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Sample records for colombian pacific coast

  1. [The red tide caused by the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense in the Colombian Pacific coast (2001)].

    PubMed

    García-Hansen, Ingrid; Cortés-Altamirano, Roberto; Sierra-Beltrán, Arturo P

    2004-09-01

    From April 26th to May 15th 2001, a large algae bloom was observed off Tumaco Bay on the Pacific coast of Colombia. This was the first harmful algae bloom (HAB) reported in the region, and reached Gorgona Island, about 120 km north. A year later, starting March 2002, an offshore HAB developed from Cabo Corrientes North to Solano Bay. The typical abundance during the blooms reached 7.5 x 10(6) cells l(-1) for the 2001 event and 1.6 x 10(6) cells l(-1) for the 2002 event. During both events, low temperature and high salinity were recorded. Typical measurements in the area are 27-27.5 degrees C and 30-31.5 psu. Values observed during the two events were 24-24.6 degrees C and 33-34 psu; 3 degrees C below normal and more than 2.5 psu above average values. These conditions are indicative of local upwelling processes at the time of the events. On both occasions, cells corresponding to the Alexandrium catenella/fundeyense/tamarense complex represented 99-100% of the biomass. It was difficult to differentiate the cells from A. catenella, but the presence of short chains of only 4 cells (single cells represented most of the biomass) was suggestive of A. tamarense. Shape, dimensions, and detailed structure of the apical pore complex, first apical plate, posterior sulcal plate, and position of the ventral pore on plate 1' of cells were consistent with the description of A. tamarense, which has not been reported in the tropical East Pacific. The Control Center of Pacific Contamination of the Maritime General Direction of the Colombian Navy has been monitoring the area since 1994 without finding this species or HABs. This leads us to consider the two events as caused by recently introduced species, where local upwelling processes favor permanent and cyclic HABs. However, during these two events, there were no reports of effects on marine biota or of human poisoning, probably because the blooms occurred some distance offshore and far from exploited shellfish beds. PMID:17465118

  2. Multiple Distant Origins for Green Sea Turtles Aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian Eastern Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Amorocho, Diego F.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto; Dutton, Peter H.; Reina, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG) in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp) revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%). The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%). Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean. PMID:22319635

  3. Conservation Genetics of the Scalloped Hammerhead Shark in the Pacific Coast of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Quintanilla, Sonia; Gómez, Alberto; Mariño-Ramírez, Camila; Sorzano, Carolina; Bessudo, Sandra; Soler, German; Bernal, Jaime E; Caballero, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the population genetics of the scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) in the Eastern Tropical Pacific have lacked information about nursery areas. Such areas are key to promoting conservation initiatives that can protect young sharks from threats such as overfishing. Here, we investigated the genetic diversity, phylogeography, and connectivity of S. lewini found in 3 areas of Colombia's Pacific coast: around Malpelo Island and in 2 National Natural Parks on the Colombian Pacific mainland (Sanquianga and Ensenada de Utría). We analyzed mtDNA control region (CR) sequences and genotyped 15 microsatellite loci in 137 samples of adults and juveniles. The mtDNA analyses showed haplotypes shared between the Colombian Pacific individuals sampled in this investigation and other areas in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, the Indo-Pacific, and with sequences previously reported in Colombia (Buenaventura Port), as well as 4 unique haplotypes. Population assignment and paternity analyses detected 3 parent-offspring pairs between Malpelo and Sanquianga and 1 between Malpelo and Utría. These results indicate high genetic connectivity between Malpelo Island and the Colombian Pacific coast, suggesting that these 2 areas are nurseries for S. lewini. This is, to our knowledge, the first evidence of nursery areas identified for the scalloped hammerhead shark anywhere in the world. Additional conservation planning may be required to protect these nursery habitats of this endangered shark species. PMID:26245780

  4. Malaria vectors in ecologically heterogeneous localities of the Colombian Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Naranjo-Díaz, Nelson; Altamiranda, Mariano; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E; Correa, Margarita M

    2014-01-01

    The Colombian Pacific region is second nationally in number of malaria cases reported. This zone presents great ecological heterogeneity and Anopheles species diversity. However, little is known about the current spatial and temporal distribution of vector species. This study, conducted in three ecologically different localities of the Pacific region, aimed to evaluate the composition and distribution of Anopheles species and characterize transmission intensity. A total of 4,016 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected representing seven species. The composition and dominant species differed in each locality. Three species were infected with malaria parasites: Anopheles darlingi and An. calderoni were infected with Plasmodium falciparum and An. nuneztovari with Plasmodium vivax VK210 and VK247. Annual EIRs varied from 3.5-7.2 infective bites per year. These results confirm the importance of the primary vector An. nuneztovari in areas disturbed by human interventions, of An. darlingi in deforested margins of humid tropical rainforest and An. albimanus and the suspected vector An. calderoni in areas impacted by urbanization and large-scale palm oil agriculture close to the coast. This constitutes the first report in the Colombia Pacific region of naturally infected An. darlingi, and in Colombia of naturally infected An. calderoni. Further studies should evaluate the epidemiological importance of An. calderoni in the Pacific region. PMID:25090233

  5. Malaria Vectors in Ecologically Heterogeneous Localities of the Colombian Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo-Díaz, Nelson; Altamiranda, Mariano; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E.; Correa, Margarita M.

    2014-01-01

    The Colombian Pacific region is second nationally in number of malaria cases reported. This zone presents great ecological heterogeneity and Anopheles species diversity. However, little is known about the current spatial and temporal distribution of vector species. This study, conducted in three ecologically different localities of the Pacific region, aimed to evaluate the composition and distribution of Anopheles species and characterize transmission intensity. A total of 4,016 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected representing seven species. The composition and dominant species differed in each locality. Three species were infected with malaria parasites: Anopheles darlingi and An. calderoni were infected with Plasmodium falciparum and An. nuneztovari with Plasmodium vivax VK210 and VK247. Annual EIRs varied from 3.5–7.2 infective bites per year. These results confirm the importance of the primary vector An. nuneztovari in areas disturbed by human interventions, of An. darlingi in deforested margins of humid tropical rainforest and An. albimanus and the suspected vector An. calderoni in areas impacted by urbanization and large-scale palm oil agriculture close to the coast. This constitutes the first report in the Colombia Pacific region of naturally infected An. darlingi, and in Colombia of naturally infected An. calderoni. Further studies should evaluate the epidemiological importance of An. calderoni in the Pacific region. PMID:25090233

  6. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes... the purposes of this section, “Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes” and their “usual and...

  7. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes... the purposes of this section, “Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes” and their “usual and...

  8. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes... the purposes of this section, “Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes” and their “usual and...

  9. [Taxonomic composition and distribution of the echinoderms associations in the littoral ecosystems from the Colombian Pacific].

    PubMed

    Neira, Raúl; Cantera, Jaime R

    2005-12-01

    This paper examines published information and gray literature about taxonomy and ecology of echinoderm species of the Colombian Pacific Coast. Unpublished collection data of specimens kept in the Marine Sciences Museum of the University of Valle are also considered. Sixty-six species are found in coastal ecosystems and shallow bottoms of ten geographical, coastal and insular localities of the Pacific coast of Colombia. Main habitats having echinoderms are: rocky cliffs and shores, coral reefs, sand beaches, mud substrates, mangroves, and shallow bottoms of mud, sand, gravel and rocks. Regular Echinoidea and Asteroidea are the most diverse and abundant groups, mainly in subtidal rocky shallow bottoms and coral reefs. Ophiuroidea are abundant below rocky boulders. Irregular Echinoidea are abundant on sand beaches. The relatively high number of species shows that this geographical area presents a high diversity of echinoderms compared with other tropical shallow and littoral zones of the world. Rocky substrates and coral reefs are the ecosystems with the highest numbers of echinoderm species and individuals. A conservation status assessment is difficult because the lack of periodical sampling and few data about deep zones. In general, the species reported in the last 25 years, have not experimented important changes in their populations, although in some specific places, populations may decrease because human activities in coastal areas increase sedimentation rates change some rocky substrates to mud or sand. PMID:17471612

  10. Spectral wave conditions in the Colombian Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portilla, Jesús; Caicedo, Ana Lucía; Padilla-Hernández, Roberto; Cavaleri, Luigi

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive characterization of the wave conditions in the Colombian Pacific based on wave spectra is presented. The spectral approach offers a detailed description of the different wave regimes, their associated meteorological conditions and their variation in time and geographical space. To this end, two complementary data sources are used, the first is representative for the near-shore zone and comes from observations of the local monitoring network. The second comes from numerical wave model results that cover the open ocean. The measured data used are the first systematically collected spectral wave data in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific. Modelled spectra correspond to the ERA-Interim database of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts that spans 35 years. An indicator for statistical analysis of the wave spectra has been introduced which basically consists of the occurrence probability of spectral partitions. This indicator has proved to be skilful for the task of defining spectral wave systems of both model and, the more challenging, measured spectra. Following the spectral approach and using this new indicator, six main wave regimes are found in the study area. Two of these systems have well defined swell characteristics that are originated outside the study area in the northern and southern hemispheres. Other three wave systems are to a certain extent associated to the local winds, and in general may be classified as old wind-seas. These are found to flow northeastwards, westwards, and southwards. The sixth system is composed of locally generated wind waves of relatively low magnitude that propagate in several directions. The time variability of these wave systems is highly dependent on the boreal and austral winter storms and on the tropical conditions, in such a way that the wave energy propagation to the region is rather constant along the year, but their origin and characteristics vary significantly.

  11. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  12. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  13. Common Elements Treatment Approach based on a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention: implementation in the Colombian Pacific.

    PubMed

    Pacichana-Quinayáz, Sara Gabriela; Osorio-Cuéllar, Gisel Viviana; Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco Javier; Fandiño-Losada, Andrés; Gutiérrez-Martínez, María Isabel

    2016-06-01

    Due to the limited supply of mental health services for Afro-Colombian victims of violence, a Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA) intervention has been implemented in the Colombian Pacific. Given the importance of improvement in mental health interventions for this population, it is necessary to characterize this process. This article seeks to describe the implementation of CETA for Afro-Colombian victims of violence in Buenaventura and Quibdó, Colombia through case studieswith individual in-depth interviews with Lay Psychosocial Community Workers (LPCW), supervisors, and coordinators responsible for implementing CETA. From this six core categories were obtained: 1. Effect of armed conflict and poverty 2. Trauma severity 3. Perceived changes with CETA 4. Characteristics and LPCW's performance 5. Afro-Colombian culturalapproach and 6. Strategies to promote users' well-being.Colombian Pacific's scenario implies several factors, such as the active armed conflict, economic crisis, and lack of mental health care resources, affecting the implementation process and the intervention effects. This implies the need to establish and strengthen partnerships between institutions in order to administer necessary mental health care for victims of violence in the Colombian Pacific. PMID:27276543

  14. Diseases of Pacific Coast conifers. Agriculture handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Scharpf, R.F.

    1993-06-01

    The handbook provides basic information needed to identify the common diseases of Pacific Coast conifers. Hosts, distribution, disease cycles, and identifying characteristics are described for more than 150 diseases, including cankers, diebacks, galls, rusts, needle diseases, root diseases, mistletoes, and rots. Diseases in which abiotic factors are involved are also described. For some groups of diseases, a descriptive key to field identification is included.

  15. 50 CFR 600.1102 - Pacific Coast groundfish fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast groundfish fee. 600.1102... Fishing Capacity Reduction Regulations § 600.1102 Pacific Coast groundfish fee. (a) Purpose. This section implements the fee for repaying the reduction loan financing the Pacific Coast Groundfish Program...

