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Sample records for collagen internalization receptor

  1. Increased expression of the collagen internalization receptor uPARAP/Endo180 in the stroma of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Sulek, Jay; Wagenaar-Miller, Rebecca A; Shireman, Jessica; Molinolo, Alfredo; Madsen, Daniel H; Engelholm, Lars H; Behrendt, Niels; Bugge, Thomas H

    2007-04-01

    Local growth, invasion, and metastasis of malignancies of the head and neck involve extensive degradation and remodeling of the underlying, collagen-rich connective tissue. Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein (uPARAP)/Endo180 is an endocytic receptor recently shown to play a critical role in the uptake and intracellular degradation of collagen by mesenchymal cells. As a step toward determining the putative function of uPARAP/Endo180 in head and neck cancer progression, we used immunohistochemistry to determine the expression of this collagen internalization receptor in 112 human squamous cell carcinomas and 19 normal or tumor-adjacent head and neck tissue samples from the tongue, gingiva, cheek, tonsils, palate, floor of mouth, larynx, maxillary sinus, upper jaw, nasopharynx/nasal cavity, and lymph nodes. Specificity of detection was verified by staining of serial sections with two different monoclonal antibodies against two non-overlapping epitopes on uPARAP/Endo180 and by the use of isotype-matched non-immune antibodies. uPARAP/Endo180 expression was observed in stromal fibroblast-like, vimentin-positive cells. Furthermore, expression of the collagen internalization receptor was increased in tumor stroma compared with tumor-adjacent connective tissue or normal submucosal connective tissue and was most prominent in poorly differentiated tumors. These data suggest that uPARAP/Endo180 participates in the connective tissue destruction during head and neck squamous cell carcinoma progression by mediating cellular uptake and lysosomal degradation of collagen. PMID:17189524

  2. Recombinant Collagen Engineered to Bind to Discoidin Domain Receptor Functions as a Receptor Inhibitor*

    PubMed Central

    An, Bo; Abbonante, Vittorio; Xu, Huifang; Gavriilidou, Despoina; Yoshizumi, Ayumi; Bihan, Dominique; Farndale, Richard W.; Kaplan, David L.; Balduini, Alessandra; Leitinger, Birgit; Brodsky, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial collagen-like protein Scl2 has been developed as a recombinant collagen model system to host human collagen ligand-binding sequences, with the goal of generating biomaterials with selective collagen bioactivities. Defined binding sites in human collagen for integrins, fibronectin, heparin, and MMP-1 have been introduced into the triple-helical domain of the bacterial collagen and led to the expected biological activities. The modular insertion of activities is extended here to the discoidin domain receptors (DDRs), which are collagen-activated receptor tyrosine kinases. Insertion of the DDR-binding sequence from human collagen III into bacterial collagen led to specific receptor binding. However, even at the highest testable concentrations, the construct was unable to stimulate DDR autophosphorylation. The recombinant collagen expressed in Escherichia coli does not contain hydroxyproline (Hyp), and complementary synthetic peptide studies showed that replacement of Hyp by Pro at the critical Gly-Val-Met-Gly-Phe-Hyp position decreased the DDR-binding affinity and consequently required a higher concentration for the induction of receptor activation. The ability of the recombinant bacterial collagen to bind the DDRs without inducing kinase activation suggested it could interfere with the interactions between animal collagen and the DDRs, and such an inhibitory role was confirmed in vitro and with a cell migration assay. This study illustrates that recombinant collagen can complement synthetic peptides in investigating structure-activity relationships, and this system has the potential for the introduction or inhibition of specific biological activities. PMID:26702058

  3. Recombinant Collagen Engineered to Bind to Discoidin Domain Receptor Functions as a Receptor Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    An, Bo; Abbonante, Vittorio; Xu, Huifang; Gavriilidou, Despoina; Yoshizumi, Ayumi; Bihan, Dominique; Farndale, Richard W; Kaplan, David L; Balduini, Alessandra; Leitinger, Birgit; Brodsky, Barbara

    2016-02-26

    A bacterial collagen-like protein Scl2 has been developed as a recombinant collagen model system to host human collagen ligand-binding sequences, with the goal of generating biomaterials with selective collagen bioactivities. Defined binding sites in human collagen for integrins, fibronectin, heparin, and MMP-1 have been introduced into the triple-helical domain of the bacterial collagen and led to the expected biological activities. The modular insertion of activities is extended here to the discoidin domain receptors (DDRs), which are collagen-activated receptor tyrosine kinases. Insertion of the DDR-binding sequence from human collagen III into bacterial collagen led to specific receptor binding. However, even at the highest testable concentrations, the construct was unable to stimulate DDR autophosphorylation. The recombinant collagen expressed in Escherichia coli does not contain hydroxyproline (Hyp), and complementary synthetic peptide studies showed that replacement of Hyp by Pro at the critical Gly-Val-Met-Gly-Phe-Hyp position decreased the DDR-binding affinity and consequently required a higher concentration for the induction of receptor activation. The ability of the recombinant bacterial collagen to bind the DDRs without inducing kinase activation suggested it could interfere with the interactions between animal collagen and the DDRs, and such an inhibitory role was confirmed in vitro and with a cell migration assay. This study illustrates that recombinant collagen can complement synthetic peptides in investigating structure-activity relationships, and this system has the potential for the introduction or inhibition of specific biological activities. PMID:26702058

  4. Structural basis for collagen recognition by the immune receptor OSCAR

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Long; Hinerman, Jennifer M.; Blaszczyk, Michal; Miller, Jeanette L. C.; Conrady, Deborah G.; Barrow, Alexander D.; Chirgadze, Dimitri Y.; Bihan, Dominique; Farndale, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    The osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) is a collagen-binding immune receptor with important roles in dendritic cell maturation and activation of inflammatory monocytes as well as in osteoclastogenesis. The crystal structure of the OSCAR ectodomain is presented, both free and in complex with a consensus triple-helical peptide (THP). The structures revealed a collagen-binding site in each immunoglobulin-like domain (D1 and D2). The THP binds near a predicted collagen-binding groove in D1, but a more extensive interaction with D2 is facilitated by the unusually wide D1-D2 interdomain angle in OSCAR. Direct binding assays, combined with site-directed mutagenesis, confirm that the primary collagen-binding site in OSCAR resides in D2, in marked contrast to the related collagen receptors, glycoprotein VI (GPVI) and leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1). Monomeric OSCAR D1D2 binds to the consensus THP with a KD of 28 µM measured in solution, but shows a higher affinity (KD 1.5 μM) when binding to a solid-phase THP, most likely due to an avidity effect. These data suggest a 2-stage model for the interaction of OSCAR with a collagen fibril, with transient, low-affinity interactions initiated by the membrane-distal D1, followed by firm adhesion to the primary binding site in D2. PMID:26552697

  5. Structural basis for collagen recognition by the immune receptor OSCAR.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Long; Hinerman, Jennifer M; Blaszczyk, Michal; Miller, Jeanette L C; Conrady, Deborah G; Barrow, Alexander D; Chirgadze, Dimitri Y; Bihan, Dominique; Farndale, Richard W; Herr, Andrew B

    2016-02-01

    The osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) is a collagen-binding immune receptor with important roles in dendritic cell maturation and activation of inflammatory monocytes as well as in osteoclastogenesis. The crystal structure of the OSCAR ectodomain is presented, both free and in complex with a consensus triple-helical peptide (THP). The structures revealed a collagen-binding site in each immunoglobulin-like domain (D1 and D2). The THP binds near a predicted collagen-binding groove in D1, but a more extensive interaction with D2 is facilitated by the unusually wide D1-D2 interdomain angle in OSCAR. Direct binding assays, combined with site-directed mutagenesis, confirm that the primary collagen-binding site in OSCAR resides in D2, in marked contrast to the related collagen receptors, glycoprotein VI (GPVI) and leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1). Monomeric OSCAR D1D2 binds to the consensus THP with a KD of 28 µM measured in solution, but shows a higher affinity (KD 1.5 μM) when binding to a solid-phase THP, most likely due to an avidity effect. These data suggest a 2-stage model for the interaction of OSCAR with a collagen fibril, with transient, low-affinity interactions initiated by the membrane-distal D1, followed by firm adhesion to the primary binding site in D2. PMID:26552697

  6. Discoidin Domain Receptor 1 Protein Is a Novel Modulator of Megakaryocyte-Collagen Interactions*

    PubMed Central

    Abbonante, Vittorio; Gruppi, Cristian; Rubel, Diana; Gross, Oliver; Moratti, Remigio; Balduini, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence demonstrates that extracellular matrices regulate many aspects of megakaryocyte (MK) development; however, among the different extracellular matrix receptors, integrin α2β1 and glycoprotein VI are the only collagen receptors studied in platelets and MKs. In this study, we demonstrate the expression of the novel collagen receptor discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) by human MKs at both mRNA and protein levels and provide evidence of DDR1 involvement in the regulation of MK motility on type I collagen through a mechanism based on the activity of SHP1 phosphatase and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). Specifically, we demonstrated that inhibition of DDR1 binding to type I collagen, preserving the engagement of the other collagen receptors, glycoprotein VI, α2β1, and LAIR-1, determines a decrease in MK migration due to the reduction in SHP1 phosphatase activity and consequent increase in the phosphorylation level of its main substrate Syk. Consistently, inhibition of Syk activity restored MK migration on type I collagen. In conclusion, we report the expression and function of a novel collagen receptor on human MKs, and we point out that an increasing level of complexity is necessary to better understand MK-collagen interactions in the bone marrow environment. PMID:23530036

  7. Non-Invasive Molecular Imaging of Fibrosis Using a Collagen-Targeted Peptidomimetic of the Platelet Collagen Receptor Glycoprotein VI

    PubMed Central

    Loyau, Stéphane; Meulemans, Alain; Louedec, Liliane; Bantsimba-Malanda, Claudie; Hervatin, Florence; Marchal-Somme, Joëlle; Michel, Jean Baptiste; Le Guludec, Dominique; Billiald, Philippe; Jandrot-Perrus, Martine

    2009-01-01

    Background Fibrosis, which is characterized by the pathological accumulation of collagen, is recognized as an important feature of many chronic diseases, and as such, constitutes an enormous health burden. We need non-invasive specific methods for the early diagnosis and follow-up of fibrosis in various disorders. Collagen targeting molecules are therefore of interest for potential in vivo imaging of fibrosis. In this study, we developed a collagen-specific probe using a new approach that takes advantage of the inherent specificity of Glycoprotein VI (GPVI), the main platelet receptor for collagens I and III. Methodology/Principal Findings An anti-GPVI antibody that neutralizes collagen-binding was used to screen a bacterial random peptide library. A cyclic motif was identified, and the corresponding peptide (designated collagelin) was synthesized. Solid-phase binding assays and histochemical analysis showed that collagelin specifically bound to collagen (Kd 10−7 M) in vitro, and labelled collagen fibers ex vivo on sections of rat aorta and rat tail. Collagelin is therefore a new specific probe for collagen. The suitability of collagelin as an in vivo probe was tested in a rat model of healed myocardial infarctions (MI). Injecting Tc-99m-labelled collagelin and scintigraphic imaging showed that uptake of the probe occurred in the cardiac area of rats with MI, but not in controls. Post mortem autoradiography and histological analysis of heart sections showed that the labeled areas coincided with fibrosis. Scintigraphic molecular imaging with collagelin provides high resolution, and good contrast between the fibrotic scars and healthy tissues. The capacity of collagelin to image fibrosis in vivo was confirmed in a mouse model of lung fibrosis. Conclusion/Significance Collagelin is a new collagen-targeting agent which may be useful for non-invasive detection of fibrosis in a broad spectrum of diseases. PMID:19440310

  8. Collagens are functional, high affinity ligands for the inhibitory immune receptor LAIR-1

    PubMed Central

    Lebbink, Robert Jan; de Ruiter, Talitha; Adelmeijer, Jelle; Brenkman, Arjan B.; van Helvoort, Joop M.; Koch, Manuel; Farndale, Richard W.; Lisman, Ton; Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Lenting, Peter J.; Meyaard, Linde

    2006-01-01

    Collagens are the most abundant proteins in the human body, important in maintenance of tissue structure and hemostasis. Here we report that collagens are high affinity ligands for the broadly expressed inhibitory leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1). The interaction is dependent on the conserved Gly-Pro-Hyp collagen repeats. Antibody cross-linking of LAIR-1 is known to inhibit immune cell function in vitro. We now show that collagens are functional ligands for LAIR-1 and directly inhibit immune cell activation in vitro. Thus far, all documented ligands for immune inhibitory receptors are membrane molecules, implying a regulatory role in cell–cell interaction. Our data reveal a novel mechanism of peripheral immune regulation by inhibitory immune receptors binding to extracellular matrix collagens. PMID:16754721

  9. Structural Basis for Platelet Collagen Responses by the Immune-type Receptor Glycoprotein VI

    SciTech Connect

    Horii,K.; Kahn, M.; Herr, A.

    2006-01-01

    Activation of circulating platelets by exposed vessel wall collagen is a primary step in the pathogenesis of heart attack and stroke, and drugs to block platelet activation have successfully reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In humans and mice, collagen activation of platelets is mediated by glycoprotein VI (GPVI), a receptor that is homologous to immune receptors but bears little sequence similarity to known matrix protein adhesion receptors. Here we present the crystal structure of the collagen-binding domain of human GPVI and characterize its interaction with a collagen-related peptide. Like related immune receptors, GPVI contains 2 immunoglobulin-like domains arranged in a perpendicular orientation. Significantly, GPVI forms a back-to-back dimer in the crystal, an arrangement that could explain data previously obtained from cell-surface GPVI inhibition studies. Docking algorithms identify 2 parallel grooves on the GPVI dimer surface as collagen-binding sites, and the orientation and spacing of these grooves precisely match the dimensions of an intact collagen fiber. These findings provide a structural basis for the ability of an immunetype receptor to generate signaling responses to collagen and for the development of GPVI inhibitors as new therapies for human cardiovascular disease.

  10. Platelet collagen receptors and coagulation. A characteristic platelet response as possible target for antithrombotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Heemskerk, Johan W M; Kuijpers, Marijke J E; Munnix, Imke C A; Siljander, Pia R M

    2005-04-01

    Collagen is a unique agonist of platelets, because it acts as an immobilized ligand that only causes platelet activation after stable adhesion. This review addresses the present understanding of how platelet interaction with collagen supports the process of thrombin generation and coagulation. Only some of the collagen-adhered platelets, that is, those showing profound changes in shape and shedding microparticles (resembling apoptotic cells), appear to contribute to the procoagulant activity of platelets. The main signaling receptor for collagen, glycoprotein VI, plays a key role in the platelet procoagulant response during thrombus formation; this is a reason why new anti-glycoprotein-VI antibodies are promising antithrombotic tools. PMID:16039967

  11. Type I collagen aging impairs discoidin domain receptor 2-mediated tumor cell growth suppression.

    PubMed

    Saby, Charles; Buache, Emilie; Brassart-Pasco, Sylvie; El Btaouri, Hassan; Courageot, Marie-Pierre; Van Gulick, Laurence; Garnotel, Roselyne; Jeannesson, Pierre; Morjani, Hamid

    2016-05-01

    Tumor cells are confronted to a type I collagen rich environment which regulates cell proliferation and invasion. Biological aging has been associated with structural changes of type I collagen. Here, we address the effect of collagen aging on cell proliferation in a three-dimensional context (3D).We provide evidence for an inhibitory effect of adult collagen, but not of the old one, on proliferation of human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells. This effect involves both the activation of the tyrosine kinase Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (DDR2) and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. DDR2 and SHP-2 were less activated in old collagen. DDR2 inhibition decreased SHP-2 phosphorylation in adult collagen and increased cell proliferation to a level similar to that observed in old collagen.In the presence of old collagen, a high level of JAK2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation was observed while expression of the cell cycle negative regulator p21CIP1 was decreased. Inhibition of DDR2 kinase function also led to an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and a decrease in p21CIP1 expression. Similar signaling profile was observed when DDR2 was inhibited in adult collagen. Altogether, these data suggest that biological collagen aging could increase tumor cell proliferation by reducingthe activation of the key matrix sensor DDR2. PMID:27121132

  12. Platelet receptor recognition and cross-talk in collagen-induced activation of platelets.

    PubMed

    Farndale, R W; Slatter, D A; Siljander, P R-M; Jarvis, G E

    2007-07-01

    Comprehensive mapping of protein-binding sites within human collagen III has allowed the recognition motifs for integrin alpha(2)beta(1) and VWF A3 domain to be identified. Glycoprotein VI-binding sites are understood, although less well defined. This information, together with recent developments in understanding collagen fiber architecture, and crystal structures of the receptor collagen-binding domains, allows a coherent model for the interaction of collagen with the platelet surface to be developed. This complements our understanding of the orchestration of receptor presentation by membrane microdomains, such that the polyvalent collagen surface may stabilize signaling complexes within the heterogeneous receptor composition of the lipid raft. The ensuing interactions lead to the convergence of signals from each of the adhesive receptors, mediated by FcR gamma-chain and/or FcgammaRIIa, leading to concerted and co-operative platelet activation. Each receptor has a shear-dependent role, VWF/GpIb essential at high shear, and alpha(2)beta(1) at low and intermediate shear, whilst GpVI provides core signals that contribute to enhanced integrin affinity, tighter binding to collagen and consequent platelet activation. PMID:17635730

  13. Chemokine receptor internalization and intracellular trafficking.

    PubMed

    Neel, Nicole F; Schutyser, Evemie; Sai, Jiqing; Fan, Guo-Huang; Richmond, Ann

    2005-12-01

    The internalization and intracellular trafficking of chemokine receptors have important implications for the cellular responses elicited by chemokine receptors. The major pathway by which chemokine receptors internalize is the clathrin-mediated pathway, but some receptors may utilize lipid rafts/caveolae-dependent internalization routes. This review discusses the current knowledge and controversies regarding these two different routes of endocytosis. The functional consequences of internalization and the regulation of chemokine receptor recycling will also be addressed. Modifications of chemokine receptors, such as palmitoylation, ubiquitination, glycosylation, and sulfation, may also impact trafficking, chemotaxis and signaling. Finally, this review will cover the internalization and trafficking of viral and decoy chemokine receptors. PMID:15998596

  14. Arg-Gly-Asp-containing peptides expose novel collagen receptors on fibroblasts: implications for wound healing.

    PubMed Central

    Agrez, M V; Bates, R C; Boyd, A W; Burns, G F

    1991-01-01

    Integrins are a family of cell-surface receptors intimately involved in the interactions of cells with their extracellular matrix. These receptors comprise an alpha and beta subunit in noncovalent association and many have been shown to recognize and bind an arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) sequence contained within their specific extracellular matrix ligand. Fibroblasts express integrin receptors belonging to two major subfamilies. Some of the members within the subfamily defined by beta 1 (VLA) are receptors for collagen but, perhaps surprisingly, the other major subfamily of integrins on fibroblasts--that defined by the alpha chain of the vitronectin receptor, alpha v--all appear to bind primarily vitronectin and/or fibronectin. In the present study we show that RGD-containing peptides expose cryptic binding sites on the alpha v-associated integrins enabling them to function as collagen receptors. The addition of RGD-containing peptides to fibroblasts cultured on type I collagen induced dramatic cell elongation and, when the cells were contained within collagen matrices, the peptides induced marked contraction of the gels. These processes were inhibited by Fab fragments of a monoclonal antibody against an alpha v integrin. Also, alpha v-associated integrins from cell lysates bound to collagen I affinity columns in the presence, but not in the absence, of RGD-containing peptides. These data suggest a novel regulatory control for integrin function. In addition, because the cryptic collagen receptors were shown to be implicated in the contraction of collagen gels, the generation of such binding forces suggests that this may be the major biological role for these integrins in processes such as wound healing. Images PMID:1666304

  15. The collagen receptor uPARAP/Endo180 in tissue degradation and cancer (Review)

    PubMed Central

    MELANDER, MARIA C.; JÜRGENSEN, HENRIK J.; MADSEN, DANIEL H.; ENGELHOLM, LARS H.; BEHRENDT, NIELS

    2015-01-01

    The collagen receptor uPARAP/Endo180, the product of the MRC2 gene, is a central component in the collagen turnover process governed by various mesenchymal cells. Through the endocytosis of collagen or large collagen fragments, this recycling receptor serves to direct basement membrane collagen as well as interstitial collagen to lysosomal degradation. This capacity, shared only with the mannose receptor from the same protein family, endows uPARAP/Endo180 with a critical role in development and homeostasis, as well as in pathological disruptions of the extracellular matrix structure. Important pathological functions of uPARAP/Endo180 have been identified in various cancers and in several fibrotic conditions. With a particular focus on matrix turnover in cancer, this review presents the necessary background for understanding the function of uPARAP/Endo180 at the molecular and cellular level, followed by an in-depth survey of the available knowledge of the expression and role of this receptor in various types of cancer and other degenerative diseases. PMID:26316068

  16. ADAM10 controls collagen signaling and cell migration on collagen by shedding the ectodomain of discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1)

    PubMed Central

    Shitomi, Yasuyuki; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Ito, Noriko; Leitinger, Birgit; Enghild, Jan J.; Itoh, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that binds and transmits signals from various collagens in epithelial cells. However, how DDR1–dependent signaling is regulated has not been understood. Here we report that collagen binding induces ADAM10-dependent ectodomain shedding of DDR1. DDR1 shedding is not a result of an activation of its signaling pathway, since DDR1 mutants defective in signaling were shed in an efficient manner. DDR1 and ADAM10 were found to be in a complex on the cell surface, but shedding did not occur unless collagen bound to DDR1. Using a shedding-resistant DDR1 mutant, we found that ADAM10-dependent DDR1 shedding regulates the half-life of collagen-induced phosphorylation of the receptor. Our data also revealed that ADAM10 plays an important role in regulating DDR1-mediated cell adhesion to achieve efficient cell migration on collagen matrices. PMID:25540428

  17. Macrophage Receptor with Collagenous Structure (MARCO) Is Processed by either Macropinocytosis or Endocytosis-Autophagy Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Seishiro; Kanno, Sanae

    2015-01-01

    The Macrophage Receptor with COllagenous structure (MARCO) protein is a plasma membrane receptor for un-opsonized or environmental particles on phagocytic cells. Here, we show that MARCO was internalized either by ruffling of plasma membrane followed by macropinocytosis or by endocytosis followed by fusion with autophagosome in CHO-K1 cells stably transfected with GFP-MARCO. The macropinocytic process generated large vesicles when the plasma membrane subsided. The endocytosis/autophagosome (amphisome) generated small fluorescent puncta which were visible in the presence of glutamine, chloroquine, bafilomycin, ammonia, and other amines. The small puncta, but not the large vesicles, co-localized with LC3B and lysosomes. The LC3-II/LC3-I ratio increased in the presence of glutamine, ammonia, and chloroquine in various cells. The small puncta trafficked between the peri-nuclear region and the distal ends of cells back and forth at rates of up to 2–3 μm/sec; tubulin, but not actin, regulated the trafficking of the small puncta. Besides phagocytosis MARCO, an adhesive plasma membrane receptor, may play a role in incorporation of various extracellular materials into the cell via both macropinocytic and endocytic pathways. PMID:26545255

  18. Embryonic brain extract induces collagen biosynthesis in cultured muscle cells: involvement in acetylcholine receptor aggregation.

    PubMed Central

    Kalcheim, C; Vogel, Z; Duksin, D

    1982-01-01

    The involvement of extracellular matrix components in induction of the aggregation of acetylcholine (AcCho) receptors by factor(s) present in embryonic brain extract was investigated. Embryonic brain extract induced a three-fold increase in the number of AcCho receptor aggregates on the surface of cultured myotubes and a 5- to 10-fold increase in the synthesis of procollagen, which was secreted into the medium and converted to collagen. Adult brain extract, embryonic serum, and embryonic liver extract were less active in stimulating both collagen synthesis and AcCho receptor aggregation. A physiological connection between the two processes is suggested, since the number of AcCho receptor aggregates could be reduced to control levels by treating brain extract-stimulated myotubes with purified bacterial collagenase. In addition, stimulation of collagen secretion by ascorbic acid (50 micrograms/ml) promoted a 1.6-fold increase in AcCho receptor aggregation. When ascorbic acid was added together with the brain extract, further increases in both collagen synthesis and AcCho receptor aggregation were observed. Images PMID:6285338

  19. Structural basis of collagen recognition by human osteoclast-associated receptor and design of osteoclastogenesis inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Haywood, Joel; Qi, Jianxun; Chen, Chun-Chi; Lu, Guangwen; Liu, Yingxia; Yan, Jinghua; Shi, Yi; Gao, George F.

    2016-01-01

    Human osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) is an immunoglobulin (Ig)-like collagen receptor that is up-regulated on osteoclasts during osteoclastogenesis and is expressed in a range of myeloid cells. As a member of the leukocyte receptor complex family of proteins, OSCAR shares a high degree of sequence and structural homology with other collagen receptors of this family, including glycoprotein VI, leukocyte-associated Ig-like receptor-1, and leukocyte Ig-like receptor B4, but recognizes a unique collagen sequence. Here, we present the crystal structures of OSCAR in its free form and in complex with a triple-helical collagen-like peptide (CLP). These structures reveal that the CLP peptide binds only one of the two Ig-like domains, the membrane-proximal domain (domain 2) of OSCAR, with the middle and trailing chain burying a total of 661 Å2 of solvent-accessible collagen surface. This binding mode is facilitated by the unusual topography of the OSCAR protein, which displays an obtuse interdomain angle and a rotation of domain 2 relative to the membrane-distal domain 1. Moreover, the binding of the CLP to OSCAR appears to be mediated largely by tyrosine residues and conformational changes at a shallow Phe pocket. Furthermore, we investigated CLP peptides as inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis and found that a peptide length of 40 amino acids is required to ensure adequate inhibition of osteoclastogenesis in vitro. These findings provide valuable structural insights into the mode of collagen recognition by OSCAR and into the use of synthetic peptide matrikines for osteoclastogenesis inhibition. PMID:26744311

  20. Molecular determinants of NMDA receptor internalization.

    PubMed

    Roche, K W; Standley, S; McCallum, J; Dune Ly, C; Ehlers, M D; Wenthold, R J

    2001-08-01

    Although synaptic AMPA receptors have been shown to rapidly internalize, synaptic NMDA receptors are reported to be static. It is not certain whether NMDA receptor stability at synaptic sites is an inherent property of the receptor, or is due to stabilization by scaffolding proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that NMDA receptors are internalized in both heterologous cells and neurons, and we define an internalization motif, YEKL, on the distal C-terminus of NR2B. In addition, we show that the synaptic protein PSD-95 inhibits NR2B-mediated internalization, and that deletion of the PDZ-binding domain of NR2B increases internalization in neurons. This suggests an involvement for PSD-95 in NMDA receptor regulation and an explanation for NMDA receptor stability at synaptic sites. PMID:11477425

  1. Novel collagen scaffolds with predefined internal morphology made by solid freeform fabrication.

    PubMed

    Sachlos, E; Reis, N; Ainsley, C; Derby, B; Czernuszka, J T

    2003-04-01

    Novel collagen scaffolds possessing predefined and reproducible internal channels with widths of 135 microm and greater have been produced. The process employed to make the collagen scaffold utilises a sacrificial mould, manufactured using solid freeform fabrication technology, and critical point drying technique. A computer aided design (CAD) file of the mould to be produced is created. This mould is manufactured using a phase change ink-jet printer. A dispersion of collagen is then cast into the mould and frozen. The mould is dissolved away with ethanol and the collagen scaffold is then critical point dried with liquid carbon dioxide. The effect of processing on the tertiary structure of collagen is assessed by monitoring the wavenumber of the N-H stretching vibration peak using Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and it is found that processing does not denature the collagen. Ultraviolet-visual spectroscopy was used to detect the presence of any contamination from the sacrificial mould on the collagen. The ability to use computer aided design and manufacture (CAD/CAM) provides a route to optimise scaffold designs using collagen in tissue engineering applications. PMID:12527290

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Sense Three Dimensional Type I Collagen through Discoidin Domain Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Lund, A.W.; Stegemann, J.P.; Plopper, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    The extracellular matrix provides structural and organizational cues for tissue development and defines and maintains cellular phenotype during cell fate determination. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells use this matrix to tightly regulate the balance between their differentiation potential and self-renewal in the native niche. When understood, the mechanisms that govern cell-matrix crosstalk during differentiation will allow for efficient engineering of natural and synthetic matrices to specifically direct and maintain stem cell phenotype. This work identifies the discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a collagen activated receptor tyrosine kinase, as a potential link through which stem cells sense and respond to the 3D organization of their extracellular matrix microenvironment. DDR1 is dependent upon both the structure and proteolytic state of its collagen ligand and is specifically expressed and localized in three dimensional type I collagen culture. Inhibition of DDR1 expression results in decreased osteogenic potential, increased cell spreading, stress fiber formation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Additionally, loss of DDR1 activity alters the cell-mediated organization of the naïve type I collagen matrix. Taken together, these results demonstrate a role for DDR1 in the stem cell response to and interaction with three dimensional type I collagen. Dynamic changes in cell shape in 3D culture and the tuning of the local ECM microstructure, directs crosstalk between DDR1 and two dimensional mechanisms of osteogenesis that can alter their traditional roles. PMID:20589230

  3. Platelet receptor interplay regulates collagen-induced thrombus formation in flowing human blood.

    PubMed

    Siljander, Pia R-M; Munnix, Imke C A; Smethurst, Peter A; Deckmyn, Hans; Lindhout, Theo; Ouwehand, Willem H; Farndale, Richard W; Heemskerk, Johan W M

    2004-02-15

    The platelet glycoproteins (GPs) Ib, integrin alpha(2)beta(1), and GPVI are considered central to thrombus formation. Recently, their relative importance has been re-evaluated based on data from murine knockout models. To examine their relationship during human thrombus formation on collagen type I fibers at high shear (1000 s(-1)), we tested a novel antibody against GPVI, an immunoglobulin single-chain variable fragment, 10B12, together with specific antagonists for GPIb alpha (12G1 Fab(2)) and alpha(2)beta(1) (6F1 mAb or GFOGER-GPP peptide). GPVI was found to be crucial for aggregate formation, Ca(2+) signaling, and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, but not for primary adhesion, even with more than 97% receptor blockade. Inhibiting alpha(2)beta(1) revealed its involvement in regulating Ca(2+) signaling, PS exposure, and aggregate size. Both GPIb alpha and alpha(2)beta(1) contributed to primary adhesion, showing overlapping function. The coinhibition of receptors revealed synergism in thrombus formation: the coinhibition of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptors with collagen receptors further decreased adhesion and aggregation, and, crucially, the complete eradication of thrombus formation required the coinhibition of GPVI with either GPIb alpha or alpha(2)beta(1). In summary, human platelet deposition on collagen depends on the concerted interplay of several receptors: GPIb in synergy with alpha(2)beta(1) mediating primary adhesion, reinforced by activation through GPVI, which further regulates the thrombus formation. PMID:14563646

  4. Identification of the First Prokaryotic Collagen Sequence Motif That Mediates Binding to Human Collagen Receptors, Integrins α2β1 and α11β1*

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, Clayton C.; Barczyk, Malgorzata; Keene, Douglas R.; Lukomska, Ewa; Gullberg, Donald E.; Lukomski, Slawomir

    2008-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria interact with human integrins to enter host cells and to augment host colonization. Group A Streptococcus (GAS) employs molecular mimicry by direct interactions between the cell surface streptococcal collagen-like protein-1 (Scl1) and the human collagen receptor, integrin α2β1. The collagen-like (CL) region of the Scl1 protein mediates integrin-binding, although, the integrin binding motif was not defined. Here, we used molecular cloning and site-directed mutagenesis to identify the GLPGER sequence as the α2β1 and the α11β1 binding motif. Electron microscopy experiments mapped binding sites of the recombinant α2-integrin-inserted domain to the GLPGER motif of the recombinant Scl (rScl) protein. rScl proteins and a synthetic peptide harboring the GLPGER motif mediated the attachment of C2C12-α2 + myoblasts expressing the α2β1 integrin as the sole collagen receptor. The C2C12-α11 + myoblasts expressing the α11β1 integrin also attached to GLPGER-harboring rScl proteins. Furthermore, the C2C12-α11 + cells attached to rScl1 more efficiently than C2C12-α2 + cells, suggesting that the α11β1 integrin may have a higher binding affinity for the GLPGER sequence. Human endothelial cells and dermal fibroblasts adhered to rScl proteins, indicating that multiple cell types may recognize and bind the Scl proteins via their collagen receptors. This work is a stepping stone toward defining the utilization of collagen receptors by microbial collagen-like proteins that are expressed by pathogenic bacteria. PMID:18990704

  5. Collagen advanced glycation inhibits its Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (DDR2)-mediated induction of lysyl oxidase in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Roozbeh; Sodek, Katharine L; Faibish, Michael; Trackman, Philip C

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes increases the risk of bone fracture. Organic and inorganic bone extracellular matrix components determine bone strength. Previous studies indicate that in diabetes, glycation of collagen causes abnormal arrangements of collagen molecules and fragile bones. Diabetic bone fragility is additionally attributed to reduced levels of lysyl oxidase enzyme-dependent collagen cross-links. The mechanism underlying the presence of lower enzymatic collagen cross-links in diabetic bone has not been directly investigated. Here we determine in primary osteoblast cultures the regulation of lysyl oxidase protein by type I collagen and collagen modified by carboxymethylation (CML-collagen), a form of advanced glycation endproducts. Data indicate that non-glycated collagen up-regulates lysyl oxidase levels both in primary non-differentiated and in differentiating mouse and rat osteoblast cultures, while CML-collagen fails to regulate lysyl oxidase in these cells. Collagen binding to Discoidin Domain Receptor-2 (DDR2) mediates lysyl oxidase increases, determined in DDR2 shRNA knockdown studies. DDR2 binding and activation were disrupted by collagen glycation, pointing to a mechanism for the diminished levels of lysyl oxidase and consequently low lysyl oxidase-derived cross-links in diabetic bone. Our studies indicate that collagen-integrin interactions may not play a major role in up-regulating lysyl oxidase. Furthermore, non-collagenous ligands for the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) failed to alter lysyl oxidase levels. Taken together with published studies a new understanding emerges in which diabetes- and age-dependent inhibition of normal collagen-stimulated DDR2- and integrin-signaling, and independent advanced glycation-stimulated RAGE-signaling, each contributes to different aspects of diabetic osteopenia. PMID:24120383

  6. Collagen Advanced Glycation Inhibits Its Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (DDR2)-Mediated Induction of Lysyl Oxidase in Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Roozbeh; Sodek, Katharine L.; Faibish, Michael; Trackman, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes increases the risk of bone fracture. Organic and inorganic bone extracellular matrix components determine bone strength. Previous studies indicate that in diabetes, glycation of collagen causes abnormal arrangements of collagen molecules and fragile bones. Diabetic bone fragility is additionally attributed to reduced levels of lysyl oxidase enzyme-dependent collagen cross-links. The mechanism underlying the presence of lower enzymatic collagen cross-links in diabetic bone has not been directly investigated. Here we determine in primary osteoblast cultures the regulation of lysyl oxidase protein by type I collagen and collagen modified by carboxymethylation (CML-collagen), a form of advanced glycation endproducts. Data indicate that non-glycated collagen up-regulates lysyl oxidase levels both in primary non-differentiated and in differentiating mouse and rat osteoblast cultures, while CML-collagen fails to regulate lysyl oxidase in these cells. Collagen binding to Discoidin Domain Receptor-2 (DDR2) mediates lysyl oxidase increases, determined in DDR2 shRNA knockdown studies. DDR2 binding and activation were disrupted by collagen glycation, pointing to a mechanism for the diminished levels of lysyl oxidase and consequent low lysyl oxidase-derived cross-links in diabetic bone. Our studies indicate that collagen-integrin interactions may not play a major role in up-regulating lysyl oxidase. Furthermore, non-collagenous ligands for the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) failed to alter lysyl oxidase levels. Taken together with published studies a new understanding emerges in which diabetes- and age-dependent inhibition of normal collagen-stimulated DDR2- and integrin-signaling, and independent advanced glycation-stimulated RAGE-signaling, each contributes to different aspects of diabetic osteopenia. PMID:24120383

  7. Aspirin suppresses cardiac fibroblast proliferation and collagen formation through downregulation of angiotensin type 1 receptor transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xianwei Lu, Jingjun; Khaidakov, Magomed; Mitra, Sona; Ding, Zufeng; Raina, Sameer; Goyal, Tanu; Mehta, Jawahar L.

    2012-03-15

    Aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid, ASA) is a common drug used for its analgesic and antipyretic effects. Recent studies show that ASA not only blocks cyclooxygenase, but also inhibits NADPH oxidase and resultant reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, a pathway that underlies pathogenesis of several ailments, including hypertension and tissue remodeling after injury. In these disease states, angiotensin II (Ang II) activates NADPH oxidase via its type 1 receptor (AT1R) and leads to fibroblast growth and collagen synthesis. In this study, we examined if ASA would inhibit NADPH oxidase activation, upregulation of AT1R transcription, and subsequent collagen generation in mouse cardiac fibroblasts challenged with Ang II. Mouse heart fibroblasts were isolated and treated with Ang II with or without ASA. As expected, Ang II induced AT1R expression, and stimulated cardiac fibroblast growth and collagen synthesis. The AT1R blocker losartan attenuated these effects of Ang II. Similarly to losartan, ASA, and its SA moiety suppressed Ang II-mediated AT1R transcription and fibroblast proliferation as well as expression of collagens and MMPs. ASA also suppressed the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits (p22{sup phox}, p47{sup phox}, p67{sup phox}, NOX2 and NOX4) and ROS generation. ASA did not affect total NF-κB p65, but inhibited its phosphorylation and activation. These observations suggest that ASA inhibits Ang II-induced NADPH oxidase expression, NF-κB activation and AT1R transcription in cardiac fibroblasts, and fibroblast proliferation and collagen expression. The critical role of NADPH oxidase activity in stimulation of AT1R transcription became apparent in experiments where ASA also inhibited AT1R transcription in cardiac fibroblasts challenged with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Since SA had similar effect as ASA on AT1R expression, we suggest that ASA's effect is mediated by its SA moiety. -- Highlights: ► Aspirin in therapeutic concentrations decreases mouse cardiac fibroblast

  8. Type I macrophage scavenger receptor contains α-helical and collagen-like coiled coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Freeman, Mason; Rohrer, Lucia; Zabrecky, James; Matsudaira, Paul; Krieger, Monty

    1990-02-01

    The macrophage scavenger receptor is a trimeric membrane glycoprotein with unusual ligand-binding properties which has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. The trimeric structure of the bovine type I scavenger receptor, deduced by complementary DNA cloning, contains three extracellular C-terminal cysteine-rich domains connected to the transmembrane domain by a long fibrous stalk. This stalk structure, composed of an a-helical coiled coil and a collagen-like triple helix, has not previously been observed in an integral membrane protein.

  9. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-driven signals inhibit collagen synthesis in the gut.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, Ivan; Zorzi, Francesca; Marafini, Irene; Di Fusco, Davide; Dinallo, Vincenzo; Caruso, Roberta; Izzo, Roberta; Franzè, Eleonora; Colantoni, Alfredo; Pallone, Francesco; Monteleone, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Fibrostrictures (FS) are a major complication of Crohn's disease (CD). Pathogenesis of FS is not fully understood, but activation of fibroblasts and excessive collagen deposition are crucial in the development of FS. Here, we investigated the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in intestinal fibrosis. AhR RNA and protein expression were evaluated in intestinal fibroblasts of CD patients and controls. CD fibroblasts were stimulated with TGF-β1 or TNF-α in the presence or absence of the AhR activator Ficz, an AhR antagonist CH223191, or a specific AhR-silencing RNA. In CD fibroblasts, TGF-β1 and TNF-α increased Col1A1, Col3A1 and α-SMA transcripts and collagen secretion and this effect was reduced by Ficz and upregulated by CH22319. TGF-β1 or TNF-α induced activation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAP kinases was decreased by Ficz and increased by CH223191. The inhibitory effect of Ficz on Map kinase activation and collagen induction was abolished by AhR silencing. To assess the role of AhR in vivo, mice with trinitrobenzene-sulfonic-acid induced colonic fibrosis were given Ficz or CH223191. Mice given either Ficz or CH223191 produced less or more collagen respectively as compared with control mice. Our results indicate that AhR is a negative regulator of profibrotic signals in the gut. PMID:26786786

  10. Glycoprotein VI/Fc receptor γ chain-independent tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of murine platelets by collagen

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the ability of collagen to induce signalling and functional responses in suspensions of murine platelets deficient in the FcRγ (Fc receptor γ) chain, which lack the collagen receptor GPVI (glycoprotein VI). In the absence of the FcRγ chain, collagen induced a unique pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation which was potentiated by the thromboxane analogue U46619. Immunoprecipitation studies indicated that neither collagen alone nor the combination of collagen plus U46619 induced phosphorylation of the GPVI-regulated proteins Syk and SLP-76 (Src homology 2-containing leucocyte protein of 76 kDa). A low level of tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase Cγ2 was observed, which was increased in the presence of U46619, although the degree of phosphorylation remained well below that observed in wild-type platelets (∼10%). By contrast, collagen-induced phosphorylation of the adapter ADAP (adhesion- and degranulation-promoting adapter protein) was substantially potentiated by U46619 to levels equivalent to those observed in wild-type platelets. Collagen plus U46619 also induced significant phosphorylation of FAK (focal adhesion kinase). The functional significance of collagen-induced non-GPVI signals was highlighted by the ability of U46619 and collagen to induce the secretion of ATP in FcRγ chain-deficient platelets, even though neither agonist was effective alone. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation and the release of ATP were abolished by the anti-(α2 integrin) antibodies Ha1/29 and HMα2, but not by blockade of αIIbβ3. These results illustrate a novel mechanism of platelet activation by collagen which is independent of the GPVI–FcRγ chain complex, and is facilitated by binding of collagen to integrin α2β1. PMID:15283702

  11. Internal strain drives spontaneous periodic buckling in collagen and regulates remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Dittmore, Andrew; Silver, Jonathan; Sarkar, Susanta K.; Marmer, Barry; Goldberg, Gregory I.; Neuman, Keir C.

    2016-01-01

    Fibrillar collagen, an essential structural component of the extracellular matrix, is remarkably resistant to proteolysis, requiring specialized matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) to initiate its remodeling. In the context of native fibrils, remodeling is poorly understood; MMPs have limited access to cleavage sites and are inhibited by tension on the fibril. Here, single-molecule recordings of fluorescently labeled MMPs reveal cleavage-vulnerable binding regions arrayed periodically at ∼1-µm intervals along collagen fibrils. Binding regions remain periodic even as they migrate on the fibril, indicating a collective process of thermally activated and self-healing defect formation. An internal strain relief model involving reversible structural rearrangements quantitatively reproduces the observed spatial patterning and fluctuations of defects and provides a mechanism for tension-dependent stabilization of fibrillar collagen. This work identifies internal–strain-driven defects that may have general and widespread regulatory functions in self-assembled biological filaments. PMID:27402741

  12. Widespread histologic distribution of the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin cell-surface collagen receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Zutter, M. M.; Santoro, S. A.

