young domestic animals. Currently, there are no commercially available non-living vaccines to protect weaned pigs from the disease and no major veterinary biologics company markets a postweaning ETEC vaccine of any kind. While efforts have been made to develop a non-living postweaning ETEC vaccine for pigs, studies have been limited to the assessment of immune responses to experimental immunogens. In the present study, we describe a reproducible gnotobiotic piglet model of post-weaning ETEC diarrhea and efficacy tests in that model of subunit vaccines consisting of K88 (F4) fimbriae and/or heat labile enterotoxin (LT) delivered by the intranasal route. We also report antibody responses to the vaccine antigens. Piglets vaccinated with both antigens mounted a substantial immune response with serum and cecal antibody titers to K88 antigen significantly greater than those of controls. Serum anti-LT antibody titers were also significantly greater than those of controls. Piglets vaccinated with both antigens remained healthy following challenge with ETEC. At least some pigs vaccinated with either antigen alone, and most of the control piglets developed dehydrating diarrhea and suffered significant weight loss. The results of this study suggest that an intranasal vaccine consisting of both antigens is highly protective against a vigorous experimental challenge of pigs with K88+ ETEC, while that against either antigen alone is not. The current study provides a system whereby various ETEC antigens and/or combinations of antigens can be tested in exploring strategies for the development of vaccines for ETEC. PMID:23089483

  20. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin B Subunit (LTB) with Enterovirus 71 (EV71) Subunit VP1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Ma, Yongping; Zhou, Huicong; Wu, Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    The nontoxic heat-labile toxin (LT) B subunit (LTB) was used as mucosal adjuvant experimentally. However, the mechanism of LTB adjuvant was still unclear. The LTB and enterovirus 71 (EV71) VP1 subunit (EVP1) were constructed in pET32 and expressed in E. coli BL21, respectively. The immunogenicity of purified EVP1 and the adjuvanticity of LTB were evaluated via intranasal immunization EVP1 plus LTB in Balb/c mice. In order to elucidate the proteome change triggered by the adjuvant of LTB, the proteomic profiles of LTB, EVP1, and LTB plus EVP1 were quantitatively analyzed by iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation; liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) in murine macrophage RAW264.7. The proteomic data were analyzed by bioinformatics and validated by western blot analysis. The predicted protein interactions were confirmed using LTB pull-down and the LTB processing pathway was validated by confocal microscopy. The results showed that LTB significantly boosted EVP1 specific systematic and mucosal antibodies. A total of 3666 differential proteins were identified in the three groups. Pathway enrichment of proteomic data predicted that LTB upregulated the specific and dominant MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signaling pathway and the protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum (PPER) pathway, whereas LTB or EVP1 did not significantly upregulate these two signaling pathways. Confocal microscopy and LTB pull-down assays confirmed that the LTB adjuvant was endocytosed and processed through endocytosis (ENS)-lysosomal-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) system. PMID:27618897

  1. Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis ghosts carrying the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit are capable of inducing enhanced protective immune responses.

    PubMed

    Jawale, Chetan V; Lee, John Hwa

    2014-06-01

    The Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) is a potent vaccine adjuvant. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis ghosts carrying LTB (S. Enteritidis-LTB ghosts) were genetically constructed using a novel plasmid, pJHL187-LTB, designed for the coexpression of the LTB and E lysis proteins. S. Enteritidis-LTB ghosts were characterized using scanning electron microscopy to visualize their transmembrane tunnel structures. The expression of LTB in S. Enteritidis-LTB ghost preparations was confirmed by immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The parenteral adjuvant activity of LTB was demonstrated by immunizing chickens with either S. Enteritidis-LTB ghosts or S. Enteritidis ghosts. Chickens were intramuscularly primed at 5 weeks of age and subsequently boosted at 8 weeks of age. In total, 60 chickens were equally divided into three groups (n = 20 for each): group A, nonvaccinated control; group B, immunized with S. Enteritidis-LTB ghosts; and group C, immunized with S. Enteritidis ghosts. Compared with the nonimmunized chickens (group A), the immunized chickens (groups B and C) exhibited increased titers of plasma IgG and intestinal secretory IgA antibodies. The CD3(+) CD4(+) subpopulation of T cells was also significantly increased in both immunized groups. Among the immunized chickens, those in group B exhibited significantly increased titers of specific plasma IgG and intestinal secretory IgA (sIgA) antibodies compared with those in group C, indicating the immunomodulatory effects of the LTB adjuvant. Furthermore, both immunized groups exhibited decreased bacterial loads in their feces and internal organs. These results indicate that parenteral immunization with S. Enteritidis-LTB ghosts can stimulate superior induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses compared to immunization with S. Enteritidis ghosts alone, thus conferring efficient protection against salmonellosis. PMID:24671556

  2. Mucosal immunization of mice using CpG DNA and/or mutants of the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli as adjuvants.

    PubMed

    McCluskie, M J; Weeratna, R D; Clements, J D; Davis, H L

    2001-06-14

    Cholera toxin (CT) and the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) are potent mucosal adjuvants in animals associated, at least in part, with their ability to induce cAMP. While toxicity generally precludes their use in humans, a number of different subunit or genetically detoxified mutants of CT and LT have been developed. Another type of adjuvant that has been shown to be effective at mucosal surfaces comprises synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs (CpG ODN). We have previously demonstrated a synergy between CpG ODN and native toxins after intranasal (IN) administration to mice, and herein have examined whether this synergy is linked to the cAMP activity. The adjuvanticity of CpG ODN was evaluated with IN and oral delivery of tetanus toxoid or the hepatitis B surface antigen, relative to and in combination with native LT holotoxin (LTh), three active site mutants (LTS61F, LTA69G, LTE112K), a protease site mutant (LTR192G), and the B subunit of LT (LTB). At an equivalent dose, the adjuvants could generally be divided into two groups: one that included CpG ODN, LTh, LTR192G, and LTA69G which acted as strong adjuvants; and the second which comprised LTB, LTS61F, and LTE112K, which produced significantly weaker immune responses. When CpG ODN was co-administered with bacterial toxin-derivatives, in most cases, no synergy between CpG and the LT derivatives was found for strength of the humoral response. Nevertheless, for both routes and antigens, CpG ODN combined with any LT derivative induced a more Type 1-like response than LT derivative alone. These results suggest that while the synergy seen previously with native toxins may have been due in part to inherent cAMP activity, it may have also depended on the particular antigen used and the route of immunization. PMID:11395211

  3. Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin promotes protective Th17 responses against infection by driving innate IL-1 and IL-23 production.

    PubMed

    Brereton, Corinna F; Sutton, Caroline E; Ross, Pádraig J; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Rappuoli, Rino; Lavelle, Ed C; Mills, Kingston H G

    2011-05-15

    Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) is a powerful mucosal adjuvant; however, it is associated with toxic effects when delivered intranasally, and its mechanism of action is poorly understood. In this article, we demonstrate that LT acts as a highly effective adjuvant when administered parenterally, promoting Ag-specific IL-17, as well as IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 production in response to coadministered Ags. We found that the adjuvant activity of LT was mediated in part by inducing dendritic cell (DC) activation; LT promoted CD80 and CD86 expression by DCs and enhanced IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-23 production. An LT mutant, LTK63, that lacks enzyme activity was less effective than the wild-type toxin in promoting DC maturation and the development of Ag-specific Th17 cells. LT enhanced IL-23 and IL-1α production from DCs via activation of ERK MAPK and IL-1β secretion through activation of caspase-1 and the NLRP3 inflammasome. These cytokines played a major role in promoting Th17 responses by LT and LTK63. The induction of Th17 cells in vivo in response to LT and LTK63 as adjuvants was significantly reduced in IL-1RI-deficient mice. Finally, using a murine respiratory infection model, we demonstrated that LT can act as a highly effective adjuvant for a pertussis vaccine, promoting Ag-specific Th17 cells and protection against Bordetella pertussis challenge, which was significantly reduced in IL-17-defective mice. Our findings provide clear evidence that LT can promote protective immune responses in part through induction of innate IL-1 and, consequently, Th17 cells. PMID:21490151

  4. Intranasal immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines with nontoxic mutants of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins as adjuvants protects mice against invasive pneumococcal infections.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, H; Schulz, D; Pizza, M; Rappuoli, R; Jónsdóttir, I

    1999-11-01

    Host defenses against Streptococcus pneumoniae depend largely on phagocytosis following opsonization by polysaccharide-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and complement. Since colonization of the respiratory mucosa is the first step in pneumococcal pathogenesis, mucosal immune responses may play a significant role. In addition to inducing systemic immune responses, mucosal vaccination with an effective adjuvant has the advantage of inducing mucosal IgA antibodies. The heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) of Escherichia coli is a well-studied mucosal adjuvant, and adjuvant activity of nontoxic LT mutants has been demonstrated for several protein antigens. We investigated the immunogenicity of pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines (PNC) of serotypes 1 and 3 in mice after intranasal (i.n.) immunization by using as an adjuvant the nontoxic LT mutant LT-K63 or LT-R72, which has minimal residual toxicity. Pneumococcal serotype-specific antibodies were measured in serum (IgM, IgG, and IgA) and saliva (IgA), and vaccine-induced protection was evaluated by i.n. challenge with virulent pneumococci of the homologous serotype. When administered with LT mutants, i.n. immunization with both conjugates induced systemic and mucosal immune responses, and serum IgG antibody levels were significantly higher than after subcutaneous immunization. All mice immunized i.n. with PNC-1 and LT mutants were protected against bacteremia and cleared the pneumococci from the lung 24 h after i.n. challenge; pneumococcal density correlated significantly with serum IgG antibody levels. Similarly, the survival of mice immunized i.n. with PNC-3 and LT mutants was significantly prolonged. These results demonstrate that i.n. vaccination with PNC and potent adjuvants can protect mice against invasive and lethal pneumococcal infections, indicating that mucosal vaccination with PNC may be an alternative vaccination strategy for humans. PMID:10531245

  5. Attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine strain CVD 1204 expressing colonization factor antigen I and mutant heat-labile enterotoxin of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, H; Levine, M M; Anderson, R J; Losonsky, G; Pizza, M; Barry, E M

    2000-09-01

    A multivalent live oral vaccine against both Shigella spp. and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is being developed based on the hypothesis that protection can be achieved if attenuated shigellae express ETEC fimbrial colonization factors and genetically detoxified heat-labile toxin from a human ETEC isolate (LTh). Two detoxified derivatives of LTh, LThK63 and LThR72, were engineered by substitution-serine to lysine at residue 63, or lysine to arginine at residue 72. The genes encoding these two derivatives were cloned separately on expression plasmids downstream from the CFA/I operon. Following electroporation into S. flexneri 2a vaccine strain CVD 1204, coexpression of CFA/I and LThK63 or LThR72 was demonstrated by Western blot analysis, GM(1) binding assays, and agglutination with anti-CFA/I antiserum. Hemagglutination and electron microscopy confirmed surface expression of CFA/I. Guinea pigs immunized intranasally on days 0 and 15 with CVD 1204 expressing CFA/I and LThK63 or LThR72 exhibited high titers of both serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and mucosal secretory IgA anti-CFA/I; 40% of the animals produced antibodies directed against LTh. All immunized guinea pigs also produced mucosal IgA (in tears) and serum IgG anti-S. flexneri 2a O antibodies. Furthermore, all immunized animals were protected from challenge with wild-type S. flexneri 2a. This prototype Shigella-ETEC hybrid vaccine demonstrates the feasibility of expressing multiple ETEC antigens on a single plasmid in an attenuated Shigella vaccine strain and engendering immune responses against both the heterologous antigens and vector strain. PMID:10948101

  6. Mucosal adjuvanticity and immunogenicity of LTR72, a novel mutant of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin with partial knockout of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, M M; Del Giudice, G; Giannelli, V; Dougan, G; Douce, G; Rappuoli, R; Pizza, M

    1998-04-01

    Heat-labile Escherichia coli enterotoxin (LT) has the innate property of being a strong mucosal immunogen and adjuvant. In the attempt to reduce toxicity and maintain the useful immunological properties, several LT mutants have been produced. Some of these are promising mucosal adjuvants. However, so far, only those that were still toxic maintained full adjuvanticity. In this paper we describe a novel LT mutant with greatly reduced toxicity that maintains most of the adjuvanticity. The new mutant (LTR72), that contains a substitution Ala --> Arg in position 72 of the A subunit, showed only 0.6% of the LT enzymatic activity, was 100,000-fold less toxic than wild-type LT in Y1 cells in vitro, and was at least 20 times less effective than wild-type LT in the rabbit ileal loop assay in vivo. At a dose of 1 microg, LTR72 exhibited a mucosal adjuvanticity, similar to that observed with wild-type LT, better than that induced by the nontoxic, enzymatically inactive LTK63 mutant, and much greater than that of the recombinant B subunit. This trend was consistent for both the amounts and kinetics of the antibody induced, and priming of antigen-specific T lymphocytes. The data suggest that the innate high adjuvanticity of LT derives from the independent contribution of the nontoxic AB complex and the enzymatic activity. LTR72 optimizes the use of both properties: the enzymatic activity for which traces are enough, and the nontoxic AB complex, the effect of which is dose dependent. In fact, in dose-response experiments in mice, 20 microg of LTR72 were a stronger mucosal adjuvant than wild-type LT. This suggests that LTR72 may be an excellent candidate to be tested in clinical trials. PMID:9529328

  7. Activation of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins by native and recombinant adenosine diphosphate-ribosylation factors, 20-kD guanine nucleotide-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C M; Chang, P P; Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Price, S R; Kunz, B C; Moss, J; Twiddy, E M; Holmes, R K

    1991-01-01

    Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins (LT) are responsible in part for "traveler's diarrhea" and related diarrheal illnesses. The family of LTs comprises two serogroups termed LT-I and LT-II; each serogroup includes two or more antigenic variants. The effects of LTs result from ADP ribosylation of Gs alpha, a stimulatory component of adenylyl cyclase; the mechanism of action is identical to that of cholera toxin (CT). The ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of CT is enhanced by 20-kD guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, known as ADP-ribosylation factors or ARFs. These proteins directly activate the CTA1 catalytic unit and stimulate its ADP ribosylation of Gs alpha, other proteins, and simple guanidino compounds (e.g., agmatine). Because of the similarities between CT and LTs, we investigated the effects of purified bovine brain ARF and a recombinant form of bovine ARF synthesized in Escherichia coli on LT activity. ARF enhanced the LT-I-, LT-IIa-, and LT-IIb-catalyzed ADP ribosylation of agmatine, as well as the auto-ADP ribosylation of the toxin catalytic unit. Stimulation of ADP-ribosylagmatine formation by LTs and CT in the presence of ARF was GTP dependent and enhanced by sodium dodecyl sulfate. With agmatine as substrate, LT-IIa and LT-IIb exhibited less than 1% the activity of CT and LT-Ih. CT and LTs catalyzed ADP-ribosyl-Gs alpha formation in a reaction dependent on ARF, GTP, and dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine/cholate. With Gs alpha as substrate, the ADP-ribosyltransferase activities of the toxins were similar, although CT and LT-Ih appeared to be slightly more active than LT-IIa and LT-IIb. Thus, LT-IIa and LT-IIb appear to differ somewhat from CT and LT-Ih in substrate specificity. Responsiveness to stimulation by ARF, GTP, and phospholipid/detergent as well as the specificity of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity are functions of LTs from serogroups LT-I and LT-II that are shared with CT. Images PMID:1902492

  8. Evaluating the A-Subunit of the Heat-Labile Toxin (LT) As an Immunogen and a Protective Antigen Against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Elizabeth B.; Branco, Luis M.; Clements, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Diarrheal illness contributes to malnutrition, stunted growth, impaired cognitive development, and high morbidity rates in children worldwide. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major contributor to this diarrheal disease burden. ETEC cause disease in the small intestine by means of colonization factors and by production of a heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and/or a small non-immunogenic heat-stable enterotoxin (ST). Overall, the majority of ETEC produce both ST and LT. LT induces secretion via an enzymatically active A-subunit (LT-A) and a pentameric, cell-binding B-subunit (LT-B). The importance of anti-LT antibodies has been demonstrated in multiple clinical and epidemiological studies, and a number of potential ETEC vaccine candidates have included LT-B as an important immunogen. However, there is limited information about the potential contribution of LT-A to development of protective immunity. In the current study, we evaluate the immune response against the A-subunit of LT as well as the A-subunit’s potential as a protective antigen when administered alone or in combination with the B-subunit of LT. We evaluated human sera from individuals challenged with a prototypic wild-type ETEC strain as well as sera from individuals living in an ETEC endemic area for the presence of anti-LT, anti-LT-A and anti-LT-B antibodies. In both cases, a significant number of individuals intentionally or endemically infected with ETEC developed antibodies against both LT subunits. In addition, animals immunized with the recombinant proteins developed robust antibody responses that were able to neutralize the enterotoxic and cytotoxic effects of native LT by blocking binding and entry into cells (anti-LT-B) or the intracellular enzymatic activity of the toxin (anti-LT-A). Moreover, antibodies to both LT subunits acted synergistically to neutralize the holotoxin when combined. Taken together, these data support the inclusion of both LT-A and LT-B in prospective vaccines

  9. Evaluating the A-Subunit of the Heat-Labile Toxin (LT) As an Immunogen and a Protective Antigen Against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC).

    PubMed

    Norton, Elizabeth B; Branco, Luis M; Clements, John D

    2015-01-01

    Diarrheal illness contributes to malnutrition, stunted growth, impaired cognitive development, and high morbidity rates in children worldwide. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major contributor to this diarrheal disease burden. ETEC cause disease in the small intestine by means of colonization factors and by production of a heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and/or a small non-immunogenic heat-stable enterotoxin (ST). Overall, the majority of ETEC produce both ST and LT. LT induces secretion via an enzymatically active A-subunit (LT-A) and a pentameric, cell-binding B-subunit (LT-B). The importance of anti-LT antibodies has been demonstrated in multiple clinical and epidemiological studies, and a number of potential ETEC vaccine candidates have included LT-B as an important immunogen. However, there is limited information about the potential contribution of LT-A to development of protective immunity. In the current study, we evaluate the immune response against the A-subunit of LT as well as the A-subunit's potential as a protective antigen when administered alone or in combination with the B-subunit of LT. We evaluated human sera from individuals challenged with a prototypic wild-type ETEC strain as well as sera from individuals living in an ETEC endemic area for the presence of anti-LT, anti-LT-A and anti-LT-B antibodies. In both cases, a significant number of individuals intentionally or endemically infected with ETEC developed antibodies against both LT subunits. In addition, animals immunized with the recombinant proteins developed robust antibody responses that were able to neutralize the enterotoxic and cytotoxic effects of native LT by blocking binding and entry into cells (anti-LT-B) or the intracellular enzymatic activity of the toxin (anti-LT-A). Moreover, antibodies to both LT subunits acted synergistically to neutralize the holotoxin when combined. Taken together, these data support the inclusion of both LT-A and LT-B in prospective vaccines

  10. Effects of Site-Directed Mutagenesis of Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin on ADP-Ribosyltransferase Activity and Interaction with ADP-Ribosylation Factors

    PubMed Central

    A. Stevens, Linda; Moss, Joel; Vaughan, Martha; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Rappuoli, Rino

    1999-01-01

    Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), an oligomeric protein with one A subunit (LTA) and five B subunits, exerts its effects via the ADP-ribosylation of Gsα, a guanine nucleotide-binding (G) protein that activates adenylyl cyclase. LTA also ADP-ribosylates simple guanidino compounds (e.g., arginine) and catalyzes its own auto-ADP-ribosylation. All LTA-catalyzed reactions are enhanced by ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Replacement of arginine-7 (R7K), valine-53 (V53D), serine-63 (S63K), valine 97 (V97K), or tyrosine-104 (Y104K) in LTA resulted in fully assembled but nontoxic proteins. S63K, V53D, and R7K are catalytic-site mutations, whereas V97K and Y104K are amino acid replacements adjacent to and outside of the catalytic site, respectively. The effects of mutagenesis were quantified by measuring ADP-ribosyltransferase activity (i.e., auto-ADP-ribosylation and ADP-ribosylagmatine synthesis) and interaction with ARF (i.e., inhibition of ARF-stimulated cholera toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and effects of ARF on mutant auto-ADP-ribosylation). All mutants were inactive in the ADP-ribosyltransferase assay; however, auto-ADP-ribosylation in the presence of recombinant human ARF6 was detected, albeit much less than that of native LT (Y104K > V53D > V97K > R7K, S63K). Based on the lack of inhibition by free ADP-ribose, the observed auto-ADP-ribosylation activity was enzymatic and not due to the nonenzymatic addition of free ADP-ribose. V53D, S63K, and R7K were more effective than Y104K or V97K in blocking ARF stimulation of cholera toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase. Based on these data, it appears that ARF-binding and catalytic sites are not identical and that a region outside the NAD cleft may participate in the LTA-ARF interaction. PMID:9864224

  11. Effects of site-directed mutagenesis of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin on ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and interaction with ADP-ribosylation factors.

    PubMed

    Stevens, L A; Moss, J; Vaughan, M; Pizza, M; Rappuoli, R

    1999-01-01

    Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), an oligomeric protein with one A subunit (LTA) and five B subunits, exerts its effects via the ADP-ribosylation of Gsalpha, a guanine nucleotide-binding (G) protein that activates adenylyl cyclase. LTA also ADP-ribosylates simple guanidino compounds (e.g., arginine) and catalyzes its own auto-ADP-ribosylation. All LTA-catalyzed reactions are enhanced by ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Replacement of arginine-7 (R7K), valine-53 (V53D), serine-63 (S63K), valine 97 (V97K), or tyrosine-104 (Y104K) in LTA resulted in fully assembled but nontoxic proteins. S63K, V53D, and R7K are catalytic-site mutations, whereas V97K and Y104K are amino acid replacements adjacent to and outside of the catalytic site, respectively. The effects of mutagenesis were quantified by measuring ADP-ribosyltransferase activity (i.e., auto-ADP-ribosylation and ADP-ribosylagmatine synthesis) and interaction with ARF (i.e., inhibition of ARF-stimulated cholera toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and effects of ARF on mutant auto-ADP-ribosylation). All mutants were inactive in the ADP-ribosyltransferase assay; however, auto-ADP-ribosylation in the presence of recombinant human ARF6 was detected, albeit much less than that of native LT (Y104K > V53D > V97K > R7K, S63K). Based on the lack of inhibition by free ADP-ribose, the observed auto-ADP-ribosylation activity was enzymatic and not due to the nonenzymatic addition of free ADP-ribose. V53D, S63K, and R7K were more effective than Y104K or V97K in blocking ARF stimulation of cholera toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase. Based on these data, it appears that ARF-binding and catalytic sites are not identical and that a region outside the NAD cleft may participate in the LTA-ARF interaction. PMID:9864224

  12. Genetic Fusions of Heat-Labile Toxoid (LT) and Heat-Stable Toxin b (STb) of Porcine Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Elicit Protective Anti-LT and Anti-STb Antibodies ▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiping; Francis, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-associated diarrhea causes a substantial economic loss to swine producers worldwide. The majority of ETEC strains causing porcine diarrhea, especially postweaning diarrhea (PWD), produce heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin b (STb). LT is commonly used in vaccine development, but STb has not been included because of its poor immunogenicity. As a virulence factor in porcine diarrhea, STb needs to be included as an antigen for development of broad-spectrum vaccines. In this study, we used an LT toxoid (LTR192G [hereafter, LT192]) derived from porcine ETEC to carry a mature STb peptide for LT192-STb fusions to enhance STb immunogenicity for potential vaccine application. Anti-LT and anti-STb antibodies were detected in immunized rabbits and pigs. In addition, when challenged with an STb-positive ETEC strain, all 10 suckling piglets borne by immunized gilts remained healthy, whereas 7 out 9 piglets borne by unimmunized gilts developed moderate diarrhea. This study indicates that the LT192-STb fusion enhanced anti-STb immunogenicity and suggests the LT192-STb fusion antigen can be used in future vaccine development against porcine ETEC diarrhea. PMID:20505006

  13. Characterization of heat-labile toxin-subunit B from Escherichia coli by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sospedra, I; De Simone, C; Soriano, J M; Mañes, J; Ferranti, P; Ritieni, A

    2012-11-01

    The possibilities of characterizing the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) by liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) were investigated. The B subunit from recombinant E. coli (expression in Pichia pastoris) can be detected by LC/ESI-MS expressed in P. pastoris and the charge envelope signals can be observed; LC/ESI-MS and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis allowed the acquisition of labile toxin subunit B (LTB) molecular weight and preliminary structural characterization of LTB toxin. MALDI-TOF analysis after reduction and alkylation of the protein evidenced the presence of one disulfide bond in the structure of the protein. Confirmatory analysis was carried out by detection of most of the tryptic fragments of the B subunit by MALDI-TOF-MS, obtaining total coverage of the protein sequence. Possible biovariations in the toxin can mostly be determined by sequencing, where an increase of molecular mass in the N-terminal side of the protein was identified. This modification may be due to an O-GlcNAc-1-phosphorylation. PMID:22921353

  14. Ability of SPI2 mutant of S. typhi to effectively induce antibody responses to the mucosal antigen enterotoxigenic E. coli heat labile toxin B subunit after oral delivery to humans

    PubMed Central

    Khan, S.; Chatfield, S.; Stratford, R.; Bedwell, J.; Bentley, M.; Sulsh, S.; Giemza, R.; Smith, S.; Bongard, E.; Cosgrove, C.A.; Johnson, J.; Dougan, G.; Griffin, G.E.; Makin, J.; Lewis, D.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We have evaluated an oral vaccine based on an Salmonella enteric serovar typhi (S. typhi) Ty2 derivative TSB7 harboring deletion mutations in ssaV (SPI-2) and aroC together with a chromosomally integrated copy of eltB encoding the B subunit of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat labile toxin (LT-B) in volunteers. Two oral doses of 108 or 109 CFU were administered to two groups of volunteers and both doses were well tolerated, with no vaccinemia, and only transient stool shedding. Immune responses to LT-B and S. typhi lipopolysaccharide were demonstrated in 67 and 97% of subjects, respectively, without evidence of anti-carrier immunity preventing boosting of LT-B responses in many cases. Further development of this salmonella-based (spi-VEC) system for oral delivery of heterologous antigens appears warranted. PMID:17412462

  15. Toxicity and immunogenicity of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile and heat-stable toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q)-LT(S63K/R192G/L211A) in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengxian; Knudsen, David E; Liu, Mei; Robertson, Donald C; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death to young children. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea. Adhesins and enterotoxins are the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. Adhesins mediate bacterial attachment and colonization, and enterotoxins including heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable type Ib toxin (STa) disrupt fluid homeostasis in host cells that leads to fluid hyper-secretion and diarrhea. Thus, adhesins and enterotoxins have been primarily targeted in ETEC vaccine development. A recent study reported toxoid fusions with STa toxoid (STa(P13F)) fused at the N- or C-terminus, or inside the A subunit of LT(R192G) elicited neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and suggested application of toxoid fusions in ETEC vaccine development (Liu et al., Infect. Immun. 79:4002-4009, 2011). In this study, we generated a different STa toxoid (STa(A14Q)) and a triple-mutant LT toxoid (LT(S63K/R192G/L211A), tmLT), constructed a toxoid fusion (3xSTa(A14Q)-tmLT) that carried 3 copies of STa(A14Q) for further facilitation of anti-STa immunogenicity, and assessed antigen safety and immunogenicity in a murine model to explore its potential for ETEC vaccine development. Mice immunized with this fusion antigen showed no adverse effects, and developed antitoxin antibodies particularly through the IP route. Anti-LT antibodies were detected and were shown neutralizing against CT in vitro. Anti-STa antibodies were also detected in the immunized mice, and serum from the IP immunized mice neutralized STa toxin in vitro. Data from this study indicated that toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q)-tmLT is safe and can induce neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and provided helpful information for vaccine development against ETEC diarrhea. PMID:24146989

  16. Genetic Fusions of Heat-Labile (LT) and Heat-Stable (ST) Toxoids of Porcine Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Elicit Neutralizing Anti-LT and Anti-STa antibodies ▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiping; Zhang, Chengxian; Francis, David H.; Fang, Ying; Knudsen, David; Nataro, James P.; Robertson, Donald C.

    2010-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and farm animals. E. coli fimbriae, or colonization factor antigens (CFAs), and enterotoxins, including heat-labile enterotoxins (LT) and heat-stable enterotoxins (ST), are the key virulence factors in ETEC diarrhea. Unlike fimbriae or LT, STa has not often been included as an antigen in development of vaccines against ETEC diarrhea because of its poor immunogenicity. STa becomes immunogenic only after being coupled with a strongly immunogenic carrier protein. However, native or shorter STa antigens either had to retain toxic activity in order to become antigenic or elicited anti-STa antibodies that were not sufficiently protective. In this study, we genetically mutated the porcine LT (pLT) gene for a pLT192(R→G) toxoid and the porcine STa (pSTa) gene for three full-length pSTa toxoids [STa11(N→K), STa12(P→F), and STa13(A→Q)] and used the full-length pLT192 as an adjuvant to carry the pSTa toxoid for pLT192:pSTa-toxoid fusion antigens. Rabbits immunized with pLT192:pSTa12 or pLT192:pSTa13 fusion protein developed high titers of anti-LT and anti-STa antibodies. Furthermore, rabbit antiserum and antifecal antibodies were able to neutralize purified cholera toxin (CT) and STa toxin. In addition, preliminary data suggested that suckling piglets born by a sow immunized with the pLT192:pSTa13 fusion antigen were protected when challenged with an STa-positive ETEC strain. This study demonstrated that pSTa toxoids are antigenic when fused with a pLT toxoid and that the elicited anti-LT and anti-STa antibodies were protective. This fusion strategy could provide instructive information to develop effective toxoid vaccines against ETEC-associated diarrhea in animals and humans. PMID:19858307

  17. Comparison of a live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine candidate secreting Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit with a commercial vaccine for efficacy of protection against internal egg contamination by Salmonella in hens

    PubMed Central

    Nandre, Rahul M.; Eo, Seong Kug; Park, Sang Youel; Lee, John Hwa

    2015-01-01

    This study compared a new live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine candidate secreting Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (SE-LTB) with a commercial Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccine for efficacy of protection against SE infection in laying hens. Chickens were divided into 3 groups of 20 each. Group A chickens were inoculated orally with phosphate-buffered saline and served as controls, group B chickens were inoculated orally with the vaccine candidate, and group C chickens were inoculated intramuscularly with a commercial vaccine, the primary inoculation in groups B and C being at 10 wk of age and the booster at 16 wk. Groups B and C showed significantly higher titers of plasma immunoglobulin G, intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A, and egg yolk immunoglobulin Y antibodies compared with the control group, and both vaccinated groups showed a significantly elevated cellular immune response. After virulent challenge, group B had significantly lower production of thin-shelled and/or malformed eggs and a significantly lower rate of SE contamination of eggs compared with the control group. Furthermore, the challenge strain was detected significantly less in all of the examined organs of group B compared with the control group. Group C had lower gross lesion scores only in the spleen and had lower bacterial counts only in the spleen, ceca, and ovary. These findings indicate that vaccination with the SE-LTB vaccine candidate can efficiently reduce internal egg and internal organ contamination by Salmonella and has advantages over the commercial vaccine. PMID:26130857

  18. Construction of Bifidobacterium infantis as a live oral vaccine that expresses antigens of the major fimbrial subunit (CfaB) and the B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB) from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yongping; Luo, Yaolin; Huang, Xueping; Song, Fangzhou; Liu, Geli

    2012-02-01

    We sought to develop Bifidobacterium infantis (BI) as a vehicle for the expression of heterologous antigens. Two proteins of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) were expressed in BI: CfaB, a major fimbrial subunit protein, and LTB, the B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin. The expression of CfaB and LTB in BI was verified by electrophoretic analysis. Sprague-Dawley rats were then subjected to intragastric immunization with BI-CfaB and BI-LTB systems both separately and together. ELISA was used to characterize the serum and mucosal immune responses against ETEC antigens. The immunized rats were intraperitoneally challenged with wild-type ETEC H10407 to study the immune response in vivo. The serum titres of IgG and faecal IgA antibodies in the BI-CfaB plus BI-LTB mixed vaccination group were significantly greater than those in the other two groups, which were immunized with a single vaccine (P<0.05). However, no significant difference was seen between the two groups that received a single immunization. These results suggest that expressing CfaB and LTB in BI provides a probiotic system with immunogenic properties. Furthermore, the expression of LTB in BI preserved its mucosal adjuvant effect. So this study confirms that BI can be used as a novel oral vaccine expression system for a heterologous antigen and BI-LTB can provide mucosal adjuvant properties. PMID:22053005

  19. Protection against Helicobacter pylori infection in mice by intragastric vaccination with H. pylori antigens is achieved using a non-toxic mutant of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) as adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, M; Rossi, M; Giannelli, V; Giuliani, M M; Pizza, M; Censini, S; Covacci, A; Massari, P; Pagliaccia, C; Manetti, R; Telford, J L; Douce, G; Dougan, G; Rappuoli, R; Ghiara, P

    1998-01-01

    We have previously shown that infection of mice with H. pylori can be prevented by oral immunization with H. pylori antigens given together with E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) as adjuvant. Since LT cannot be used in humans because of its unacceptable toxicity, we investigated whether protection of mice could be achieved by co-administration of antigens with non-toxic LT mutants. Here we show that CD1/SPF mice are protected against infection after oral vaccination with either purified H. pylori antigens (native and recombinant VacA, urease and CagA), or whole-cell vaccine formulations, given together with the non-toxic mutant LTK63 as a mucosal adjuvant. Furthermore we show that such protection is antigen-specific since immunization with recombinant or native VacA plus LTK63 conferred protection against infection by an H. pylori Type I strain, which expresses VacA, but not against challenge with a Type II strain which is not able to express this antigen. These results show that: (1) protection against H. pylori can be achieved in the mouse model of infection using subunit recombinant constructs plus non-toxic mucosal adjuvants; and (2) this mouse model is an useful tool in testing H. pylori vaccine formulations for eventual use in humans. PMID:9607006

  20. The adjuvant effect of a non-toxic mutant of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli for the induction of measles virus-specific CTL responses after intranasal co-immunization with a synthetic peptide.