  16. 50 CFR 600.1102 - Pacific Coast groundfish fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast groundfish fee. 600.1102... Fishing Capacity Reduction Regulations § 600.1102 Pacific Coast groundfish fee. (a) Purpose. This section implements the fee for repaying the reduction loan financing the Pacific Coast Groundfish Program...

  17. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie evidence that the holder is a member of the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  18. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie evidence that the holder is a member of the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  19. 50 CFR 600.1102 - Pacific Coast groundfish fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast groundfish fee. 600.1102... Fishing Capacity Reduction Regulations § 600.1102 Pacific Coast groundfish fee. (a) Purpose. This section implements the fee for repaying the reduction loan financing the Pacific Coast Groundfish Program...

  20. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie evidence that the holder is a member of the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  1. 50 CFR 600.1102 - Pacific Coast groundfish fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific Coast groundfish fee. 600.1102... Fishing Capacity Reduction Regulations § 600.1102 Pacific Coast groundfish fee. (a) Purpose. This section implements the fee for repaying the reduction loan financing the Pacific Coast Groundfish Program...

  2. 50 CFR 660.324 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... tribal consensus. (e) Identification. A valid treaty Indian identification card issued pursuant to 25 CFR... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.324 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  3. 50 CFR 600.1102 - Pacific Coast groundfish fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast groundfish fee. 600.1102... Fishing Capacity Reduction Regulations § 600.1102 Pacific Coast groundfish fee. (a) Purpose. This section implements the fee for repaying the reduction loan financing the Pacific Coast Groundfish Program...

  4. 75 FR 11515 - Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU32 Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Application for an Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY... implementing the provisions of Amendment 10 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan...

  5. 78 FR 2254 - Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC397 Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Application for an Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY... INFORMATION: This action is authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) and...

  6. Energy resources of Pacific Coast of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Bueno Salazar, R.

    1986-07-01

    Despite failure of modest exploration efforts to yield commercial hydrocarbon production in the Choco-Pacific coastal basin of Colombia, recent geophysical, geochemical, and surface geologic investigations indicate a potential for petroleum accumulations, which could be related to fields located on the western basins of Ecuador that in fact constitute an extension of the Colombian Pacific geologic scheme. The Choco-Pacific coastal basin of Colombia covers an area of approximately 70,000 km/sup 2/, of which 14,000 km/sup 2/ lies offshore. The structural style of this area corresponds to a convergent plate basin created over folded oceanic sediments and adjacent to the subduction zone. Such a framework could be conducive to an attractive array of potential hydrocarbon-bearing traps. Geochemical knowledge of potential source rocks of Cretaceous and early Tertiary age confers an added attraction to the area. Most evaluations reveal kerogen-rich, gas-prone organic matter. Nevertheless, the existence of oil seeps from Cretaceous outcrops could indicate sufficient thermal maturity for oil generation. Adequate reservoirs could be found in sandy or calcareous rocks of late Eocene to Oligocene age, predominantly of marine origin with an estimated thickness exceeding 20,000 ft. Colombia has been one of the leading world producers of gold and platinum, mostly derived from the vast alluvial cover of the onshore area of the basin. In rocks cropping out in the Western Cordillera (eastern margin of the basin), deposits of potentially commercial value of porphyry copper and molybdenum, as well as massive sulfur, manganese, and bauxite, have been found.

  7. Changes on the coastline of buenaventura bay (colombian pacific) and its relationship with the climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coca-Domínguez, Oswaldo; Ricaurte-Villota, Constanza; Andres Ordoñez, Silvio

    2016-04-01

    Some authors point out that the variability of a coastal system is the response of physical factors (climate, waves, currents, wind, etc.) or combination of some of them, for example long-term variations in the relationship between climate and supply of sedimentary material. For Colombian Pacific coast it has been said that the regimen of meso-tidal is one of the agents that contribute to changes in the morphology of the littoral zone. Between 2012-2015 was conducted a research in the mouth of Buenaventura Bay (Colombia Pacific coast), using two stations: Soldado point (southern point of the bay) and Bazan point (the northern point of the bay), for those stations the digital elevation model (DEM) was performed using a DGPS with technology GNSS the recent evolution of the coastline and changes in volume of sand from beaches for two scalar approaches were determined: annual and intra-annual. The use of ArcGIS 3D Analyst in the DEMs allowed to calculate the cubic area between the raised surfaces each month. Changes in the coastline were made using Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) an ARCGIS extension. We used zonal and meridional components of the wind data near the coast from WindSat, rainfall and sea level anomaly data from the database AVISO (Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic), and sea level pressure (SLP) from NCEP/NCAR (National Center for Environmental Prediction/ National Center for Atmospheric Research), in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Finally, climatic variables were correlated with the rates of coastal erosion and changes in sand volume of the beaches, because wind and precipitation are some of the factors in sediment transport. The study showed erosion rates with negative values in 2014 and 2015 that represent loss of land, the intra-annual variability in September and October were the highest loss of land, this coincides with the values of the highest tides of the

  8. Tsunami hazard assessment in the Colombian Caribbean Coast with a deterministic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero Diaz, L.; Correa, R.; Ortiz R, J. C.; Restrepo L, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    For the Caribbean Sea, we propose six potential tectonic sources of tsunami, defining for each source the worst credible earthquake from the analysis of historical seismicity, tectonics, pasts tsunami, and review of IRIS, PDE, NOAA, and CMT catalogs. The generation and propagation of tsunami waves in the selected sources were simulated with COMCOT 1.7, which is a numerical model that solves the linear and nonlinear long wave equations in finite differences in both Cartesian, and spherical coordinates. The results of the modeling are presented in maps of maximum displacement of the free surface for the Colombian Caribbean coast and the island areas, and they show that the event would produce greater impact is generated in the source of North Panama Deformed Belt (NPDB), where the first wave train reaches the central Colombian coast in 40 minutes, generating wave heights up to 3.7 m. In San Andrés and Providencia island, tsunami waves reach more than 4.5 m due effects of edge waves caused by interactions between waves and a barrier coral reef around of each island. The results obtained in this work are useful for planning systems and future regional and local warning systems and to identify priority areas to conduct detailed research to the tsunami threat.

  9. 75 FR 12729 - Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU95 Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Application for an Exempted Fishing Permit...

  10. 75 FR 32993 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ...NMFS proposes measures to initiate implementation of Amendments 20 and 21 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). Amendment 20 would establish a trawl rationalization program for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery. Amendment 20's trawl rationalization program would consist of: An individual fishing quota (IFQ) program for the shore-based trawl fleet (including whiting......

  11. 75 FR 13081 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XRO1 Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... trawl rationalization program that would affect the limited entry trawl fishery of the Pacific...

  12. 76 FR 28897 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ...This final rule establishes the 2011 fishery harvest specifications for Pacific whiting in the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) and state waters off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California, as authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). These specifications include the overfishing level (OFL), catch limits, and allocations for the non-tribal commercial......

  13. 77 FR 65639 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off the West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off the West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Pacific Whiting and Non... October 4, 2012. This action is authorized by regulations implementing the Pacific Coast Groundfish... available for harvest to other sectors of the trawl fishery. For 2012 the Washington Coast treaty...

  14. 75 FR 33196 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Suspension of the Primary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Suspension of the Primary Pacific Whiting Season for the Shore... announces the suspension of the Pacific whiting (whiting) fishery primary season for the shore-based sector... reinstated until 0001 hours June 15, 2010, at which time the primary season for the shore-based sector...

  15. Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

  16. The first report of a microdiverse anammox bacteria community in waters of Colombian Pacific, a transition area between prominent oxygen minimum zones of the eastern tropical Pacific.

    PubMed

    Castro-González, M; Molina, V; Rodríguez-Rubio, E; Ulloa, O

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidizers contribute to the removal of fixed nitrogen in oxygen-deficient marine ecosystems such as oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we surveyed for the first time the occurrence and diversity of anammox bacteria in the Colombian Pacific, a transition area between the prominent South and North Pacific OMZs. Anammox bacteria were detected in the coastal and oceanic areas of the Colombian Pacific in low oxygen (< 22 μM), high nitrate (25–35 μM) and low nitrite (< 0.07 μM), and ammonium (< 1 μM) waters. In these waters, anammox bacteria were rich [∼ 7 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 98% cut-off) and microdiverse (Shannon index H′ < 1.24), in comparison with the observed at the prominent OMZ of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific, Arabian Sea and Black Sea. Anammox bacteria-like sequences from the Colombian Pacific were grouped together with sequences retrieved from the distinct OMZ's marine subclusters (Peru, Northern Chile and Arabian Sea) within Candidatus ‘Scalindua spp’. Moreover, some anammox bacteria OTUs shared a low similarity with environmental phylotypes (86–94%). Our results indicated that a microdiverse anammox community inhabits the Colombian Pacific, generating new questions about the ecological and biogeochemical differences influencing its community structure. PMID:25756112

  17. 75 FR 41383 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ....gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and documents are available at the Pacific Fishery... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). The final rule to implement the 2009-2010... (74 FR 9874). This final rule was subsequently amended by inseason actions on April 27, 2009 (74...

  18. 75 FR 38030 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ....gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and documents are available at the Pacific Fishery... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). A final rule was published on March 6, 2009 (74 FR 9874), which codified the specifications and management measures in the CFR (50 CFR part...

  19. 75 FR 39178 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ....gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and documents are available at the Pacific Fishery... Council. Copies of the Record of Decision (ROD), final regulatory flexibility analysis (FRFA), and the... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516), including, among other species,...

  20. 75 FR 51684 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). The final rule to implement the 2009-2010....gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and documents are available at the Pacific Fishery... (74 FR 9874). This final rule was subsequently amended by inseason actions on April 27, 2009 (74...

  1. 77 FR 45508 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...This action delays some and revises other portions of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Trawl Rationalization Program (program) regulations. These changes are necessary to enable the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to implement new regulations for the program to comply with a court order requiring NMFS to reconsider the initial allocation of Pacific whiting (whiting) to the......

  2. 75 FR 75449 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ...: The proposed rule that published on November 3, 2010 (75 FR 67810), establishes the 2011-2012 harvest... National Standard 1 Guidelines (74 FR 3178, January 16, 2009). The proposed rule published in the Federal... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Comment Period...

  3. 76 FR 68658 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Harvest Specifications and Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... measures for most species (75 FR 27508, May 11, 2011), in part pursuant to NMFS' emergency authority under... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BA01 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Harvest Specifications and Management Measures for the Remainder of...

  4. Paleogeography of Cretaceous ammonoids of the Pacific coast of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagt-Yazykova, E. A.; Zonova, T. D.