    1990-01-01

    The alpha 2 beta 1 integrin (platelet membrane glycoprotein Ia-IIa, VLA-2, ECMR-II) functions as a cell surface receptor for collagen. The authors have determined the histologic distribution of the alpha 2 beta 1 receptor in normal tissues by immunohistochemical technique. The studies revealed that the alpha 2 beta 1 receptor was expressed on fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells from multiple sites including skin, tonsil, breast, sweat gland, gastrointestinal tract, lung, bladder, cervix, and prostate. Follicular dendritic cells of the lymph node, tonsil, and spleen and dendritic cells of the thymus also expressed the alpha 2 beta 1 receptor. The receptor also was present on Schwann cells of ganglia and on neuroglia. Greatly enhanced expression of the receptor in regions of proliferating epithelium suggests that enhanced expression of alpha 2 beta 1 is associated with orderly, regulated cell proliferation. The circumferential staining pattern of the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin within many epithelia is virtually identical to that observed for other adhesive receptors, such as the cadherins, which have been implicated in cell-cell adhesion. Images Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:2164774

  13. Differential regulation of collagen secretion by kinin receptors in cardiac fibroblast and myofibroblast

    SciTech Connect

    Catalán, Mabel; Smolic, Christian; Contreras, Ariel; Ayala, Pedro; Olmedo, Ivonne; Copaja, Miguel; Boza, Pía; Vivar, Raúl; Avalos, Yennifer; Lavandero, Sergio; Velarde, Victoria; Díaz-Araya, Guillermo

    2012-06-15

    Kinins mediate their cellular effects through B1 (B1R) and B2 (B2R) receptors, and the activation of B2R reduces collagen synthesis in cardiac fibroblasts (CF). However, the question of whether B1R and/or B2R have a role in cardiac myofibroblasts remains unanswered. Methods: CF were isolated from neonate rats and myofibroblasts were generated by an 84 h treatment with TGF-β1 (CMF). B1R was evaluated by western blot, immunocytochemistry and radioligand assay; B2R, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and cyclooxygenases 1and 2 (COX-1, and COX-2) were evaluated by western blot; intracellular Ca{sup +2} levels were evaluated with Fluo-4AM; collagen secretion was measured in the culture media using the picrosirius red assay kit. Results: B2R, iNOS, COX-1 and low levels of B1R but not eNOS, were detected by western blot in CF. Also, B1R, B2R, and COX-2 but not iNOS, eNOS or COX-1, were detected by western blot in CMF. By immunocytochemistry, our results showed lower intracellular B1R levels in CF and higher B1R levels in CMF, mainly localized on the cell membrane. Additionally, we found B1R only in CMF cellular membrane through radioligand displacement assay. Bradykinin (BK) B2R agonist increased intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels and reduced collagen secretion both in CF and CMF. These effects were blocked by HOE-140, and inhibited by L-NAME, 1400W and indomethacin. Des-Arg-kallidin (DAKD) B1R agonist did not increase intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels in CF; however, after preincubation for 1 h with DAKD and re-stimulation with the same agonist, we found a low increase in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels. Finally, DAKD increased intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels and decreased collagen secretion in CMF, being this effect blocked by the B1R antagonist des-Arg9-Leu8-kallidin and indomethacin, but not by L-NAME or 1400 W. Conclusion: B1R, B2R, iNOS and COX-1 were expressed differently between CF and CMF, and collagen secretion was

  14. Minor Type IV Collagen α5 Chain Promotes Cancer Progression through Discoidin Domain Receptor-1

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qian; Jiang, Yan; Liu, Qingbo; Yue, Jiao; Liu, Chunying; Zhao, Xiaotong; Qiao, Yuemei; Ji, Hongbin; Chen, Jianfeng; Ge, Gaoxiang

    2015-01-01

    Type IV collagens (Col IV), components of basement membrane, are essential in the maintenance of tissue integrity and proper function. Alteration of Col IV is related to developmental defects and diseases, including cancer. Col IV α chains form α1α1α2, α3α4α5 and α5α5α6 protomers that further form collagen networks. Despite knowledge on the functions of major Col IV (α1α1α2), little is known whether minor Col IV (α3α4α5 and α5α5α6) plays a role in cancer. It also remains to be elucidated whether major and minor Col IV are functionally redundant. We show that minor Col IV α5 chain is indispensable in cancer development by using α5(IV)-deficient mouse model. Ablation of α5(IV) significantly impeded the development of KrasG12D-driven lung cancer without affecting major Col IV expression. Epithelial α5(IV) supports cancer cell proliferation, while endothelial α5(IV) is essential for efficient tumor angiogenesis. α5(IV), but not α1(IV), ablation impaired expression of non-integrin collagen receptor discoidin domain receptor-1 (DDR1) and downstream ERK activation in lung cancer cells and endothelial cells. Knockdown of DDR1 in lung cancer cells and endothelial cells phenocopied the cells deficient of α5(IV). Constitutively active DDR1 or MEK1 rescued the defects of α5(IV)-ablated cells. Thus, minor Col IV α5(IV) chain supports lung cancer progression via DDR1-mediated cancer cell autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms. Minor Col IV can not be functionally compensated by abundant major Col IV. PMID:25992553

  15. Internalization and desensitization of adenosine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Klaasse, Elisabeth C.; de Grip, Willem J.; Beukers, Margot W.

    2007-01-01

    Until now, more than 800 distinct G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified in the human genome. The four subtypes of the adenosine receptor (A1, A2A, A2B and A3 receptor) belong to this large family of GPCRs that represent the most widely targeted pharmacological protein class. Since adenosine receptors are widespread throughout the body and involved in a variety of physiological processes and diseases, there is great interest in understanding how the different subtypes are regulated, as a basis for designing therapeutic drugs that either avoid or make use of this regulation. The major GPCR regulatory pathway involves phosphorylation of activated receptors by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), a process that is followed by binding of arrestin proteins. This prevents receptors from activating downstream heterotrimeric G protein pathways, but at the same time allows activation of arrestin-dependent signalling pathways. Upon agonist treatment, adenosine receptor subtypes are differently regulated. For instance, the A1Rs are not (readily) phosphorylated and internalize slowly, showing a typical half-life of several hours, whereas the A2AR and A2BR undergo much faster downregulation, usually shorter than 1 h. The A3R is subject to even faster downregulation, often a matter of minutes. The fast desensitization of the A3R after agonist exposure may be therapeutically equivalent to antagonist occupancy of the receptor. This review describes the process of desensitization and internalization of the different adenosine subtypes in cell systems, tissues and in vivo studies. In addition, molecular mechanisms involved in adenosine receptor desensitization are discussed. PMID:18368531

  16. Aldosterone and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists modulate elastin and collagen deposition in human skin.

    PubMed

    Mitts, Thomas F; Bunda, Severa; Wang, Yanting; Hinek, Aleksander

    2010-10-01

    We have shown that the steroid hormone aldosterone, recognized for its action on the kidney and the cardiovascular system, also modulates deposition of extracellular matrix in human skin. We have shown that treatment of primary cultures of normal skin fibroblasts with aldosterone (10 n-1 μM), in addition to stimulation of collagen type I expression, induces elastin gene expression and elastic fiber deposition. We have further shown that the elastogenic effect of aldosterone, which can be enhanced in the presence of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists spironolactone and eplerenone, is executed in a MR-independent manner via amplification of IGF-I receptor-mediated signaling. Because aldosterone applied alone stimulates both collagen and elastin deposition in cultures of fibroblasts and in cultures of skin explants derived from dermal stretch marks, we postulate that this steroid should be used in the treatment of damaged skin that loses its volume and elasticity. Moreover, aldosterone applied in conjunction with spironolactone or eplerenone induces matrix remodeling and exclusively enhances elastogenesis in cultures of fibroblasts and explants derived from dermal scars and keloids. We therefore propose that intra-lesional injection of these factors should be considered in therapy for disfiguring dermal lesions and especially in prevention of their recurrence after surgical excision. PMID:20535129

  17. Alternative activation of macrophages and pulmonary fibrosis are modulated by scavenger receptor, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Shubha; Larson-Casey, Jennifer L; Ryan, Alan J; He, Chao; Kobzik, Lester; Carter, A Brent

    2015-08-01

    Alternative activation of alveolar macrophages is linked to fibrosis following exposure to asbestos. The scavenger receptor, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), provides innate immune defense against inhaled particles and pathogens; however, a receptor for asbestos has not been identified. We hypothesized that MARCO acts as an initial signaling receptor for asbestos, polarizes macrophages to a profibrotic M2 phenotype, and is required for the development of asbestos-induced fibrosis. Compared with normal subjects, alveolar macrophages isolated from patients with asbestosis express higher amounts of MARCO and have greater profibrotic polarization. Arginase 1 (40-fold) and IL-10 (265-fold) were higher in patients. In vivo, the genetic deletion of MARCO attenuated the profibrotic environment and pulmonary fibrosis in mice exposed to chrysotile. Moreover, alveolar macrophages from MARCO(-/-) mice polarize to an M1 phenotype, whereas wild-type mice have higher Ym1 (>3.0-fold) and nearly 7-fold more active TGF-β1 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (BALF). Arg(432) and Arg(434) in domain V of MARCO are required for the polarization of macrophages to a profibrotic phenotype as mutation of these residues reduced FIZZ1 expression (17-fold) compared with cells expressing MARCO. These observations demonstrate that a macrophage membrane protein regulates the fibrotic response to lung injury and suggest a novel target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25953850

  18. Suboptimal Activation of Protease-activated Receptors Enhances α2β1 Integrin-mediated Platelet Adhesion to Collagen*

    PubMed Central

    Marjoram, Robin J.; Voss, Bryan; Pan, Yumei; Dickeson, S. Kent; Zutter, Mary M.; Hamm, Heidi E.; Santoro, Samuel A.

    2009-01-01

    Thrombin and fibrillar collagen are potent activators of platelets at sites of vascular injury. Both agonists cause platelet shape change, granule secretion, and aggregation to form the primary hemostatic plug. Human platelets express two thrombin receptors, protease-activated receptors 1 and 4 (PAR1 and PAR4) and two collagen receptors, the α2β1 integrin (α2β1) and the glycoprotein VI (GPVI)/FcRγ chain complex. Although these receptors and their signaling mechanisms have been intensely studied, it is not known whether and how these receptors cooperate in the hemostatic function of platelets. This study examined cooperation between the thrombin and collagen receptors in platelet adhesion by utilizing a collagen-related peptide (α2-CRP) containing the α2β1-specific binding motif, GFOGER, in conjunction with PAR-activating peptides. We demonstrate that platelet adhesion to α2-CRP is substantially enhanced by suboptimal PAR activation (agonist concentrations that do not stimulate platelet aggregation) using the PAR4 agonist peptide and thrombin. The enhanced adhesion induced by suboptimal PAR4 activation was α2β1-dependent and GPVI/FcRγ-independent as revealed in experiments with α2β1- or FcRγ-deficient mouse platelets. We further show that suboptimal activation of other platelet Gq-linked G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) produces enhanced platelet adhesion to α2-CRP. The enhanced α2β1-mediated platelet adhesion is controlled by phospholipase C (PLC), but is not dependent on granule secretion, activation of αIIbβ3 integrin, or on phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) activity. In conclusion, we demonstrate a platelet priming mechanism initiated by suboptimal activation of PAR4 or other platelet Gq-linked GPCRs through a PLC-dependent signaling cascade that promotes enhanced α2β1 binding to collagens containing GFOGER sites. PMID:19815553

  19. Cleavage of Type I Collagen by Fibroblast Activation Protein-α Enhances Class A Scavenger Receptor Mediated Macrophage Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, Anna; Holthoff, Emily; Vadali, Shanthi; Kelly, Thomas; Post, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Pathophysiological conditions such as fibrosis, inflammation, and tumor progression are associated with modification of the extracellular matrix (ECM). These modifications create ligands that differentially interact with cells to promote responses that drive pathological processes. Within the tumor stroma, fibroblasts are activated and increase the expression of type I collagen. In addition, activated fibroblasts specifically express fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP), a post-prolyl peptidase. Although FAP reportedly cleaves type I collagen and contributes to tumor progression, the specific pathophysiologic role of FAP is not clear. In this study, the possibility that FAP-mediated cleavage of type I collagen modulates macrophage interaction with collagen was examined using macrophage adhesion assays. Our results demonstrate that FAP selectively cleaves type I collagen resulting in increased macrophage adhesion. Increased macrophage adhesion to FAP-cleaved collagen was not affected by inhibiting integrin-mediated interactions, but was abolished in macrophages lacking the class A scavenger receptor (SR-A/CD204). Further, SR-A expressing macrophages localize with activated fibroblasts in breast tumors of MMTV-PyMT mice. Together, these results demonstrate that FAP-cleaved collagen is a substrate for SR-A-dependent macrophage adhesion, and suggest that by modifying the ECM, FAP plays a novel role in mediating communication between activated fibroblasts and macrophages. PMID:26934296

  20. Collagen Induces Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells by Signaling through Osteoclast-Associated Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Heidi S.; Nitze, Louise M.; Zeuthen, Louise H.; Keller, Pernille; Gruhler, Albrecht; Pass, Jesper; Chen, Jianhe; Guo, Li; Fleetwood, Andrew J.; Hamilton, John A.; Berchtold, Martin W.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) is widely expressed on human myeloid cells. Collagen types (Col)I, II, and III have been described as OSCAR ligands, and ColII peptides can induce costimulatory signaling in receptor activator for NF-κB–dependent osteoclastogenesis. In this study, we isolated collagen as an OSCAR-interacting protein from the membranes of murine osteoblasts. We have investigated a functional outcome of the OSCAR–collagen interaction in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). OSCAR engagement by ColI/II-induced activation/maturation of DCs is characterized by upregulation of cell surface markers and secretion of cytokines. These collagen-matured DCs (Col-DCs) were efficient drivers of allogeneic and autologous naive T cell proliferation. The T cells expanded by Col-DCs secreted cytokines with no clear T cell polarization pattern. Global RNA profiling revealed that multiple proinflammatory mediators, including cytokines and cytokine receptors, components of the stable immune synapse (namely CD40, CD86, CD80, and ICAM-1), as well as components of TNF and TLR signaling, are transcriptional targets of OSCAR in DCs. Our findings indicate the existence of a novel pathway by which extracellular matrix proteins locally drive maturation of DCs during inflammatory conditions, for example, within synovial tissue of rheumatoid arthritis patients, where collagens become exposed during tissue remodeling and are thus accessible for interaction with infiltrating precursors of DCs. PMID:25725106

  1. Interleukin-4 Receptor α Signaling in Myeloid Cells Controls Collagen Fibril Assembly in Skin Repair.

    PubMed

    Knipper, Johanna A; Willenborg, Sebastian; Brinckmann, Jürgen; Bloch, Wilhelm; Maaß, Tobias; Wagener, Raimund; Krieg, Thomas; Sutherland, Tara; Munitz, Ariel; Rothenberg, Marc E; Niehoff, Anja; Richardson, Rebecca; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Allen, Judith E; Eming, Sabine A

    2015-10-20

    Activation of the immune response during injury is a critical early event that determines whether the outcome of tissue restoration is regeneration or replacement of the damaged tissue with a scar. The mechanisms by which immune signals control these fundamentally different regenerative pathways are largely unknown. We have demonstrated that, during skin repair in mice, interleukin-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα)-dependent macrophage activation controlled collagen fibril assembly and that this process was important for effective repair while having adverse pro-fibrotic effects. We identified Relm-α as one important player in the pathway from IL-4Rα signaling in macrophages to the induction of lysyl hydroxylase 2 (LH2), an enzyme that directs persistent pro-fibrotic collagen cross-links, in fibroblasts. Notably, Relm-β induced LH2 in human fibroblasts, and expression of both factors was increased in lipodermatosclerosis, a condition of excessive human skin fibrosis. Collectively, our findings provide mechanistic insights into the link between type 2 immunity and initiation of pro-fibrotic pathways. PMID:26474656

  2. Type IV collagen is an activating ligand for the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor GPR126.

    PubMed

    Paavola, Kevin J; Sidik, Harwin; Zuchero, J Bradley; Eckart, Michael; Talbot, William S

    2014-08-12

    GPR126 is an orphan heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is essential for the development of diverse organs. We found that type IV collagen, a major constituent of the basement membrane, binds to Gpr126 and activates its signaling function. Type IV collagen stimulated the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate in rodent Schwann cells, which require Gpr126 activity to differentiate, and in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells expressing exogenous Gpr126. Type IV collagen specifically bound to the extracellular amino-terminal region of Gpr126 containing the CUB (complement, Uegf, Bmp1) and pentraxin domains. Gpr126 derivatives lacking the entire amino-terminal region were constitutively active, suggesting that this region inhibits signaling and that ligand binding relieves this inhibition to stimulate receptor activity. A new zebrafish mutation that truncates Gpr126 after the CUB and pentraxin domains disrupted development of peripheral nerves and the inner ear. Thus, our findings identify type IV collagen as an activating ligand for GPR126, define its mechanism of activation, and highlight a previously unrecognized signaling function of type IV collagen in basement membranes. PMID:25118328

  3. Transgenic Expression of an Altered Angiotensin type I AT1 Receptor Resulting in Marked Modulation of Vascular Type I Collagen

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jun; Taylor, Linda; Rich, Celeste; Toselli, Paul; Stone, Philip; Green, Daniel; Warburton, Rod; Hill, Nicholas; Goldstein, Ronald; Polgar, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1) was modified by replacing its third intracellular loop and C-terminal tail with the corresponding regions from the bradykinin B2 receptor. Transgenic mice were produced that overexpress this mutated receptor (AB3T). Considerably less collagen content in the intact aorta and in primary aortic smooth muscle (aSMCs) cultures was observed in the transgenic mice. On the other hand, elastin content remained unchanged as measured by western blot, and insoluble amino acid quantitation. The contraction of isolated aortas also remained unaltered. The aSMCs derived from the transgenic mice showed a reduction in angiotensin II responsive type I collagen production. In aSMCs from transgenic mice, the cascade of Akt to the mammalian target rapamycin (mTOR) to p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) was not angiotensin II activated, while in the aSMCs from wild type mice the cascade was angiotensin II activated. Angiotensin activation of Smad2 and Stat3 was also reduced in the AB3T aSMCs. However, no change in the effect of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) on type I collagen production was observed. Also, the activation of ERK and JNK and G protein linked signaling remained unaltered in response to angiotensin II. Akt and PI3K activation inhibitors blocked angiotensin II stimulated type I collagen expression in WT aSMCs, whereas ERK inhibitor had no such effect. Our results point to an Akt/ mTOR/ p70S6K regulation of collagen production by angiotensin II with participation of Smad2 and Stat3 cascades in this process. PMID:21751211

  4. Treatment of penetrating brain injury in a rat model using collagen scaffolds incorporating soluble Nogo receptor.

    PubMed

    Elias, Paul Z; Spector, Myron

    2015-02-01

    Injuries and diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) have the potential to cause permanent loss of brain parenchyma, with severe neurological consequences. Cavitary defects in the brain may afford the possibility of treatment with biomaterials that fill the lesion site while delivering therapeutic agents. This study examined the treatment of penetrating brain injury (PBI) in a rat model with collagen biomaterials and a soluble Nogo receptor (sNgR) molecule. sNgR was aimed at neutralizing myelin proteins that hinder axon regeneration by inducing growth cone collapse. Scaffolds containing sNgR were implanted in the brains of adult rats 1 week after injury and analysed 4 weeks or 8 weeks later. Histological analysis revealed that the scaffolds filled the lesion sites, remained intact with open pores and were infiltrated with cells and extracellular matrix. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated the composition of the cellular infiltrate to include macrophages, astrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Isolated regions of the scaffold borders showed integration with surrounding viable brain tissue that included neurons and oligodendrocytes. While axon regeneration was not detected in the scaffolds, the cellular infiltration and vascularization of the lesion site demonstrated a modification of the injury environment with implications for regenerative strategies. PMID:23038669

  5. Folate Receptor β Regulates Integrin CD11b/CD18 Adhesion of a Macrophage Subset to Collagen.

    PubMed

    Machacek, Christian; Supper, Verena; Leksa, Vladimir; Mitulovic, Goran; Spittler, Andreas; Drbal, Karel; Suchanek, Miloslav; Ohradanova-Repic, Anna; Stockinger, Hannes

    2016-09-15

    Folate, also known as vitamin B9, is necessary for essential cellular functions such as DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. It is supplied to the cell via several transporters and receptors, including folate receptor (FR) β, a GPI-anchored protein belonging to the folate receptor family. As FRβ shows a restricted expression to cells of myeloid origin and only a subset of activated macrophages and placental cells have been shown to express functional FRβ, it represents a promising target for future therapeutic strategies. In this study, we performed affinity purification and mass spectrometric analysis of the protein microenvironment of FRβ in the plasma membrane of human FRβ(+) macrophages and FRβ-transduced monocytic THP-1 cells. In this manner, we identified a novel role of FRβ: that is, we report functional interactions of FRβ with receptors mediating cellular adhesion, in particular the CD11b/CD18 β2 integrin heterodimer complement receptor type 3/Mac-1. This interaction results in impeded adhesion of FRβ(+) human primary macrophages and THP-1 cells to collagen in comparison with their FRβ(-) counterparts. We further show that FRβ is only expressed by human macrophages when differentiated with M-CSF. These findings thus identify FRβ as a novel CD11b/CD18 regulator for trafficking and homing of a subset of macrophages on collagen. PMID:27534550

  6. Discoidin Domain Receptors Promote α1β1- and α2β1-Integrin Mediated Cell Adhesion to Collagen by Enhancing Integrin Activation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huifang; Bihan, Dominique; Chang, Francis; Huang, Paul H.; Farndale, Richard W.; Leitinger, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    The discoidin domain receptors, DDR1 and DDR2, are receptor tyrosine kinases that bind to and are activated by collagens. Similar to collagen-binding β1 integrins, the DDRs bind to specific motifs within the collagen triple helix. However, these two types of collagen receptors recognize distinct collagen sequences. While GVMGFO (O is hydroxyproline) functions as a major DDR binding motif in fibrillar collagens, integrins bind to sequences containing Gxx’GEx”. The DDRs are thought to regulate cell adhesion, but their roles have hitherto only been studied indirectly. In this study we used synthetic triple-helical collagen-derived peptides that incorporate either the DDR-selective GVMGFO motif or integrin-selective motifs, such as GxOGER and GLOGEN, in order to selectively target either type of receptor and resolve their contributions to cell adhesion. Our data using HEK293 cells show that while cell adhesion to collagen I was completely inhibited by anti-integrin blocking antibodies, the DDRs could mediate cell attachment to the GVMGFO motif in an integrin-independent manner. Cell binding to GVMGFO was independent of DDR receptor signalling and occurred with limited cell spreading, indicating that the DDRs do not mediate firm adhesion. However, blocking the interaction of DDR-expressing cells with collagen I via the GVMGFO site diminished cell adhesion, suggesting that the DDRs positively modulate integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Indeed, overexpression of the DDRs or activation of the DDRs by the GVMGFO ligand promoted α1β1 and α2β1 integrin-mediated cell adhesion to medium- and low-affinity integrin ligands without regulating the cell surface expression levels of α1β1 or α2β1. Our data thus demonstrate an adhesion-promoting role of the DDRs, whereby overexpression and/or activation of the DDRs leads to enhanced integrin-mediated cell adhesion as a result of higher integrin activation state. PMID:23284937

  7. Beta(2)-adrenergic receptor regulates cardiac fibroblast autophagy and collagen degradation.

    PubMed

    Aránguiz-Urroz, Pablo; Canales, Jimena; Copaja, Miguel; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Vicencio, Jose Miguel; Carrillo, Constanza; Lara, Hernán; Lavandero, Sergio; Díaz-Araya, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy is a physiological degradative process key to cell survival during nutrient deprivation, cell differentiation and development. It plays a major role in the turnover of damaged macromolecules and organelles, and it has been involved in the pathogenesis of different cardiovascular diseases. Activation of the adrenergic system is commonly associated with cardiac fibrosis and remodeling, and cardiac fibroblasts are key players in these processes. Whether adrenergic stimulation modulates cardiac fibroblast autophagy remains unexplored. In the present study, we aimed at this question and evaluated the effects of b(2)-adrenergic stimulation upon autophagy. Cultured adult rat cardiac fibroblasts were treated with agonists or antagonists of beta-adrenergic receptors (b-AR), and autophagy was assessed by electron microscopy, GFP-LC3 subcellular distribution, and immunowesternblot of endogenous LC3. The predominant expression of b(2)-ARs was determined and characterized by radioligand binding assays using [(3)H]dihydroalprenolol. Both, isoproterenol and norepinephrine (non-selective b-AR agonists), as well as salbutamol (selective b(2)-AR agonist) increased autophagic flux, and these effects were blocked by propanolol (b-AR antagonist), ICI-118,551 (selective b(2)-AR antagonist), 3-methyladenine but not by atenolol (selective b(1)-AR antagonist). The increase in autophagy was correlated with an enhanced degradation of collagen, and this effect was abrogated by the inhibition of autophagic flux. Overall, our data suggest that b(2)-adrenergic stimulation triggers autophagy in cardiac fibroblasts, and that this response could contribute to reduce the deleterious effects of high adrenergic stimulation upon cardiac fibrosis. PMID:20637865

  8. The Collagen Family

    PubMed Central

    Ricard-Blum, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    Collagens are the most abundant proteins in mammals. The collagen family comprises 28 members that contain at least one triple-helical domain. Collagens are deposited in the extracellular matrix where most of them form supramolecular assemblies. Four collagens are type II membrane proteins that also exist in a soluble form released from the cell surface by shedding. Collagens play structural roles and contribute to mechanical properties, organization, and shape of tissues. They interact with cells via several receptor families and regulate their proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Some collagens have a restricted tissue distribution and hence specific biological functions. PMID:21421911

  9. Gene encoding the collagen type I and thrombospondin receptor CD36 is located on chromosome 7q11. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Ruiz, E.; Armesilla, A.L.; Sanchez-Madrid, F.; Vega, M.A. )

    1993-09-01

    The human CD36 is a member of a gene family of structurally related glycoproteins and functions as a receptor for collagen type I and thrombospondin. CD36 also binds to red blood cells infected with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. In the present study, the CD36 gene was assigned to chromosome 7 by using the polymerase chain reaction with DNA from human-hamster somatic cell hybrids. Furthermore, the use of a CD36 genomic probe has allowed the localization of the CD36 locus to the 7q11.2 band by fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with GTG-banding. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  10. α2β1 Integrin, GPVI Receptor, and Common FcRγ Chain on Mouse Platelets Mediate Distinct Responses to Collagen in Models of Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Marjoram, Robin J.; Li, Zhengzhi; He, Li; Tollefsen, Douglas M.; Kunicki, Thomas J.; Dickeson, S. Kent; Santoro, Samuel A.; Zutter, Mary M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Platelets express the α2β1 integrin and the glycoprotein VI (GPVI)/FcRγ complex, both collagen receptors. Understanding platelet-collagen receptor function has been enhanced through use of genetically modified mouse models. Previous studies of GPVI/FcRγ-mediated collagen-induced platelet activation were perfomed with mice in which the FcRγ subunit was genetically deleted (FcRγ−/−) or the complex was depleted. The development of α2β1−/− and GPVI−/− mice permits side-by-side comparison to address contributions of these collagen receptors in vivo and in vitro. Approach and Results To understand the different roles played by the α2β1 integrin, the GPVI receptor or FcRγ subunit in collagen-stimulated hemostasis and thrombosis, we compared α2β1−/−, FcRγ−/−, and GPVI−/− mice in models of endothelial injury and intravascular thrombosis in vivo and their platelets in collagen-stimulated activation in vitro. We demonstrate that both the α2β1 integrin and the GPVI receptor, but not the FcRγ subunit influence carotid artery occlusion in vivo. In contrast, the GPVI receptor and the FcRγ chain, but not the α2β1 integrin, play similar roles in intravascular thrombosis in response to soluble Type I collagen. FcRγ−/− platelets showed less attenuation of tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins including RhoGDI when compared to GPVI−/− and wild type platelets. The difference between FcRγ−/− and GPVI−/− platelet phosphotyrosine levels correlated with the in vivo thrombosis findings. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that genetic deletion of GPVI receptor, FcRγ chain, or the α2β1 integrin changes the thrombotic potentials of these platelets to collagen dependent on the stimulus mechanism. The data suggest that the FcRγ chain may provide a dominant negative effect through modulating signaling pathways in platelets involving several tyrosine phosphorylated proteins such as RhoGDI. In addition, these findings

  11. Studies of adhesion-dependent platelet activation: distinct roles for different participating receptors can be dissociated by proteolysis of collagen.

    PubMed

    Siljander, P; Lassila, R

    1999-12-01

    The molecular differences between native-type collagen type I fibrils (NC) and their pepsinated monomers (PC) were used to uncover receptors involved in platelet-collagen interaction along the adhesion-activation axis. The platelet-depositing capacity of NC and PC under blood flow and their adhesive properties and respective morphologies, aggregation, procoagulant capacity, and tyrosine phosphorylation were compared under different cationic milieus, including or excluding the glycoprotein (GP) Ia/IIa. NC was consistently a more preferable and activating substrate than PC during flow (5 minutes) and in platelet aggregation. In PPACK-treated blood, both NC (3.3-fold) and PC (2.7-fold) increased platelet attachment on elevation of the shear rate from 500 to 1640 s(-1), whereas in citrated blood, adhesion and thrombus growth on PC were negligible under the high shear rate, unlike on NC (1.9-fold increase). The complete lack of platelet deposition on PC in citrated blood could be overcome by restoring physiological Mg(2+) concentration, and in contrast to NC, platelets interacting with PC were highly dependent on Mg(2+) during adhesion, aggregation, and procoagulant response. Monoclonal antibody (mAb 131.7) against GP IV inhibited platelet deposition to NC in citrated blood (2 minutes) by 49%, which was not further increased by coincubation with mAb against GP Ia (6F1). These results stress the importance of GP Ia/IIa in shear-resistant platelet deposition on collagen monomers. In native fibers, however, the preserved quaternary structure with telopeptides activates additional platelet receptors capable of substituting GP Ia/IIa and GP IV. PMID:10591685

  12. Cholesterol dependence of collagen and echovirus 1 trafficking along the novel α2β1 integrin internalization pathway.

    PubMed

    Siljamäki, Elina; Rintanen, Nina; Kirsi, Maija; Upla, Paula; Wang, Wei; Karjalainen, Mikko; Ikonen, Elina; Marjomäki, Varpu

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that soluble collagen and a human pathogen, echovirus 1 (EV1) cluster α2β1 integrin on the plasma membrane and cause their internalization into cytoplasmic endosomes. Here we show that cholesterol plays a major role not only in the uptake of α2β1 integrin and its ligands but also in the formation of α2 integrin-specific multivesicular bodies (α2-MVBs) and virus infection. EV1 infection and α2β1 integrin internalization were totally halted by low amounts of the cholesterol-aggregating drugs filipin or nystatin. Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis and accumulation of lanosterol after ketoconazole treatment inhibited uptake of collagen, virus and clustered integrin, and prevented formation of multivesicular bodies and virus infection. Loading of lipid starved cells with cholesterol increased infection to some extent but could not completely restore EV1 infection to control levels. Cold Triton X-100 treatment did not solubilize the α2-MVBs suggesting, together with cholesterol labeling, that the cytoplasmic endosomes were enriched in detergent-resistant lipids in contrast to αV integrin labeled control endosomes in the clathrin pathway. Cholesterol aggregation leading to increased ion permeability caused a significant reduction in EV1 uncoating in endosomes as judged by sucrose gradient centrifugation and by neutral red-based uncoating assay. In contrast, the replication step was not dependent on cholesterol in contrast to the reports on several other viruses. In conclusion, our results showed that the integrin internalization pathway is dependent on cholesterol for uptake of collagen, EV1 and integrin, for maturation of endosomal structures and for promoting EV1 uncoating. The results thus provide novel information for developing anti-viral strategies and more insight into collagen and integrin trafficking. PMID:23393580

  13. Extracellular heat shock protein 90 binding to TGFβ receptor I participates in TGFβ-mediated collagen production in myocardial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    García, Raquel; Merino, David; Gómez, Jenny M; Nistal, J Francisco; Hurlé, María A; Cortajarena, Aitziber L; Villar, Ana V

    2016-10-01

    The pathological remodeling heart shows an increase in left ventricular mass and an excess of extracellular matrix deposition that can over time cause heart failure. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is the main cytokine controlling this process. The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has been shown to play a critical role in TGFβ signaling by stabilizing the TGFβ signaling cascade. We detected extracellular Hsp90 in complex with TGFβ receptor I (TGFβRI) in fibroblasts and determined a close proximity between both proteins suggesting a potential physical interaction between the two at the plasma membrane. This was supported by in silico studies predicting Hsp90 dimers and TGFβRI extracellular domain interaction. Both, Hsp90aa1 and Hsp90ab1 isoforms participate in TGFβRI complex. Extracellular Hsp90 inhibition lessened the yield of collagen production as well as the canonical TGFβ signaling cascade, and collagen protein synthesis was drastically reduced in Hsp90aa1 KO mice. These observations together with the significant increase in activity of Hsp90 at the plasma membrane pointed to a functional cooperative partnership between Hsp90 and TGFβRI in the fibrotic process. We propose that a surface population of Hsp90 extracellularly binds TGFβRI and this complex behaves as an active participant in collagen production in TGFβ-activated fibroblasts. We also offer an in vivo insight into the role of Hsp90 and its isoforms during cardiac remodeling in murine aortic banding model suffering from pathological cardiac remodeling and detect circulating Hsp90 overexpressed in remodeling mice. PMID:27418101

  14. In PC3 prostate cancer cells ephrin receptors crosstalk to β1-integrins to strengthen adhesion to collagen type I

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Miao; Wang, Jinghe; Muller, Daniel J.; Helenius, Jonne

    2015-01-01

    Eph receptor (Eph) and ephrin signaling can play central roles in prostate cancer and other cancer types. Exposed to ephrin-A1 PC3 prostate cancer cells alter adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. However, whether PC3 cells increase or reduce adhesion, and by which mechanisms they change adhesion to the ECM remains to be characterized. Here, we assay how ephrin-A1 stimulates PC3 cells to adhere to ECM proteins using single-cell force spectroscopy. We find that PC3 cells binding to immobilized ephrin-A1 but not to solubilized ephrin-A1 specifically strengthen adhesion to collagen I. This Eph-ephrin-A1 signaling, which we suppose is based on mechanotransduction, stimulates β1-subunit containing integrin adhesion via the protein kinase Akt and the guanine nucleotide-exchange factor cytohesin. Inhibiting the small GTPases, Rap1 or Rac1, generally lowered adhesion of PC3 prostate cancer cells. Our finding suggests a mechanism by which PC3 prostate cancer cells exposed to ephrins crosstalk to β1-integrins and preferably metastasize in bone, a collagen I rich tissue. PMID:25644492

  15. Kynurenine Modulates MMP-1 and Type-I Collagen Expression Via Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation in Dermal Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Poormasjedi-Meibod, Malihe-Sadat; Salimi Elizei, Sanam; Leung, Victor; Baradar Jalili, Reza; Ko, Frank; Ghahary, Aziz

    2016-12-01

    Dermal fibrosis is characterized by a high deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) and tissue cellularity. Unfortunately all means of treating this condition are unsatisfactory. We have previously reported the anti-fibrotic effects of Kynurenine (Kyn), a tryptophan metabolite, in fibrotic rabbit ear model. Here, we report the mechanism by which Kyn modulates the expression of key ECM components in dermal fibroblasts. The results showed that Kyn activates aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) nuclear translocation and up-regulates cytochrome-P450 (CYP1A-1) expression, the AHR target gene. A specific AHR antagonist, 6,2',4'-trimethoxyflavone, inhibited the Kyn-dependent modulation of CYP1A-1, MMP-1, and type-I collagen expression. Establishing the anti-fibrogenic effect of Kyn and its mechanism of action, we then developed nano-fibrous Kyn slow-releasing dressings and examined their anti-fibrotic efficacy in vitro and in a rat model. Our results showed the feasibility of incorporating Kyn into PVA/PLGA nanofibers, prolonging the Kyn release up to 4 days tested. Application of medicated-dressings significantly improved the dermal fibrosis indicated by MMP-1 induction, alpha-smooth muscle actin and type-I collagen suppression, and reduced tissue cellularity, T-cells and myofibroblasts. This study clarifies the mechanism by which Kyn modulates ECM expression and reports the development of a new slow-releasing anti-fibrogenic dressing. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2749-2760, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26992058

  16. Dopamine D2 Receptor Is Involved in Alleviation of Type II Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jian-Hua; Liu, Yi-Qian; Deng, Qiao-Wen; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Human and murine lymphocytes express dopamine (DA) D2-like receptors including DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4. However, their roles in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are less clear. Here we showed that lymphocyte DRD2 activation alleviates both imbalance of T-helper (Th)17/T-regulatory (Treg) cells and inflamed symptoms in a mouse arthritis model of RA. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was prepared by intradermal injection of chicken collagen type II (CII) in tail base of DBA/1 mice or Drd2−/− C57BL/6 mice. D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole downregulated expression of proinflammatory Th17-related cytokines interleukin- (IL-) 17 and IL-22 but further upregulated expression of anti-inflammatory Treg-related cytokines transforming growth factor- (TGF-) β and IL-10 in lymphocytes in vitro and in ankle joints in vivo in CIA mice. Quinpirole intraperitoneal administration reduced both clinical arthritis score and serum anti-CII IgG level in CIA mice. However, Drd2−/− CIA mice manifested more severe limb inflammation and higher serum anti-CII IgG level and further upregulated IL-17 and IL-22 expression and downregulated TGF-β and IL-10 expression than wild-type CIA mice. In contrast, Drd1−/− CIA mice did not alter limb inflammation or anti-CII IgG level compared with wild-type CIA mice. These results suggest that DRD2 activation is involved in alleviation of CIA symptoms by amelioration of Th17/Treg imbalance. PMID:26693483

  17. Dopamine D2 Receptor Is Involved in Alleviation of Type II Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian-Hua; Liu, Yi-Qian; Deng, Qiao-Wen; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Human and murine lymphocytes express dopamine (DA) D2-like receptors including DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4. However, their roles in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are less clear. Here we showed that lymphocyte DRD2 activation alleviates both imbalance of T-helper (Th)17/T-regulatory (Treg) cells and inflamed symptoms in a mouse arthritis model of RA. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was prepared by intradermal injection of chicken collagen type II (CII) in tail base of DBA/1 mice or Drd2 (-/-) C57BL/6 mice. D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole downregulated expression of proinflammatory Th17-related cytokines interleukin- (IL-) 17 and IL-22 but further upregulated expression of anti-inflammatory Treg-related cytokines transforming growth factor- (TGF-) β and IL-10 in lymphocytes in vitro and in ankle joints in vivo in CIA mice. Quinpirole intraperitoneal administration reduced both clinical arthritis score and serum anti-CII IgG level in CIA mice. However, Drd2 (-/-) CIA mice manifested more severe limb inflammation and higher serum anti-CII IgG level and further upregulated IL-17 and IL-22 expression and downregulated TGF-β and IL-10 expression than wild-type CIA mice. In contrast, Drd1 (-/-) CIA mice did not alter limb inflammation or anti-CII IgG level compared with wild-type CIA mice. These results suggest that DRD2 activation is involved in alleviation of CIA symptoms by amelioration of Th17/Treg imbalance. PMID:26693483

  18. A membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP)-discoidin domain receptor 1 axis regulates collagen-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Assent, Delphine; Bourgot, Isabelle; Hennuy, Benoît; Geurts, Pierre; Noël, Agnès; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Maquoi, Erik

    2015-01-01

    During tumour dissemination, invading breast carcinoma cells become confronted with a reactive stroma, a type I collagen-rich environment endowed with anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties. To develop metastatic capabilities, tumour cells must acquire the capacity to cope with this novel microenvironment. How cells interact with and respond to their microenvironment during cancer dissemination remains poorly understood. To address the impact of type I collagen on the fate of tumour cells, human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells were cultured within three-dimensional type I collagen gels (3D COL1). Using this experimental model, we have previously demonstrated that membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), a proteinase overexpressed in many aggressive tumours, promotes tumour progression by circumventing the collagen-induced up-regulation of BIK, a pro-apoptotic tumour suppressor, and hence apoptosis. Here we performed a transcriptomic analysis to decipher the molecular mechanisms regulating 3D COL1-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. Control and MT1-MMP expressing MCF-7 cells were cultured on two-dimensional plastic plates or within 3D COL1 and a global transcriptional time-course analysis was performed. Shifting the cells from plastic plates to 3D COL1 activated a complex reprogramming of genes implicated in various biological processes. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a 3D COL1-mediated alteration of key cellular functions including apoptosis, cell proliferation, RNA processing and cytoskeleton remodelling. By using a panel of pharmacological inhibitors, we identified discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a receptor tyrosine kinase specifically activated by collagen, as the initiator of 3D COL1-induced apoptosis. Our data support the concept that MT1-MMP contributes to the inactivation of the DDR1-BIK signalling axis through the cleavage of collagen fibres and/or the alteration of DDR1 receptor signalling unit, without triggering a

  19. Constitutive Smad signaling and Smad-dependent collagen gene expression in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Asish K Wei, Jun; Wu, Minghua; Varga, John

    2008-09-19

    Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}), a potent inducer of collagen synthesis, is implicated in pathological fibrosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) is a nuclear hormone receptor that regulates adipogenesis and numerous other biological processes. Here, we demonstrate that collagen gene expression was markedly elevated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking PPAR-{gamma} compared to heterozygous control MEFs. Treatment with the PPAR-{gamma} ligand 15d-PGJ{sub 2} failed to down-regulate collagen gene expression in PPAR-{gamma} null MEFs, whereas reconstitution of these cells with ectopic PPAR-{gamma} resulted in their normalization. Compared to control MEFs, PPAR-{gamma} null MEFs displayed elevated levels of the Type I TGF-{beta} receptor (T{beta}RI), and secreted more TGF-{beta}1 into the media. Furthermore, PPAR-{gamma} null MEFs showed constitutive phosphorylation of cellular Smad2 and Smad3, even in the absence of exogenous TGF-{beta}, which was abrogated by the ALK5 inhibitor SB431542. Constitutive Smad2/3 phosphorylation in PPAR-{gamma} null MEFs was associated with Smad3 binding to its cognate DNA recognition sequences, and interaction with coactivator p300 previously implicated in TGF-{beta} responses. Taken together, these results indicate that loss of PPAR-{gamma} in MEFs is associated with upregulation of collagen synthesis, and activation of intracellular Smad signal transduction, due, at least in part, to autocrine TGF-{beta} stimulation.

  20. [Skin collagen abnormalities in a Japanese patient with extracranial internal carotid artery dissection followed by extracranial vertebral artery dissection].

    PubMed

    Sengoku, Renpei; Sato, Hironori; Honda, Hidehiko; Inoue, Kiyoharu; Ono, Seiitsu

    2006-02-01

    A 41-year-old man with hypertension and hyperlipidemia who complained of left hemiparesis after a temporal headache was admitted to our hospital. A cervical MRI with gadolinium enhancement revealed an intramural hematoma is compatible with right extracranial internal carotid artery dissection. Two weeks later, he complained of sudden onset of pain in the right side of his neck. The right extracranial internal carotid artery dissection followed by the right extracranial vertebral artery dissection was diagnosed. Spontaneous cervical artery dissection (SCAD) is one of the causes of stroke in young adults. The pathogenesis of SCAD remains unknown. Minor trauma like an excessive sneeze, migraine, and connective tissue disorders such as fibromuscular dysplasia and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome are well-known as risk factors for SCAD. Pathologically skin collagen abnormalities have been seen in German patients with SCAD without clinical evidence for any specific connective tissue disorder. We examined the ultrastructural morphology of the Japanese patient's dermal connective tissue components by electron microscopy. The patient's collagen fibers contained fibrils with highly variable diameters, and there were other ultrastructural abnormalities, including flower-like fibrils and large-diameter composite fibrils. This is the first report of a case of ultrastructural abnormalities of dermal connective tissue in a Japanese patient with SCAD. PMID:16619839

  1. Arrestin Scaffolds NHERF1 to the P2Y12 Receptor to Regulate Receptor Internalization*

    PubMed Central

    Nisar, Shaista P.; Cunningham, Margaret; Saxena, Kunal; Pope, Robert J.; Kelly, Eamonn; Mundell, Stuart J.