    PubMed

    Partidos, C D; Pizza, M; Rappuoli, R; Steward, M W

    1996-12-01

    The intranasal route has been shown to be effective for immunization. However, immunization via this route may require the use of potent and safe adjuvant. The construction of non-toxic mutants of heat labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LT), which is a potent mucosal adjuvant, is a major breakthrough for the development of mucosal vaccines. In this study we have assessed the ability of an LT mutant (LTK63) to act as an adjuvant following intranasal co-immunization with a peptide corresponding to a measles virus cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope. LTK63 was more effective at potentiating the in vivo induction of peptide-specific and measles virus-specific CTL responses than was administration of the peptide in saline. A concentration of 10 micrograms/dose of LTK63 was found to be the most effective in potentiating the in vivo priming of peptide-specific and measles virus-specific CTL responses. These findings highlight the potential of the non-toxic mutant of LT as a safe mucosal adjuvant for use in humans. PMID:9014810

  1. Heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli and its site-directed mutant LTK63 enhance the proliferative and cytotoxic T-cell responses to intranasally co-immunized synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Partidos, C D; Salani, B F; Pizza, M; Rappuoli, R

    1999-04-15

    The adjuvanticity of heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) of Escherichia coli and its non-toxic mutant LTK63 was assessed and compared for intranasal immunization of synthetic peptides. Mice immunized intranasally with LT, or its mutant LTK63, generated strong systemic proliferative and cytotoxic T-cell responses to co-administered synthetic peptides. The wild LT toxin promoted higher peptide-specific proliferative and cytotoxic T-cell responses than the LTK63 mutant. Moreover, the wild-type LT toxin was shown to promote peptide-specific memory CTL responses which were detectable 1 year after intranasal priming. Both LT and LTK63 molecules were shown to be immunogenic, with serum antibody subclasses being predominantly IgG1 and to a lesser extent IgG2a. These findings demonstrate that cellular immune responses to small synthetic peptide antigens administered by the intranasal route can be potentiated with the use of mucosal adjuvants. Moreover, the ability of LT and LTK63 to promote both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses will have relevance to the design and production of future mucosal vaccines. PMID:10369128

  2. Both enzymatic and non-enzymatic properties of heat-labile enterotoxin are responsible for LT-enhanced adherence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to porcine IPEC-J2 cells.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Peter Z; Mateo, Kristina S; Zhang, Weiping; Moxley, Rodney A; Kaushik, Radhey S; Francis, David H

    2013-06-28

    Previous studies in piglets indicate that heat labile enterotoxin (LT) expression enhances intestinal colonization by K88 adhesin-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) as wild-type ETEC adhered to intestinal epithelium in substantially greater numbers than did non-toxigenic constructs. Enzymatic activity of the toxin was also shown to contribute to the adhesion of ETEC and non-ETEC bacteria to epithelial cells in culture. To further characterize the contribution of LT to host cell adhesion, a nontoxigenic, K88-producing E. coli was transformed with either the gene encoding for LT holotoxin, a catalytically-attenuated form of the toxin [LT(R192G)], or LTB subunits, and resultant changes in bacterial adherence to IPEC-J2 porcine intestinal epithelial cells were measured. Strains expressing LT holotoxin or mutants were able to adhere in significantly higher numbers to IPEC-J2 cells than was an isogenic, toxin-negative construct. LT+ strains were also able to significantly block binding of a wild-type LT+ ETEC strain to IPEC-J2 cells. Adherence of isogenic strains to IPEC-J2 cells was unaltered by cycloheximide treatment, suggesting that LT enhances ETEC adherence to IPEC-J2 cells independent of host cell protein synthesis. However, pretreating IPEC-J2 cells with LT promoted adherence of negatively charged latex beads (a surrogate for bacteria which carry a negative change), which adherence was inhibited by cycloheximide, suggesting LT may induce a change in epithelial cell membrane potential. Overall, these data suggest that LT may enhance ETEC adherence by promoting an association between LTB and epithelial cells, and by altering the surface charge of the host plasma membrane to promote non-specific adherence. PMID:23517763

  3. Modulation of innate and acquired immune responses by Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin: distinct pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of the nontoxic AB complex and the enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E J; McNeela, E; Pizza, M; Rappuoli, R; O'Neill, L; Mills, K H

    2000-11-15

    We have examined the roles of enzyme activity and the nontoxic AB complex of heat-labile toxin (LT) from Escherichia coli on its adjuvant and immunomodulatory properties. LTK63, an LT mutant that is completely devoid of enzyme activity, enhanced Th1 responses to coinjected Ags at low adjuvant dose. In contrast, LTR72, a partially detoxified mutant, enhanced Th2 responses and when administered intranasally to mice before infection with Bordetella pertussis suppressed Th1 responses and delayed bacterial clearance from the lungs. LTR72 or wild-type LT inhibited Ag-induced IFN-gamma production by Th1 cells, and LT enhanced IL-5 production by Th2 cells in vitro. Each of the toxins enhanced B7-1 expression on macrophages, but enhancement of B7-2 expression was dependent on enzyme activity. We also observed distinct effects of the nontoxic AB complex and enzyme activity on inflammatory cytokine production. LT and LTR72 suppressed LPS and IFN-gamma induced TNF-alpha and IL-12 production, but enhanced IL-10 secretion by macrophages in vitro and suppressed IL-12 production in vivo in a murine model of LPS-induced shock. In contrast, LTK63 augmented the production of IL-12 and TNF-alpha. Furthermore, LTK63 enhanced NF-kappaB translocation, whereas low doses of LTR72 or LT failed to activate NF-kappaB, but stimulated cAMP production. Thus, E. coli LT appears to be capable of suppressing Th1 responses and enhancing Th2 responses through the modulatory effects of enzyme activity on NF-kappaB activation and IL-12 production. In contrast, the nontoxic AB complex can stimulate acquired immune responses by activating components of the innate immune system. PMID:11067933

  4. Influence of Host Interleukin-10 Polymorphisms on Development of Traveler's Diarrhea Due to Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Travelers from the United States Who Are Visiting Mexico▿

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Jose; DuPont, Herbert L.; Lee, Stephanie A.; Belkind-Gerson, Jaime; Paredes, Mercedes; Mohamed, Jamal A.; Armitige, Lisa Y.; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Okhuysen, Pablo C.

    2008-01-01

    Up to 60% of U.S. visitors to Mexico develop traveler's diarrhea (TD), mostly due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains that produce heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins. Distinct single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter have been associated with high, intermediate, or low production of IL-10. We conducted a prospective study to investigate the association of SNPs in the IL-10 promoter and the occurrence of TD in ETEC LT-exposed travelers. Sera from U.S. travelers to Mexico collected on arrival and departure were studied for ETEC LT seroconversion by using cholera toxin as the antigen. Pyrosequencing was performed to genotype IL-10 SNPs. Stools from subjects who developed diarrhea were also studied for other enteropathogens. One hundred twenty-one of 569 (21.3%) travelers seroconverted to ETEC LT, and among them 75 (62%) developed diarrhea. Symptomatic seroconversion was more commonly seen in subjects who carried a genotype producing high levels of IL-10; it was seen in 83% of subjects with the GG genotype versus 54% of subjects with the AA genotype at IL-10 gene position −1082 (P, 0.02), in 71% of those with the CC genotype versus 33% of those with the TT genotype at position −819 (P, 0.005), and in 71% of those with the CC genotype versus 38% of those with the AA genotype at position −592 (P, 0.02). Travelers with the GCC haplotype were more likely to have symptomatic seroconversion than those with the ATA haplotype (71% versus 38%; P, 0.002). Travelers genetically predisposed to produce high levels of IL-10 were more likely to experience symptomatic ETEC TD. PMID:18579697

  5. Structure–activity correlations of variant forms of the B pentamer of Escherichia coli type II heat-labile enterotoxin LT-IIb with Toll-like receptor 2 binding

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, Vivian; Pace, Jim; Nawar, Hesham F.; King-Lyons, Natalie; Liang, Shuang; Connell, Terry D.; Hajishengallis, George

    2012-12-01

    Structural data for the S74D variant of the pentameric B subunit of type II heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli reveal a smaller pore opening that may explain its reduced Toll-like receptor binding affinity compared to that of the wild type enterotoxin. The explanation for the enhanced Toll-like receptor binding affinity of the S74A variant is more complex than simply being attributed to the pore opening. The pentameric B subunit of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LT-IIb-B{sub 5}) is a potent signaling molecule capable of modulating innate immune responses. It has previously been shown that LT-IIb-B{sub 5}, but not the LT-IIb-B{sub 5} Ser74Asp variant [LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(S74D)], activates Toll-like receptor (TLR2) signaling in macrophages. Consistent with this, the LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(S74D) variant failed to bind TLR2, in contrast to LT-IIb-B{sub 5} and the LT-IIb-B{sub 5} Thr13Ile [LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(T13I)] and LT-IIb-B{sub 5} Ser74Ala [LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(S74A)] variants, which displayed the highest binding activity to TLR2. Crystal structures of the Ser74Asp, Ser74Ala and Thr13Ile variants of LT-IIb-B{sub 5} have been determined to 1.90, 1.40 and 1.90 Å resolution, respectively. The structural data for the Ser74Asp variant reveal that the carboxylate side chain points into the pore, thereby reducing the pore size compared with that of the wild-type or the Ser74Ala variant B pentamer. On the basis of these crystallographic data, the reduced TLR2-binding affinity of the LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(S74D) variant may be the result of the pore of the pentamer being closed. On the other hand, the explanation for the enhanced TLR2-binding activity of the LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(S74A) variant is more complex as its activity is greater than that of the wild-type B pentamer, which also has an open pore as the Ser74 side chain points away from the pore opening. Data for the LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(T13I) variant show that four of the five variant side chains point to the outside

  6. Mutants of Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin Act as Effective Mucosal Adjuvants for Nasal Delivery of an Acellular Pertussis Vaccine: Differential Effects of the Nontoxic AB Complex and Enzyme Activity on Th1 and Th2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Elizabeth J.; McNeela, Edel; Murphy, Geraldine A.; Stewart, Helen; O'hagan, Derek; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Rappuoli, Rino; Mills, Kingston H. G.

    1999-01-01

    Mucosal delivery of vaccines is dependent on the identification of safe and effective adjuvants that can enhance the immunogenicity of protein antigens administered by nasal or oral routes. In this study we demonstrate that two mutants of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT), LTK63, which lacks ADP-ribosylating activity, and LTR72, which has partial enzyme activity, act as potent mucosal adjuvants for the nasal delivery of an acellular pertussis (Pa) vaccine. Both LTK63 and LTR72 enhanced antigen-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), secretory IgA, and local and systemic T-cell responses. Furthermore, using the murine respiratory challenge model for infection with Bordetella pertussis, we demonstrated that a nasally delivered diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTPa) combination vaccine formulated with LTK63 as an adjuvant conferred a high level of protection, equivalent to that generated with a parenterally delivered DTPa vaccine formulated with alum. This study also provides significant new information on the roles of the binding and enzyme components of LT in the modulation of Th1 and Th2 responses. LTK63, which lacks enzyme activity, promoted T-cell responses with a mixed Th1–Th2 profile, but LTR72, which retains partial enzyme activity, and the wild-type toxin, especially at low dose, induced a more polarized Th2-type response and very high IgA and IgG antibody titers. Our findings suggest that the nontoxic AB complex has broad adjuvant activity for T-cell responses and that the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of the A subunit also appears to modulate cytokine production, but its effect on T-cell subtypes, as well as enhancing, may be selectively suppressive. PMID:10569737

  7. Oral immunization with an attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum mutant as a fowl typhoid vaccine with a live adjuvant strain secreting the B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Salmonella Gallinarum (SG) lon/cpxR deletion mutant JOL916 was developed as a live vaccine candidate for fowl typhoid (FT), and a SG mutant secreting an Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB), designated JOL1229, was recently constructed as an adjuvant strain for oral vaccination against FT. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective properties of the SG mutant JOL916 and the LTB adjuvant strain JOL1229 in order to establish a prime and boost immunization strategy for each strain. In addition, we compared the increase in body weight, the immunogenicity, the egg production rates, and the bacteriological egg contamination of these strains with those of SG 9R, a widely used commercial vaccine. Results Plasma IgG, intestinal secretory IgA (sIgA), and cell-mediated responses were significantly induced after a boost inoculation with a mixture of JOL916 and JOL1229, and significant reductions in the mortality of chickens challenged with a wild-type SG strain were observed in the immunized groups. There were no significant differences in increases in body weight, cell-mediated immune responses, or systemic IgG responses between our vaccine mixture and the SG 9R vaccine groups. However, there was a significant elevation in intestinal sIgA in chickens immunized with our mixture at 3 weeks post-prime-immunization and at 3 weeks post-boost-immunization, while sIgA levels in SG 9R-immunized chickens were not significantly elevated compared to the control. In addition, the SG strain was not detected in the eggs of chickens immunized with our mixture. Conclusion Our results suggest that immunization with the LTB-adjuvant strain JOL1229 can significantly increase the immune response, and provide efficient protection against FT with no side effects on body weight, egg production, or egg contamination. PMID:23647814

  8. Mutants of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin act as effective mucosal adjuvants for nasal delivery of an acellular pertussis vaccine: differential effects of the nontoxic AB complex and enzyme activity on Th1 and Th2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E J; McNeela, E; Murphy, G A; Stewart, H; O'hagan, D; Pizza, M; Rappuoli, R; Mills, K H

    1999-12-01

    Mucosal delivery of vaccines is dependent on the identification of safe and effective adjuvants that can enhance the immunogenicity of protein antigens administered by nasal or oral routes. In this study we demonstrate that two mutants of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT), LTK63, which lacks ADP-ribosylating activity, and LTR72, which has partial enzyme activity, act as potent mucosal adjuvants for the nasal delivery of an acellular pertussis (Pa) vaccine. Both LTK63 and LTR72 enhanced antigen-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), secretory IgA, and local and systemic T-cell responses. Furthermore, using the murine respiratory challenge model for infection with Bordetella pertussis, we demonstrated that a nasally delivered diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTPa) combination vaccine formulated with LTK63 as an adjuvant conferred a high level of protection, equivalent to that generated with a parenterally delivered DTPa vaccine formulated with alum. This study also provides significant new information on the roles of the binding and enzyme components of LT in the modulation of Th1 and Th2 responses. LTK63, which lacks enzyme activity, promoted T-cell responses with a mixed Th1-Th2 profile, but LTR72, which retains partial enzyme activity, and the wild-type toxin, especially at low dose, induced a more polarized Th2-type response and very high IgA and IgG antibody titers. Our findings suggest that the nontoxic AB complex has broad adjuvant activity for T-cell responses and that the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of the A subunit also appears to modulate cytokine production, but its effect on T-cell subtypes, as well as enhancing, may be selectively suppressive. PMID:10569737

  9. Immunization with a Double-Mutant (R192G/L211A) of the Heat-Labile Enterotoxin of Escherichia coli Offers Partial Protection against Campylobacter jejuni in an Adult Mouse Intestinal Colonization Model.

    PubMed

    Albert, M John; Haridas, Shilpa; Ebenezer, Mathew; Raghupathy, Raj; Khan, Islam

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that antibodies to cholera toxin (CT) reacted with the major outer membrane proteins (MOMPs) from Campylobacter jejuni strains on Western blot. Further, oral immunization with CT significantly protected against challenge with C. jejuni in an adult mouse colonization model of infection. CT and the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are structurally and functionally related. LT and its mutants including the double-mutant LT (R192G/L211A) (dmLT), are powerful mucosal adjuvants. Unlike LT which is reactogenic, dmLT has been shown to be safe for human use. In the current study, we determined whether rabbit anti-dmLT antibodies reacted with MOMPs from C. jejuni strains and whether immunization with dmLT would afford protection against C. jejuni. On Western blot, the MOMPs from C. jejuni 48 (Penner serotype O:19), C. jejuni 75 (O:3) and C. jejuni 111 (O:1,44) were probed with rabbit antibodies to dmLT or LT-E112K (a non-toxic LT mutant), which showed a lack of reaction. Adult BALB/c mice were orally immunized with dmLT and orally challenged with C. jejuni 48 or 111. Protection from colonization with the challenge bacteria was studied by enumerating Campylobacter colonies in feces daily for 9 days. Vaccination produced robust serum and stool antibody responses to dmLT and no antibody responses to C. jejuni MOMP. Vaccinated mice showed reduced colonization and excretion of both challenge strains compared to control mice. However, the differences were not statistically significant. The protective efficacy of the dmLT vaccine varied from 9.1% to 54.5%. The lack of cross-reaction between the MOMP and dmLT suggests that protection is not mediated by cross-reacting antibodies, but may be due to activation of innate immunity. As dmLT is safe for humans, it could be incorporated into a C. jejuni vaccine to enhance its efficacy. PMID:26540197

  10. Immunization with a Double-Mutant (R192G/L211A) of the Heat-Labile Enterotoxin of Escherichia coli Offers Partial Protection against Campylobacter jejuni in an Adult Mouse Intestinal Colonization Model

    PubMed Central

    Albert, M. John; Haridas, Shilpa; Ebenezer, Mathew; Raghupathy, Raj; Khan, Islam

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that antibodies to cholera toxin (CT) reacted with the major outer membrane proteins (MOMPs) from Campylobacter jejuni strains on Western blot. Further, oral immunization with CT significantly protected against challenge with C. jejuni in an adult mouse colonization model of infection. CT and the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are structurally and functionally related. LT and its mutants including the double-mutant LT (R192G/L211A) (dmLT), are powerful mucosal adjuvants. Unlike LT which is reactogenic, dmLT has been shown to be safe for human use. In the current study, we determined whether rabbit anti-dmLT antibodies reacted with MOMPs from C. jejuni strains and whether immunization with dmLT would afford protection against C. jejuni. On Western blot, the MOMPs from C. jejuni 48 (Penner serotype O:19), C. jejuni 75 (O:3) and C. jejuni 111 (O:1,44) were probed with rabbit antibodies to dmLT or LT-E112K (a non-toxic LT mutant), which showed a lack of reaction. Adult BALB/c mice were orally immunized with dmLT and orally challenged with C. jejuni 48 or 111. Protection from colonization with the challenge bacteria was studied by enumerating Campylobacter colonies in feces daily for 9 days. Vaccination produced robust serum and stool antibody responses to dmLT and no antibody responses to C. jejuni MOMP. Vaccinated mice showed reduced colonization and excretion of both challenge strains compared to control mice. However, the differences were not statistically significant. The protective efficacy of the dmLT vaccine varied from 9.1% to 54.5%. The lack of cross-reaction between the MOMP and dmLT suggests that protection is not mediated by cross-reacting antibodies, but may be due to activation of innate immunity. As dmLT is safe for humans, it could be incorporated into a C. jejuni vaccine to enhance its efficacy. PMID:26540197

  11. Heat-Labile Enterotoxin IIa, a Platform To Deliver Heterologous Proteins into Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Przedpelski, Amanda; Tepp, William H.; Pellett, Sabine; Johnson, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cholera toxin (CT) and the related heat-labile enterotoxins (LT) of Escherichia coli have been implicated as adjuvants in human therapies, but reactivity upon intranasal delivery dampened efforts to develop other clinical applications. However, each CT family member variant has unique biological properties that may warrant development as therapeutic platforms. In the current study, a nontoxic variant of the heat-labile enterotoxin IIa (LTIIa) was engineered to deliver heterologous, functional proteins into the cytosol of neurons. As proof of principle, the LTIIa variant delivered two cargos into neurons. LTIIa delivered β-lactamase efficiently into cells containing complex gangliosides, such as GD1b, as host receptors. LTIIa delivery of β-lactamase was sensitive to brefeldin A, an inhibitor that collapses the Golgi compartment into the endoplasmic reticulum, but not sensitive to treatment with botulinum neurotoxin D (BoNT/D), an inhibitor of synaptic vesicle cycling. LTIIa delivered a single-chain, anti-BoNT/A camelid antibody that inhibited SNAP25 cleavage during post-BoNT/A exposure of neurons. Delivery of functional, heterologous protein cargos into neurons demonstrates the potential of LTII variants as platforms to deliver therapies to inactivate toxins and microbial infections and to reverse the pathology of human neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26265718

  12. Genetic fusions of a CFA/I/II/IV MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) and a toxoid fusion of heat-stable toxin (STa) and heat-labile toxin (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) retain broad anti-CFA and antitoxin antigenicity.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Sack, David A; Zhang, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Immunological heterogeneity has long been the major challenge in developing broadly effective vaccines to protect humans and animals against bacterial and viral infections. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains, the leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in humans, express at least 23 immunologically different colonization factor antigens (CFAs) and two distinct enterotoxins [heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin type Ib (STa or hSTa)]. ETEC strains expressing any one or two CFAs and either toxin cause diarrhea, therefore vaccines inducing broad immunity against a majority of CFAs, if not all, and both toxins are expected to be effective against ETEC. In this study, we applied the multiepitope fusion antigen (MEFA) strategy to construct ETEC antigens and examined antigens for broad anti-CFA and antitoxin immunogenicity. CFA MEFA CFA/I/II/IV [CVI 2014, 21(2):243-9], which carried epitopes of seven CFAs [CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1, CS2, CS3), CFA/IV (CS4, CS5, CS6)] expressed by the most prevalent and virulent ETEC strains, was genetically fused to LT-STa toxoid fusion monomer 3xSTaA14Q-dmLT or 3xSTaN12S-dmLT [IAI 2014, 82(5):1823-32] for CFA/I/II/IV-STaA14Q-dmLT and CFA/I/II/IV-STaN12S-dmLT MEFAs. Mice intraperitoneally immunized with either CFA/I/II/IV-STa-toxoid-dmLT MEFA developed antibodies specific to seven CFAs and both toxins, at levels equivalent or comparable to those induced from co-administration of the CFA/I/II/IV MEFA and toxoid fusion 3xSTaN12S-dmLT. Moreover, induced antibodies showed in vitro adherence inhibition activities against ETEC or E. coli strains expressing these seven CFAs and neutralization activities against both toxins. These results indicated CFA/I/II/IV-STa-toxoid-dmLT MEFA or CFA/I/II/IV MEFA combined with 3xSTaN12S-dmLT induced broadly protective anti-CFA and antitoxin immunity, and suggested their potential application in broadly effective ETEC vaccine development. This MEFA strategy may be generally used in multivalent

  13. Attenuated Escherichia coli strains expressing the colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (LThK63) enhance clearance of ETEC from the lungs of mice and protect mice from intestinal ETEC colonization and LT-induced fluid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Wyatt; Boedeker, Edgar C

    2013-03-15

    Although enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are important causes of infantile and traveler's diarrhea there is no licensed vaccine available for those at-risk. Our goal is to develop a safe, live attenuated ETEC vaccine. We used an attenuated E. coli strain (O157:H7, Δ-intimin, Stx1-neg, Stx2-neg) as a vector (ZCR533) to prepare two vaccine strains, one strain expressing colonization factor antigen I (ZCR533-CFA/I) and one strain expressing CFA/I and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63) to deliver ETEC antigens to mucosal sites in BALB/c mice. Following intranasal and intragastric immunization with the vaccine strains, serum IgG and IgA antibodies were measured to the CFA/I antigen, however, only serum IgG antibodies were detected to the heat-labile enterotoxin. Intranasal administration of the vaccine strains induced respiratory and intestinal antibody responses to the CFA/I and LT antigens, while intragastric administration induced only intestinal antibody responses with no respiratory antibodies detected to the CFA/I and LT antigens. Mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strains showed enhanced clearance of wild-type (wt) ETEC bacteria from the lungs. Mice immunized intranasally and intragastrically with the vaccine strains were protected from intestinal colonization following oral challenge with ETEC wt bacteria. Mice immunized intragastrically with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain had less fluid accumulate in their intestine following challenge with ETEC wt bacteria or with purified LT as compared to the sham mice indicating that the immunized mice were protected from LT-induced intestinal fluid accumulation. Thus, mice intragastrically immunized with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain were able to effectively neutralize the activity of the LT enterotoxin. However, no difference in intestinal fluid accumulation was detected in the mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strain as compared to the sham

  14. Radiation-induced heat-labile sites that convert into DNA double-strand breaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rydberg, B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The yield of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in SV40 DNA irradiated in aqueous solution was found to increase by more than a factor of two as a result of postirradiation incubation of the DNA at 50 degrees C and pH 8.0 for 24 h. This is in agreement with data from studies performed at 37 degrees C that were published previously. Importantly, similar results were also obtained from irradiation of mammalian DNA in agarose plugs. These results suggest that heat-labile sites within locally multiply damaged sites are produced by radiation and are subsequently transformed into DSBs. Since incubation at 50 degrees C is typically employed for lysis of cells in commonly used pulsed-field gel assays for detection of DSBs in mammalian cells, the possibility that heat-labile sites are present in irradiated cells was also studied. An increase in the apparent number of DSBs as a function of lysis time at 50 degrees C was found with kinetics that was similar to that for irradiated DNA, although the magnitude of the increase was smaller. This suggests that heat-labile sites are also formed in the cell. If this is the case, a proportion of DSBs measured by the pulsed-field gel assays may occur during the lysis step and may not be present in the cell as breaks but as heat-labile sites. It is suggested that such sites consist mainly of heat-labile sugar lesions within locally multiply damaged sites. Comparing rejoining of DSBs measured with short and long lysis procedure indicates that the heat-labile sites are repaired with fast kinetics in comparison with repair of the bulk of DSBs.

  15. A tripartite fusion, FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B, of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) elicits antibodies that neutralize cholera toxin, inhibit adherence of K88 (F4) and F18 fimbriae, and protect pigs against K88ac/heat-labile toxin infection.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Liu, Mei; Casey, Thomas A; Zhang, Weiping

    2011-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains expressing K88 (F4) or F18 fimbriae and heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) toxins are the major cause of diarrhea in young pigs. Effective vaccines inducing antiadhesin (anti-K88 and anti-F18) and antitoxin (anti-LT and anti-ST) immunity would provide broad protection to young pigs against ETEC. In this study, we genetically fused nucleotides coding for peptides from K88ac major subunit FaeG, F18 minor subunit FedF, and LT toxoid (LT(192)) A2 and B subunits for a tripartite adhesin-adhesin-toxoid fusion (FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B). This fusion was used for immunizations in mice and pigs to assess the induction of antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies. In addition, protection by the elicited antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies against a porcine ETEC strain was evaluated in a gnotobiotic piglet challenge model. The data showed that this FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B fusion elicited anti-K88, anti-F18, and anti-LT antibodies in immunized mice and pigs. In addition, the anti-porcine antibodies elicited neutralized cholera toxin and inhibited adherence against both K88 and F18 fimbriae. Moreover, immunized piglets were protected when challenged with ETEC strain 30302 (K88ac/LT/STb) and did not develop clinical disease. In contrast, all control nonvaccinated piglets developed severe diarrhea and dehydration after being challenged with the same ETEC strain. This study clearly demonstrated that this FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B fusion antigen elicited antibodies that neutralized LT toxin and inhibited the adherence of K88 and F18 fimbrial E. coli strains and that this fusion could serve as an antigen for vaccines against porcine ETEC diarrhea. In addition, the adhesin-toxoid fusion approach used in this study may provide important information for developing effective vaccines against human ETEC diarrhea. PMID:21813665

  16. Moist-heat sterilization and the chemical stability of heat-labile parenteral solutions.

    PubMed

    Li, L C; Parasrampuria, J; Bommireddi, A; Pec, E; Dudleston, A; Mayoral, J

    1998-01-01

    The impact of moist-heat sterilization (autoclaving) on the chemical stability of parenteral solutions was examined using two heat-labile products, clindamycin phosphate and succinylcholine chloride injections, as examples. A nonisothermal kinetic model was used to predict the extent of product degradation during autoclaving. The predicted results were found to be in close agreement with the experimental data. For the same peak temperature, a greater loss of product was shown by using a cycle with a higher F0. On the other hand, a higher peak-temperature cycle resulted in less product degradation for the same F0 value. The benefit of a high-temperature cycle was further illustrated by the fact that less chemical degradation for both products was produced by a 122 degrees C cycle with an F0 of 11 as compared to that which occurred during a 116.5 degrees C cycle with an F0 of 8. Although clindamycin phosphate was found to be highly unstable during a conventional autoclaving process, predicted data indicate that a UHT (Ultra-High Temperature) process may be used to sterilize this product with acceptable degradation. PMID:15605602

  17. Preparation of biocompatible heat-labile enterotoxin subunit B-bovine serum albumin nanoparticles for improving tumor-targeted drug delivery via heat-labile enterotoxin subunit B mediation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang; Su, Rongjian; Cui, Wenyu; Shi, Yijie; Liu, Liwei; Su, Chang

    2014-01-01

    Heat-labile enterotoxin subunit B (LTB) is a non-catalytic protein from a pentameric subunit of Escherichia coli. Based on its function of binding specifically to ganglioside GM1 on the surface of cells, a novel nanoparticle (NP) composed of a mixture of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and LTB was designed for targeted delivery of 5-fluorouracil to tumor cells. BSA-LTB NPs were characterized by determination of their particle size, polydispersity, morphology, drug encapsulation efficiency, and drug release behavior in vitro. The internalization of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled BSA-LTB NPs into cells was observed using fluorescent imaging. Results showed that BSA-LTB NPs presented a narrow size distribution with an average hydrodynamic diameter of approximately 254±19 nm and a mean zeta potential of approximately −19.95±0.94 mV. In addition, approximately 80.1% of drug was encapsulated in NPs and released in the biphasic pattern. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that BSA-LTB NPs exhibited higher cytotoxic activity than non-targeted NPs (BSA NPs) in SMMC-7721 cells. Fluorescent imaging results proved that, compared with BSA NPs, BSA-LTB NPs could greatly enhance cellular uptake. Hence, the results indicate that BSA-LTB NPs could be a potential nanocarrier to improve targeted delivery of 5-fluorouracil to tumor cells via mediation of LTB. PMID:24851048

  18. Hereditary heat-labile hexosaminidase B: its implication for recognizing Tay-Sachs genotypes.

    PubMed

    Navon, R; Nutman, J; Kopel, R; Gaber, L; Gadoth, N; Goldman, B; Nitzan, M

    1981-11-01

    Two pairs of alleles, at the two loci of hexosaminidase (HEX), were found to segregate in an Arab inbred family: the normal and the mutant Tay-Sachs (TSD) alleles of HEX A, and the normal and a mutant allele of HEX B. Since the mutant HEX B is heat labile, no reliable identification of TSD genotypes can be obtained in its presence, as long as the proportions of HEX A and B are estimated by the routinely used heat-inactivation method. The genotypes may be correctly identified in such cases by separation of the two isoenzymes on ion-exchange chromatography, estimating their individual activities, and calculating the ratio between them. Of the nine genotype combinations possible with these two pairs of alleles, five have been identified in the reported family by this procedure. PMID:6459736

  19. Mutations in the A subunit affect yield, stability, and protease sensitivity of nontoxic derivatives of heat-labile enterotoxin.