    2012-05-01

    This work presents the results of a study of the biogeographical distribution of Late Albian-Maastrichtian ammonites, found in sequences of the Pacific coast of Russia. The taxa typical of the Pacific Realm were identified, and their distribution traced beyond the borders of this region. In addition, species-migrants, distributed within the studied area were established. As a results of our works, a high level of endemism of ammonite fauna of the East of Russia was noted (75-88% of endemic species, on average). The bipolarity, previously established in the distribution of ammonoids within the Pacific Paleobiogeographical Realm, as well as their high regional provincialism, was confirmed. The following division of the studied area into faunal ammonite provinces in the Late Cretaceous was proposed: Arctic Province; Boreal-Pacific Province, including northeastern Russia (Chukotka Peninsula, the Koryak Upland, Penzhyna Gulf) and the boreal coast of North America (Alaska Peninsula, Arctic Canada and British Columbia); Northwest Pacific Province, including the Primorye Territory, Sakhalin and Shikotan Islands, the Japanese Islands; Northeast Province of the Pacific (the western coast of the United States and Mexico); Southwest Pacific (Australia, New Zealand, Oceania) and Southeast (the western coast of South America and Antarctica, Seymour and James Ross Islands) Provinces. This division is confirmed by data on inoceramid species. In addition, levels of global transgressions and general sea level rise, associated with the appearances of most of widespread marine taxa in the Pacific shelf seas, are established. These include Late Albian, Cenomanian-Turonian boundary, Late Coniacian, Late Campanian, Early-Late Maastrichtian boundary. Moreover, migration of ammonites occurred due to the Tethys Ocean extension and followed the northern sea straits in the Arctic Ocean and within the Pacific Realm, depending on warm currents. Both the counter and one-way migrations were

  5. Adaptive capacity of fishing communities at marine protected areas: a case study from the Colombian Pacific.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Sánchez, Rocío del Pilar; Maldonado, Jorge Higinio

    2013-12-01

    Departing from a theoretical methodology, we estimate empirically an index of adaptive capacity (IAC) of a fishing community to the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs). We carried out household surveys, designed to obtain information for indicators and sub-indicators, and calculated the IAC. Moreover, we performed a sensitivity analysis to check for robustness of the results. Our findings show that, despite being located between two MPAs, the fishing community of Bazán in the Colombian Pacific is highly vulnerable and that the socioeconomic dimension of the IAC constitutes the most binding dimension for building adaptive capacity. Bazán is characterized by extreme poverty, high dependence on resources, and lack of basic public infrastructure. Notwithstanding, social capital and local awareness about ecological conditions may act as enhancers of adaptive capacity. The establishment of MPAs should consider the development of strategies to confer adaptive capacity to local communities highly dependent on resource extraction. PMID:24213997

  6. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) (u&a grounds for groundfish); 50 CFR 300.64(i) (u&a grounds for halibut)). The u&a grounds recognized... valid treaty Indian identification card issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights....

  7. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) (u&a grounds for groundfish); 50 CFR 300.64(i) (u&a grounds for halibut)). The u&a grounds recognized... valid treaty Indian identification card issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights....

  8. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) (u&a grounds for groundfish); 50 CFR 300.64(i) (u&a grounds for halibut)). The u&a grounds recognized... valid treaty Indian identification card issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights....

  9. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) (u&a grounds for groundfish); 50 CFR 300.64(i) (u&a grounds for halibut)). The u&a grounds recognized... valid treaty Indian identification card issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights....

  10. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) (u&a grounds for groundfish); 50 CFR 300.64(i) (u&a grounds for halibut)). The u&a grounds recognized... valid treaty Indian identification card issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights....

  11. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie evidence that the holder is a member of the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660.50 Section 660.50 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...

  12. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie evidence that the holder is a member of the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660.50 Section 660.50 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...

  13. Marine diatom biostratigraphy in Pacific Coast neogene basins

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, J.A.

    1988-03-01

    Marine diatoms offer a powerful tool for correlation in the Monterey Formation and related fine-grained siliceous rocks deposited in Pacific Coast basins during the late early Miocene (18 Ma) to the earliest Pliocene (4 Ma). In offshore regions, their biostratigraphic usefulness extends to the late Pliocene and Quaternary. In contrast to other microfossil groups, diatoms are abundant and diverse in cold waters, such as those that have typified the US pacific coast since 14 m.y. (latest Luisian benthic foraminiferal stage). Miocene diatom zones can be readily correlated throughout the North Pacific. Correlations with standard tropical microfossil zonations are well established, and an age resolution approaching 200,000-300,000 years is possible. Diatom frustules, however, are readily destroyed by diagenesis, so they are absent in the porcelanite and chert that typify most lower units of the Monterey Formation. In such circumstances, diatoms are commonly preserved in primary dolomites (beds and concretions), and diatom biostratigraphy can be applied.

  14. Latitudinal gradients in tertiary molluscan faunas of the Pacific coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Addicott, W.O.

    1970-01-01

    Tertiary molluscan faunas of the middle latitudes of the marginal eastern North Pacific are characterized by warm-water taxa whose descendants now live in more southerly latitudes. A series of profiles in which cumulative percentages of warm-water faunal elements are plotted against latitude show progressive northward decreases in the percentage of these elements in the faunas of Pacific coast Tertiary stages. Systematic changes in the relative position of these latitudinal gradients during the Middle and Late Tertiary are related to climatic change in the Pacific Basin. Widespread tropical marine climate in the middle latitudes of the eastern North Pacific during the Eocene is indicated by widespread faunal units characterized by high levels of taxonomic diversity. Succeeding Early Oligocene faunas are less diverse, suggesting cooler climatic conditions. Unusually low representations of warm-water genera characterize the molluscan faunas of the Acila shumardi Zone in central California (latitude 34??-37??N). The anomalously cool-water aspect of these faunas may record the occurrence of upwelling along a bold linear segment of the Pacific coast. During the Late Oligocene or the Early Miocene, they are replaced by faunas of unusually warm-water aspect resulting in positive anomalies in Miocene latitudinal faunal gradients in central California. The Miocene anomalies seem to result from the development of an irregular Neogene coastline with extensive, newly established shallow-water embayments. ?? 1970.

  15. 75 FR 8820 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... December 31, 2008, (73 FR 80516). The final rule to implement the 2009-2010 specifications and management measures for the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on March 6, 2009 (74 FR 9874). This final... Federal Register's Web site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information...

  16. 76 FR 79122 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... management measures for most species of the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (75 FR 67810). The final rule to... Groundfish Fishery was published on May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27508). This final rule was subsequently amended by inseason actions on June 30, 2011 (76 FR 38313) and October 31, 2011 (76 FR 67092). Additional changes...

  17. 75 FR 61102 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... specifications and management measures for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). The final rule to... Register's Web site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and documents are... published on March 6, 2009 (74 FR 9874). This final rule was subsequently amended by inseason actions...

  18. 76 FR 38313 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... specifications and management measures for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (75 FR 67810). The final rule to... the Office of the Federal Register's Web site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background... Fishery was published on May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27508). These specifications and management measures...

  19. 78 FR 7371 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... million loan to the industry that was to be paid by assessing buyback fees on landings (70 FR 40225, July... FR 33980, June 8, 2012) would establish procedures for the National Appeals Office to review, and if... States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program; Cost Recovery AGENCY:...

  20. 76 FR 11381 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and documents are available at the... management measures for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). The final rule to implement the... on March 6, 2009 (74 FR 9874). The final rule was subsequently amended by inseason actions on...

  1. 77 FR 29955 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... rationalization program for the Pacific coast groundfish fishery's trawl fleet (see 75 FR 78344; Dec. 15, 2010... ANPR on April 4, 2012 (77 FR 20337) that, among other things, announced the court's order, the Council...'' is in the Federal Register. 62 FR 44421; August 21, 1997. This guidance defines an emergency as...

  2. 75 FR 23620 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... via the Internet at the Office of the Federal Register's Web site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index... Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). A final rule was published on March 6, 2009 (74 FR 9874), which... allocation and management of the 2010 tribal Pacific whiting fishery (75 FR 11829). The comment period...

  3. 75 FR 75417 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). The final rule to implement the 2009-2010 specifications and management measures for the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on March 6, 2009 (74 FR 9874). This final... Internet at the Office of the Federal Register's Web site at...

  4. 78 FR 56641 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ...This proposed action would implement revisions to the boundaries of the Rockfish Conservation Area (RCA) that is closed to vessels fishing groundfish with bottom trawl gear. This proposed rule would affect the limited entry bottom trawl sector managed under the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) by liberalizing RCA boundaries in order to improve utilization of target......

  5. 76 FR 67092 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and documents are available at... measures for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (75 FR 67810). The final rule to implement the 2011-2012... May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27508). This final rule was subsequently amended by inseason actions on June...

  6. Distribution of Ochlerotatus togoi along the Pacific coast of Washington.

    PubMed

    Sames, William J; Herman, William E; Florin, David A; Maloney, Francis A

    2004-06-01

    Before this study, the mosquito Ochlerotatus (Finlaya) togoi (Theobald) had been reported from only 2 locations within the continental United States, both of which were documented in Washington State. This study used active and passive surveillance to determine the current distribution of Oc. togoi along the Pacific Coast of Washington. Results of the study show that small, but stable, populations of Oc. togoi exist in the northern San Juan Island region of Puget Sound. Geological formations in this region are conducive to rock holes and support populations of Oc. togoi. No members of Oc. togoi were found on the southwestern Washington coast, the coast of the Olympic Peninsula, or in the lower Puget Sound. PMID:15264615

  7. Storms or cold fronts? What is really responsible for the extreme waves regime in the Colombian Caribbean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, L. J.; Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Ruiz-Merchan, J. K.; Higgins, A. E.; Henriquez, S. A.

    2015-05-01

    On Friday, 7 March 2009, a 200 m-long section of the tourist pier in Puerto Colombia collapsed under the impact of the waves generated by a cold front in the area. The aim of this study is to determine the contribution and importance of cold fronts and storms on extreme waves in different areas of the Colombian Caribbean to determine the degree of the threat posed by the flood processes to which these coastal populations are exposed and the actions to which coastal engineering constructions should be subject. In the calculation of maritime constructions, the most important parameter is the wave's height; therefore, it is necessary to definitively know the design wave height to which a coastal engineering structure should be resistant. This wave height varies according to the return period considered. Using Gumbel's extreme value methodology, the significant height values for the study area were calculated. The methodology was evaluated using data from the re-analysis of the spectral NOAA Wavewatch III (WW3) model for 15 points along the 1600 km of the Colombia Caribbean coast (continental and insular) of the last 15 years. The results demonstrated that the extreme waves caused by tropical cyclones and cold fronts have different effects along the Colombian Caribbean coast. Storms and hurricanes are of greater importance in the Guajira Peninsula (Alta Guajira). In the central area formed by Baja Guajira, Santa Marta, Barranquilla, and Cartagena, the strong influence of cold fronts on extreme waves is evident. On the other hand, in the southern region of the Colombian Caribbean coast, from the Gulf of Morrosquillo to the Gulf of Urabá, even though extreme waves are lower than in the previous regions, extreme waves are dominated mainly by the passage of cold fronts. Extreme waves in the San Andrés and Providencia insular region present a different dynamic from that in the continental area due to its geographic location. The wave heights in the extreme regime are

  8. A survey of pig production systems in the rain forest of the Pacific coast Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ocampo, L M; Leterme, P; Buldgen, A

    2005-05-01

    A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in small-scale pig farms in the rain forest of the Colombian Pacific coast in order to study aspects of reproduction, nutrition and productivity. A total of 124 farmers was interviewed. They owned, on average, 13.6 pigs, including 2.3 sows, mainly of the Zungo breed. Pigs are reared in extensive systems and are allowed to wander freely in search of food. The sows produce, on average, 9.6 piglets/litter but, owing to poor sanitary conditions, 1.5 are born dead and only 6.3 are weaned alive. Two-thirds of the sows have five litters or more and the boars are also kept for a long time. This leads to high consanguinity rates within the herd and low productivity. Diets are based on maize, banana, tubers (taro, cassava) and fruits (peach palm, among others), and are rich in energy but poor in protein and minerals. The lack of protein and mineral sources appears to be the main limiting factor of these extensive production systems. Tree forages could partially solve the problem but are used by only 2% of the farmers. It is concluded that decreasing inbreeding, better piglet management and provision of balanced diets are areas that require immediate improvement. PMID:15934639