    2012-01-01

    We have recently shown in a patient with mild bleeding that the PDZ-binding motif of the platelet G protein-coupled P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R) is required for effective receptor traffic in human platelets. In this study we show for the first time that the PDZ motif-binding protein NHERF1 exerts a major role in potentiating G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) internalization. NHERF1 interacts with the C-tail of the P2Y12R and unlike many other GPCRs, NHERF1 interaction is required for effective P2Y12R internalization. In vitro and prior to agonist stimulation P2Y12R/NHERF1 interaction requires the intact PDZ binding motif of this receptor. Interestingly on receptor stimulation NHERF1 no longer interacts directly with the receptor but instead binds to the receptor via the endocytic scaffolding protein arrestin. These findings suggest a novel model by which arrestin can serve as an adaptor to promote NHERF1 interaction with a GPCR to facilitate effective NHERF1-dependent receptor internalization. PMID:22610101

  2. Arrestin scaffolds NHERF1 to the P2Y12 receptor to regulate receptor internalization.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Shaista P; Cunningham, Margaret; Saxena, Kunal; Pope, Robert J; Kelly, Eamonn; Mundell, Stuart J

    2012-07-13

    We have recently shown in a patient with mild bleeding that the PDZ-binding motif of the platelet G protein-coupled P2Y(12) receptor (P2Y(12)R) is required for effective receptor traffic in human platelets. In this study we show for the first time that the PDZ motif-binding protein NHERF1 exerts a major role in potentiating G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) internalization. NHERF1 interacts with the C-tail of the P2Y(12)R and unlike many other GPCRs, NHERF1 interaction is required for effective P2Y(12)R internalization. In vitro and prior to agonist stimulation P2Y(12)R/NHERF1 interaction requires the intact PDZ binding motif of this receptor. Interestingly on receptor stimulation NHERF1 no longer interacts directly with the receptor but instead binds to the receptor via the endocytic scaffolding protein arrestin. These findings suggest a novel model by which arrestin can serve as an adaptor to promote NHERF1 interaction with a GPCR to facilitate effective NHERF1-dependent receptor internalization. PMID:22610101

  3. Structural Mechanisms Determining Inhibition of the Collagen Receptor DDR1 by Selective and Multi-Targeted Type II Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Canning, Peter; Tan, Li; Chu, Kiki; Lee, Sam W.; Gray, Nathanael S.; Bullock, Alex N.

    2014-01-01

    The discoidin domain receptors (DDRs), DDR1 and DDR2, form a unique subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases that are activated by the binding of triple-helical collagen. Excessive signaling by DDR1 and DDR2 has been linked to the progression of various human diseases, including fibrosis, atherosclerosis and cancer. We report the inhibition of these unusual receptor tyrosine kinases by the multi-targeted cancer drugs imatinib and ponatinib, as well as the selective type II inhibitor DDR1-IN-1. Ponatinib is identified as the more potent molecule, which inhibits DDR1 and DDR2 with an IC50 of 9 nM. Co-crystal structures of human DDR1 reveal a DFG-out conformation (DFG, Asp-Phe-Gly) of the kinase domain that is stabilized by an unusual salt bridge between the activation loop and αD helix. Differences to Abelson kinase (ABL) are observed in the DDR1 P-loop, where a β-hairpin replaces the cage-like structure of ABL. P-loop residues in DDR1 that confer drug resistance in ABL are therefore accommodated outside the ATP pocket. Whereas imatinib and ponatinib bind potently to both the DDR and ABL kinases, the hydrophobic interactions of the ABL P-loop appear poorly satisfied by DDR1-IN-1 suggesting a structural basis for its DDR1 selectivity. Such inhibitors may have applications in clinical indications of DDR1 and DDR2 overexpression or mutation, including lung cancer. PMID:24768818

  4. Phosphoproteomics of collagen receptor networks reveals SHP-2 phosphorylation downstream of wild-type DDR2 and its lung cancer mutants

    PubMed Central

    Iwai, Leo K.; Payne, Leo S.; Luczynski, Maciej T.; Chang, Francis; Xu, Huifang; Clinton, Ryan W.; Paul, Angela; Esposito, Edward A.; Gridley, Scott; Leitinger, Birgit; Naegle, Kristen M.; Huang, Paul H.

    2013-01-01

    Collagen is an important extracellular matrix component that directs many fundamental cellular processes including differentiation, proliferation and motility. The signalling networks driving these processes are propagated by collagen receptors such as the β1 integrins and the DDRs (discoidin domain receptors). To gain an insight into the molecular mechanisms of collagen receptor signalling, we have performed a quantitative analysis of the phosphorylation networks downstream of collagen activation of integrins and DDR2. Temporal analysis over seven time points identified 424 phosphorylated proteins. Distinct DDR2 tyrosine phosphorylation sites displayed unique temporal activation profiles in agreement with in vitro kinase data. Multiple clustering analysis of the phosphoproteomic data revealed several DDR2 candidate downstream signalling nodes, including SHP-2 (Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2), NCK1 (non-catalytic region of tyrosine kinase adaptor protein 1), LYN, SHIP-2 [SH2 (Src homology 2)-domain-containing inositol phosphatase 2], PIK3C2A (phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 2α) and PLCL2 (phospholipase C-like 2). Biochemical validation showed that SHP-2 tyrosine phosphorylation is dependent on DDR2 kinase activity. Targeted proteomic profiling of a panel of lung SCC (squamous cell carcinoma) DDR2 mutants demonstrated that SHP-2 is tyrosine-phosphorylated by the L63V and G505S mutants. In contrast, the I638F kinase domain mutant exhibited diminished DDR2 and SHP-2 tyrosine phosphorylation levels which have an inverse relationship with clonogenic potential. Taken together, the results of the present study indicate that SHP-2 is a key signalling node downstream of the DDR2 receptor which may have therapeutic implications in a subset of DDR2 mutations recently uncovered in genome-wide lung SCC sequencing screens. PMID:23822953

  5. Nonprofessional Phagocytic Cell Receptors Involved in Staphylococcus aureus Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Alva-Murillo, Nayeli; López-Meza, Joel Edmundo

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a successful human and animal pathogen. The majority of infections caused by this pathogen are life threatening, primarily because S. aureus has developed multiple evasion strategies, possesses intracellular persistence for long periods, and targets the skin and soft tissues. Therefore, it is very important to understand the mechanisms employed by S. aureus to colonize and proliferate in these cells. The aim of this review is to describe the recent discoveries concerning the host receptors of nonprofessional phagocytes involved in S. aureus internalization. Most of the knowledge related to the interaction of S. aureus with its host cells has been described in professional phagocytic cells such as macrophages. Here, we showed that in nonprofessional phagocytes the α5β1 integrin host receptor, chaperons, and the scavenger receptor CD36 are the main receptors employed during S. aureus internalization. The characterization and identification of new bacterial effectors and the host cell receptors involved will undoubtedly lead to new discoveries with beneficial purposes. PMID:24826382

  6. Rapid internalization of the insulin receptor in rat hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Backer, J.M.; White, M.F.; Kahn, C.R.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have studied the internalization of the insulin receptor (IR) in rat hepatoma cells (Fao). The cells were surface-iodinated at 4C, stimulated with insulin at 37C, and then cooled rapidly, trypsinized at 4C and solubilized. The IR was immunoprecipitated with a specific antibody, and internalization of the IR was assessed by the appearance of trypsin-resistant bands on SDS-PAGE. Insulin induced the internalization of surface receptors with a t 1/2 of 9-10 mins; cells not exposed to insulin internalized less than 20% of the IR during 1 h at 37C. Further experiments demonstrated that the accumulation of trypsin-resistant IR paralleled a loss of receptor from the cell surface. Insulin-stimulated cells were chilled and iodinated at 4C, followed by solubilization, immunoprecipitation and SDS-PAGE; alternatively, insulin-stimulated cells were chilled, surface-bound ligand removed by washing the cells at pH 4.2, and specific ( SVI)insulin binding measured at 4C. Both techniques confirmed the disappearance of IR from the cell surface at rates comparable to the insulin-stimulated internalization described above. The total amount of phosphotyrosine-containing IR, as assessed by immunoprecipitation with an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody, remained constant during this time interval, suggesting that active kinase is translocated into the cell. In summary, the authors data indicate that insulin binding increases the rate of IR internalization of Fao cells. This relocation may facilitate the interaction of the activated tyrosine kinase in the IR with intracellular substrates, thus transmitting the insulin signal to metabolic pathways.

  7. Analysis of receptor tyrosine kinase internalization using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Hill, Kristen S; Elferink, Lisa A

    2008-01-01

    The internalization of activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) by endocytosis and their subsequent down regulation in lysosomes plays a critical role in regulating the duration and intensity of downstream signaling events. Uncoupling of the RTK cMet from ligand-induced degradation was recently shown to correlate with sustained receptor signaling and increased cell tumorigenicity, suggesting that the corruption of these endocytic mechanisms could contribute to increased cMet signaling in metastatic cancers. To understand how cMet signaling for normal cell growth is controlled by endocytosis and how these mechanisms are dysregulated in metastatic cancers, we developed flow cytometry-based assays to examine cMet internalization. PMID:19066037

  8. Involvement of tachykinins and NK1 receptor in the joint inflammation with collagen type II-specific monoclonal antibody-induced arthritis in mice.

    PubMed

    Makino, Akira; Sakai, Atsushi; Ito, Hiromoto; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic multisystem disease characterized by persistent joint inflammation associated with severe pain. Because RA is an immune-mediated joint disease and because type II collagen is considered an autoantigen, rodent models of arthritis using collagen type II-specific monoclonal antibodies are valuable for studying the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis and for evaluating therapeutic strategies. The tachykinin family peptides, substance P (SP) and hemokinin-1 (HK-1), are expressed in the nervous systems and in many peripheral organs and immunocompetent cells and activate tachykinin NK1 receptors with similar affinities. NK1 receptors are involved in the inflammation and hyperalgesia associated with a variety of inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we examined the involvement of SP and HK-1 in the joint inflammation and hyperalgesia in a collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) model in mice. The messenger RNA expression levels of the TAC1 gene encoding SP and of the TAC4 gene encoding HK-1 were decreased in the dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord at the peak of the inflammatory symptoms in CAIA. Systemic injection of an NK1 receptor antagonist, WIN 51708, significantly inhibited the joint swelling, but not the mechanical allodynia, on day 7 in CAIA mice. The messenger RNA expression levels of TAC1 and TAC4 in the dorsal root ganglia and dorsal spinal cord were unaffected by treatment with WIN 51708. These findings suggest that tachykinins and NK1 receptors play a key role in joint inflammation, rather than in nociceptive sensitization, in CAIA. PMID:22687356

  9. Internalization and molecular interactions of human CD21 receptor.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Jacques; Cuvillier, Armelle; Glaudet, Florence; Khamlichi, Ahmed Amine

    2007-03-01

    The human CD21 is a receptor for cleavage fragments of the third complement component and for Epstein-Barr virus. Previous mutational studies showed that the cytoplasmic domain of CD21 is absolutely required for internalization of either ligand. With the exception of CD19, CD81, Leu-13 and CD35 that can form a complex with CD21 at the cell surface, no other partner that interacts with the hCD21 transmembrane or the cytoplasmic domain was identified. We investigated the internalization capacity of hCD21 tail mutants in the absence of B cell receptor cross-linking by using stable murine B cell transfectants. We provide evidence that at least two internalization motifs are activated when hCD21 binds a monoclonal antibody. In order to identify the cellular proteins that interact with the hCD21 transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, we combined a mutational mapping with a two-hybrid system approach both in yeast and in mammalian cells. We identified four novel partners that are involved in intracellular trafficking, sorting or cytoskeleton remodeling and we mapped the hCD21 transmembrane and tail subdomains they interact with. We discuss the potential physiological significance of these findings in the context of hCD21 internalization and intracellular trafficking. PMID:17118449

  10. Sulfonamide inhibitors of α2β1 integrin reveal the essential role of collagen receptors in in vivo models of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Nissinen, Liisa; Ojala, Marika; Langen, Barbara; Dost, Rita; Pihlavisto, Marjo; Käpylä, Jarmo; Marjamäki, Anne; Heino, Jyrki

    2015-06-01

    Small molecule inhibitors of α2β1 integrin, a major cellular collagen receptor, have been reported to inhibit platelet function, kidney injury, and angiogenesis. Since α2β1 integrin is abundantly expressed on various inflammation-associated cells, we tested whether recently developed α2β1 blocking sulfonamides have anti-inflammatory properties. Integrin α2β1 inhibitors were shown to reduce the signs of inflammation in arachidonic acid-induced ear edema, PAF stimulated air pouch, ovalbumin-induced skin hypersensitivity, adjuvant arthritis, and collagen-induced arthritis. Thus, these sulfonamides are potential drugs for acute and allergic inflammation, hypersensitivity, and arthritis. One sulfonamide with potent anti-inflammatory activity has previously been reported to be selective for activated integrins, but not to inhibit platelet function. Thus, the experiments also revealed fundamental differences in the action of nonactivated and activated α2β1 integrins in inflammation when compared to thrombosis. PMID:26171226

  11. Sulfonamide inhibitors of α2β1 integrin reveal the essential role of collagen receptors in in vivo models of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Nissinen, Liisa; Ojala, Marika; Langen, Barbara; Dost, Rita; Pihlavisto, Marjo; Käpylä, Jarmo; Marjamäki, Anne; Heino, Jyrki

    2015-01-01

    Small molecule inhibitors of α2β1 integrin, a major cellular collagen receptor, have been reported to inhibit platelet function, kidney injury, and angiogenesis. Since α2β1 integrin is abundantly expressed on various inflammation-associated cells, we tested whether recently developed α2β1 blocking sulfonamides have anti-inflammatory properties. Integrin α2β1 inhibitors were shown to reduce the signs of inflammation in arachidonic acid-induced ear edema, PAF stimulated air pouch, ovalbumin-induced skin hypersensitivity, adjuvant arthritis, and collagen-induced arthritis. Thus, these sulfonamides are potential drugs for acute and allergic inflammation, hypersensitivity, and arthritis. One sulfonamide with potent anti-inflammatory activity has previously been reported to be selective for activated integrins, but not to inhibit platelet function. Thus, the experiments also revealed fundamental differences in the action of nonactivated and activated α2β1 integrins in inflammation when compared to thrombosis. PMID:26171226

  12. Evolution of collagen arthritis in mice is arrested by treatment with anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antibody or a recombinant soluble TNF receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Piguet, P F; Grau, G E; Vesin, C; Loetscher, H; Gentz, R; Lesslauer, W

    1992-01-01

    Immunization of DBA/1 mice with type II collagen within complete Freund's adjuvant leads to arthritis, lasting more than 3 months. Injection of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) IgG, 2 and 3 weeks after immunization prevented the development of arthritis in the following months. This treatment had no effect when started 2 months after induction of the disease. A soluble form of the human recombinant TNF receptor type-beta (rsTNFR-beta), continuously infused at a rate of 20 micrograms/day during the second and third week after immunization, also had a long-term protective effect. Anti-TNF antibody had no effect upon the production of anti-type II collagen antibodies. These results indicate that TNF is critically involved in an early phase of this arthritis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1337334

  13. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonist inhibits collagen synthesis in human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts by targeting Smad3 via miR-145

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Hua-Yu; Li, Chao; Zheng, Zhao; Zhou, Qin; Guan, Hao; Su, Lin-Lin; Han, Jun-Tao; Zhu, Xiong-Xiang; Wang, Shu-yue; Li, Jun Hu, Da-Hai

    2015-03-27

    The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) functions to regulate cell differentiation and lipid metabolism. Recently, its agonist has been documented to regulate extracellular matrix production in human dermal fibroblasts. This study explored the underlying molecular mechanisms and gene interactions in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFBs) in vitro. HSFBs were cultured and treated with or without PPAR-γ agonist or antagonist for gene expression. Bioinformatical analysis predicted that miR-145 could target Smad3 expression. Luciferase assay was used to confirm such an interaction. The data showed that PPAR-γ agonist troglitazone suppressed expression of Smad3 and Col1 in HSFBs. PPAR-γ agonist induced miR-145 at the gene transcriptional level, which in turn inhibited Smad3 expression and Col1 level in HSFBs. Furthermore, ELISA data showed that Col1 level in HSFBs was controlled by a feedback regulation mechanism involved in PPAR-γ agonist and antagonist-regulated expression of miR-145 and Smad3 in HSFBs. These findings indicate that PPAR-γ-miR-145-Smad3 axis plays a role in regulation of collagen synthesis in HSFBs. - Highlights: • PPAR-γ agonist inhibits collagen synthesis in HSFBs. • Smad3 and type I collagen expression are decreased by PPAR-γ agonist. • miR-145 expression is increased by PPAR-γ agonist in HSFBs. • Increased miR-145 inhibits collagen synthesis by targeting Smad3. • miR-145 regulates collagen synthesis.

  14. Novel α2β1 Integrin Inhibitors Reveal That Integrin Binding to Collagen under Shear Stress Conditions Does Not Require Receptor Preactivation*

    PubMed Central

    Nissinen, Liisa; Koivunen, Jarkko; Käpylä, Jarmo; Salmela, Maria; Nieminen, Jonna; Jokinen, Johanna; Sipilä, Kalle; Pihlavisto, Marjo; Pentikäinen, Olli T.; Marjamäki, Anne; Heino, Jyrki

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between α2β1 integrin (GPIa/IIa, VLA-2) and vascular collagen is one of the initiating events in thrombus formation. Here, we describe two structurally similar sulfonamide derivatives, BTT-3033 and BTT-3034, and show that, under static conditions, they have an almost identical effect on α2-expressing CHO cell adhesion to collagen I, but only BTT-3033 blocks platelet attachment under flow (90 dynes/cm2). Differential scanning fluorimetry showed that both molecules bind to the α2I domain of the recombinant α2 subunit. To further study integrin binding mechanism(s) of the two sulfonamides, we created an α2 Y285F mutant containing a substitution near the metal ion-dependent adhesion site motif in the α2I domain. The action of BTT-3033, unlike that of BTT-3034, was dependent on Tyr-285. In static conditions BTT-3034, but not BTT-3033, inhibited collagen binding by an α2 variant carrying a conformationally activating E318W mutation. Conversely, in under flow conditions (90 dynes/cm2) BTT-3033, but not BTT-3034, inhibited collagen binding by an α2 variant expressing E336A loss-of-function mutation. Thus, the binding sites for BTT-3033 and BTT-3034 are differentially available in distinct integrin conformations. Therefore, these sulfonamides can be used to study the biological role of different functional stages of α2β1. Furthermore, only the inhibitor that recognized the non-activated conformation of α2β1 integrin under shear stress conditions effectively blocked platelet adhesion, suggesting that the initial interaction between integrin and collagen takes place prior to receptor activation. PMID:23132859

  15. M2-like macrophages are responsible for collagen degradation through a mannose receptor–mediated pathway

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Daniel H.; Leonard, Daniel; Masedunskas, Andrius; Moyer, Amanda; Jürgensen, Henrik Jessen; Peters, Diane E.; Amornphimoltham, Panomwat; Selvaraj, Arul; Yamada, Susan S.; Brenner, David A.; Burgdorf, Sven; Engelholm, Lars H.; Behrendt, Niels; Holmbeck, Kenn; Weigert, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Tissue remodeling processes critically depend on the timely removal and remodeling of preexisting collagen scaffolds. Nevertheless, many aspects related to the turnover of this abundant extracellular matrix component in vivo are still incompletely understood. We therefore took advantage of recent advances in optical imaging to develop an assay to visualize collagen turnover in situ and identify cell types and molecules involved in this process. Collagen introduced into the dermis of mice underwent cellular endocytosis in a partially matrix metalloproteinase–dependent manner and was subsequently routed to lysosomes for complete degradation. Collagen uptake was predominantly executed by a quantitatively minor population of M2-like macrophages, whereas more abundant Col1a1-expressing fibroblasts and Cx3cr1-expressing macrophages internalized collagen at lower levels. Genetic ablation of the collagen receptors mannose receptor (Mrc1) and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor–associated protein (Endo180 and Mrc2) impaired this intracellular collagen degradation pathway. This study demonstrates the importance of receptor-mediated cellular uptake to collagen turnover in vivo and identifies a key role of M2-like macrophages in this process. PMID:24019537

  16. COLLAGEN PROCESSING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collagen dispersions, produced from fibrils recovered from milled bovine collagen, have shown promise in environmental remediation in applications as settling aids, filtration aids, fractionation media, oil drop stabilizers, and water purification aids. Macroporous structures, processed by controll...

  17. Collagenase-3 binds to a specific receptor and requires the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein for internalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmina, O. Y.; Walling, H. W.; Fiacco, G. J.; Freije, J. M.; Lopez-Otin, C.; Jeffrey, J. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1999-01-01

    We have previously identified a specific receptor for collagenase-3 that mediates the binding, internalization, and degradation of this ligand in UMR 106-01 rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cells. In the present study, we show that collagenase-3 binding is calcium-dependent and occurs in a variety of cell types, including osteoblastic and fibroblastic cells. We also present evidence supporting a two-step mechanism of collagenase-3 binding and internalization involving both a specific collagenase-3 receptor and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Ligand blot analysis shows that (125)I-collagenase-3 binds specifically to two proteins ( approximately 170 kDa and approximately 600 kDa) present in UMR 106-01 cells. Western blotting identified the 600-kDa protein as the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Our data suggest that the 170-kDa protein is a specific collagenase-3 receptor. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-null mouse embryo fibroblasts bind but fail to internalize collagenase-3, whereas UMR 106-01 and wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts bind and internalize collagenase-3. Internalization, but not binding, is inhibited by the 39-kDa receptor-associated protein. We conclude that the internalization of collagenase-3 requires the participation of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and propose a model in which the cell surface interaction of this ligand requires a sequential contribution from two receptors, with the collagenase-3 receptor acting as a high affinity primary binding site and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mediating internalization.

  18. Diallylsulfide attenuates excessive collagen production and apoptosis in a rat model of bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis through the involvement of protease activated receptor-2.

    PubMed

    Kalayarasan, Srinivasan; Sriram, Narayanan; Soumyakrishnan, Syamala; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam

    2013-09-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) can be a devastating lung disease. It is primarily caused by inflammation leading to severe damage of the alveolar epithelial cells. The pathophysiology of PF is not yet been clearly defined, but studying lung parenchymal injury by involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the activation of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) may provide promising results. PAR-2 is a G-protein coupled receptor is known to play an important role in the development of PF. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory role of diallylsulfide (DAS) against ROS mediated activation of PAR-2 and collagen production accompanied by epithelial cell apoptosis. Bleomycin induced ROS levels may prompt to induce the expression of PAR-2 as well as extracellular matrix proteins (ECM), such as MMP 2 and 9, collagen specific proteins HSP-47, α-SMA, and cytokines IL-6, and IL-8RA. Importantly DAS treatment effectively decreased the expression of all these proteins. The inhibitory effect of DAS on profibrotic molecules is mediated by blocking the ROS level. To identify apoptotic signaling as a mediator of PF induction, we performed apoptotic protein expression, DNA fragmentation analysis and ultrastructural details of the lung tissue were performed. DAS treatment restored all these changes to near normalcy. In conclusion, treatment of PF bearing rats with DAS results in amelioration of the ROS production, PAR-2 activation, ECM production, collagen synthesis and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis during bleomycin induction. We attained the first evidence that treatment of DAS decreases the ROS levels and may provide a potential therapeutic effect attenuating bleomycin induced PF. PMID:23656969

  19. Diallylsulfide attenuates excessive collagen production and apoptosis in a rat model of bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis through the involvement of protease activated receptor-2

    SciTech Connect

    Kalayarasan, Srinivasan Sriram, Narayanan; Soumyakrishnan, Syamala; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam

    2013-09-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) can be a devastating lung disease. It is primarily caused by inflammation leading to severe damage of the alveolar epithelial cells. The pathophysiology of PF is not yet been clearly defined, but studying lung parenchymal injury by involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the activation of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) may provide promising results. PAR-2 is a G-protein coupled receptor is known to play an important role in the development of PF. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory role of diallylsulfide (DAS) against ROS mediated activation of PAR-2 and collagen production accompanied by epithelial cell apoptosis. Bleomycin induced ROS levels may prompt to induce the expression of PAR-2 as well as extracellular matrix proteins (ECM), such as MMP 2 and 9, collagen specific proteins HSP-47, α-SMA, and cytokines IL-6, and IL-8RA. Importantly DAS treatment effectively decreased the expression of all these proteins. The inhibitory effect of DAS on profibrotic molecules is mediated by blocking the ROS level. To identify apoptotic signaling as a mediator of PF induction, we performed apoptotic protein expression, DNA fragmentation analysis and ultrastructural details of the lung tissue were performed. DAS treatment restored all these changes to near normalcy. In conclusion, treatment of PF bearing rats with DAS results in amelioration of the ROS production, PAR-2 activation, ECM production, collagen synthesis and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis during bleomycin induction. We attained the first evidence that treatment of DAS decreases the ROS levels and may provide a potential therapeutic effect attenuating bleomycin induced PF. - Highlights: • DAS inhibits PAR-2 activity; bleomycin stimulates PAR-2 activity. • Increase in PAR-2 activity is correlated with pulmonary fibrosis • DAS reduces pro-inflammatory activity linked to facilitating pulmonary fibrosis. • DAS inhibits apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells.

  20. Relation of Internal Elastic Lamellar Layer Disruption to Neointimal Cellular Proliferation and Type III Collagen Deposition in Human Peripheral Artery Restenosis.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Prakash; Purushothaman, K-Raman; Purushothaman, Meerarani; Baber, Usman; Tarricone, Arthur; Vasquez, Miguel; Wiley, Jose; Kini, Annapoorna; Sharma, Samin K; O'Connor, William N; Moreno, Pedro R

    2016-04-01

    Smooth muscle cell proliferation and extracellular matrix formation are responsible for disease progression in de novo and restenotic atherosclerosis. Internal elastic lamella (IEL) layer maintains the structural integrity of intima, and disruption of IEL may be associated with alterations in neointima, type III collagen deposition, and lesion progression in restenosis. Nineteen restenotic plaques (12 patients) procured during peripheral interventions were compared with 13 control plaques (12 patients) without restenosis. Hematoxylin & Eosin and elastic trichrome stains were used to measure length and percentage of IEL disruption, cellularity, and inflammation score. Type I and III collagens, smooth muscle cell (smc), fibroblast density, and nuclear proliferation (Ki67) percentage were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. IEL disruption percentage (28 ± 3.6 vs 6.1 ± 2.4; p = 0.0006), type III collagen content (0.33 ± 0.06 vs 0.17 ± 0.07; p = 0.0001), smc density (2014 ± 120 vs 923 ± 150; p = 0.0001), fibroblast density (2,282 ± 297 vs 906 ± 138; p = 0.0001), and Ki67 percentage (21.6 ± 2 vs 8.2 ± 0.65; p = 0.0001) were significantly increased in restenotic plaques compared to de novo plaques. Logistic regression analysis identified significant correlation between IEL disruption and neointimal smc density (r = 0.45; p = 0.01) and with type III collagen deposition (r = 0.61; p = 0.02) in restenosis. Increased IEL disruption may trigger cellular proliferation, altering collagen production, and enhancing restenotic neointima. In conclusion, understanding the pathologic and molecular basis of restenosis and meticulous-guided interventions oriented to minimize IEL damage may aid to reduce neointimal proliferation and the occurrence of restenosis. PMID:26857165

  1. Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Quantification of Receptor Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy has been widely used as a single molecule imaging technique to study various fundamental aspects of cell biology, owing to its ability to selectively excite a very thin fluorescent volume immediately above the substrate on which the cells are grown. However, TIRF microscopy has found little use in high content screening due to its complexity in instrumental setup and experimental procedures. Inspired by the recent demonstration of label-free evanescent wave biosensors for cell phenotypic profiling and drug screening with high throughput, we had hypothesized and demonstrated that TIRF imaging is also amenable to receptor pharmacology profiling. This paper reviews key considerations and recent applications of TIRF imaging for pharmacology profiling. PMID:25922915

  2. Blockade of interleukin-6 receptor enhances the anti-arthritic effect of glucocorticoids without decreasing bone mineral density in mice with collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M; Yoshida, H; Hashizume, M; Tanaka, K; Matsumoto, Y

    2015-11-01

    In a mouse arthritis model, we investigated whether interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) blockade would enhance the anti-arthritic effect of glucocorticoids (GCs). DBA/1J mice were immunized with type II collagen (CII), and were treated with prednisolone (PSL) and/or anti-mouse IL-6R antibody (MR16-1). Also, the effects of IL-6 on gene expression and the nuclear translocation of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) were examined in cultured cells treated with dexamethasone (DEX). PSL reduced the arthritis score dose-dependently in the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. The arthritis score in the PSL (3 mg/kg) + MR16-1 group was lower than in the PSL (3 mg/kg) group, and at the same level as in the PSL (6 mg/kg) group. Lumbar vertebra bone mineral density (BMD) was decreased significantly in CIA mice and was higher in the PSL (3 mg/kg) + MR16-1 group than in the PSL (6 mg/kg) group. In the in-vitro synovial cells, IL-6 pretreatment attenuated the inhibitory effect of DEX on cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and inhibited the nuclear translocation of GR induced by DEX. In contrast, in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells, IL-6 pretreatment exacerbated the decrease in expression of osteocalcin and the increase in expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) by DEX. We demonstrated that IL-6 signalling blockade by an anti-IL-6R antibody can augment the anti-arthritic effect of GCs and inhibit the bone loss they cause. PMID:26201536

  3. Rapid internalization and recycling of the human neuropeptide Y Y(1) receptor.

    PubMed

    Gicquiaux, Hervé; Lecat, Sandra; Gaire, Mireille; Dieterlen, Alain; Mély, Yves; Takeda, Kenneth; Bucher, Bernard; Galzi, Jean-Luc

    2002-02-22

    Desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) involves receptor phosphorylation and reduction in the number of receptors at the cell surface. The neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y(1) receptor undergoes fast desensitization. We examined agonist-induced signaling and internalization using NPY Y(1) receptors fused to green fluorescent protein (EGFP). When expressed in HEK293 cells, EGFP-hNPY Y(1) receptors were localized at the plasma membrane, desensitized rapidly as assessed using calcium responses, and had similar properties compared to hNPY Y(1) receptors. Upon agonist challenge, the EGFP signal decreased rapidly (t(1/2) = 107 +/- 3 s) followed by a slow recovery. This decrease was blocked by BIBP3226, a Y(1) receptor antagonist, or by pertussis toxin, in agreement with Y(1) receptor activation. Internalization of EGFP-hNPY Y(1) receptors to acidic endosomal compartments likely accounts for the decrease in the EGFP signal, being absent after pretreatment with monensin. Concanavalin A and hypertonic sucrose, which inhibit clathrin-mediated endocytosis, blocked the decrease in fluorescence. After agonist, intracellular EGFP signals were punctate and co-localized with transferrin-Texas Red, a marker of clathrin-associated internalization and recycling, but not with LysoTracker Red, a lysosomal pathway marker, supporting receptor trafficking to recycling endosomes rather than the late endosomal/lysosomal pathway. Pulse-chase experiments revealed no receptor degradation after internalization. The slow recovery of fluorescence was unaffected by cycloheximide or actinomycin D, indicating that de novo synthesis of receptors was not limiting. Use of a multicompartment model to fit our fluorescence data allows simultaneous determination of internalization and recycling rate constants. We propose that rapid internalization of receptors via the clathrin-coated pits recycling pathway may largely account for the rapid desensitization of NPY Y(1) receptors. PMID:11741903

  4. Engineered G protein coupled receptors reveal independent regulation of internalization, desensitization and acute signaling

    PubMed Central

    Scearce-Levie, Kimberly; Lieberman, Michael D; Elliott, Heather H; Conklin, Bruce R

    2005-01-01

    Background The physiological regulation of G protein-coupled receptors, through desensitization and internalization, modulates the length of the receptor signal and may influence the development of tolerance and dependence in response to chronic drug treatment. To explore the importance of receptor regulation, we engineered a series of Gi-coupled receptors that differ in signal length, degree of agonist-induced internalization, and ability to induce adenylyl cyclase superactivation. All of these receptors, based on the kappa opioid receptor, were modified to be receptors activated solely by synthetic ligands (RASSLs). This modification allows us to compare receptors that have the same ligands and effectors, but differ only in desensitization and internalization. Results Removal of phosphorylation sites in the C-terminus of the RASSL resulted in a mutant that was resistant to internalization and less prone to desensitization. Replacement of the C-terminus of the RASSL with the corresponding portion of the mu opioid receptor eliminated the induction of AC superactivation, without disrupting agonist-induced desensitization or internalization. Surprisingly, removal of phosphorylation sites from this chimera resulted in a receptor that is constitutively internalized, even in the absence of agonist. However, the receptor still signals and desensitizes in response to agonist, indicating normal G-protein coupling and partial membrane expression. Conclusions These studies reveal that internalization, desensitization and adenylyl cyclase superactivation, all processes that decrease chronic Gi-receptor signals, are independently regulated. Furthermore, specific mutations can radically alter superactivation or internalization without affecting the efficacy of acute Gi signaling. These mutant RASSLs will be useful for further elucidating the temporal dynamics of the signaling of G protein-coupled receptors in vitro and in vivo. PMID:15707483

  5. Combined sodium ion sensitivity in agonist binding and internalization of vasopressin V1b receptors

    PubMed Central

    Koshimizu, Taka-aki; Kashiwazaki, Aki; Taniguchi, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Reducing Na+ in the extracellular environment may lead to two beneficial effects for increasing agonist binding to cell surface G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs): reduction of Na+-mediated binding block and reduce of receptor internalization. However, such combined effects have not been explored. We used Chinese Hamster Ovary cells expressing vasopressin V1b receptors as a model to explore Na+ sensitivity in agonist binding and receptor internalization. Under basal conditions, a large fraction of V1b receptors is located intracellularly, and a small fraction is in the plasma membrane. Decreases in external Na+ increased cell surface [3H]AVP binding and decreased receptor internalization. Substitution of Na+ by Cs+ or NH4+ inhibited agonist binding. To suppress receptor internalization, the concentration of NaCl, but not of CsCl, had to be less than 50 mM, due to the high sensitivity of the internalization machinery to Na+ over Cs+. Iso-osmotic supplementation of glucose or NH4Cl maintained internalization of the V1b receptor, even in a low-NaCl environment. Moreover, iodide ions, which acted as a counter anion, inhibited V1b agonist binding. In summary, we found external ionic conditions that could increase the presence of high-affinity state receptors at the cell surface with minimum internalization during agonist stimulations. PMID:27138239

  6. Combined sodium ion sensitivity in agonist binding and internalization of vasopressin V1b receptors.

    PubMed

    Koshimizu, Taka-Aki; Kashiwazaki, Aki; Taniguchi, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Reducing Na(+) in the extracellular environment may lead to two beneficial effects for increasing agonist binding to cell surface G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs): reduction of Na(+)-mediated binding block and reduce of receptor internalization. However, such combined effects have not been explored. We used Chinese Hamster Ovary cells expressing vasopressin V1b receptors as a model to explore Na(+) sensitivity in agonist binding and receptor internalization. Under basal conditions, a large fraction of V1b receptors is located intracellularly, and a small fraction is in the plasma membrane. Decreases in external Na(+) increased cell surface [(3)H]AVP binding and decreased receptor internalization. Substitution of Na(+) by Cs(+) or NH4(+) inhibited agonist binding. To suppress receptor internalization, the concentration of NaCl, but not of CsCl, had to be less than 50 mM, due to the high sensitivity of the internalization machinery to Na(+) over Cs(+). Iso-osmotic supplementation of glucose or NH4Cl maintained internalization of the V1b receptor, even in a low-NaCl environment. Moreover, iodide ions, which acted as a counter anion, inhibited V1b agonist binding. In summary, we found external ionic conditions that could increase the presence of high-affinity state receptors at the cell surface with minimum internalization during agonist stimulations. PMID:27138239

  7. In Vivo Techniques to Investigate the Internalization Profile of Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Amynah A.; Tawfik, Vivianne L.; Laboy, Alycia F.; Scherrer, Grégory

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate a remarkable diversity of biological functions, and are thus often targeted for drug therapies. Receptor internalization is commonly observed following agonist binding and activation. Receptor trafficking events have been well characterized in cell systems, but the in vivo significance of GPCR internalization is still poorly understood. To address this issue, we have developed an innovative knock-in mouse model, where an opioid receptor is directly visible in vivo. These knockin mice express functional fluorescent delta opioid receptors (DOR-eGFP) in place of the endogenous receptor, and these receptors are expressed at physiological levels within their native environment. DOR-eGFP mice have proven to be an extraordinary tool in studying receptor neuroanatomy, real-time receptor trafficking in live neurons, and in vivo receptor internalization. We have used this animal model to determine the relationship between receptor trafficking in neurons and receptor function at a behavioral level. Here, we describe in detail the construction and characterization of this knockin mouse. We also outline how to use these mice to examine the behavioral consequences of agonist-specific trafficking at the delta opioid receptor. These techniques are potentially applicable to any GPCR, and highlight the powerful nature of this imaging tool. PMID:25293318

  8. Blockade of Glucocorticoid-Induced Tumor Necrosis Factor-Receptor-Related Protein Signaling Ameliorates Murine Collagen-Induced Arthritis by Modulating Follicular Helper T Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Feng, Dingqi; Wei, Yancai; Tian, Jie; Tang, Xinyi; Rui, Ke; Lu, Liwei; Xu, Huaxi; Wang, Shengjun

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor-receptor-related protein (GITR) and its ligand (GITRL) are critically involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis, but the role of GITRL/GITR signaling in modulating CD4(+) follicular helper T (Tfh) cell response during autoimmune arthritis remains largely unclear. We showed that splenic Tfh cells from mice with collagen-induced arthritis expressed higher levels of GITR compared with non-Tfh cells. In vitro, GITRL treatment markedly enhanced the percentage and number of Tfh cells. The administration of GITR fused to fragment crystallizable of IgG protein in mice with collagen-induced arthritis suppressed the Tfh cell response, resulting in ameliorated disease severity, and reduced production of autoantibody and the number of autoantibody-secreting cells in both the spleen and bone marrow. Together, these results indicate that blockade of GITR signaling can ameliorate arthritis progression mainly by modulating the Tfh cell response. PMID:27106763

  9. The dimeric platelet collagen receptor GPVI-Fc reduces platelet adhesion to activated endothelium and preserves myocardial function after transient ischemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Schönberger, Tanja; Ziegler, Melanie; Borst, Oliver; Konrad, Ildiko; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Massberg, Steffen; Ochmann, Carmen; Jürgens, Tobias; Seizer, Peter; Langer, Harald; Münch, Götz; Ungerer, Martin; Preissner, Klaus T; Elvers, Margitta; Gawaz, Meinrad

    2012-10-01

    Platelets play a critical role in the pathophysiology of reperfusion, sepsis, and cardiovascular diseases. In a multiple step process, they adhere to activated endothelium and release proinflammatory cytokines thereby promoting the inflammatory process. Glycoprotein VI (GPVI) is the major collagen receptor on the platelet surface and triggers platelet activation and primary hemostasis. Activation of GPVI leads to stable platelet adhesion and degranulation of platelet granules. However, GPVI is critically involved in platelet adhesion to activated endothelium without exposure of subendothelial matrix. Earlier studies show that the soluble GPVI-Fc binds to collagen and protects mice from atherosclerosis and decreases neointima proliferation after arterial injury. Here, we show for the first time that recombinant GPVI-Fc binds to activated endothelium mainly via vitronectin and prevents platelet/endothelial interaction. Administration of GPVI-Fc reduced infarct size and preserved cardiac function in a mouse model of myocardial infarction. This process was associated with reduced GPVI-induced platelet degranulation and release of proinflammatory cytokines in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, administration of GPVI-Fc offers a novel strategy to control platelet-mediated inflammation and to preserve myocardial function following myocardial infarction. PMID:22814400

  10. Bioengineered collagens

    PubMed Central

    Ramshaw, John AM; Werkmeister, Jerome A; Dumsday, Geoff J

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian collagen has been widely used as a biomedical material. Nevertheless, there are still concerns about the variability between preparations, particularly with the possibility that the products may transmit animal-based diseases. Many groups have examined the possible application of bioengineered mammalian collagens. However, translating laboratory studies into large-scale manufacturing has often proved difficult, although certain yeast and plant systems seem effective. Production of full-length mammalian collagens, with the required secondary modification to give proline hydroxylation, has proved difficult in E. coli. However, recently, a new group of collagens, which have the characteristic triple helical structure of collagen, has been identified in bacteria. These proteins are stable without the need for hydroxyproline and are able to be produced and purified from E. coli in high yield. Initial studies indicate that they would be suitable for biomedical applications. PMID:24717980

  11. Impact of D2 Receptor Internalization on Binding Affinity of Neuroimaging Radiotracers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ningning; Guo, Wen; Kralikova, Michaela; Jiang, Man; Schieren, Ira; Narendran, Raj; Slifstein, Mark; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Laruelle, Marc; Javitch, Jonathan A; Rayport, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Synaptic dopamine (DA) levels seem to affect the in vivo binding of many D2 receptor radioligands. Thus, release of endogenous DA induced by the administration of amphetamine decreases ligand binding, whereas DA depletion increases binding. This is generally thought to be due to competition between endogenous DA and the radioligands for D2 receptors. However, the temporal discrepancy between amphetamine-induced increases in DA as measured by microdialysis, which last on the order of 2 h, and the prolonged decrease in ligand binding, which lasts up to a day, has suggested that agonist-induced D2 receptor internalization may contribute to the sustained decrease in D2 receptor-binding potential seen following a DA surge. To test this hypothesis, we developed an in vitro system showing robust agonist-induced D2 receptor internalization following treatment with the agonist quinpirole. Human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells were stably co-transfected with human D2 receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and arrestin 3. Agonist-induced D2 receptor internalization was demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and radioligand competition binding. The binding of seven D2 antagonists and four agonists to the surface and internalized receptors was measured in intact cells. All the imaging ligands bound with high affinity to both surface and internalized D2 receptors. Affinity of most of the ligands to internalized receptors was modestly lower, indicating that internalization would reduce the binding potential measured in imaging studies carried out with these ligands. However, between-ligand differences in the magnitude of the internalization-associated affinity shift only partly accounted for the data obtained in neuroimaging experiments, suggesting the involvement of mechanisms beyond competition and internalization. PMID:19956086

  12. Monitoring ligand-mediated internalization of G protein-coupled receptor as a novel pharmacological approach.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Shin'ichi; Setoguchi, Shingo; Hirasawa, Akira; Tsujimoto, Gozoh