    PubMed

    Magagnoli, C; Manetti, R; Fontana, M R; Giannelli, V; Giuliani, M M; Rappuoli, R; Pizza, M

    1996-12-01

    Heat-labile toxin (LT) is a protein related to cholera toxin, produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains, that is organized as an AB5 complex. A number of nontoxic derivatives of LT, useful for new or improved vaccines against diarrheal diseases or as mucosal adjuvants, have been constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. Here we have studied the biochemical properties of the nontoxic mutants LT-K7 (Arg-7-->Lys), LT-D53 (Val-53-->Asp), LT-K63 (Ser-63-->Lys), LT-K97 (Val-97-->Lys), LT-K104 (Tyr-104-->Lys), LT-K114 (Ser-114-->Lys), and LT-K7/K97 (Arg-7-->Lys and Val-97-->Lys). We have found that mutations in the A subunit may have profound effects on the ability to form the AB5 structure and on the stability and trypsin sensitivity of the purified proteins. Unstable mutants, during long-term storage at 4 degrees C, showed a decrease in the amount of the assembled protein in solution and a parallel appearance of soluble monomeric B subunit. This finding suggests that the stability of the B pentamer is influenced by the A subunit which is associated with it. Among the seven nontoxic mutants tested, LT-K63 was found to be efficient in AB5 production, extremely stable during storage, resistant to proteolytic attack, and very immunogenic. In conclusion, LT-K63 is a good candidate for the development of antidiarrheal vaccines and mucosal adjuvants. PMID:8945604

  20. Crystal structure of a non-toxic mutant of heat-labile enterotoxin, which is a potent mucosal adjuvant.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, F; Pizza, M; Rappuoli, R; Hol, W G

    1997-12-01

    Two closely related bacterial toxins, heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-I) and cholera toxin (CT), not only invoke a toxic activity that affects many victims worldwide but also contain a beneficial mucosal adjuvant activity that significantly enhances the potency of vaccines in general. For the purpose of vaccine design it is most interesting that the undesirable toxic activity of these toxins can be eliminated by the single-site mutation Ser63Lys in the A subunit while the mucosal adjuvant activity is still present. The crystal structure of the Ser63Lys mutant of LT-I is determined at 2.0 A resolution. Its structure appears to be essentially the same as the wild-type LT-I structure. The substitution Ser63Lys was designed, based on the wild-type LT-I crystal structure, to decrease toxicity by interfering with NAD binding and/or catalysis. In the mutant crystal structure, the newly introduced lysine side chain is indeed positioned such that it could potentially obstruct the productive binding mode of the substrate NAD while at the same time its positive charge could possibly interfere with the critical function of nearby charged groups in the active site of LT-I. The fact that the Ser63Lys mutant of LT-I does not disrupt the wild-type LT-I structure makes the non-toxic mutant potentially suitable, from a structural point of view, to be used as a vaccine to prevent enterotoxigenic E. coli infections. The structural similarity of mutant and wild-type toxin might also be the reason why the inactive Ser63Lys variant retains its adjuvant activity. PMID:9416617

  1. Induction of heat-labile sites in DNA of mammalian cells by the antitumor alkylating drug CC-1065

    SciTech Connect

    Zsido, T.J.; Woynarowski, J.M.; Baker, R.M.; Gawron, L.S.; Beerman, T.A. )

    1991-04-16

    CC-1065 is a very potent antitumor antibiotic capable of covalent and noncovalent binding to the minor groove of naked DNA. Upon thermal treatment, covalent adducts formed between CC-1065 and DNA generate strand break. The authors have shown that this molecular damage can be detected following CC-1065 treatment of mammalian whole cells. Using alkaline sucrose gradient analysis, They observe thermally induced breakage of ({sup 14}C)thymidine-prelabeled DNA from drug-treated African green monkey kidney BSC-1 cells. Very little damage to cellular DNA by CC-1065 can be detected without first heating the drug-treated samples. CC-1065 can also generate heat-labile sites within DNA during cell lysis and heating, subsequent to the exposure of cells to drug, suggesting that a pool of free and noncovalently bound drug is available for posttreatment adduct formation. This effect was controlled for by mixing ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled untreated cells with the ({sup 14}C)thymidine-labeled drug-treated samples. The lowest drug dose at which heat-labile sites were detected was 3 nM CC-1065 (3 single-stranded breaks/10{sup 6} base pairs). This concentration reduced survival of BSC-1 cells to 0.1% in cytotoxicity assays. The generation of CC-1065-induced lesions in cellular DNA is time dependent (the frequency of lesions caused by a 60 nM treatment reaching a plateau at 2 h) and is not readily reversible. The results of this study demonstrate that CC-1065 does generate heat-labile sites with the cellular DNA of intact cells and suggest that a mechanism of cytotoxic action of CC-1065 involves formation of covalent adducts to DNA.

  2. Enhancement of humoral immunity by the type II heat-labile enterotoxin LT-IIb is dependent upon IL-6 and neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Greene, Christopher J; Hu, John C; Vance, David J; Rong, Yinghui; Mandell, Lorrie; King-Lyons, Natalie; Masso-Welch, Patricia; Mantis, Nicholas J; Connell, Terry D

    2016-08-01

    LT-IIb, a type II heat-labile enterotoxin produced by Escherichia coli, is a potent intradermal adjuvant that enhances immune responses to coadministered antigens. Although the immune mechanisms that promote this augmented immune response have not been well defined, prior intradermal immunization experiments suggested that early cellular and immunomodulatory events at the site of immunization modulated the augmentation of antigen-specific immune responses by LT-IIb. To investigate that hypothesis, mice were intradermally immunized with a recombinant ricin vaccine, a prospective toxin subunit antigen, in the presence and absence of LT-IIb. Analysis of tissue-fluid collection, coupled with histologic sections from the site of intradermal immunization, revealed that a single dose of LT-IIb induced local production of interleukin 6 and promoted a regional infiltration of neutrophils. The adjuvant effects of LT-IIb were abrogated in interleukin 6-deficient mice and when mice were depleted of neutrophils by pretreatment with anti-Ly6G. Overall, these data firmly demonstrated that LT-IIb, when used as an intradermal adjuvant, recruits neutrophils and is a potent rapid inducer of interleukin 6. PMID:27059843

  3. Repair of radiation-induced heat-labile sites is independent of DNA-PKcs, XRCC1 or PARP

    SciTech Connect

    Stenerlöw, Bo; Karlsson, Karin H.; Radulescu, Irina; Rydberg, Bjorn; Stenerlow, Bo

    2008-04-29

    Ionizing radiation induces a variety of different DNA lesions: in addition to the most critical DNA damage, the DSB, numerous base alterations, SSBs and other modifications of the DNA double-helix are formed. When several non-DSB lesions are clustered within a short distance along DNA, or close to a DSB, they may interfere with the repair of DSBs and affect the measurement of DSB induction and repair. We have previously shown that a substantial fraction of DSBs measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) are in fact due to heat-labile sites (HLS) within clustered lesions, thus reflecting an artifact of preparation of genomic DNA at elevated temperature. To further characterize the influence of HLS on DSB induction and repair, four human cell lines (GM5758, GM7166, M059K, U-1810) with apparently normal DSB rejoining were tested for bi-phasic rejoining after gamma irradiation. When heat-released DSBs were excluded from the measurements the fraction of fast rejoining decreased to less than 50% of the total. However, neither the half-times of the fast (t{sub 1/2} = 7-8 min) or slow (t{sub 1/2} = 2.5 h) DSB rejoining were changed significantly. At t=0 the heat-released DSBs accounted for almost 40% of the DSBs, corresponding to 10 extra DSB/cell/Gy in the initial DSB yield. These heat-released DSBs were repaired within 60-90 min in all tested cells, including M059K cells treated with wortmannin or DNA-PKcs defect M059J cells. Furthermore, cells lacking XRCC1 or Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) rejoined both total DSBs and heat-released DSBs similar to normal cells. In summary, the presence of heat-labile sites have a substantial impact on DSB induction yields and DSB rejoining rates measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and HLS repair is independent of DNA-PKcs, XRCC1 and PARP.

  4. Prevalence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in some processed raw food from animal origin.

    PubMed

    Reis, M H; Vasconcelos, J C; Trabulsi, L R

    1980-01-01

    Eighteen of 1,200 colonies of Escherichia coli isolated from "keebe," hamburger, or sausage produced heat-labile enterotoxin. None of them produced heat-stable enterotoxin. The characteristics of 9 of the 18 strains are presented. PMID:6986850

  5. Protease susceptibility and toxicity of heat-labile enterotoxins with a mutation in the active site or in the protease-sensitive loop.

    PubMed Central

    Giannelli, V; Fontana, M R; Giuliani, M M; Guangcai, D; Rappuoli, R; Pizza, M

    1997-01-01

    To generate nontoxic derivatives of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), site-directed mutagenesis has been used to change either the amino acid residues located in the catalytic site (M. Pizza, M. Domenighini, W. Hol, V. Giannelli, M. R. Fontana, M. M. Giuliani, C. Magagnoli, S. Peppoloni, R. Manetti, and R. Rappuoli, Mol. Microbiol. 14:51-60, 1994) or those located in the proteolytically sensitive loop that joins the A1 and A2 moieties of the A subunit (C. C. R. Grant, R. J. Messer, and W. J. Cieplack, Infect. Immun. 62:4270-4278, 1994; B. L. Dickinson and J. D. Clements, Infect. Immun. 63:1617-1623, 1995). In this work, we compared the in vitro and in vivo toxic properties and the resistance to protease digestion of the prototype molecules obtained by both approaches (LT-K63 and LT-R192G, respectively). As expected, LT-K63 was normally processed by proteases, while LT-R192G showed increased resistance to trypsin in vitro and was digested by trypsin only under denaturing conditions (3.5 M urea) or by intestinal proteases. No toxicity was detected with the LT-K63 mutant, even when 40 micrograms and 1 mg were used in the in vitro and in vivo assays, respectively. In marked contrast, LT-R192G showed only a modest (10-fold) reduction in toxicity in Y1 cells with a delay in the appearance of the toxic activity and had toxicity comparable to that of wild-type LT in the rabbit ileal loop assay. We conclude that mutagenesis of the active site generates molecules that are fully devoid of toxicity, while mutagenesis of the A1-A2 loop generates molecules that are resistant to trypsin in vitro but still susceptible to proteolytic activation by proteases other than trypsin, and therefore they may still be toxic in tissue culture and in vivo. PMID:8975934

  6. A live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis secreting detoxified heat labile toxin enhances mucosal immunity and confers protection against wild-type challenge in chickens.

    PubMed

    Lalsiamthara, Jonathan; Kamble, Nitin Machindra; Lee, John Hwa

    2016-01-01

    A live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) capable of constitutively secreting detoxified double mutant Escherichia coli heat labile toxin (dmLT) was developed. The biologically adjuvanted strain was generated via transformation of a highly immunogenic SE JOL1087 with a plasmid encoding dmLT gene cassette; the resultant strain was designated JOL1641. A balanced-lethal host-vector system stably maintained the plasmid via auxotrophic host complementation with a plasmid encoded aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (asd) gene. Characterization by western blot assay revealed the dmLT subunit proteins in culture supernatants of JOL1641. For the investigation of adjuvanticity and protective efficacy, chickens were immunized via oral or intramuscular routes with PBS, JOL1087 and JOL1641. Birds immunized with JOL1641 showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in intestinal SIgA production at the 1(st) and 2(nd) weeks post-immunization via oral and intramuscular routes, respectively. Interestingly, while both strains showed significant splenic protection via intramuscular immunization, JOL1641 outperformed JOL1087 upon oral immunization. Oral immunization of birds with JOL1641 significantly reduced splenic bacterial counts. The reduction in bacterial counts may be correlated with an adjuvant effect of dmLT that increases SIgA secretion in the intestines of immunized birds. The inclusion of detoxified dmLT in the strain did not cause adverse reactions to birds, nor did it extend the period of bacterial fecal shedding. In conclusion, we report here that dmLT could be biologically incorporated in the secretion system of a live attenuated Salmonella-based vaccine, and that this construction is safe and could enhance mucosal immunity, and protect immunized birds against wild-type challenge. PMID:27262338

  7. The Arg7Lys mutant of heat-labile enterotoxin exhibits great flexibility of active site loop 47-56 of the A subunit.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, F; Merritt, E A; Pizza, M; Domenighini, M; Rappuoli, R; Hol, W G

    1995-09-01

    The heat-labile enterotoxin from Escherichia coli (LT) is a member of the cholera toxin family. These and other members of the larger class of AB5 bacterial toxins act through catalyzing the ADP-ribosylation of various intracellular targets including Gs alpha. The A subunit is responsible for this covalent modification, while the B pentamer is involved in receptor recognition. We report here the crystal structure of an inactive single-site mutant of LT in which arginine 7 of the A subunit has been replaced by a lysine residue. The final model contains 103 residues for each of the five B subunits, 175 residues for the A1 subunit, and 41 residues for the A2 subunit. In this Arg7Lys structure the active site cleft within the A subunit is wider by approximately 1 A than is seen in the wild-type LT. Furthermore, a loop near the active site consisting of residues 47-56 is disordered in the Arg7Lys structure, even though the new lysine residue at position 7 assumes a position which virtually coincides with that of Arg7 in the wild-type structure. The displacement of residues 47-56 as seen in the mutant structure is proposed to be necessary for allowing NAD access to the active site of the wild-type LT. On the basis of the differences observed between the wild-type and Arg7Lys structures, we propose a model for a coordinated sequence of conformational changes required for full activation of LT upon reduction of disulfide bridge 187-199 and cleavage of the peptide loop between the two cysteines in the A subunit.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7669757

  8. Induction of antigen-specific antibodies in vaginal secretions by using a nontoxic mutant of heat-labile enterotoxin as a mucosal adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Di Tommaso, A; Saletti, G; Pizza, M; Rappuoli, R; Dougan, G; Abrignani, S; Douce, G; De Magistris, M T

    1996-03-01

    Immunization of the female reproductive tract is important for protection against sexually transmitted diseases and other pathogens of the reproductive tract. However, intravaginal immunization with soluble antigens generally does not induce high levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA). We recently developed safe mucosal adjuvants by genetically detoxifying Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin, a molecule with a strong mucosal adjuvant activity, and here we describe the use of the nontoxic mutant LTK63 to induce a response in the mouse vagina against ovalbumin (Ova). We compared intravaginal and intranasal routes of immunization for induction of systemic and vaginal responses against LTK63 and Ova. We found that LTK63 is a potent mucosal immunogen when given by either the intravaginal or intranasal route. It induces a strong systemic antibody response and IgG and long-lasting IgA in the vagina. The appearance of vaginal IgA is delayed in the intranasally immunized mice, but the levels of vaginal anti-LTK63 IgA after repeated immunizations are higher in the intranasally immunized mice than in the intravaginally immunized mice. LTK63 also acts as a mucosal adjuvant, inducing a serum response against Ova, when given by both the intravaginal and intranasal routes. However, vaginal IgA against Ova is stimulated more efficiently when LTK63 and antigen are given intranasally. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that LTK63 can be used as a mucosal adjuvant to induce antigen-specific antibodies in vaginal secretions and show that the intranasal route of immunization is the most effective for this purpose. PMID:8641809

  9. Cholera toxin, LT-I, LT-IIa, and LT-IIb: the critical role of ganglioside-binding in immunomodulation by Type I and Type II heat-labile enterotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Terry D.

    2010-01-01

    The heat-labile enterotoxins (HLT) expressed by Vibrio cholerae (cholera toxin) and Escherichia coli (LT-I, LT-IIa, and LT-IIb) are potent systemic and mucosal adjuvants. Co-administration of the enterotoxins with a foreign antigen (Ag) produces an augmented immune response to that antigen. Although each enterotoxin has potent adjuvant properties, the means by which the enterotoxins induce various immune responses are distinctive for each adjuvant. Various mutants have been engineered to dissect the functions of the enterotoxins required for their adjuvanticity. The capacity to strongly bind to one or more specific ganglioside receptors appears to drive the distinctive immunomodulatory properties associated with each enterotoxin. Mutant enterotoxins with ablated or altered ganglioside binding affinities have been employed to investigate the role of gangliosides in enterotoxin-dependent immunomodulation. PMID:17931161

  10. Genetic determinants of heat resistance in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Ryan G.; Zheng, Jinshui; Garcia-Hernandez, Rigoberto; Ruan, Lifang; Gänzle, Michael G.; McMullen, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli AW1.7 is a heat resistant food isolate and the occurrence of pathogenic strains with comparable heat resistance may pose a risk to food safety. To identify the genetic determinants of heat resistance, 29 strains of E. coli that differed in their of heat resistance were analyzed by comparative genomics. Strains were classified as highly heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 6 min; moderately heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 1 min; or as heat sensitive. A ~14 kb genomic island containing 16 predicted open reading frames encoding putative heat shock proteins and proteases was identified only in highly heat resistant strains. The genomic island was termed the locus of heat resistance (LHR). This putative operon is flanked by mobile elements and possesses >99% sequence identity to genomic islands contributing to heat resistance in Cronobacter sakazakii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. An additional 41 LHR sequences with >87% sequence identity were identified in 11 different species of β- and γ-proteobacteria. Cloning of the full length LHR conferred high heat resistance to the heat sensitive E. coli AW1.7ΔpHR1 and DH5α. The presence of the LHR correlates perfectly to heat resistance in several species of Enterobacteriaceae and occurs at a frequency of 2% of all E. coli genomes, including pathogenic strains. This study suggests the LHR has been laterally exchanged among the β- and γ-proteobacteria and is a reliable indicator of high heat resistance in E. coli. PMID:26441869

  11. Mucosal immunogenicity of genetically detoxified derivatives of heat labile toxin from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Douce, G; Giuliani, M M; Giannelli, V; Pizza, M G; Rappuoli, R; Dougan, G

    1998-07-01

    Using a fixed dose of antigen, the immune response to detoxified mutants of LT-WT following intranasal (i.n.), subcutaneous (s.c.) and oral (i.g.) immunisation has been studied. When given i.n., both LT-WT and mutant toxin, K63, generated significant levels of toxin-specific IgG in the serum, and the levels of IgA in nasal and lung lavages were greater than those induced by rLT-B. In comparison, i.g. immunisation of mice with a similar quantity of either LT-WT or K63 toxin induced barely detectable levels of IgG in the sera. However, if the amount of protein used for i.g. immunisation was increased tenfold, relatively good levels of toxin-specific IgG were induced in the sera by both LT-WT or K63. Low levels of toxin-specific IgA were also observed in intestinal washes from these mice. Western blotting of the sera, using the native toxin as an antigen, demonstrated the presence of both anti-A and anti-B subunit antibodies. Most significantly, toxin-neutralising antibodies were induced in the serum, with the strongest activity being induced by the LT-WT, an intermediate activity induced by mutant K63 and a lower response by rLT-B. Together, these data show that ADP-ribosyltransferase is not necessary for mucosal immunogenicity of these proteins, and that the i.n. route of immunisation is more effective than the i.g. route of immunisation for the generation of both systemic (IgG) and mucosal (IgA) immune responses. PMID:9682360

  12. Peracetic acid: a practical agent for sterilizing heat-labile polymeric tissue-engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Yoganarasimha, Suyog; Trahan, William R; Best, Al M; Bowlin, Gary L; Kitten, Todd O; Moon, Peter C; Madurantakam, Parthasarathy A

    2014-09-01

    Advanced biomaterials and sophisticated processing technologies aim at fabricating tissue-engineering scaffolds that can predictably interact within a biological environment at the cellular level. Sterilization of such scaffolds is at the core of patient safety and is an important regulatory issue that needs to be addressed before clinical translation. In addition, it is crucial that meticulously engineered micro- and nano- structures are preserved after sterilization. Conventional sterilization methods involving heat, steam, and radiation are not compatible with engineered polymeric systems because of scaffold degradation and loss of architecture. Using electrospun scaffolds made from polycaprolactone, a low melting polymer, and employing spores of Bacillus atrophaeus as biological indicators, we compared ethylene oxide, autoclaving and 80% ethanol to a known chemical sterilant, peracetic acid (PAA), for their ability to sterilize as well as their effects on scaffold properties. PAA diluted in 20% ethanol to 1000 ppm or above sterilized electrospun scaffolds in 15 min at room temperature while maintaining nano-architecture and mechanical properties. Scaffolds treated with PAA at 5000 ppm were rendered hydrophilic, with contact angles reduced to 0°. Therefore, PAA can provide economical, rapid, and effective sterilization of heat-sensitive polymeric electrospun scaffolds that are used in tissue engineering. PMID:24341350

  13. Peracetic Acid: A Practical Agent for Sterilizing Heat-Labile Polymeric Tissue-Engineering Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Yoganarasimha, Suyog; Trahan, William R.; Best, Al M.; Bowlin, Gary L.; Kitten, Todd O.; Moon, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced biomaterials and sophisticated processing technologies aim at fabricating tissue-engineering scaffolds that can predictably interact within a biological environment at the cellular level. Sterilization of such scaffolds is at the core of patient safety and is an important regulatory issue that needs to be addressed before clinical translation. In addition, it is crucial that meticulously engineered micro- and nano- structures are preserved after sterilization. Conventional sterilization methods involving heat, steam, and radiation are not compatible with engineered polymeric systems because of scaffold degradation and loss of architecture. Using electrospun scaffolds made from polycaprolactone, a low melting polymer, and employing spores of Bacillus atrophaeus as biological indicators, we compared ethylene oxide, autoclaving and 80% ethanol to a known chemical sterilant, peracetic acid (PAA), for their ability to sterilize as well as their effects on scaffold properties. PAA diluted in 20% ethanol to 1000 ppm or above sterilized electrospun scaffolds in 15 min at room temperature while maintaining nano-architecture and mechanical properties. Scaffolds treated with PAA at 5000 ppm were rendered hydrophilic, with contact angles reduced to 0°. Therefore, PAA can provide economical, rapid, and effective sterilization of heat-sensitive polymeric electrospun scaffolds that are used in tissue engineering. PMID:24341350

  14. Influence of Long Time Storage in Mineral Water on RNA Stability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli after Heat Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Cenciarini, Claire; Courtois, Sophie; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Background Research of RNA viability markers was previously studied for many bacterial species. Few and different targets of each species have been checked and motley results can be found in literature. No research has been done about Pseudomonas aeruginosa in this way. Methodology/Principal Findings Disappearance of 48 transcripts was analyzed by two-steps reverse transcription and real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after heat-killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa previously stored in mineral water or not. Differential results were obtained for each target. 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA, groEL, and rpmE were showed as the most persistent transcripts and rplP, rplV, rplE and rpsD were showed as the most labile transcripts after P. aeruginosa death. However, the labile targets appeared more persistent in bacteria previously stored in mineral water than freshly cultivated (non stored). These nine transcripts were also analyzed in Escherichia coli after heat-killing and different to opposite results were obtained, notably for groEL which was the most labile transcript of E. coli. Moreover, opposite results were obtained between mineral water stored and freshly cultivated E. coli. Conclusions and Significance This study highlights four potential viability markers for P. aeruginosa and four highly persistent transcripts. In a near future, these targets could be associated to develop an efficient viability kit. The present study also suggests that it would be difficult to determine universal RNA viability markers for environmental bacteria, since opposite results were obtained depending on the bacterial species and the physiological conditions. PMID:18941615

  15. Serotyping of Campylobacter jejuni by slide agglutination based on heat-labile antigenic factors.

    PubMed Central

    Lior, H; Woodward, D L; Edgar, J A; Laroche, L J; Gill, P

    1982-01-01

    A serotyping scheme for Campylobacter jejuni was developed based on slide agglutination of live bacteria with whole cell antisera absorbed with homologous heated and heterologous unheated cross-reactive antigens. Among 815 isolates from human and nonhuman sources, 21 serogroups were recognized. Of the 615 isolates from human cases of gastroenteritis, 529 (86%) were typable; 455 strains agglutinated in 20 single antisera, whereas 74 isolates agglutinated in various pairs of antisera, allowing subdivision of some main serogroups into subserogroups. Of the 200 isolates of C. jejuni from nonhuman sources (chicken, swine, etc.), 166 (83%) were typable, 145 cultures agglutinated in various single antisera, and 21 strains agglutinated with different pairs of antisera. Among isolates from all sources, 8 serogroups (1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, and 11) were encountered most frequently. Serogroups 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, and 11 were most common among human isolates; the majority of the chicken and all of the swine isolates belonged to the same serogroups identified from human cases. Very good serological correlation was obtained in 20 family outbreaks and 4 community outbreaks. PMID:7096555

  16. Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii by heat labile bacteriocins produced by probiotic LAB isolated from healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Awaisheh, Saddam S; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Osaili, Tareq M; Ibrahim, Salam; Holley, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause bacteremia, meningitis, and necrotizing enterocolitis, most often in neonates with case-fatality rates that may reach 80%. The antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria against a wide range of foodborne pathogens is well-established in different types of food products. The objective of the current study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. casei isolated from feces of healthy infants against different strains of C. sakazakii in agar and a rehydrated infant milk formula (RIMF) model. The inhibition zones of C. sakazakii around L. acidophilus or L. casei ranged from 22 to 32 mm on eMan Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar under aerobic conditions, while a slight reduction in antibacterial activity was noted on modified MRS (0.2% glucose) under anaerobic conditions. It was observed that pH-neutralized cell-free supernatant (CFS) of L. acidophilus or L. casei was inhibitory against tested C. sakazakii strains. The inhibition zones of neutralized CFS were lower than the antibacterial activities of live cultures. The antibacterial activity of CFS was abolished when CFS from L. acidophilus or L. casei was heated at 60 or 80 °C for either 10 min or 2 h, or treated with trypsin or pepsin. This was considered strong evidence that the inhibition was due to the production of bacteriocins by L. casei and L. acidophilus. Both the CFS and active growing cells of L. casei and L. acidophilus were able to reduce the viability of C. sakazakii in the RIMF model. The results may extend the use of natural antimicrobials instead of conventional preservation methods to improve the safety of RIMF. PMID:23924352

  17. E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin and guanylyl cyclase C: new functions and unsuspected actions.

    PubMed Central

    Giannella, Ralph A.; Mann, Elizabeth A.

    2003-01-01

    Some E. coli cause diarrhea by elaborating heat-labile and heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins which stimulate intestinal secretion. E. coli ST's are small peptides which bind to intestinal luminal epithelial cell receptors. The ST receptor, one of a family of receptor-cyclases called guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C), is a membrane spanning protein containing an extracellular binding domain and intracellular protein kinase and catalytic domains. The intestine synthesizes and secretes homologous peptides, guanylin and uroguanylin. The kidney also synthesizes uroguanylin. ST, guanylin or uroguanylin binding to GC-C results in increased cGMP, phosphorylation of the CFTR Cl- channel and secretion. Proguanylin and prouroguanylin circulate in blood and bind to receptors in intestine, kidney, liver, brain etc. In the kidney, they stimulate the excretion of Na+ and K+. Study of GC-C "knock-out" mice reveal that GC-C is important to intestinal salt and water secretion, duodenal bicarbonate secretion, recovery from CCl4-induced liver injury, and to intestinal polyp formation in Min mice lacking GC-C. PMID:12813912

  18. Intranasal Immunization with SAG1 and Nontoxic Mutant Heat-Labile Enterotoxins Protects Mice against Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Bonenfant, C.; Dimier-Poisson, I.; Velge-Roussel, F.; Buzoni-Gatel, D.; Del Giudice, G.; Rappuoli, R.; Bout, D.

    2001-01-01

    Effective protection against intestinal pathogens requires both mucosal and systemic immune responses. Intranasal administration of antigens induces these responses but generally fails to trigger a strong protective immunity. Mucosal adjuvants can significantly enhance the immunogenicities of intranasally administered antigens. Cholera toxin (CT) and heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) are strong mucosal adjuvants with a variety of antigens. Moreover, the toxicities of CT and LT do not permit their use in humans. Two nontoxic mutant LTs, LTR72 and LTK63, were tested with Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 protein in intranasal vaccination of CBA/J mice. Vaccination with SAG1 plus LTR72 or LTK63 induced strong systemic (immunoglobulin G [IgG]) and mucosal (IgA) humoral responses. Splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node cells from mice immunized with LTR72 plus SAG1, but not those from mice immunized with LTK63 plus SAG1, responded to restimulation with a T. gondii lysate antigen in vitro. Gamma interferon and interleukin 2 (IL-2) production by splenocytes and IL-2 production by mesenteric lymph node cells were observed in vitro after antigen restimulation, underlying a Th1-like response. High-level protection as assessed by the decreased load of cerebral cysts after a challenge with the 76K strain of T. gondii was obtained in the group immunized with LTR72 plus SAG1 and LTK63 plus SAG1. They were as well protected as the mice immunized with the antigen plus native toxins. This is the first report showing protection against a parasite by using combinations of nontoxic mutant LTs and SAG1 antigen. These nontoxic mutant LTs are now attractive candidates for the development of mucosally delivered vaccines. PMID:11179334

  19. Comparative Adjuvant Effects of Type II Heat-Labile Enterotoxins in Combination with Two Different Candidate Ricin Toxin Vaccine Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David J.; Greene, Christopher J.; Rong, Yinghui; Mandell, Lorrie M.; Connell, Terry D.

    2015-01-01

    Type II heat-labile enterotoxins (HLTs) constitute a promising set of adjuvants that have been shown to enhance humoral and cellular immune responses when coadministered with an array of different proteins, including several pathogen-associated antigens. However, the adjuvant activities of the four best-studied HLTs, LT-IIa, LT-IIb, LT-IIbT13I, and LT-IIc, have never been compared side by side. We therefore conducted immunization studies in which LT-IIa, LT-IIb, LT-IIbT13I, and LT-IIc were coadministered by the intradermal route to mice with two clinically relevant protein subunit vaccine antigens derived from the enzymatic A subunit (RTA) of ricin toxin, RiVax and RVEc. The HLTs were tested with low and high doses of antigen and were assessed for their abilities to stimulate antigen-specific serum IgG titers, ricin toxin-neutralizing activity (TNA), and protective immunity. We found that all four HLTs tested were effective adjuvants when coadministered with RiVax or RVEc. LT-IIa was of particular interest because as little as 0.03 μg when coadministered with RiVax or RVEc proved effective at augmenting ricin toxin-specific serum antibody titers with nominal evidence of local inflammation. Collectively, these results justify the need for further studies into the mechanism(s) underlying LT-IIa adjuvant activity, with the long-term goal of evaluating LT-IIa's activity in humans. PMID:26491037

  20. Treatment of PCR products with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase improves the visibility of combined bisulfite restriction analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Kousuke; Emoto, Noriko; Sunohara, Mitsuhiro; Kawakami, Masanori; Kage, Hidenori; Nagase, Takahide; Ohishi, Nobuya; Takai, Daiya

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} Incubating PCR products at a high temperature causes smears in gel electrophoresis. {yields} Smears interfere with the interpretation of methylation analysis using COBRA. {yields} Treatment with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase eliminates smears. {yields} The elimination of smears improves the visibility of COBRA. -- Abstract: DNA methylation plays a vital role in the regulation of gene expression. Abnormal promoter hypermethylation is an important mechanism of inactivating tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. Combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) is a widely used method for identifying the DNA methylation of specific CpG sites. Here, we report that exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase can be used for PCR purification for COBRA, improving the visibility of gel electrophoresis after restriction digestion. This improvement is observed when restriction digestion is performed at a high temperature, such as 60 {sup o}C or 65 {sup o}C, with BstUI and TaqI, respectively. This simple method can be applied instead of DNA purification using spin columns or phenol/chloroform extraction. It can also be applied to other situations when PCR products are digested by thermophile-derived restriction enzymes, such as PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.