  9. Main factors determining bioerosion patterns on rocky cliffs in a drowned valley estuary in the Colombian Pacific (Eastern Tropical Pacific)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobo-Viveros, Alba Marina; Cantera-Kintz, Jaime Ricardo

    2015-10-01

    Bioerosion is an important process that destroys coastal rocks in the tropics. However, the rates at which this process occurs, the organisms involved, and the dynamics of rocky cliffs in tropical latitudes have been less studied than in temperate and subtropical latitudes. To contribute to the knowledge of the bioerosion process in rocky cliffs on the Pacific coast of Colombia (Eastern Tropical Pacific) we compared: 1) boring volume, 2) grain size distribution of the rocks, and 3) rock porosity, across three tidal zones of two cliffs with different wave exposure; these factors were related to the bioeroding community found. We observed that cliffs that were not exposed to wave action (IC, internal cliffs) exhibited high percentages of clays in their grain size composition, and a greater porosity (47.62%) and perforation (15.86%) than exposed cliffs (EC, external cliffs). However, IC also exhibited less diversity and abundance of bioeroding species (22 species and 314 individuals, respectively) compared to the values found in EC (41.11%, 14.34%, 32 and 491, respectively). The most abundant bioeroders were Petrolisthes zacae in IC and Pachygrapsus transversus in EC. Our findings show that the tidal zone is the common factor controlling bioerosion on both cliffs; in addition to the abundance of bioeroders on IC and the number of bioeroding species on EC. The integration of geology, sedimentology, and biology allows us to obtain a more comprehensive view of the patterns and trends in the process of bioerosion.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus licheniformis CG-B52, a Highly Virulent Bacterium of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), Isolated from a Colombian Caribbean Aquaculture Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Gálvez, Eric J. C.; Carrillo-Castro, Katerine; Zárate, Lina; Güiza, Linda; Pieper, Dietmar H.; García-Bonilla, Erika; Salazar, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis strain CG-B52 was isolated as the etiological agent producing a self-limited outbreak of high mortalities in commercial Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds on the Colombian Caribbean coast in 2005. Here, we report its draft genome and three novel extrachromosomal elements that it harbors. PMID:27174263

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus licheniformis CG-B52, a Highly Virulent Bacterium of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), Isolated from a Colombian Caribbean Aquaculture Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Eric J C; Carrillo-Castro, Katerine; Zárate, Lina; Güiza, Linda; Pieper, Dietmar H; García-Bonilla, Erika; Salazar, Marcela; Junca, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis strain CG-B52 was isolated as the etiological agent producing a self-limited outbreak of high mortalities in commercial Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds on the Colombian Caribbean coast in 2005. Here, we report its draft genome and three novel extrachromosomal elements that it harbors. PMID:27174263

  12. Antifouling activities against colonizer marine bacteria of extracts from marine invertebrates collected in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and on the Brazilian coast (Santa Catarina).

    PubMed

    Mora-Cristancho, Jennyfer A; Arévalo-Ferro, Catalina; Ramos, Freddy A; Tello, Edisson; Duque, Carmenza; Lhullier, Cintia; Falkenberg, Miriam; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo

    2011-01-01

    The growth inhibition of 12 native marine bacteria isolated from Aplysina sponge surfaces, the shell of a bivalve, and Phytagel immersed for 48 h in sea water were used as indicator of the antifouling activity of the extracts of 39 marine organisms (octocorals, sponges, algae, and zoanthid) collected in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and on the Brazilian coast (Santa Catarina). Gram-negative bacteria represented 75% of the isolates; identified strains belonged to Oceanobacillus iheyensis, Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense, Vibrio campbellii, Vibrio harveyi, and Bacillus megaterium species and seven strains were classified at genus level by the 16S rRNA sequencing method. The extracts of the octocorals Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae, four Eunicea octocorals, and the sponges Topsentia ophiraphidites, Agelas citrina, Neopetrosia carbonaria, Monanchora arbuscula, Cliona tenuis, Iotrochota imminuta, and Ptilocaulis walpersii were the most active, thus suggesting those species as antifoulant producers. This is the first study of natural antifoulants from marine organisms collected on the Colombian and Brazilian coasts. PMID:22191218

  13. Ichnological analysis of the Upper Miocene in the ANH-Tumaco-1-ST-P well: assessing paleoenvironmental conditions at the Tumaco Basin, in the Colombian Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo-Villegas, Carlos A.; Celis, Sergio A.; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.; Pardo-Trujillo, Andrés; Vallejo-Hincapié, Diego F.; Trejos-Tamayo, Raúl A.

    2016-11-01

    Tumaco is a frontier basin located on the SW Colombian Pacific coast. It is composed of a thick siliciclastic sequence up to reach 10,000 m-thick. In recent years, the National Hydrocarbon Agency-ANH has promoted new exploration wells in order to understand the sedimentary dynamic and its relationship with petroleum systems. One of them, the ANH-Tumaco-1-ST-P well has ∼3000 m (12,000 feet). We carried out sedimentological, geochemical, and micropaleontological detailed analyses with special attention to the ichnology on a 55 m-cored interval (from 1695.3 to 1640.4 m = 5563-5382 ft) in order to assess paleoenvironmental conditions. Beds are composed of green and gray mudrocks interbedded with lithic sandstones and fine-grained tuffs. Calcareous microfossil assemblages defined by the recovery of Uvigerina carapitana, Uvigerina laviculata, Uvigerina pigmaea, Globigerina woodi,Globigerionoides obliquus, Discoaster bellus gr., Catinaster coalitus, Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus and Sphenolithus abies indicated a Tortonian age, between CN6/CN7 biozones. Six sedimentary facies were identified: (1, 2) massive and laminated mudrocks, (3, 4) massive and normal-graded sandstones, (5) heterolithic beds, and in some cases (6) sandstones with soft-deformation structures. These rocks were accumulated in a shallowing platform-prodelta environment with continuous volcanic influence. Ichnotaxonomic analysis, conducted for the first time in the Colombian Pacific, allowed the identification of eighteen ichnogenera: Alcyonidiopsis, Asterosoma, Chondrites, Conichnus, Cylindrichnus, Diplocraterion, Ophiomorpha, Palaeophycus, Phycosiphon, Planolites, Rhyzocorallium, Schaubcylindrichnus, Scolicia, Siphonichnus, Taeinidum, Teichichnus, Thalassinoides, and Zoophycos. The ichnological association belongs to the archetypal Cruziana ichnofacies and its "distal" expression. By integrating lithofacies and ichnological results, two segments have been distinguished: 1) the lower one (1695

  14. The pacific coast: a reluctant area of promise

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, R.

    1983-12-01

    America's first offshore well was drilled from a wooden pier extending outward from the coastal town of Summerland, Calif., just east of Santa Barbara. That was in 1894, and in the 90 years since then some 4,000 additional wells have been drilled off the California coast. But the region still qualifies as a legitimate Area of Promise because those 4,000 wells account for only 13% of all U.S. offshore wells, and leases offshore California accounted for only 7% of the 12.6 million acres under lease around the U.S. as of the end of 1982. platform plans already have been announced. But installing the platforms won't be without problems-most of them caused by the environmental concerns of coastal residents. During the course of drilling 30,000 wells around the U.S. there has been only one serious mishap. And that, unfortunately, was the 1969 Santa Barbara blowout. Besides coating beaches and wildlife along the Santa Barbara Channel with crude oil, the blowout had a more-lasting effect in that it galvanized and unified the environmental movement. So now there is a virtual cartel of some 30 environmental groups that must be dealt with by oil companies that want to drill offshore the U.S. Pacific Coast.

  15. Coastal erosion hazard and vulnerability using sig tools. Comparison between "La Barra town, Buenaventura, (Pacific Ocean of Colombia) and Providence - Santa Catalina islands (Colombian Caribbean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coca-Domínguez, Oswaldo; Ricaurte-Villota, Constanza; Morales-Giraldo, David; Rangel-Buitrago, Nelson

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of hazards and vulnerability associated to coastal erosion along coastlines is a first issue in order to establish plans for adaptation to climate change in coastal areas. La Barra Town, Buenaventura (Pacific ocean of Colombia) and Providence - Santa Catalina Islands (Colombian Caribbean) were selected to develop a detailed analysis of coastal erosion hazard and vulnerability from different perspectives: i) physical (hazard) , ii) social , iii) conservation approach and iv) cultural heritage (Raizal). The analysis was made by a semi quantitative approximation method, applying variables associated with the intrinsic coastal zone properties (i.e. type of beach, exposure of the coast to waves, etc.). Coastal erosion data and associated variables as well land use; conservation and heritage data were used to carry out a further detailed analysis of the human - structural vulnerability and exposure to hazards. The data shows erosion rates close to -17 m yr-1 in La Barra Town (highlighting their critical condition and urgent relocation process), while in some sectors of Providence Island, such as Old Town, erosion rate was -5 m yr-1. The observed erosion process affects directly the land use and the local and regional economy. The differences between indexes and the structural and physical vulnerability as well the use of methodological variables are presented in the context of each region. In this work, all the information was worked using a GIS environment since this allows editing and updating the information continuously. The application of this methodology generates useful information in order to promote risk management as well prevention, mitigation and reduction plans. In both areas the adaptation must be a priority strategy to be considered, including relocation alternatives and sustainable protection with the support of studies of uses and future outlooks in the coast. The methodology is framed into the use of GIS tools and it highlights their benefits

  16. Patterns of significant seismic quiescence in the Pacific Mexican coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, Alejandro; Rudolf-Navarro, Adolfo; Barrera-Ferrer, Amilcar; Angulo-Brown, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Mexico is one of the countries with higher seismicity. During the 20th century, 8% of all the earthquakes in the world of magnitude greater than or equal to 7.0 have taken place in Mexico. On average, an earthquake of magnitude greater than or equal to 7.0 occurred in Mexico every two and a half years. Great earthquakes in Mexico have their epicenters in the Pacific Coast in which some seismic gaps have been identified; for example, there is a mature gap in the Guerrero State Coast, which potentially can produce an earthquake of magnitude 8.2. With the purpose of making some prognosis, some researchers study the statistical behavior of certain physical parameters that could be related with the process of accumulation of stress in the Earth crust. Other researchers study seismic catalogs trying to find seismicity patterns that are manifested before the occurrence of great earthquakes. Many authors have proposed that the study of seismicity rates is an appropriate technique for evaluating how close a seismic gap may be to rupture. We designed an algorithm for identification of patterns of significant seismic quiescence by using the definition of seismic quiescence proposed by Schreider (1990). This algorithm shows the area of quiescence where an earthquake of great magnitude will probably occur. We apply our algorithm to the earthquake catalogue of the Mexican Pacific coast located between 14 and 21 degrees of North latitude and 94 and 106 degrees West longitude; with depths less or equal to 60 km and magnitude greater or equal to 4.2, which occurred from September, 1965 until December, 2014. We have found significant patterns of seismic quietude before the earthquakes of Oaxaca (November 1978, Mw = 7.8), Petatlán (March 1979, Mw = 7.6), Michoacán (September 1985, Mw = 8.0, and Mw = 7.6) and Colima (October 1995, Mw = 8.0). Fortunately, in this century have not occurred earthquakes of great magnitude in Mexico, however, we have identified well-defined seismic