    2006-12-01

    Agonist activation of a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) results in the redistribution of the receptor protein away from the cell surface into internal cellular compartments through a process of endocytosis known as internalization. Visualization of receptor internalization has become experimentally practicable by using fluorescent reagents such as green fluorescent protein (GFP). In this study, we examined whether the ligand-mediated internalization of a GPCR can be exploited for pharmacological evaluations. We acquired fluorescent images of cells expressing GFP-labeled GPCRs and evaluated the ligand-mediated internalization quantitatively by image processing. Using beta2-adrenoceptor and vasopressin V1a receptor as model GPCRs that couple to Gs and Gq, respectively, we first examined whether these GFP-tagged GPCRs exhibited appropriate pharmacology. The rank order of receptor internalization potency for a variety of agonists and antagonists specific to each receptor corresponded well with that previously observed in ligand binding studies. In addition to chemical ligand-induced internalization, this cell-based fluorescence imaging system successfully monitored the internalization of the proton-sensing GPCR TDAG8, and that of the free fatty acid-sensitive GPCR GPR120. The results show that monitoring receptor internalization can be a useful approach for pharmacological characterization of GPCRs and in fishing for ligands of orphan GPCRs. PMID:16978657

  13. Characterization of the single transmembrane domain of human receptor activity-modifying protein 3 in adrenomedullin receptor internalization

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwasako, Kenji; Kitamura, Kazuo; Nagata, Sayaka; Nozaki, Naomi; Kato, Johji

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RAMP3 mediates CLR internalization much less effectively than does RAMP2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The RAMP3 TMD participates in the negative regulation of CLR/RAMP3 internalization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new strategy of promoting internalization and resensitization of the receptor was found. -- Abstract: Two receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMP2 and RAMP3) enable calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) to function as two heterodimeric receptors (CLR/RAMP2 and CLR/RAMP3) for adrenomedullin (AM), a potent cardiovascular protective peptide. Following AM stimulation, both receptors undergo rapid internalization through a clathrin-dependent pathway, after which CLR/RAMP3, but not CLR/RAMP2, can be recycled to the cell surface for resensitization. However, human (h)RAMP3 mediates CLR internalization much less efficiently than does hRAMP2. Therefore, the molecular basis of the single transmembrane domain (TMD) and the intracellular domain of hRAMP3 during AM receptor internalization was investigated by transiently transfecting various RAMP chimeras and mutants into HEK-293 cells stably expressing hCLR. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that substituting the RAMP3 TMD with that of RAMP2 markedly enhanced AM-induced internalization of CLR. However, this replacement did not enhance the cell surface expression of CLR, [{sup 125}I]AM binding affinity or AM-induced cAMP response. More detailed analyses showed that substituting the Thr{sup 130}-Val{sup 131} sequence in the RAMP3 TMD with the corresponding sequence (Ile{sup 157}-Pro{sup 158}) from RAMP2 significantly enhanced AM-mediated CLR internalization. In contrast, substituting the RAMP3 target sequence with Ala{sup 130}-Ala{sup 131} did not significantly affect CLR internalization. Thus, the RAMP3 TMD participates in the negative regulation of CLR/RAMP3 internalization, and the aforementioned introduction of the Ile-Pro sequence into the RAMP3 TMD may be a

  14. Synergy between IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor enhances bone morphogenetic protein-2/absorbable collagen sponge-induced bone regeneration via regulation of BMPRIA distribution and degradation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ru-Lin; Chen, Gang; Wang, Wenjin; Herller, Tanja; Xie, Yun; Gu, Bin; Li, Qingfeng

    2015-10-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-2/absorbable collagen sponge (BMP-2/ACS) implants have been approved for clinical use to induce bone regeneration. We previously showed that exaggerated inflammation characterized by elevated level of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 has been shown to inhibit BMP-2/ACS-induced bone regeneration. Furthermore, unlike the negative effects of TNF-α and IL-1β, IL-6 seemed not to affect BMP-2-induced osteoblastic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). We hypothesized that there may be a regulatory loop between IL-6 and BMP-2 singling to affect BMP-2/ACS-induced bone regeneration. Here, we established a BMP-2/ACS-induced ectopic bone formation model in rats and fund that IL-6 injection significantly increased BMP-2/ACS-induced bone mass. Consistent with this animal model, an in vitro study demonstrated that synergy between IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor (IL-6/sIL-6R) promotes BMP-2-induced osteoblastic differentiation of human BMSCs through amplification of BMP/Smad signaling. Strikingly, IL-6 injection did not activate osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in the ectopic bone formation model, and IL-6/sIL-6R treatment did not affect receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastic differentiation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro. Furthermore, IL-6/sIL-6R treatment did not affect expression of BMP receptors, but enhanced the cell surface translocation of BMP receptor IA (BMPRIA) and inhibited the degradation of BMPRIA. Collectively, these findings indicate that synergy between IL-6 and sIL-6R promotes the cell surface translocation of BMPRIA and maintains the stability of BMPRIA expression, leading to enhanced BMP-2/ACS-induced bone regeneration. PMID:26232880

  15. Collagen structure: new tricks from a very old dog.

    PubMed

    Bella, Jordi

    2016-04-15

    The main features of the triple helical structure of collagen were deduced in the mid-1950s from fibre X-ray diffraction of tendons. Yet, the resulting models only could offer an average description of the molecular conformation. A critical advance came about 20 years later with the chemical synthesis of sufficiently long and homogeneous peptides with collagen-like sequences. The availability of these collagen model peptides resulted in a large number of biochemical, crystallographic and NMR studies that have revolutionized our understanding of collagen structure. High-resolution crystal structures from collagen model peptides have provided a wealth of data on collagen conformational variability, interaction with water, collagen stability or the effects of interruptions. Furthermore, a large increase in the number of structures of collagen model peptides in complex with domains from receptors or collagen-binding proteins has shed light on the mechanisms of collagen recognition. In recent years, collagen biochemistry has escaped the boundaries of natural collagen sequences. Detailed knowledge of collagen structure has opened the field for protein engineers who have used chemical biology approaches to produce hyperstable collagens with unnatural residues, rationally designed collagen heterotrimers, self-assembling collagen peptides, etc. This review summarizes our current understanding of the structure of the collagen triple helical domain (COL×3) and gives an overview of some of the new developments in collagen molecular engineering aiming to produce novel collagen-based materials with superior properties. PMID:27060106

  16. The HPV16 E6 Oncoprotein Causes Prolonged Receptor Protein Tyrosine Kinase Signaling and Enhances Internalization of Phosphorylated Receptor Species

    PubMed Central

    Spangle, Jennifer M.; Munger, Karl

    2013-01-01

    The high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 proteins are consistently expressed in HPV-associated lesions and cancers. HPV16 E6 sustains the activity of the mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling cascades under conditions of growth factor deprivation. Here we report that HPV16 E6 activated mTORC1 by enhanced signaling through receptor protein tyrosine kinases, including epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor receptors. This is evidenced by sustained signaling through these receptors for several hours after growth factor withdrawal. HPV16 E6 increased the internalization of activated receptor species, and the signaling adaptor protein GRB2 was shown to be critical for HPV16 E6 mediated enhanced EGFR internalization and mTORC1 activation. As a consequence of receptor protein kinase mediated mTORC1 activation, HPV16 E6 expression increased cellular migration of primary human epithelial cells. This study identifies a previously unappreciated mechanism by which HPV E6 proteins perturb host-signaling pathways presumably to sustain protein synthesis during the viral life cycle that may also contribute to cellular transforming activities of high-risk HPV E6 proteins. PMID:23516367

  17. Tetrandrine ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in mice by restoring the balance between Th17 and Treg cells via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xusheng; Tong, Bei; Dou, Yannong; Wu, Xin; Wei, Zhifeng; Dai, Yue

    2016-02-01

    Tetrandrine is an alkaloid constituent of the root of Stephania tetrandra S. Moore. The long-term clinical uses of tetrandrine for treatments of rheumatalgia and arthralgia as well as the inhibition of rat adjuvant-induced arthritis imply that tetrandrine may have therapeutic potential in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, we explored its anti-RA mechanism in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in relation to the balance between T helper (Th) 17 cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells. DBA/1 mice were immunized with chicken type II collagen and were orally administered tetrandrine for 14 consecutive days. Then, the mice were sacrificed, their joints were removed for histological analysis, and spleens and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) were removed to examine the Th17 and Treg cells. Tetrandrine markedly alleviated the severity of arthritis, reduced the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the Th17/Treg balance, as demonstrated by the serum levels of their related cytokines (IL-17 and IL-10) and the proportion of each cell type. Tetrandrine inhibited Th17 cell differentiation and induced Treg cell differentiation in vitro . Notably, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) was proven to play a crucial role in tetrandrine-mediated T cell differentiation. The correlation between AhR activation, regulation of Th17/Treg and amelioration of arthritis by tetrandrine was verified in the CIA mice. Moreover, tetrandrine might be a ligand of AhR because it facilitated the expression of the AhR target gene cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and the activation of its downstream signaling pathways. Taken together, tetrandrine exerts its anti-arthritis efficacy by restoring Th17/Treg balance via AhR. PMID:26640276

  18. MHC class II derived recombinant T cell receptor ligands protect DBA/1LacJ mice from collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Huan, Jianya; Kaler, Laurie J; Mooney, Jeffery L; Subramanian, Sandhya; Hopke, Corwyn; Vandenbark, Arthur A; Rosloniec, Edward F; Burrows, Gregory G; Offner, Halina

    2008-01-15

    We previously demonstrated the therapeutic effects of MHC class II derived recombinant T cell receptor ligands (RTL), single-chain two domain complexes of the alpha1 and beta1 domains of MHC class II molecules genetically linked with an immunodominant peptide, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In the current study, we produced a monomeric murine I-Aq-derived RTL construct covalently linked with bovine collagen type II peptide (bCII257-270) suitable for use in DBA/1LacJ mice that develop collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), an animal model of human rheumatoid arthritis, after immunization with bCII protein in CFA. In this study, we demonstrate that the I-Aq-derived RTLs reduced the incidence of the disease, suppressed the clinical and histological signs of CIA and induced long-term modulation of T cells specific for arthritogenic Ags. Our results showed that the I-Aq/bCII257-270 molecule could systemically reduce proinflammatory IL-17 and IFN-gamma production and significantly increase anti-inflammatory IL-10, IL-13, and FoxP3 gene expression in splenocytes. Moreover, I-Aq/bCII257-270 molecule could also selectively inhibit IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-23 expression in local joint tissue. This is the first report demonstrating effective prevention of joint inflammation and clinical signs of CIA with an I-Aq-derived RTL, thus supporting the possible clinical use of this approach for treating rheumatoid arthritis in humans. PMID:18178865

  19. MHC Class II Derived Recombinant T Cell Receptor Ligands Protect DBA/1LacJ Mice from Collagen-Induced Arthritis1

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Jianya; Kaler, Laurie J.; Mooney, Jeffery L.; Subramanian, Sandhya; Hopke, Corwyn; Vandenbark, Arthur A.; Rosloniec, Edward F.; Burrows, Gregory G.; Offner, Halina

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the therapeutic effects of MHC class II derived recombinant T cell receptor ligands (RTL), single-chain two domain complexes of the α1 and β1 domains of MHC class II molecules genetically linked with an immunodominant peptide, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In the current study, we produced a monomeric murine I-Aq-derived RTL construct covalently linked with bovine collagen type II peptide (bCII257–270) suitable for use in DBA/1LacJ mice that develop collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), an animal model of human rheumatoid arthritis, after immunization with bCII protein in CFA. In this study, we demonstrate that the I-Aq-derived RTLs reduced the incidence of the disease, suppressed the clinical and histological signs of CIA and induced long-term modulation of T cells specific for arthritogenic Ags. Our results showed that the I-Aq/bCII257–270 molecule could systemically reduce proinflammatory IL-17 and IFN-γ production and significantly increase anti-inflammatory IL-10, IL-13, and FoxP3 gene expression in splenocytes. Moreover, I-Aq/bCII257–270 molecule could also selectively inhibit IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-23 expression in local joint tissue. This is the first report demonstrating effective prevention of joint inflammation and clinical signs of CIA with an I-Aq-derived RTL, thus supporting the possible clinical use of this approach for treating rheumatoid arthritis in humans. PMID:18178865

  20. Anti-BP180-type mucous membrane pemphigoid immunoglobulin G shows heterogeneity of internalization of BP180/collagen XVII into keratinocyte cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Imanishi, Akiko; Imanishi, Hisayoshi; Hiroyasu, Sho; Ozawa, Toshiyuki; Koga, Hiroshi; Ishii, Norito; Kitajima, Yasuo; Hashimoto, Takashi; Tsuruta, Daisuke

    2016-06-01

    Anti-BP180-type mucous membrane pemphigoid (BP180-MMP) is a rare autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease that targets the C terminus of BP180/collagen XVII. Currently, the pathomechanism of BP180-MMP is not well understood. We reported previously that immunoglobulin G (IgG) from patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP) can induce internalization of BP180 via a macropinocytic pathway, which depletes BP180 and weakens epidermal cell-matrix integrity. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the pathomechanism of BP180-MMP. Immunohistochemistry of biopsy specimens from two patients with BP180-MMP revealed that one patient had BP180 internalization, but the other did not. In live-cell imaging using IgG from patients with BP180-MMP on several keratinocyte cell lines, IgG from only three out of the seven patients was associated with BP180 internalization into the cytoplasm. Our results suggest that IgG from patients with BP180-MMP shows heterogeneity of internalization of BP180. This variability in BP180 internalization in patients with BP or BP180-MMP may lead to differences in clinical presentation. PMID:26658728

  1. Roles of regulated internalization in the polarization of cell surface receptors

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Wei; Cao, Youfang; Ismael, Amber; Stone, David

    2016-01-01

    Cell polarization, the generation of cellular asymmetries, is a fundamental biological process. Polarity of different molecules can arise through several mechanisms. Among these, internalization has been shown to play an important role in the polarization of cell surface receptors. The internalization of cell surface receptors can be upregulated upon ligand binding. Additional regulatory mechanism can downregulate the internalization process. Here we describe a general model, which incorporates these two opposing processes, to study the role of internalization in the establishment of cell polarity. We find that the competition between these two processes is sufficient to induce receptor polarization. Our results show that regulated internalization provides additional regulation on polarization as well. In addition, we discuss applications of our model to the yeast system, which shows the capability and potential of the model. PMID:25570171

  2. Down-regulation of insulin receptors is related to insulin internalization

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, D.; Carpentier, J.L.; Gorden, P.; Orci, L. )

    1989-11-01

    In the present study, we have tested the influence of inhibition of endocytosis by hypertonic medium on the regulation of cell surface insulin receptors. We show that active internalization of {sup 125}I-insulin is markedly inhibited by hypertonic media and that, in parallel, cell surface invaginations are significantly diminished. These two events are accompanied by a marked inhibition of cell surface insulin receptor down-regulation. These data provide further strong evidence that receptor-mediated endocytosis is the major mechanism by which insulin receptors are regulated at the surface of target cells.

  3. Allosteric modulation of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor internalization and subcellular trafficking.

    PubMed

    Yeatman, Holly R; Lane, J Robert; Choy, Kwok Ho Christopher; Lambert, Nevin A; Sexton, Patrick M; Christopoulos, Arthur; Canals, Meritxell

    2014-05-30

    Allosteric modulators are an attractive approach to achieve receptor subtype-selective targeting of G protein-coupled receptors. Benzyl quinolone carboxylic acid (BQCA) is an unprecedented example of a highly selective positive allosteric modulator of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR). However, despite favorable pharmacological characteristics of BQCA in vitro and in vivo, there is limited evidence of the impact of allosteric modulation on receptor regulatory mechanisms such as β-arrestin recruitment or receptor internalization and endocytic trafficking. In the present study we investigated the impact of BQCA on M1 mAChR regulation. We show that BQCA potentiates agonist-induced β-arrestin recruitment to M1 mAChRs. Using a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer approach to monitor intracellular trafficking of M1 mAChRs, we show that once internalized, M1 mAChRs traffic to early endosomes, recycling endosomes and late endosomes. We also show that BQCA potentiates agonist-induced subcellular trafficking. M1 mAChR internalization is both β-arrestin and G protein-dependent, with the third intracellular loop playing an important role in the dynamics of β-arrestin recruitment. As the global effect of receptor activation ultimately depends on the levels of receptor expression at the cell surface, these results illustrate the need to extend the characterization of novel allosteric modulators of G protein-coupled receptors to encapsulate the consequences of chronic exposure to this family of ligands. PMID:24753247

  4. Propranolol Restricts the Mobility of Single EGF-Receptors on the Cell Surface before Their Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Carolina; Linke, Max; Sanchez, Paula; González, Alfonso; Schaap, Iwan A. T.

    2013-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor is involved in morphogenesis, proliferation and cell migration. Its up-regulation during tumorigenesis makes this receptor an interesting therapeutic target. In the absence of the ligand, the inhibition of phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase activity by propranolol treatment leads to internalization of empty/inactive receptors. The molecular events involved in this endocytosis remain unknown. Here, we quantified the effects of propranolol on the mobility of single quantum-dot labelled receptors before the actual internalization took place. The single receptors showed a clear stop-and-go motion; their diffusive tracks were continuously interrupted by sub-second stalling events, presumably caused by transient clustering. In the presence of propranolol we found that: i) the diffusion rate reduced by 22 %, which indicates an increase in drag of the receptor. Atomic force microscopy measurements did not show an increase of the effective membrane tension, such that clustering of the receptor remains the likely mechanism for its reduced mobility. ii) The receptor got frequently stalled for longer periods of multiple seconds, which may signal the first step of the internalization process. PMID:24349439

  5. Only high-affinity receptors for interleukin 2 mediate internalization of ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Weissman, A.M.; Harford, J.B.; Svetlik, P.B.; Leonard, W.L.; Depper, J.M.; Waldmann, T.A.; Greene, W.C.; Klausner, R.D.

    1986-03-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptors are expressed on activated T cells and in select T-cell leukemias. Recently, it has been demonstrated that at least two classes of receptor for IL-2 exist with markedly different affinities for ligand. All known biological actions of IL-2 have been correlated with occupancy of high-affinity sites; the function of the low-affinity sites remains unknown. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is the primary means of internalization of cell-surface receptors and their ligands. The internalization of IL-2 bound to high- and low-affinity receptor sites was studied in a human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected human T-cell leukemia cell line and in a cloned murine cytotoxic T-cell line (CTLL). Internalization of IL-2 occurred only when bound to high-affinity sites. In addition, an anti-receptor antibody (anti-Tac), which binds equally well to high- and low-affinity sites, demonstrated no detectable internalization. The implications of these findings as they relate to IL-2 receptor structure and function are discussed.

  6. Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) is a dynamic adhesive molecule that enhances uptake of carbon nanotubes by CHO-K1 Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Seishiro; Fujitani, Yuji; Furuyama, Akiko; Kanno, Sanae

    2012-02-15

    The toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), a highly promising nanomaterial, is similar to that of asbestos because both types of particles have a fibrous shape and are biopersistent. Here, we investigated the characteristics of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), a membrane receptor expressed on macrophages that recognizes environmental or unopsonized particles, and we assessed whether and how MARCO was involved in cellular uptake of multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs). MARCO-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells took up polystyrene beads irrespective of the particle size (20 nm–1 μm). In the culture of MARCO-transfected CHO-K1 cells dendritic structures were observed on the bottom of culture dishes, and the edges of these dendritic structures were continually renewed as the cell body migrated along the dendritic structures. MWCNTs were first tethered to the dendritic structures and then taken up by the cell body. MWCNTs appeared to be taken up via membrane ruffling like macropinocytosis, rather than phagocytosis. The cytotoxic EC{sub 50} value of MWCNTs in MARCO-transfected CHO-K1 cells was calculated to be 6.1 μg/mL and transmission electron microscopic observation indicated that the toxicity of MWCNTs may be due to the incomplete inclusion of MWCNTs by the membrane structure. -- Highlights: ►Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were tethered to MARCO in vitro. ►CNTs were taken up rapidly into the cell body via MARCO by membrane ruffling. ►The incomplete inclusion of CNTs by membranes caused cytotoxicity.

  7. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor is not required for receptor internalization: studies in 2,4-dinitrophenol-treated cells

    SciTech Connect

    Backer, J.M.; Kahn, C.R.; White, M.F.

    1989-05-01

    The relation between insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor and internalization of the receptor was studied in Fao rat hepatoma cells. Treatment of Fao cells with 2,4-dinitrophenol for 45 min depleted cellular ATP by 80% and equally inhibited insulin-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation, as determined by immunoprecipitation of surface-iodinated or (/sup 32/P)phosphate-labeled cells with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. In contrast, internalization of the insulin receptor and internalization and degradation of /sup 125/I-labeled insulin by 2,4-dinitrophenol-treated cells were normal. These data show that autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor is not required for the receptor-mediated internalization of insulin in Fao cells and suggest that insulin receptor recycling is independent of autophosphorylation.

  8. Localization of integrin receptors for fibronectin, collagen, and laminin in human skin. Variable expression in basal and squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Peltonen, J; Larjava, H; Jaakkola, S; Gralnick, H; Akiyama, S K; Yamada, S S; Yamada, K M; Uitto, J

    1989-01-01

    VLA integrins in human skin were examined by indirect immunofluorescence utilizing antibodies recognizing the beta 1, alpha 2, alpha 3, or alpha 5 subunits. Staining of fetal, newborn, or adult skin with antibodies to beta 1, alpha 2, or alpha 3 subunits gave essentially similar staining patterns: intense staining was associated with the basal layer of the epidermis, hair follicles, and blood vessel walls. The alpha 5 subunit could be detected only in epidermis and the inner root sheath of hair follicles in fetal skin. In epidermis, the staining reaction for the beta 1 subunit was not only found in sites interfacing with the basement membrane zone, but also around the entire periphery of these cells. We speculate that these receptors might have previously unrecognized functions in cell-cell interactions or that these findings may suggest the presence of previously unrecognized ligands in the intercellular spaces of keratinocytes. Examination of nine nodular basal cell carcinomas revealed a prominent staining reaction with anti-beta 1 and anti-alpha 3 antibodies at the periphery of the tumor islands. In contrast, staining of five squamous cell carcinomas revealed either the absence of integrins or altered and variable expression. Thus, matrix components and their receptors may participate in modulation of growth, development, and organization of human skin. Images PMID:2556449

  9. Type I Collagen and Collagen Mimetics as Angiogenesis Promoting Superpolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Twardowski, T.; Fertala, A.; Orgel, J.P.R.O.; San Antonio, J.D.

    2008-07-18

    Angiogenesis, the development of blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature, is a key component of embryogenesis and tissue regeneration. Angiogenesis also drives pathologies such as tumor growth and metastasis, and hemangioma development in newborns. On the other hand, promotion of angiogenesis is needed in tissues with vascular insufficiencies, and in bioengineering, to endow tissue substitutes with appropriate microvasculatures. Therefore, much research has focused on defining mechanisms of angiogenesis, and identifying pro- and anti-angiogenic molecules. Type I collagen, the most abundant protein in humans, potently stimulates angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Crucial to its angiogenic activity appears to be ligation and possibly clustering of endothelial cell (EC) surface {alpha}1{beta}1/{alpha}2{beta}1 integrin receptors by the GFPGER502-507 sequence of the collagen fibril. However, additional aspects of collagen structure and function that may modulate its angiogenic properties are discussed. Moreover, type I collagen and fibrin, another angiogenic polymer, share several structural features. These observations suggest strategies for creating 'angiogenic superpolymers', including: modifying type I collagen to influence its biological half-life, immunogenicity, and integrin binding capacity; genetically engineering fibrillar collagens to include additional integrin binding sites or angiogenic determinants, and remove unnecessary or deleterious sequences without compromising fibril integrity; and exploring the suitability of poly(ortho ester), PEG-lysine copolymer, tubulin, and cholesteric cuticle as collagen mimetics, and suggesting means of modifying them to display ideal angiogenic properties. The collagenous and collagen mimetic angiogenic superpolymers described here may someday prove useful for many applications in tissue engineering and human medicine.

  10. The F-BAR Protein PACSIN2 Regulates Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Internalization

    PubMed Central

    de Kreuk, Bart-Jan; Anthony, Eloise C.; Geerts, Dirk; Hordijk, Peter L.

    2012-01-01

    Signaling via growth factor receptors, including the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, is key to various cellular processes, such as proliferation, cell survival, and cell migration. In a variety of human diseases such as cancer, aberrant expression and activation of growth factor receptors can lead to disturbed signaling. Intracellular trafficking is crucial for proper signaling of growth factor receptors. As a result, the level of cell surface expression of growth factor receptors is an important determinant for the outcome of downstream signaling. BAR domain-containing proteins represent an important family of proteins that regulate membrane dynamics. In this study, we identify a novel role for the F-BAR protein PACSIN2 in the regulation of EGF receptor signaling. We show that internalized EGF as well as the (activated) EGF receptor translocated to PACSIN2-positive endosomes. Furthermore, loss of PACSIN2 increased plasma membrane expression of the EGF receptor in resting cells and increased EGF-induced phosphorylation of the EGF receptor. As a consequence, EGF-induced activation of Erk and Akt as well as cell proliferation were enhanced in PACSIN2-depleted cells. In conclusion, this study identifies a novel role for the F-BAR-domain protein PACSIN2 in regulating EGF receptor surface levels and EGF-induced downstream signaling. PMID:23129763

  11. Collagen interactions: Drug design and delivery.

    PubMed

    An, Bo; Lin, Yu-Shan; Brodsky, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Collagen is a major component in a wide range of drug delivery systems and biomaterial applications. Its basic physical and structural properties, together with its low immunogenicity and natural turnover, are keys to its biocompatibility and effectiveness. In addition to its material properties, the collagen triple-helix interacts with a large number of molecules that trigger biological events. Collagen interactions with cell surface receptors regulate many cellular processes, while interactions with other ECM components are critical for matrix structure and remodeling. Collagen also interacts with enzymes involved in its biosynthesis and degradation, including matrix metalloproteinases. Over the past decade, much information has been gained about the nature and specificity of collagen interactions with its partners. These studies have defined collagen sequences responsible for binding and the high-resolution structures of triple-helical peptides bound to its natural binding partners. Strategies to target collagen interactions are already being developed, including the use of monoclonal antibodies to interfere with collagen fibril formation and the use of triple-helical peptides to direct liposomes to melanoma cells. The molecular information about collagen interactions will further serve as a foundation for computational studies to design small molecules that can interfere with specific interactions or target tumor cells. Intelligent control of collagen biological interactions within a material context will expand the effectiveness of collagen-based drug delivery. PMID:26631222

  12. Discovery of Regulators of Receptor Internalization with High-Throughput Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Phillip H.; Fisher, Gregory W.; Simons, Peter C.; Strouse, J. Jacob; Foutz, Terry; Waggoner, Alan S.; Jarvik, Jonathan; Sklar, Larry A.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a platform combining fluorogen-activating protein (FAP) technology with high-throughput flow cytometry to detect real-time protein trafficking to and from the plasma membrane in living cells. The hybrid platform facilitates drug discovery for trafficking receptors such as G protein-coupled receptors and was validated with the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) system. When a chemical library containing ∼1200 off-patent drugs was screened against cells expressing FAP-tagged β2ARs, all 33 known β2AR-active ligands in the library were successfully identified, together with a number of compounds that might regulate receptor internalization in a nontraditional manner. Results indicated that the platform identified ligands of target proteins regardless of the associated signaling pathway; therefore, this approach presents opportunities to search for biased receptor modulators and is suitable for screening of multiplexed targets for improved efficiency. The results revealed that ligands may be biased with respect to the rate or duration of receptor internalization and that receptor internalization may be independent of activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. PMID:22767611

  13. Cardiac β2-Adrenergic Receptor Phosphorylation at Ser355/356 Regulates Receptor Internalization and Functional Resensitization.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaofang; Gu, Xuejiang; Zhao, Ru; Zheng, Qingqing; Li, Lan; Yang, Wenbing; Ding, Lu; Xue, Feng; Fan, Junming; Gong, Yongsheng; Wang, Yongyu

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that β2-adrenergic receptors (β2ARs) can be phosphorylated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and protein kinase A (PKA), affecting β2AR internalization and desensitization. However, the exact physiological function of β2ARs in cardiomyocytes is unknown. In this study, we showed that neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes had different contraction and internalization responses to sustained or repeated, transient agonist stimulation. Specifically, short-time stimulation (10 min) with epinephrine or norepinephrine increased the cardiomyocyte contraction rate, reaching a maximum at 5 min, followed by a slow decline. When the agonist was re-added after a 60-min wash-out period, the increase in the cardiomyocyte contraction rate was similar to the initial response. In contrast, when cardiomyocytes were exposed continuously to epinephrine or norepinephrine for 60 min, the second agonist stimulation did not increase the contraction response. These results indicated that continuous β2AR stimulation caused functional desensitization. Phosphorylation of β2ARs at serine (Ser)355/356 GRK phosphorylation sites, but not at Ser345/346 PKA phosphorylation sites increased with continuous epinephrine stimulation for 60 min. Accordingly, β2AR internalization increased. Interestingly, β2AR internalization was blocked by mutations at the GRK phosphorylation sites, but not by mutations at the PKA phosphorylation sites. Furthermore, inhibition of β2AR dephosphorylation by okadaic acid, a phosphatase 2A inhibitor, impaired the recovery of internalized β2ARs and reduced the cardiomyocyte contraction rate in response to epinephrine. Finally, epinephrine treatment induced the physical interaction of β-arrestin with internalized β2ARs in cardiomyocytes. Together, these data revealed the essential role of the Ser355/356 phosphorylation status of β2ARs in regulating receptor internalization and physiological resensitization in neonatal

  14. Cardiac β2-Adrenergic Receptor Phosphorylation at Ser355/356 Regulates Receptor Internalization and Functional Resensitization

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ru; Zheng, Qingqing; Li, Lan; Yang, Wenbing; Ding, Lu; Xue, Feng; Fan, Junming; Gong, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that β2-adrenergic receptors (β2ARs) can be phosphorylated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and protein kinase A (PKA), affecting β2AR internalization and desensitization. However, the exact physiological function of β2ARs in cardiomyocytes is unknown. In this study, we showed that neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes had different contraction and internalization responses to sustained or repeated, transient agonist stimulation. Specifically, short-time stimulation (10 min) with epinephrine or norepinephrine increased the cardiomyocyte contraction rate, reaching a maximum at 5 min, followed by a slow decline. When the agonist was re-added after a 60-min wash-out period, the increase in the cardiomyocyte contraction rate was similar to the initial response. In contrast, when cardiomyocytes were exposed continuously to epinephrine or norepinephrine for 60 min, the second agonist stimulation did not increase the contraction response. These results indicated that continuous β2AR stimulation caused functional desensitization. Phosphorylation of β2ARs at serine (Ser)355/356 GRK phosphorylation sites, but not at Ser345/346 PKA phosphorylation sites increased with continuous epinephrine stimulation for 60 min. Accordingly, β2AR internalization increased. Interestingly, β2AR internalization was blocked by mutations at the GRK phosphorylation sites, but not by mutations at the PKA phosphorylation sites. Furthermore, inhibition of β2AR dephosphorylation by okadaic acid, a phosphatase 2A inhibitor, impaired the recovery of internalized β2ARs and reduced the cardiomyocyte contraction rate in response to epinephrine. Finally, epinephrine treatment induced the physical interaction of β-arrestin with internalized β2ARs in cardiomyocytes. Together, these data revealed the essential role of the Ser355/356 phosphorylation status of β2ARs in regulating receptor internalization and physiological resensitization in neonatal

  15. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCVIII. Histamine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Panula, Pertti; Chazot, Paul L; Cowart, Marlon; Gutzmer, Ralf; Leurs, Rob; Liu, Wai L S; Stark, Holger; Thurmond, Robin L; Haas, Helmut L

    2015-07-01

    Histamine is a developmentally highly conserved autacoid found in most vertebrate tissues. Its physiological functions are mediated by four 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (H1R, H2R, H3R, H4R) that are all targets of pharmacological intervention. The receptors display molecular heterogeneity and constitutive activity. H1R antagonists are long known antiallergic and sedating drugs, whereas the H2R was identified in the 1970s and led to the development of H2R-antagonists that revolutionized stomach ulcer treatment. The crystal structure of ligand-bound H1R has rendered it possible to design new ligands with novel properties. The H3R is an autoreceptor and heteroreceptor providing negative feedback on histaminergic and inhibition on other neurons. A block of these actions promotes waking. The H4R occurs on immuncompetent cells and the development of anti-inflammatory drugs is anticipated. PMID:26084539

  16. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCVIII. Histamine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Chazot, Paul L.; Cowart, Marlon; Gutzmer, Ralf; Leurs, Rob; Liu, Wai L. S.; Stark, Holger; Thurmond, Robin L.; Haas, Helmut L.

    2015-01-01

    Histamine is a developmentally highly conserved autacoid found in most vertebrate tissues. Its physiological functions are mediated by four 7-transmembrane G protein–coupled receptors (H1R, H2R, H3R, H4R) that are all targets of pharmacological intervention. The receptors display molecular heterogeneity and constitutive activity. H1R antagonists are long known antiallergic and sedating drugs, whereas the H2R was identified in the 1970s and led to the development of H2R-antagonists that revolutionized stomach ulcer treatment. The crystal structure of ligand-bound H1R has rendered it possible to design new ligands with novel properties. The H3R is an autoreceptor and heteroreceptor providing negative feedback on histaminergic and inhibition on other neurons. A block of these actions promotes waking. The H4R occurs on immuncompetent cells and the development of anti-inflammatory drugs is anticipated. PMID:26084539

  17. Internalization mechanism of neuropeptide Y bound to its Y1 receptor investigated by high resolution microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, Noémie; Didier, Pascal; Postupalenko, Viktoriia; Bucher, Bernard; Mély, Yves

    2015-06-01

    The neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays numerous biological roles that are mediated by a family of G-protein-coupled receptors. Among the latter, the NPY Y1 subtype receptor undergoes a rapid desensitization following agonist exposure. This desensitization was suggested to result from a rapid clathrin-dependent internalization of Y1 and its recycling at the plasma membrane via sorting/early endosomes (SE/EE) and recycling endosomes (RE). Herein, to validate and quantitatively consolidate the mechanism of NPY internalization, we quantitatively investigated the NPY-induced internalization of the Y1 receptor by direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM), a super-resolution imaging technique that can resolve EE and SE, which are below the resolution limit of conventional optical microscopes. Using Cy5-labeled NPY, we could monitor with time the internalization and recycling of NPY on HEK293 cells stably expressing eGFP-labeled Y1 receptors. Furthermore, by discriminating the SE/EE from the larger RE by their sizes and monitoring these two populations as a function of time, we could firmly consolidate the kinetic model describing the internalization mechanism of the Y1 receptors as the basis for their rapid desensitization following agonist exposure.

  18. Compound heterozygosity for a dominant glycine substitution and a recessive internal duplication mutation in the type XVII collagen gene results in junctional epidermolysis bullosa and abnormal dentition.

    PubMed

    McGrath, J A; Gatalica, B; Li, K; Dunnill, M G; McMillan, J R; Christiano, A M; Eady, R A; Uitto, J

    1996-06-01

    Junctional epidermolysis bullosa is a heterogeneous autosomal recessively inherited blistering skin disorder associated with fragility at the dermal-epidermal junction. Previously, mutations in this condition have been described in the three genes for the anchoring filament protein laminin 5 (LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2), in the gene encoding the hemidesmosome-associated beta4 integrin (ITGB4), and in the gene for the hemidesmosomal protein type XVII collagen (COL17A1/BPAG2). In this study, we report a patient with a form of junctional epidermolysis bullosa with skin fragility and dental anomalies who is a compound heterozygote for a novel combination of mutations, ie, a glycine substitution mutation in one allele and an internal duplication in the other allele of COL17A1. The patient also has two offspring, both of whom have inherited the glycine substitution mutation, whereas the other COL17A1 allele is normal. The latter individuals show no evidence of skin fragility but have marked dental abnormalities with enamel hypoplasia and pitting. The clinical phenotype of junctional epidermolysis bullosa in the proband in this family probably arises due to a combination of the glycine substitution and the internal duplication in COL17A1, whereas the dental abnormalities of her offspring may be the result of the glycine substitution in COL17A1 alone, resulting in this dominantly inherited clinical phenotype. PMID:8669466

  19. Selective oestrogen receptor modulators lasofoxifene and bazedoxifene inhibit joint inflammation and osteoporosis in ovariectomised mice with collagen-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Angelina I.; Stubelius, Alexandra; Nurkkala-Karlsson, Merja; Ohlsson, Claes; Carlsten, Hans; Islander, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Objective. RA predominantly affects post-menopausal women and is strongly associated with development of generalised osteoporosis. To find treatments that target both joint manifestations and osteoporosis in RA is desirable. The third generation of selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) [lasofoxifene (LAS) and bazedoxifene (BZA)] are new treatment options for post-menopausal osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of LAS and BZA on arthritic disease and inflammation-associated bone loss using CIA in mice. Methods. Female DBA/1 mice were ovariectomised and subjected to CIA as a model of post-menopausal RA. Mice received treatment with LAS, BZA, 17β-estradiol (E2) as reference or vehicle. Arthritis development was assessed and BMD was determined by peripheral quantitative CT of the femurs. Serologic markers of inflammation and cartilage destruction were analysed. Immune cells in lymph nodes were studied by flow cytometry. Results. LAS and BZA reduced the clinical severity of arthritis as well as the grade of histologic synovitis and erosions on cartilage and bone. Moreover, SERMs protected against generalised bone loss in CIA by increasing trabecular BMD. Both SERMs decreased serum marker of cartilage destruction and LAS reduced serum IL-6 levels. SERMs did not alter Th17 cells in lymph nodes as E2 did. Conclusion. The anti-osteoporotic drugs LAS and BZA were found to be potent inhibitors of joint inflammation and bone destruction in experimental arthritis. This study provides new important knowledge regarding the treatment regimen of post-menopausal women with RA who suffer from increased risk for osteoporosis. PMID:26424839

  20. Solar Ultraviolet Irradiation Reduces Collagen in Photoaged Human Skin by Blocking Transforming Growth Factor-β Type II Receptor/Smad Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Taihao; He, Tianyuan; Kang, Sewon; Voorhees, John J.; Fisher, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation from the sun reduces production of type I procollagen (COLI), the major structural protein in human skin. This reduction is a key feature of the pathophysiology of premature skin aging (photoaging). Photoaging is the most common form of skin damage and is associated with skin carcinoma. TGF-β/Smad pathway is the major regulator of type I procollagen synthesis in human skin. We have previously reported that UV irradiation impairs transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling in mink lung epithelial cells. We have investigated the mechanism of UV irradiation impairment of the TGF-β/Smad pathway and the impact of this impairment on type I procollagen production in human skin fibroblasts, the major collagen-producing cells in skin. We report here that UV irradiation impairs TGF-β/Smad pathway in human skin by down-regulation of TGF-β type II receptor (TβRII). This loss of TβRII occurs within 8 hours after UV irradiation and precedes down-regulation of type I procollagen expression in human skin in vivo. In human skin fibroblasts, UV-induced TβRII down-regulation is mediated by transcriptional repression and results in 90% reduction of specific, cell-surface binding of TGF-β. This loss of TβRII prevents downstream activation of Smad2/3 by TGF-β, thereby reducing expression of type I procollagen. Preventing loss of TβRII by overexpression protects against UV inhibition of type I procollagen gene expression in human skin fibroblasts. UV-induced down-regulation of TβRII, with attendant reduction of type I procollagen production, is a critical molecular mechanism in the pathophysiology of photoaging. PMID:15331399

  1. Abnormal Accumulation of Collagen Type I Due to the Loss of Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (Ddr2) Promotes Testicular Interstitial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hu; Bu, Xin; Li, Zhen; Zhao, Jie; Gong, Wei-dong; Wu, Zhi-qun; Yao, Li-bo; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yuan-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Loss of functional allele for discoidin domain receptor 2 (Ddr2) results in impaired Leydig cell response to luteinizing hormone (LH), low testosterone production and arrested spermatogenesis in older male Ddr2slie/slie mice. However, the underlying mechanism responsible for this phenotype remains unknown. Herein, we reported for the first time that the deregulated expression of Ddr2 cognate ligand, namely collagen type I (COL1), may account for the disruption of the testicular steroidogenesis in Ddr2slie/slie mutant testes. Methodology/Principal Findings Expression of Ddr2 increased gradually along postnatal development, whereas COL1 expression became negligible from adulthood onwards. In Ddr2slie/slie mutant testis, however, in contrast to the undetectable staining of Ddr2, COL1 expression was constantly detected, with the highest values detected during adulthood. In the experimental vasectomy model, Ddr2slie/slie mutant mice exhibited an early androgen deficiency than wild-type mice, along with the accumulation of fibrotic tissue in the interstitium. Functionally, ablation of endogenous Ddr2 resulted in a significant decrease of testosterone (T) level in TM3 cells in the presence of higher concentration of COL1 treatment. Conversely, overexpression of Ddr2 could help TM3 cells to maintain a normal testicular steroidogenesis even in the presence of high concentration of COL1. Additionally, attenuated expression of Ddr2 correlates to the deregulated level of serum T levels in human pathological testes. Conclusions Abnormal accumulation of interstitial COL1 may be responsible for the steroidogenic dysfunction in Ddr2slie/slie mutant testes. PMID:26158267

  2. Increased peripheral T cell reactivity to microbial antigens and collagen type II in rheumatoid arthritis after treatment with soluble TNFα receptors

    PubMed Central

    Berg, L; Lampa, J; Rogberg, S; van Vollenhoven, R; Klareskog, L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Peripheral T cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are hyporesponsive when stimulated with antigen or mitogen in vitro, possibly owing to increased production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα). This study sought to find out if and how RA T cell reactivity is affected during treatment with etanercept (Enbrel), a soluble TNFα receptor.
METHODS—Heparinised blood was collected from patients with RA at baseline, after four and eight weeks of etanercept treatment, and from healthy controls. After density separation spontaneous production of interferon γ (IFNγ), TNFα, interleukin 6 (IL6), and IL10 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was detected by ELISPOT. For detection of T cell reactivity, PBMC were stimulated in vitro with mitogen (phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)), microbial antigens (purified protein derivative (PPD), influenza), or an autoantigen, collagen type II (CII). Supernatants were analysed for IFNγ and IL2 content by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
RESULTS—In RA the number of cells spontaneously producing IFNγ was significantly increased after four, but not eight weeks' treatment with etanercept. T cell reactivity, as measured by IFNγ production to PPD, influenza, and CII was significantly increased after four and sustained after eight weeks' treatment, whereas IFNγ production induced by PHA remained unchanged. TNFα production was significantly higher in patients with RA than in controls and did not change during etanercept treatment.
CONCLUSION—Treatment of patients with RA with etanercept may lead to increased peripheral T cell reactivity both to microbial antigens and to self antigens such as CII. These findings indicate that TNFα blockade may not only suppress but also stimulate certain aspects of antimicrobial immune defence and autoimmunity.

 PMID:11156546

  3. Microplate-compatible total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy for receptor pharmacology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Minghan; Zaytseva, Natalya V.; Wu, Qi; Li, Min; Fang, Ye

    2013-05-01

    We report the use of total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy for analyzing receptor pharmacology and the development of a microplate-compatible TIRF imaging system. Using stably expressed green fluorescence protein tagged β2-adrenergic receptor as the reporter, we found that the activation of different receptors results in distinct kinetic signatures of the TIRF intensity of cells. These TIRF signatures closely resemble the characteristics of their respective label-free dynamic mass redistribution signals in the same cells. This suggests that TIRF in microplate can be used for profiling and screening drugs.