  1. Molecular chaperone heat shock protein 70 participates in the labile phase of the development of behavioural sensitization induced by a single morphine exposure in mice.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wang-Jun; Wang, Yan-Ting; Zhang, Min; Wen, Rui-Ting; Liu, Qing; Li, Yu-Ling; Chen, Feng; Lawrence, Andrew J; Liang, Jian-Hui

    2013-04-01

    De-novo protein synthesis is required in the development of behavioural sensitization. A prior screening test from our laboratory has implicated heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) as one of the proteins required in this behavioural plasticity. Thus, this study was designed to extend our understanding of the role of Hsp70 in the development of behavioural sensitization induced by a single morphine exposure in mice. First, by employing transcription inhibitor actinomycin D (AD) and protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX), we identified a protein synthesis-dependent labile phase (within 4 h after the first morphine injection) in the development of behavioural sensitization to a single morphine exposure. Second, Hsp70 protein expression in the nucleus accumbens correlated positively with locomotor responses of sensitized mice and, more importantly, the expression of Hsp70 increased within 1 h after the first morphine injection. Third, AD and CHX both prevented expression of Hsp70 and disrupted the development of the single morphine induced behavioural sensitization, which further implied Hsp70 was highly associated with behavioural sensitization. Finally, the selective Hsp70 inhibitor pifithrin-μ (PES) i.c.v. injected in mice prevented the development of behavioural sensitization and, critically, this inhibitory effect occurred only when PES was given within 1 h after the first morphine injection, which was within the labile phase of the development period. Taken together, we draw the conclusion that Hsp70 is crucially involved in the labile phase of the development of behavioural sensitization induced by a single morphine exposure, probably functioning as a molecular chaperone. PMID:22647551

  2. Gut myoelectrical activity induces heat shock response in Escherichia coli and Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Laubitz, Daniel; Jankowska, Alicja; Sikora, Anna; Woliński, Jarosław; Zabielski, Romuald; Grzesiuk, Elzbieta

    2006-09-01

    The heat shock response is associated with the intracellular expression of a number of highly conserved heat shock proteins (Hsps). According to their molecular size, Hsps have been divided into several groups, which are strongly conserved and show high homology between the species, e.g., Hsp70, MW 70 kDa (Lindquist & Craig, 1998; Morimoto, 1998; Jolly & Morimoto, 2000; Zylicz et al. 2001). In all organisms the Hsp expression under stress conditions is regulated at transcriptional level, e.g., in humans by the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1 (Morimoto, 1998; Wu, 1995), while in Escherichia coli by replacement of the sigma factor sigma(70) in RNA polymerase by the sigma factor sigma(32) (Gross, 1987). The Hsps allow cell survival under stress conditions by renaturating of denaturated proteins, protecting of stress-labile proteins, preventing protein aggregation (chaperone functions), and by degradation of damaged proteins (protease activities) (Lindquist & Craig, 1988; Morimoto, 1998; Jolly & Morimoto, 2000). They have also many housekeeping functions under non-stressful conditions during the cell cycle, growth, development, and differentiation (Morimoto, 1998). Among a number of plausible inducing factors already studied, extremely low artificial electromagnetic fields have been shown to induce stress response in various cells, such as expression of sigma(32) mRNA (Cairo et al. 1998) and induction of DnaJ and DnaK proteins in Eschericha coli (Chow & Tung, 2000); expression of hsp-16 gene in Caenorhabditis elegans (Miyakawa et al., 2001); induction of heat shock transcription factor Hsf1 and Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp27 in human cells (Lin et al. 1997; Lin et al. 1998; Goodman & Blank, 1998; Pipkin et al. 1999). Nevertheless, the role of endogenous electromagnetic fields, i.e., generated by electrically active cells within a body remains controversial. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) protect cells against various environmental and endogenous stressors. Cytoprotection

  3. LT-IIb(T13I), a non-toxic type II heat-labile enterotoxin, augments the capacity of a ricin toxin subunit vaccine to evoke neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity.

    PubMed

    Greene, Christopher J; Chadwick, Chrystal M; Mandell, Lorrie M; Hu, John C; O'Hara, Joanne M; Brey, Robert N; Mantis, Nicholas J; Connell, Terry D

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there is a shortage of adjuvants that can be employed with protein subunit vaccines to enhance protection against biological threats. LT-IIb(T13I) is an engineered nontoxic derivative of LT-IIb, a member of the type II subfamily of heat labile enterotoxins expressed by Escherichia coli, that possesses potent mucosal adjuvant properties. In this study we evaluated the capacity of LT-IIb(T13I) to augment the potency of RiVax, a recombinant ricin toxin A subunit vaccine, when co-administered to mice via the intradermal (i.d.) and intranasal (i.n.) routes. We report that co-administration of RiVax with LT-IIb(T13I) by the i.d. route enhanced the levels of RiVax-specific serum IgG antibodies (Ab) and elevated the ratio of ricin-neutralizing to non-neutralizing Ab, as compared to RiVax alone. Protection against a lethal ricin challenge was also augmented by LT-IIb(T13I). While local inflammatory responses elicited by LT-IIb(T13I) were comparable to those elicited by aluminum salts (Imject®), LT-IIb(T13I) was more effective than aluminum salts at augmenting production of RiVax-specific serum IgG. Finally, i.n. administration of RiVax with LT-IIb(T13I) also increased levels of RiVax-specific serum and mucosal Ab and enhanced protection against ricin challenge. Collectively, these data highlight the potential of LT-IIb(T13I) as an effective next-generation i.d., or possibly i.n. adjuvant for enhancing the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines for biodefense. PMID:23936344

  4. Influence of heat-labile serum components in the presence of OmpA on the outer membrane of Salmonella gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Vega-Manriquez, X; Huerta-Ascencio, L; Martínez-Gómez, D; López-Vidal, Y; Verdugo-Rodríguez, A

    2016-03-01

    Salmonella gallinarum is the causative agent of fowl typhoid. Being a Gram-negative bacteria, its outer membrane proteins (OMP) can be regulated by different microenvironments. S. gallinarum was cultured under the following conditions: nutrient broth (NB), NB supplemented with serum from specific pathogen-free birds (NBS) and NB with serum incubated at 56 °C prior to incubation with the bacteria (NBSD); OMP were subsequently extracted. Several changes were observed in the apparent expression of OMP, mainly a decrease in an OMP with a size of 30 kDa, approximately, under the NBS condition. In contrast, the same event was not observed in NB and NBSD when using one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE). Using the OMP with a size of 30 kDa, approximately, as antigen in indirect ELISA, we were able to differentiate serum from healthy and vaccinated birds, as well as birds infected with S. gallinarum and S. enteritidis. The amino-terminal of this protein was sequenced, showing 100 % identity with OmpA of S. typhimurium. Subsequently, we designed primers to amplify the gene by PCR. The partial sequence of the amplified gene showed 100 % identity with OmpA of S. gallinarum. (1) Heat-labile serum components influence the presence of OmpA in the OM of S. gallinarum; (2) by the way of ELISA, OmpA allows to specifically differentiate healthy from diseased birds. PMID:26597854

  5. Intranasal immunization with live recombinant Lactococcus lactis combined with heat-labile toxin B subunit protects chickens from highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus.

    PubMed

    Lei, Han; Peng, Xiaojue; Shu, Handing; Zhao, Daxian

    2015-01-01

    Development of safe and effective vaccines to prevent highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus infection is a challenging goal. Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) is an ideal delivery vector for vaccine development, and it has been shown previously that oral immunization of encapsulated secretory L. lactis-hemagglutinin (HA) could provide complete protection against homologous H5N1 virus challenge in the mice model. While intranasal immunization is an appealing approach, it is now reported that secretory L. lactis-HA combined with mucosal adjuvant heat-labile toxin B subunit (LTB) could provide protective immunity in the chicken model. As compared to intranasal immunization with L. lactis-HA alone, L. lactis-HA combined with LTB (L. lactis-HA + LTB) could elicit robust neutralizing antibody responses and mucosal IgA responses, as well as strong cellular immune responses in the vaccinated chickens. Importantly, intranasal immunization with L. lactis-HA + LTB could provide 100% protection against H5N1 virus challenge. Taken together, these results suggest that intranasal immunization with L. lactis-HA + LTB can be considered as an effective approach for preventing and controlling infection of H5N1 virus in poultry during an avian influenza A/H5N1 pandemic. PMID:24861477

  6. Analysis of heat-labile sites generated by reactions of depleted uranium and ascorbate in plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Janice; Young, Ashley; Civitello, Edgar R; Stearns, Diane M

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize how depleted uranium (DU) causes DNA damage. Procedures were developed to assess the ability of organic and inorganic DNA adducts to convert to single-strand breaks (SSB) in pBR322 plasmid DNA in the presence of heat or piperidine. DNA adducts formed by methyl methanesulfonate, cisplatin, and chromic chloride were compared with those formed by reaction of uranyl acetate and ascorbate. Uranyl ion in the presence of ascorbate produced U-DNA adducts that converted to SSB on heating. Piperidine, which acted on DNA methylated by methyl methanesulfonate to convert methyl-DNA adducts to SSB, served in the opposite fashion as U-DNA adducts by decreasing the level of SSB. The observation that piperidine also decreased the gel shift for metal-DNA adducts formed by monofunctional cisplatin and chromic chloride was interpreted to suggest that piperidine served to remove U-DNA adducts. Radical scavengers did not affect the formation of uranium-induced SSB, suggesting that SSB arose from the presence of U-DNA adducts and not from the presence of free radicals. A model is proposed to predict how U-DNA adducts may serve as initial lesions that convert to SSB or AP sites. The results suggest that DU can act as a chemical genotoxin that does not require radiation for its mode of action. Characterizing the DNA lesions formed by DU is necessary to assess the relative importance of different DNA lesions in the formation of DU-induced mutations. Understanding the mechanisms of formation of DU-induced mutations may contribute to identification of biomarkers of DU exposure in humans. PMID:24218036

  7. Analysis of Heat-Labile Sites Generated by Reactions of Depleted Uranium and Ascorbate in Plasmid DNA

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Janice; Young, Ashley; Civitello, Edgar R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize how depleted uranium (DU) causes DNA damage. Procedures were developed to assess the ability of organic and inorganic DNA adducts to convert to single strand breaks (SSB) in pBR322 plasmid DNA in the presence of heat or piperidine. DNA adducts formed by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), cis-platin (cis-Pt), and chromic chloride were compared to those formed by reaction of uranyl acetate (UA) and ascorbate (Asc). Uranyl ion in the presence of Asc produced U-DNA adducts that converted to SSB upon heating. Piperidine, which acted on DNA methylated by MMS to convert methyl-DNA adducts to SSB, served in the opposite fashion with U-DNA adducts by decreasing SSB. The observation that piperidine also decreased the gel shift for metal-DNA adducts formed by monofunctional cis-Pt and chromic chloride was interpreted to suggest that piperidine served to remove U-DNA adducts. Radical scavengers did not affect formation of U-induced SSB, suggesting that SSB arose from the presence of U-DNA adducts and not from free radicals. A model is proposed to predict how U-DNA adducts may serve as initial lesions that convert to SSB or AP sites. Results suggest that DU can act as a chemical genotoxin that does not require radiation for its mode of action. Characterizing the DNA lesions formed by DU is necessary to assess the relative importance of different DNA lesions in the formation of DU-induced mutations. Understanding mechanisms of formation of DU-induced mutations may contribute to identification of biomarkers of DU exposures in humans. PMID:24218036

  8. Influence of cyclopropane fatty acids on heat, high pressure, acid and oxidative resistance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan Yao; Gänzle, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    Heat and high pressure resistant strains of Escherichia coli are a challenge to food safety. This study investigated effects of cyclopropane fatty acids (CFAs) on stress tolerance in the heat- and pressure-resistant strain E. coli AW1.7 and the sensitive strain E. coli MG1655. The role of CFAs was explored by disruption of cfa coding for CFA synthase with an in-frame, unmarked deletion method. Both wild-type strains consumed all the unsaturated fatty acids (C16:1 and C18:1) that were mostly converted to CFAs and a low proportion to saturated fatty acid (C16:0). Moreover, E. coli AW1.7 contained a higher proportion of membrane C19:0 cyclopropane fatty acid than E. coli MG1655 (P<0.05). The Δcfa mutant strains did not produce CFAs, and the corresponding substrates C16:1 and C18:1 accumulated in membrane lipids. The deletion of cfa did not alter resistance to H2O2 but increased the lethality of heat, high pressure and acid treatments in E. coli AW1.7, and E. coli MG1655. E. coli AW1.7 and its Δcfa mutant were more resistant to pressure and heat but less resistant to acid stress than E. coli MG1655. Heat resistance of wild-type strains and their Δcfa mutant was also assessed in beef patties grilled to an internal temperature of 71 °C. After treatment, cell counts of wild type strains were higher than those of the Δcfa mutant strains. In conclusion, CFA synthesis in E. coli increases heat, high pressure and acid resistance, and increases heat resistance in food. This knowledge on mechanisms of stress resistance will facilitate the design of intervention methods for improved pathogen control in food production. PMID:26828814

  9. Heat-treated Escherichia coli as a high-capacity biosorbent for tungsten anions.

    PubMed

    Ogi, Takashi; Makino, Takahiko; Iskandar, Ferry; Tanabe, Eishi; Okuyama, Kikuo

    2016-10-01

    Adsorption performance in the biosorption of tungsten using Escherichia coli cells can be significantly improved by using cell suspensions that have been heat-treated at ⩽100°C. In the case of E. coli cells suspension heated at 100°C, the aqueous tungsten ions concentration rapidly decreased from 0.8mmol/L to practically zero within 1h. This biosorption time is much shorter than that of non-heat treated E. coli cells (7h). Furthermore, the adsorption saturation amount for cells heat-treated at 100°C was significantly increased up to 1.62mmol-W/g-E. coli compared to the unheated E. coli cells case (0.62mmol-W/g-E. coli). Determination of the surface potential and surface structure along with quantitative analyses of free amino acids of heat-treated E. coli cells were also carried out and revealed that heated cells have a high zeta potential and express a higher concentration of amino acids on the cell surface. PMID:27359063

  10. Damage to Escherichia coli on exposure to moist heat.

    PubMed

    Russell, A D; Harries, D

    1968-09-01

    The effects of temperatures of 50 to 60 C on suspensions of a strain of Escherichia coli are described. At these temperatures, the substances which leaked from the cells were determined as pentoses; the amount leaked over a 30-min period increased with increasing temperature. The leakage materials from suspensions heated in water, sodium chloride, sucrose, and sucrose plus Mg(++) were examined spectrophotometrically, and the ratios of the absorbances at 280 and 260 nm (the 280 to 260 nm ratio) were determined. It was not possible to determine protein by this method, as the ratio was always <0.7. When saline was the suspending medium, the ratio was lower than when water was used, and there was a greater leakage of 260 nm absorbing material. When suspended in sucrose or in sucrose plus Mg(++), penicillin-induced spheroplasts did not undergo lysis, but became less regular in shape, and there was an increase in the extinction at 500 nm. The overall effects of high temperatures on nonsporeforming bacterial cells are discussed; in view of the available evidence, it is concluded that ribonucleic acid degradation is an event which is probably closely related to thermally induced bacterial death. PMID:4877664

  11. The catalytic A1 domains of cholera toxin and heat-labile enterotoxin are potent DNA adjuvants that evoke mixed Th1/Th17 cellular immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Kenneth; Xu, Rong; Ota-Setlik, Ayuko; Egan, Michael; Schwartz, Jennifer; Fouts, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    DNA encoded adjuvants are well known for increasing the magnitude of cellular and/or humoral immune responses directed against vaccine antigens. DNA adjuvants can also tune immune responses directed against vaccine antigens to better protect against infection of the target organism. Two potent DNA adjuvants that have unique abilities to tune immune responses are the catalytic A1 domains of Cholera Toxin (CTA1) and Heat-Labile Enterotoxin (LTA1). Here, we have characterized the adjuvant activities of CTA1 and LTA1 using HIV and SIV genes as model antigens. Both of these adjuvants enhanced the magnitude of antigen-specific cellular immune responses on par with those induced by the well-characterized cytokine adjuvants IL-12 and GM-CSF. CTA1 and LTA1 preferentially enhanced cellular responses to the intracellular antigen SIVmac239-gag over those for the secreted HIVBaL-gp120 antigen. IL-12, GM-CSF and electroporation did the opposite suggesting differences in the mechanisms of actions of these diverse adjuvants. Combinations of CTA1 or LTA1 with IL-12 or GM-CSF generated additive and better balanced cellular responses to both of these antigens. Consistent with observations made with the holotoxin and the CTA1-DD adjuvant, CTA1 and LTA1 evoked mixed Th1/Th17 cellular immune responses. Together, these results show that CTA1 and LTA1 are potent DNA vaccine adjuvants that favor the intracellular antigen gag over the secreted antigen gp120 and evoke mixed Th1/Th17 responses against both of these antigens. The results also indicate that achieving a balanced immune response to multiple intracellular and extracellular antigens delivered via DNA vaccination may require combining adjuvants that have different and complementary mechanisms of action. PMID:26042527

  12. The catalytic A1 domains of cholera toxin and heat-labile enterotoxin are potent DNA adjuvants that evoke mixed Th1/Th17 cellular immune responses.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Kenneth; Xu, Rong; Ota-Setlik, Ayuko; Egan, Michael; Schwartz, Jennifer; Fouts, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    DNA encoded adjuvants are well known for increasing the magnitude of cellular and/or humoral immune responses directed against vaccine antigens. DNA adjuvants can also tune immune responses directed against vaccine antigens to better protect against infection of the target organism. Two potent DNA adjuvants that have unique abilities to tune immune responses are the catalytic A1 domains of Cholera Toxin (CTA1) and Heat-Labile Enterotoxin (LTA1). Here, we have characterized the adjuvant activities of CTA1 and LTA1 using HIV and SIV genes as model antigens. Both of these adjuvants enhanced the magnitude of antigen-specific cellular immune responses on par with those induced by the well-characterized cytokine adjuvants IL-12 and GM-CSF. CTA1 and LTA1 preferentially enhanced cellular responses to the intracellular antigen SIVmac239-gag over those for the secreted HIVBaL-gp120 antigen. IL-12, GM-CSF and electroporation did the opposite suggesting differences in the mechanisms of actions of these diverse adjuvants. Combinations of CTA1 or LTA1 with IL-12 or GM-CSF generated additive and better balanced cellular responses to both of these antigens. Consistent with observations made with the holotoxin and the CTA1-DD adjuvant, CTA1 and LTA1 evoked mixed Th1/Th17 cellular immune responses. Together, these results show that CTA1 and LTA1 are potent DNA vaccine adjuvants that favor the intracellular antigen gag over the secreted antigen gp120 and evoke mixed Th1/Th17 responses against both of these antigens. The results also indicate that achieving a balanced immune response to multiple intracellular and extracellular antigens delivered via DNA vaccination may require combining adjuvants that have different and complementary mechanisms of action. PMID:26042527

  13. High Heating Rates Affect Greatly the Inactivation Rate of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Huertas, Juan-Pablo; Aznar, Arantxa; Esnoz, Arturo; Fernández, Pablo S.; Iguaz, Asunción; Periago, Paula M.; Palop, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Heat resistance of microorganisms can be affected by different influencing factors. Although, the effect of heating rates has been scarcely explored by the scientific community, recent researches have unraveled its important effect on the thermal resistance of different species of vegetative bacteria. Typically heating rates described in the literature ranged from 1 to 20°C/min but the impact of much higher heating rates is unclear. The aim of this research was to explore the effect of different heating rates, such as those currently achieved in the heat exchangers used in the food industry, on the heat resistance of Escherichia coli. A pilot plant tubular heat exchanger and a thermoresistometer Mastia were used for this purpose. Results showed that fast heating rates had a deep impact on the thermal resistance of E. coli. Heating rates between 20 and 50°C/min were achieved in the heat exchanger, which were much slower than those around 20°C/s achieved in the thermoresistometer. In all cases, these high heating rates led to higher inactivation than expected: in the heat exchanger, for all the experiments performed, when the observed inactivation had reached about seven log cycles, the predictions estimated about 1 log cycle of inactivation; in the thermoresistometer these differences between observed and predicted values were even more than 10 times higher, from 4.07 log cycles observed to 0.34 predicted at a flow rate of 70 mL/min and a maximum heating rate of 14.7°C/s. A quantification of the impact of the heating rates on the level of inactivation achieved was established. These results point out the important effect that the heating rate has on the thermal resistance of E. coli, with high heating rates resulting in an additional sensitization to heat and therefore an effective food safety strategy in terms of food processing. PMID:27563300

  14. High Heating Rates Affect Greatly the Inactivation Rate of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Huertas, Juan-Pablo; Aznar, Arantxa; Esnoz, Arturo; Fernández, Pablo S; Iguaz, Asunción; Periago, Paula M; Palop, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Heat resistance of microorganisms can be affected by different influencing factors. Although, the effect of heating rates has been scarcely explored by the scientific community, recent researches have unraveled its important effect on the thermal resistance of different species of vegetative bacteria. Typically heating rates described in the literature ranged from 1 to 20°C/min but the impact of much higher heating rates is unclear. The aim of this research was to explore the effect of different heating rates, such as those currently achieved in the heat exchangers used in the food industry, on the heat resistance of Escherichia coli. A pilot plant tubular heat exchanger and a thermoresistometer Mastia were used for this purpose. Results showed that fast heating rates had a deep impact on the thermal resistance of E. coli. Heating rates between 20 and 50°C/min were achieved in the heat exchanger, which were much slower than those around 20°C/s achieved in the thermoresistometer. In all cases, these high heating rates led to higher inactivation than expected: in the heat exchanger, for all the experiments performed, when the observed inactivation had reached about seven log cycles, the predictions estimated about 1 log cycle of inactivation; in the thermoresistometer these differences between observed and predicted values were even more than 10 times higher, from 4.07 log cycles observed to 0.34 predicted at a flow rate of 70 mL/min and a maximum heating rate of 14.7°C/s. A quantification of the impact of the heating rates on the level of inactivation achieved was established. These results point out the important effect that the heating rate has on the thermal resistance of E. coli, with high heating rates resulting in an additional sensitization to heat and therefore an effective food safety strategy in terms of food processing. PMID:27563300

  15. Impacts of Individual Animal Response to Heat and Handling Stresses on Escherichia coli and E. coli O157:H7 Fecal Shedding by Feedlot Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reduction of foodborne pathogens in cattle destined for human consumption will require knowledge of the factors that impact the carriage and shedding of these organisms. The effects of heat and handling stress levels on the fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and generic E. coli by feedl...

  16. Nonnative Disulfide Bond Formation Activates the σ32-Dependent Heat Shock Response in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Alexandra; Hoffmann, Jörg H.; Meyer, Helmut E.; Narberhaus, Franz; Jakob, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Formation of nonnative disulfide bonds in the cytoplasm, so-called disulfide stress, is an integral component of oxidative stress. Quantification of the extent of disulfide bond formation in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli revealed that disulfide stress is associated with oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide, paraquat, and cadmium. To separate the impact of disulfide bond formation from unrelated effects of these oxidative stressors in subsequent experiments, we worked with two complementary approaches. We triggered disulfide stress either chemically by diamide treatment of cells or genetically in a mutant strain lacking the major disulfide-reducing systems TrxB and Gor. Studying the proteomic response of E. coli exposed to disulfide stress, we found that intracellular disulfide bond formation is a particularly strong inducer of the heat shock response. Real-time quantitative PCR experiments showed that disulfide stress induces the heat shock response in E. coli σ32 dependently. However, unlike heat shock treatment, which induces these genes transiently, transcripts of σ32-dependent genes accumulated over time in disulfide stress-treated cells. Analyzing the stability of σ32, we found that this constant induction can be attributed to an increase of the half-life of σ32 upon disulfide stress. This is concomitant with aggregation of E. coli proteins treated with diamide. We conclude that oxidative stress triggers the heat shock response in E. coli σ32 dependently. The component of oxidative stress responsible for the induction of heat shock genes is disulfide stress. Nonnative disulfide bond formation in the cytoplasm causes protein unfolding. This stabilizes σ32 by preventing its DnaK- and FtsH-dependent degradation. PMID:23585533

  17. Characterization of twenty-six new heat shock genes of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, S E; Blattner, F R

    1993-01-01

    Most organisms respond to heat by substantial alteration of the pattern of gene expression. This has been particularly well studied with Escherichia coli although the response has by no means been completely characterized. Here we report the characterization of 26 new heat shock genes of E. coli, termed hsl, discovered by global transcription analysis with an overlapping lambda clone bank. We have measured the molecular weights of the corresponding heat shock proteins and mapped each of them to within a few kilobases on the E. coli genome. In vitro, 16 of them can be activated by the E sigma 32 RNA polymerase, which specifically transcribes heat shock genes. In vivo expression kinetics of seven of eight examined new proteins were found to be similar to those of the four most studied heat shock proteins, DnaK, DnaJ, GroEL (MopA), and GroES (MopB). In the course of this work, we confirmed that the catalytic subunit of the ATP-dependent Clp protease (also known as Ti protease), ClpP, is derived from a larger precursor protein. Possible assignments of some of the hsl genes to known proteins are discussed. Images PMID:8349564

  18. Role of Heat-Stable Enterotoxins in the Induction of Early Immune Responses in Piglets after Infection with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Schauvliege, Stijn; Gasthuys, Frank; van der Meulen, Jan; Dubreuil, J. Daniel; Goddeeris, Bruno M.; Niewold, Theo; Cox, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains that produce heat-stable (ST) and/or heat - labile (LT) enterotoxins are cause of post – weaning diarrhea in piglets. However, the relative importance of the different enterotoxins in host immune responses against ETEC infection has been poorly defined. In the present study, several isogenic mutant strains of an O149:F4ac+, LT+ STa+ STb+ ETEC strain were constructed that lack the expression of LT in combination with one or both types of ST enterotoxins (STa and/or STb). The small intestinal segment perfusion (SISP) technique and microarray analysis were used to study host early immune responses induced by these mutant strains 4 h after infection in comparison to the wild type strain and a PBS control. Simultaneously, net fluid absorption of pig small intestinal mucosa was measured 4 h after infection, allowing us to correlate enterotoxin secretion with gene regulation. Microarray analysis showed on the one hand a non-toxin related general antibacterial response comprising genes such as PAP, MMP1 and IL8. On the other hand, results suggest a dominant role for STb in small intestinal secretion early after post-weaning infection, as well as in the induced innate immune response through differential regulation of immune mediators like interleukin 1 and interleukin 17. PMID:22815904

  19. Biofouling on polymeric heat exchanger surfaces with E. coli and native biofilms.

    PubMed

    Pohl, S; Madzgalla, M; Manz, W; Bart, H J

    2015-01-01

    The biofouling affinity of different polymeric surfaces (polypropylene, polysulfone, polyethylene terephthalate, and polyether ether ketone) in comparison to stainless steel (SS) was studied for the model bacterium Escherichia coli K12 DSM 498 and native biofilms originating from Rhine water. The biofilm mass deposited on the polymer surfaces was minimized by several magnitudes compared to SS. The cell count and the accumulated biomass of E. coli on the polymer surfaces showed an opposing linear trend. The promising low biofilm formation on the polymers is attributed to the combination of inherent surface properties (roughness, surface energy and hydrophobicity) when compared to SS. The fouling characteristics of E. coli biofilms show good conformity with the more complex native biofilms investigated. The results can be utilized for the development of new polymer heat exchangers when using untreated river water as coolant or for other processes needing antifouling materials. PMID:26479780

  20. Stability of the Encoding Plasmids and Surface Expression of CS6 Differs in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Encoding Different Heat-Stable (ST) Enterotoxins (STh and STp).

    PubMed

    Tobias, Joshua; Von Mentzer, Astrid; Loayza Frykberg, Patricia; Aslett, Martin; Page, Andrew J; Sjöling, Åsa; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), one of the most common reasons of diarrhea among infants and children in developing countries, causes disease by expression of either or both of the enterotoxins heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST; divided into human-type [STh] and porcine-type [STp] variants), and colonization factors (CFs) among which CS6 is one of the most prevalent ETEC CFs. In this study we show that ETEC isolates expressing CS6+STh have higher copy numbers of the cssABCD operon encoding CS6 than those expressing CS6+STp. Long term cultivation of up to ten over-night passages of ETEC isolates harboring CS6+STh (n = 10) or CS6+STp (n = 15) showed instability of phenotypic expression of CS6 in a majority of the CS6+STp isolates, whereas most of the CS6+STh isolates retained CS6 expression. The observed instability was a correlated with loss of genes cssA and cssD as examined by PCR. Mobilization of the CS6 plasmid from an unstable CS6+STp isolate into a laboratory E. coli strain resulted in loss of the plasmid after a single over-night passage whereas the plasmid from an CS6+STh strain was retained in the laboratory strain during 10 passages. A sequence comparison between the CS6 plasmids from a stable and an unstable ETEC isolate revealed that genes necessary for plasmid stabilization, for example pemI, pemK, stbA, stbB and parM, were not present in the unstable ETEC isolate. Our results indicate that stable retention of CS6 may in part be affected by the stability of the plasmid on which both CS6 and STp or STh are located. PMID:27054573

  1. Stability of the Encoding Plasmids and Surface Expression of CS6 Differs in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Encoding Different Heat-Stable (ST) Enterotoxins (STh and STp)

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Joshua; Von Mentzer, Astrid; Loayza Frykberg, Patricia; Aslett, Martin; Page, Andrew J.; Sjöling, Åsa; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), one of the most common reasons of diarrhea among infants and children in developing countries, causes disease by expression of either or both of the enterotoxins heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST; divided into human-type [STh] and porcine-type [STp] variants), and colonization factors (CFs) among which CS6 is one of the most prevalent ETEC CFs. In this study we show that ETEC isolates expressing CS6+STh have higher copy numbers of the cssABCD operon encoding CS6 than those expressing CS6+STp. Long term cultivation of up to ten over-night passages of ETEC isolates harboring CS6+STh (n = 10) or CS6+STp (n = 15) showed instability of phenotypic expression of CS6 in a majority of the CS6+STp isolates, whereas most of the CS6+STh isolates retained CS6 expression. The observed instability was a correlated with loss of genes cssA and cssD as examined by PCR. Mobilization of the CS6 plasmid from an unstable CS6+STp isolate into a laboratory E. coli strain resulted in loss of the plasmid after a single over-night passage whereas the plasmid from an CS6+STh strain was retained in the laboratory strain during 10 passages. A sequence comparison between the CS6 plasmids from a stable and an unstable ETEC isolate revealed that genes necessary for plasmid stabilization, for example pemI, pemK, stbA, stbB and parM, were not present in the unstable ETEC isolate. Our results indicate that stable retention of CS6 may in part be affected by the stability of the plasmid on which both CS6 and STp or STh are located. PMID:27054573

  2. Uptake of non-pathogenic E. coli by Arabidopsis induces downregulation of heat shock proteins

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Susanne; Lonhienne, Thierry GA

    2010-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that non-pathogenic and non-symbiotic microbes E. coli and yeast are taken up by roots and used as a source of nutrients by the plant. Although this process appears to be beneficial for the plant, the nutritional gain of microbe incorporation has to exceed the energy expense of microbe uptake and digestion, and the question remains whether the presence of microbes triggers pathogen- and other stress-induced responses. Here, we present evidence that digesting microbes is accompanied by strong downregulation of genes linked to stress response in Arabidopsis. Genome-wide transcription analysis shows that uptake of E. coli by Arabidopsis roots is accompanied by a pronounced downregulation of heat shock proteins. Plants upregulate heat shock proteins in response to environmental stresses including temperature, salt, light and disease agents including microbial pathogens. The pronounced downregulation of heat shock proteins in the presence of E. coli indicates that uptake and subsequent digestion of microbes does not induce stress. Additionally it suggests that resources devoted to stress resistance in control plants may be re-allocated to the process of microbe uptake and digestion. This observation adds evidences to the notion that uptake of microbes is an active, purposeful and intentional behavior of the plant. PMID:21139429

  3. Synergistic effect of nisin and heat treatment on the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-In; Lee, Hu-Jang; Lee, Mun-Han

    2002-02-01

    A combination of nisin and heat treatment was found to inhibit Escherichia coli O157:H7 effectively. After organisms were heated at 50, 52.5, and 55 degrees C for 5, 10, and 15 min, respectively, nisin was incorporated into the plates of E. coli O157:H7 at 0, 25, 50, and 100 IU/ml. The concentration of 100 IU/ml nisin significantly inhibited the growth of E. coli O157:H7 heated at 50 and 52.5 degrees C for 15 min. Nisin treatment at 100 IU/ml for 6 h resulted in the elimination of E. coli O157:H7 heated at 55 degrees C for 10 and 15 min. PMID:11848575

  4. Effects of acid adaptation, product pH, and heating on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in pepperoni.