  17. Evolving Shoreline Change Rates Along the US Pacific Northwest Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Allan, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal change hazards are increasingly affecting economically important areas, including those used for infrastructure, commerce, and public recreation. Quantifying shoreline change rates and understanding the contributing factors is crucial to protect these areas and to assist federal, state, and local agencies in developing long-term management plans. A recent study by the USGS National Assessment of Shoreline Change project analyzed the historical shoreline record along the U.S. Pacific Northwest with emphasis on both century-scale (1800s--2002) and decadal-scale (1960-80s--2002) change rates (Ruggiero, P., Kratzmann, M.A., Himmelstoss, E.G., Reid, D., Allan, J., and Kaminsky, G., 2013: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1007, 55 p.). The study was the first consistent state-wide coastal change assessment for Oregon and revealed a significant increase in erosion hazards in the near-term. The coastal landscape in Oregon is particularly dynamic and includes beaches that are backed by both cliffs and dunes, and range in texture from sand to cobble. The high wave energy in the Pacific Northwest results in a morphology with primarily intermediate to dissipative beaches. Resistant rocky headlands separate the Oregon coast into 18 distinct littoral cells, greatly influencing how the shoreline changes with time. While the century-scale average of all 560 km of Oregon coastline suggests the shore is prograding at 0.4 m/yr, the decadal-scale record indicates that 13 of the 18 littoral cells either are accreting at a slower rate, have changed from accretional to erosional, or are eroding at a faster rate. This apparent increase in erosion-affected coasts may be caused by several factors including sea-level rise, increasing storm wave heights, tectonic uplift, and climatic events (eg., El Niño), but overall it indicates a shifting trend in shoreline change rates. In the present study, we quantify shoreline change rates on a third timescale, seasonal to

  18. 40 CFR 408.250 - Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.250 Section 408.250 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.250 Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory....

  19. 40 CFR 408.250 - Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.250 Section 408.250 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.250 Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory....

  20. 40 CFR 408.250 - Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.250 Section 408.250 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.250 Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory....

  1. 40 CFR 408.250 - Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.250 Section 408.250 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.250 Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory....

  2. 40 CFR 408.250 - Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.250 Section 408.250 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.250 Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory....

  3. NAT2 gene polymorphisms in three indigenous groups in the Colombian Caribbean Coast region

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Isis; Lecompte, Nelly; Visbal, Lila; Curiel, Iliana; Hernández, Enio; Garavito, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the NAT2 gene polymorphisms 481T, 590A and 857A in the Chimila, Wiwa and Wayuu indigenous groups of the Colombian Caribbean to determine the frequencies of the alleles NAT2*4, NAT2*5, NAT2*6, and NAT2*7 and to determine the types of acetylators present in these populations. Methods: A total of 202 subjects were studied: 47 Chimila, 55 Wiwa, and 100 Wayuu. The polymorphisms were identified using a real-time PCR method for allelic discrimination designed using Taqman of Applied Biosystems. Results: The following alleles were found at the highest frequency in the following groups: the NAT2*4 allele (wild type) in the Wayuu group (55.3%), the NAT2*5 allele in the Wiwa group (34.5%), and the NAT2*7 allele in the Chimila group (24.2%). A higher frequency of the rapid acetylator status was found in the Wayuu group (31.3%) and Chimila group (29.5%) compared with the Wiwa group (12.7%). The intermediate acetylator status distribution was very similar in all three groups, and the frequency of the slow acetylator status was higher in the Wiwa group (32.7%) compared with the Chimila and Wayuu groups (20.5% and 21.2%, respectively). Conclusion: The results demonstrated the allelic distribution and pharmacogenetic differences of the three groups studied and revealed the most frequent acetylator status and phenotype. Because of the high prevalence of slow acetylators, a greater incidence of tuberculosis (TB) drug-induced hepatotoxicity is predicted in these populations, with a higher frequency in the Wiwa group. PMID:25767302

  4. [Population dynamics of Donax dentifer (Veneroida: Donacidae) in Bay of Bahía Málaga, Colombian Pacific during the "El Niño" 1997/1998].

    PubMed

    Riascos, José M; Urban, H

    2002-01-01

    Donax dentifer is a dominant member of the sandy beach communities of the Colombian Pacific coast. A population of this bivalve was monthly sampled in Playa Chucheros at the Bay of Málaga, Colombian Pacific, between August 1997 and July 1998, during the "El Niño 1997/1998" phenomenon. Quantitative samples were taken in perpendicular and parallel to the coastal line transects to determine the population density and a length-frequency distribution. Qualitative samples were taken to study the reproduction and monthly length weight relationship. Sea surface temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity and pH in the water was monthly registered in the sampling station. Additionally, a tagging-recapture experiment was performed to growth estimations. Results indicate a continuous reproduction cycle with two annual spawning seasons in December and March. The growth parameters of the non-oscillating von Bertalanffy growth function were K = 0.62 yr-1 and L infinity = 29.3 mm. Mortality (Z) was higher (2.65 yr-1) for small individuals (between 2 mm and 5 mm) while a lower Z value (1.71 yr-1) were obtained for larger ones (between 19 mm and 25 mm). An annual mean biomass value of B = 1.229 g ash-free dry weight m-2 and an annual somatic production of Psom = 1.215 g ash-free dry weight m-2 were estimated, which correspond to a Psom/B value of 0.988. Population density increased in November and April, but any population density pattern related with "El Niño" was evident. Low body weight during November-December seems to show a relation between reproductive cycle in D. dentifer and El Niño 97/98 event. The fluctuation in dissolved oxygen show a high correlation with parameters of the reproductive cycle, which could be related to assimilation process and body weight cycle. Growth in D. dentifer in the Colombian Pacific coast was faster than other Donax species, as can be expected for tropical bivalves mollusks in comparison whit high latitude bivalves. The mortality pattern

  5. Patterns of significant seismic quiescence on the Mexican Pacific coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, A.; Rudolf-Navarro, A. H.; Angulo-Brown, F.; Barrera-Ferrer, A. G.

    Many authors have proposed that the study of seismicity rates is an appropriate technique for evaluating how close a seismic gap may be to rupture. We designed an algorithm for identification of patterns of significant seismic quiescence by using the definition of seismic quiescence proposed by Schreider (1990). This algorithm shows the area of quiescence where an earthquake of great magnitude may probably occur. We have applied our algorithm to the earthquake catalog on the Mexican Pacific coast located between 14 and 21 degrees of North latitude and 94 and 106 degrees West longitude; with depths less than or equal to 60 km and magnitude greater than or equal to 4.3, which occurred from January, 1965 until December, 2014. We have found significant patterns of seismic quietude before the earthquakes of Oaxaca (November 1978, Mw = 7.8), Petatlán (March 1979, Mw = 7.6), Michoacán (September 1985, Mw = 8.0, and Mw = 7.6) and Colima (October 1995, Mw = 8.0). Fortunately, in this century earthquakes of great magnitude have not occurred in Mexico. However, we have identified well-defined seismic quiescences in the Guerrero seismic-gap, which are apparently correlated with the occurrence of silent earthquakes in 2002, 2006 and 2010 recently discovered by GPS technology.

  6. Coastal dynamics studies for evaluation of hazard and vulnerability for coastal erosion. case study the town La Bocana, Buenaventura, colombian pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coca-Domínguez, Oswaldo; Ricaurte-Villota, Constanza

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of the hazard and vulnerability in coastal areas caused for erosion is based on studies of coastal dynamics since that allows having a better information detail that is useful for decision-making in aspects like prevention, mitigation, disaster reduction and integrated risk management. The Town of La Bocana, located in Buenaventura (Colombian Pacific) was selected to carry out the threat assessment for coastal erosion based on three components: i) magnitude, ii) occurrence and iii) susceptibility. Vulnerability meanwhile, is also composed of three main components for its evaluation: i) exposure ii) fragility and iii) resilience, which in turn are evaluated in 6 dimensions of vulnerability: physical, social, economic, ecological, institutional and cultural. The hazard analysis performed used a semi-quantitative approach, and an index of variables such as type of geomorphological unit, type of beach, exposure of the surfing coast, occurrence, among others. Quantitative data of coastal retreat was measured through the use of DSAS (Digital Shoreline Analysis System) an application of ArcGIS, as well as the development of digital elevation models from the beach and 6 beach profiles strategically located on the coast obtained with GNSS technology. Sediment samples collected from these beaches, medium height and wave direction were used as complementary data. The information was integrated across the coast line into segments of 250 x 250 meters. 4 sectors are part of the coastal area of La Bocana: Pianguita, Vistahermosa, Donwtown and Shangay. 6 vulnerability dimensions units were taken from these population, as well as its density for exposure, wich was analyzed through a multi-array method that include variables such as, land use, population, type of structure, education, basic services, among others, to measure frailty, and their respective indicator of resilience. The hazard analysis results indicate that Vistahermosa is in very high threat, while

  7. Anglers' Guide to the United States Pacific Coast: Marine Fish, Fishing Grounds & Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, James L., Jr.; Smith, Susan E.

    The purpose of this guide is to provide a general source of information on areas of the Pacific coast that are more frequently fished and the species of fish that are commonly taken. The guide covers the marine and estuarine waters along the coasts of California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, Hawaii, American Samoa, and Guam. It is arranged in five…

  8. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from...

  9. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from...

  10. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from...

  11. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from...

  12. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from...

  13. Holocene Tsunami deposits associated with earthquakes along Pacific coast, northeast Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, H.; Imaizumi, T.; Ishiyama, T.; Miyauchi, T.; Kagohara, K.; Haraguchi, T.; Marushima, N.; Omachi, T.

    2009-12-01

    We investigated Holocene tsumami deposits along the Pacific coast of northeast Japan in order to define the ages and source areas of earthquakes generating large tsunamis. Sediment cores were collected by using geoslicers and hand augers at alluvial lowlands interpreted by aerial photographs, and ages of deposits were dated by radiocarbon methods and tephrochronology. Pacific coast of northeast Japan faces the Japan trench where Pacific plate subducts beneath the Eurasian plate, so that the coast has repeatedly experienced some large tsunamis following historical interplate earthquakes (the 1896 Meiji Sanriku Tsunami, the 1793 Kansei Tsunami, the 1611 Keicho Sanriku Tsunami and the 869 Jogan Tsunami). While the southern part along the Pacific coast (from the Sendai Plain to the Joban coastal region) has nearly straight shorelines and well developed coastal lowlands, the northern part (the Sanriku coastal region) has typical ria shorelines and poorly developed coastal lowlands. Multiple sand layers are identified between muddy or peaty sediments in drilled core samples to a depth of 1-5.5 m at several coastal areas, which is located at backlands of beach ridges and natural levees. In the southern part along the Pacific coast, sand layers corresponding to the 869 Jogan Tsunami are identified, and the older sand layers suggest that tsunamis which are as large as the 869 tsunami have occurred at few hundred years intervals over the past 5000 years. On the other hand, in the northern part along the Pacific coast, multiple sand layers which indicate the arrival of large tsunamis are also found at the similar intervals to the southern coast during 6000-2000 years ago, but most of the depositional ages of the sand layers do not coincide with those of the southern coast. We suggest that earthquakes generating large tsunamis along northern and southern Pacific coast of northeast Japan have both occurred at few hundred years intervals during the late Holocene, but in most

  14. Hurricane Celia off the Pacific Coast of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: July 19 Daylight Snapshot for PIA00438 Figure 2: July 21 Daylight Snapshot for PIA00438 Hurricane Celia as observed by NASA's spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). This image shows Celia on July 23 in visible light, as you would perceive it from space. Located in the eastern north Pacific Ocean off the coast of Mexico, Celia's winds have now dissipated to highs of 40 mph. Celia was the first hurricane of the eastern north Pacific season. Figure 1 is a daylight snapshot taken on July 19; Celia as tropical storm, winds at 50mph. Figure 2 is a daylight snapshot taken on July 21; Celia has a small eye with an 80-90% closed eyewall; sustained winds at 75mph with gusts reaching 92mph; Celia is upgraded to hurricane status.