  4. Development of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist mutants with enhanced antagonistic activity in vitro and improved therapeutic efficacy in collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Dahlén, Eva; Barchan, Karin; Herrlander, Daniel; Höjman, Patrik; Karlsson, Marie; Ljung, Lill; Andersson, Mats; Bäckman, Eva; Hager, Ann-Christin Malmborg; Walse, Björn; Joosten, Leo; van den Berg, Wim

    2008-04-01

    Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is a naturally occurring inhibitor of the pro-inflammatory interleukin-1-mediated activation of the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R). Although wild-type IL-1Ra is used for treatment of inflammatory diseases, its effect is moderate and/or short-lived. The objective of this study was to generate IL-1Ra mutants with enhanced antagonistic activity for potential therapeutic use. Using a directed evolution approach in which libraries of IL-1Ra gene mutants were generated and screened in functional assays, mutants with desired properties were identified. Initially, diversity was introduced into the IL-1Ra using random mutagenesis. Mutations resulting in enhanced antagonistic activity were identified by screening in a reporter cell assay. To further enhance the antagonistic activity, selected mutations were recombined using the DNA recombination technology Fragment-INduced Diversity (FIND). Following three rounds of FIND recombination, several mutants with up to nine times enhanced antagonistic activity (mean IC50 +/- SEM value: 0.78 +/- 0.050 vs. 6.8 +/- 1.1 ng/ml for mutant and wild-type, respectively) were identified. Sequence analysis identified the mutations D47N, E52R and E90Y as being most important for this effect, however, the mutations P38Y, H54R, Q129L and M136N further enhanced the antagonistic function. Analysis of identified mutations in protein models based on the crystal structure of the IL-1Ra/IL-1R complex suggested that mutations found to enhance the antagonistic activity had a stabilizing effect on the IL-1Ra mutants or increased the affinity for the IL-1R. Finally, the therapeutic effect of one mutant was compared to that of wild-type IL-1Ra in collagen-induced arthritis in mice. Indeed, the enhanced antagonistic effect of the mutants observed in vitro was also seen in vivo. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that directed evolution of IL-1Ra is an effective means of generating highly potent therapeutic

  5. Comparing analgesia and μ-opioid receptor internalization produced by intrathecal enkephalin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenling; Song, Bingbing; Lao, Lijun; Pérez, Orlando A.; Kim, Woojae; Marvizón, Juan Carlos G.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Opioid receptors in the spinal cord produce strong analgesia, but the mechanisms controlling their activation by endogenous opioids remain unclear. We have previously shown in spinal cord slices that peptidases preclude μ-opioid receptor (MOR) internalization by opioids. Our present goals were to investigate whether enkephalin-induced analgesia is also precluded by peptidases, and whether it is mediated by MORs or δ-opioid receptors (DORs). Tail-flick analgesia and MOR internalization were measured in rats injected intrathecally with Leu-enkephalin and peptidase inhibitors. Without peptidase inhibitors, Leu-enkephalin produced neither analgesia nor MOR internalization at doses up to 100 nmol, whereas with peptidase inhibitors it produced analgesia at 0.3 nmol and MOR internalization at 1 nmol. Leu-enkephalin was ten times more potent to produce analgesia than to produce MOR internalization, suggesting that DORs were involved. Selective MOR or DOR antagonists completely blocked the analgesia elicited by 0.3 nmol Leu-enkephalin (a dose that produced little MOR internalization), indicating that it involved these two receptors, possibly by an additive or synergistic interaction. The selective MOR agonist endomorphin-2 produced analgesia even in the presence of a DOR antagonist, but at doses substantially higher than Leu-enkephalin. Unlike Leu-enkephalin, endomorphin-2 had the same potencies to induce analgesia and MOR internalization. We concluded that low doses of enkephalins produce analgesia by activating both MORs and DORs. Analgesia can also be produced exclusively by MORs at higher agonist doses. Since peptidases prevent the activation of spinal opioid receptors by enkephalins, the coincident release of opioids and endogenous peptidase inhibitors may be required for analgesia. PMID:17845806

  6. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCIII. The parathyroid hormone receptors--family B G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Gardella, Thomas J; Vilardaga, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The type-1 parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR1) is a family B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that mediates the actions of two polypeptide ligands; parathyroid hormone (PTH), an endocrine hormone that regulates the levels of calcium and inorganic phosphate in the blood by acting on bone and kidney, and PTH-related protein (PTHrP), a paracrine-factor that regulates cell differentiation and proliferation programs in developing bone and other tissues. The type-2 parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR2) binds a peptide ligand, called tuberoinfundibular peptide-39 (TIP39), and while the biologic role of the PTHR2/TIP39 system is not as defined as that of the PTHR1, it likely plays a role in the central nervous system as well as in spermatogenesis. Mechanisms of action at these receptors have been explored through a variety of pharmacological and biochemical approaches, and the data obtained support a basic "two-site" mode of ligand binding now thought to be used by each of the family B peptide hormone GPCRs. Recent crystallographic studies on the family B GPCRs are providing new insights that help to further refine the specifics of the overall receptor architecture and modes of ligand docking. One intriguing pharmacological finding for the PTHR1 is that it can form surprisingly stable complexes with certain PTH/PTHrP ligand analogs and thereby mediate markedly prolonged cell signaling responses that persist even when the bulk of the complexes are found in internalized vesicles. The PTHR1 thus appears to be able to activate the Gα(s)/cAMP pathway not only from the plasma membrane but also from the endosomal domain. The cumulative findings could have an impact on efforts to develop new drug therapies for the PTH receptors. PMID:25713287

  7. Persistent cAMP Signaling by Internalized LH Receptors in Ovarian Follicles.

    PubMed

    Lyga, Sandra; Volpe, Silvia; Werthmann, Ruth C; Götz, Konrad; Sungkaworn, Titiwat; Lohse, Martin J; Calebiro, Davide

    2016-04-01

    A crucial event in female reproduction occurs at midcycle, when a LH peak induces the final maturation of ovarian follicles. LH signals via a G protein-coupled receptor selectively expressed in the outermost follicular cell layers. However, how LH signals are relayed inside these cells and finally to the oocyte is incompletely understood. Here, we monitored LH signaling in intact ovarian follicles of transgenic mice expressing a fluorescent cAMP sensor. We found that LH stimulation induces 2 phases of cAMP signaling in all cell layers surrounding the oocyte. Interfering with LH receptor internalization abolished the second, persistent cAMP phase and partially inhibited oocyte meiosis resumption. These data suggest that persistent cAMP signals from internalized LH receptors contribute to transmitting LH effects inside follicle cells and ultimately to the oocyte. Thus, this study indicates that the recently proposed paradigm of cAMP signaling by internalized G protein-coupled receptors is implicated in receptor function and is physiologically relevant. PMID:26828746

  8. Spontaneous Bilateral Cervical Internal Carotid and Vertebral Artery Dissection in a Japanese Patient without Collagen Vascular Disease with Special Reference to Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Abe, Arata; Nito, Chikako; Sakamoto, Yuki; Nogami, Akane; Hokama, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Shiro; Kirita, Kumiko; Ueda, Masayuki; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Kimura, Kazumi

    2016-08-01

    Spontaneous cervical artery dissection (sCAD) is a major cause of ischemic stroke in young adults. Frequently, sCAD involves multiple neck arteries, accounting for 13%-28% of the total sCAD cases. However, little is known about factors related to multiple sCAD. In this case, a 52-year-old man was admitted due to headache without aura. There was a personal history of migraine with aura and a family history of similar symptoms. The patient's younger brother had a left vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneurysm and underwent endovascular occlusion of his parent artery at the age of 48. Magnetic resonance imaging of our admitted patient showed hyperintensities in the right internal carotid artery (ICA) without acute infarction, and magnetic resonance angiography revealed a narrowing of the right ICA. Angiography was then performed, which showed a trace of dissection of the left ICA and both VAs as well as the right ICA. The patient did not fulfill any major criteria of collagen vascular disease such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV or Loeys-Dietz syndrome. The data in our patient are quite similar to those reported in patients with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of PHACTR1. Obtaining the patient's informed consent, we analyzed a common SNP variation in the rs9349379[G] allele (PHACTR1), which has been reported to be associated with a lower risk of sCAD. PMID:27216377

  9. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXVII. Kisspeptin Receptor Nomenclature, Distribution, and Function

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Helen R.; Maguire, Janet J.; Colledge, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Kisspeptins are members of the Arg-Phe amide family of peptides, which have been identified as endogenous ligands for a G-protein-coupled receptor encoded by a gene originally called GPR54 (also known as AXOR12 or hOT7T175). After this pairing, the gene has been renamed KISS1R. The International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification recommends that the official name for the receptor is the kisspeptin receptor to follow the convention of naming the receptor protein after the endogenous ligand. The endogenous ligand was initially called metastin, after its role as a metastasis suppressor, and is now referred to as kisspeptin-54 (KP-54), a C-terminally amidated 54-amino acid peptide cleaved from the 145-amino acid gene product. Shorter C-terminal cleavage fragments [KP-14, KP-13 and KP-10 (the smallest active fragment)] are also biologically active. Both receptor and peptide are widely expressed in human, rat, and mouse; the receptor sequence shares more than 80% homology in these species. Activation of the kisspeptin receptor by kisspeptin is via coupling to Gq/11 and the phospholipase C pathway, causing Ca2+ mobilization. Mutations in the KISS1R gene result in hypogonadotropic hypogonadotropism, and targeted disruption of Kiss1r in mice reproduces this phenotype, which led to the discovery of the remarkable ability of the kisspeptin receptor to act as a molecular switch for puberty. In addition to regulating the reproductive axis, the kisspeptin receptor is also implicated in cancer, placentation, diabetes, and the cardiovascular system. PMID:21079036

  10. Phosphorylation and Internalization of Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptors LPA1, LPA2, and LPA3

    PubMed Central

    Alcántara-Hernández, Rocío; Hernández-Méndez, Aurelio; Campos-Martínez, Gisselle A.; Meizoso-Huesca, Aldo; García-Sáinz, J. Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Results The lysophosphatidic acid receptors LPA1, LPA2, and LPA3 were individually expressed in C9 cells and their signaling and regulation were studied. Agonist-activation increases intracellular calcium concentration in a concentration-dependent fashion. Phorbol myristate acetate markedly inhibited LPA1- and LPA3-mediated effect, whereas that mediated by LPA2 was only partially diminished; the actions of the phorbol ester were inhibited by bisindolylmaleimide I and by overnight incubation with the protein kinase C activator, which leads to down regulation of this protein kinase. Homologous desensitization was also observed for the three LPA receptors studied, with that of LPA2 receptors being consistently of lesser magnitude; neither inhibition nor down-regulation of protein kinase C exerted any effect on homologous desensitization. Activation of LPA1–3 receptors induced ERK 1/2 phosphorylation; this effect was markedly attenuated by inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase activity, suggesting growth factor receptor transactivation in this effect. Lysophosphatidic acid and phorbol myristate acetate were able to induce LPA1–3 phosphorylation, in time- and concentration-dependent fashions. It was also clearly observed that agonists and protein kinase C activation induced internalization of these receptors. Phosphorylation of the LPA2 subtype required larger concentrations of these agents and its internalization was less intense than that of the other subtypes. Conclusion Our data show that these three LPA receptors are phosphoproteins whose phosphorylation state is modulated by agonist-stimulation and protein kinase C-activation and that differences in regulation and cellular localization exist, among the subtypes. PMID:26473723

  11. Desensitization and internalization of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a following activation of heterologous Gq/11-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Mundell, Stuart J; Pula, Giordano; McIlhinney, R A Jeffrey; Roberts, Peter J; Kelly, Eamonn

    2004-06-15

    In this study we characterized the heterologous desensitization and internalization of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) splice variants mGluR1a and mGluR1b following activation of endogenous G(q/11)-coupled receptors in HEK293 cells. Agonist activation of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine or P2Y1 purinergic receptors triggered the PKC- and CaMKII-dependent internalization of mGluR1a. In co-immunoprecipitation studies, both glutamate and carbachol increased the association of GRK2 with mGluR1a. Co-addition of the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X and the Ca(2+) calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitor KN-93 blocked the ability of glutamate and carbachol to increase the association of GRK2 with mGluR1a. Glutamate also increased the association of GRK2 with mGluR1b, whereas carbachol did not. However, unlike mGluR1a, glutamate-stimulated association of GRK2 with mGluR1b was not reduced by PKC/CaMKII inhibition. Pretreatment of cells expressing mGluR1a or mGluR1b with carbachol rapidly desensitized subsequent glutamate-stimulated inositol phosphate accumulation. The carbachol-induced heterologous desensitization and internalization of mGluR1a was blocked by LY367385, an mGluR1a antagonist with inverse agonist activity. Furthermore, LY367385 blocked the ability of carbachol to increase the association of GRK2 with mGluR1a. On the other hand, LY367385 had no effect on the carbachol-induced desensitization and internalization of the nonconstitutively active mGluR1b splice variant. These results demonstrate that the internalization of mGluR1a, triggered homologously by glutamate or heterologously by carbachol, is PKC/CaMKII-, GRK2-, arrestin-, and clathrin-dependent and that PKC/CaMKII activation appears to be necessary for GRK2 to associate with mGluR1a. Furthermore, the heterologous desensitization of mGluR1a is dependent upon the splice variant being in an active conformation. PMID:15182196

  12. Real-time imaging of Mu opioid receptors by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Roman-Vendrell, Cristina; Yudowski, Guillermo Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Receptor trafficking and signaling are intimately linked, especially in the Mu opioid receptor (MOR) where ligand dependent endocytosis and recycling have been associated to opioid tolerance and dependence. Ligands of the Mu opioid receptor (MOR) can induce receptor endocytosis and recycling within minutes of exposure in heterologous systems and cultured neurons. Endocytosis removes desensitized receptors after their activation from the plasma membrane, while recycling promotes resensitization by delivering functional receptors to the cell surface. These rapid mechanisms can escape traditional analytical methods where only snapshots are obtained from highly dynamic events. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is a powerful tool that can be used to investigate, in real-time, surface trafficking events at the single molecule level. The restricted excitation of fluorophores located at or near the plasma membrane in combination with high sensitivity quantitative cameras, makes it possible to record and analyze individual endocytic and recycling event in real time. In this chapter, we describe a TIRF microscopy protocol to investigate in real time, the ligand dependent MOR trafficking in Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells and dissociated striatal neuronal cultures. This approach can provide unique spatio-temporal resolution to understand the fundamental events controlling MOR trafficking at the plasma membrane. PMID:25293317

  13. The 37kDa/67kDa Laminin Receptor acts as a receptor for Aβ42 internalization

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa Dias, Bianca; Jovanovic, Katarina; Gonsalves, Danielle; Moodley, Kiashanee; Reusch, Uwe; Knackmuss, Stefan; Weinberg, Marc S.; Little, Melvyn; Weiss, Stefan F. T.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal loss is a major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The associations between soluble Aβ oligomers and cellular components cause this neurotoxicity. The 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) has recently been implicated in Aβ pathogenesis. In this study the mechanism underlying the pathological role of LRP/LR was elucidated. Försters Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) revealed that LRP/LR and Aβ form a biologically relevant interaction. The ability of LRP/LR to form stable associations with endogenously shed Aβ was confirmed by pull down assays and Aβ-ELISAs. Antibody blockade of this association significantly lowered Aβ42 induced apoptosis. Furthermore, antibody blockade and shRNA mediated downregulation of LRP/LR significantly hampered Aβ42 internalization. These results suggest that LRP/LR is a receptor for Aβ42 internalization, mediating its endocytosis and contributing to the cytotoxicity of the neuropeptide by facilitating intra-cellular Aβ42 accumulation. These findings recommend anti-LRP/LR specific antibodies and shRNAs as potential therapeutic tools for AD treatment. PMID:24990253

  14. Collagen-platelet interactions: recognition and signalling.

    PubMed

    Farndale, Richard W; Siljander, Pia R; Onley, David J; Sundaresan, Pavithra; Knight, C Graham; Barnes, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    The collagen-platelet interaction is central to haemostasis and may be a critical determinant of arterial thrombosis, where subendothelium is exposed after rupture of atherosclerotic plaque. Recent research has capitalized on the cloning of an important signalling receptor for collagen, glycoprotein VI, which is expressed only on platelets, and on the use of collagen-mimetic peptides as specific tools for both glycoprotein VI and integrin alpha 2 beta 1. We have identified sequences, GPO and GFOGER (where O denotes hydroxyproline), within collagen that are recognized by the collagen receptors glycoprotein VI and integrin alpha 2 beta 1 respectively, allowing their signalling properties and specific functional roles to be examined. Triple-helical peptides containing these sequences were used to show the signalling potential of integrin alpha 2 beta 1, and to confirm its important contribution to platelet adhesion. Glycoprotein VI appears to operate functionally on the platelet surface as a dimer, which recognizes GPO motifs that are separated by four triplets of collagen sequence. These advances will allow the relationship between the structure of collagen and its haemostatic activity to be established. PMID:14587284

  15. Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP) Accelerates Collagen Degradation and Clearance from Lungs in Mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Qiang; Li, Hui-Hua; Ra, Hyun-Jeong; Majumdar, Sonali; Gulick, Dexter L; Jerome, Jacob A; Madsen, Daniel H; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Speicher, David W; Bachovchin, William W; Feghali-Bostwick, Carol; Puré, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a disease characterized by progressive, unrelenting lung scarring, with death from respiratory failure within 2-4 years unless lung transplantation is performed. New effective therapies are clearly needed. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a cell surface-associated serine protease up-regulated in the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as well as in wound healing and cancer. We postulate that FAP is not only a marker of disease but influences the development of pulmonary fibrosis after lung injury. In two different models of pulmonary fibrosis, intratracheal bleomycin instillation and thoracic irradiation, we find increased mortality and increased lung fibrosis in FAP-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Lung extracellular matrix analysis reveals accumulation of intermediate-sized collagen fragments in FAP-deficient mouse lungs, consistent within vitrostudies showing that FAP mediates ordered proteolytic processing of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-derived collagen cleavage products. FAP-mediated collagen processing leads to increased collagen internalization without altering expression of the endocytic collagen receptor, Endo180. Pharmacologic FAP inhibition decreases collagen internalization as expected. Conversely, restoration of FAP expression in the lungs of FAP-deficient mice decreases lung hydroxyproline content after intratracheal bleomycin to levels comparable with that of wild-type controls. Our findings indicate that FAP participates directly, in concert with MMPs, in collagen catabolism and clearance and is an important factor in resolving scar after injury and restoring lung homeostasis. Our study identifies FAP as a novel endogenous regulator of fibrosis and is the first to show FAP's protective effects in the lung. PMID:26663085

  16. Quantitative measurement of cell membrane receptor internalization by the nanoluciferase reporter: Using the G protein-coupled receptor RXFP3 as a model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Song, Ge; Shao, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Ya-Li; Guo, Zhan-Yun

    2015-02-01

    Nanoluciferase (NanoLuc) is a newly developed small luciferase reporter with the brightest bioluminescence to date. In the present work, we developed NanoLuc as a sensitive bioluminescent reporter to measure quantitatively the internalization of cell membrane receptors, based on the pH dependence of the reporter activity. The G protein-coupled receptor RXFP3, the cognate receptor of relaxin-3/INSL7, was used as a model receptor. We first generated stable HEK293T cells that inducibly coexpressed a C-terminally NanoLuc-tagged human RXFP3 and a C-terminally enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged human RXFP3. The C-terminal EGFP-tag and NanoLuc-tag had no detrimental effects on the ligand-binding potency and intracellular trafficking of RXFP3. Based on the fluorescence of the tagged EGFP reporter, the ligand-induced RXFP3 internalization was visualized directly under a fluorescence microscope. Based on the bioluminescence of the tagged NanoLuc reporter, the ligand-induced RXFP3 internalization was measured quantitatively by a convenient bioluminescent assay. Coexpression of an EGFP-tagged inactive [E141R]RXFP3 had no detrimental effect on the ligand-binding potency and ligand-induced internalization of the NanoLuc-tagged wild-type RXFP3, suggesting that the mutant RXFP3 and wild-type RXFP3 worked independently. The present bioluminescent internalization assay could be extended to other G protein-coupled receptors and other cell membrane receptors to study ligand-receptor and receptor-receptor interactions. PMID:25434927

  17. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXIII. Nomenclature for the Formyl Peptide Receptor (FPR) Family

    PubMed Central

    YE, RICHARD D.; BOULAY, FRANÇOIS; WANG, JI MING; DAHLGREN, CLAES; GERARD, CRAIG; PARMENTIER, MARC; SERHAN, CHARLES N.; MURPHY, PHILIP M.

    2009-01-01

    Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are a small group of seven-transmembrane domain, G protein-coupled receptors that are expressed mainly by mammalian phagocytic leukocytes and are known to be important in host defense and inflammation. The three human FPRs (FPR1, FPR2/ALX, and FPR3) share significant sequence homology and are encoded by clustered genes. Collectively, these receptors bind an extraordinarily numerous and structurally diverse group of agonistic ligands, including N-formyl and nonformyl peptides of different composition, that chemoattract and activate phagocytes. N-formyl peptides, which are encoded in nature only by bacterial and mitochondrial genes and result from obligatory initiation of bacterial and mitochondrial protein synthesis with N-formylmethionine, is the only ligand class common to all three human receptors. Surprisingly, the endogenous anti-inflammatory peptide annexin 1 and its N-terminal fragments also bind human FPR1 and FPR2/ALX, and the anti-inflammatory eicosanoid lipoxin A4 is an agonist at FPR2/ALX. In comparison, fewer agonists have been identified for FPR3, the third member in this receptor family. Structural and functional studies of the FPRs have produced important information for understanding the general pharmacological principles governing all leukocyte chemoattractant receptors. This article aims to provide an overview of the discovery and pharmacological characterization of FPRs, to introduce an International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR)-recommended nomenclature, and to discuss unmet challenges, including the mechanisms used by these receptors to bind diverse ligands and mediate different biological functions. PMID:19498085

  18. Fluorophore assisted light inactivation (FALI) of recombinant 5-HT3A receptor constitutive internalization and function

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Russell A.; Luo, Guoxiang; Davis, Margaret I.; Hales, Tim G.; Lovinger, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins and molecules are now widely used to tag and visualize proteins resulting in an improved understanding of protein trafficking, localization, and function. In addition, fluorescent tags have also been used to inactivate protein function in a spatially and temporally-defined manner, using a technique known as fluorophore-assisted light inactivation (FALI) or chromophore-assisted light inactivation (CALI). In this study we tagged the serotonin3 A subunit with the α-bungarotoxin binding sequence (BBS) and subsequently labeled 5-HT3A/BBS receptors with fluorescently conjugated α-bungarotoxin in live cells. We show that 5-HT3A/BBS receptors are constitutively internalized in the absence of an agonist and internalization as well as receptor function are inhibited by fluorescence. The fluorescence-induced disruption of function and internalization was reduced with oxygen radical scavengers suggesting the involvement of reactive oxygen species, implicating the FALI process. Furthermore, these data suggest that intense illumination during live-cell microscopy may result in inadvertent FALI and inhibition of protein trafficking. PMID:21338684

  19. Structural basis of sequence-specific collagen recognition by SPARC

    PubMed Central

    Hohenester, Erhard; Sasaki, Takako; Giudici, Camilla; Farndale, Richard W.; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2008-01-01

    Protein interactions with the collagen triple helix play a critical role in collagen fibril formation, cell adhesion, and signaling. However, structural insight into sequence-specific collagen recognition is limited to an integrin-peptide complex. A GVMGFO motif in fibrillar collagens (O denotes 4-hydroxyproline) binds 3 unrelated proteins: von Willebrand factor (VWF), discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2), and the extracellular matrix protein SPARC/osteonectin/BM-40. We report the crystal structure at 3.2 Å resolution of human SPARC bound to a triple-helical 33-residue peptide harboring the promiscuous GVMGFO motif. SPARC recognizes the GVMGFO motifs of the middle and trailing collagen chains, burying a total of 720 Å2 of solvent-accessible collagen surface. SPARC binding does not distort the canonical triple helix of the collagen peptide. In contrast, a critical loop in SPARC is substantially remodelled upon collagen binding, creating a deep pocket that accommodates the phenylalanine residue of the trailing collagen chain (“Phe pocket”). This highly restrictive specificity pocket is shared with the collagen-binding integrin I-domains but differs strikingly from the shallow collagen-binding grooves of the platelet receptor glycoprotein VI and microbial adhesins. We speculate that binding of the GVMGFO motif to VWF and DDR2 also results in structural changes and the formation of a Phe pocket. PMID:19011090

  20. Chemoreceptors of crustaceans: similarities to receptors for neuroactive substances in internal tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Carr, W E; Ache, B W; Gleeson, R A

    1987-01-01

    A description is given of crustacean chemosensory systems and the neurophysiological procedures used to study them. Their response properties and tuning characteristics are discussed. A review is then provided of specific crustacean chemoreceptors that are stimulated selectively by either purine nucleotides, taurine, glutamate, or glycine, all of which have neuroactive properties in internal tissues. Two distinctly different types of purinergic chemoreceptors occur on the antennules of the spiny lobster. P1-like chemoreceptors have a potency sequence of AMP greater than ADP greater than ATP greater than adenosine and show a strict structural requirement for the ribose phosphate moiety. P2-like chemoreceptors have a potency sequence of ATP greater than ADP greater than AMP or adenosine and show a broad sensitivity to nucleotide triphosphates with modifications in both the purine and ribose phosphate moieties. Sensilla containing the dendrites of chemosensory neurons also possess an ectonucleotidase(s) that inactivates excitatory nucleotides to yield adenosine which is subsequently internalized by a sensillar uptake system. Narrowly tuned taurinergic chemoreceptors are present on both the antennules and legs of lobsters. Although taurine itself is the most effective stimulant, the taurine analogs hypotaurine and beta-alanine are also very excitatory. Structure-activity studies indicate these chemoreceptors have marked similarities to taurine-sensitive systems in internal tissues of vertebrates. By contrast, comparative studies of glutamatergic chemoreceptors on the legs of lobsters indicate response spectra different from those of the glutamate receptors in lobster neuromuscular junctions and the three classes of excitatory amino acid receptors identified internally in vertebrates. Crustacean chemoreceptors for glycine, ecdysteroids, and pyridine are also described. The hypothesis that receptors for internal neuroactive agents may have originally evolved as external

  1. Neonatal Fc Receptor Mediates Internalization of Fc in Transfected Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Goebl, Nancy A.; Babbey, Clifford M.; Datta-Mannan, Amita; Witcher, Derrick R.; Wroblewski, Victor J.

    2008-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn mediates an endocytic salvage pathway that prevents degradation of IgG, thus contributing to the homeostasis of circulating IgG. Based on the low affinity of IgG for FcRn at neutral pH, internalization of IgG by endothelial cells is generally believed to occur via fluid-phase endocytosis. To investigate the role of FcRn in IgG internalization, we used quantitative confocal microscopy to characterize internalization of fluorescent Fc molecules by HULEC-5A lung microvascular endothelia transfected with GFP fusion proteins of human or mouse FcRn. In these studies, cells transfected with FcRn accumulated significantly more intracellular Fc than untransfected cells. Internalization of FcRn-binding forms of Fc was proportional to FcRn expression level, was enriched relative to dextran internalization in proportion to FcRn expression level, and was blocked by incubation with excess unlabeled Fc. Because we were unable to detect either surface expression of FcRn or surface binding of Fc, these results suggest that FcRn-dependent internalization of Fc may occur through sequestration of Fc by FcRn in early endosomes. These studies indicate that FcRn-dependent internalization of IgG may be important not only in cells taking up IgG from an extracellular acidic space, but also in endothelial cells participating in homeostatic regulation of circulating IgG levels. PMID:18843053

  2. Ligand-mediated autophosphorylation activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor during internalization

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, W.H.; Cameron, P.H.; Doherty, J.J. II; Posner, B.I.; Bergeron, J.J. )

    1989-12-01

    The association of EGF with its receptor in endosomes isolated from rat liver homogenates was assessed biochemically by polyethylene glycol precipitation and morphologically by electron microscope radioautography. The proportion of receptor-bound ligand in endosomes at 15 min after the injection of doses of 0.1 and 1 microgram EGF/100 g body weight was 57%. This value increased to 77% for the dose of 10 micrograms EGF injected. Quantitative electron microscope radioautography carried out on endosomes isolated at 15 min after the injection of 10 micrograms 125I-EGF demonstrated that most radiolabel was over the endosomal periphery thereby indicating that ligand-receptor complexes were in the bounding membrane but not in intraluminal vesicles of the content. EGF receptor autophosphorylation activity during internalization was evaluated in plasmalemma and endosome fractions. This activity was markedly but transiently reduced on the cell surface shortly after the administration of saturating doses of EGF. The same activity, however, was augmented and prolonged in endosomes for up to 30 min after EGF injection. The transient desensitization of cell surface activity was not due to prior in vivo phosphorylation since receptor dephosphorylation in vitro failed to restore autophosphorylation activity. Transient desensitization of cell surface autophosphorylation activity coincided with a diminished capacity for endocytosis of 125I-EGF with endocytosis returning to normal after the restoration of cell surface autophosphorylation activity. The inhibition of cell surface autophosphorylation activity and the activation of endosomal autophosphorylation activity coincident with downregulation suggest that EGF receptor traffic is governed by ligand-regulated phosphorylation activity.

  3. Internalization of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRHRs): does arrestin binding to the C-terminal tail target GnRHRs for dynamin-dependent internalization?

    PubMed

    Hislop, James N; Caunt, Christopher J; Sedgley, Kathleen R; Kelly, Eammon; Mundell, Stuart; Green, Lisa D; McArdle, Craig A

    2005-08-01

    Activation of seven-transmembrane receptors is typically followed by desensitization and arrestin-dependent internalization via vesicles that are pinched off by a dynamin collar. Arrestins also scaffold Src, which mediates dynamin-dependent internalization of beta2-adrenergic receptors. Type I mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRHRs) do not rapidly desensitize or internalize (characteristics attributed to their unique lack of C-terminal tails) whereas non-mammalian GnRHRs (that have C-terminal tails) are rapidly internalized and desensitized. Moreover, internalization of Xenopus (X) GnRHRs is dynamin-dependent whereas that of human (h) GnRHRs is not, raising the possibility that binding of arrestin to the C-terminal tails of GnRHRs targets them to the dynamin-dependent internalization pathway. To test this we have compared wild-type GnRHRs with chimeric receptors (XGnRHR C-terminal tail added to the hGnRHR alone (h.XtGnRHR) or with exchange of the third intracellular loops (h.Xl.XtGnRHR)). We show that adding the XGnRHR C-terminal tail facilitates arrestin- and dynamin-dependent internalization as well as arrestin/green fluorescent protein translocation, but Src (or mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular-signal-regulated kinase kinase) inhibition does not slow internalization, and h.XtGnRHR internalization is slower than that of the hGnRHR. Moreover, arrestin expression increased XGnRHR internalization even when dynamin was inhibited and h.Xl.XtGnRHR underwent rapid arrestin-dependent internalization without signaling to G(q/11). Thus, although the C-terminal tail can direct GnRHRs for arrestin- and dynamin-dependent internalization, this effect is not dependent on Src activation and arrestin can also facilitate dynamin-independent internalization. PMID:16087731

  4. Biomedical applications of collagens.

    PubMed

    Ramshaw, John A M

    2016-05-01

    Collagen-based biomedical materials have developed into important, clinically effective materials used in a range of devices that have gained wide acceptance. These devices come with collagen in various formats, including those based on stabilized natural tissues, those that are based on extracted and purified collagens, and designed composite, biosynthetic materials. Further knowledge on the structure and function of collagens has led to on-going developments and improvements. Among these developments has been the production of recombinant collagen materials that are well defined and are disease free. Most recently, a group of bacterial, non-animal collagens has emerged that may provide an excellent, novel source of collagen for use in biomaterials and other applications. These newer collagens are discussed in detail. They can be modified to direct their function, and they can be fabricated into various formats, including films and sponges, while solutions can also be adapted for use in surface coating technologies. PMID:26448097

  5. Collagen vascular disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001223.htm Collagen vascular disease To use the sharing features on ... were previously said to have "connective tissue" or "collagen vascular" disease. We now have names for many ...

  6. Internalized insulin-receptor complexes are unidirectionally translocated to chloroquine-sensitive degradative sites. Dependence on metabolic energy

    SciTech Connect

    Berhanu, P.

    1988-04-25

    Insulin receptors on the surface of isolated rat adipocytes were photoaffinity labeled at 12 degrees C with the iodinated photoreactive insulin analogue, 125I-B2 (2-nitro-4-azidophenylacetyl)-des-PheB1-insulin, and the pathways in the intracellular processing of the labeled receptors were studied at 37 degrees C. During 37 degrees C incubations, the labeled 440-kDa insulin receptors were continuously internalized (as assessed by trypsin inaccessibility) and degraded such that up to 50% of the initially labeled receptors were lost by 120 min. Metabolic poisons (0.125-0.75 mM 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and 1-10 mM NaF), which led to dose-dependent depletion of adipocyte ATP pools, inhibited receptor loss, and caused up to 3-fold increase in intracellular receptor accumulation. This effect was due to inhibition of intracellular receptor degradation, and there was no apparent effect of the metabolic poisons on initial internalization of the receptors. Following maximal intracellular accumulation of labeled insulin receptors in the presence of NaF or DNP, removal of these agents resulted in a subsequent, time-dependent degradation of the accumulated receptors. However, when the lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine (0.2 mM), was added immediately following removal of the metabolic poisons, further degradation of the intracellularly accumulated receptors was prevented, suggesting that the chloroquine-sensitive degradation of insulin receptors occurs distal to the site of inhibition by NaF or DNP. To confirm this, maximal intracellular accumulation of labeled receptors was first allowed to occur in the presence of chloroquine and the cells were then washed and reincubated in chloroquine-free media in the absence or presence of NaF or DNP. Under these conditions, degradation of the intracellularly accumulated receptors continued to occur, and NaF or DNP failed to block the degradation.

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist inhibits collagen synthesis in human keloid fibroblasts by suppression of early growth response-1 expression through upregulation of miR-543 expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hua-Yu; Bai, Wen-Dong; Wang, Hong-Tao; Xie, Song-Tao; Tao, Ke; Su, Lin-Lin; Liu, Jia-Qi; Yang, Xue-Kang; Li, Jun; Wang, Yun-Chuan; He, Ting; Han, Jun-Tao; Hu, Da-Hai

    2016-01-01

    A keloid is a benign skin tumor formed by an overgrowth of granulation tissue in affected patients. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonists were reported to be able to regulate extracellular matrix production in human dermal fibroblasts. This study explored the underlying molecular mechanism of PPAR-γ agonist troglitazone treatment for fibroblasts obtained from keloid patients. The data revealed that troglitazone treatment of keloid fibroblasts (KFs) downregulated the expression of early growth response-1 (Egr1) and collagen-1 (Col1). Level of Egr1 were closely associated with KF-induced fibrosis. The miRNA profiling data revealed that miR-543 was transcriptionally activated after troglitazone treatment. Bioinformatic analysis and experimental data showed that miR-543 was able to target Egr1. ELISA data confirmed that Col1 protein in the supernatant were modulated by the feedback regulatory axis of PPAR-γ agonist-induced miR-543 to inhibit Egr1 expression, whereas PPAR-γ antagonist treatment abolished such effect on Col1 suppression in KFs. This study demonstrated that the PPAR-γ agonist-mediated miR-543 and Egr1 signaling plays an important role in the suppression of collagen synthesis in KFs. Future in vivo studies are needed to confirm these in vitro data. PMID:27429849

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist inhibits collagen synthesis in human keloid fibroblasts by suppression of early growth response-1 expression through upregulation of miR-543 expression.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hua-Yu; Bai, Wen-Dong; Wang, Hong-Tao; Xie, Song-Tao; Tao, Ke; Su, Lin-Lin; Liu, Jia-Qi; Yang, Xue-Kang; Li, Jun; Wang, Yun-Chuan; He, Ting; Han, Jun-Tao; Hu, Da-Hai

    2016-01-01

    A keloid is a benign skin tumor formed by an overgrowth of granulation tissue in affected patients. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonists were reported to be able to regulate extracellular matrix production in human dermal fibroblasts. This study explored the underlying molecular mechanism of PPAR-γ agonist troglitazone treatment for fibroblasts obtained from keloid patients. The data revealed that troglitazone treatment of keloid fibroblasts (KFs) downregulated the expression of early growth response-1 (Egr1) and collagen-1 (Col1). Level of Egr1 were closely associated with KF-induced fibrosis. The miRNA profiling data revealed that miR-543 was transcriptionally activated after troglitazone treatment. Bioinformatic analysis and experimental data showed that miR-543 was able to target Egr1. ELISA data confirmed that Col1 protein in the supernatant were modulated by the feedback regulatory axis of PPAR-γ agonist-induced miR-543 to inhibit Egr1 expression, whereas PPAR-γ antagonist treatment abolished such effect on Col1 suppression in KFs. This study demonstrated that the PPAR-γ agonist-mediated miR-543 and Egr1 signaling plays an important role in the suppression of collagen synthesis in KFs. Future in vivo studies are needed to confirm these in vitro data. PMID:27429849

  9. [Differences in dynamics of insulin and insulin-like growth I (IGF-I) receptors internalization in isolated rat hepatocytes].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Insulin and IGF-I are two related peptides performing in the mammalian body functionally different roles of the metabolic and growth hormones, respectively. Internalization of the insulin-receptor complex (IRC) is the most important chain of mechanism of the action of hormone. To elucidate differences in the main stages of internalization of the two related hormones, the internalization dynamics of 125I-insulin and 125I-IGF-I was traced in isolated rat hepatocytes at 37 and 12 degrees C. There were established marked differences in the process of internalization of labeled hormones, which is stimulated by insulin and IGF-I. At 37 degrees C the insulin-stimulated internalization, unlike the process initiated by IGF-I, did not reach the maximal level for 1 h of incubation. However, essential differences in the internalization course of these two related peptide were obvious at the temperature of 12 degrees C. The internalization level of insulin receptors at 12 degrees C decreased by one third in spite of a significant increase of the insulin receptor binding on the hepatocytes plasma membrane. At 12 degrees C a slight decrease of the proportion of intracellular 125I-IGF-I correlated with a decrease in the 125I-IGF-I binding to receptors on the cell membrane. Internalization of IGF-I receptors was not affected by low temperature, as neither its level, nor the rate changed at 12 degrees C. The paradoxical decrease of the insulin-stimulated internalization at low temperature seems to represent a peculiar "inhibition mechanism" of immersion of IRC into the cell, which leads to accumulation of the complexes on the cell surface and possibly to a readjustment of the insulin biological activity. The resistance of internalization of the IGF-I receptor to cold seems to be related to the more ancient origin of this mechanism in the poikilothermal vertebrates. PMID:25509050

  10. [Differences in dynamics of insulin and insulin-like growth I (IGF-I) receptors internalization in isolated rat hepatocytes].