    PubMed

    Riordan, D C; Duffy, G; Sheridan, J J; Whiting, R C; Blair, I S; McDowell, D A

    2000-04-01

    The thermotolerance of E. coli O157:H7 cells (strain 380-94) heated in pepperoni is reported. Information on the pattern of thermal inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in pepperoni was applied in the development of heating processes designed to reduce E. coli O157:H7 numbers therein by 5 log(10) units. PMID:10742270

  5. Effects of Acid Adaptation, Product pH, and Heating on Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Pepperoni

    PubMed Central

    R. Riordan, Denise C.; Duffy, Geraldine; Sheridan, James J.; Whiting, Richard C.; Blair, Ian S.; McDowell, David A.

    2000-01-01

    The thermotolerance of E. coli O157:H7 cells (strain 380-94) heated in pepperoni is reported. Information on the pattern of thermal inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in pepperoni was applied in the development of heating processes designed to reduce E. coli O157:H7 numbers therein by 5 log10 units. PMID:10742270

  6. Competitive exclusion of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) from human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells by heat-killed Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    Chauvière, G; Coconnier, M H; Kerneis, S; Darfeuille-Michaud, A; Joly, B; Servin, A L

    1992-03-15

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) bearing CFA/I or CFA/II adhesive factors specifically adhere onto the brush border of the polarized epithelial human intestinal Caco-2 cells in culture. Heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB, that adheres onto Caco-2 cells, inhibits diarrheagenic Escherichia coli adhesion in a concentration-dependent manner. Since the L. acidophilus does not express ETEC-CFA adhesive factors, it can be postulated that the heat-killed L. acidophilus LB cells inhibit diarrheagenic E. coli attachment by steric hindrance of the human enterocytic ETEC receptors. PMID:1624102

  7. Biologically Synthesized Gold Nanoparticles Ameliorate Cold and Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Shen, Wei; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2016-01-01

    Due to their unique physical, chemical, and optical properties, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have recently attracted much interest in the field of nanomedicine, especially in the areas of cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy. Because of the enormous potential of these nanoparticles, various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted for their synthesis. Synthetic antioxidants are dangerous to human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with effective antioxidative properties is essential. Although AuNPs have been studied for use in various biological applications, exploration of AuNPs as antioxidants capable of inhibiting oxidative stress induced by heat and cold stress is still warranted. Therefore, one goal of our study was to produce biocompatible AuNPs using biological methods that are simple, nontoxic, biocompatible, and environmentally friendly. Next, we aimed to assess the antioxidative effect of AuNPs against oxidative stress induced by cold and heat in Escherichia coli, which is a suitable model for stress responses involving AuNPs. The response of aerobically grown E. coli cells to cold and heat stress was found to be similar to the oxidative stress response. Upon exposure to cold and heat stress, the viability and metabolic activity of E. coli was significantly reduced compared to the control. In addition, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and leakage of proteins and sugars were significantly elevated, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) significantly lowered compared to in the control. Concomitantly, AuNPs ameliorated cold and heat-induced oxidative stress responses by increasing the expression of antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), super oxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). These consistent physiology and biochemical data suggest that AuNPs can ameliorate cold and heat stress

  8. The different ecological niches of enterotoxigenic E scherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales‐Siles, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Enterotoxigenic E scherichia coli (ETEC) is a water and food‐borne pathogen that infects the small intestine of the human gut and causes diarrhoea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli adheres to the epithelium by means of colonization factors and secretes two enterotoxins, the heat labile toxin and/or the heat stable toxin that both deregulate ion channels and cause secretory diarrhoea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli as all E. coli, is a versatile organism able to survive and grow in different environments. During transmission and infection, ETEC is exposed to various environmental cues that have an impact on survivability and virulence. The ability to cope with exposure to different stressful habitats is probably shaping the pool of virulent ETEC strains that cause both endemic and epidemic infections. This review will focus on the ecology of ETEC in its different habitats and interactions with other organisms as well as abiotic factors. PMID:26522129

  9. The different ecological niches of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Siles, Lucia; Sjöling, Åsa

    2016-03-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a water and food-borne pathogen that infects the small intestine of the human gut and causes diarrhoea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli adheres to the epithelium by means of colonization factors and secretes two enterotoxins, the heat labile toxin and/or the heat stable toxin that both deregulate ion channels and cause secretory diarrhoea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli as all E. coli, is a versatile organism able to survive and grow in different environments. During transmission and infection, ETEC is exposed to various environmental cues that have an impact on survivability and virulence. The ability to cope with exposure to different stressful habitats is probably shaping the pool of virulent ETEC strains that cause both endemic and epidemic infections. This review will focus on the ecology of ETEC in its different habitats and interactions with other organisms as well as abiotic factors. PMID:26522129

  10. Wet heat inactivation of lipopolysaccharide from E. coli serotype 055:B5.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Shinji; Takai, Masaki; Maki, Takehiko

    2002-01-01

    Wet heat inactivation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli Serotype 055:B5 was investigated. The LPS solutions were heated at study temperatures ranging from 78 degrees C to 175 degrees C, and were assayed using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test. Plots of the log of the amount of endotoxin remaining versus heating time showed biphasic decreases. The initial slopes are associated with a faster rate of decrease to about a 0.5-log unit reduction, and were followed by a slower, linear rate of decline in the secondary slopes. The curves were applied to the biexponential model expressed by the equation (Et = E1e-klt + E2e-k2t). The LPS inactivation rates (k1 and k2) each conformed to their own Arrhenius equation. Therefore, the processes required to achieve the desired level of LPS inactivation can be obtained by mathematical means. PMID:12181806

  11. Heat inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice exposed to chlorine.

    PubMed

    Folsom, J P; Frank, J F

    2000-08-01

    Exposure of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to chlorine before heat treatment results in increased production of heat shock proteins. Current heating regimens for pasteurizing apple cider do not account for chlorine exposure in the wash water. This research determined the effect of sublethal chlorine treatment on thermal inactivation of E. coli O157:H7. D58-values were calculated for stationary-phase cells exposed to 0.6 mg/liter of total available chlorine and unchlorinated cells in commercial shelf-stable apple juice (pH 3.6). D58-values for unchlorinated and chlorine-exposed cells in buffer were 5.45 and 1.65 min, respectively (P < 0.01). Death curves of chlorine-exposed and unchlorinated cells in apple juice were not completely linear. Unchlorinated cells heated in apple juice exhibit a 3-min delay before onset of linear inactivation. Chlorine treatment eliminated this shoulder, indicating an overall loss of thermotolerance. The linear portion of each curve represented a small fraction of the total population. D58-values calculated from these populations are 0.77 min for unexposed cells and 1.19 min for chlorine-exposed cells (P = 0.05). This indicates that a subpopulation of chorine-treated cells is possibly more resistant to heat because of chlorine treatment. The effect of chlorine treatment, however, is insignificant when compared with the effect of losing the shoulder. This is illustrated by the time required to kill the initial 90% of the cell population. This is observed to be 3.14 min for unchlorinated versus 0.3 min for chlorine-exposed cells (P < 0.001). These observations indicate that current heat treatments need not be adjusted for the effect of chlorine treatment. PMID:10945574

  12. Immunodot detection of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin b by using enhanced chemiluminescence reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Lortie, L A; Harel, J; Fairbrother, J M; Dubreuil, J D

    1991-01-01

    An indirect immunodot assay with rabbit antibodies raised against purified heat-stable enterotoxin type b (STb) and with a Western blotting (immunoblotting) detection system (ECL; Amersham International plc, Amersham, United Kingdom) was developed for the detection of STb toxin. Culture supernatants of 62 Escherichia coli isolates from pigs with diarrhea were blotted onto nitrocellulose and incubated with anti-STb serum. The chemiluminescence produced by the action of horseradish peroxidase with luminol and H2O2 was recorded by exposure of X-ray film. Over 90% correlation was observed between the rat or pig intestinal ligated loop assay and a radioactive DNA probe and the ECL immunodot assay for the detection of STb. In addition, using this new and sensitive technique, we could detect STb in the feces of a newborn pig inoculated with an STb-producing E. coli strain. Detection of STb-producing E. coli in pigs with diarrhea will be greatly facilitated by the use of this convenient and rapid diagnostic assay. Images PMID:1939579

  13. Heat-resistant agglutinin 1 is an accessory enteroaggregative Escherichia coli colonization factor.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Samhita; Johnson, Brandon B; Hwang, Jennifer; Harris, Tamia A; George, Anu S; Muir, Amanda; Dorff, Justin; Okeke, Iruka N

    2009-08-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an important cause of acute and persistent diarrhea. The defining stacked brick adherence pattern of Peruvian EAEC isolate 042 has previously been attributed to aggregative adherence fimbriae II (AAF/II), which confer aggregative adherence on laboratory E. coli strains. EAEC strains also show exceptional autoaggregation and biofilm formation, other phenotypes that have hitherto been ascribed to AAF/II. We report that EAEC 042 carries the heat-resistant agglutinin (hra1) gene, also known as hek, which encodes an outer membrane protein. Like AAF/II, the cloned EAEC 042 hra1 gene product is sufficient to confer autoaggregation, biofilm formation, and aggregative adherence on nonadherent and nonpathogenic laboratory E. coli strains. However, an 042 hra1 deletion mutant is not deficient in these phenotypes compared to the wild type. EAEC strain 042 produces a classic honeycomb or stacked brick pattern of adherence to epithelial cells. Unlike wild-type 042, the hra1 mutant typically does not form a tidy stacked brick pattern on HEp-2 cells in culture, which is definitive for EAEC. Moreover, the hra1 mutant is significantly impaired in the Caenorhabditis elegans slow kill colonization model. Our data suggest that the exceptional colonization of strain 042 is due to multiple factors and that Hra1 is an accessory EAEC colonization factor. PMID:19482929

  14. Antigenicity and immunogenicity of fused B-subunit of heat labile toxin of Escherichia coli and colonization factor antigen I polyepitopes.

    PubMed

    Savar, Nastaran Sadat; Dashti, Amir; Darzi Eslam, Elham; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Jafari, Anis

    2014-11-01

    Linear B-cell epitopes ((93)AKEFEAAAL(101) and (66)PQLTDVLN(73)) of CfaB were genetically fused to ltb-(gly)5-cfaB(1-25). Sera of rabbits immunized with fusion proteins reacted strongly with solid-phase bound ETEC bacteria bearing CFA/I fimbriae. Sera failed to agglutinate or inhibit hemagglutination promoted by CFA/I-positive strain which may be due to solvent inaccessibility of epitope residues on intact fimbriae. PMID:25108290

  15. Solute Transport Proteins and the Outer Membrane Protein NmpC Contribute to Heat Resistance of Escherichia coli AW1.7▿

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Lifang; Pleitner, Aaron; Gänzle, Michael G.; McMullen, Lynn M.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate determinants of heat resistance in Escherichia coli by comparing the composition of membrane lipids, as well as gene expression, in heat-resistant E. coli AW1.7 and heat-sensitive E. coli GGG10 with or without heat shock. The survival of E. coli AW1.7 at late exponential phase was 100-fold higher than that of E. coli GGG10 after incubation at 60°C for 15 min. The cytoplasmic membrane of E. coli AW1.7 contained a higher proportion of saturated and cyclopropane fatty acids than that of E. coli GGG10. Microarray hybridization of cDNA libraries obtained from exponentially growing or heat-shocked cultures was performed to compare gene expression in these two strains. Expression of selected genes from different functional groups was quantified by quantitative PCR. DnaK and 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits were overexpressed in E. coli GGG10 relative to E. coli AW1.7 upon heat shock at 50°C, indicating improved ribosome stability. The outer membrane porin NmpC and several transport proteins were overexpressed in exponentially growing E. coli AW1.7. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of membrane properties confirmed that NmpC is present in the outer membrane of E. coli AW1.7 but not in that of E. coli GGG10. Expression of NmpC in E. coli GGG10 increased survival at 60°C 50- to 1,000-fold. In conclusion, the outer membrane porin NmpC contributes to heat resistance in E. coli AW1.7, but the heat resistance of this strain is dependent on additional factors, which likely include the composition of membrane lipids, as well as solute transport proteins. PMID:21398480

  16. Whole-Genome Transcriptional Analysis of Escherichia coli during Heat Inactivation Processes Related to Industrial Cooking

    PubMed Central

    Guernec, A.; Robichaud-Rincon, P.

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 was grown to the stationary phase, for maximum physiological resistance, in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth at 37°C. Cells were then heated at 58°C or 60°C to reach a process lethality value (Fo7010) of 2 or 3 or to a core temperature of 71°C (control industrial cooking temperature). Growth recovery and cell membrane integrity were evaluated immediately after heating, and a global transcription analysis was performed using gene expression microarrays. Only cells heated at 58°C with Fo = 2 were still able to grow on liquid or solid BHI broth after heat treatment. However, their transcriptome did not differ from that of bacteria heated at 58°C with Fo = 3 (P value for the false discovery rate [P-FDR] > 0.01), where no growth recovery was observed posttreatment. Genome-wide transcriptomic data obtained at 71°C were distinct from those of the other treatments without growth recovery. Quantification of heat shock gene expression by real-time PCR revealed that dnaK and groEL mRNA levels decreased significantly above 60°C to reach levels similar to those of control cells at 37°C (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, despite similar levels of cell inactivation measured by growth on BHI media after heating, 132 and 8 genes were differentially expressed at 71°C compared to 58°C and 60°C at Fo = 3, respectively (P-FDR < 0.01). Among them, genes such as aroA, citE, glyS, oppB, and asd, whose expression was upregulated at 71°C, may be worth investigating as good biomarkers for accurately determining the efficiency of heat treatments, especially when cells are too injured to be enumerated using growth media. PMID:23770902

  17. Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli mutants that lack the heat shock sigma factor sigma 32.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Y N; Kusukawa, N; Erickson, J W; Gross, C A; Yura, T

    1988-01-01

    The product of the Escherichia coli rpoH (htpR) gene, sigma 32, is required for heat-inducible transcription of the heat shock genes. Previous studies on the role of sigma 32 in growth at low temperature and in gene expression involved the use of nonsense and missense rpoH mutations and have led to ambiguous or conflicting results. To clarify the role of sigma 32 in cell physiology, we have constructed loss-of-function insertion and deletion mutations in rpoH. Strains lacking sigma 32 are extremely temperature sensitive and grow only at temperatures less than or equal to 20 degrees C. There is no transcription from the heat shock promoters preceding the htpG gene or the groESL and dnaKJ operons; however, several heat shock proteins are produced in the mutants. GroEL protein is present in the rpoH null mutants, but its synthesis is not inducible by a shift to high temperature. The low-level synthesis of GroEL results from transcription initiation at a minor sigma 70-controlled promoter for the groE operon. DnaK protein synthesis cannot be detected at low temperature, but can be detected after a shift to 42 degrees C. The mechanism of this heat-inducible synthesis is not known. We conclude that sigma 32 is required for cell growth at temperatures above 20 degrees C and is required for transcription from the heat shock promoters. Several heat shock proteins are synthesized in the absence of sigma 32, indicating that there are additional mechanisms controlling the synthesis of some heat shock proteins. Images PMID:2900239

  18. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: Orchestrated host engagement.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, James M; Munson, George M; Rasko, David A

    2013-01-01

    The enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are a pervasive cause of serious diarrheal illness in developing countries. Presently, there is no vaccine to prevent these infections, and many features of the basic pathogenesis of these organisms remain poorly understood. Until very recently most pathogenesis studies had focused almost exclusively on a small subset of known "classical" virulence genes, namely fimbrial colonization factors and the heat-labile (LT) and heat stable (ST) enterotoxins. However, recent investigations of pathogen-host interactions reveal a surprisingly complex and intricately orchestrated engagement involving the interplay of classical and "novel" virulence genes, as well as participation of genes highly conserved in the E. coli species. These studies may inform further rational approaches to vaccine development for these important pathogens. PMID:23892244

  19. Synergistic effect of heat and solar UV on DNA damage and water disinfection of E. coli and bacteriophage MS2.

    PubMed

    Theitler, Dana Jennifer; Nasser, Abid; Gerchman, Yoram; Kribus, Abraham; Mamane, Hadas

    2012-12-01

    The response of a representative virus and indicator bacteria to heating, solar irradiation, or their combination, was investigated in a controlled solar simulator and under real sun conditions. Heating showed higher inactivation of Escherichia coli compared to the bacteriophage MS2. Heating combined with natural or simulated solar irradiation demonstrated a synergistic effect on the inactivation of E. coli, with up to 3-log difference for 50 °C and natural sun insolation of 2,000 kJ m(-2) (compared to the sum of the separate treatments). Similar synergistic effect was also evident when solar-UV induced DNA damage to E. coli was assessed using the endonuclease sensitive site assay (ESS). MS2 was found to be highly resistant to irradiation and heat, with a slightly synergistic effect observed only at 59 °C and natural sun insolation of 5,580 kJ m(-2). Heat treatment also hindered light-dependent recovery of E. coli making the treatment much more effective. PMID:23165717

  20. Radiolabeled Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin analogs for in vivo imaging of colorectal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giblin, M. F.; Sieckman, G. L.; Owen, N. K.; Hoffman, T. J.; Forte, L. R.; Volkert, W. A.

    2005-12-01

    The human Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (STh, amino acid sequence N1SSNYCCELCCNPACTGCY19) binds specifically to the guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) receptor, which is present in high density on the apical surface of normal intestinal epithelial cells as well as on the surface of human colon cancer cells. In the current study, two STh analogs were synthesized and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Both analogs shared identical 6-19 core sequences, and had N-terminal pendant DOTA moieties. The analogs differed in the identity of a 6 amino acid peptide sequence intervening between DOTA and the 6-19 core. In one analog, the peptide was an RGD-containing sequence found in human fibronectin (GRGDSP), while in the other this peptide sequence was randomly scrambled (GRDSGP). The results indicated that the presence of the human fibronectin sequence in the hybrid peptide did not affect tumor localization in vivo.

  1. Effects of heat and other agents on amino acid uptake in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wainberg, R H; Watkins, D K; Stebler, B A; Cramp, W A; Yatvin, M B

    1990-01-01

    In Escherichia coli K1060 grown at 37 degrees C we observed that the uptake of both L-[3H]leucine and L-[35S]methionine was inhibited by exposure of the cells to 48 degrees C. The calcium channel blockers diltiazem and verapamil, and the anti-arrhythmic agent quinidine, inhibited the uptake of L-[3H]leucine at both 37 degrees C and 48 degrees C. Verapamil also inhibited the uptake of L-[35S]methionine at 37 degrees C, but at 48 degrees C protected against some of the heat-induced decrease in the uptake of this amino acid. The local anaesthetic procaine markedly inhibited the uptake of both labelled amino acids at temperatures between 37 degrees C and 48 degrees C. Amino acid uptake and cell killing were not correlated. PMID:2198313

  2. Association and dissociation of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin from rat brush border membrane receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.B.; Thompson, M.R.; Overmann, G.J.; Giannella, R.A.

    1987-02-01

    Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) binds to receptors on rat intestinal cells and brush border membranes (BBM). We devised experiments to examine the reversibility of ST binding. We found that both /sup 125/I-labeled ST and native ST were spontaneously dissociable from the BBM receptor. Radiolabeled ST bound to BBM was also dissociated by the addition of avid goat anti-ST antiserum. Furthermore, using a computer program for analysis of ligand binding, we calculated an apparent Ka of 10(8) liters/mol from competitive inhibition and saturation-binding data. This is significantly lower than the value previously reported by others. Our findings, of a lower Ka and a reversible ST-binding process, suggest that a therapeutic strategy of removing bound ST from its receptor or competing with the enterocyte receptor for unbound ST might be successful in terminating ST-induced secretion.

  3. Bactericidal Effect of Selected Antidiarrhoeal Medicinal Plants on Intracellular Heat-Stable Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Birdi, Tannaz J.; Brijesh, S.; Daswani, Poonam G.

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli continue to be a cause of global concern. Medicinal plants have been gaining popularity as promising antidiarrhoeal agents. In the present study, four antidiarrhoeal plants, viz. Aegle marmelos, Cyperus rotundus, Psidium guajava and Zingiber officinale were screened against a heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli strain. Decoctions of these plants were studied for their effect on intracellular killing of the bacterial strain using murine monocytic cell line, J774. [3H] thymidine release assay was used to evaluate the apoptotic/necrotic effect. All plants at concentrations <1% enhanced intracellular killing of the bacteria by J774 cells. However, at higher concentrations, the decoctions induced apoptosis in J774 cells. The study demonstrates that these plants could control diarrhoea caused by heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli through their immunomodulatory effect. PMID:25035535

  4. VIABILITY OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS, ESCHERICHIA COLI, AND LISTERIA MONOCYTOGNES SURVIVING MILD HEAT OR AQUEOUS OZONE TREATMENT ON BEEF FOLLOWED BY HEAT, ALKALI, OR SALT STRESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The threat of pathogen survival following ozone treatment of meat necessitates careful evaluation of the surviving microorganisms for tolerance to subsequent heat, pH, and NaCl stress. Log reductions in CFU/g of 3-strain cocktails of Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria m...

  5. Differences in pathogen colonization and mortality of genetically selected Japanese quail lines subjected to heat stress and Escherichia coli challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Japanese quail selected for divergent corticosterone response to restraint stress were evaluated for their resistance to heat stress and aerosol challenge with avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) to determine the impact of stress response on APEC pathogenesis and colonization with food-borne pa...

  6. Hemolytic activity in enterotoxigenic and non-enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    DeBoy, J M; Wachsmuth, I K; Davis, B R

    1980-01-01

    We screened 223 strains of Escherichia coli belonging to serotypes previously associated with the production of enterotoxin for hemolytic activity, using horse erythrocytes in liquid and in agar media. Thirty-eight were hemolytic. They belonged to nine different serotypes; most (65.8%) belonged to one serotype, O6: H-. Additionally, all 38 strains were specifically assayed for a filterable, heat-labile hemolytic activity previously associated with a hemolysin plasmid. A comparison of hemolytic activity and enterotoxicity showed that none of 32 strains hemolytic in both media was enterotoxigenic; 28 of the 32 expressed heat-labile hemolytic activity. Four of the six strains hemolytic in only one of the media were enterotoxigenic; none of these six expressed heat-labile hemolytic activity. Of 223 strains, 176 that were of human origin and isolated in the United States were further assayed for three traditionally plasmid-mediated characteristics: heat-labile enterotoxin, heat-stable enterotoxin, and colonization factors. The interrelationships of these characteristics, including hemolytic activity, may reflect varying degrees of plasmid compatibility. PMID:7014606

  7. De novo design of heat-repressible RNA thermosensors in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Hinman, Kristina; Kirchner, Lukas; Moon, Tae Seok

    2015-01-01

    RNA-based temperature sensing is common in bacteria that live in fluctuating environments. Most naturally-occurring RNA thermosensors are heat-inducible, have long sequences, and function by sequestering the ribosome binding site in a hairpin structure at lower temperatures. Here, we demonstrate the de novo design of short, heat-repressible RNA thermosensors. These thermosensors contain a cleavage site for RNase E, an enzyme native to Escherichia coli and many other organisms, in the 5′ untranslated region of the target gene. At low temperatures, the cleavage site is sequestered in a stem–loop, and gene expression is unobstructed. At high temperatures, the stem–loop unfolds, allowing for mRNA degradation and turning off expression. We demonstrated that these thermosensors respond specifically to temperature and provided experimental support for the central role of RNase E in the mechanism. We also demonstrated the modularity of these RNA thermosensors by constructing a three-input composite circuit that utilizes transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational regulation. A thorough analysis of the 24 thermosensors allowed for the development of design guidelines for systematic construction of similar thermosensors in future applications. These short, modular RNA thermosensors can be applied to the construction of complex genetic circuits, facilitating rational reprogramming of cellular processes for synthetic biology applications. PMID:25979263

  8. Bacterial flora of Tasmanian SIDS infants with special reference to pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Bettiol, S. S.; Radcliff, F. J.; Hunt, A. L.; Goldsmid, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The general bacterial flora of 38 Tasmanian SIDS infants was examined together with faecal flora of 134 comparison infants ranging in age from birth to 6 months. The microflora of all specimens received was investigated with special emphasis on the toxigenic Escherichia coli (TEC). Samples were examined for verocytotoxigenic E. coli, free faecal verocytotoxin (FVT), heat labile toxin (LT) and heat stable toxin (ST) producers with the use of a Vero cell assay and commercial kits. The findings of this study revealed a high isolation rate (39%) of TEC from SIDS infants as compared to 1.5% from the healthy comparison infants. Atypical E. coli strains were also identified during the study, including E. coli A-D. An analysis of the same specimens for rotaviral and adenoviral antigens indicated that 30% of the SIDS cases were positive as compared to 20% in the comparison group. PMID:8150001

  9. Self-association motifs in the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli heat-resistant agglutinin 1.

    PubMed

    Glaubman, Jessica; Hofmann, Jennifer; Bonney, Megan E; Park, Sumin; Thomas, Jessica M; Kokona, Bashkim; Ramos Falcón, Laura I; Chung, Yoonjie K; Fairman, Robert; Okeke, Iruka N

    2016-07-01

    The heat-resistant agglutinin 1 (Hra1) is an integral outer membrane protein found in strains of Escherichia coli that are exceptional colonizers. Hra1 from enteroaggregative E. coli strain 042 is sufficient to confer adherence to human epithelial cells and to cause bacterial autoaggregation. Hra1 is closely related to the Tia invasin, which also confers adherence, but not autoaggregation. Here, we have demonstrated that Hra1 mediates autoaggregation by self-association and we hypothesize that at least some surface-exposed amino acid sequences that are present in Hra1, but absent in Tia, represent autoaggregation motifs. We inserted FLAG tags along the length of Hra1 and used immune-dot blots to verify that four in silico-predicted outer loops were indeed surface exposed. In Hra1 we swapped nine candidate motifs in three of these loops, ranging from one to ten amino acids in length, to the corresponding sequences in Tia. Three of the motifs were required for Hra1-mediated autoaggregation. The database was searched for other surface proteins containing these motifs; the GGXWRDDXK motif was also present in a surface-exposed region of Rck, a Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium complement resistance protein. Cloning and site-specific mutagenesis demonstrated that Rck can confer weak, GGXWRDDXK-dependent autoaggregation by self-association. Hra1 and Rck appear to form heterologous associations and GGXWRDDXK is required on both molecules for Hra1-Rck association. However, a GGYWRDDLKE peptide was not sufficient to interfere with Hra1-mediated autoaggregation. In the present study, three autoaggregation motifs in an integral outer membrane protein have been identified and it was demonstrated that at least one of them works in the context of a different cell surface. PMID:27166217

  10. Escherichia coli Heat-Stable Enterotoxin Mediates Na+/H+ Exchanger 4 Inhibition Involving cAMP in T84 Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán, Ana R.; Carraro-Lacroix, Luciene R.; Bezerra, Camila N. A.; Cornejo, Marcelo; Norambuena, Katrina; Toledo, Fernando; Araos, Joaquín; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Sanhueza, Carlos; Malnic, Gerhard; Sobrevia, Luis; Ramírez, Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    The enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains lead to diarrhoea in humans due to heat-labile and heat-stable (STa) enterotoxins. STa increases Cl-release in intestinal cells, including the human colonic carcinoma T84 cell line, involving increased cGMP and membrane alkalization due to reduced Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs) activity. Since NHEs modulate intracellular pH (pHi), and NHE1, NHE2, and NHE4 are expressed in T84 cells, we characterized the STa role as modulator of these exchangers. pHi was assayed by the NH4Cl pulse technique and measured by fluorescence microscopy in BCECF–preloaded cells. pHi recovery rate (dpHi/dt) was determined in the absence or presence of 0.25 μmol/L STa (30 minutes), 25 μmol/L HOE-694 (concentration inhibiting NHE1 and NHE2), 500 μmol/L sodium nitroprusside (SNP, spontaneous nitric oxide donor), 100 μmol/L dibutyryl cyclic GMP (db-cGMP), 100 nmol/L H89 (protein kinase A inhibitor), or 10 μmol/L forskolin (adenylyl cyclase activator). cGMP and cAMP were measured in cell extracts by radioimmunoassay, and buffering capacity (ßi) and H+ efflux (JH+) was determined. NHE4 protein abundance was determined by western blotting. STa and HOE-694 caused comparable reduction in dpHi/dt and JH+ (~63%), without altering basal pHi (range 7.144–7.172). STa did not alter ßi value in a range of 1.6 pHi units. The dpHi/dt and JH+ was almost abolished (~94% inhibition) by STa + HOE-694. STa effect was unaltered by db-cGMP or SNP. However, STa and forskolin increased cAMP level. STa–decreased dpHi/dt and JH+ was mimicked by forskolin, and STa + HOE-694 effect was abolished by H89. Thus, incubation of T84 cells with STa results in reduced NHE4 activity leading to a lower capacity of pHi recovery requiring cAMP, but not cGMP. STa effect results in a causal phenomenon (STa/increased cAMP/increased PKA activity/reduced NHE4 activity) ending with intracellular acidification that could have consequences in the gastrointestinal cells function promoting

  11. Escherichia coli Heat-Stable Enterotoxin Mediates Na+/H+ Exchanger 4 Inhibition Involving cAMP in T84 Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Ana R; Carraro-Lacroix, Luciene R; Bezerra, Camila N A; Cornejo, Marcelo; Norambuena, Katrina; Toledo, Fernando; Araos, Joaquín; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Sanhueza, Carlos; Malnic, Gerhard; Sobrevia, Luis; Ramírez, Marco A

    2015-01-01

    The enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains lead to diarrhoea in humans due to heat-labile and heat-stable (STa) enterotoxins. STa increases Cl-release in intestinal cells, including the human colonic carcinoma T84 cell line, involving increased cGMP and membrane alkalization due to reduced Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs) activity. Since NHEs modulate intracellular pH (pHi), and NHE1, NHE2, and NHE4 are expressed in T84 cells, we characterized the STa role as modulator of these exchangers. pHi was assayed by the NH4Cl pulse technique and measured by fluorescence microscopy in BCECF-preloaded cells. pHi recovery rate (dpHi/dt) was determined in the absence or presence of 0.25 μmol/L STa (30 minutes), 25 μmol/L HOE-694 (concentration inhibiting NHE1 and NHE2), 500 μmol/L sodium nitroprusside (SNP, spontaneous nitric oxide donor), 100 μmol/L dibutyryl cyclic GMP (db-cGMP), 100 nmol/L H89 (protein kinase A inhibitor), or 10 μmol/L forskolin (adenylyl cyclase activator). cGMP and cAMP were measured in cell extracts by radioimmunoassay, and buffering capacity (ßi) and H+ efflux (JH+) was determined. NHE4 protein abundance was determined by western blotting. STa and HOE-694 caused comparable reduction in dpHi/dt and JH+ (~63%), without altering basal pHi (range 7.144-7.172). STa did not alter ßi value in a range of 1.6 pHi units. The dpHi/dt and JH+ was almost abolished (~94% inhibition) by STa + HOE-694. STa effect was unaltered by db-cGMP or SNP. However, STa and forskolin increased cAMP level. STa-decreased dpHi/dt and JH+ was mimicked by forskolin, and STa + HOE-694 effect was abolished by H89. Thus, incubation of T84 cells with STa results in reduced NHE4 activity leading to a lower capacity of pHi recovery requiring cAMP, but not cGMP. STa effect results in a causal phenomenon (STa/increased cAMP/increased PKA activity/reduced NHE4 activity) ending with intracellular acidification that could have consequences in the gastrointestinal cells function promoting human

  12. From Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin to mammalian endogenous guanylin hormones

    PubMed Central

    Lima, A.A.M.; Fonteles, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    The isolation of heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) from Escherichia coli and cholera toxin from Vibrio cholerae has increased our knowledge of specific mechanisms of action that could be used as pharmacological tools to understand the guanylyl cyclase-C and the adenylyl cyclase enzymatic systems. These discoveries have also been instrumental in increasing our understanding of the basic mechanisms that control the electrolyte and water balance in the gut, kidney, and urinary tracts under normal conditions and in disease. Herein, we review the evolution of genes of the guanylin family and STa genes from bacteria to fish and mammals. We also describe new developments and perspectives regarding these novel bacterial compounds and peptide hormones that act in electrolyte and water balance. The available data point toward new therapeutic perspectives for pathological features such as functional gastrointestinal disorders associated with constipation, colorectal cancer, cystic fibrosis, asthma, hypertension, gastrointestinal barrier function damage associated with enteropathy, enteric infection, malnutrition, satiety, food preferences, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and effects on behavior and brain disorders such as attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. PMID:24652326

  13. A portable, shock-proof, surface-heated droplet PCR system for Escherichia coli detection.

    PubMed

    Angus, Scott V; Cho, Soohee; Harshman, Dustin K; Song, Jae-Young; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2015-12-15

    A novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) device was developed that uses wire-guided droplet manipulation (WDM) to guide a droplet over three different heating chambers. After PCR amplification, end-point detection is achieved using a smartphone-based fluorescence microscope. The device was tested for identification of the 16S rRNA gene V3 hypervariable region from Escherichia coli genomic DNA. The lower limit of detection was 10(3) genome copies per sample. The device is portable with smartphone-based end-point detection and provides the assay results quickly (15 min for a 30-cycle amplification) and accurately. The system is also shock and vibration resistant, due to the multiple points of contact between the droplet and the thermocouple and the Teflon film on the heater surfaces. The thermocouple also provides real-time droplet temperature feedback to ensure it reaches the set temperature before moving to the next chamber/step in PCR. The device is equipped to use either silicone oil or coconut oil. Coconut oil provides additional portability and ease of transportation by eliminating spilling because its high melting temperature means it is solid at room temperature. PMID:26164008

  14. Pet, an Autotransporter Enterotoxin from Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Eslava, Carlos; Navarro-García, Fernando; Czeczulin, John R.; Henderson, Ian R.; Cravioto, Alejandro; Nataro, James P.