    The major contribution to radiation (infrared light) that AIRS channels sense comes from different levels in the atmosphere, depending upon the channel wavelength. To create the movies, a set of AIRS channels were selected which probe the atmosphere at progressively deeper levels. If there were no clouds, the color in each frame would be nearly uniform until the Earth's surface is encountered. The tropospheric air temperature warms at a rate of 6 K (about 11 F) for each kilometer of descent toward the surface. Thus the colors would gradually change from cold to warm as the movie progresses.

    Clouds block the infrared radiation. Thus wherever there are clouds we can penetrate no deeper in infrared. The color remains fixed as the movie progresses, for that area of the image is 'stuck' to the cloud top temperature. The coldest temperatures around 220 K (about -65 F) come from altitudes of about 10 miles.

    We therefore see in a 'surface channel' at the end of the movie, signals from clouds as cold as 220 K and from Earth's surface at 310 K (about 100 F). The very coldest clouds are seen in deep convection thunderstorms over

  15. 77 FR 2655 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ....5 mt of Pacific Ocean Perch, 3.3 mt of Canary rockfish, and 48.3 mt of Widow rockfish allocated to.... This notice announces the reapportionment of 4.3 mt of Darkblotched rockfish, 6.5 mt of Pacific Ocean..., mothership sector; Pacific Ocean Perch, 16.7 mt, catcher/processor sector, 0.66 mt, mothership sector;...

  16. Genes, Diversity, and Geologic Process on the Pacific Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, David K.

    2004-05-01

    We examine the genetics of marine diversification along the West Coast of North America in relation to the Late Neogene geology and climate of the region. Trophically important components of the diverse West Coast fauna, including kelp, alcid birds (e.g., auks, puffins), salmon, rockfish, abalone, and Cancer crabs, appear to have radiated during peaks of upwelling primarily in the Late Miocene and in some cases secondarily in the Pleistocene. Phylogeographic barriers associated with Mio-Pliocene estuaries of the mid-California coast, the Pliocene opening of the Gulf of California, tectonic and eustatic evolution of the California Bight, as well as the influence of Pleistocene and Holocene climate change on genetic structure are assessed in a geologic context. Comparisons to East Coast and western freshwater systems, as well as upwelling systems around the globe, provide perspective for the survey.

  17. 78 FR 76570 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ...-Whiting Allocations; Pacific Whiting Seasons AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... available fish during the remainder of the fishing season. Reapportioning as quickly as possible...

  18. Characterization and effects of cold fronts in the Colombian Caribbean Coast and their relationship to extreme wave events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Otero, L. J.; Restrepo, J. C.; Ruiz, J.; Cadena, M.

    2013-07-01

    Extreme ocean waves in the Caribbean Sea are commonly related to the effects of storms and hurricanes during the months of June through November. The collapse of 200 m of the Puerto Colombia pier in March 2009 revealed the effects of meteorological phenomena other than storms and hurricanes that may be influencing the extreme wave regime in the Colombian Caribbean. The marked seasonality of these atmospheric fronts was established by analyzing the meteorological-marine reports of Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales of Colombia (IDEAM, based on its initials in Spanish) and Centro de Investigación en Oceanografía y Meteorología of Colombia (CIOH, based on its initials in Spanish). The highest occurrences were observed during the months of January, February, and March, with 6 fronts occurring per year. An annual trend was not observed, although the highest number of fronts occurred in 2010 (20 in total). An annual strong relationship between the maximum average wave values and the cold fronts, in the central zone of the Colombian Caribbean during the first three months of the year was established. In addition, the maximum values of the significant height produced by the passage of cold fronts during the last 16 yr were identified. Although the Colombian Caribbean has been affected by storms and hurricanes in the past, this research allows us to conclude that, there is a strong relationship between cold fronts and the largest waves in the Colombian Caribbean during the last 16 yr, which have caused damage to coastal infrastructure. We verified that the passage of a cold front corresponded to the most significant extreme wave event of the last two decades in the Colombian Caribbean, which caused the structural collapse of the Puerto Colombia pier, located near the city of Barranquilla, between 5 and 10 March 2009. This information is invaluable when evaluating average and extreme wave regimes for the purpose of informing the design of

  19. 78 FR 70016 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... INFORMATION: On November 16, 2004, NMFS published a Federal Register document (69 FR 67100) proposing... July 13, 2005 (70 FR 40225) and fee collection began on September 8, 2005. Interested persons should... Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  20. 77 FR 31587 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ..., NMFS published a Federal Register document (69 FR 67100) proposing regulations to implement an industry fee system for repaying the reduction loan. The final rule was published July 13, 2005 (70 FR 40225... Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  1. 77 FR 55191 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... (69 FR 67100) proposing regulations to implement an industry fee system for repaying the reduction loan. The final rule was published July 13, 2005 (70 FR 40225) and fee collection began on September 8... Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  2. WestuRe: U.S. Pacific Coast estuary/watershed data and R tools

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are about 350 estuaries along the U.S. Pacific Coast. Basic descriptive data for these estuaries, such as their size and watershed area, are important for coastal-scale research and conservation planning. However, this information is spread among many sources and can be dif...

  3. EstuRe Project: U.S. Pacific Coast Estuary/Watershed Data and R Tools

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EstuRe Project is a collaborative effort of the U.S. EPA and USGS to standardize and improve the accessibility of data for U.S. Pacific Coast estuaries and their corresponding watersheds. We are presenting a preview of the datasets and tools that will soon be available from ...

  4. Feeding ecology of elasmobranch fishes in coastal waters of the Colombian Eastern Tropical Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Navia, Andrés F; Mejía-Falla, Paola A; Giraldo, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Background Stomach contents of 131 specimens of five elasmobranch species (Mustelus lunulatus, Dasyatis longa, Rhinobatos leucorhynchus, Raja velezi and Zapteryx xyster) caught in the central fishing zone in the Pacific Ocean of Colombia were counted and weighed to describe feeding habits and dietary overlaps. Results Twenty-one prey items belonging to four major groups (stomatopods, decapods, mollusks and fish) were identified. Decapod crustaceans were the most abundant prey found in stomachs. The mantis shrimp Squilla panamensis was the main prey item in the diet of M. lunulatus; tiger shrimp Trachypenaeus sp. was the main prey item in the diet of Rhinobatos leucorhynchus and Raja velezi, and Penaeidae shrimp were the main prey items in the diet of Z. xyster. Furthermore, fish were important in the diet of Raja velezi, Z. xyster and D. longa. The greatest diet breadth corresponded to Z. xyster whereas M. lunulatus was the most specialized predator. Finally, four significant diet overlaps between the five species were found, attributable mainly to Squillidae, Penaeidae and Fish. Conclusion Shrimps (Penaeidae and stomatopods) and benthic fishes were the most important food types in the diet of the elasmobranch species studied. Diet breadth and overlap were relatively low. Determination of food resource partitioning among the batoid species studied was not possible. However, we identified partitions in other niche axes (time of feeding activity and habitat utilization). It is possible to assume that diffuse competition could be exceeding the biunivocal competition among the studied species. Therefore, this assemblage would have a strong tendency to trophic guild formation. PMID:17877796

  5. Assessment of tsunami hazard for the American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizuela, B.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2013-06-01

    Central America has been struck by at least 49 tsunamis between 1539 and 1996. As many as 37 of these events occurred at the Pacific Coast, and 31 were generated by earthquakes. Some of the events have been destructive, but despite this, tsunamis are an underrated hazard in Central America: people are not aware that they are at risk and even recent tsunami events have been forgotten. Recent studies, following the destructive tsunami occurred in Nicaragua in 1992, have revealed that Central America is a moderately tsunamigenic zone that is mainly affected by tsunamis triggered by earthquakes, especially at the Pacific coast where the Middle American Trench runs parallel to the coast. In this study, a statistical first and then a deterministic analysis for the Pacific coast of Central America has been carried out. The statistical approach aims to estimate the Gutenberg-Richter coefficients of the main seismic tsunamigenic regions of the area in order to assess the annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes and their corresponding return period. A deterministic approach is then used to compute the tsunami run-up distribution along the coast corresponding to a given annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes.

  6. Tilt of mean sea level along the Pacific coasts of North America and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hongyang; Thompson, Keith R.; Huang, Jianliang; Véronneau, Marc

    2015-10-01

    The tilt of coastal mean sea level with respect to an equipotential surface is estimated using two fundamentally different approaches. The geodetic approach is based on tide gauge and GPS observations, and a model of the geoid. The ocean approach uses a high-resolution, dynamically based ocean model to estimate mean dynamic topography. Along the Pacific coast of North America the two approaches give similar large-scale profiles with a minimum at about 40°N and a maximum in the northern part of the Gulf of Alaska. Along the Pacific coast of Japan the geodetically determined coastal sea levels indicate an eastward drop of about 20 cm along the south coast and a further northward drop across Tsugaru Strait. Both of these features are reproduced by the ocean models. An analysis of the alongshore momentum balance suggests that alongshore wind stress acting over the inner shelf is the primary driver of the mean sea level profile along the coast of North America. Several large-scale features are explained using arrested topographic wave theory. A similar momentum analysis, and an additional study of time variability of sea level and circulation, suggests that the Kuroshio is the main driver of the mean sea level tilt along the south coast of Japan. Discrepancies in the alongshore tilt of sea level estimated by the geodetic and ocean approaches along both coasts are discussed in terms of errors in the ocean and geoid models.

  7. 76 FR 54887 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... with Amendment 21 to the FMP. On May 12, 2010 (75 FR 26702), NMFS published a notice of availability of... those databases (75 FR 4684, January 29, 2010). The second was a final rule to restructure the Pacific... under the IFQ and coop programs (75 FR 60868, October 1, 2010; correction published 75 FR...

  8. 76 FR 42588 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... INFORMATION: On December 30, 2010, NMFS published a rule (75 FR 82296) that, among other actions, revised the... measures (May 11, 2011, 76 FR 27508), and are not related to the measures at issue in this notice. The... limit and for calculation of Pacific halibut individual bycatch quota (IBQ) pounds in the...

  9. 76 FR 34910 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of green sturgeon was listed as threatened under the ESA (71 FR 17757... the ESA (75 FR 13012). NMFS has reinitiated consultation on the fishery, including impacts on green... management measures for that fishery off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California (76 FR 27508)....

  10. 78 FR 72 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... coast groundfish fishery's trawl fleet (see 75 FR 78344; Dec. 15, 2010). The program was adopted in 2010... follow. NMFS published the ANPR on April 4, 2012 (77 FR 20337), which, among other things, announced the... 21, 2012 (77 FR 29955), with the final rule published on August 1, 2012 (77 FR 45508). RAW 1...