    PubMed

    Kolychev, A P; Ternovskaya, E E; Arsenieva, A V; Shapkina, E V

    2013-01-01

    Insulin and IGF-I are two related peptides performing in the mammalian body functionally different roles of the metabolic and growth hormones, respectively. Internalization of the insulin-receptor complex (IRC) is the most important chain of mechanism of the action of hormone. To elucidate differences in the main stages of internalization of the two related hormones, the internalization dynamics of 125I-insulin and 125I-IGF-I was traced in isolated rat hepatocytes at 37 and 12 degrees C. There were established marked differences in the process of internalization of labeled hormones, which is stimulated by insulin and IGF-I. At 37 degrees C the insulin-stimulated internalization, unlike the process initiated by IGF-I, did not reach the maximal level for 1 h of incubation. However, essential differences in the internalization course of these two related peptide were obvious at the temperature of 12 degrees C. The internalization level of insulin receptors at 12 degrees C decreased by one third in spite of a significant increase of the insulin receptor binding on the hepatocytes plasma membrane. At 12 degrees C a slight decrease of the proportion of intracellular 125I-IGF-I correlated with a decrease in the 125I-IGF-I binding to receptors on the cell membrane. Internalization of IGF-I receptors was not affected by low temperature, as neither its level, nor the rate changed at 12 degrees C. The paradoxical decrease of the insulin-stimulated internalization at low temperature seems to represent a peculiar "inhibition mechanism" of immersion of IRC into the cell, which leads to accumulation of the complexes on the cell surface and possibly to a readjustment of the insulin biological activity. The resistance of internalization of the IGF-I receptor to cold seems to be related to the more ancient origin of this mechanism in the poikilothermal vertebrates. PMID:25490849

  11. Agonist-Activated Bombyx Corazonin Receptor Is Internalized via an Arrestin-Dependent and Clathrin-Independent Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingwen; Shen, Zhangfei; Jiang, Xue; Yang, Huipeng; Huang, Haishan; Jin, Lili; Chen, Yajie; Shi, Liangen; Zhou, Naiming

    2016-07-19

    Agonist-induced internalization plays a key role in the tight regulation of the extent and duration of G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Previously, we have shown that the Bombyx corazonin receptor (BmCrzR) activates both Gαq- and Gαs-dependent signaling cascades. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of the internalization and desensitization of BmCrzR remain to be elucidated. Here, vectors for expressing BmCrzR fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) at the C-terminal end were used to further characterize BmCrzR internalization. We found that the BmCrzR heterologously expressed in HEK-293 and BmN cells was rapidly internalized from the plasma membrane into the cytoplasm in a concentration- and time-dependent manner via a β-arrestin (Kurtz)-dependent and clathrin-independent pathway in response to agonist challenge. While most of the internalized receptors were recycled to the cell surface via early endosomes, some others were transported to lysosomes for degradation. Assays using RNA interference revealed that both GRK2 and GRK5 were essentially involved in the regulation of BmCrzR phosphorylation and internalization. Further investigations indicated that the identified cluster of Ser/Thr residues ((411)TSS(413)) was responsible for GRK-mediated phosphorylation and internalization. This is the first detailed investigation of the internalization and trafficking of Bombyx corazonin receptors. PMID:27348044

  12. COLLAGEN STRUCTURE AND STABILITY

    PubMed Central

    Shoulders, Matthew D.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2010-01-01

    Collagen is the most abundant protein in animals. This fibrous, structural protein comprises a right-handed bundle of three parallel, left-handed polyproline II-type helices. Much progress has been made in elucidating the structure of collagen triple helices and the physicochemical basis for their stability. New evidence demonstrates that stereoelectronic effects and preorganization play a key role in that stability. The fibrillar structure of type I collagen–the prototypical collagen fibril–has been revealed in detail. Artificial collagen fibrils that display some properties of natural collagen fibrils are now accessible using chemical synthesis and self-assembly. A rapidly emerging understanding of the mechanical and structural properties of native collagen fibrils will guide further development of artificial collagenous materials for biomedicine and nanotechnology. PMID:19344236

  13. Supramolecular assembly of collagen fibrils into collagen fiber in fish scales of red seabream, Pagrus major.

    PubMed

    Youn, Hwa Shik; Shin, Tae Joo

    2009-11-01

    Supramolecular assembly of collagen fibrils into collagen fiber and its distribution in fish scales of red seabream, Pagrus major, were investigated. By virtue of Zernike phase-contrast hard X-ray microscopy, it has been firstly observed that collagen fiber consists of helical substructures of collagen fibrils wrapped with incrustation. As it close to the scalar focus (that is, with aging), loosened- and deteriorated-helical assemblies started to be observed with loosing wrapping incrustation, indicative of the distortion of the basic helical assembly. Various distributions and packing arrangements of collagen fibers were observed dependent on subdivisions of fish scale. Freshly growing edge region of fish scale, embedded into fish skin, showed rarely patched and one directionally arranged collagen fibers, in which specifically triple helical assemblies of collagen fibrils were found. On the contrary, relatively aged region of the rostral field close to the scalar focus displayed randomly directed and densely packed collagen fibers, in which loosened- and deteriorated-helical assemblies of collagen fibrils were mostly found. Our results have demonstrated that hard X-ray microscope can be a powerful tool to study in situ internal structure of biological specimens in an atmospheric pressure. PMID:19666125

  14. International Union of Pharmacology. LXXXIX. Update on the Extended Family of Chemokine Receptors and Introducing a New Nomenclature for Atypical Chemokine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bachelerie, Francoise; Ben-Baruch, Adit; Burkhardt, Amanda M.; Combadiere, Christophe; Farber, Joshua M.; Graham, Gerard J.; Horuk, Richard; Sparre-Ulrich, Alexander Hovard; Locati, Massimo; Luster, Andrew D.; Mantovani, Alberto; Matsushima, Kouji; Nibbs, Robert; Nomiyama, Hisayuki; Power, Christine A.; Proudfoot, Amanda E. I.; Rosenkilde, Mette M.; Rot, Antal; Sozzani, Silvano; Thelen, Marcus; Yoshie, Osamu; Zlotnik, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen years ago, the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology approved a system for naming human seven-transmembrane (7TM) G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, the large family of leukocyte chemoattractant receptors that regulates immune system development and function, in large part by mediating leukocyte trafficking. This was announced in Pharmacological Reviews in a major overview of the first decade of research in this field [Murphy PM, Baggiolini M, Charo IF, Hébert CA, Horuk R, Matsushima K, Miller LH, Oppenheim JJ, and Power CA (2000) Pharmacol Rev 52:145–176]. Since then, several new receptors have been discovered, and major advances have been made for the others in many areas, including structural biology, signal transduction mechanisms, biology, and pharmacology. New and diverse roles have been identified in infection, immunity, inflammation, development, cancer, and other areas. The first two drugs acting at chemokine receptors have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), maraviroc targeting CCR5 in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS, and plerixafor targeting CXCR4 for stem cell mobilization for transplantation in cancer, and other candidates are now undergoing pivotal clinical trials for diverse disease indications. In addition, a subfamily of atypical chemokine receptors has emerged that may signal through arrestins instead of G proteins to act as chemokine scavengers, and many microbial and invertebrate G protein-coupled chemokine receptors and soluble chemokine-binding proteins have been described. Here, we review this extended family of chemokine receptors and chemokine-binding proteins at the basic, translational, and clinical levels, including an update on drug development. We also introduce a new nomenclature for atypical chemokine receptors with the stem ACKR (atypical chemokine receptor) approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology and the Human

  15. The Chemokine Receptor CCR1 Is Constitutively Active, Which Leads to G Protein-independent, β-Arrestin-mediated Internalization*

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, C. Taylor; Salanga, Catherina L.; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Trejo, JoAnn; Handel, Tracy M.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of G protein-coupled receptors by their associated ligands has been extensively studied, and increasing structural information about the molecular mechanisms underlying ligand-dependent receptor activation is beginning to emerge with the recent expansion in GPCR crystal structures. However, some GPCRs are also able to adopt active conformations in the absence of agonist binding that result in the initiation of signal transduction and receptor down-modulation. In this report, we show that the CC-type chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) exhibits significant constitutive activity leading to a variety of cellular responses. CCR1 expression is sufficient to induce inhibition of cAMP formation, increased F-actin content, and basal migration of human and murine leukocytes. The constitutive activity leads to basal phosphorylation of the receptor, recruitment of β-arrestin-2, and subsequent receptor internalization. CCR1 concurrently engages Gαi and β-arrestin-2 in a multiprotein complex, which may be accommodated by homo-oligomerization or receptor clustering. The data suggest the presence of two functional states for CCR1; whereas receptor coupled to Gαi functions as a canonical GPCR, albeit with high constitutive activity, the CCR1·β-arrestin-2 complex is required for G protein-independent constitutive receptor internalization. The pertussis toxin-insensitive uptake of chemokine by the receptor suggests that the CCR1·β-arrestin-2 complex may be related to a potential scavenging function of the receptor, which may be important for maintenance of chemokine gradients and receptor responsiveness in complex fields of chemokines during inflammation. PMID:24056371

  16. SGIP1 alters internalization and modulates signaling of activated cannabinoid receptor 1 in a biased manner.

    PubMed

    Hájková, Alena; Techlovská, Šárka; Dvořáková, Michaela; Chambers, Jayne Nicole; Kumpošt, Jiří; Hubálková, Pavla; Prezeau, Laurent; Blahos, Jaroslav

    2016-08-01

    Many diseases of the nervous system are accompanied by alterations in synaptic functions. Synaptic plasticity mediated by the endogenous cannabinoid system involves the activation of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R). The principles of CB1R signaling must be understood in detail for its therapeutic exploration. We detected the Src homology 3-domain growth factor receptor-bound 2-like (endophilin) interacting protein 1 (SGIP1) as a novel CB1R partner. SGIP1 is functionally linked to clathrin-mediated endocytosis and its overexpression in animals leads to an energy regulation imbalance resulting in obesity. We report that SGIP1 prevents the endocytosis of activated CB1R and that it alters signaling via the CB1R in a biased manner. CB1R mediated G-protein activation is selectively influenced by SGIP1, β-arrestin associated signaling is changed profoundly, most likely as a consequence of the prevention of the receptor's internalization elicited by SGIP1. PMID:26970018

  17. Morphine-induced internalization of the L83I mutant of the rat μ-opioid receptor

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, A E; Oldfield, S; Krasel, C; Mundell, S J; Henderson, G; Kelly, E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Naturally occurring single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within GPCRs can result in alterations in various pharmacological parameters. Understanding the regulation and function of endocytic trafficking of the μ-opioid receptor (MOP receptor) is of great importance given its implication in the development of opioid tolerance. This study has compared the agonist-dependent trafficking and signalling of L83I, the rat orthologue of a naturally occurring variant of the MOP receptor. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Cell surface elisa, confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation assays were used to characterize the trafficking properties of the MOP-L83I variant in comparison with the wild-type receptor in HEK 293 cells. Functional assays were used to compare the ability of the L83I variant to signal to several downstream pathways. KEY RESULTS Morphine-induced internalization of the L83I MOP receptor was markedly increased in comparison with the wild-type receptor. The altered trafficking of this variant was found to be specific to morphine and was both G-protein receptor kinase- and dynamin-dependent. The enhanced internalization of L83I variant in response to morphine was not due to increased phosphorylation of serine 375, arrestin association or an increased ability to signal. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that morphine promotes a specific conformation of the L83I variant that makes it more liable to internalize in response to morphine, unlike the wild-type receptor that undergoes significantly less morphine-stimulated internalization, providing an example of a ligand-selective biased receptor. The presence of this SNP within an individual may consequently affect the development of tolerance and analgesic responses. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24697554

  18. Internal receptors in insect appendages project directly into a special brain neuropile

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The great majority of afferent neurons of insect legs project into their segmental ganglion. Intersegmental projections are rare and are only formed by sense organs associated with the basal joints of the legs. Such intersegmental projections never ascend as far as the brain and they form extensive ramifications within thoracic ganglia. A few afferents of chordotonal organs of the subcoxal joints ascend as far as the suboesophageal ganglion. Results We describe novel afferent neurons in distal segments of locust legs that project directly into the brain without forming ramifications in other ganglia. In the brain, the fibres terminate with characteristic terminals in a small neuropile previously named the superficial ventral inferior protocerebrum. The somata of these neurons are located in the tibiae and tarsi of all legs and they are located within branches of peripheral nerves, or closely associated with such branches. They are not associated with any accessory structures such as tendons or connective tissue strands as typical for insect internal mechanoreceptors such as chordotonal organs or stretch receptors. Morphologically they show great similarity to certain insect infrared receptors. We could not observe projections into the superficial ventral inferior protocerebrum after staining mandibular or labial nerves, but we confirm previous studies that showed projections into the same brain neuropile after staining maxillary and antennal nerves, indicating that most likely similar neurons are present in these appendages also. Conclusion Because of their location deep within the lumen of appendages the function of these neurons as infrared receptors is unlikely. Their projection pattern and other morphological features indicate that the neurons convey information about an internal physiological parameter directly into a special brain neuropile. We discuss their possible function as thermoreceptors. PMID:24015902

  19. Structural/functional relationships between internal and external MSH receptors: modulation of expression in Cloudman melanoma cells by UVB radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, A.K.; Orlow, S.J.; Bolognia, J.L.; Pawelek, J.M. )

    1991-04-01

    Expression of internal receptors for MSH is an important criterion for responsiveness to MSH by Cloudman melanoma cells. Here, we show that internal and external receptors for MSH are of identical molecular weights (50-53 kDa) and share common antigenic determinants, indicating a structural relationship between the 2 populations of molecules. The internal receptors co-purified with a sub-cellular fraction highly enriched for small vesicles, many of which were coated. Ultraviolet B light (UVB) acted synergistically with MSH to increase tyrosinase activity and melanin content of cultured Cloudman melanoma cells, consistent with previous findings in the skin of mice and guinea pigs. Preceding the rise in tyrosinase activity in cultured cells, UVB elicited a decrease in internal MSH binding sites and a concomitant increase in external sites. The time frame for the UVB effects on MSH receptors and melanogenesis, 48 hours, was similar to that for a response to solar radiation in humans. Together, the results indicate a key role for MSH receptors in the induction of melanogenesis by UVB and suggest a potential mechanism of action for UVB: redistribution of MSH receptors with a resultant increase in cellular responsiveness to MSH.

  20. Methylation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Promoter in Preschoolers: Links With Internalizing Behavior Problems.

    PubMed

    Parade, Stephanie H; Ridout, Kathryn K; Seifer, Ronald; Armstrong, David A; Marsit, Carmen J; McWilliams, Melissa A; Tyrka, Audrey R

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that early adversity is linked to methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene, NR3C1, which is a key regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Yet no prior work has considered the contribution of methylation of NR3C1 to emerging behavior problems and psychopathology in childhood. This study examined the links between methylation of NR3C1 and behavior problems in preschoolers. Data were drawn from a sample of preschoolers with early adversity (n = 171). Children ranged in age from 3 to 5 years, were racially and ethnically diverse, and nearly all qualified for public assistance. Seventy-one children had child welfare documentation of moderate to severe maltreatment in the past 6 months. Structured record review and interviews in the home were used to assess early adversity. Parents reported on child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Methylation of NR3C1 at exons 1D , 1F , and 1H were measured via sodium bisulfite pyrosequencing from saliva DNA. Methylation of NR3C1 at exons 1D and 1F was positively associated with internalizing (r = .21, p < .01 and r = .23, p < .01, respectively), but not externalizing, behavior problems. Furthermore, NR3C1 methylation mediated effects of early adversity on internalizing behavior problems. These results suggest that methylation of NR3C1 contributes to psychopathology in young children, and NR3C1 methylation from saliva DNA is salient to behavioral outcomes. PMID:26822445

  1. Interleukin-1-induced gene expression requires the membrane-raft-dependent internalization of the interleukin-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Windheim, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) binding to its receptor triggers signaling events at the plasma membrane that are essential but not sufficient for the induction of the IL-1-dependent gene expression. In addition, the ligand-induced endocytosis of the IL-1 receptor and signaling events that are initiated after the internalization of the IL-1 receptor presumably involving signaling endosomes are critical for the IL-1-induced gene expression. In this study, we investigate the role of membrane domains, commonly denoted as lipid rafts, in the IL-1-induced signal transduction. We demonstrate that the internalization of the IL-1 receptor depends on the integrity of lipid rafts and that the disruption of lipid rafts strongly reduces the IL-1-induced gene expression. Interestingly, the IL-1-dependent signaling events activated at the plasma membrane are not influenced by the disruption of lipid rafts suggesting that IL-1 signaling is initiated in a non-raft domain of the plasma membrane. Subsequently, the IL-1 receptor is translocated to lipid rafts where receptor endocytosis occurs to enable the internalization-dependent IL-1 signaling to activate the IL-1-induced gene expression. PMID:27327966

  2. Enigmatic insight into collagen.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Shrutal Narendra; Dive, Alka M; Moharil, Rohit; Munde, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    Collagen is a unique, triple helical molecule which forms the major part of extracellular matrix. It is the most abundant protein in the human body, representing 30% of its dry weight. It is the fibrous structural protein that makes up the white fibers (collagen fibers) of skin, tendons, bones, cartilage and all other connective tissues. Collagens are not only essential for the mechanical resistance and resilience of multicellular organisms, but are also signaling molecules defining cellular shape and behavior. The human body has at least 16 types of collagen, but the most prominent types are I, II and III. Collagens are produced by several cell types and are distinguishable by their molecular compositions, morphologic characteristics, distribution, functions and pathogenesis. This is the major fibrous glycoprotein present in the extracellular matrix and in connective tissue and helps in maintaining the structural integrity of these tissues. It has a triple helical structure. Various studies have proved that mutations that modify folding of the triple helix result in identifiable genetic disorders. Collagen diseases share certain similarities with autoimmune diseases, because autoantibodies specific to each collagen disease are produced. Therefore, this review highlights the role of collagen in normal health and also the disorders associated with structural and functional defects in collagen. PMID:27601823

  3. Collagen and gelatin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dasong; Nikoo, Mehdi; Boran, Gökhan; Zhou, Peng; Regenstein, Joe M

    2015-01-01

    Collagen and gelatin have been widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries due to their excellent biocompatibility, easy biodegradability, and weak antigenicity. Fish collagen and gelatin are of renewed interest, owing to the safety and religious concerns of their mammalian counterparts. The structure of collagen has been studied using various modern technologies, and interpretation of the raw data should be done with caution. The structure of collagen may vary with sources and seasons, which may affect its applications and optimal extraction conditions. Numerous studies have investigated the bioactivities and biological effects of collagen, gelatin, and their hydrolysis peptides, using both in vitro and in vivo assay models. In addition to their established nutritional value as a protein source, collagen and collagen-derived products may exert various potential biological activities on cells in the extracellular matrix through the corresponding food-derived peptides after ingestion, and this might justify their applications in dietary supplements and pharmaceutical preparations. Moreover, an increasing number of novel applications have been found for collagen and gelatin. Therefore, this review covers the current understanding of the structure, bioactivities, and biological effects of collagen, gelatin, and gelatin hydrolysates as well as their most recent applications. PMID:25884286

  4. Enigmatic insight into collagen

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Shrutal Narendra; Dive, Alka M; Moharil, Rohit; Munde, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    Collagen is a unique, triple helical molecule which forms the major part of extracellular matrix. It is the most abundant protein in the human body, representing 30% of its dry weight. It is the fibrous structural protein that makes up the white fibers (collagen fibers) of skin, tendons, bones, cartilage and all other connective tissues. Collagens are not only essential for the mechanical resistance and resilience of multicellular organisms, but are also signaling molecules defining cellular shape and behavior. The human body has at least 16 types of collagen, but the most prominent types are I, II and III. Collagens are produced by several cell types and are distinguishable by their molecular compositions, morphologic characteristics, distribution, functions and pathogenesis. This is the major fibrous glycoprotein present in the extracellular matrix and in connective tissue and helps in maintaining the structural integrity of these tissues. It has a triple helical structure. Various studies have proved that mutations that modify folding of the triple helix result in identifiable genetic disorders. Collagen diseases share certain similarities with autoimmune diseases, because autoantibodies specific to each collagen disease are produced. Therefore, this review highlights the role of collagen in normal health and also the disorders associated with structural and functional defects in collagen. PMID:27601823

  5. Receptor Crosslinking: A General Method to Trigger Internalization and Lysosomal Targeting of Therapeutic Receptor:Ligand Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Paul R; Sayers, Edward J; Magnusson, Johannes P; Alexander, Cameron; Borri, Paola; Watson, Peter; Jones, Arwyn T

    2015-01-01

    A major unmet clinical need is a universal method for subcellular targeting of bioactive molecules to lysosomes. Delivery to this organelle enables either degradation of oncogenic receptors that are overexpressed in cancers, or release of prodrugs from antibody–drug conjugates. Here, we describe a general method that uses receptor crosslinking to trigger endocytosis and subsequently redirect trafficking of receptor:cargo complexes from their expected route, to lysosomes. By incubation of plasma membrane receptors with biotinylated cargo and subsequent addition of streptavidin to crosslink receptor:cargo–biotin complexes, we achieved rapid and selective lysosomal targeting of transferrin, an anti-MHC class I antibody, and the clinically approved anti-Her2 antibody trastuzumab. These three protein ligands each target a receptor with a distinct cellular function and intracellular trafficking profile. Importantly, we confirmed that crosslinking of trastuzumab increased lysosomal degradation of its cognate oncogenic receptor Her2 in breast cancer cell lines SKBR3 and BT474. These data suggest that crosslinking could be exploited for a wide range of target receptors, for navigating therapeutics through the endolysosomal pathway, for significant therapeutic benefit. PMID:26412588

  6. Lupus risk variants in the PXK locus alter B-cell receptor internalization.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Samuel E; Foley, Corinne; Lu, Xiaoming; Patel, Zubin H; Zoller, Erin E; Magnusen, Albert F; Williams, Adrienne H; Ziegler, Julie T; Comeau, Mary E; Marion, Miranda C; Glenn, Stuart B; Adler, Adam; Shen, Nan; Nath, Swapan; Stevens, Anne M; Freedman, Barry I; Tsao, Betty P; Jacob, Chaim O; Kamen, Diane L; Brown, Elizabeth E; Gilkeson, Gary S; Alarcón, Graciela S; Reveille, John D; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; James, Judith A; Moser, Kathy L; Criswell, Lindsey A; Vilá, Luis M; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Petri, Michelle; Scofield, R Hal; Kimberly, Robert P; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Binjoo, Young; Choi, Jeongim; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Boackle, Susan A; Vyse, Timothy J; Guthridge, Joel M; Namjou, Bahram; Gaffney, Patrick M; Langefeld, Carl D; Kaufman, Kenneth M; Kelly, Jennifer A; Harley, Isaac T W; Harley, John B; Kottyan, Leah C

    2014-01-01

    Genome wide association studies have identified variants in PXK that confer risk for humoral autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus), rheumatoid arthritis and more recently systemic sclerosis. While PXK is involved in trafficking of epidermal growth factor Receptor (EGFR) in COS-7 cells, mechanisms linking PXK to lupus pathophysiology have remained undefined. In an effort to uncover the mechanism at this locus that increases lupus-risk, we undertook a fine-mapping analysis in a large multi-ancestral study of lupus patients and controls. We define a large (257kb) common haplotype marking a single causal variant that confers lupus risk detected only in European ancestral populations and spans the promoter through the 3' UTR of PXK. The strongest association was found at rs6445972 with P < 4.62 × 10(-10), OR 0.81 (0.75-0.86). Using stepwise logistic regression analysis, we demonstrate that one signal drives the genetic association in the region. Bayesian analysis confirms our results, identifying a 95% credible set consisting of 172 variants spanning 202 kb. Functionally, we found that PXK operates on the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR); we confirmed that PXK influenced the rate of BCR internalization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that individuals carrying the risk haplotype exhibited a decreased rate of BCR internalization, a process known to impact B cell survival and cell fate. Taken together, these data define a new candidate mechanism for the genetic association of variants around PXK with lupus risk and highlight the regulation of intracellular trafficking as a genetically regulated pathway mediating human autoimmunity. PMID:25620976

  7. In vivo (/sup 3/H)spiperone binding: evidence for accumulation in corpus striatum by agonist-mediated receptor internalization

    SciTech Connect

    Chugani, D.C.; Ackermann, R.F.; Phelps, M.E.

    1988-06-01

    The processes of receptor internalization and recycling have been well-documented for receptors for hormones, growth factors, lysosomal enzymes, and cellular substrates. Evidence also exists that these processes also occur for beta-adrenergic, muscarinic cholinergic, and delta-opiate receptors in frog erythrocytes or cultured nervous tissue. In this study, evidence is presented that agonist-mediated receptor internalization and recycling occurs at the dopamine receptor in rat corpus striatum. First, the in vivo binding of the dopamine antagonist (3H)spiperone was increased by both electrical stimulation and pharmacologically induced increases of dopamine release. Conversely, depletion of dopamine with reserpine decreased in vivo (3H)spiperone binding, but the same reserpine treatment did not alter its in vitro binding. Second, the rate of dissociation of (3H)spiperone from microsomal membranes prepared from rat striatum following in vivo binding was fivefold slower than its dissociation following in vitro equilibrium binding. Mild detergent treatment, employed to disrupt endocytic vesicle membranes, increased the rate of dissociation of in vivo bound (3H)spiperone from microsomal membranes to values not significantly different from its in vitro bound dissociation rate. Third, treatment of rats with chloroquine, a drug that prevents receptor recycling but not internalization, prior to (3H)spiperone injection resulted in a selective increase of in vivo (3H)spiperone binding in the light microsome membranes. The existence of mechanisms that rapidly alter the number of neurotransmitter receptors at synapses provides dynamic regulation of receptors in response to varied acute stimulation states.

  8. Oxidative damage to collagen.

    PubMed

    Monboisse, J C; Borel, J P

    1992-01-01

    Extracellular matrix molecules, such as collagens, are good targets for oxygen free radicals. Collagen is the only protein susceptible to fragmentation by superoxide anion as demonstrated by the liberation of small 4-hydroxyproline-containing-peptides. It seems likely that hydroxyl radicals in the presence of oxygen cleave collagen into small peptides, and the cleavage seems to be specific to proline or 4-hydroxyproline residues. Hydroxyl radicals in the absence of oxygen or hypochlorous acid do not induce fragmentation of collagen molecules, but they trigger a polymerization of collagen through the formation of new cross-links such as dityrosine or disulfure bridges. Moreover, these cross-links can not explain the totality of high molecular weight components generated under these experimental conditions, and the nature of new cross-links induced by hydroxyl radicals or hypochlorous acid remains unclear. PMID:1333311

  9. Collagen: Biochemistry, biomechanics, biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Nimni, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date reference for new ideas, information, and concepts in collagen research. The first volume emphasizes the relationship between the molecular structure and function of collagen, including descriptions of collagen types which exist in tissues as well as how these molecules organize into fibrils and the nature of the chemical crosslinks which stabilize them. In Volume II the biomechanical behavior of various specialized tissues, abnormal accumulation of collagen in the form of scars of fibrous infiltration are examined/and wound healing, tissue regulation and repair are covered in detail. Volume III explores the increasing application of collagen technology to the field of bioprosthesis, including the production of heart valve bioprosthesis, blood vessels, ligament substitutes, and bone substitutes.

  10. Intranasally Administered Neuropeptide S (NPS) Exerts Anxiolytic Effects Following Internalization Into NPS Receptor-Expressing Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ionescu, Irina A; Dine, Julien; Yen, Yi-Chun; Buell, Dominik R; Herrmann, Leonie; Holsboer, Florian; Eder, Matthias; Landgraf, Rainer; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Experiments in rodents revealed neuropeptide S (NPS) to constitute a potential novel treatment option for anxiety diseases such as panic and post-traumatic stress disorder. However, both its cerebral target sites and the molecular underpinnings of NPS-mediated effects still remain elusive. By administration of fluorophore-conjugated NPS, we pinpointed NPS target neurons in distinct regions throughout the entire brain. We demonstrated their functional relevance in the hippocampus. In the CA1 region, NPS modulates synaptic transmission and plasticity. NPS is taken up into NPS receptor-expressing neurons by internalization of the receptor–ligand complex as we confirmed by subsequent cell culture studies. Furthermore, we tracked internalization of intranasally applied NPS at the single-neuron level and additionally demonstrate that it is delivered into the mouse brain without losing its anxiolytic properties. Finally, we show that NPS differentially modulates the expression of proteins of the glutamatergic system involved inter alia in synaptic plasticity. These results not only enlighten the path of NPS in the brain, but also establish a non-invasive method for NPS administration in mice, thus strongly encouraging translation into a novel therapeutic approach for pathological anxiety in humans. PMID:22278093

  11. Agonist-independent internalization of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a is arrestin- and clathrin-dependent and is suppressed by receptor inverse agonists.

    PubMed

    Pula, Giordano; Mundell, Stuart J; Roberts, Peter J; Kelly, Eamonn

    2004-05-01

    Three group I mGluR antagonists CPCCOEt, LY367385 and BAY36-7620, were analyzed for their effect on cell surface expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a and 1b. All three antagonists inhibited glutamate-induced internalization of mGluR1a and mGluR1b. However, when added alone, either LY367385 or BAY36-7620 increased the cell surface expression of mGluR1a but not mGluR1b. Both LY367385 and BAY36-7620 displayed inverse agonist activity as judged by their ability to inhibit basal inositol phosphate accumulation in cells expressing the constitutively active mGluR1a. Interestingly, mGluR1a but not mGluR1b was constitutively internalized in HEK293 cells and both LY367385 and BAY36-7620 inhibited the constitutive internalization of this splice variant. Furthermore, coexpression of dominant negative mutant constructs of arrestin-2 [arrestin-2-(319-418)] or Eps15 [Eps15(E Delta 95-295)] increased cell surface expression of mGluR1a and blocked constitutive receptor internalization. In the presence of these dominant negative mutants, incubation of cells with LY367385 and BAY36-7620 produced no further increase in cell surface expression of mGluR1a. Taken together, these results suggest that the constitutive activity of mGluR1a triggers the internalization of the receptor through an arrestin- and clathrin-dependent pathway, and that inverse agonists increase the cell surface expression of mGluR1a by promoting an inactive form of mGluR1a, which does not undergo constitutive internalization. PMID:15140199

  12. Formation and dissociation of M1 muscarinic receptor dimers seen by total internal reflection fluorescence imaging of single molecules.

    PubMed

    Hern, Jonathan A; Baig, Asma H; Mashanov, Gregory I; Birdsall, Berry; Corrie, John E T; Lazareno, Sebastian; Molloy, Justin E; Birdsall, Nigel J M

    2010-02-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of transmembrane signaling proteins in the human genome. Events in the GPCR signaling cascade have been well characterized, but the receptor composition and its membrane distribution are still generally unknown. Although there is evidence that some members of the GPCR superfamily exist as constitutive dimers or higher oligomers, interpretation of the results has been disputed, and recent studies indicate that monomeric GPCRs may also be functional. Because there is controversy within the field, to address the issue we have used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) in living cells to visualize thousands of individual molecules of a model GPCR, the M(1) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. By tracking the position of individual receptors over time, their mobility, clustering, and dimerization kinetics could be directly determined with a resolution of approximately 30 ms and approximately 20 nm. In isolated CHO cells, receptors are randomly distributed over the plasma membrane. At any given time, approximately 30% of the receptor molecules exist as dimers, and we found no evidence for higher oligomers. Two-color TIRFM established the dynamic nature of dimer formation with M(1) receptors undergoing interconversion between monomers and dimers on the timescale of seconds. PMID:20133736

  13. Formation and dissociation of M1 muscarinic receptor dimers seen by total internal reflection fluorescence imaging of single molecules

    PubMed Central

    Hern, Jonathan A.; Baig, Asma H.; Mashanov, Gregory I.; Birdsall, Berry; Corrie, John E. T.; Lazareno, Sebastian; Molloy, Justin E.; Birdsall, Nigel J. M.

    2010-01-01

    G-protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of transmembrane signaling proteins in the human genome. Events in the GPCR signaling cascade have been well characterized, but the receptor composition and its membrane distribution are still generally unknown. Although there is evidence that some members of the GPCR superfamily exist as constitutive dimers or higher oligomers, interpretation of the results has been disputed, and recent studies indicate that monomeric GPCRs may also be functional. Because there is controversy within the field, to address the issue we have used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) in living cells to visualize thousands of individual molecules of a model GPCR, the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. By tracking the position of individual receptors over time, their mobility, clustering, and dimerization kinetics could be directly determined with a resolution of ~30 ms and ~20 nm. In isolated CHO cells, receptors are randomly distributed over the plasma membrane. At any given time, ~30% of the receptor molecules exist as dimers, and we found no evidence for higher oligomers. Two-color TIRFM established the dynamic nature of dimer formation with M1 receptors undergoing interconversion between monomers and dimers on the timescale of seconds. PMID:20133736

  14. Platelet activation via the collagen receptor GPVI is not altered in platelets from chronic myeloid leukaemia patients despite the presence of the constitutively phosphorylated adapter protein CrkL.

    PubMed

    Best, D; Pasquet, S; Littlewood, T J; Brunskill, S J; Pallister, C J; Watson, S P

    2001-03-01

    In this study, we show that the adapter proteins CrkL and Cbl undergo increases in tyrosine phosphorylation and form an intracellular complex in platelets stimulated with the snake venom toxin convulxin, a selective agonist at the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI). Constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation of CrkL has previously been reported in platelets from chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients. This was confirmed in the present study, and shown to result in a weak constitutive association of CrkL with Cbl and a number of other unidentified tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. There was no further increase in phosphorylation of CrkL in CML platelets in response to GPVI activation, whereas phosphorylation of Cbl and its association with CrkL were potentiated. In addition, this was accompanied by a small increase in p42/ 44 mapkinase (MAPK) activity in CML platelets. The functional consequence of the presence of constitutively phosphorylated proteins in CML platelets was investigated by measurement of aminophospholipid exposure and alpha-granule secretion. This revealed little alteration in the concentration-response curves for either in CML platelets stimulated via GPVI, although maximal levels of P-selectin were depressed. Despite the minimal effect on platelet activation in CML patients, we cannot exclude a role for CrkL or Cbl in signal transduction pathways stimulated via GPVI. PMID:11260061

  15. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCIV. Adhesion G Protein–Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Aust, Gabriela; Araç, Demet; Engel, Felix B.; Formstone, Caroline; Fredriksson, Robert; Hall, Randy A.; Harty, Breanne L.; Kirchhoff, Christiane; Knapp, Barbara; Krishnan, Arunkumar; Liebscher, Ines; Lin, Hsi-Hsien; Martinelli, David C.; Monk, Kelly R.; Peeters, Miriam C.; Piao, Xianhua; Prömel, Simone; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schwartz, Thue W.; Singer, Kathleen; Stacey, Martin; Ushkaryov, Yuri A.; Vallon, Mario; Wolfrum, Uwe; Wright, Mathew W.; Xu, Lei; Langenhan, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The Adhesion family forms a large branch of the pharmacologically important superfamily of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs). As Adhesion GPCRs increasingly receive attention from a wide spectrum of biomedical fields, the Adhesion GPCR Consortium, together with the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification, proposes a unified nomenclature for Adhesion GPCRs. The new names have ADGR as common dominator followed by a letter and a number to denote each subfamily and subtype, respectively. The new names, with old and alternative names within parentheses, are: ADGRA1 (GPR123), ADGRA2 (GPR124), ADGRA3 (GPR125), ADGRB1 (BAI1), ADGRB2 (BAI2), ADGRB3 (BAI3), ADGRC1 (CELSR1), ADGRC2 (CELSR2), ADGRC3 (CELSR3), ADGRD1 (GPR133), ADGRD2 (GPR144), ADGRE1 (EMR1, F4/80), ADGRE2 (EMR2), ADGRE3 (EMR3), ADGRE4 (EMR4), ADGRE5 (CD97), ADGRF1 (GPR110), ADGRF2 (GPR111), ADGRF3 (GPR113), ADGRF4 (GPR115), ADGRF5 (GPR116, Ig-Hepta), ADGRG1 (GPR56), ADGRG2 (GPR64, HE6), ADGRG3 (GPR97), ADGRG4 (GPR112), ADGRG5 (GPR114), ADGRG6 (GPR126), ADGRG7 (GPR128), ADGRL1 (latrophilin-1, CIRL-1, CL1), ADGRL2 (latrophilin-2, CIRL-2, CL2), ADGRL3 (latrophilin-3, CIRL-3, CL3), ADGRL4 (ELTD1, ETL), and ADGRV1 (VLGR1, GPR98). This review covers all major biologic aspects of Adhesion GPCRs, including evolutionary origins, interaction partners, signaling, expression, physiologic functions, and therapeutic potential. PMID:25713288

  16. Prolactin receptor-mediated internalization of imaging agents detects epithelial ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaram, Karthik M.

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has the highest mortality rate of all gynecologic malignant tumors. Diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) presents two main challenges. The first challenge is detecting low volume (< 1 g) and early stage (≤ stage II) masses to prevent rapid progression to late stages and ultimately death. The second challenge is differentiating malignant from benign tissue to avoid costly and invasive surgeries (19.5 surgeries are required to find 1 cancer even with multiple screenings). First-line diagnostic tests such as ultrasound and serum marker tests (e.g. CA-125) aid in diagnosis but they lack the sensitivity and specificity required to overcome both challenges. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a second-line diagnostic aided by gadolinium based contrast agents (CAs), offers higher resolution pictures for classifying indeterminate ovarian masses. But as currently practiced, MRI still lacks the sensitivity and specificity required to alter patient outcomes. In this work we develop a new paradigm for EOC diagnosis that targets the prolactin receptor (PRLR) - a cell surface tyrosine kinase receptor that is over-expressed in moderate to high levels on > 98% of epithelial ovarian cancers. Upon binding of native ligands to PRLR, the ligand:PRLR complex is internalized by cells. By conjugating gadolinium-chelates, molecules normally used as contrast agents diagnostically, to human placental lactogen (hPL), a native ligand of PRLR, we show that MRI becomes highly sensitive and specific for detecting PRLR (+) tumors in a nude mouse model of EOC. We further establish the adaptability of this approach for fluorescence-based imaging techniques using an hPL conjugated Cy5.5 dye. We conclude that molecular imaging of PRLR with hPL-conjugated imaging agents can address the current challenges that limit EOC diagnosis.

  17. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCIV. Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Jörg; Aust, Gabriela; Araç, Demet; Engel, Felix B; Formstone, Caroline; Fredriksson, Robert; Hall, Randy A; Harty, Breanne L; Kirchhoff, Christiane; Knapp, Barbara; Krishnan, Arunkumar; Liebscher, Ines; Lin, Hsi-Hsien; Martinelli, David C; Monk, Kelly R; Peeters, Miriam C; Piao, Xianhua; Prömel, Simone; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schwartz, Thue W; Singer, Kathleen; Stacey, Martin; Ushkaryov, Yuri A; Vallon, Mario; Wolfrum, Uwe; Wright, Mathew W; Xu, Lei; Langenhan, Tobias; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2015-01-01

    The Adhesion family forms a large branch of the pharmacologically important superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). As Adhesion GPCRs increasingly receive attention from a wide spectrum of biomedical fields, the Adhesion GPCR Consortium, together with the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification, proposes a unified nomenclature for Adhesion GPCRs. The new names have ADGR as common dominator followed by a letter and a number to denote each subfamily and subtype, respectively. The new names, with old and alternative names within parentheses, are: ADGRA1 (GPR123), ADGRA2 (GPR124), ADGRA3 (GPR125), ADGRB1 (BAI1), ADGRB2 (BAI2), ADGRB3 (BAI3), ADGRC1 (CELSR1), ADGRC2 (CELSR2), ADGRC3 (CELSR3), ADGRD1 (GPR133), ADGRD2 (GPR144), ADGRE1 (EMR1, F4/80), ADGRE2 (EMR2), ADGRE3 (EMR3), ADGRE4 (EMR4), ADGRE5 (CD97), ADGRF1 (GPR110), ADGRF2 (GPR111), ADGRF3 (GPR113), ADGRF4 (GPR115), ADGRF5 (GPR116, Ig-Hepta), ADGRG1 (GPR56), ADGRG2 (GPR64, HE6), ADGRG3 (GPR97), ADGRG4 (GPR112), ADGRG5 (GPR114), ADGRG6 (GPR126), ADGRG7 (GPR128), ADGRL1 (latrophilin-1, CIRL-1, CL1), ADGRL2 (latrophilin-2, CIRL-2, CL2), ADGRL3 (latrophilin-3, CIRL-3, CL3), ADGRL4 (ELTD1, ETL), and ADGRV1 (VLGR1, GPR98). This review covers all major biologic aspects of Adhesion GPCRs, including evolutionary origins, interaction partners, signaling, expression, physiologic functions, and therapeutic potential. PMID:25713288

  18. Internalization and desensitization of the oxytocin receptor is inhibited by Dynamin and clathrin mutants in human embryonic kidney 293 cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, M P; Ayad, V J; Mundell, S J; McArdle, C A; Kelly, E; López Bernal, A

    2006-02-01

    Oxytocin (OT) has long been used as an uterotonic during labor management in women, and yet responses to OT infusion remain variable and unpredictable among patients. The investigation of oxytocin receptor (OTR) regulation will benefit labor management, because the clinical practice of continuous iv infusion of OT is not optimal. As with other G protein-coupled receptors, it is likely that the OTR internalizes and/or desensitizes upon continuous agonist exposure. The mechanisms by which this might occur, however, are unclear. Here we explore OTR internalization and desensitization in human embryonic kidney cells by utilizing inhibitors of heterologous second messenger systems and recently available mutant cDNA constructs. We report rapid and extensive internalization and desensitization of the OTR upon agonist exposure. Internalization was unaffected by inhibitors of protein kinase C or Ca(2+) calmodulin-dependant kinase II but was significantly reduced after transfection with dominant-negative mutant cDNAs of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2, beta-Arrestin2, Dynamin, and Eps15 (a component of clathrin-coated pits). Moreover, desensitization of the OTR, measured by a calcium mobilization assay, was also inhibited by the aforementioned cDNA constructs. Thus, our data demonstrate, for the first time, the importance of the classical clathrin-mediated pathway during agonist-induced OTR internalization and desensitization. PMID:16179383

  19. Collagenous Colitis and Spondylarthropathy

    PubMed Central

    Ben Abdelghani, Kaouther; Sahli, Hana; Souabni, Leila; Chekili, Selma; Belhadj, Salwa; Kassab, Selma; Laatar, Ahmed; Zakraoui, Leith

    2012-01-01

    Collagenous colitis is a recent cause of chronic diarrhea. Cooccurrence with spondylarthropathy is rare. We describe two cases: one man and one woman of 33 and 20 years old were suffering from spondylarthropathy. They then developed collagenous colitis, 4 and 14 years after the onset of spondylarthropathy. The diagnosis was based on histological features. A sicca syndrome and vitiligo were observed with the female case. The presence of colitis leads to therapeutic problems. This association suggests a systemic kind of rheumatic disease of collagenous colitis. PMID:22701491

  20. Flumazenil decreases surface expression of α4β2δ GABAA receptors by increasing the rate of receptor internalization.

    PubMed

    Kuver, Aarti; Smith, Sheryl S

    2016-01-01

    Increases in expression of α4βδ GABAA receptors (GABARs), triggered by fluctuations in the neurosteroid THP (3α-OH-5α[β]-pregnan-20-one), are associated with changes in mood and cognition. We tested whether α4βδ trafficking and surface expression would be altered by in vitro exposure to flumazenil, a benzodiazepine ligand which reduces α4βδ expression in vivo. We first determined that flumazenil (100 nM-100 μM, IC50=∼1 μM) acted as a negative modulator, reducing GABA (10 μM)-gated current in the presence of 100 nM THP (to increase receptor efficacy), assessed with whole cell patch clamp recordings of recombinant α4β2δ expressed in HEK-293 cells. Surface expression of recombinant α4β2δ receptors was detected using a 3XFLAG reporter at the C-terminus of α4 (α4F) using confocal immunocytochemical techniques following 48 h exposure of cells to GABA (10 μM)+THP (100 nM). Flumazenil (10 μM) decreased surface expression of α4F by ∼60%, while increasing its intracellular accumulation, after 48 h. Reduced surface expression of α4β2δ after flumazenil treatment was confirmed by decreases in the current responses to 100 nM of the GABA agonist gaboxadol. Flumazenil-induced decreases in surface expression of α4β2δ were prevented by the dynamin blocker, dynasore, and by leupeptin, which blocks lysosomal enzymes, suggesting that flumazenil is acting to increase endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of the receptor. Flumazenil increased the rate of receptor removal from the cell surface by 2-fold, assessed using botulinum toxin B to block insertion of new receptors. These findings may suggest new therapeutic strategies for regulation of α4β2δ expression using flumazenil. PMID:26592470

  1. Tuning 3D Collagen Matrix Stiffness Independently of Collagen Concentration Modulates Endothelial Cell Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Brooke N.; Starchenko, Alina; Williams, Rebecca M.; Bonassar, Lawrence J.; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have described the effects of matrix stiffening on cell behavior using two dimensional (2D) synthetic surfaces; however less is known about the effects of matrix stiffening on cells embedded in three dimensional (3D) in vivo-like matrices. A primary limitation in investigating the effects of matrix stiffness in 3D is the lack of materials that can be tuned to control stiffness independently of matrix density. Here, we use collagen-based scaffolds where the mechanical properties are tuned using non-enzymatic glycation of the collagen in solution, prior to polymerization. Collagen solutions glycated prior to polymerization result in collagen gels with a 3-fold increase in compressive modulus without significant changes to the collagen architecture. Using these scaffolds, we show that endothelial cell spreading increases with matrix stiffness, as does the number and length of angiogenic sprouts and the overall spheroid outgrowth. Differences in sprout length are maintained even when the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts is inhibited. Our results demonstrate the ability to de-couple matrix stiffness from matrix density and structure in collagen gels, and that increased matrix stiffness results in increased sprouting and outgrowth. PMID:22902816

  2. Internalization and trafficking of guanylyl (guanylate) cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor A is regulated by an acidic tyrosine-based cytoplasmic motif GDAY

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kailash N.; Nguyen, Huong T.; Garg, Renu; Khurana, Madan L.; Fink, Jude

    2004-01-01

    We have identified a GDAY motif in the C-terminal domain of guanylyl cyclase (guanylate cyclase)/NPRA (natriuretic peptide receptor A) sequence, which serves a dual role as an internalization signal and a recycling signal. To delineate the role of the GDAY motif in receptor internalization and sequestration, we mutated Gly920, Asp921 and Tyr923 to alanine residues (GDAY/AAAA) in the NPRA cDNA sequence. The cDNAs encoding wild-type and mutant receptors were transfected in HEK-293 cells (human embryonic kidney 293 cells). The internalization studies of ligand–receptor complexes revealed that endocytosis of 125I-ANP by HEK-293 cells expressing G920A, Y923A or GDAY/AAAA mutant receptor was decreased by almost 50% (P<0.001) when compared with cells expressing the wild-type receptor. However, the effect of D921A mutation on receptor internalization was minimal. Ligand-mediated down-regulation of G920A, Y923A and GDAY/AAAA mutant receptors was decreased by 35–40% when compared with wild-type NPRA. Subsequently, the recycling of internalized D921A and GDAY/AAAA mutant receptors from the intracellular pool was decreased by more than 40±4% when compared with wild-type NPRA. Recycling of G920A and Y923A mutant receptors was also decreased, but to a significantly lesser extent compared with the D921A or GDAY/AAAA mutant receptors. We conclude that the Gly920 and Tyr923 residues within the GDAY consensus motif are necessary for internalization, and that residue Asp921 is important for recycling of NPRA. The current results provide new evidence for a dual role of the GDAY sequence motif in ligand-mediated internalization, recycling and down-regulation of a single-transmembrane receptor protein NPRA. PMID:15574117

  3. Contractile effects of intracellularly administered angiotensin II are partially dependent on membrane receptors internalization in isolated rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, G; Costuleanu, M; Slătineanu, S M; Foia, L; Costuleanu, N; Costuleanu, A

    2001-01-01

    In the present study we used the isolated rat aorta as a model to characterize the modulation of contractile effects of extra- and intracellularly administered angiotensin II by dithiothreitol (DTT) and hyperosmotic sucrose. DTT inactivation of AT1 receptor as well as disruption of the clathrin-coated pits by hyperosmotic sucrose significantly inhibited the contraction induced by intracellularly administered AII. We suggest that these intracellular effects of angiotensin peptides are associated with AT1 receptor activation/internalization and may thus be part of the mechanism of angiotensin peptides direct contractile effects in the vascular smooth muscle. PMID:12092224

  4. Processing of receptor-bound somatostatin: internalization and degradation by pancreatic acini

    SciTech Connect

    Viguerie, N.; Esteve, J.P.; Susini, C.; Vaysse, N.; Ribet, A.