    1998-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an emerging cause of diarrheal illness. Clinical data suggest that diarrhea caused by EAEC is predominantly secretory in nature, but the responsible enterotoxin has not been described. Work from our laboratories has implicated a ca. 108-kDa protein as a heat-labile enterotoxin and cytotoxin, as evidenced by rises in short-circuit current and falls in tissue resistance in rat jejunal tissue mounted in an Ussing chamber. Here we report the genetic cloning, sequencing, and characterization of this high-molecular-weight heat-labile toxin. The toxin (designated the plasmid-encoded toxin [Pet]) is encoded on the 65-MDa adherence-related plasmid of EAEC strain 042. Nucleotide sequence analysis suggests that the toxin is a member of the autotransporter class of proteins, characterized by the presence of a conserved C-terminal domain which forms a β-barrel pore in the bacterial outer membrane and through which the mature protein is transported. The Pet toxin is highly homologous to the EspP protease of enterohemorrhagic E. coli and to EspC of enteropathogenic E. coli, an as yet cryptic protein. In addition to its potential role in EAEC infection, Pet represents the first enterotoxin within the autotransporter class of secreted proteins. We hypothesize that other closely related members of this class may also produce enterotoxic effects. PMID:9632580

  15. Phylogenetic Comparisons Reveal Multiple Acquisitions of the Toxin Genes by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains of Different Evolutionary Lineages▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Sue M.; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; DuPont, Herbert; Gyles, Carlton; Penn, Charles W.; Pallen, Mark J.; Henderson, Ian R.

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a diverse bacterial species which is widely distributed in the environment but also exists as a commensal and pathogen of different host species. Human intestinal pathogenic E. coli causes over 160 million cases of diarrhea and an estimated 1 million deaths per year. The majority of deaths are attributable to one pathovar of E. coli, namely, enterotoxigenic E. coli. The pathogenesis of enterotoxigenic E. coli is dependent on the production of a colonization factor to promote adhesion to the intestinal epithelium and the elaboration of heat-labile or heat-stable toxins which induce a secretory diarrhea. Despite the high morbidity and mortality associated with enterotoxigenic E. coli infection, little is known of the genetic background of this global pathogen. Here we demonstrate by multilocus sequence typing that enterotoxigenic E. coli isolates are present in all phylogenetic lineages of E. coli, indicating that acquisition of the toxin genes may be sufficient to generate an enterotoxigenic E. coli strain. In addition, screening of diarrheal isolates for the presence of additional genes previously associated with the virulence of enterotoxigenic E. coli revealed that they were not abundant. These observations have significant implications for disease epidemiology and for the design of effective vaccines. PMID:17050815

  16. The heat-resistant agglutinin family includes a novel adhesin from enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strain 60A.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Justin; Weckselblatt, Brooke; Chung, Yoonjie K; Durante, Julia C; Andelman, Steven; Glaubman, Jessica; Dorff, Justin D; Bhargava, Samhita; Lijek, Rebeccah S; Unger, Katherine P; Okeke, Iruka N

    2011-09-01

    Heat-resistant agglutinin 1 (Hra1) is an accessory colonization factor of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) strain 042. Tia, a close homolog of Hra1, is an invasin and adhesin that has been described in enterotoxigenic E. coli. We devised a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism screen for the associated genes and found that they occur among 55 (36.7%) of the enteroaggregative E. coli isolates screened, as well as lower proportions of enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, enterohemorrhagic, and commensal E. coli isolates. Overall, 25%, 8%, and 3% of 150 EAEC strains harbored hra1 alone, tia alone, or both genes, respectively. One EAEC isolate, 60A, produced an amplicon with a unique restriction profile, distinct from those of hra1 and tia. We cloned and sequenced the full-length agglutinin gene from strain 60A and have designated it hra2. The hra2 gene was not detected in any of 257 diarrheagenic E. coli isolates in our collection but is present in the genome of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg strain SL476. The cloned hra2 gene from strain 60A, which encodes a predicted amino acid sequence that is 64% identical to that of Hra1 and 68% identical to that of Tia, was sufficient to confer adherence on E. coli K-12. We constructed an hra2 deletion mutant of EAEC strain 60A. The mutant was deficient in adherence but not autoaggregation or invasion, pointing to a functional distinction from the autoagglutinin Hra1 and the Tia invasin. Hra1, Tia, and the novel accessory adhesin Hra2 are members of a family of integral outer membrane proteins that confer different colonization-associated phenotypes. PMID:21764925

  17. The Escherichia coli small heat-shock proteins IbpA and IbpB prevent the aggregation of endogenous proteins denatured in vivo during extreme heat shock.

    PubMed

    Kuczyńska-Wiśnik, Dorota; Kedzierska, Sabina; Matuszewska, Ewelina; Lund, Peter; Taylor, Alina; Lipińska, Barbara; Laskowska, Ewa

    2002-06-01

    The roles of the Escherichia coli IbpA and IbpB chaperones in protection of heat-denatured proteins against irreversible aggregation in vivo were investigated. Overproduction of IbpA and IbpB resulted in stabilization of the denatured and reversibly aggregated proteins (the S fraction), which could be isolated from E. coli cells by sucrose gradient centrifugation. This finding is in agreement with the present model of the small heat-shock proteins' function, based mainly on in vitro studies. Deletion of the ibpAB operon resulted in almost twofold increase in protein aggregation and in inactivation of an enzyme (fructose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase) in cells incubated at 50 degrees C for 4 h, decreased efficiency of the removal of protein aggregates formed during prolonged incubation at 50 degrees C and affected cell viability at this temperature. IbpA/B proteins were not needed for removal of protein aggregates or for the enzyme protection/renaturation in cells heat shocked at 50 degrees C for 15 min. These results show that the IbpA/B proteins are required upon an extreme, long-term heat shock. Overproduction of IbpA but not IbpB caused an increase of the level of beta-lactamase precursor, which was localized in the S fraction, together with the IbpA protein, which suggests that the unfolded precursor binds to IbpA but not to IbpB. Although in the wild-type cells both E. coli small heat-shock proteins are known to localize in the S fraction, only 2% of total IbpB co-localized with the aggregated proteins in the absence of IbpA, while in the absence of IbpB, the majority of IbpA was present in the aggregates fraction. PMID:12055295

  18. Glycoprotein receptors for a heat-stable enterotoxin (STh) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, T; Wada, A; Iwata, N; Takasaki, S; Shimonishi, Y; Takeda, Y

    1992-01-01

    Glycoprotein receptors for heat-stable enterotoxin STh of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the rat intestinal cell membrane were identified and characterized. Incubation of rat intestinal cell membranes with radioiodinated N-5-azidonitrobenzoyl-STh[5-19] (125I-ANB-STh[5-19]) followed by photolysis resulted in specific radiolabeling of two distinct proteins with M(r)s of 200,000 (designated STR-200A and STR-200B). STR-200A was found to be composed of two molecules of a protein with an M(r) of 70,000 (70-kDa protein), whereas STR-200B was composed of two different protein molecules with M(r)s of 53,000 (53-kDa protein) and 77,000 (77-kDa protein). These proteins showed no guanylate cyclase activity. The 70-kDa protein was labeled most with 125I-ANB-STh[5-19], suggesting that STR-200A is the main receptor protein in the rat intestinal cell membrane. The carbohydrate moieties of STR-200A and STR-200B were examined by enzymatic deglycosylation. The 70-kDa protein of STR-200A was found to contain N-linked high-mannose-type and/or hybrid-type oligosaccharides, and results suggested that it possesses at least three N glycosylation sites. The 53-kDa protein of STR-200B was found to have an N-linked complex-type oligosaccharide side chain. The deglycosylated 70-kDa protein retained activity for binding to STh, suggesting that the carbohydrate moieties of these receptor proteins are not important for binding with STh. Images PMID:1328055

  19. Insertion Mutagenesis of wca Reduces Acid and Heat Tolerance of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Ying; Doyle, Michael P.; Chen, Jinru

    2001-01-01

    Strains of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) serotype O157:H7 produce under stress copious amounts of exopolysaccharide (EPS) composed of colanic acid (CA). Studies were performed to evaluate the association of production of CA with survival of EHEC under adverse environmental conditions. A CA-deficient mutant, M4020, was obtained from a CA-proficient parental strain, E. coli O157:H7 W6-13, by inserting a kanamycin resistance gene cassette (kan) into wcaD and wcaE, 2 of the 21 genes required for CA biosynthesis. M4020 was defective in CA production as determined from the ratio of uronic acid to protein (UA/P) of cells grown from 1 to 4 days at 25°C on minimal glucose agar (MGA), MacConkey agar, and sorbitol-MacConkey agar, and by colony morphology on MGA. The results of stress treatment revealed that M4020 was substantially less tolerant to acid (pH 4.5 and 5.5) and heat (55 and 60°C) in comparison to W6-13, indicating that CA confers on E. coli O157:H7 a protective effect from the environmental stresses of acid and heat. PMID:11371548

  20. Heat and lime-treatment as effective control methods for E. coli O157:H7 in organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Avery, Lisa M; Williams, A Prysor; Killham, Ken; Jones, David L

    2009-05-01

    Land-application of abattoir wastes is economically appealing and may provide an effective means of closing the nutrient cycling loop. This practise is constrained, however, by legislation which necessitates pre-treatment to remove pathogenic micro-organisms prior to land-spreading. Here we investigated whether heat-treatment or lime addition could eliminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 from three contrasting abattoir wastes. We found that treatment at 60 degrees C for 10 min effectively eradicated the organism while treatment for the same length of time at 50 degrees C led to 2-4 log reductions, but not a complete kill. Temperatures of 72 degrees C induced waste solidification rendering its use impractical. The potential for re-growth in heat-treated and untreated wastes was also investigated. Survival was significantly greater in heat-treated wastes, although the difference was less than half a log unit in magnitude. This effect of heat-treatment on pathogen survival appeared to be ameliorated when wastes were mixed with soil. No viable E. coli O157:H7 cells were recovered from any waste after application of lime (CaO) at a rate of 10 gl(-1), even after enrichment. Our results indicate that pasteurisation-style or liming treatments may provide a suitable alternative method for reducing pathogen loads in abattoir wastes, so that they can be applied to land with minimal biological risk. PMID:19181517

  1. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in orange and tomato juice using ohmic heating.

    PubMed

    Sagong, Hun-Gu; Park, Sang-Hyun; Choi, Young-Jin; Ryu, Sangryeol; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2011-06-01

    The effects of ohmic heating on reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in orange and tomato juice were investigated. Orange and tomato juice inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes were subjected to ohmic heating with selected parameters including electric field strength from 10 to 20 V/cm and treatment times from 0 to 540 s. The number of pathogens was reduced by increasing the electric field strength from 10 to 20 V/cm as well as increasing treatment time. The population of E. coli O157:H7 was reduced more than 5 log after 120, 210, and 540 s of treatment in orange juice with 20, 15, and 10 V/cm electric field strengths, respectively. In tomato juice, levels of E. coli O157:H7 were reduced more than 5 log after 90, 180, and 480 s with the same electric field strengths. Similar phenomena were observed for Salmonella Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes, but E. coli O157:H7 was the most resistant to ohmic heating treatment. These results show that ohmic heating is potentially useful for inactivation of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes and that the effect of inactivation depends on applied electric field strength, treatment time, pathogen species, and type of juice. PMID:21669065

  2. Protection against human and porcine enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli in rats immunized with a cross-linked toxoid vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Klipstein, F A; Engert, R F; Clements, J D; Houghten, R A

    1983-01-01

    To compare their relative immunogenicities, we used synthetically produced Escherichia coli heat-stable toxin coupled to a protein carrier and the B subunit of porcine heat-labile toxin separately in graded dosages to immunize rats. Equivalent antigen unit dosages of each toxin raised approximately the same level of mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) antitoxin response and degree of protection against a challenge with respective heat-stable- or heat-labile-toxin-producing viable bacteria. Conjugation conditions were identified, therefore, which yielded a vaccine of these toxins, cross-linked by the carbodiimide reaction, that consisted of equal antigenic proportions of each toxin component as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and expressed in antigen units. The dose-related response to immunization with this vaccine was the same as the response to its components given separately. The toxicity of the heat-stable toxin component was reduced greater than 600-fold. Immunization with optimal antigen unit dosages of the vaccine gave greater than or equal to sixfold increases in mucosal IgA antitoxin titers and provided significant (P less than 0.001) protection against challenge with heterologous serotypes of viable strains, of either human or porcine origin, that produce heat-stable or heat-labile toxin or both. PMID:6343245

  3. Brief heat treatment causes a structural change and enhances cytotoxicity of the Escherichia coli α-hemolysin.

    PubMed

    Aulik, Nicole A; Atapattu, Dhammika N; Czuprynski, Charles J; McCaslin, Darrel R

    2013-02-01

    α-Hemolysin (HLY) is an important virulence factor for uropathogenic Escherichia coli. HLY is a member of the RTX family of exotoxins secreted by a number of Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, it was reported that a related RTX toxin, the Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin, exhibits increased cytotoxicity following brief heat treatment. In this article, we show that brief heat treatment (1 min at 100°C) increases cytotoxicity of HLY for human bladder cells, kidney epithelial cells (A498) and neutrophils. Heat treatment also increased hemolysis of human red blood cells (RBCs). Furthermore, heat treatment of previously inactived HLY restored its cytotoxicity. Heat-activated and native HLY both required glycophorin A to lyse RBCs. Native and heat-activated HLY appeared to bind equally well to the surface of A498 cells; although, Western blot analyses demonstrated binding to different proteins on the surface. Confocal microscopy revealed that heat-activated HLY bound more extensively to internal structures of permeabilized A498 cells than did native HLY. Several lines of spectroscopic evidence demonstrate irreversible changes in the structure of heat activated compared to native HLY. We show changes in secondary structure, increased exposure of tryptophan residues to the aqueous environment, an increase in molecular dimension and an increase in hydrophobic surface area. These properties are among the most common characteristics described for the molten globule state, first identified as an intermediate in protein folding. We hypothesize that brief heat treatment of HLY causes a conformational change leading to significant differences in protein-protein interactions that result in increased cytotoxicity for target cells. PMID:22994841

  4. Inactivation of Escherichia coli in a tropical fruit smoothie by a combination of heat and pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Walkling-Ribeiro, M; Noci, F; Cronin, D A; Lyng, J G; Morgan, D J

    2008-10-01

    Moderate heat in combination with pulsed electric fields (PEF) was investigated as a potential alternative to thermal pasteurization of a tropical fruit smoothie based on pineapple, banana, and coconut milk, inoculated with Escherichia coli K12. The smoothie was heated from 25 degrees C to either 45 or 55 degrees C over 60 s and subsequently cooled to 10 degrees C. PEF was applied at electric field strengths of 24 and 34 kV/cm with specific energy inputs of 350, 500, and 650 kJ/L. Both processing technologies were combined using heat (45 or 55 degrees C) and the most effective set of PEF conditions. Bacterial inactivation was estimated on standard and NaCl-supplemented tryptone soy agar (TSA) to enumerate sublethally injured cells. By increasing the temperature from 45 to 55 degrees C, a higher reduction in E. coli numbers (1 compared with 1.7 log(10) colony forming units {CFU} per milliliter, P < 0.05) was achieved. Similarly, as the field strength was increased during stand-alone PEF treatment from 24 to 34 kV/cm, a greater number of E. coli cells were inactivated (2.8 compared with 4.2 log(10) CFU/mL, P < 0.05). An increase in heating temperature from 45 to 55 degrees C during a combined heat/PEF hurdle approach induced a higher inactivation (5.1 compared with 6.9 log(10) CFU/mL, respectively [P < 0.05]) with the latter value comparable to the bacterial reduction of 6.3 log(10) CFU/mL (P> or = 0.05) achieved by thermal pasteurization (72 degrees C, 15 s). A reversed hurdle processing sequence did not affect bacterial inactivation (P> or = 0.05). No differences were observed (P> or = 0.05) between the bacterial counts estimated on nonselective and selective TSA, suggesting that sublethal cell injury did not occur during single PEF treatments or combined heat/PEF treatments. PMID:19019120

  5. Detection and genetic analysis of the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (EAST1) gene in clinical isolates of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The enteroaggregative E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST1) encoded by astA gene has been found in enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains. However, it is not sufficient to simply probe strains with an astA gene probe due to the existence of astA mutants (type 1 and type 2 SHEAST) and EAST1 variants (EAST1 v1-4). In this study, 222 EPEC (70 typical and 152 atypical) isolates were tested for the presence of the astA gene sequence by PCR and sequencing. Results The astA gene was amplified from 54 strains, 11 typical and 43 atypical. Sequence analysis of the PCR products showed that 25 strains, 7 typical and 18 atypical, had an intact astA gene. A subgroup of 7 atypical strains had a variant type of the astA gene sequence, with four non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions. The remaining 22 strains had mutated astA gene with nucleotide deletions or substitutions in the first 8 codons. The RT-PCR results showed that the astA gene was transcribed only by the strains carrying either the intact or the variant type of the astA gene sequence. Southern blot analysis indicated that astA is located in EAF plasmid in typical strains, and in plasmids of similar size in atypical strains. Strains carrying intact astA genes were more frequently found in diarrheic children than in non-diarrheic children (p < 0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, our data suggest that the presence of an intact astA gene may represent an additional virulence determinant in both EPEC groups. PMID:24884767

  6. Heat-Shock Response Transcriptional Program Enables High-Yield and High-Quality Recombinant Protein Production in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The biosynthesis of soluble, properly folded recombinant proteins in large quantities from Escherichia coli is desirable for academic research and industrial protein production. The basal E. coli protein homeostasis (proteostasis) network capacity is often insufficient to efficiently fold overexpressed proteins. Herein we demonstrate that a transcriptionally reprogrammed E. coli proteostasis network is generally superior for producing soluble, folded, and functional recombinant proteins. Reprogramming is accomplished by overexpressing a negative feedback deficient heat-shock response transcription factor before and during overexpression of the protein-of-interest. The advantage of transcriptional reprogramming versus simply overexpressing select proteostasis network components (e.g., chaperones and co-chaperones, which has been explored previously) is that a large number of proteostasis network components are upregulated at their evolved stoichiometry, thus maintaining the system capabilities of the proteostasis network that are currently incompletely understood. Transcriptional proteostasis network reprogramming mediated by stress-responsive signaling in the absence of stress should also be useful for protein production in other cells. PMID:25051296

  7. Virulence Genes in Expanded-Spectrum-Cephalosporin-Resistant and -Susceptible Escherichia coli Isolates from Treated and Untreated Chickens.

    PubMed

    Baron, S; Delannoy, S; Bougeard, S; Larvor, E; Jouy, E; Balan, O; Fach, P; Kempf, I

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated antimicrobial resistance, screened for the presence of virulence genes involved in intestinal infections, and determined phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli isolates from untreated poultry and poultry treated with ceftiofur, an expanded-spectrum cephalosporin. Results show that none of the 76 isolates appeared to be Shiga toxin-producing E. coli or enteropathogenic E. coli. All isolates were negative for the major virulence factors/toxins tested (ehxA, cdt, heat-stable enterotoxin [ST], and heat-labile enterotoxin [LT]). The few virulence genes harbored in isolates generally did not correlate with isolate antimicrobial resistance or treatment status. However, some of the virulence genes were significantly associated with certain phylogenetic groups. PMID:26666927

  8. Labile sulfide and sulfite in phytochelatin complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Eannetta, N.T.; Steffens, J.C. )

    1989-04-01

    Heavy metals such as cadmium induce tomato cell cultures to synthesize the metal binding polypeptides ({gamma}-Glu-Cys){sub 3} and ({gamma}-Glu-Cys){sub 4}-Gly (phytochelatins). Tomato cells selected for growth on normally lethal concentrations of CdCl{sub 2} synthesize higher quantities of these polypeptides. Cd{sup r} cells are not cross-resistant to other heavy metals, and recent work suggests that metal detoxification by these peptides may be Cd-specific. The occurrence of labile sulfur as a component of the metal complex raises questions concerning possible functions of phytochelatins besides that of Cd binding. The presence of acid-labile sulfide ion in phytochelatin complexes has been reported by several groups. We report the additional finding that labile sulfite is also present in these complexes and in higher amounts than sulfide. Sulfide and sulfite are both released from the metal binding complex by acidification or by treatment with EDTA.

  9. Survival of Escherichia coli under lethal heat stress by L-form conversion

    PubMed Central

    Markova, Nadya; Slavchev, Georgi; Michailova, Lilia; Jourdanova, Mimi

    2010-01-01

    Transition of bacteria to cell wall deficient L-forms in response to stress factors has been assumed as a potential mechanism for survival of microbes under unfavorable conditions. In this article, we provide evidence of paradoxal survival through L-form conversion of E. coli high cell density population after lethal treatments (boiling or autoclaving). Light and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated conversion from classical rod to polymorphic L-form shape morphology and atypical growths of E. coli. Microcrystal formations observed at this stage were interpreted as being closely linked to the processes of L-form conversion and probably involved in the general phenomenon of protection against lethal environment. Identity of the morphologically modified L-forms as E. coli was verified by species specific DNA-based test. Our study might contribute to a better understanding of the L-form phenomenon and its importance for bacterial survival, as well as provoke reexamination of the traditional view of killing strategies against bacteria. PMID:20582223

  10. Heat and drought stress during growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) does not promote internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guodong; Ma, Li; Beuchat, Larry R; Erickson, Marilyn C; Phelan, Vanessa H; Doyle, Michael P

    2009-12-01

    Studies were done to determine the effect of heat stress on internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in lettuce subjected to different watering practices during growth. Iceberg and romaine lettuce were grown in sandy soil in an environmental chamber at 23 degrees C during the day and 7 degrees C at night, with a 12-h photoperiod. Thirty days after transplanting seedlings, potting soil was inoculated with a five-strain mixture of green fluorescent protein-labeled E. coli O157:H7 at populations of 4 and 6 log CFU/g of soil. Lettuce plants were exposed to one of two temperature stress regimes: 36 degrees C during the day and 15 degrees C at night for 2 days, or 32 degrees C during the day and 15 degrees C at night for 3 days, both with a 12-h photoperiod. Control plants were held at 23 degrees C during the day and 7 degrees C at night for 3 days. Plants were either watered daily or not watered during the heat stress and control treatments. E. coli O157:H7 was detected by enrichment in all inoculated soil and rhizosphere samples from plants grown in inoculated soil. Less E. coli O157:H7 was detected in inoculated heat-stressed soil than in control soil. From inoculated pots, all leaf surfaces and macerated leaves that had been surface sanitized were negative for E. coli O157:H7. All surface-sanitized macerated roots from control samples and from 143 of 144 samples of inoculated samples were negative for E. coli O157:H7. Heat stress during growth of lettuce did not promote or enhance internalization of E. coli O157:H7, regardless of the moisture content in the soil. PMID:20003727

  11. Inverse relationship between heat stable enterotoxin-b induced fluid accumulation and adherence of F4ac-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in ligated jejunal loops of F4ab/ac fimbria receptor-positive swine.

    PubMed

    Erume, Joseph; Wijemanne, Prageeth; Berberov, Emil M; Kachman, Stephen D; Oestmann, Daniel J; Francis, David H; Moxley, Rodney A

    2013-01-25

    Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) increases bacterial adherence to porcine enterocytes in vitro and enhances small intestinal colonization in swine. Heat-stable enterotoxin-b (STb) is not known to affect colonization; however, through an induction of net fluid accumulation it might reduce bacterial adherence. The relationship between fluid accumulation and bacterial adherence in jejunal loops inoculated with ETEC strains that produce LT, STb, both, or neither toxin was studied. Ligated jejunal loops were constructed in weaned Yorkshire pigs in two independent experiments (Exp. 1, n=5, 8-week-old; Exp. 2, n=6, 6-8-week-old). Each pig was inoculated with six F4ac(+)E. coli strains: (1) LT(+), STb(+) parent (WAM2317); (2) STb(-) (ΔestB) mutant (MUN297); (3) MUN297 complemented with STb (MUN298); (4) LT(-) STb(-) (ΔeltAB ΔestB) mutant (MUN300); (5) MUN300 complemented with LT (MUN301); and (6) 1836-2 (non-enterotoxigenic, wild-type). Pigs were confirmed to be K88 (F4)ab/ac receptor-positive in Exp. 2 by testing for intestinal mucin-type glycoproteins and inferred to be receptor-positive in both Exp. 1 and 2 based on histopathologic evidence of bacterial adherence. Strains that produced STb induced marked fluid accumulation with the response (ml/cm) to WAM2317 and MUN298 significantly greater than that to the other strains (P<0.0001). Conversely, bacterial adherence scores based on immunohistochemistry and CFU/g of washed mucosa were both lowest in the strains that expressed STb and highest in those that did not. For the two experiments combined, the Pearson correlation coefficient (R) between fluid volume (ml/cm) and log CFU per gram was -0.57021 (P<0.0001); R(2)=0.3521 (n=197). These results support the hypothesis that enterotoxin-induced fluid accumulation flushes progeny organisms into the lumen of the bowel, thereby increasing the likelihood of fecal shedding and transmission of the pathogen to new hosts. PMID

  12. Induction of the heat shock regulon of Escherichia coli markedly increases production of bacterial viruses at high temperatures.

    PubMed Central

    Wiberg, J S; Mowrey-McKee, M F; Stevens, E J

    1988-01-01

    Production of bacteriophages T2, T4, and T6 at 42.8 to 44 degrees C was increased from 8- to 260-fold by adapting the Escherichia coli host (grown at 30 degrees C) to growth at the high temperature for 8 min before infection; this increase was abolished if the host htpR (rpoH) gene was inactive. Others have shown that the htpR protein increases or activates the synthesis of at least 17 E. coli heat shock proteins upon raising the growth temperature above a certain level. At 43.8 to 44 degrees C in T4-infected, unadapted cells, the rates of RNA, DNA, and protein synthesis were about 100, 70, and 70%, respectively, of those in T4-infected, adapted cells. Production of the major processed capsid protein, gp23, was reduced significantly more than that of most other T4 proteins in unadapted cells relative to adapted cells. Only 4.6% of the T4 DNA made in unadapted cells was resistant to micrococcal nuclease, versus 50% in adapted cells. Thus, defective maturation of T4 heads appears to explain the failure of phage production in unadapted cells. Overproduction of the heat shock protein GroEL from plasmids restored T4 production in unadapted cells to about 50% of that seen in adapted cells. T4-infected, adapted E. coli B at around 44 degrees C exhibited a partial tryptophan deficiency; this correlated with reduced uptake of uracil that is probably caused by partial induction of stringency. Production of bacteriophage T7 at 44 degrees C was increased two- to fourfold by adapting the host to 44 degrees C before infection; evidence against involvement of the htpR (rpoH) gene is presented. This work and recent work with bacteriophage lambda (C. Waghorne and C.R. Fuerst, Virology 141:51-64, 1985) appear to represent the first demonstrations for any virus that expression of the heat shock regulon of a host is necessary for virus production at high temperature. Images PMID:2446014

  13. Effect of mild heat stress and mild infection pressure on immune responses to an E. coli infection in chickens.

    PubMed

    Norup, L R; Jensen, K H; Jørgensen, E; Sørensen, P; Juul-Madsen, H R

    2008-02-01

    Outdoor or organic farming demands robust chickens that are able to combat common infections before they spread to the flock. Priming the immune system of the chickens early in life with micro-organisms that they will encounter later in life prepares chickens to a life in environments where they are subjected to a more natural level of infection pressure. Also, exposure to non-infectious stressful situations may prepare the immune system to combat infectious challenges. The present study investigated whether the immune system could be primed by applying small doses of infective material to the chicken flock or by exposure to short-term non-infectious stimulation, and whether the effect of those stimuli would depend on the genetic material chosen. The effect of the stimulations was examined on selected immunological variables in two chicken strains, using small amounts of manure and litter from other chickens or short-term heat stress, respectively. After 6 weeks of treatment, all chickens were subjected to an Escherichia coli infection and followed for another 3 weeks. Measures of body weight gain, chicken mannan-binding lectin (cMBL), percentage of CD4+ and MHCII+ lymphocytes, mean fluorescence intensity (m.f.i.) of CD4 on CD4+ cells and MHCII on MHCII+ cells and antibody titres to E. coli were taken. In conclusion, the chickens redistribute lymphocyte populations in peripheral blood in response to potentially infectious agents as well as to stressful non-infectious treatments. Responses to stress situations were dependent on the frequencies of stress exposures and on the chicken breed. This may reflect the superiority of one breed over another in adapting to treatments or in discriminating whether a treatment is harmless or dangerous. However, the differences did not influence the disease resistance to infection with a mixture of E. coli O2, O11 and O78 in the present study. PMID:22445020

  14. Development of a radioimmunoassay for Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin: comparison with the suckling mouse bioassay.

    PubMed Central

    Giannella, R A; Drake, K W; Luttrell, M

    1981-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains which produce heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) are usually identified by demonstrating the production of ST. At present, ST can be detected only by bioassay methods. Recently, we purified E. coli ST, which enabled us to develop a radioimmunoassay for ST. Radioiodination of ST was performed by the lactoperoxidase method, which resulted in a high specific activity and retained the biological activity of St. Anti-ST antisera were raised in goats by injecting the goats with pure ST coupled to bovine immunoglobin G. Antibody titers ranged from 1:8,000 to 1:40,000. Using these reagents, we examined assay conditions thoroughly and found that a 14- to 18-h incubation at 4 degrees C in sodium acetate buffer with an ionic strength of 120 mM (pH 6.2) gave maximal sensitivity and reproducibility. Free ST was separated from antibody-bound ST by dextran-coated charcoal. This radioimmunoassay accurately and reproducibly measured ST in the range from 50 to 500 pg of ST per tube and could quantitate ST accurately in complex bacteriological media. This assay was specific for STa, measured human and porcine STa equally well, and did not cross-react with STb, with several other enterotoxins, or with various gastrointestinal peptides. Intact disulfide bridges in the ST molecule were required for immunoreactive activity. PMID:7021423

  15. Influence of dimethyl dicarbonate on the resistance of Escherichia coli to a combined UV-Heat treatment in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Gouma, Maria; Gayán, Elisa; Raso, Javier; Condón, Santiago; Álvarez, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Commercial apple juice inoculated with Escherichia coli was treated with UV-C, heat (55°C) and dimethyl dicarbonate - DMDC (25, 50, and 75 mg/L)-, applied separately and in combination, in order to investigate the possibility of synergistic lethal effects. The inactivation levels resulting from each treatment applied individually for a maximum treatment time of 3.58 min were limited, reaching 1.2, 2.9, and 0.06 log10 reductions for UV, heat, and DMDC (75 mg/L), respectively. However, all the investigated combinations resulted in a synergistic lethal effect, reducing the total treatment time and UV dose, with the synergistic lethal effect being higher when larger concentrations of DMDC were added to the apple juice. The addition of 75 mg/L of DMDC prior to the combined UV-C light treatment at 55°C resulted in 5 log10 reductions after only 1.8 min, reducing the treatment time and UV dose of the combined UV-Heat treatment by 44%. PMID:26042117

  16. Influence of dimethyl dicarbonate on the resistance of Escherichia coli to a combined UV-Heat treatment in apple juice

    PubMed Central

    Gouma, Maria; Gayán, Elisa; Raso, Javier; Condón, Santiago; Álvarez, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Commercial apple juice inoculated with Escherichia coli was treated with UV-C, heat (55°C) and dimethyl dicarbonate – DMDC (25, 50, and 75 mg/L)-, applied separately and in combination, in order to investigate the possibility of synergistic lethal effects. The inactivation levels resulting from each treatment applied individually for a maximum treatment time of 3.58 min were limited, reaching 1.2, 2.9, and 0.06 log10 reductions for UV, heat, and DMDC (75 mg/L), respectively. However, all the investigated combinations resulted in a synergistic lethal effect, reducing the total treatment time and UV dose, with the synergistic lethal effect being higher when larger concentrations of DMDC were added to the apple juice. The addition of 75 mg/L of DMDC prior to the combined UV-C light treatment at 55°C resulted in 5 log10 reductions after only 1.8 min, reducing the treatment time and UV dose of the combined UV-Heat treatment by 44%. PMID:26042117

  17. Chaperone function of FkpA, a heat shock prolyl isomerase, in the periplasm of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Arié, J P; Sassoon, N; Betton, J M

    2001-01-01

    The nature of molecular chaperones in the periplasm of Escherichia coli that assist newly translocated proteins to reach their native state has remained poorly defined. Here, we show that FkpA, a heat shock periplasmic peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase), suppresses the formation of inclusion bodies from a defective-folding variant of the maltose-binding protein, MalE31. This chaperone-like activity of FkpA, which is independent of its PPIase activity, requires a full-length structure of the protein. In vitro, FkpA does not catalyse a slow rate-limiting step in the refolding of MalE31, but prevents its aggregation at stoichiometric amounts and promotes the reactivation of denaturated citrate synthase. We propose that FkpA functions as a chaperone for envelope proteins in the bacterial periplasm. PMID:11123702

  18. A low cost technique for synthesis of gold nanoparticles using microwave heating and its application in signal amplification for detecting Escherichia Coli O157:H7 bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanh Ngo, Vo Ke; Giang Nguyen, Dang; Phat Huynh, Trong; Lam, Quang Vinh

    2016-09-01

    In the present work a low cost technique for preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using microwave heating was developed. The effect of different elements (precursor reagents, irradiation time, and microwave radiation power) on the final morphology of AuNPs obtained through the microwave assisted technique has been investigated. The characterization of the samples has been carried out by transmission electron microscopy, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and powder x-ray diffraction. The results showed that to some extent the above-mentioned characterizations influenced the size of synthetized nanoparticles and application of microwave heating has many advantages such as low cost, rapid preparation and highly uniform particles. As an application in quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensor, AuNPs are conjugated with the Escherichia coli (E.coli) O157:H7 antibodies for signal amplification to detect E.coli O157:H7 bacteria residual in QCM system.