  11. Avian influenza virus antibodies in Pacific Coast Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James A.; DeCicco, Lucas H.; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Krauss, Scott; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in the western Atlantic subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) is among the highest for any shorebird. To assess whether the frequency of detection of AIV antibodies is high for the species in general or restricted only to C. c. rufa, we sampled the northeastern Pacific Coast subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) breeding in northwestern Alaska. Antibodies were detected in 90% of adults and none of the chicks sampled. Viral shedding was not detected in adults or chicks. These results suggest a predisposition of Red Knots to AIV infection. High antibody titers to subtypes H3 and H4 were detected, whereas low to intermediate antibody levels were found for subtypes H10 and H11. These four subtypes have previously been detected in shorebirds at Delaware Bay (at the border of New Jersey and Delaware) and in waterfowl along the Pacific Coast of North America.

  12. Avian influenza virus antibodies in Pacific Coast Red Knots (Calidris canutus roselaari).

    PubMed

    Johnson, James A; DeCicco, Lucas H; Ruthrauff, Daniel R; Krauss, Scott; Hall, Jeffrey S

    2014-07-01

    Prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in the western Atlantic subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) is among the highest for any shorebird. To assess whether the frequency of detection of AIV antibodies is high for the species in general or restricted only to C. c. rufa, we sampled the northeastern Pacific Coast subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) breeding in northwestern Alaska. Antibodies were detected in 90% of adults and none of the chicks sampled. Viral shedding was not detected in adults or chicks. These results suggest a predisposition of Red Knots to AIV infection. High antibody titers to subtypes H3 and H4 were detected, whereas low to intermediate antibody levels were found for subtypes H10 and H11. These four subtypes have previously been detected in shorebirds at Delaware Bay (at the border of New Jersey and Delaware) and in waterfowl along the Pacific Coast of North America. PMID:24807362

  13. Aminostratigraphy and faunal correlations of late Quaternary marine terraces, Pacific Coast, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, G.L.; Lajoie, K.R.; Wehmiller, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    Recent studies using the extent of racemization of amino acids to date fossil mollusc shells in the Arctic1, the British Isles2 and on the Atlantic3,4 and Pacific5-13 coasts of North America have relied mainly on theoretical kinetic models of racemization. Ages generated in this fashion are highly model dependent and require estimates of integrated long-term diagenetic temperatures. We present here an alternative, empirical approach to aminostratigraphy in which we plot amino acid enantiomeric ratios versus latitude (for localities along the Pacific coast of the United States), and generate isochronal correlations by connecting data points of geographically proximal localities that have similar D:L ratios and zoogeographic aspect. Isochrons are calibrated at a few localities by independent radiometric dates. The diagenetic temperature effect on racemization is reflected in the slope of the isochrons, but the need to quantify temperature is eliminated. ?? 1982 Nature Publishing Group.

  14. Application of Nimbus-6 microwave data to problems in precipitation prediction for the Pacific west coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viezee, W.; Shigeishi, H.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary results of a research study that emphasizes the analysis and interpretation of data related to total precipitable water and nonprecipitating cloud liquid water obtained from NIMBUS-6 SCAMS are reported. Sixteen cyclonic storm situations in the northeastern Pacific Ocean that resulted in significant rainfall along the west coast of the United States during the winter season October 1975 through February 1976 are analyzed in terms of their distributions and amounts of total water vapor and liquid water, as obtained from SCAMS data. The water-substance analyses for each storm case are related to the distribution and amount of coastal precipitation observed during the subsequent time period when the storm system crosses the coastline. Concomitant precipitation predictions from the LFM are also incorporated. Techniques by which satellite microwave data over the ocean can be used to improve precipitation prediction for the Pacific West Coast are emphasized.

  15. PCEIS - THE PACIFIC COAST ECOSYSTEM INFORMATION SYSTEM, CHANGING THE WAY SCIENTISTS VIEW THE NATURAL HISTORY OF SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pacific Coast Ecosystem Information System (PCEIS) is a database that provides biological, ecological and geospatial information for over 8100 species from Alaska to Baja. PCEIS goes beyond capturing species’ taxonomic information by integrating monitoring information from Co...

  16. Assessment of tsunami hazards for the Central American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizuela, B.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2014-07-01

    Central America (CA), from Guatemala to Panama, has been struck by at least 52 tsunamis between 1539 and 2013, and in the extended region from Mexico to northern Peru (denoted as ECA, Extended Central America in this paper) the number of recorded tsunamis in the same time span is more than 100, most of which were triggered by earthquakes located in the Middle American Trench that runs parallel to the Pacific coast. The most severe event in the catalogue is the tsunami that occurred on 2 September 1992 off Nicaragua, with run-up measured in the range of 5-10 m in several places along the Nicaraguan coast. The aim of this paper is to assess the tsunami hazard on the Pacific coast of this extended region, and to this purpose a hybrid probabilistic-deterministic analysis is performed, that is adequate for tsunamis generated by earthquakes. More specifically, the probabilistic approach is used to compute the Gutenberg-Richter coefficients of the main seismic tsunamigenic zones of the area and to estimate the annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes and their corresponding return period. The output of the probabilistic part of the method is taken as input by the deterministic part, which is applied to calculate the tsunami run-up distribution along the coast.

  17. Quantification of tsunami hazard on Canada's Pacific Coast; implications for risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Stephen G.; Delaney, Keith B.

    2015-04-01

    Our assessment of tsunami hazard on Canada's Pacific Coast (i.e., the coast of British Columbia) begins with a review of the 1964 tsunami generated by The Great Alaska Earthquake (M9.2) that resulted in significant damage to coastal communities and infrastructure. In particular, the tsunami waves swept up inlets on the west coast of Vancouver Island and damaged several communities; Port Alberni suffered upwards of 5M worth of damage. At Port Alberni, the maximum tsunami wave height was estimated at 8.2 m above mean sea level and was recorded on the stream gauge on the Somass River located at about 7 m a.s.l, 6 km upstream from its mouth. The highest wave (9.75 m above tidal datum) was reported from Shields Bay, Graham Island, Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii). In addition, the 1964 tsunami was recorded on tide gauges at a number of locations on the BC coast. The 1964 signal and the magnitude and frequency of traces of other historical Pacific tsunamis (both far-field and local) are analysed in the Tofino tide gauge records and compared to tsunami traces in other tide gauges in the Pacific Basin (e.g., Miyako, Japan). Together with a review of the geological evidence for tsunami occurrence along Vancouver Island's west coast, we use this tide gauge data to develop a quantitative framework for tsunami hazard on Canada's Pacific coast. In larger time scales, tsunamis are a major component of the hazard from Cascadia megathrust events. From sedimentological evidence and seismological considerations, the recurrence interval of megathrust events on the Cascadia Subduction Zone has been estimated by others at roughly 500 years. We assume that the hazard associated with a high-magnitude destructive tsunami thus has an annual frequency of roughly 1/500. Compared to other major natural hazards in western Canada this represents a very high annual probability of potentially destructive hazard that, in some coastal communities, translates into high levels of local risk

  18. The last interglacial period on the Pacific Coast of North America: Timing and paleoclimate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.; Kennedy, G.L.; Rockwell, T.K.

    2002-01-01

    New, high-precision U-series ages of solitary corals (Balanophyllia elegans) coupled with molluscan faunal data from marine terraces on the Pacific Coast of North America yield information about the timing and warmth of the last interglacial sea-level highstand. Balanophyllia elegans takes up U in isotopic equilibrium with seawater during growth and shortly after death. Corals from the second terrace on San Clemente Island (offshore southern California), the third terrace on Punta Banda (on the Pacific Coast of northern Baja California), and the Discovery Point Formation on Isla de Guadalupe (in the Pacific Ocean offshore Baja California) date to the peak of the last interglacial period and have U-series ages ranging from ca. 123 to 114 ka. The first terrace on Punta Banda has corals with ages ranging from ca. 83 to 80 ka, which corresponds to a sea-level highstand formed in the late last interglacial period. U-series analyses of corals from the Cayucos terrace (central California) and the Nestor terrace at Point Loma (southern California) show that these fossils have evidence of open-system history, similar to what has been reported by other workers for the same localities. Nevertheless, a model of continuous, secondary U and Th uptake shows that two ages of corals are likely present at these localities, representing the ca. 105 and ca. 120 ka sea-level highstands reported elsewhere. U-series ages of last interglacial corals from the Pacific Coast overlap with, but are on average younger than the ages of corals from Barbados, the Bahamas, and Hawaii. This age difference is explained by the nature of the geomorphic response to sea-level change: fringing or barrier reefs on low-latitude coastlines have an accretionary growth style that keeps pace with rising sea level, whether on a tectonically rising or stable coastline. In contrast, midlatitude, high-energy coastlines are sites of platform cutting during the early part of a sea-level high stand and terrace

  19. Stable isotope signatures of seasonal precipitation on the Pacific coast of central Panama.

    PubMed

    Kern, Zoltán; Harmon, Russell S; Fórizs, István

    2016-01-01

    As calculated from data archived in the IAEA-WMO Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation programme, the amount-weighted local meteoric water line for the Pacific coast of central Panama is: δ(2)H = 7.63(±0.08) × δ(18)O + 6.51(±0.49). Amount-weighted mean isotopic values were regressed against the sea surface temperature (SST) fields of the adjacent tropical oceans. A negative correlation of precipitation isotope composition with Caribbean SSTs is observed only for the early wet season (May-June), whilst the mid-summer dry period is characterized by positive correlation with eastern Pacific SSTs, similar to the late wet season (October-November). The negative response of May-June rainfall isotopic composition to Caribbean SSTs is explained by a SST-mediated change in stratiform rain fraction from organized convective systems proximal to the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The positive correlation for the rest of the wet season, when the organized convective zone of ITCZ and its attached stratiform belt are distant from the Pacific coast of Panama, is interpreted as simple evaporative temperature effect on isotopic fractionation. PMID:25761056

  20. Rapid, climate-driven changes in outlet glaciers on the Pacific coast of East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Miles, B W J; Stokes, C R; Vieli, A; Cox, N J

    2013-08-29

    Observations of ocean-terminating outlet glaciers in Greenland and West Antarctica indicate that their contribution to sea level is accelerating as a result of increased velocity, thinning and retreat. Thinning has also been reported along the margin of the much larger East Antarctic ice sheet, but whether glaciers are advancing or retreating there is largely unknown, and there has been no attempt to place such changes in the context of localized mass loss or climatic or oceanic forcing. Here we present multidecadal trends in the terminus position of 175 ocean-terminating outlet glaciers along 5,400 kilometres of the margin of the East Antarctic ice sheet, and reveal widespread and synchronous changes. Despite large fluctuations between glaciers--linked to their size--three epochal patterns emerged: 63 per cent of glaciers retreated from 1974 to 1990, 72 per cent advanced from 1990 to 2000, and 58 per cent advanced from 2000 to 2010. These trends were most pronounced along the warmer western South Pacific coast, whereas glaciers along the cooler Ross Sea coast experienced no significant changes. We find that glacier change along the Pacific coast is consistent with a rapid and coherent response to air temperature and sea-ice trends, linked through the dominant mode of atmospheric variability (the Southern Annular Mode). We conclude that parts of the world's largest ice sheet may be more vulnerable to external forcing than recognized previously. PMID:23985874

  1. Discharge diversion in the Patía River delta, the Colombian Pacific: Geomorphic and ecological consequences for mangrove ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan D.; Cantera, Jaime R.