    1987-04-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated the presence of specific binding sites for somatostatin on plasma membranes from pancreatic acinar cells. In the present study they attempted to characterize the fate of receptor-bound /sup 125/I-(Tyr/sup 11/)somatostatin. Internalization of somatostatin was rapid (reaching a plateau at 20% of the cell-associated specific radioactivity) and temperature dependent. To follow the processing of bound somatostatin, acini were incubated with /sup 125/I-(Tyr/sup 11/)somatostatin at 5/sup 0/C during 16 h then, after washing, incubated at 37/sup 0/C for 90 min in fresh medium. Surface-bound somatostatin decreased rapidly, whereas radioactivity increased in the cell interior and the incubation medium. Intracellular and membrane-bound radioactivity was mainly intact /sup 125/I-(Tyr/sup 11/)somatostatin. Degradation occurred at the plasma membrane level and led to iodotyrosine production. After 15 min of incubation, 15% of the initially surface-bound /sup 125/I-(Tyr/sup 11/)somatostatin was compartmentalized within the cell, mainly in the microsomal fraction. After 30 min, a significant increase in radioactivity appeared in the nuclear fraction. These results indicate that the major part of somatostatin cellular degradation takes place at the plasma membrane level. Within the cell, somatostatin is routed to the nucleus via particular fractions sedimenting with microsomal vesicles.

  5. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor: A Key Bridging Molecule of External and Internal Chemical Signals

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jijing; Feng, Yu; Fu, Hualing; Xie, Heidi Qunhui; Jiang, Joy Xiaosong; Zhao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a highly evolutionary conserved, ligand-activated transcription factor that is best known to mediate the toxicities of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Phenotype of AhR-null mice, together with the recent discovery of a variety of endogenous and plant-derived ligands, point to the integral roles of AhR in normal cell physiology, in addition to its roles in sensing the environmental chemicals. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about AhR signaling pathways, its ligands and AhR-mediated effects on cell specialization, host defense and detoxification. AhR-mediated health effects particularly in liver, immune, and nervous systems, as well as in tumorgenesis are discussed. Dioxin-initiated embryotoxicity and immunosuppressive effects in fish and birds are reviewed. Recent data demonstrate that AhR is a convergence point of multiple signaling pathways that inform the cell of its external and internal environments. As such, AhR pathway is a promising potential target for therapeutics targeting nervous, liver, and autoimmune diseases through AhR ligand-mediated interventions and other perturbations of AhR signaling. Additionally, using available laboratory data obtained on animal models, AhR-centered adverse outcome pathway analysis is useful in reexamining known and potential adverse outcomes of specific or mixed compounds on wildlife. PMID:26079192

  6. Involvement of PRMT1 in hnRNPQ activation and internalization of insulin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasaki, Hiroaki

    2008-07-25

    Insulin signaling in skeletal L6 myotubes is known to be affected by arginine methylation catalyzed by protein N-arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1), however, the mechanism by which this occurs has not yet been defined. This study aimed to determine the exact substrate involved in the methylation and regulating insulin signaling in cells. Insulin enhanced arginine methylation of a 66-kDa protein (p66) concomitant with translocation of PRMT1 to the membrane fraction. Peptide mass fingerprinting identified p66 as a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein, hnRNPQ that was bound to and methylated by PRMT1. Pharmacological inhibition of methylation (MTA) and small interfering RNA against PRMT1 (PRMT1-siRNA) attenuated insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of hnRNPQ and insulin receptor (IR), and the interaction between hnRNPQ and IR. MTA, PRMT1-siRNA, and hnRNPQ-siRNA inhibited internalization of IR in the same manner. These data suggest that the PRMT1-mediated methylation of hnRNPQ is implicated in IR trafficking and insulin signaling in skeletal L6 myotubes.

  7. The human insulin receptor mRNA contains a functional internal ribosome entry segment

    PubMed Central

    Spriggs, Keith A.; Cobbold, Laura C.; Ridley, Simon H.; Coldwell, Mark; Bottley, Andrew; Bushell, Martin; Willis, Anne E.; Siddle, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of mRNA translation is an important mechanism determining the level of expression of proteins in eukaryotic cells. Translation is most commonly initiated by cap-dependent scanning, but many eukaryotic mRNAs contain internal ribosome entry segments (IRESs), providing an alternative means of initiation capable of independent regulation. Here, we show by using dicistronic luciferase reporter vectors that the 5′-UTR of the mRNA encoding human insulin receptor (hIR) contains a functional IRES. RNAi-mediated knockdown showed that the protein PTB was required for maximum IRES activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that PTB1, PTB2 and nPTB, but not unr or PTB4, bound to hIR mRNA, and deletion mapping implicated a CCU motif 448 nt upstream of the initiator AUG in PTB binding. The IR-IRES was functional in a number of cell lines, and most active in cells of neuronal origin, as assessed by luciferase reporter assays. The IRES was more active in confluent than sub-confluent cells, but activity did not change during differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts to adipocytes. IRES activity was stimulated by insulin in sub-confluent cells. The IRES may function to maintain expression of IR protein in tissues such as the brain where mRNA translation by cap-dependent scanning is less effective. PMID:19654240

  8. Nanomechanics of collagen microfibrils

    PubMed Central

    Vesentini, Simone; Redaelli, Alberto; Gautieri, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Summary Collagen constitutes one third of the human proteome, providing mechanical stability, elasticity and strength to organisms and is thus the prime construction material in biology. Collagen is also the dominating material in the extracellular matrix where its stiffness controls cell differentiation, growth and pathology. We use atomistic-based hierarchical multiscale modeling to describe this complex biological material from the bottom up. This includes the use and development of large-scale computational modeling tools to investigate several aspects related to collagen-based tissues, including source of visco-elasticity and deformation mechanisms at the nanoscale level. The key innovation of this research is that until now, collagen materials have primarily been described at macroscopic scales, without explicitly understanding the mechanical contributions at the molecular and fibrillar levels. The major impact of this research will be the development of fundamental models of collagenous tissues, important to the design of new scaffolding biomaterials for regenerative medicine as well as for the understanding of collagen-related diseases. PMID:23885342

  9. Mannose Receptor 2 Attenuates Renal Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    López-Guisa, Jesús M.; Cai, Xiaohe; Collins, Sarah J.; Yamaguchi, Ikuyo; Okamura, Daryl M.; Bugge, Thomas H.; Isacke, Clare M.; Emson, Claire L.; Turner, Scott M.; Shankland, Stuart J.

    2012-01-01

    Mannose receptor 2 (Mrc2) expresses an extracellular fibronectin type II domain that binds to and internalizes collagen, suggesting that it may play a role in modulating renal fibrosis. Here, we found that Mrc2 levels were very low in normal kidneys but subsets of interstitial myofibroblasts and macrophages upregulated Mrc2 after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Renal fibrosis and renal parenchymal damage were significantly worse in Mrc2-deficient mice. Similarly, Mrc2-deficient Col4α3−/− mice with hereditary nephritis had significantly higher levels of total kidney collagen, serum BUN, and urinary protein than Mrc2-sufficient Col4α3−/− mice. The more severe phenotype seemed to be the result of reduced collagen turnover, because procollagen III (α1) mRNA levels and fractional collagen synthesis in the wild-type and Mrc2-deficient kidneys were similar after UUO. Although Mrc2 associates with the urokinase receptor, differences in renal urokinase activity did not account for the increased fibrosis in the Mrc2-deficient mice. Treating wild-type mice with a cathepsin inhibitor, which blocks proteases implicated in Mrc2-mediated collagen degradation, worsened UUO-induced renal fibrosis. Cathepsin mRNA profiles were similar in Mrc2-positive fibroblasts and macrophages, and Mrc2 genotype did not alter relative cathepsin mRNA levels. Taken together, these data establish an important fibrosis-attenuating role for Mrc2-expressing renal interstitial cells and suggest the involvement of a lysosomal collagen turnover pathway. PMID:22095946

  10. Deletion of the distal COOH-terminus of the A2B adenosine receptor switches internalization to an arrestin- and clathrin-independent pathway and inhibits recycling

    PubMed Central

    Mundell, SJ; Matharu, A-L; Nisar, S; Palmer, TM; Benovic, JL; Kelly, E

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: We have investigated the effect of deletions of a postsynaptic density, disc large and zo-1 protein (PDZ) motif at the end of the COOH-terminus of the rat A2B adenosine receptor on intracellular trafficking following long-term exposure to the agonist 5′-(N-ethylcarboxamido)-adenosine. Experimental approach: The trafficking of the wild type A2B adenosine receptor and deletion mutants expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells was studied using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in combination with immunofluorescence microscopy. Key results: The wild type A2B adenosine receptor and deletion mutants were all extensively internalized following prolonged treatment with NECA. The intracellular compartment through which the Gln325-stop receptor mutant, which lacks the Type II PDZ motif found in the wild type receptor initially trafficked was not the same as the wild type receptor. Expression of dominant negative mutants of arrestin-2, dynamin or Eps-15 inhibited internalization of wild type and Leu330-stop receptors, whereas only dominant negative mutant dynamin inhibited agonist-induced internalization of Gln325-stop, Ser326-stop and Phe328-stop receptors. Following internalization, the wild type A2B adenosine receptor recycled rapidly to the cell surface, whereas the Gln325-stop receptor did not recycle. Conclusions and implications: Deletion of the COOH-terminus of the A2B adenosine receptor beyond Leu330 switches internalization from an arrestin- and clathrin-dependent pathway to one that is dynamin dependent but arrestin and clathrin independent. The presence of a Type II PDZ motif appears to be essential for arrestin- and clathrin-dependent internalization, as well as recycling of the A2B adenosine receptor following prolonged agonist addition. PMID:20128803

  11. Type V collagen controls the initiation of collagen fibril assembly.

    PubMed

    Wenstrup, Richard J; Florer, Jane B; Brunskill, Eric W; Bell, Sheila M; Chervoneva, Inna; Birk, David E

    2004-12-17

    Vertebrate collagen fibrils are heterotypically composed of a quantitatively major and minor fibril collagen. In non-cartilaginous tissues, type I collagen accounts for the majority of the collagen mass, and collagen type V, the functions of which are poorly understood, is a minor component. Type V collagen has been implicated in the regulation of fibril diameter, and we reported recently preliminary evidence that type V collagen is required for collagen fibril nucleation (Wenstrup, R. J., Florer, J. B., Cole, W. G., Willing, M. C., and Birk, D. E. (2004) J. Cell. Biochem. 92, 113-124). The purpose of this study was to define the roles of type V collagen in the regulation of collagen fibrillogenesis and matrix assembly. Mouse embryos completely deficient in pro-alpha1(V) chains were created by homologous recombination. The col5a1-/- animals die in early embryogenesis, at approximately embryonic day 10. The type V collagen-deficient mice demonstrate a virtual lack of collagen fibril formation. In contrast, the col5a1+/- animals are viable. The reduced type V collagen content is associated with a 50% reduction in fibril number and dermal collagen content. In addition, relatively normal, cylindrical fibrils are assembled with a second population of large, structurally abnormal collagen fibrils. The structural properties of the abnormal matrix are decreased relative to the wild type control animals. These data indicate a central role for the evolutionary, ancient type V collagen in the regulation of fibrillogenesis. The complete dependence of fibril formation on type V collagen is indicative of the critical role of the latter in early fibril initiation. In addition, this fibril collagen is important in the determination of fibril structure and matrix organization. PMID:15383546

  12. Potency of Fish Collagen as a Scaffold for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kohei; Yanagiguchi, Kajiro

    2014-01-01

    Cells, growth factors, and scaffold are the crucial factors for tissue engineering. Recently, scaffolds consisting of natural polymers, such as collagen and gelatin, bioabsorbable synthetic polymers, such as polylactic acid and polyglycolic acid, and inorganic materials, such as hydroxyapatite, as well as composite materials have been rapidly developed. In particular, collagen is the most promising material for tissue engineering due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. Collagen contains specific cell adhesion domains, including the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif. After the integrin receptor on the cell surface binds to the RGD motif on the collagen molecule, cell adhesion is actively induced. This interaction contributes to the promotion of cell growth and differentiation and the regulation of various cell functions. However, it is difficult to use a pure collagen scaffold as a tissue engineering material due to its low mechanical strength. In order to make up for this disadvantage, collagen scaffolds are often modified using a cross-linker, such as gamma irradiation and carbodiimide. Taking into account the possibility of zoonosis, a variety of recent reports have been documented using fish collagen scaffolds. We herein review the potency of fish collagen scaffolds as well as associated problems to be addressed for use in regenerative medicine. PMID:24982861

  13. c-Src-mediated phosphorylation of AP-2 reveals a general mechanism for receptors internalizing through the clathrin pathway.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Brandon; Simaan, May; Lee, Mi-Hye; Luttrell, Louis M; Laporte, Stéphane A

    2009-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a complex process regulated at many different levels. We showed previously that activation of the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R), which belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, leads to c-Src-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of beta2-adaptin, a subunit of the clathrin adaptor AP-2. The phosphorylation of beta2-adaptin on tyrosine residue 737 (Y737) negatively regulates its interaction with betaarrestin, another important clathrin adaptor for GPCR internalization. Here we sought to determine whether AP-2 phosphorylation represents a general mechanism for different receptors internalizing through the clathrin pathway. Using a specifically designed antibody against the phosphorylated form of Y737 on beta2-adaptin, we demonstrate that this residue is phosphorylated by AT1R in different cell types like HEK293, COS-7 and vascular smooth muscle cells. Using RNA interference approaches, we reveal that this agonist-mediated event is both betaarrestin- and c-Src-dependent, and that it occurs at the plasma membrane in clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). We further show that this is not only a common event employed by other GPCRs like the beta2-adrenergic, vasopressin V2, bradykinin type 2, platelet-activating factor and endothelin A receptors but that the epidermal growth factor receptor is capable of eliciting the phosphorylation of AP-2 in CCVs. Our results imply that tyrosine phosphorylation of Y737 on beta2-adaptin is a common regulatory mechanism employed by different receptors undergoing clathrin-dependent endocytosis, and suggest a wider function for this event than originally anticipated. PMID:18938240

  14. Distinct roles of GPVI and integrin α2β1 in platelet shape change and aggregation induced by different collagens

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Gavin E; Atkinson, Ben T; Snell, Daniel C; Watson, Steve P

    2002-01-01

    Various platelet membrane glycoproteins have been proposed as receptors for collagen, in some cases as receptors for specific collagen types. In this study we have compared the ability of a range of collagen types to activate platelets. Bovine collagen types I–V, native equine tendon collagen fibrils and collagen-related peptide (CRP) all induced platelet aggregation and shape change. Responses were abolished in FcRγ chain-deficient platelets, which also lack GPVI, indicating a critical dependence on the GPVI/FcRγ chain complex. Responses to all collagens were unaffected in CD36-deficient platelets. A monoclonal antibody (6F1) which binds to the α2 integrin subunit of human platelets had a minimal effect on the rate and extent of aggregation induced by the collagens; however, it delayed the onset of aggregation following addition of all collagens. For shape change, 6F1 abolished the response induced by collagen types I and IV, substantially attenuated that to collagen types II, III and V, but only partially inhibited Horm collagen. Simultaneous blockade of the P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors, and inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase demonstrated that CRP can activate platelets independently of ADP and TxA2; however, responses to the collagens were dependent on these mediators. This study confirms the importance of the GPVI/FcRγ chain complex in platelet responses induced by a range of collagen agonists, while providing no evidence for collagen type-specific receptors. It also provides evidence for a modulatory role of α2β1, the significance of which depends on the collagen preparation. PMID:12183336

  15. Ephrinb1 and Ephrinb2 Are Associated with Interleukin-7 Receptor α and Retard Its Internalization from the Cell Surface*

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hongyu; Wu, Zenghui; Qi, Shijie; Jin, Wei; Han, Bing; Wu, Jiangping

    2011-01-01

    IL-7 plays vital roles in thymocyte development, T cell homeostasis, and the survival of these cells. IL-7 receptor α (IL-7Rα) on thymocytes and T cells is rapidly internalized upon IL-7 ligation. Ephrins (Efns) are cell surface molecules and ligands of the largest receptor kinase family, Eph kinases. We discovered that T cell-specific double gene knock-out (dKO) of Efnb1 and Efnb2 in mice led to reduced IL-7Rα expression in thymocytes and T cells, and that IL-7Rα down-regulation was accelerated in dKO CD4 cells upon IL-7 treatment. On the other hand, Efnb1 and Efnb2 overexpression on T cell lymphoma EL4 cells retarded IL-7Rα down-regulation. dKO T cells manifested compromised STAT5 activation and homeostatic proliferation, an IL-7-dependent process. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer and immunoprecipitation demonstrated that Efnb1 and Efnb2 interacted physically with IL-7Rα. Such interaction likely retarded IL-7Rα internalization, as Efnb1 and Efnb2 were not internalized. Therefore, we revealed a novel function of Efnb1 and Efnb2 in stabilizing IL-7Rα expression at the post-translational level, and a previously unknown modus operandi of Efnbs in the regulation of expression of other vital cell surface receptors. PMID:22069310

  16. Collagen type VI myopathies.

    PubMed

    Bushby, Kate M D; Collins, James; Hicks, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in each of the three collagen VI genes COL6A1, COL6A2 and COL6A3 cause two main types of muscle disorders: Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy, a severe phenotype, and a mild to moderate phenotype Bethlem myopathy. Recently, two additional phenotypes, including a limb-girdle muscular dystrophy phenotype and an autosomal recessive myosclerosis reported in one family with mutations in COL6A2 have been reported. Collagen VI is an important component of the extracellular matrix which forms a microfibrillar network that is found in close association with the cell and surrounding basement membrane. Collagen VI is also found in the interstitial space of many tissues including muscle, tendon, skin, cartilage, and intervertebral discs. Thus, collagen VI mutations result in disorders with combined muscle and connective tissue involvement, including weakness, joint laxity and contractures, and abnormal skin findings.In this review we highlight the four recognized clinical phenotypes of collagen VI related - myopathies; Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD), Bethlem myopathy (BM), autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy phenotype and autosomal recessive myosclerosis. We discuss the diagnostic criteria of these disorders, the molecular pathogenesis, genetics, treatment, and related disorders. PMID:24443028

  17. IGF-I induces upregulation of DDR1 collagen receptor in breast cancer cells by suppressing MIR-199a-5p through the PI3K/AKT pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nicolosi, Maria Luisa; Presti, Anna Rita Lo; Malaguarnera, Roberta; Ragusa, Marco; Sciortino, Daniela; Morrione, Andrea; Maggiolini, Marcello; Vella, Veronica; Belfiore, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Discoidin Domain Receptor 1 (DDR1) is a collagen receptor tyrosine-kinase that contributes to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and enhances cancer progression. Our previous data indicate that, in breast cancer cells, DDR1 interacts with IGF-1R and positively modulates IGF-1R expression and biological responses, suggesting that the DDR1-IGF-IR cross-talk may play an important role in cancer. In this study, we set out to evaluate whether IGF-I stimulation may affect DDR1 expression. Indeed, in breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) IGF-I induced significant increase of DDR1 protein expression, in a time and dose dependent manner. However, we did not observe parallel changes in DDR1 mRNA. DDR1 upregulation required the activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway while the ERK1/2, the p70/mTOR and the PKC pathways were not involved. Moreover, we observed that DDR1 protein upregulation was induced by translational mechanisms involving miR-199a-5p suppression through PI3K/AKT activation. This effect was confirmed by both IGF-II produced by cancer-associated fibroblasts from human breast cancer and by stable transfection of breast cancer cells with a human IGF-II expression construct. Transfection with a constitutively active form of AKT was sufficient to decrease miR-199a-5p and upregulate DDR1. Accordingly, IGF-I-induced DDR1 upregulation was inhibited by transfection with pre-miR-199a-5p, which also impaired AKT activation and cell migration and proliferation in response to IGF-I. These results demonstrate that, in breast cancer cells, a novel pathway involving AKT/miR-199a-5p/DDR1 plays a role in modulating IGFs biological responses. Therefore, this signaling pathway may represent an important target for breast cancers with over-activation of the IGF-IR axis. PMID:26655502

  18. LARP6 Meets Collagen mRNA: Specific Regulation of Type I Collagen Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yujie; Stefanovic, Branko

    2016-01-01

    Type I collagen is the most abundant structural protein in all vertebrates, but its constitutive rate of synthesis is low due to long half-life of the protein (60–70 days). However, several hundred fold increased production of type I collagen is often seen in reparative or reactive fibrosis. The mechanism which is responsible for this dramatic upregulation is complex, including multiple levels of regulation. However, posttranscriptional regulation evidently plays a predominant role. Posttranscriptional regulation comprises processing, transport, stabilization and translation of mRNAs and is executed by RNA binding proteins. There are about 800 RNA binding proteins, but only one, La ribonucleoprotein domain family member 6 (LARP6), is specifically involved in type I collagen regulation. In the 5′untranslated region (5’UTR) of mRNAs encoding for type I and type III collagens there is an evolutionally conserved stem-loop (SL) structure; this structure is not found in any other mRNA, including any other collagen mRNA. LARP6 binds to the 5′SL in sequence specific manner to regulate stability of collagen mRNAs and their translatability. Here, we will review current understanding of how is LARP6 involved in posttranscriptional regulation of collagen mRNAs. We will also discuss how other proteins recruited by LARP6, including nonmuscle myosin, vimentin, serine threonine kinase receptor associated protein (STRAP), 25 kD FK506 binding protein (FKBP25) and RNA helicase A (RHA), contribute to this process. PMID:27011170

  19. Collagen in organ development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, P.; Spooner, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    It is important to know whether microgravity will adversely affect developmental processes. Collagens are macromolecular structural components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) which may be altered by perturbations in gravity. Interstitial collagens have been shown to be necessary for normal growth and morphogenesis in some embryonic organs, and in the mouse salivary gland, the biosynthetic pattern of these molecules changes during development. Determination of the effects of microgravity on epithelial organ development must be preceded by crucial ground-based studies. These will define control of normal synthesis, secretion, and deposition of ECM macromolecules and the relationship of these processes to morphogenesis.

  20. Interstitial Collagen Catabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Gregg B.

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial collagen mechanical and biological properties are altered by proteases that catalyze the hydrolysis of the collagen triple-helical structure. Collagenolysis is critical in development and homeostasis but also contributes to numerous pathologies. Mammalian collagenolytic enzymes include matrix metalloproteinases, cathepsin K, and neutrophil elastase, and a variety of invertebrates and pathogens possess collagenolytic enzymes. Components of the mechanism of action for the collagenolytic enzyme MMP-1 have been defined experimentally, and insights into other collagenolytic mechanisms have been provided. Ancillary biomolecules may modulate the action of collagenolytic enzymes. PMID:23430258

  1. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCIII. The Parathyroid Hormone Receptors—Family B G Protein–Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Vilardaga, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The type-1 parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR1) is a family B G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) that mediates the actions of two polypeptide ligands; parathyroid hormone (PTH), an endocrine hormone that regulates the levels of calcium and inorganic phosphate in the blood by acting on bone and kidney, and PTH-related protein (PTHrP), a paracrine-factor that regulates cell differentiation and proliferation programs in developing bone and other tissues. The type-2 parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR2) binds a peptide ligand, called tuberoinfundibular peptide-39 (TIP39), and while the biologic role of the PTHR2/TIP39 system is not as defined as that of the PTHR1, it likely plays a role in the central nervous system as well as in spermatogenesis. Mechanisms of action at these receptors have been explored through a variety of pharmacological and biochemical approaches, and the data obtained support a basic “two-site” mode of ligand binding now thought to be used by each of the family B peptide hormone GPCRs. Recent crystallographic studies on the family B GPCRs are providing new insights that help to further refine the specifics of the overall receptor architecture and modes of ligand docking. One intriguing pharmacological finding for the PTHR1 is that it can form surprisingly stable complexes with certain PTH/PTHrP ligand analogs and thereby mediate markedly prolonged cell signaling responses that persist even when the bulk of the complexes are found in internalized vesicles. The PTHR1 thus appears to be able to activate the Gαs/cAMP pathway not only from the plasma membrane but also from the endosomal domain. The cumulative findings could have an impact on efforts to develop new drug therapies for the PTH receptors. PMID:25713287

  2. Identification of specific sites in the third intracellular loop and carboxyl terminus of the Bombyx mori PBAN receptor crucial for ligand-induced internalization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex pheromone production in most moths is mediated by the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide receptor (PBANR). Similar to other rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors, the silkmoth Bombyx mori PBANR (BmPBANR) undergoes agonist-induced internalization. Despite interest in developing...

  3. Prolyl hydroxylation of collagen type I is required for efficient binding to integrin alpha 1 beta 1 and platelet glycoprotein VI but not to alpha 2 beta 1.

    PubMed

    Perret, Stéephanie; Eble, Johannes A; Siljander, Pia R-M; Merle, Christine; Farndale, Richard W; Theisen, Manfred; Ruggiero, Florence

    2003-08-01

    Collagen is a potent adhesive substrate for cells, an event essentially mediated by the integrins alpha 1 beta 1 and alpha 2 beta 1. Collagen fibrils also bind to the integrin alpha 2 beta 1 and the platelet receptor glycoprotein VI to activate and aggregate platelets. The distinct triple helical recognition motifs for these receptors, GXOGER and (GPO)n, respectively, all contain hydroxyproline. Using unhydroxylated collagen I produced in transgenic plants, we investigated the role of hydroxyproline in the receptor-binding properties of collagen. We show that alpha 2 beta 1 but not alpha 1 beta 1 mediates cell adhesion to unhydroxylated collagen. Soluble recombinant alpha 1 beta 1 binding to unhydroxylated collagen is considerably reduced compared with bovine collagens, but binding can be restored by prolyl hydroxylation of recombinant collagen. We also show that platelets use alpha 2 beta 1 to adhere to the unhydroxylated recombinant molecules, but the adhesion is weaker than on fully hydroxylated collagen, and the unhydroxylated collagen fibrils fail to aggregate platelets. Prolyl hydroxylation is thus required for binding of collagen to platelet glycoprotein VI and to cells by alpha 1 beta 1. These observations give new insights into the molecular basis of collagen-receptor interactions and offer new selective applications for the recombinant unhydroxylated collagen I. PMID:12771137

  4. Collagen and injectable fillers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jacqueline T; Perkins, Stephen W; Hamilton, Mark M

    2002-02-01

    Soft tissue augmentation of facial rhytids, scars, and deformities is a frequently performed office procedure. This article reviews the available biologic (collagen, Dermalogen, Autologen, Isolagen, autologous fat, Fibrel, hyaluronic acid derivatives, particulate fascia lata, micronized Alloderm) and alloplastic (silicone, Bioplastique, and Artecoll) soft tissue injectable fillers. PMID:11781208

  5. Genetic disorders of collagen.

    PubMed Central

    Tsipouras, P; Ramirez, F

    1987-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and Marfan syndrome form a group of genetic disorders of connective tissue. These disorders exhibit remarkable clinical heterogeneity which reflects their underlying biochemical and molecular differences. Defects in collagen types I and III have been found in all three syndromes. PMID:3543367

  6. Collagen hydrolysate based collagen/hydroxyapatite composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficai, Anton; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Birsan, Mihaela; Sonmez, Maria; Ficai, Denisa; Trandafir, Viorica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to study the influence of collagen hydrolysate (HAS) on the formation of ternary collagen-hydrolysate/hydroxyapatite composite materials (COLL-HAS/HA). During the precipitation process of HA, a large amount of brushite is resulted at pH = 7 but, practically pure HA is obtained at pH ⩾ 8. The FTIR data reveal the duplication of the most important collagen absorption bands due to the presence of the collagen hydrolysate. The presence of collagen hydrolysate is beneficial for the management of bone and joint disorders such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis.

  7. Preferred recycling pathway by internalized PGE2 EP4 receptor following agonist stimulation in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons contributes to enhanced EP4 receptor sensitivity.

    PubMed

    St-Jacques, Bruno; Ma, Weiya

    2016-06-21

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a well-known pain mediator abundantly produced in injured tissues, sensitizes nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons (nociceptors) through its four EP receptors (EP1-4). Our prior study showed that PGE2 or EP4 agonist stimulates EP4 externalization and this event was not only suppressed by the inhibitor of anterograde export, but also by the recycling inhibitor (St-Jacques and Ma, 2013). These data suggest that EP4 recycling also contributes to agonist-enhanced EP4 surface abundance. In the current study, we tested this hypothesis using antibody-feeding-based internalization assay, recycling assay and FITC-PGE2 binding assay. We observed that selective EP4 agonist 1-hydroxy-PGE1 (1-OH-PGE1) or CAY10850 time- and concentration-dependently increased EP4 internalization in cultured DRG neuron. Internalized EP4 was predominantly localized in the early endosomes and recycling endosomes, but rarely in the late endosomes and lysosomes. These observations were confirmed by FITC-PGE2 binding assay. We further revealed that 1-OH-PGE1 or CAY10850 time- and concentration-dependently increased EP4 recycling. Double exposures to 1-OH-PGE1 induced a greater increase in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release than a single exposure or vehicle exposure, an event blocked by pre-treatment with the recycling inhibitor monensin. Our data suggest that EP4 recycling contributes to agonist-induced cell surface abundance and consequently enhanced receptor sensitivity. Facilitating EP4 externalization and recycling is a novel mechanism underlying PGE2-induced nociceptor sensitization. PMID:27060485

  8. The streptococcal collagen-binding protein CNE specifically interferes with alphaVbeta3-mediated cellular interactions with triple helical collagen.

    PubMed

    van Wieringen, Tijs; Kalamajski, Sebastian; Lidén, Asa; Bihan, Dominique; Guss, Bengt; Heinegård, Dick; Farndale, Richard W; Rubin, Kristofer

    2010-11-12

    Collagen fibers expose distinct domains allowing for specific interactions with other extracellular matrix proteins and cells. To investigate putative collagen domains that govern integrin α(V)β(3)-mediated cellular interactions with native collagen fibers we took advantage of the streptococcal protein CNE that bound native fibrillar collagens. CNE specifically inhibited α(V)β(3)-dependent cell-mediated collagen gel contraction, PDGF BB-induced and α(V)β(3)-mediated adhesion of cells, and binding of fibronectin to native collagen. Using a Toolkit composed of overlapping, 27-residue triple helical segments of collagen type II, two CNE-binding sites present in peptides II-1 and II-44 were identified. These peptides lack the major binding site for collagen-binding β(1) integrins, defined by the peptide GFOGER. Peptide II-44 corresponds to a region of collagen known to bind collagenases, discoidin domain receptor 2, SPARC (osteonectin), and fibronectin. In addition to binding fibronectin, peptide II-44 but not II-1 inhibited α(V)β(3)-mediated collagen gel contraction and, when immobilized on plastic, supported adhesion of cells. Reduction of fibronectin expression by siRNA reduced PDGF BB-induced α(V)β(3)-mediated contraction. Reconstitution of collagen types I and II gels in the presence of CNE reduced collagen fibril diameters and fibril melting temperatures. Our data indicate that contraction proceeded through an indirect mechanism involving binding of cell-produced fibronectin to the collagen fibers. Furthermore, our data show that cell-mediated collagen gel contraction does not directly depend on the process of fibril formation. PMID:20837478

  9. Matricryptins derived from collagens and proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Ricard-Blum, Sylvie; Ballut, Lionel

    2011-01-01

    Controlled proteolysis of extracellular matrix components releases bioactive fragments or unmasks cryptic sites that play key roles in controlling various physio-pathological processes including angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, wound healing, inflammation, tumor growth, and metastasis. We review here the structure and mechanisms of release of i) the proteolytic fragments (matricryptins) cleaved from collagens, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, and ii) the matricryptic sites existing in these molecules. The cell surface receptors and the signaling pathways they trigger to exert their biological activities is discussed with the major physio-pathological processes they control. Their involvement in autoimmune and inherited diseases is reported. Most matricryptins issued from collagens, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans exhibit anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor properties and their use as potential drugs and as potential disease markers is discussed. Perspectives for identifying the common structural features, if any, of the matricryptins and their use in combination with chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the treatment of cancer are presented. PMID:21196195

  10. Direct demonstration of insulin receptor internalization. A quantitative electron microscopic study of covalently bound /sup 125/I-photoreactive insulin incubated with isolated hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Gorden, P.; Carpentier, J.L.; Moule, M.L.; Yip, C.C.; Orci, L.

    1982-07-01

    When /sup 125/I-insulin is incubated with isolated rodent hepatocytes at 37 degrees C, the ligand initially binds to the plasma membrane of the cell and is subsequently internalized by adsorptive endocytosis. To confirm directly that the insulin receptor is internalized with the ligand, we covalently linked photoreactive /sup 125/I-N sigma B29 (azidobenzoyl) insulin to its specific hepatocyte receptor and followed its fate by quantitative electron microscopic autoradiography. We found that the covalently linked photoreactive insulin is internalized by the cell in fashion analogous to the internalization of ordinary /sup 125/I-insulin, indicating that, at least under these conditions, the insulin receptor is internalized with the ligand.

  11. N-METHYL-d-ASPARTATE RECEPTORS AND LARGE CONDUCTANCE CALCIUM-SENSITIVE POTASSIUM CHANNELS INHIBIT THE RELEASE OF OPIOID PEPTIDES THAT INDUCE μ-OPIOID RECEPTOR INTERNALIZATION IN THE RAT SPINAL CORD

    PubMed Central

    SONG, B.; MARVIZÓN, J. C. G.

    2006-01-01

    Endogenous opioids in the spinal cord play an important role in nociception, but the mechanisms that control their release are poorly understood. To simultaneously detect all opioids able to activate the μ-opioid receptor, we measured μ-opioid receptor internalization in rat spinal cord slices stimulated electrically or chemically to evoke opioid release. Electrical stimulation of the dorsal horn in the presence of peptidase inhibitors produced μ-opioid receptor internalization in half of the μ-opioid receptor neurons. This internalization was rapidly abolished by N-methyl-d-aspartate (IC50=2 μM), and N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists prevented this effect. μ-Opioid receptor internalization evoked by high K+ or veratridine was also inhibited by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor activation. N-methyl-d-aspartate did not affect μ-opioid receptor internalization induced by exogenous endomorphins, confirming that the effect of N-methyl-d-aspartate was on opioid release. We hypothesized that this inhibition was mediated by large conductance Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels BK(Ca2+). Indeed, inhibition by N-methyl-d-aspartate was prevented by tetraethylammonium and by the selective BK(Ca2+) blockers paxilline, penitrem A and verruculogen. Paxilline did not increase μ-opioid receptor internalization in the absence of N-methyl-d-aspartate, indicating that it does not produce an increase in opioid release unrelated to the inhibition by N-methyl-d-aspartate. The BK(Ca2+) involved appears to be a subtype with slow association kinetics for iberiotoxin, which was effective only with long incubations. The BK(Ca2+) opener NS-1619 also inhibited the evoked μ-opioid receptor internalization, and iberiotoxin prevented this effect. We concluded that Ca2+ influx through N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors causes the opening of BK(Ca2+) and hyperpolarization in opioid-containing dorsal horn neurons, resulting in the inhibition of opioid release. Since μ-opioid receptors in the dorsal horn

  12. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and large conductance calcium-sensitive potassium channels inhibit the release of opioid peptides that induce mu-opioid receptor internalization in the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Song, B; Marvizón, J C G

    2005-01-01

    Endogenous opioids in the spinal cord play an important role in nociception, but the mechanisms that control their release are poorly understood. To simultaneously detect all opioids able to activate the mu-opioid receptor, we measured mu-opioid receptor internalization in rat spinal cord slices stimulated electrically or chemically to evoke opioid release. Electrical stimulation of the dorsal horn in the presence of peptidase inhibitors produced mu-opioid receptor internalization in half of the mu-opioid receptor neurons. This internalization was rapidly abolished by N-methyl-D-aspartate (IC50=2 microM), and N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists prevented this effect. mu-Opioid receptor internalization evoked by high K+ or veratridine was also inhibited by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation. N-methyl-D-aspartate did not affect mu-opioid receptor internalization induced by exogenous endomorphins, confirming that the effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate was on opioid release. We hypothesized that this inhibition was mediated by large conductance Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels BK(Ca2+). Indeed, inhibition by N-methyl-D-aspartate was prevented by tetraethylammonium and by the selective BK(Ca2+) blockers paxilline, penitrem A and verruculogen. Paxilline did not increase mu-opioid receptor internalization in the absence of N-methyl-D-aspartate, indicating that it does not produce an increase in opioid release unrelated to the inhibition by N-methyl-d-aspartate. The BK(Ca2+) involved appears to be a subtype with slow association kinetics for iberiotoxin, which was effective only with long incubations. The BK(Ca2+) opener NS-1619 also inhibited the evoked mu-opioid receptor internalization, and iberiotoxin prevented this effect. We concluded that Ca2+ influx through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors causes the opening of BK(Ca2+) and hyperpolarization in opioid-containing dorsal horn neurons, resulting in the inhibition of opioid release. Since mu-opioid receptors in the dorsal horn

  13. Quantitative analysis of G-protein-coupled receptor internalization using DnaE intein-based assay.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bin; Chen, Linjie; Zhang, Yaping; Shi, Ying; Zhou, Naiming

    2016-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the largest family of cell surface receptors, are involved in many physiological processes. They represent highly important therapeutic targets for drug discovery. Currently, there are numerous cell-based assays developed for the pharmacological profiling of GPCRs and the identification of novel agonists and antagonists. However, the development of new, faster, easier, and more cost-effective approaches to detect GPCR activity remains highly desirable. β-arrestin-dependent internalization has been demonstrated to be a common mechanism for most GPCRs. Here we describe a novel assay for quantitative analysis of GPCR internalization based on DnaE intein-mediated reconstitution of fragmented Renilla luciferase or Firefly luciferase when activated GPCRs interact with β-arrestin2 or Rab5. Further validation, using functionally divergent GPCRs, showed that EC50 values obtained for the known agonists and antagonists were in close agreement with the results of previous reports. This suggests that this assay is sensitive enough to permit quantification of GPCR internalization. Compared with conventional assays, this novel assay system is cost-effective, rapid, and easy to manipulate. These advantages may allow this assay to be used universally as a functional cell-based system for GPCR characterization and in the screening process of drug discovery. PMID:26928549

  14. Epidermal growth factor receptors destined for the nucleus are internalized via a clathrin-dependent pathway

    SciTech Connect

    De Angelis Campos, Ana Carolina; Rodrigues, Michele Angela; Andrade, Carolina de; Miranda de Goes, Alfredo; Nathanson, Michael H.; Gomes, Dawidson A.

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} EGF and its receptor translocates to the nucleus in liver cells. {yields} Real time imaging shows that EGF moves to the nucleus. {yields} EGF moves with its receptor to the nucleus. {yields} Dynamin and clathrin are necessary for EGFR nuclear translocation. -- Abstract: The epidermal growth factor (EGF) transduces its actions via the EGF receptor (EGFR), which can traffic from the plasma membrane to either the cytoplasm or the nucleus. However, the mechanism by which EGFR reaches the nucleus is unclear. To investigate these questions, liver cells were analyzed by immunoblot of cell fractions, confocal immunofluorescence and real time confocal imaging. Cell fractionation studies showed that EGFR was detectable in the nucleus after EGF stimulation with a peak in nuclear receptor after 10 min. Movement of EGFR to the nucleus was confirmed by confocal immunofluorescence and labeled EGF moved with the receptor to the nucleus. Small interference RNA (siRNA) was used to knockdown clathrin in order to assess the first endocytic steps of EGFR nuclear translocation in liver cells. A mutant dynamin (dynamin K44A) was also used to determine the pathways for this traffic. Movement of labeled EGF or EGFR to the nucleus depended upon dynamin and clathrin. This identifies the pathway that mediates the first steps for EGFR nuclear translocation in liver cells.

  15. Comparison of the kinetics and extent of muscarinic M1-M5receptor internalization, recycling and downregulation in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells

    PubMed Central

    Thangaraju, Arunkumar; Sawyer, Gregory W.

    2010-01-01

    We characterized agonist-induced internalization, recycling and downregulation of each muscarinic receptor subtype (M1 – M5) stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The radioligands [3H]QNB and [3H]NMS were used to measure the total and plasma membrane populations of muscarinic receptors, respectively. Following carbachol treatment (1 mM), the rank orders for the rate of carbachol-induced internalization of the muscarinic subtypes were M2 > M4 = M5 > M3 = M1, respectively. Unlike the M2 receptor, M1, M3, M4 and M5 receptors recycled back to the plasma membrane after one-hour carbachol treatment. The receptor downregulation elicited to 24-hour carbachol treatment was similar for M2, M3, M4 and M5 receptors, whereas that for the M1 receptor was greater. Our results indicate that there are subtype-specific differences in the rate and extent of agonist-induced muscarinic receptor internalization, recycling and downregulation in CHO cells. PMID:21044619

  16. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXVIII. G Protein-Coupled Receptor List: Recommendations for New Pairings with Cognate Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Stephen P. H.; Sharman, Joanna L.; Pawson, Adam J.; Benson, Helen E.; Monaghan, Amy E.; Liew, Wen Chiy; Mpamhanga, Chidochangu P.; Bonner, Tom I.; Neubig, Richard R.; Pin, Jean Philippe; Spedding, Michael; Harmar, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification (NC-IUPHAR) published a catalog of all of the human gene sequences known or predicted to encode G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), excluding sensory receptors. This review updates the list of orphan GPCRs and describes the criteria used by NC-IUPHAR to recommend the pairing of an orphan receptor with its cognate ligand(s). The following recommendations are made for new receptor names based on 11 pairings for class A GPCRs: hydroxycarboxylic acid receptors [HCA1 (GPR81) with lactate, HCA2 (GPR109A) with 3-hydroxybutyric acid, HCA3 (GPR109B) with 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid]; lysophosphatidic acid receptors [LPA4 (GPR23), LPA5 (GPR92), LPA6 (P2Y5)]; free fatty acid receptors [FFA4 (GPR120) with omega-3 fatty acids]; chemerin receptor (CMKLR1; ChemR23) with chemerin; CXCR7 (CMKOR1) with chemokines CXCL12 (SDF-1) and CXCL11 (ITAC); succinate receptor (SUCNR1) with succinate; and oxoglutarate receptor [OXGR1 with 2-oxoglutarate]. Pairings are highlighted for an additional 30 receptors in class A where further input is needed from the scientific community to validate these findings. Fifty-seven human class A receptors (excluding pseudogenes) are still considered orphans; information has been provided where there is a significant phenotype in genetically modified animals. In class B, six pairings have been reported by a single publication, with 28 (excluding pseudogenes) still classified as orphans. Seven orphan receptors remain in class C, with one pairing described by a single paper. The objective is to stimulate research into confirming pairings of orphan receptors where there is currently limited information and to identify cognate ligands for the remaining GPCRs. Further information can be found on the IUPHAR Database website (http://www.iuphar-db.org). PMID:23686350

  17. Cryptococcus neoformans Is Internalized by Receptor-Mediated or ‘Triggered’ Phagocytosis, Dependent on Actin Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Caroline Rezende; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcosis by the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans affects mostly immunocompromised individuals and is a frequent neurological complication in AIDS patients. Recent studies support the idea that intracellular survival of Cryptococcus yeast cells is important for the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis. However, the initial steps of Cryptococcus internalization by host cells remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the mechanism of Cryptococcus neoformans phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages using confocal and electron microscopy techniques, as well as flow cytometry quantification, evaluating the importance of fungal capsule production and of host cell cytoskeletal elements for fungal phagocytosis. Electron microscopy analyses revealed that capsular and acapsular strains of C. neoformans are internalized by macrophages via both ‘zipper’ (receptor-mediated) and ‘trigger’ (membrane ruffle-dependent) phagocytosis mechanisms. Actin filaments surrounded phagosomes of capsular and acapsular yeasts, and the actin depolymerizing drugs cytochalasin D and latrunculin B inhibited yeast internalization and actin recruitment to the phagosome area. In contrast, nocodazole and paclitaxel, inhibitors of microtubule dynamics decreased internalization but did not prevent actin recruitment to the site of phagocytosis. Our results show that different uptake mechanisms, dependent on both actin and tubulin dynamics occur during yeast internalization by macrophages, and that capsule production does not affect the mode of Cryptococcus uptake by host cells. PMID:24586631

  18. [TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS IN COSMONAUT'S PERIPHERAL BLOOD CELLS AFTER LONG-DURATION MISSIONS TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION].