  19. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the epidemiology of pathogenic Escherichia coli of calves and the role of calves as reservoirs for human pathogenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Kolenda, Rafał; Burdukiewicz, Michał; Schierack, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli bacteria are the most common causes of diarrhea and septicemia in calves. Moreover, calves form a major reservoir for transmission of pathogenic E. coli to humans. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of publications on E. coli as calf pathogens and the role of calves as reservoir have not been done so far. We reviewed studies between 1951 and 2013 reporting the presence of virulence associated factors (VAFs) in calf E. coli and extracted the following information: year(s) and country of sampling, animal number, health status, isolate number, VAF prevalence, serotypes, diagnostic methods, and biological assays. The prevalence of VAFs or E. coli pathotypes was compared between healthy and diarrheic animals and was analyzed for time courses. Together, 106 papers with 25,982 E. coli isolates from 27 countries tested for VAFs were included. F5, F17, and F41 fimbriae and heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) - VAFs of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) were significantly associated with calf diarrhea. On the contrary, ETEC VAF F4 fimbriae and heat-labile enterotoxin as well as enteropathogenic (EPEC), Shiga toxin-producing (STEC), and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) were not associated with diarrhea. The prevalence increased overtime for ST-positive isolates, but decreased for F5- and STEC-positive isolates. Our study provides useful information about the history of scientific investigations performed in this domain so far, and helps to define etiological agents of calf disease, and to evaluate calves as reservoir hosts for human pathogenic E. coli. PMID:25815276

  20. Weapons of mass destruction: virulence factors of the global killer enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Turner, Susan M; Scott-Tucker, Anthony; Cooper, Lisa M; Henderson, Ian R

    2006-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of food and water-borne E. coli-mediated human diarrhoea worldwide. The incidence in developing countries is estimated at 650 million cases per year, resulting in 800 000 deaths, primarily in children under the age of five. ETEC is also the most common cause of diarrhoea among travellers, including the military, from industrialized nations to less developed countries. In addition, ETEC is a major pathogen of animals, being responsible for scours in cattle and neonatal and postweaning diarrhoea in pigs and resulting in significant financial losses. Studies on the pathogenesis of ETEC infections have concentrated on the plasmid-encoded heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxins and on the plasmid-encoded antigenically variable colonization factors. Relatively little work has been carried out on chromosomally encoded virulence factors. Here, we review the known virulence factors of ETEC and highlight the future for combating this major disease. PMID:16958845

  1. Identification of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) clades with long-term global distribution.

    PubMed

    von Mentzer, Astrid; Connor, Thomas R; Wieler, Lothar H; Semmler, Torsten; Iguchi, Atsushi; Thomson, Nicholas R; Rasko, David A; Joffre, Enrique; Corander, Jukka; Pickard, Derek; Wiklund, Gudrun; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Sjöling, Åsa; Dougan, Gordon

    2014-12-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), a major cause of infectious diarrhea, produce heat-stable and/or heat-labile enterotoxins and at least 25 different colonization factors that target the intestinal mucosa. The genes encoding the enterotoxins and most of the colonization factors are located on plasmids found across diverse E. coli serogroups. Whole-genome sequencing of a representative collection of ETEC isolated between 1980 and 2011 identified globally distributed lineages characterized by distinct colonization factor and enterotoxin profiles. Contrary to current notions, these relatively recently emerged lineages might harbor chromosome and plasmid combinations that optimize fitness and transmissibility. These data have implications for understanding, tracking and possibly preventing ETEC disease. PMID:25383970

  2. Radio-frequency heating to inactivate Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on black and red pepper spice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Youn; Sagong, Hun-Gu; Choi, Sang Ho; Ryu, Sangryeol; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2012-02-01

    The efficacy of radio-frequency (RF) heating to inactivate Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on black and red pepper spice was investigated. A 27.12 MHz RF heating system consisted of two parallel-plate electrodes was used, with the sample being placed between them. Black peppers (whole and ground) and red peppers (+ 16 mesh, -16 + 25 mesh, and -25 mesh) inoculated with S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were treated with RF energy during 50s for black peppers and 40s for red peppers, and color change of samples was evaluated after treatment. RF heating for 50s resulted in 2.80 to 4.29 log CFU/g reductions of S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 in black peppers and RF heating of red peppers for 40s reduced pathogens by 3.38 log CFU/g to more than 5 log CFU/g (below the detection limit) without affecting the color quality change. The results suggest that RF heating has the potential for novel thermal process to control foodborne pathogens in spice. PMID:22153186

  3. Heat resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a nutrient medium and in ground beef patties as influenced by storage and holding temperatures.

    PubMed

    Jackson, T C; Hardin, M D; Acuff, G R

    1996-03-01

    Stationary-phase cultures of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were inoculated into tryptic soy broth, sealed in vials, and stored at -18 degrees C for 1, 8, and 15 days, or 3 or 15 degrees C for 3, 6, and 9 h. Thermal resistance was determined at 55 degrees C. Each storage treatment was repeated with additional holding at 23 or 30 degrees C for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h prior to heating to simulate potential temperature abuse during handling. Cultures under treatments enabling the growth of E. coli O157:H7 were generally more heat sensitive than those held at temperatures which restricted growth or enabled growth to stationary phase. Cultures stored frozen (-18 degrees C) without holding at elevated temperatures had greater heat resistance than those stored under refrigeration (3 degrees C) or at 15 degrees C. Subsequent holding of frozen cultures at 23 or 30 degrees C resulted in a decrease in heat resistance. To determine whether these responses would be observed under typical commercial preparation procedures, ground beef patties were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and stored at 3 or 15 degrees C for 9 h or at -18 degrees C for 8 d and then held at 21 or 30 degrees C for 0 or 4 h. Patties were grilled to an internal temperature of 54.4 degrees C (130 degrees F), 62.8 degrees C (145 degrees F), or 68.3 degrees C (155 degrees F). Cultures were most resistant in frozen patties, while cultures in patties stored at 15 degrees C were the most heat sensitive. Holding patties at 21 or 30 degrees C prior to grilling resulted in increased sensitivity. Storage and holding temperatures similar to those encountered in food service may influence the ability of E. coli O157:H7 to survive heat treatments. PMID:10463438

  4. Lability of copper bound to humic acid.

    PubMed

    Mao, Lingchen; Young, Scott D; Bailey, Elizabeth H

    2015-07-01

    Geochemical speciation models generally include the assumption that all metal bound to humic acid and fulvic acid (HA, FA) is labile. However, in the current study, we determined the presence of a soluble 'non-labile' Cu fraction bound to HA extracted from grassland and peat soils. This was quantified by determining isotopically-exchangeable Cu (E-value) and EDTA-extraction of HA-bound Cu, separated by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and assayed by coupled ICP-MS. Evidence of time-dependent Cu fixation by HA was found during the course of an incubation study (160 d); up to 50% of dissolved HA-bound Cu was not isotopically exchangeable. This result was supported by extraction with EDTA where approximately 40% of Cu remained bound to HA despite dissolution in 0.05 M Na2-EDTA. The presence of a substantial non-labile metal fraction held by HA challenges the assumption of wholly reversible equilibrium which is central to current geochemical models of metal binding to humic substances. PMID:25863164

  5. Proteome analysis of the Escherichia coli heat shock response under steady-state conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lüders, Svenja; Fallet, Claas; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel

    2009-01-01

    In this study a proteomic approach was used to investigate the steady-state response of Escherichia coli to temperature up-shifts in a cascade of two continuously operated bioreactors. The first reactor served as cell source with optimal settings for microbial growth, while in the second chemostat the cells were exposed to elevated temperatures. By using this reactor configuration, which has not been reported to be used for the study of bacterial stress responses so far, it is possible to study temperature stress under well-defined, steady-state conditions. Specifically the effect on the cellular adaption to temperature stress using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was examined and compared at the cultivation temperatures of 37°C and 47.5°C. As expected, the steady-state study with the double bioreactor configuration delivered a different protein spectrum compared to that obtained with standard batch experiments in shaking flasks and bioreactors. Setting a high cut-out spot-to-spot size ratio of 5, proteins involved in defence against oxygen stress, functional cell envelope proteins, chaperones and proteins involved in protein biosynthesis, the energy metabolism and the amino acid biosynthesis were found to be differently expressed at high cultivation temperatures. The results demonstrate the complexity of the stress response in a steady-state culture not reported elsewhere to date. PMID:19772559

  6. Nonimmunoglobulin fraction of human milk inhibits bacterial adhesion (hemagglutination) and enterotoxin binding of Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed Central

    Holmgren, J; Svennerholm, A M; Ahrén, C

    1981-01-01

    Human milk and colostrum samples were divided into an immunoglobulin and a nonimmunoglobulin fraction by immunosorbent chromatography. The ability of these fractions to inhibit bacterial cell adhesion and enterotoxin receptor binding of Vibrio cholerae and various Escherichia coli isolates was then tested by in vitro assays. The strongest effect was generally seen with the nonimmunoglobulin fractions, which were shown to significantly inhibit E. coli cell adhesion (hemagglutination) mediated by CFA/I, CFA/II, or K88 fimbriae (but not type 1 pili) and V. cholerae hemagglutination, as well as the binding of cholera toxin and E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin to GM1 ganglioside. Also, the immunoglobulin fractions had significant inhibitory activity in some of these systems. The results are interpreted to suggest that human milk and colostrum may contain secreted structure analogs of the cell receptors for some bacterial adhesions and enterotoxins; this might contribute to the protective effect of milk against enteric infections. PMID:7021421

  7. Heat shock induction by a misassembled cytoplasmic membrane protein complex in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mourez, M; Skouloubris, S; Betton, J M; Dassa, E

    1997-11-01

    We analysed the effects of the overproduction of parts or all of a multisubunit ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, the MalFGK2 complex, involved in the uptake of maltose and maltodextrins in Escherichia coli. We found that production of the MalF protein alone was inducing the phtrA promoter, which is under the control of a recently discovered sigma factor, sigma24, involved in the response to extracytoplasmic stresses. The production level, stability and localization of MalF were not altered when produced without its partners, suggesting that the protein was correctly inserted in the membrane. Our results indicate that a large periplasmic loop located between the third and fourth transmembrane segment of MalF, the L3 loop, is responsible for phtrA induction: (i) deleted MalF proteins with no L3 loop or with a L3 loop lacking 120 amino acids do not induce the phtrA promoter; (ii) the export to the periplasm of the L3 loop alone or fused to MalE induces the phtrA promoter. Moreover, the proteolytic sensitivity of MalF is different when it is produced alone and when MalF and MalG are produced together, suggesting a change in the conformation and/or accessibility of MalF. These results suggest that some inner membrane proteins can be sensed outside the cytoplasm by a quality control apparatus or by the export machinery. Moreover, the observation of the phtrA induction by MalF could be a useful new tool for studying the insertion and assembly of the MalFGK2 complex. PMID:9427411

  8. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli serotype O111:HNT isolated from preterm neonates in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed Central

    Senerwa, D; Olsvik, O; Mutanda, L N; Lindqvist, K J; Gathuma, J M; Fossum, K; Wachsmuth, K

    1989-01-01

    This investigation was initiated as a consequence of several cases of diarrhea in a nursery ward for preterm babies in Nairobi, Kenya. Ten lactose-positive colonies were isolated from the stools of each of 30 neonates, regardless of whether they had diarrhea; 229 strains were identified as Escherichia coli and 65 strains were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae. Six strains were lost during laboratory handling. No other bacterial, viral, or parasitic enteropathogens were identified. Using synthetic alkaline phosphatase-labeled probes, the bacterial isolates were found to be negative for the presence of genes coding for heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxins. Seventy-eight E. coli strains isolated from a total of 13 neonates possessed the E. coli enteropathogenic adhesion factor (EAF) gene, as demonstrated by the use of a cloned radiolabeled DNA fragment probe. These strains possessed similar plasmid profiles constituting a core plasmid profile, and while all adhered to HeLa cells, none produced Vero cell cytotoxins. The EAF gene was located on a 65-megadalton plasmid. Serotyping showed the strains to be of serogroup O111 and serotype H nontypable, a well known enteropathogenic type. Five neonates died during the outbreak, and the fatality rate was 30.7% (4 of 13) for neonates infected with EAF-positive E. coli strains compared with 7.7% (1 of 13) for neonates from whom only EAF-negative E. coli strains were isolated. K. pneumoniae only was isolated from five neonates. Images PMID:2568996

  9. Expanded Monomeric Intermediate upon Cold and Heat Unfolding of Phosphofructokinase-2 from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Baez, Mauricio; Wilson, Christian A.M.; Ramírez-Sarmiento, César A.; Guixé, Victoria; Babul, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Folding studies have been focused mainly on small, single-domain proteins or isolated single domains of larger proteins. However, most of the proteins present in biological systems are composed of multiple domains, and to date, the principles that underlie its folding remain elusive. The unfolding of Pfk-2 induced by GdnHCl has been described by highly cooperative three-state equilibrium (N2↔2I↔2U). This is characterized by a strong coupling between the subunits’ tertiary structure and the integrity of the dimer interface because “I” represents an unstructured and expanded monomeric intermediate. Here we report that cold and heat unfolding of Pfk-2 resembles the N2↔2I step of chemically induced unfolding. Moreover, cold unfolding appears to be as cooperative as that induced chemically and even more so than its heat-unfolding counterpart. Because Pfk-2 is a large homodimer of 66 kDa with a complex topology consisting of well-defined domains, these results are somewhat unexpected considering that cold unfolding has been described as a special kind of perturbation that decouples the cooperative unfolding of several proteins. PMID:23200052

  10. Virulence profiles of enterotoxigenic, shiga toxin and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli in South African pigs.

    PubMed

    Mohlatlole, Ramadimetja Prescilla; Madoroba, Evelyn; Muchadeyi, Farai Catherine; Chimonyo, Michael; Kanengoni, Arnold Tapera; Dzomba, Edgar Farai

    2013-08-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and shiga toxin E. coli (STEC) are important causes of colibacillosis in piglets. Recently, enteroaggregative E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST-1) has been implicated in pig diarrhoea. This study investigated the prevalence of enterotoxin [heat-labile toxins (LT), heat-stable toxin a (STa), heat-stable toxin b (STb)], shiga toxins (Stx1, Stx2, Stx2e), enteroaggregative heat-stable E. coli (EAST-1), associated fimbriae (F4, F5, F6, F41, F18ab, F18ac) and non-fimbrial adhesins [adhesin involved in diffuse adherence 1 (AIDA-1), attaching and effacing factor, porcine attaching- and effacing-associated factor] in South African pigs. A total of 263 E. coli strains were isolated from Landrace (n = 24), Large White (n = 126), Duroc (n = 28) and indigenous (n = 85) breeds of piglets aged between 9 and 136 days. PCR was used in the analysis. Virulent genes were detected in 40.3% of the isolates, of which 18.6, 0.4 and 17.5% were classified as ETEC, STEC and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), respectively. Individual genes were found in the following proportions: STb (19.01%), LT (0.4%), STa (3.4%), St2xe (1.1%) and EAST-1 (20.2%) toxins. None of the tested fimbriae were detected in ETEC and STEC isolates. About one third of the ETEC and STEC isolates was tested negative for both fimbrial and non-fimbrial adhesins. Twenty-five pathotypes from ETEC-, EAEC- and STEC-positive strains were identified. Pathotypes EAST-1 (30.2%), STb (13.2%) and STb/AIDA-1 (10.4%) were most prevalent. The study provided insight on possible causes of colibacillosis in South African pigs. PMID:23417826

  11. Potential pathogens, antimicrobial patterns and genotypic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates in constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ibekwe, A M; Murinda, Shelton E; DebRoy, Chitrita; Reddy, Gudigopura B

    2016-02-01

    Escherichia coli populations originating from swine houses through constructed wetlands were analyzed for potential pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and genotypic diversity. Escherichia coli isolates (n = 493) were screened for the presence of the following virulence genes: stx1, stx2 and eae (Shiga toxin-producing E. coli [STEC]), heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) genes and heat stable toxin STa and STb (enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), cytotoxin necrotizing factors 1 and 2 (cnf1 and cnf2 [necrotoxigenic E. coli- NTEC]), as well as O and H antigens, and the presence of the antibiotic resistance genes blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCMY-2, tet A, tet B, tet C, mph(A), aadA, StrA/B, sul1, sul2 and sul3. The commensal strains were further screened for 16 antimicrobials and characterized by BOX AIR-1 PCR for unique genotypes. The highest antibiotic resistance prevalence was for tetracycline, followed by erythromycin, ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole and kanamycin. Our data showed that most of the isolates had high distribution of single or multidrug-resistant (MDR) genotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of MDR E. coli in the wetland is a matter of great concern due to possible transfer of resistance genes from nonpathogenic to pathogenic strains or vice versa in the environment. PMID:26839381

  12. Lactobacillus prophylaxis for diarrhea due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Clements, M L; Levine, M M; Black, R E; Robins-Browne, R M; Cisneros, L A; Drusano, G L; Lanata, C F; Saah, A J

    1981-01-01

    In vitro and animal experiments indicated that lactobacilli might prevent Escherichia coli from colonizing the intestine and may produce substances counteracting enterotoxin. Lactinex, a commercial preparation of dried Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. bulgaricus, is marketed for uncomplicated diarrhea. Preliminary experiments in nonfasting volunteers indicated that lactobacilli in this preparation colonized the small intestine for up to 6 h. To evaluate the protective efficacy of Lactinex, a double-blind randomized study was carried out in which 48 volunteers (23 receiving Lactinex and 25 receiving placebos) were challenged with E. coli strains that produced heat-stable or heat-labile enterotoxins or both. No significant differences between the two groups were noted with respect to attack rate, incubation period, duration of diarrhea, volume and number of liquid stools, and coproculture yields. These data suggest that this lactobacillus preparations does not prevent or alter the course of enterotoxigenic E. coli diarrhea in adults. Lack of efficacy occurred despite efforts to maximize small bowel colonization, including administration of Lactinex in milk and in a 6-hour-interval regimen during 36 h before and 96 h after challenge. PMID:6792978

  13. The crystal structure of Escherichia coli heat shock protein YedU reveals three potential catalytic active sites

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yonghong; Liu, Deqian; Kaluarachchi, Warna D.; Bellamy, Henry D.; White, Mark A.; Fox, Robert O.

    2003-01-01

    The mRNA of Escherichia coli yedU gene is induced 31-fold upon heat shock. The 31-kD YedU protein, also calls Hsp31, is highly conserved in several human pathogens and has chaperone activity. We solved the crystal structure of YedU at 2.2 Å resolution. YedU monomer has an α/β/α sandwich domain and a small α/β domain. YedU is a dimer in solution, and its crystal structure indicates that a significant amount of surface area is buried upon dimerization. There is an extended hydrophobic patch that crosses the dimer interface on the surface of the protein. This hydrophobic patch is likely the substrate-binding site responsible for the chaperone activity. The structure also reveals a potential protease-like catalytic triad composed of Cys184, His185, and Asp213, although no enzymatic activity could be identified. YedU coordinates a metal ion using His85, His122, and Glu90. This 2-His-1-carboxylate motif is present in carboxypeptidase A (a zinc enzyme), and a number of dioxygenases and hydroxylases that utilize iron as a cofactor, suggesting another potential function for YedU. PMID:14500888

  14. Reversal of the biological activity of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin by disulfide-reducing agents.

    PubMed Central

    ElDeib, M M; Dove, C R; Parker, C D; Veum, T L; Zinn, G M; White, A A

    1986-01-01

    Various disulfide-reducing agents, mostly thiols and thiol precursors, were examined for their ability to reduce the disulfide bonds in the Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin STa; reduction of the bonds results in loss of biological activity. The biological activity measured was the stimulation of guanylate cyclase in pig intestinal brush border membranes by STa. Nearly all of the compounds inactivated STa, although at different rates; a smaller number appreciably decreased guanylate cyclase activity when they were introduced into the reaction mixture after STa bound to its receptor. With dithiothreitol, the decrease in reaction rate was both time and concentration dependent and resulted in a reversal to basal activity. The anionic thiols were relatively ineffective in reversing activation, the neutral monothiols were moderately effective, and the aminothiols and neutral dithiols were the most effective. The order of effectiveness of the compounds was S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethanethiol greater than 2,3-dimercaptopropanol = 2-aminoethylisothiuronium bromide greater than dithiothreitol greater than 2-mercaptoethylamine greater than alpha-thioglycerol. These compounds were used in weanling pig ligated-intestinal-loop bioassays to determine if STa-induced secretion was reduced when they were injected 20 min after the STa. Instead of S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethanethiol we used the phosphorylated derivative S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid; this compound and 2,3-dimercaptopropanol were the only compounds that reduced STa-induced secretion and had no direct secretory or pathological effects. PMID:2867044

  15. Effect of heat-assisted pulsed electric fields and bacteriophage on enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Walkling-Ribeiro, Markus; Anany, Hany; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF), heat-assisted PEF (H-PEF), and virulent bacteriophage (VP) are non-thermal techniques for pathogen inactivation in liquids that were investigated individually, and in combination (PEF/VP, H-PEF/VP) to control enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 in Luria-Bertani broth (LBB) and Ringer's solution (RS). Treated cells were subsequently incubated at refrigeration (4°C) and temperature-abuse conditions (12°C) for 5 days. When EHEC cells grown in LBB were subjected to non-thermal processing and subsequently stored at 12°C for 5 days, reductions in count of between 0.1 and 0.6 log cycles were observed and following storage at 4°C the decrease in counts varied between 0.2 and 1.1 log10 . For bacteria cells suspended in RS values ranged from 0.1 to ≥3.9 log cycles at both storage temperatures. The most effective treatments were H-PEF and H-PEF/VP, both producing a >3.4 log cycle reduction of cells suspended in non-nutrient RS. Analysis of EHEC recovery on selective and non-selective media indicated no occurrence of sub-lethal damage for VP, PEF/VP, and H-PEF/VP-treated cells. The findings indicate that combining PEF and lytic phage may represent a suitable alternative to conventional fluid decontamination following further process optimization. PMID:25376158

  16. Binding of E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin to rat intestinal brush borders and to basolateral membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Guarino, A.; Cohen, M.B.; Overmann, G.; Thompson, M.R.; Giannella, R.A.

    1987-09-01

    We studied the binding of E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) to rat brush borders (BB) and to basolateral membranes (BLM) using a biologically active monoiodinated radioligand (( /sup 125/I)STa) and highly enriched BB and BLM preparations free of other significant organelle contamination. Binding of (/sup 125/I)STa to BB was specific; time-, temperature-, and pH-dependent; saturable; and partially reversible. Nonlabeled toxin competitively inhibited the binding of radioligand to BB in a dose-related manner. Scatchard analysis revealed a single class of receptors with an apparent affinity constant of 8.7 +/- 1.5 X 10(8) l/mol. Binding was not affected by amino acids, sugars, and lectins. Proteolytic enzymes significantly decreased binding, although several did so by modifying the radioligand. Trypsin inhibited binding without modifying the radioligand thus supporting the proteinaceous nature of the receptor. Since the enrichment in binding activity in the BB over the homogenate was significantly lower than the enrichment in sucrase activity, we concluded that binding activity is probably associated with other membranous domains, but direct examination revealed no binding activity on basolateral membranes.

  17. Reduction of the secretory response to Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin by thiol and disulfide compounds. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, R.N.; Dunn, J.A.; Guerrant, R.L.

    1983-07-01

    We examined the effects of disulfide and thiol compounds on Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) and cyclic GMP-induced secretion. Both cystamine and cystine (disulfide compounds) reduced the secretory responses to submaximal doses of ST in suckling mice (at 0.5 mumol per mouse) and reduced ST activation of guanylate cyclase (by 33 to 73% at 1 mM). In higher doses, cystamine completely eradicated a maximally effective ST dose as well. In addition, the sulfhydryl (thiol) compounds cysteamine, cysteine, and acetylcysteine strikingly reduced the secretory response and the guanylate cyclase response to ST. Neither the disulfide nor the thiol compounds tested reduced cyclic GMP-induced secretion. These studies suggest that disulfide and thiol compounds both block ST-induced secretion before its activation of guanylate cyclase. Taken with the work of others, these findings suggest that disulfide compounds may alter the oxidation reduction state of a cell or act directly on the guanylate cyclase enzyme, whereas thiol compounds may inactivate ST itself by breaking its disulfide bridges, or it may alter guanylate cyclase activation by ST. Both families of compounds deserve further consideration among potential antisecretory agents for application in the control of ST-induced diarrhea.

  18. Topoisomerase activity during the heat shock response in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Camacho-Carranza, R; Membrillo-Hernández, J; Ramírez-Santos, J; Castro-Dorantes, J; Chagoya de Sánchez, V; Gómez-Eichelmann, M C

    1995-01-01

    During the upshift of temperature from 30 to 42, 45, 47, or 50 degrees C, an increase in the level of supercoiling of a reporter plasmid was observed. This increase was present in groE and dnaK mutants but was inhibited in cells treated with chloramphenicol and novobiocin. The intracellular [ATP]/[ADP] ratio increased rapidly after an upshift in temperature from 30 to 47 degrees C and then decreased to reach a level above that observed at 30 degrees C. These results suggest that gyrase and proteins synthesized during heat shock are responsible for the changes seen in plasmid supercoiling. Proteins GroE and DnaK are probably not involved in this phenomenon. PMID:7768879

  19. Isolation of Labile Pseudohalogen NSO Species.

    PubMed

    Labbow, René; Michalik, Dirk; Reiß, Fabian; Schulz, Axel; Villinger, Alexander

    2016-06-27

    A new synthetic approach enabled the generation of highly labile thionylimide, H-NSO, which was trapped by adduct formation with the bulky Lewis acid B(C6 F5 )3 and fully characterized. For comparison, a series of different Me3 Si-NSO Lewis acid adducts were studied. Treatment of Me3 Si-NSO with the silylium ion [Me3 Si](+) led to the formation of the hitherto unknown iminosulfonium ion [Me3 Si-N=S-O-SiMe3 ](+) , which could be isolated and fully characterized as a salt in the presence of weakly coordinating carborate anions. PMID:27072533

  20. Characterization of Immunological Cross-Reactivity between Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Stable Toxin and Human Guanylin and Uroguanylin

    PubMed Central

    Taxt, Arne M.; Diaz, Yuleima; Bacle, Amélie; Grauffel, Cédric; Reuter, Nathalie; Aasland, Rein; Sommerfelt, Halvor

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing the heat-stable toxin (ST) (human-type [STh] and porcine-type [STp] variants) is among the five most important enteric pathogens in young children living in low- and middle-income countries. ST mediates diarrheal disease through activation of the guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) receptor and is an attractive vaccine target with the potential to confer protection against a wide range of ETEC strains. However, immunological cross-reactivity to the endogenous GC-C ligands guanylin and uroguanylin is a major concern because of the similarities to ST in amino acid sequence, structure, and function. We have investigated the presence of similar epitopes on STh, STp, guanylin, and uroguanylin by analyzing these peptides in eight distinct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). A fraction (27%) of a polyclonal anti-STh antibody and an anti-STh monoclonal antibody (MAb) cross-reacted with uroguanylin, the latter with a 73-fold-lower affinity. In contrast, none of the antibodies raised against STp, one polyclonal antibody and three MAbs, cross-reacted with the endogenous peptides. Antibodies raised against guanylin and uroguanylin showed partial cross-reactivity with the ST peptides. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that immunological cross-reactions between ST and the endogenous peptides can occur. However, the partial nature and low affinity of the observed cross-reactions suggest that the risk of adverse effects from a future ST vaccine may be low. Furthermore, our results suggest that this risk may be reduced or eliminated by basing an ST immunogen on STp or a selectively mutated variant of STh. PMID:24778111

  1. The structure of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin b by nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism.

    PubMed Central

    Sukumar, M.; Rizo, J.; Wall, M.; Dreyfus, L. A.; Kupersztoch, Y. M.; Gierasch, L. M.

    1995-01-01

    The heat-stable enterotoxin b (STb) is secreted by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli that cause secretory diarrhea in animals and humans. It is a 48-amino acid peptide containing two disulfide bridges, between residues 10 and 48 and 21 and 36, which are crucial for its biological activity. Here, we report the solution structure of STb determined by two- and three-dimensional NMR methods. Approximate interproton distances derived from NOE data were used to construct structures of STb using distance-geometry and simulated annealing procedures. The NMR-derived structure shows that STb is helical between residues 10 and 22 and residues 38 and 44. The helical structure in the region 10-22 is amphipathic and exposes several polar residues to the solvent, some of which have been shown to be important in determining the toxicity of STb. The hydrophobic residues on the opposite face of this helix make contacts with the hydrophobic residues of the C-terminal helix. The loop region between residues 21 and 36 has another cluster of hydrophobic residues and exposes Arg 29 and Asp 30, which have been shown to be important for intestinal secretory activity. CD studies show that reduction of disulfide bridges results in a dramatic loss of structure, which correlates with loss of function. Reduced STb adopts a predominantly random-coil conformation. Chromatographic measurements of concentrations of native, fully reduced, and single-disulfide species in equilibrium mixtures of STb in redox buffers indicate that the formation of the two disulfide bonds in STb is only moderately cooperative. Similar measurements in the presence of 8 M urea suggest that the native secondary structure significantly stabilizes the disulfide bonds. PMID:8528070

  2. Remarkable improvement in the heat stability of CutA1 from Escherichia coli by rational protein design.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Yoshinori; Ota, Motonori; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Takehira, Michiyo; Ogasahara, Kyoko; Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Kunishima, Naoki; Yutani, Katsuhide

    2010-10-01

    To enhance the heat stability of the CutA1 protein from Escherichia coli (EcCutA1) so that it has comparable stability to CutA1 from Pyrococcus horikoshii with a denaturation temperature (T(d)) of 150°C, we used the Stability Profile of Mutant Protein (SPMP) to examine the structure-sequence (3D-1D) compatibility between the conformation of EcCutA1 and its native sequence [J. Mol. Biol., 248, 733-738, (1995)]. We identified seven residues in EcCutA1 that were incompatible in terms of dihedral angles and hydrophobicity. These residues were replaced with appropriate amino acids, and the mutant proteins were evaluated for changes in stability by DSC and denaturant denaturation. The mutations that were introduced at five out of the seven positions improved the stability of EcCutA1. The T(d) values of single (S11A) and triple (S11V/E61V/Q73V) mutants improved by 16.5 and 26.6°C, respectively, compared to that of the wild-type protein (89.9°C). These analyses showed that (1) the stability of EcCutA1 is remarkably improved by slight substitutions, even though the stability of the wild-type protein is considerably high, (2) remarkable improvements in the stability can be quantitatively explained based on the newly solved native structure, and (3) SPMP is a powerful tool to examine substitutions that improve protein stability. PMID:20639520

  3. Characterization of immunological cross-reactivity between enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-stable toxin and human guanylin and uroguanylin.

    PubMed

    Taxt, Arne M; Diaz, Yuleima; Bacle, Amélie; Grauffel, Cédric; Reuter, Nathalie; Aasland, Rein; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Puntervoll, Pål

    2014-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing the heat-stable toxin (ST) (human-type [STh] and porcine-type [STp] variants) is among the five most important enteric pathogens in young children living in low- and middle-income countries. ST mediates diarrheal disease through activation of the guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) receptor and is an attractive vaccine target with the potential to confer protection against a wide range of ETEC strains. However, immunological cross-reactivity to the endogenous GC-C ligands guanylin and uroguanylin is a major concern because of the similarities to ST in amino acid sequence, structure, and function. We have investigated the presence of similar epitopes on STh, STp, guanylin, and uroguanylin by analyzing these peptides in eight distinct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). A fraction (27%) of a polyclonal anti-STh antibody and an anti-STh monoclonal antibody (MAb) cross-reacted with uroguanylin, the latter with a 73-fold-lower affinity. In contrast, none of the antibodies raised against STp, one polyclonal antibody and three MAbs, cross-reacted with the endogenous peptides. Antibodies raised against guanylin and uroguanylin showed partial cross-reactivity with the ST peptides. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that immunological cross-reactions between ST and the endogenous peptides can occur. However, the partial nature and low affinity of the observed cross-reactions suggest that the risk of adverse effects from a future ST vaccine may be low. Furthermore, our results suggest that this risk may be reduced or eliminated by basing an ST immunogen on STp or a selectively mutated variant of STh. PMID:24778111

  4. Effect of Frequency and Waveform on Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Salsa by Ohmic Heating

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su-Yeon; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2013-01-01

    The effect of frequency of alternating current during ohmic heating on electrode corrosion, heating rate, inactivation of food-borne pathogens, and quality of salsa was investigated. The impact of waveform on heating rate was also investigated. Salsa was treated with various frequencies (60 Hz to 20 kHz) and waveforms (sine, square, and sawtooth) at a constant electric field strength of 12.5 V/cm. Electrode corrosion did not occur when the frequency exceeded 1 kHz. The heating rate of the sample was dependent on frequency up to 500 Hz, but there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the heating rate when the frequency was increased above 1 kHz. The electrical conductivity of the sample increased with a rise in the frequency. At a frequency of 60 Hz, the square wave produced a lower heating rate than that of sine and sawtooth waves. The heating rate between waveforms was not significantly (P > 0.05) different when the frequency was >500 Hz. As the frequency increased, the treatment time required to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to below the detection limit (1 log CFU/g) decreased without affecting product quality. These results suggest that ohmic heating can be effectively used to pasteurize salsa and that the effect of inactivation is dependent on frequency and electrical conductivity rather than waveform. PMID:23023752

  5. Escherichia coli FtsH is a membrane-bound, ATP-dependent protease which degrades the heat-shock transcription factor sigma 32.

    PubMed Central

    Tomoyasu, T; Gamer, J; Bukau, B; Kanemori, M; Mori, H; Rutman, A J; Oppenheim, A B; Yura, T; Yamanaka, K; Niki, H

    1995-01-01

    Escherichia coli FtsH is an essential integral membrane protein that has an AAA-type ATPase domain at its C-terminal cytoplasmic part, which is homologous to at least three ATPase subunits of the eukaryotic 26S proteasome. We report here that FtsH is involved in degradation of the heat-shock transcription factor sigma 32, a key element in the regulation of the E. coli heat-shock response. In the temperature-sensitive ftsH1 mutant, the amount of sigma 32 at a non-permissive temperature was higher than in the wild-type under certain conditions due to a reduced rate of degradation. In an in vitro system with purified components, FtsH catalyzed ATP-dependent degradation of biologically active histidine-tagged sigma 32. FtsH has a zinc-binding motif similar to the active site of zinc-metalloproteases. Protease activity of FtsH for histidine-tagged sigma 32 was stimulated by Zn2+ and strongly inhibited by the heavy metal chelating agent o-phenanthroline. We conclude that FtsH is a novel membrane-bound, ATP-dependent metalloprotease with activity for sigma 32. These findings indicate a new mechanism of gene regulation in E. coli. Images PMID:7781608

  6. Efficacy of UV, acidified sodium hypochlorite, and mild heat for decontamination of surface and infiltrated Escherichia coli O157:H7 on green onions and baby spinach.

    PubMed

    Durak, M Zeki; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2012-07-01

    Produce-associated foodborne illnesses outbreaks have highlighted the need for more effective decontamination methods to ensure the safety of fresh produce. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the individual and combined efficacies of germicidal UV light (12.5 to 500 mJ/cm(2)), acidified sodium hypochlorite (ASC 10 to 200 ppm), and mild heat (40 to 50°C) for decontaminating green onions and baby spinach infected with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Samples were inoculated by spot and dip inoculation methods to mimic surface and infiltrated E. coli O157:H7 contamination, respectively. In green onions and baby spinach, the individual efficacies of UV, ASC, and mild-heat treatments varied based on the produce type and contamination method. Following analysis of the efficacies of the single treatments, a combined treatment with 125 mJ/cm(2) UV and 200 ppm of ASC at 50°C was selected for spot-inoculated green onions, and a combined treatment with 125 mJ/cm(2) UV and 200 ppm of ASC at 20°C was selected for spot- and dip-inoculated baby spinach. While a >5-log reduction was achieved with the combination treatment for spot-inoculated green onions with an initial contamination level of 7.2 log CFU per spot, the same treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations below the detection limit (<1 log) on green onions spot inoculated at a lower contamination level (4.3 log CFU per spot). On spot- and dip-inoculated baby spinach, the combined treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations by 2.8 log CFU per spot and 2.6 log CFU/g, respectively. The combined treatment of 500 mJ/cm(2) UV and 200 ppm of ASC at 50°C selected for the decontamination of dip-inoculated green onions resulted in a 2.2-log CFU/g reduction. These findings suggest that when foodborne pathogens contaminate produce and subsequently infiltrate, attach to, or become localized into protected areas, the individual or combined applications of UV, ASC, and mild-heat treatments have limited decontamination

  7. Inactivation of viruses in labile blood derivatives. II. Physical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, B.; Wiebe, M.E.; Lippin, A.; Vandersande, J.; Stryker, M.H.

    1985-11-01

    The thermal inactivation of viruses in labile blood derivatives was evaluated by addition of marker viruses (VSV, Sindbis, Sendai, EMC) to anti-hemophilic factor (AHF) concentrates. The rate of virus inactivation at 60 degrees C was decreased by at least 100- to 700-fold by inclusion of 2.75 M glycine and 50 percent sucrose, or 3.0 M potassium citrate, additives which contribute to retention of protein biologic activity. Nonetheless, at least 10(4) infectious units of each virus was inactivated within 10 hours. Increasing the temperature from 60 to 70 or 80 degrees C caused a 90 percent or greater loss in AHF activity. An even greater decline in the rate of virus inactivation was observed on heating AHF in the lyophilized state, although no loss in AHF activity was observed after 72 hours of heating at 60 degrees C. Several of the proteins present in lyophilized AHF concentrates displayed an altered electrophoretic mobility as a result of exposure to 60 degrees C for 24 hours. Exposure of lyophilized AHF to irradiation from a cobalt 60 source resulted in an acceptable yield of AHF at 1.0, but not at 2.0, megarads. At 1 megarad, greater than or equal to 6.0 logs of VSV and 3.3 logs of Sindbis virus were inactivated.

  8. Decontamination method using heat and relative humidity for radish seeds achieves a 7-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 without affecting product quality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y B; Kim, H W; Song, M K; Rhee, M S

    2015-05-18

    We developed a novel decontamination method to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds without adversely affecting seed germination or product quality. The use of heat (55, 60, and 65 °C) combined with relative humidity (RH; 25, 45, 65, 85, and 100%) for 24h was evaluated for effective microbial reduction and preservation of seed germination rates. A significant two-way interaction of heat and RH was observed for both microbial reduction and germination rate (P<0.0001). Increases in heat and RH were associated with corresponding reductions in E. coli O157:H7 and in germination rate (P<0.05). The order of lethality for the different treatments was generally as follows: no treatment <55 °C/25-65% RH ≒60 °C/25-45% RH ≒65 °C/25% RH <55 °C/85% RH =60 °C/65% RH <55 °C/100% RH =60 °C/85-100% RH =65 °C/45-100% RH. The most effective condition, 65 °C/45% RH, completely inactivated E. coli O157:H7 on the seeds (7.0 log CFU/g reduction) and had no significant effect on the germination rate (85.4%; P>0.05) or product quality. The method uses only heat and relative humidity without chemicals, and is thus applicable as a general decontamination procedure in spout producing plants where the use of growth chambers is the norm. PMID:25732001

  9. Immunomodulatory effect of non-viable components of probiotic culture stimulated with heat-inactivated Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus on holoxenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Ditu, L. M.; Chifiriuc, M. C.; Bezirtzoglou, E.; Marutescu, L.; Bleotu, C.; Pelinescu, D.; Mihaescu, G.; Lazar, V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Competition of probiotic bacteria with other species from the intestinal microbiota involves different mechanisms that occur regardless of probiotics’ viability. The objective of this paper was to assess the cytokine serum levels in holoxenic mice after oral administration of non-viable components (NVC) of Enterococcus faecium probiotic culture stimulated with heat-inactivated Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus in comparison to NVC of unstimulated E. faecium probiotic culture. Methods Probiotic E. faecium CMGb 16 culture, grown in the presence of heat-inactivated cultures of E. coli and B. cereus CMGB 102, was subsequently separated into supernatant (SN) and heat-inactivated cellular sediment (CS) fractions by centrifugation. Each NVC was orally administered to holoxenic mice (balb C mouse strain), in three doses, given at 24 hours. Blood samples were collected from the retinal artery, at 7, 14, and 21 days after the first administration of the NVC. The serum concentrations of IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) interleukins were assessed by ELISA method. Results After the oral administration of SN component obtained from the probiotic culture stimulated with heat-inactivated cultures of B. cereus CMGB 102 and E. coli O28, the serum concentrations of IL-12 were maintained higher in the samples collected at 7 and 14 days post-administration. No specific TNF-α profile could be established, depending on stimulated or non-stimulated probiotic culture, NVC fraction, or harvesting time. Conclusion The obtained results demonstrate that non-viable fractions of probiotic bacteria, stimulated by other bacterial species, could induce immunostimulatory effects mediated by cytokines and act, therefore, as immunological adjuvants. PMID:25317114

  10. Optimization of heat and relative humidity conditions to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination and maximize the germination of radish seeds.

    PubMed

    Song, M K; Kim, H W; Rhee, M S

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that a combination of heat and relative humidity (RH) had a marked bactericidal effect on Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds. Here, response surface methodology with a Box-Behnken design was used to build a model to predict reductions in E. coli O157:H7 populations based on three independent variables: heating temperature (55 °C, 60 °C, or 65 °C), RH (40%, 60%, and 80%), and holding time (8, 15, or 22 h). Optimum treatment conditions were selected using a desirability function. The predictive model for microbial reduction had a high regression coefficient (R(2) = 0.97), and the accuracy of the model was verified using validation data (R(2) = 0.95). Among the three variables examined, heating temperature (P < 0.0001) and RH (P = 0.004) were the most significant in terms of bacterial reduction and seed germination, respectively. The optimum conditions for microbial reduction (6.6 log reduction) determined by ridge analysis were as follows: 64.5 °C and 63.2% RH for 17.7 h. However, when both microbial reduction and germination rate were taken into consideration, the desirability function yielded optimal conditions of 65 °C and 40% RH for 8 h (6.6 log reduction in the bacterial population; 94.4% of seeds germinated). This study provides comprehensive data that improve our understanding of the effects of heating temperature, RH, and holding time on the E. coli O157:H7 population on radish seeds. Radish seeds can be exposed to these conditions before sprouting, which greatly increases the microbiological safety of the products. PMID:26919813

  11. Fate and lability of silver in soils: Effect of ageing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate and lability of added soluble Ag in soils over time was examined by measurement of labile metal (E-value) by isotopic dilution using the 110mAg radioactive isotope and the solid-phase speciation of Ag by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrosco...

  12. Labile hypertension and jogging: new diagnostic tool or spurious discovery?

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, W

    1981-01-01

    A labile hypertensive black man reviews his own personal history of hypertension, based on intensive self-study. The evidence suggests that aerobic isotonic exercise (jogging) depresses labile pressure values, forcing them down to near basal levels and preventing a rise to previous blood pressure levels for several hours. PMID:6780119

  13. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and other gram-negative bacteria of infantile diarrhea: surface antigens, hemagglutinins, colonization factor antigen, and loss of enterotoxigenicity.

    PubMed

    Bäck, E; Möllby, R; Kaijser, B; Stintzing, G; Wadström, T; Habte, D

    1980-09-01

    Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT)-producing Escherichia coli and other enteric bacteria isolated from diarrheal Ethiopian children were studied for O and K antigen, production of heat-stable enterotoxin (ST), stability of LT production, properties of mannose-resistant hemagglutination (MRHA) (indicative of adhesive properties), and colonization factor antigen (CFA). Of the E. coli strains, 33% possessed O6, O8, or O78; 93% of these were stable producers of LT, and 86% produced both Lt and ST. O78 strains possessed CFA/I, whereas O6 and O8 strains possessed CFA/II. The E. coli with O antigens other than O6, O8, or O78, as well as the non-E. coli bacteria tended to lose their ability to produce LT; only 16% produced ST, and they only occasionally showed MRHA properties. The former group of E. coli strains might be considered as true enteropathogenic bacteria (enterovirulent E. coli), which may be identified serologically, while the pathogenic significance of the diversified latter group remains less certain. PMID:7003030

  14. Escherichia coli mutants deficient in exonuclease VII.

    PubMed Central

    Chase, J W; Richardson, C C

    1977-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli having reduced levels of exonuclease VII activity have been isolated by a mass screening procedure. Nine mutants, five of which are known to be of independent origin, were obtained and designated xse. The defects in these strains lie at two or more loci. One of these loci, xseA, lies in the interval between purG and purC; it is 93 to 97% co-transducible with guaA. The order of the genes in this region is purG-xseA guaA,B-purC. The available data do not allow xseA to be ordered with respect to guaA,B. Exonuclease VII purified from E. coli KLC3 xseA3 is more heat labile than exonuclease VII purified from the parent, E. coli PA610 xse+. Therefore, xseA is the structural gene for exonuclease VII. Mutants with defects in the xseA gene show increased sensitivity to nalidixic acid and have an abnormally high frequency of recombination (hyper-Rec phenotype) as measured by the procedure of Konrad and Lehlman (1974). The hyper-Rec character of xseA strains is approximately one-half that of the polAex1 mutant defective in the 5' leads to 3' hydrolytic activity of deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase I. The double mutant, polAex1 xseA7, is twice as hyper-Rec as the polAex1 mutant alone. The xseA- strains are slightly more sensitive to ultraviolet irradiation than the parent strain. Bacteriophages T7, fd, and lambdared grow normally in xseA- strains. Images PMID:320198

  15. Potentiating the Heat Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Ground Beef Patties by Natural Antimicrobials

    PubMed Central

    Surendran Nair, Meera; Lau, Patrick; Belskie, Kaylin; Fancher, Samantha; Chen, Chi-Hung; Karumathil, Deepti Prasad; Yin, Hsin-Bai; Liu, Yanyan; Ma, Fulin; Upadhyaya, Indu; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Mancini, Richard; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157: H7 (EHEC) is a major foodborne pathogen largely transmitted to humans through the consumption of undercooked ground beef. This study investigated the efficacy of two food-grade, plant-derived antimicrobials, namely rutin (RT), and resveratrol (RV) with or without chitosan (CH) in enhancing EHEC inactivation in undercooked hamburger patties. Further, the effect of aforementioned treatments on beef color and lipid oxidation was analyzed. Additionally, the deleterious effects of these antimicrobial treatments on EHEC was determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ground beef was inoculated with a five-strain mixture of EHEC (7.0 log CFU/g), followed by the addition of RT (0.05%, 0.1% w/w) or RV (0.1, 0.2% w/w) with or without CH (0.01% w/w). The meat was formed into patties (25 g) and stored at 4°C for 5 days. On days 1, 3, and 5, the patties were cooked (65°C, medium rare) and surviving EHEC was enumerated. The effect of these treatments on meat color and lipid oxidation during storage was also determined as per American Meat Science Association guidelines. The study was repeated three times with duplicate samples of each treatment. Both RT and RV enhanced the thermal destruction of EHEC, and reduced the pathogen load by at least 3 log CFU/g compared to control (P < 0.05). The combination of RT or RV with CH was found to be more effective, and reduced EHEC by 5 log CFU/g (P < 0.05). EHEC counts in uncooked patties did not decline during storage for 5 days (P > 0.05). Moreover, patties treated with RV plus CH were more color stable with higher a∗ values (P < 0.05). SEM results revealed that heat treatment with antimicrobials (CH + RV 0.2%) resulted in complete destruction of EHEC cells and extrusion of intracellular contents. Results suggest that the aforementioned antimicrobials could be used for enhancing the thermal inactivation of EHEC in undercooked patties; however, detailed sensory studies are warranted. PMID:26870000

  16. Inactivation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in peanut butter cracker sandwiches by radio-frequency heating.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jae-Won; Kim, Sung-Youn; Ryu, Sang-Ryeol; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2013-05-01

    A multistate outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium recently occurred in the USA, which was traced back to various food products made with contaminated peanut butter. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of radio-frequency (RF) heating to inactivate S. Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in peanut butter cracker sandwiches using creamy and chunky commercial peanut butter and to determine the effect on quality by measuring color changes and sensory evaluation. Samples were treated for a maximum time of 90 s in a 27.12 MHz RF heating system. Samples were prepared in the form of peanut butter cracker sandwiches and placed in the middle of two parallel-plate electrodes. After 90 s of RF treatment, the log reductions of S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were 4.29 and 4.39 log CFU/g, respectively, in creamy peanut butter. RF treatment of chunky peanut butter for 90 s also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced levels of S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 by 4.55 log CFU/g and 5.32 log CFU/g. Color values and sensory characteristics of the RF treated peanut butter and crackers were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the control. These results suggest that RF heating can be applied to control pathogens in peanut butter products without affecting quality. PMID:23498191

  17. Concentration-dependent inhibition of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and heterocyclic amines in heated ground beef patties by apple, olive, and onion powders and clove bud oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meats need to be sufficiently heated to inactivate foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. High-temperature heat treatment used to prepare well-done meats could, however, increase the formation of potentially carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs). The objective of this study was to d...

  18. Prevalent phenotypic and genotypic profile of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli among Iranian children.

    PubMed

    Nazarian, Shahram; Gargari, Seyed Latif Mousavi; Rasooli, Iraj; Alerasol, Masoome; Bagheri, Samane; Alipoor, Shakiba Darvish

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of diarrhea among children. ETEC strains express colonization factors (CFs), which mediate adherence to the small intestinal epithelium and produce entrotoxins that induce diarrhea. Here, we characterized the phenotypes and genotypes of ETEC strains from 261 diarrheal stool samples from Iranian children. The prevalence of ETEC was 8.04%. Most of the isolates were positive for heat-labile and heat-stable toxins. CFA/I, CS3, CS2, and CS5 were detected from some of the clinical isolates. 33.3% of the isolates did not express CFs. The majority of ETEC isolates were identified as O127 and O128 serotypes, and 57% of the strains were resistant to more than 1 antimicrobial agent. Heat-labile enterotoxin activity was confirmed using the Y1 adrenal cell assay, rabbit ileal loop and adenylate cyclase activation tests. Regional phenotypic and genotypic characterization could help to elucidate the ecology and pathogenicity of ETEC to efficiently reduce the burden of illness brought about by ETEC. This study may lead to development of effective prophylactic measures. PMID:24647248

  19. Transformation in Escherichia coli: stages in the process.

    PubMed

    Bergmans, H E; van Die, I M; Hoekstra, W P

    1981-05-01

    Transformation experiments with Escherichia coli recipient cells and linear chromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are reported. E. coli can be rendered competent for DNA uptake by a temperature shock (0 degrees C leads to 42 degrees C leads to 0 degrees C) of the recipient cells in the presence of a high concentration of either Ca2+ or Mg2+ ions. Uptake of DNA into a deoxyribonuclease-resistant form, for which the presence of Ca2+ is essential, was possible during the temperature shock but appeared to occur most readily after the heat shock during incubation at 0 degrees C. When DNA was added to cells that had been heat shocked in the presence of divalent cations only, DNA uptake also occurred. This suggests that competence induction and uptake may be regarded as separate stages. Under conditions used to induce competence, we observed an extensive release of periplasmic enzymes, probably reflecting membrane damage induced during development of competence. After the conversion of donor DNA into a deoxyribonuclease-resistant form, transformants could be selected. It appeared that incubation, before plating, of the transformation mixture in a medium containing high Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations and supplemented with all growth requirements increased the transformation frequency. This incubation probably causes recovery of physiologically labile cells. PMID:7012133

  20. Ingestion of food pellets containing Escherichia coli overexpressing the heat-shock protein DnaK protects Penaeus vannamei (Boone) against Vibrio harveyi (Baumann) infection.

    PubMed

    Sinnasamy, S; Noordin, N Mat; MacRae, T H; Bin Abdullah, M Ikhwanuddin; Bossier, P; Wahid, M E Bin Abdul; Noriaki, A; Sung, Y Y

    2016-05-01

    Feeding aquatic animals with bacterial encapsulated heat-shock proteins (Hsps) is potentially a new method to combat vibriosis, an important disease affecting aquatic animals used in aquaculture. Food pellets comprised of shrimp and containing Escherichia coli overexpressing either DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE, the prokaryotic equivalents of Hsp70-Hsp40-Hsp20, or only DnaK were fed to juveniles of the white leg shrimp Penaeus vannamei, and protection against pathogenic Vibrio harveyi was determined. Maintaining pellets at different temperatures for varying lengths of time reduced the number of live adhering E. coli, as did contact with sea water, demonstrating that storage and immersion adversely affected bacterial survival and attachment to pellets. Feeding P. vannamei with E. coli did not compromise their survival, indicating that the bacteria were not pathogenic to shrimp. Feeding P. vannamei with pellets containing bacteria overproducing DnaK (approximately 60 cells g(-1) pellets) boosted P. vannamei survival twofold against V. harveyi, suggesting that DnaK plays a role in Vibrio tolerance. Pellets containing DnaK were effective in providing protection to P. vannamei for up to 2 weeks before loss of viability and that DnaK encapsulated by these bacteria enhanced shrimp resistance against Vibrio infection. PMID:26132358

  1. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli secretes a highly conserved mucin-degrading metalloprotease to effectively engage intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qingwei; Kumar, Pardeep; Vickers, Tim J; Sheikh, Alaullah; Lewis, Warren G; Rasko, David A; Sistrunk, Jeticia; Fleckenstein, James M

    2014-02-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a leading cause of death due to diarrheal illness among young children in developing countries, and there is currently no effective vaccine. Many elements of ETEC pathogenesis are still poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that YghJ, a secreted ETEC antigen identified in immunoproteomic studies using convalescent patient sera, is required for efficient access to small intestinal enterocytes and for the optimal delivery of heat-labile toxin (LT). Furthermore, YghJ is a highly conserved metalloprotease that influences intestinal colonization of ETEC by degrading the major mucins in the small intestine, MUC2 and MUC3. Genes encoding YghJ and its cognate type II secretion system (T2SS), which also secretes LT, are highly conserved in ETEC and exist in other enteric pathogens, including other diarrheagenic E. coli and Vibrio cholerae bacteria, suggesting that this mucin-degrading enzyme may represent a shared virulence feature of these important pathogens. PMID:24478067

  2. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Secretes a Highly Conserved Mucin-Degrading Metalloprotease To Effectively Engage Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qingwei; Kumar, Pardeep; Vickers, Tim J.; Sheikh, Alaullah; Lewis, Warren G.; Rasko, David A.; Sistrunk, Jeticia

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a leading cause of death due to diarrheal illness among young children in developing countries, and there is currently no effective vaccine. Many elements of ETEC pathogenesis are still poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that YghJ, a secreted ETEC antigen identified in immunoproteomic studies using convalescent patient sera, is required for efficient access to small intestinal enterocytes and for the optimal delivery of heat-labile toxin (LT). Furthermore, YghJ is a highly conserved metalloprotease that influences intestinal colonization of ETEC by degrading the major mucins in the small intestine, MUC2 and MUC3. Genes encoding YghJ and its cognate type II secretion system (T2SS), which also secretes LT, are highly conserved in ETEC and exist in other enteric pathogens, including other diarrheagenic E. coli and Vibrio cholerae bacteria, suggesting that this mucin-degrading enzyme may represent a shared virulence feature of these important pathogens. PMID:24478067

  3. Partial purification and characterization of an escherichia coli toxic factor that induces morphological cell alterations.

    PubMed Central

    Caprioli, A; Falbo, V; Roda, L G; Ruggeri, F M; Zona, C

    1983-01-01

    A factor produced by several strains of Escherichia coli isolated from enteritis-affected children has been shown to produce both a necrotizing effect on rabbit skin and striking morphological alterations on CHO, Vero, and HeLa cells. The same strains were found to have hemolytic activity on sheep erythrocytes. The toxic, cell-altering factor was demonstrated to be different from both heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxins and from Vero toxin. The main effect induced by the isolated factor on cultured cells was the formation of large multinucleated cells. The partial purification achieved suggests that the same factor (most likely a protein with a molecular weight of 70,000 to 80,000) is responsible for toxic and cell-altering activities, whereas a different molecular species is responsible for hemolytic activity. Images PMID:6341235

  4. Escherichia coli (E. coli)

    MedlinePlus

    ... so you might hear about E. coli being found in drinking water, which are not themselves harmful, but indicate the ... at CDC Foodborne disease Travelers' Health: Safe Food & Water Healthy Swimming E. coli Infection & Farm ... Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  5. Heat resistance in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli may favor environmental survival in a hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Boll, Erik J; Frimodt-Møller, Jakob; Olesen, Bente; Krogfelt, Karen A; Struve, Carsten

    2016-06-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli are a major concern worldwide. There is an urgent need to identify bacterial factors promoting survival and persistence of these organisms in the nosocomial environment. Here, we describe the presence of a gene cluster, containing the Clp ATPase ClpK, within a collection of Danish ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. The cluster conferred thermoprotection upon the isolates, and thus might facilitate survival on medical devices exposed to semi-high temperatures in a hospital setting. PMID:26946311

  6. Cystic fibrosis, atopy, and airways lability.

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, M; Hobbs, F D; Gordon, I R; Carswell, F

    1978-01-01

    In a survey of cystic fibrosis (CF) in the Avon area, 48 children with CF from 40 families together with 71 of their parents were studied by spirometry, exercise tests, and pinch tests. A control group of 42 young adults was similarly tested; control data for children were taken from previously published work. The prevalence of atopy (any positive prick test) in children with CF was 48%. Sensitivity to grass pollens and house dust mite was no more common in these children (29%) than in a normal population (34%). Hypersensitivity to Aspergillus fumigatus was found in 35% of children with CF and was associated with severe lung disease. The parents had a normal pattern and prevalence of atopy. Exercise-induced airways obstruction was present in only 22% of children with CF; its association with severe lung disease rendered interpretation difficult. The parents had a normal response to exercise. Both hypersensitivity to A. fumigatus and exercise-induced airways lability had the features of acquired characteristics. There was nothing in the present study to support the hypothesis that the possession of a CF gene predisposed to atopy. PMID:365112

  7. Simplification of methods for the production and storage of specimens to be tested for heat-stable enterotoxin of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, J A; Rodrigues, A C; Simóes, M; Serafim, M B; De Castro, A F

    1979-01-01

    Experiments with the infant mouse test demonstrated that there is no need of shaking for heat-stable Escherichia coli enterotoxin production when low volume of medium per volume of flask ratios are used in stationary cultures. Centrifugation and filtration of the cultures to be tested are not necessary either, and Merthiolate (1:10,000) used as preservative has no deleterious effect on heat-stable enterotoxin activity. Based upon these findings, some modifications of the procedures for production and storage of heat-stable enterotoxin preparations are suggested. Standardized pieces of filter papers are wetted with Merthiolated stationary cultures which are to be assayed for heat-stable enterotoxin activity by the infant mouse test. From dried filter papers, heat-stable enterotoxin can be eulted unaltered up to 2 months after specimen preparation. With the proposed modifications, even modestly equipped laboratories will be able to carry out the infant mouse test or at least to prepare specimens to be assayed by more specialized laboratories. PMID:391814

  8. Thermal inactivation of acid, cold, heat, starvation, and desiccation stress-adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 in moisture-enhanced nonintact beef.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cangliang; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Belk, Keith E; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N

    2011-04-01

    This study was conducted to compare thermal inactivation of stress-adapted and nonadapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 in nonintact beef moisture enhanced with different brine formulations and cooked to 65°C. Coarsely ground beef was mixed with acid, cold, heat, starvation, or desiccation stress-adapted or nonadapted rifampin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 (eight-strain mixture, 5 to 6 log CFU/g) and a brine solution for a total moisture enhancement level of 10%. The brine treatments included distilled water (control), sodium chloride (0.5% NaCl) plus sodium tripolyphosphate (0.25% STP), or NaCl + STP combined with cetylpyridinium chloride (0.2% CPC), lactic acid (0.3% LA), or sodium metasilicate (0.2% SM). The treated meat was extruded into bags (15 cm diameter), semifrozen (-20°C for 4.5 h), and cut into 2.54-cm (1-in.)-thick portions. Samples were individually vacuum packaged, frozen (-20°C for 42 h), and tempered at 4°C for 2.5 h before cooking. Partially thawed (-1.8 ± 0.4°C) samples were pan broiled to an internal temperature of 65°C. Pathogen counts of partially thawed (before cooking) samples moisture enhanced with brines containing CPC, LA, or SM were 0.7 to 1.1, 0.0 to 0.4, and 0.2 to 0.4 log CFU/g, respectively, lower than those of the control. Compared with microbial count reductions obtained after pan broiling of beef inoculated with nonadapted E. coli O157:H7 cells, count reductions during cooking of meat inoculated with cold and desiccation stress-adapted, acid stress-adapted, and heat and starvation stress-adapted cells indicated sensitization, cross protection, and no effect, respectively, of these stresses on the pathogen during subsequent exposure to heat. Among all stressed cultures, CPC-treated samples (0.8 to 3.6 log CFU/g) and LA-treated samples (0.8 to 3.5 log CFU/g) had the lowest numbers of E. coli O157:H7 survivors after cooking. PMID:21477465

  9. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds by sequential treatments with chlorine dioxide, drying, and dry heat without loss of seed viability.

    PubMed

    Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2011-09-01

    We developed and validated a treatment to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds without decreasing seed viability. Treatments with aqueous ClO(2) followed by drying and dry-heat treatments were evaluated for efficacy to inactivate the pathogen. Conditions to dry radish seeds after treatment with water (control) or ClO(2) were established. When treated seeds with high water activity (a(w)) (>0.99) were stored at 45°C and 23% relative humidity (RH), the a(w) decreased to <0.30 within 24 h. Drying high-a(w) seeds before exposing them to dry-heat treatment (≥60°C) was essential to preserve seed viability. The germination rate of radish seeds which had been immersed in water for 5 min, dried at 45°C and 23% RH for 24 h, and heated at 70°C for 48 h or at 80°C for 24 h was not significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared to that of untreated radish seeds. Sequential treatments with ClO(2) (500 μg/ml, 5 min), drying (45°C, 23% RH, 24 h), and dry heating (70°C, 23% RH, 48 h) eliminated E. coli O157:H7 (5.9 log CFU/g) on radish seeds and, consequently, sprouts produced from them without decreasing the germination rate. These sequential treatments are recommended for application to radish seeds intended for sprout production. PMID:21803896

  10. Screening for toxigenic Escherichia coli in stool samples of diarrhoeal patients by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Benish; Ali, Anum; Syed, Muhammad Noman; Khan, Abdul Basit

    2014-09-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) are normal flora of the intestines of most animals, including humans. Most strains are harmless and beneficial to host by preventing the establishment of pathogenic bacteria within the intestine. However, some E. coli strains can cause a wide variety of intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases, such as diarrhoea, urinary tract infections, septicaemia, neonatal meningitis and renal complications. Several virulence factors including toxins, adhesins, serine proteases, etc. have been reported in these highly adapted clones. The present study was designed to enumerate toxin genotype through PCR assay in local clinical isolates of E. coli. A total of 37 E. coli strains were collected from different clinical laboratories of Karachi and examined for the presence of shiga toxin 1 (stx1) and shiga toxin 2 (stx2) genes of Eenterohemorrhagic E. Coli (EHEC) and heat stable (st) and healt labile (lt) toxin genes of enterotoxigenic E. Coli (ETEC). It was observed that 16 strains out of 37 carried one or more type of toxin genes. The presence of stx1 gene was significantly higher as it was positive in 10 isolates compared to others toxins. Two in above stx1 positive strains were also carrying for stx2 gene. Six out of 37 isolates were positive for lt gene, and none of the strains are carrying st gene. Although, the study was carried out with fewer isolates, yet it demonstrated the trend of dispersion of toxin genes and findings can be used to correlate the gastro-intestinal infections and their complications in Pakistan. PMID:25176252