    PubMed

    Berendeeva, T A; Ponomarev, S A; Antropova, E N; Rykova, M P

    2015-01-01

    Studies of Toll-like receptors (TLR) in 20 cosmonauts-members of long-duration (124-199-day) missions to the International space station evidenced changes in relative and absolute counts of peripheral blood monocytes with TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 on the surface, expression of TLR2 and TLR6 genes, and genes of molecules involved in the TLR signaling pathway and TLR-related NF-KB-, JNK/p38- and IRF pathways on the day of return to Earth. The observed changes displayed individual variability. PMID:26934790

  19. Collagen network strengthening following cyclic tensile loading.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Monica E; Paten, Jeffrey A; Sander, Edward A; Nguyen, Thao D; Ruberti, Jeffrey W

    2016-02-01

    The bulk mechanical properties of tissues are highly tuned to the physiological loads they experience and reflect the hierarchical structure and mechanical properties of their constituent parts. A thorough understanding of the processes involved in tissue adaptation is required to develop multi-scale computational models of tissue remodelling. While extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling is partly due to the changing cellular metabolic activity, there may also be mechanically directed changes in ECM nano/microscale organization which lead to mechanical tuning. The thermal and enzymatic stability of collagen, which is the principal load-bearing biopolymer in vertebrates, have been shown to be enhanced by force suggesting that collagen has an active role in ECM mechanical properties. Here, we ask how changes in the mechanical properties of a collagen-based material are reflected by alterations in the micro/nanoscale collagen network following cyclic loading. Surprisingly, we observed significantly higher tensile stiffness and ultimate tensile strength, roughly analogous to the effect of work hardening, in the absence of network realignment and alterations to the fibril area fraction. The data suggest that mechanical loading induces stabilizing changes internal to the fibrils themselves or in the fibril-fibril interactions. If such a cell-independent strengthening effect is operational in vivo, then it would be an important consideration in any multiscale computational approach to ECM growth and remodelling. PMID:26855760

  20. Increased Neuronal Expression of Neurokinin-1 Receptor and Stimulus-Evoked Internalization of the Receptor in the Rostral Ventromedial Medulla of the Rat after Peripheral Inflammatory Injury1

    PubMed Central

    Hamity, Marta V.; Walder, Roxanne Y.; Hammond, Donna L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined possible mechanisms by which Substance P (Sub P) assumes a pronociceptive role in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) under conditions of peripheral inflammatory injury, in this case produced by intraplantar (ipl) injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA). In saline- and CFA-treated rats, neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) immunoreactivity was localized to neurons in the RVM. Four days after ipl injection of CFA, the number of NK1R immunoreactive neurons in the RVM was increased by 30%, and there was a concomitant increase in NK1R immunoreactive processes in CFA-treated rats. Although NK1R immunoreactivity was increased, tachykinin-1 receptor (Tacr1) mRNA was not increased in the RVM of CFA-treated rats. To assess changes in Sub P release, the number of RVM neurons that exhibited NK1R internalization was examined in saline- and CFA-treated rats following noxious heat stimulation of the hind paws. Only CFA-treated rats that experienced noxious heat stimulation exhibited a significant increase in the number of neurons showing NK1R internalization. These data suggest that tonic Sub P release is not increased as a simple consequence of peripheral inflammation, but that phasic or evoked release of Sub P in the RVM is increased in response to noxious peripheral stimulation in a persistent inflammatory state. These data support the proposal that an upregulation of the NK1R in the RVM, as well as enhanced release of Sub P following noxious stimulation underlie the pronociceptive role of Sub P under conditions of persistent inflammatory injury. PMID:24639151

  1. G Protein Beta 5 Is Targeted to D2-Dopamine Receptor-Containing Biochemical Compartments and Blocks Dopamine-Dependent Receptor Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Octeau, J. Christopher; Schrader, Joseph M.; Masuho, Ikuo; Sharma, Meenakshi; Aiudi, Christopher; Chen, Ching-Kang; Kovoor, Abraham; Celver, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    G beta 5 (Gbeta5, Gβ5) is a unique G protein β subunit that is thought to be expressed as an obligate heterodimer with R7 regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins instead of with G gamma (Gγ) subunits. We found that D2-dopamine receptor (D2R) coexpression enhances the expression of Gβ5, but not that of the G beta 1 (Gβ1) subunit, in HEK293 cells, and that the enhancement of expression occurs through a stabilization of Gβ5 protein. We had previously demonstrated that the vast majority of D2R either expressed endogenously in the brain or exogenously in cell lines segregates into detergent-resistant biochemical fractions. We report that when expressed alone in HEK293 cells, Gβ5 is highly soluble, but is retargeted to the detergent-resistant fraction after D2R coexpression. Furthermore, an in-cell biotin transfer proximity assay indicated that D2R and Gβ5 segregating into the detergent-resistant fraction specifically interacted in intact living cell membranes. Dopamine-induced D2R internalization was blocked by coexpression of Gβ5, but not Gβ1. However, the same Gβ5 coexpression levels had no effect on agonist-induced internalization of the mu opioid receptor (MOR), cell surface D2R levels, dopamine-mediated recruitment of β-arrestin to D2R, the amplitude of D2R-G protein coupling, or the deactivation kinetics of D2R-activated G protein signals. The latter data suggest that the interactions between D2R and Gβ5 are not mediated by endogenously expressed R7 RGS proteins. PMID:25162404

  2. G protein beta 5 is targeted to D2-dopamine receptor-containing biochemical compartments and blocks dopamine-dependent receptor internalization.

    PubMed

    Octeau, J Christopher; Schrader, Joseph M; Masuho, Ikuo; Sharma, Meenakshi; Aiudi, Christopher; Chen, Ching-Kang; Kovoor, Abraham; Celver, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    G beta 5 (Gbeta5, Gβ5) is a unique G protein β subunit that is thought to be expressed as an obligate heterodimer with R7 regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins instead of with G gamma (Gγ) subunits. We found that D2-dopamine receptor (D2R) coexpression enhances the expression of Gβ5, but not that of the G beta 1 (Gβ1) subunit, in HEK293 cells, and that the enhancement of expression occurs through a stabilization of Gβ5 protein. We had previously demonstrated that the vast majority of D2R either expressed endogenously in the brain or exogenously in cell lines segregates into detergent-resistant biochemical fractions. We report that when expressed alone in HEK293 cells, Gβ5 is highly soluble, but is retargeted to the detergent-resistant fraction after D2R coexpression. Furthermore, an in-cell biotin transfer proximity assay indicated that D2R and Gβ5 segregating into the detergent-resistant fraction specifically interacted in intact living cell membranes. Dopamine-induced D2R internalization was blocked by coexpression of Gβ5, but not Gβ1. However, the same Gβ5 coexpression levels had no effect on agonist-induced internalization of the mu opioid receptor (MOR), cell surface D2R levels, dopamine-mediated recruitment of β-arrestin to D2R, the amplitude of D2R-G protein coupling, or the deactivation kinetics of D2R-activated G protein signals. The latter data suggest that the interactions between D2R and Gβ5 are not mediated by endogenously expressed R7 RGS proteins. PMID:25162404

  3. Collagen Homeostasis and Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, S Peter; Heinemeier, Katja M; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The musculoskeletal system and its collagen rich tissue is important for ensuring architecture of skeletal muscle, energy storage in tendon and ligaments, joint surface protection, and for ensuring the transfer of muscular forces into resulting limb movement. Structure of tendon is stable and the metabolic activity is low, but mechanical loading and subsequent mechanotransduction and molecular anabolic signaling can result in some adaptation of the tendon especially during youth and adolescence. Within short time, tendon will get stiffer with training and lack of mechanical tissue loading through inactivity or immobilization of the human body will conversely result in a dramatic loss in tendon stiffness and collagen synthesis. This illustrates the importance of regular mechanical load in order to preserve the stabilizing role of the connective tissue for the overall function of the musculoskeletal system in both daily activity and exercise. Adaptive responses may vary along the tendon, and differ between mid-substance and insertional areas of the tendon. PMID:27535245

  4. Methylation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Promoter in Preschoolers: Links with Internalizing Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parade, Stephanie H.; Ridout, Kathryn K.; Seifer, Ronald; Armstrong, David A.; Marsit, Carmen J.; McWilliams, Melissa A.; Tyrka, Audrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that early adversity is linked to methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene, "NR3C1," which is a key regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Yet no prior work has considered the contribution of methylation of "NR3C1" to emerging behavior problems and psychopathology in…

  5. Hepatitis C Virus Induces Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Activation via CD81 Binding for Viral Internalization and Entry

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Jingyu; Pantua, Homer; Ngu, Hai; Komuves, Laszlo; Diehl, Lauri; Schaefer, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    While epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to be important in the entry process for multiple viruses, including hepatitis C virus (HCV), the molecular mechanisms by which EGFR facilitates HCV entry are not well understood. Using the infectious cell culture HCV model (HCVcc), we demonstrate that the binding of HCVcc particles to human hepatocyte cells induces EGFR activation that is dependent on interactions between HCV and CD81 but not claudin 1. EGFR activation can also be induced by antibody mediated cross-linking of CD81. In addition, EGFR ligands that enhance the kinetics of HCV entry induce EGFR internalization and colocalization with CD81. While EGFR kinase inhibitors inhibit HCV infection primarily by preventing EGFR endocytosis, antibodies that block EGFR ligand binding or inhibitors of EGFR downstream signaling have no effect on HCV entry. These data demonstrate that EGFR internalization is critical for HCV entry and identify a hitherto-unknown association between CD81 and EGFR. PMID:22855500

  6. GPVI and α2β1 play independent critical roles during platelet adhesion and aggregate formation to collagen under flow

    PubMed Central

    Sarratt, Kendra L.; Chen, Hong; Zutter, Mary M.; Santoro, Samuel A.; Hammer, Daniel A.; Kahn, Mark L.

    2005-01-01

    The roles of the 2 major platelet-collagen receptors, glycoprotein VI (GPVI) and integrin α2β1, have been intensely investigated using a variety of methods over the past decade. In the present study, we have used pharmacologic and genetic approaches to study human and mouse platelet adhesion to collagen under flow conditions. Our studies demonstrate that both GPVI and integrin α2β1 play significant roles for platelet adhesion to collagen under flow and that the loss of both receptors completely ablates this response. Intracellular signaling mediated by the cytoplasmic adaptor Src homology 2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP-76) but not by the transmembrane adaptor linker for activation of T cells (LAT) is critical for platelet adhesion to collagen under flow. In addition, reduced GPVI receptor density results in severe defects in platelet adhesion to collagen under flow. Defective adhesion to collagen under flow is associated with prolonged tail-bleeding times in mice lacking one or both collagen receptors. These studies establish platelet-collagen responses under physiologic flow as the consequence of a close partnership between 2 structurally distinct receptors and suggest that both receptors play significant hemostatic roles in vivo. PMID:15886326

  7. A Broad G Protein-Coupled Receptor Internalization Assay that Combines SNAP-Tag Labeling, Diffusion-Enhanced Resonance Energy Transfer, and a Highly Emissive Terbium Cryptate

    PubMed Central

    Levoye, Angélique; Zwier, Jurriaan M.; Jaracz-Ros, Agnieszka; Klipfel, Laurence; Cottet, Martin; Maurel, Damien; Bdioui, Sara; Balabanian, Karl; Prézeau, Laurent; Trinquet, Eric; Durroux, Thierry; Bachelerie, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Although G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) internalization has long been considered as a major aspect of the desensitization process that tunes ligand responsiveness, internalization is also involved in receptor resensitization and signaling, as well as the ligand scavenging function of some atypical receptors. Internalization thus contributes to the diversity of GPCR-dependent signaling, and its dynamics and quantification in living cells has generated considerable interest. We developed a robust and sensitive assay to follow and quantify ligand-induced and constitutive-induced GPCR internalization but also receptor recycling in living cells. This assay is based on diffusion-enhanced resonance energy transfer (DERET) between cell surface GPCRs labeled with a luminescent terbium cryptate donor and a fluorescein acceptor present in the culture medium. GPCR internalization results in a quantifiable reduction of energy transfer. This method yields a high signal-to-noise ratio due to time-resolved measurements. For various GPCRs belonging to different classes, we demonstrated that constitutive and ligand-induced internalization could be monitored as a function of time and ligand concentration, thus allowing accurate quantitative determination of kinetics of receptor internalization but also half-maximal effective or inhibitory concentrations of compounds. In addition to its selectivity and sensitivity, we provided evidence that DERET-based internalization assay is particularly suitable for characterizing biased ligands. Furthermore, the determination of a Z′-factor value of 0.45 indicates the quality and suitability of DERET-based internalization assay for high-throughput screening (HTS) of compounds that may modulate GPCRs internalization. PMID:26617570

  8. Effect of size and conformation of the ligand on asialoglycoprotein receptor-mediated ligand internalization and degradation in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.H.; Chang, T.M.

    1987-05-01

    The rates of internalization and degradation of /sup 125/-I-labeled desialylated cyanogen bromide fragment I of orosomucoid (AS-CNBr-I) and its reduced and carboxymethylated derivative (AS-RC-CNBr-I) were compared with those of /sup 125/I-labeled asialoorosomucoid (ASOR) in rat hepatocytes. At 30 nM the rates of internalization and degradation of /sup 125/I-AS-CNBr-I were greater than those of /sup 125/I-ASOR. /sup 125/I-AS-RC-CNBr-I also had a lower rate of internalization and degradation. In contrast to /sup 125/I-ASOR, when degradation was inhibited by 5 ..mu..M colchicine there was a significant intracellular accumulation of the smaller ligands. At 4/sup 0/C the hepatocytes were found to bind the fragmented ligands more than /sup 125/I-ASOR. Incubation of the cells with bound ligand at 37/sup 0/ indicated that diacytosis of /sup 125/I-ASOR was greater than the smaller ligands. Colchincine markedly enhanced diacytosis of /sup 125/I-ASOR. On the other hand, there were marked accumulation of the smaller ligands by colchicine. These results suggest that the rates of internalization, degradation and diacytosis of the ligand are affected by the size and conformation of the ligand through different rates of receptor binding and intracellular transport.

  9. Identifying bias in CCR1 antagonists using radiolabelled binding, receptor internalization, β-arrestin translocation and chemotaxis assays

    PubMed Central

    Gilchrist, A; Gauntner, T D; Fazzini, A; Alley, K M; Pyen, D S; Ahn, J; Ha, S J; Willett, A; Sansom, S E; Yarfi, J L; Bachovchin, K A; Mazzoni, M R; Merritt, J R

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Investigators have suggested that the chemokine receptor CCR1 plays a role in multiple myeloma. Studies using antisense and neutralizing antibodies to CCR1 showed that down-regulation of the receptor altered disease progression in a mouse model. More recently, experiments utilizing scid mice injected with human myeloma cells demonstrated that the CCR1 antagonist BX471 reduced osteolytic lesions, while the CCR1 antagonist MLN-3897 prevented myeloma cell adhesion to osteoclasts. However, information is limited regarding the pharmacology of CCR1 antagonists in myeloma cells. Experimental Approach We compared several well-studied CCR1 antagonists including AZD4818, BX471, CCX354, CP-481715, MLN-3897 and PS899877 for their ability to inhibit binding of [125I]-CCL3 in vitro using membranes prepared from RPMI 8226 cells, a human multiple myeloma cell line that endogenously expresses CCR1. In addition, antagonists were assessed for their ability to modulate CCL3-mediated internalization of CCR1 and CCL3-mediated cell migration using RPMI 8226 cells. As many GPCRs signal through β–arrestin-dependent pathways that are separate and distinct from those driven by G-proteins, we also evaluated the compounds for their ability to alter β-arrestin translocation. Key Results There were clear differences between the CCR1 antagonists in their ability to inhibit CCL3 binding to myeloma cells, as well as in their ability to inhibit G–protein-dependent and -independent functional responses. Conclusions and Implications Our studies demonstrate that tissue phenotype seems to be relevant with regards to CCR1. Moreover, it appears that for CCR1 antagonists, inhibition of β-arrestin translocation is not necessarily linked to chemotaxis or receptor internalization. PMID:24990525

  10. Heterogeneity of collagens in rabbit cornea: type VI collagen

    SciTech Connect

    Cintron, C.; Hong, B.S.

    1988-05-01

    Normal adult rabbit corneas were digested with 5% pepsin and their collagens extracted with acetic acid. Collagen extracts were fractionated by differential salt precipitation. The 2.5 M NaCl fraction was then redissolved with tris buffer and precipitated with sodium acetate. The precipitate contained a high-molecular-weight disulfide-bonded aggregate which, upon reduction with mercaptoethanol, was converted into three distinct polypeptides having molecular weights between 45 and 66 Kd. These physical characteristics, together with the susceptibility of these polypeptides to collagenase and their amino acid composition, identified the high molecular weight aggregate as type VI collagen. Corneas from neonate rabbits and adult corneas containing 2-week-old scars were organ cultured in the presence of (/sup 14/C) glycine to incorporate radiolabel into collagen. Tissues were digested with 0.02% pepsin and their collagens extracted with formic acid. The total radioactivity of the extracts and tissue residues was determined before the collagens were separated by SDS-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. Radioactive collagen polypeptides bands were then stained with Coomassie blue, processed for fluorography, and analyzed by densitometry. The results show that: (1) type VI collagen is synthesized by neonate corneas and healing adult corneas; (2) it is not readily solubilized from either corneal tissue by 0.02% pepsin digestion and formic acid extraction; and (3) the proportion of type VI collagen deposited in scar tissue is markedly lower than that found in neonate corneas.

  11. Heterogeneity of collagens in rabbit cornea: type III collagen

    SciTech Connect

    Cintron, C.; Hong, B.S.; Covington, H.I.; Macarak, E.J.

    1988-05-01

    Whole neonate rabbit corneas and adult corneas containing 2-week-old scars were incubated in the presence of (/sup 14/C) glycine. Radiolabeled collagen extracted from the corneas and scar tissue were analyzed by sodium dodecylsulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography to determine the types and relative quantity of collagen polypeptides present and synthesized by these tissues. In addition to other collagen types, type III was found in both neonate cornea and scar tissue from adult cornea, albeit in relatively small quantities. Type III collagen in normal cornea was associated with the residue after pepsin digestion and formic acid extraction of the tissue, and the same type of collagen was extracted from scar tissue after similar treatment. Type III collagen-specific monoclonal antibody bound to developing normal corneas and healing adult tissue sections, as determined by immunofluorescence. Antibody binding was localized to the endothelium and growing Descemet's membrane in fetal and neonate corneas, and restricted to the most posterior region of the corneal scar tissue. Although monoclonal antibody to keratan sulfate, used as a marker for stromal fibroblasts, bound to most of the scar tissue, the antibody failed to bind to the posterior scar tissue positive for type III collagen. We conclude that endothelial cells from fetal and neonate rabbit cornea and endothelium-derived fibroblasts from healing wounds of adult cornea synthesize and deposit type III collagen. Moreover, this collagen appears to be incorporated into the growing Descemet's membrane of normal corneas and narrow posterior portion of the scar tissue.

  12. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCVI. Pattern Recognition Receptors in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Selinda; Ferguson, Brian; Symmons, Martyn F.; Boyle, Joseph P.; Monie, Tom P.

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of Toll, in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, as the first described pattern recognition receptor (PRR) in 1996, many families of these receptors have been discovered and characterized. PRRs play critically important roles in pathogen recognition to initiate innate immune responses that ultimately link to the generation of adaptive immunity. Activation of PRRs leads to the induction of immune and inflammatory genes, including proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. It is increasingly clear that many PRRs are linked to a range of inflammatory, infectious, immune, and chronic degenerative diseases. Several drugs to modulate PRR activity are already in clinical trials and many more are likely to appear in the near future. Here, we review the different families of mammalian PRRs, the ligands they recognize, the mechanisms of activation, their role in disease, and the potential of targeting these proteins to develop the anti-inflammatory therapeutics of the future. PMID:25829385

  13. Stress-Strain Experiments on Individual Collagen Fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhilei L.; Dodge, Mohammad Reza; Kahn, Harold; Ballarini, Roberto; Eppell, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    Collagen, a molecule consisting of three braided protein helices, is the primary building block of many biological tissues including bone, tendon, cartilage, and skin. Staggered arrays of collagen molecules form fibrils, which arrange into higher-ordered structures such as fibers and fascicles. Because collagen plays a crucial role in determining the mechanical properties of these tissues, significant theoretical research is directed toward developing models of the stiffness, strength, and toughness of collagen molecules and fibrils. Experimental data to guide the development of these models, however, are sparse and limited to small strain response. Using a microelectromechanical systems platform to test partially hydrated collagen fibrils under uniaxial tension, we obtained quantitative, reproducible mechanical measurements of the stress-strain curve of type I collagen fibrils, with diameters ranging from 150–470 nm. The fibrils showed a small strain (ɛ < 0.09) modulus of 0.86 ± 0.45 GPa. Fibrils tested to strains as high as 100% demonstrated strain softening (σyield = 0.22 ± 0.14 GPa; ɛyield = 0.21 ± 0.13) and strain hardening, time-dependent recoverable residual strain, dehydration-induced embrittlement, and susceptibility to cyclic fatigue. The results suggest that the stress-strain behavior of collagen fibrils is dictated by global characteristic dimensions as well as internal structure. PMID:18641067

  14. Stress-strain experiments on individual collagen fibrils.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhilei L; Dodge, Mohammad Reza; Kahn, Harold; Ballarini, Roberto; Eppell, Steven J

    2008-10-01

    Collagen, a molecule consisting of three braided protein helices, is the primary building block of many biological tissues including bone, tendon, cartilage, and skin. Staggered arrays of collagen molecules form fibrils, which arrange into higher-ordered structures such as fibers and fascicles. Because collagen plays a crucial role in determining the mechanical properties of these tissues, significant theoretical research is directed toward developing models of the stiffness, strength, and toughness of collagen molecules and fibrils. Experimental data to guide the development of these models, however, are sparse and limited to small strain response. Using a microelectromechanical systems platform to test partially hydrated collagen fibrils under uniaxial tension, we obtained quantitative, reproducible mechanical measurements of the stress-strain curve of type I collagen fibrils, with diameters ranging from 150-470 nm. The fibrils showed a small strain (epsilon < 0.09) modulus of 0.86 +/- 0.45 GPa. Fibrils tested to strains as high as 100% demonstrated strain softening (sigma(yield) = 0.22 +/- 0.14 GPa; epsilon(yield) = 0.21 +/- 0.13) and strain hardening, time-dependent recoverable residual strain, dehydration-induced embrittlement, and susceptibility to cyclic fatigue. The results suggest that the stress-strain behavior of collagen fibrils is dictated by global characteristic dimensions as well as internal structure. PMID:18641067

  15. Regulation of µ-Opioid Receptors: Desensitization, Phosphorylation, Internalization, and Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Williams, John T.; Ingram, Susan L.; Henderson, Graeme; Chavkin, Charles; von Zastrow, Mark; Schulz, Stefan; Koch, Thomas; Evans, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Morphine and related µ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists remain among the most effective drugs known for acute relief of severe pain. A major problem in treating painful conditions is that tolerance limits the long-term utility of opioid agonists. Considerable effort has been expended on developing an understanding of the molecular and cellular processes that underlie acute MOR signaling, short-term receptor regulation, and the progression of events that lead to tolerance for different MOR agonists. Although great progress has been made in the past decade, many points of contention and controversy cloud the realization of this progress. This review attempts to clarify some confusion by clearly defining terms, such as desensitization and tolerance, and addressing optimal pharmacological analyses for discerning relative importance of these cellular mechanisms. Cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating MOR function by phosphorylation relative to receptor desensitization and endocytosis are comprehensively reviewed, with an emphasis on agonist-biased regulation and areas where knowledge is lacking or controversial. The implications of these mechanisms for understanding the substantial contribution of MOR signaling to opioid tolerance are then considered in detail. While some functional MOR regulatory mechanisms contributing to tolerance are clearly understood, there are large gaps in understanding the molecular processes responsible for loss of MOR function after chronic exposure to opioids. Further elucidation of the cellular mechanisms that are regulated by opioids will be necessary for the successful development of MOR-based approaches to new pain therapeutics that limit the development of tolerance. PMID:23321159

  16. Physiological regulation of extracellular matrix collagen and elastin in the arterial wall of rats by noradrenergic tone and angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Dab, Houcine; Kacem, Kamel; Hachani, Rafik; Dhaouadi, Nadra; Hodroj, Wassim; Sakly, Mohsen; Randon, Jacques; Bricca, Giampiero

    2012-03-01

    The interactions between the effects of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and angiotensin II (ANG II) on vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis were determined in rats. The mRNA and protein content of collagen I, collagen III and elastin in the abdominal aorta (AA) and femoral artery (FA) was investigated in Wistar-Kyoto rats treated for 5 weeks with guanethidine, a sympathoplegic, losartan, an ANG II AT1 receptor (AT1R) blocker, or both. The effects of noradrenaline (NE) and ANG II on collagen III and elastin mRNA, and the receptor involved, were tested in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro. Guanethidine increased collagen types I and III and decreased elastin, while losartan had an opposite effect, although without effect on collagen III. The combination of treatments abrogated changes induced by simple treatment with collagen I and elastin, but increased collagen III mRNA in AA and not in FA. NE stimulated collagen III mRNA via β receptors and elastin via α1 and α2 receptors. ANG II stimulated collagen III but inhibited elastin mRNA via AT1R. Overall, SNS and ANG II exert opposite and antagonistic effects on major components of ECM in the vascular wall. This may be of relevance for the choice of a therapeutic strategy in vascular diseases. PMID:21729992

  17. Arterial calcification: Conscripted by collagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jordan D.

    2016-03-01

    In atherosclerotic plaques, patterns of calcification -- which have profound implications for plaque stability and vulnerability to rupture -- are determined by the collagen's content and patterning throughout the plaque.

  18. Engineering multiple biological functional motifs into a blank collagen-like protein template from Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yong Y; Stoichevska, Violet; Schacht, Kristin; Werkmeister, Jerome A; Ramshaw, John A M

    2014-07-01

    Bacterially derived triple-helical, collagen-like proteins are attractive as potential biomedical materials. The collagen-like domain of the Scl2 protein from S. pyogenes lacks any specific binding sites for mammalian cells yet possesses the inherent structural integrity of the collagen triple-helix of animal collagens. It can, therefore, be considered as a structurally-stable "blank slate" into which various defined, biological sequences, derived from animal collagens, can be added by substitutions or insertions, to enable production of novel designed materials to fit specific functional requirements. In the present study, we have used site directed mutagenesis to substitute two functional sequences, one for heparin binding and the other for integrin binding, into different locations in the triple-helical structure. This provided three new constructs, two containing the single substitutions and one containing both substitutions. The stability of these constructs was marginally reduced when compared to the unmodified sequence. When compared to the unmodified bacterial collagen, both the modified collagens that contain the heparin binding site showed marked binding of fluorescently labeled heparin. Similarly, the modified collagens from both constructs containing the integrin binding site showed significant adhesion of L929 cells that are known to possess the appropriate integrin receptor. C2C12 cells that lack any appropriate integrins did not bind. These data show that bacterial collagen-like sequences can be modified to act like natural extracellular matrix collagens by inserting one or more unique biological domains with defined function. PMID:23913780

  19. International Union of Pharmacology. LXX. Subtypes of γ-Aminobutyric AcidA Receptors: Classification on the Basis of Subunit Composition, Pharmacology, and Function. Update

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Richard W.; Sieghart, Werner

    2010-01-01

    In this review we attempt to summarize experimental evidence on the existence of defined native GABAA receptor subtypes and to produce a list of receptors that actually seem to exist according to current knowledge. This will serve to update the most recent classification of GABAA receptors (Pharmacol Rev 50:291–313, 1998) approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology. GABAA receptors are chloride channels that mediate the major form of fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. They are members of the Cys-loop pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (LGIC) superfamily and share structural and functional homology with other members of that family. GABAA receptors are assembled from a family of 19 homologous subunit gene products and form numerous, mostly hetero-oligomeric, pentamers. Such receptor subtypes with properties that depend on subunit composition vary in topography and ontogeny, in cellular and subcellular localization, in their role in brain circuits and behaviors, in their mechanisms of regulation, and in their pharmacology. We propose several criteria, which can be applied to all the members of the LGIC superfamily, for including a receptor subtype on a list of native hetero-oligomeric subtypes. With these criteria, we develop a working GABAA receptor list, which currently includes 26 members, but will undoubtedly be modified and grow as information expands. The list is divided into three categories of native receptor subtypes: “identified,” “existence with high probability,” and “tentative.” PMID:18790874

  20. Human retinal Müller cells synthesize collagens of the vitreous and vitreoretinal interface in vitro

    PubMed Central

    van Luyn, Marja J.A.; van der Worp, Roelofje J.; Pas, Hendri H.; Hooymans, Johanna M.M.; Los, Leonoor I.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the capacity of cultured Müller cells to synthesize collagens, since previous studies indicated that Müller cells could be involved in collagen remodeling at the vitreoretinal border in adult human eyes. Methods Spontaneously immortalized cultured human Müller cells were analyzed for the presence of mRNA of types I-VII, IX, XI, and XVII collagen by RT–PCR. Furthermore, Müller cells were immunocytochemically stained for light microscopic (LM) evaluation of these collagens and their main characteristics. Finally, cell extracts and culture medium were evaluated by western blot (WB) analysis using anticollagen antibodies. Results Cultured Müller cells contained mRNA for types I-VII, IX, and XI collagen, but not for type XVII collagen. LM and WB confirmed the intracellular expression of all the above-mentioned collagens with the exception of type XVII. Collagen secretion into the medium was established for types I-VII, IX, and XI collagen. Conclusions Cultured Müller cells can synthesize internal limiting lamina and vitreous collagens. Possible collagen production by Müller cells could explain and expand on previous in vivo morphological findings in the embryonic and postnatal period and in pathologic conditions. PMID:18385800

  1. Temperature dependence of high-affinity CCK receptor binding and CCK internalization in rat pancreatic acini

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.A.; Bailey, A.C.; Roach, E. Univ. of California, San Francisco )

    1988-04-01

    {sup 125}I-labeled cholecystokinin (CCK) binding and internalization were studied as a function of temperatures in isolated rat pancreatic acini. At 37{degree}C, acini readily bound and degraded {sup 125}I-CCK. When labeled hormone binding was inhibited by increasing amounts of unlabeled CCK, competition-inhibition curves were biphasic, consistent with both high- (K{sub d}, 18 pM) and low-affinity (K{sub d}, 13 nM) binding sites. At 4{degree}C, acini bound only one-third as much {sup 125}I-CCK and degradation was essentially abolished. At 4{degree}C, CCK competition curves were consistent with a single class of low-affinity binding sites (K{sub d}, 19 nM). Internalization of {sup 125}I-CCK was evaluated by three washing procedures utilizing acid, base, and trypsin. All were shown to remove membrane-bound {sup 125}I-CCK, and this finding was validated for trypsin by electron microscope autotradiography. When internalization of {sup 125}I-CCK was evaluated as a function of the medium concentration of CCK, both high- and low-affinity components were observed. These results suggest that high-affinity CCK binding and CCK internalization are separate temperature-sensitive processes. Moreover, internalization is not uniquely associated with high-affinity binding.

  2. Stabilization and Anomalous Hydration of Collagen Fibril under Heating

    PubMed Central

    Gevorkian, Sasun G.; Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Gevorgyan, David S.; Simonian, Aleksandr L.; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2013-01-01

    Background Type I collagen is the most common protein among higher vertebrates. It forms the basis of fibrous connective tissues (tendon, chord, skin, bones) and ensures mechanical stability and strength of these tissues. It is known, however, that separate triple-helical collagen macromolecules are unstable at physiological temperatures. We want to understand the mechanism of collagen stability at the intermolecular level. To this end, we study the collagen fibril, an intermediate level in the collagen hierarchy between triple-helical macromolecule and tendon. Methodology/Principal Finding When heating a native fibril sample, its Young’s modulus decreases in temperature range 20–58°C due to partial denaturation of triple-helices, but it is approximately constant at 58–75°C, because of stabilization by inter-molecular interactions. The stabilization temperature range 58–75°C has two further important features: here the fibril absorbs water under heating and the internal friction displays a peak. We relate these experimental findings to restructuring of collagen triple-helices in fibril. A theoretical description of the experimental results is provided via a generalization of the standard Zimm-Bragg model for the helix-coil transition. It takes into account intermolecular interactions of collagen triple-helices in fibril and describes water adsorption via the Langmuir mechanism. Conclusion/Significance We uncovered an inter-molecular mechanism that stabilizes the fibril made of unstable collagen macromolecules. This mechanism can be relevant for explaining stability of collagen. PMID:24244320

  3. Collagen-induced thrombosis in murine arteries and veins.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Brian C

    2013-01-01

    Collagen is a powerful thrombotic stimulus that functions by direct and indirect binding to various platelet receptors. A variety of collagen types are known and several (e.g., collagen Types I, III, IV) are found in vascular tissues and are exposed upon disruption of the endothelium or more extensive vessel wall rupture. Some murine models of thrombosis purport to expose collagen to initiate thrombosis, however, the nature and extent of this exposure is not clear. This study was undertaken to place a known collagen-dominated surface into the in vivo arterial or venous circulation as a method for direct study of collagen-induced thrombosis in mice. The epigastric artery was removed from donor mice and a microsuture with attached needle was knotted into one cut end. Anesthetized mice had this needle/suture/small-artery inserted into and out of a 0.5-mm length of the larger carotid artery or femoral vein, leaving the collagen-rich adventitial surface of the epigastric artery intralumenally in the larger vessel. Extensive platelet and fibrin deposition on this surface were in evidence and were quantitated with fluorescence imaging; administration of clopidogrel reduced thrombus development in both arteries and veins. A method was developed to evert the epigastric artery and disrupt the exteriorized endothelium; with the same needle/suture vessel-insertion technique, this surface stimulated significantly less thrombotic response in both arteries and veins, suggesting differential thrombogenesis based on the molecular composition of the induction factor. This new model of thrombosis offers a method for directly assessing the role of collagen-mediated thrombosis in murine arteries and veins. PMID:23063056

  4. Unit Title: Imaging the Insertion of Superecliptic pHluorin Labeled Dopamine D2 Receptor Using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kathryn M.; Li, Yun; Lin, Da-Ting

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of mechanisms governing receptor insertion to the plasma membrane (PM) requires an experimental approach with excellent spatial and temporal resolutions. Here we present a strategy that enables dynamic visualization of insertion events for dopamine D2 receptors into the PM. This approach includes tagging a pH-sensitive GFP, superecliptic pHluorin, to the extracellular domain of the receptor. By imaging pHluorin-tagged receptors under total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM), we were able to directly visualize individual receptor insertion events into the PM in cultured neurons. This novel imaging approach can be applied to both secreted proteins and many membrane proteins with an extracellular domain labeled with superecliptic pHluorin, and will ultimately allow for detailed dissections of the key mechanisms governing secretion of soluble proteins or the insertion of different membrane proteins to the PM. PMID:25559003

  5. Role of FQQI motif in the internalization, trafficking, and signaling of guanylyl-cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A in cultured murine mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Mani, Indra; Garg, Renu; Pandey, Kailash N

    2016-01-01

    Binding of the cardiac hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) to transmembrane guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA), produces the intracellular second messenger cGMP in target cells. To delineate the critical role of an endocytic signal in intracellular sorting of the receptor, we have identified a FQQI (Phe(790), Gln(791), Gln(792), and Ile(793)) motif in the carboxyl-terminal region of NPRA. Mouse mesangial cells (MMCs) were transiently transfected with the enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP)-tagged wild-type (WT) and mutant constructs of eGFP-NPRA. The mutation FQQI/AAAA, in the eGFP-NPRA cDNA sequence, markedly attenuated the internalization of mutant receptors by almost 49% compared with the WT receptor. Interestingly, we show that the μ1B subunit of adaptor protein-1 binds directly to a phenylalanine-based FQQI motif in the cytoplasmic tail of the receptor. However, subcellular trafficking indicated that immunofluorescence colocalization of the mutated receptor with early endosome antigen-1 (EEA-1), lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1), and Rab 11 marker was decreased by 57% in early endosomes, 48% in lysosomes, and 42% in recycling endosomes, respectively, compared with the WT receptor in MMCs. The receptor containing the mutated motif (FQQI/AAAA) also produced a significantly decreased level of intracellular cGMP during subcellular trafficking than the WT receptor. The coimmunoprecipitation assay confirmed a decreased level of colocalization of the mutant receptor with subcellular compartments during endocytic processes. The results suggest that the FQQI motif is essential for the internalization and subcellular trafficking of NPRA during the hormone signaling process in intact MMCs. PMID:26377794

  6. International Validation of Two Human Recombinant Estrogen Receptor (ERa) Binding Assays

    EPA Science Inventory

    An international validation study has been successfully completed for 2 competitive binding assays using human recombinant ERa. Assays evaluated included the Freyberger-Wilson (FW) assay using a full length human ER, and the Chemical Evaluation and Research Institute (CERI) assay...

  7. Down-regulation does not mediate natriuretic peptide-dependent desensitization of natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A or NPR-B: guanylyl cyclase-linked natriuretic peptide receptors do not internalize.

    PubMed

    Fan, Danhua; Bryan, Paula M; Antos, Laura K; Potthast, Regine J; Potter, Lincoln R

    2005-01-01

    Natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR-A/GC-A) and B (NPR-B/GC-B) are members of the transmembrane guanylyl cyclase family that mediate the effects of natriuretic peptides via the second messenger, cGMP. Despite numerous reports of these receptors being down-regulated in response to various pathological conditions, no studies have actually measured desensitization and receptor internalization in the same cell line. Furthermore, the ligand-dependent trafficking properties of NPR-A remain controversial, whereas nothing is known about the trafficking of NPR-B. In this report, we tested whether down-regulation explains the ligand-dependent desensitization of NPR-A and NPR-B and characterized their trafficking properties using a combination of hormone-binding and antibody-based assays. Quantitative partition analysis indicated that (125)I-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was rapidly released into the medium after 293T cells stably expressing NPR-A were warmed from 4 degrees to 37 degrees C. High-performance liquid chromatography fractionation of medium supplemented with the protease inhibitor phosphoramidon indicated that the (125)I-ANP was mostly intact. In contrast, (125)I-ANP purified from medium bathing cells expressing NPR-C, a receptor known to internalize natriuretic peptides, was degraded. Cleavable biotinylation and noncleavable biotinylation assays indicated that neither NPR-A nor NPR-B was internalized or degraded in response to natriuretic peptide binding. In contrast, agonist-dependent internalization of a G protein-coupled receptor was clearly apparent in the same cell line. Finally, we show that NPR-A and NPR-B are desensitized in cells in which they are not internalized. We suggest that mechanisms other than receptor down-regulation account for the desensitization of NPR-A and NPR-B that occurs in response to various physiological and pathological stimuli. PMID:15459247

  8. Collagen dynamics of partial small bowel obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Stromberg, B.V.; Klein, L.

    1984-08-01

    The response of intestinal collagen to obstruction and stress was studied in the rat. Partial small bowel obstructions were created. Preobstruction collagen was measured by injection of tritium labeled proline. New collagen formation after obstruction occurred was followed by injection of carbon-14 labeled proline. At 3 weeks, collagen fractions were identified. Throughout the study, preexisting preobstruction intestinal collagen was metabolically stable with no breakdown or remodeling demonstrable. New collagen formation was rapid and occurred to the largest degree close to the obstruction.

  9. Phenethyl pyridines with non-polar internal substituents as selective ligands for estrogen receptor beta.

    PubMed

    Waibel, Michael; Kieser, Karen J; Carlson, Kathryn E; Stossi, Fabio; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S; Katzenellenbogen, John A

    2009-09-01

    To create estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta)-selective ligands with improved biological characteristics, we have extended our investigations of structurally simple bibenzyl-core ligands by preparing a series of compounds in which one phenol is replaced by a 3-hydroxypyridine ring. These phenethyl pyridines were obtained by picoline anion alkylation, and compounds with different patterns of alkyl substitution on the central two carbon units were prepared. Binding affinities for ERalpha and ERbeta were determined, and ligands with promising affinities and selectivities for ERbeta were further tested for their gene transcriptional activity. Several compounds had high affinity selectivity and good potency selectivity in transcription assays. This study advances our understanding of compounds having ER-subtype selectivity and will help to direct efforts in developing novel ER ligands. PMID:19394116

  10. The Golgi-associated PDZ Domain Protein PIST/GOPC Stabilizes the β1-Adrenergic Receptor in Intracellular Compartments after Internalization*

    PubMed Central

    Koliwer, Judith; Park, Minjong; Bauch, Carola; von Zastrow, Mark; Kreienkamp, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Many G-protein-coupled receptors carry C-terminal ligand motifs for PSD-95/discs large/ZO-1 (PDZ) domains; via interaction with PDZ domain-containing scaffold proteins, this allows for integration of receptors into signaling complexes. However, the presence of PDZ domain proteins attached to intracellular membranes suggests that PDZ-type interactions may also contribute to subcellular sorting of receptors. The protein interacting specifically with Tc10 (PIST; also known as GOPC) is a trans-Golgi-associated protein that interacts through its single PDZ domain with a variety of cell surface receptors. Here we show that PIST controls trafficking of the interacting β1-adrenergic receptor both in the anterograde, biosynthetic pathway and during postendocytic recycling. Overexpression and knockdown experiments show that PIST leads to retention of the receptor in the trans-Golgi network (TGN), to the effect that overexpressed PIST reduces activation of the MAPK pathway by β1-adrenergic receptor (β1AR) agonists. Receptors can be released from retention in the TGN by coexpression of the plasma membrane-associated scaffold PSD-95, which allows for transport of receptors to the plasma membrane. Stimulation of β1 receptors and activation of the cAMP pathway lead to relocation of PIST from the TGN to an endosome-like compartment. Here PIST colocalizes with SNX1 and the internalized β1AR and protects endocytosed receptors from lysosomal degradation. In agreement, β1AR levels are decreased in hippocampi of PIST-deficient mice. Our data suggest that PIST contributes to the fine-tuning of β1AR sorting both during biosynthetic and postendocytic trafficking. PMID:25614626