    2013-10-01

    In the Patía River delta, the best-developed delta on the western margin of South America, a major water diversion started in 1972. The diversion of the Patía flow to the Sanquianga River, the latter a small stream draining internal lakes from the Pacific lowlands, shifted the active delta plain from the south to the north and changed the northern estuarine system into an active delta plain. The Sanquianga Mangrove National Park, a mangrove reserve measuring 800 km2, lies in this former estuary, where major hydrologic and sedimentation changes are occurring. Overall, major environmental consequences of this discharge diversion in terms of geomorphic changes along distributary channels and ecological impacts on mangrove ecosystems are evidenced by: (1) distributary channel accretion by operating processes such as sedimentation, overbank flow, increasing width of levees, sedimentation in crevasses, interdistributary channel fill, and colonization of pioneer mangrove; (2) freshening conditions in the Sanquianga distributary channel, a hydrologic change that has shifted the upper estuarine region (salinity <1%) downstream; (3) downstream advance of freshwater vegetation, which is invading channel banks in the lower and mixing estuarine zones; (4) die-off of approximately 5200 ha of mangrove near the delta apex at Bocas de Satinga, where the highest sediment accumulation rates occur; and (5) recurrent periods of mangrove defoliation due to a worm plague. Further analyses indicate strong mangrove erosion along transgressive barrier islands on the former delta plain. Here tectonic-induced subsidence, relative sea-level rise, and sediment starving conditions due to the channel diversion, are the main causes of the observed retreating conditions of mangrove communities. Our data also indicate that the Patía River has the highest sediment load (27 × 106 t yr-1) and basin-wide sediment yield (1500 t km-2 yr-1) on the west coast of South America. Erosion rates from the Pat

  2. Perkinsus marinus in pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis from Nayarit, Pacific coast of México.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Martínez, J; Vásquez-Yeomans, R; Padilla-Lardizábal, G; del Río Portilla, M A

    2008-09-01

    Culture of the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis is emerging as an alternative to the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) for oyster producers, who face severe mortalities since 1997 in Northwest México. For determining the health status of this species, we conducted a histopathological analysis of cultured populations from two estuaries in the Pacific coast of México. Macroscopical analysis revealed animals with transparent and retracted mantle. Histopathological analysis of these specimens showed tissue alterations and parasitic forms consistent with Perkinsus sp. infection. Stages of the parasite identified included tomont and trophozoites with an eccentric vacuole characteristic of Perkinsus spp. Pieces of tissues of infected oysters were incubated in Fluid Thioglycollate Medium (FTM) resulting in blue-black hypnospores after incubation. The identity of the parasite was confirmed by species specific PCR-based assay in DNA samples from oysters, tissue fractions from FTM cultures, and deparaffined samples with Perkinsus-like parasite detected by histology. Sequencing of positive amplified fragments (307bp) showed a sequence similar to Perkinsus marinus strain TXsc NTS ribosomal RNA gene (100% coverage and 98% identity, GenBank Accession No. AF497479.1) and to P. marinus, Genomic DNA, (100% coverage and 97% identity, GenBank Accession No. S78416.1). The prevalence of P. marinus varied from 1 to 5% in Boca del Camichín and from 1 to 6% in Pozo Chino. In general, the intensity of infection was moderate. The infection was observed in oysters from 31 to 110mm of shell length. This is the first record of P. marinus in oysters from the North America Pacific coast and the first record in C. corteziensis. The origin of this parasite in the area is unknown, but it may be associated to introductions of Crassostrea virginica from the East coast of United States of America or Gulf of México. PMID:18423484

  3. Frequent non-storm washover of barrier islands, Pacific coast of Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, R.A.; Gonzalez, J.L.; Lopez, G.I.; Correa, I.D.

    2000-01-01

    Barrier islands of the Pacific coast of Colombia repeatedly experience severe washover even when breaking waves in the eastern Pacific are low and onshore winds are calm. On the barrier island of El Choncho, recent non-storm washover events have breached a new inlet, caused rapid beach retreat, destroyed a shoreline protection structure, and flooded a small village of indigenous people so frequently that it had to be relocated. Barrier washover may be augmented by lowered land elevations associated with earthquake-induced subsidence or long-term beach retreat, but temporally it is most closely associated with a 20 to 30 cm regional increase in sea level caused by El Nino. The contradiction of a tranquil tropical island scene simultaneously disturbed by hostile turbulent washover may be unique at present, but it exemplifies how coastal plains throughout the world would be affected if sea level were to rise rapidly as a result of global warming.

  4. Nocturnal location and activity of Pacific coast bottlenose dolphins determined by a sonobuoy array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, Eric S.; Defran, R. H.

    2002-05-01

    Pacific coast bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) move offshore, presumably to feed as the sun sets [Hanson and Defran (1993), Ward (1998), Day (1998)] and are most often found inshore on the surfline at sunrise. The purpose of this research was to document their activity and location during nocturnal hours. A sonobuoy array was deployed in a triangle configuration centered approximately 500 m from the mean low low water line at Torrey Pines State Beach, CA. Surveys were conducted for 11 nights between October 1999 and November 1999 and for 21 nights between August 2000 and December 2000. Dolphin vocalizations were detected on 26 of 33 nights.

  5. Historical Earthquakes And Their Geologic Signature On The Guerrero, Mexican Pacific Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez Herrera, M.; Rangel, V.; Kostoglodov, V.; Ruíz-Fernández, A.; Machain, M.; Caballero, M.; Goguitchaichrili, A.

    2012-12-01

    Historical, ethnographic and instrumental data show that the Pacific coast of Mexico has been exposed to destructive tsunamis over at least the past 500 years. This coast parallels the active Mexican subduction zone, where earthquakes M > 8 have been registered and are known to have triggered tsunamis. The purpose of our study was two-fold, a) to determine whether we could distinguish the geologic signature of historical earthquakes, and b) whether tsunami deposits are preserved in the tropical environments of the Barra de Potosí Bay, Guerrero coast. Multiple sites were dug and cores recovered to determine the presence, continuity and extension of a sharp basal contact between a clayish silt unit and a sand unit. The trench, pit, and monolith at Barra de Potosí yield a similar stratigraphy. Several lines of evidence using a multi-proxy approach (historical studies, interviews with local witnesses, geomorphological and geological surveys, coring and trenching, and laboratory analyses including grain size, micropaleontology, geochemistry, magnetic susceptibility and radiometric dating - Pb-210 and C-14) indicate the occurrence of two earthquakes that we link to local events: the 1985 (M 8.1) Mexico and possibly the 1907 (M 8.3) earthquake. No conclusive evidence of tsunami deposits were recognized, however an anomalous sand layer with incorporated mud clasts, shallow marine foraminifera, and the presence of organic debris in this sand bed suggests a mixture of terrestrial influence associated with the inland transport of high-energy marine material most likely from a nearshore beach environment. The radiocarbon dates provide a minimum age i.e. the maximum estimate for the period of burial of the plant material in the lower observed sand layer of ca. 2320-2050 cal yr BP (Cal BC 370 to 100). We thereby provide onshore geological evidence of historical coseismic deformation and possibly a tsunami on the Pacific coast of Mexico.

  6. Parasites of cetaceans stranded on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J B; Morales, J A; González-Barrientos, R C; Hernández-Gamboa, J; Hernández-Mora, G

    2011-12-15

    Information regarding parasitic fauna of cetaceans from Costa Rica is provided for the first time. A total of 25 stranded dolphins and whales were examined between 2001 and 2009, including striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) (n=19), pantropical spotted dolphin (S. attenuata) (n=2), spinner dolphin (S. longirostris) (n=1), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) (n=1), dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima) (n=1) and Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) (n=1). Pathological findings associated with the parasites are also presented. In the most representative dolphin species, S. coeruleoalba, the prevalence of parasites was 89.5%; moreover, all examined specimens of S. attenuata, S. longirostris, T. truncatus and Z. cavirostris presented parasites. No parasites were recovered from K. sima. Fourteen helminth taxa were identified, including six species of cestodes (Strobilocephalus triangularis, Tetrabothrius forsteri, Trigonocotyle sp., Phyllobothrium delphini, Monorygma grimaldi, Tetraphyllidea gen. sp. plerocercoid), four digeneans (Nasitrema globicephalae, Brachycladium palliatum, B. pacificum and Oschmarinella albamarina) and four nematodes (Anisakis spp., Halocercus lagenorhynchi, Halocercus sp. and Crassicauda anthonyi). A commensal crustacean, Xenobalanus globicipitis, was also identified. All identified parasites representing new geographic records for the Pacific coast of Central America and new host records are presented. Parasitological information is valuable for conservation of cetaceans in Pacific coast of Costa Rica. PMID:21665367

  7. Seasonal Levels of the Vibrio Predator Bacteriovorax in Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf Coast Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Gary P.; Watson, Michael A.; Boyd, E. Fidelma; Burkhardt, William; Lau, Ronald; Uknalis, Joseph; Fay, Johnna P.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriovorax were quantified in US Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific seawater to determine baseline levels of these predatory bacteria and possible seasonal fluctuations in levels. Surface seawater was analyzed monthly for 1 year from Kailua-Kona, Hawaii; the Gulf Coast of Alabama; and four sites along the Delaware Bay. Screening for Bacteriovorax was performed on lawns of V. parahaemolyticus host cells. Direct testing of 7.5 mL portions of seawater from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coasts gave mean annual counts ≤12.2 PFU. Spikes in counts were observed at 3 out of 4 sites along the Delaware Bay 1 week after Hurricane Sandy. A comparison of summer versus winter counts showed significantly more Bacteriovorax (P ≤ 0.0001) in the Delaware Bay during the summer and significantly more (P ≤ 0.0001) in the Gulf during the winter, but no significant seasonal differences (P > 0.05) for Hawaiian seawater. Bacteriovorax counts only correlated with seawater salinity and temperature at one Delaware site (r = 0.79 and r = 0.65, resp.). There was a relatively strong negative correlation between temperature and Bacteriovorax levels (r = −0.585) for Gulf seawater. Selected isolates were sequenced and identified by phylogenetic analysis as Bacteriovorax clusters IX, X, XI, and XII. PMID:24454382

  8. Did an underwater landslide trigger the June 22, 1932 tsunami off the Pacific coast of Mexico?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corona, Néstor; Ramírez-Herrera, María-Teresa

    2015-12-01

    On June 22, 1932, a 10- to 12-m-high tsunami wave struck ~60 km off the Mexican Pacific coast. The associated earthquake that apparently produced this tsunami is questionable because of its relatively small magnitude ( M s = 6.9) to produce such tsunami heights. Historical documents, survivor testimony, tsunami catalogs, a post-tsunami survey report, together with geomorphological interpretation of the continental shelf and slope, and numerical modeling were combined to characterize the tsunami parameters. Our results suggest that recorded maximum tsunami wave height, horizontal inundation, arrival time, directivity, effects, and damage are compatible with those characteristics related to an underwater landslide tsunami. The associated landslide (slump) is 4.2 km long, 3.9 km wide, 0.448 km thick, and is located in the upper continental shelf of the Armería Canyon. Elucidating the cause and mechanisms of the near-field 1932 tsunami would aid in considering a wider spectrum of tsunami sources in hazard mitigation programs of the Mexican Pacific coast.

  9. The influence of atmospheric conditions on the leakage current of ceramic insulators on the Colombian Caribbean coast.

    PubMed

    Castillo Sierra, Rafael; Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Candelo, John E; Soto, Jose D

    2015-02-01

    The contamination of electrical insulators is one of the major contributors to the risk of operation outages in electrical substations, especially in coastal zones with high salinity levels and atmospheric pollution. By using the measurement of leakage-currents, which is one of the main indicators of contamination in insulators, this work seeks to the determine the correlation with climatic variables, such as ambient temperature, relative humidity, solar irradiance, atmospheric pressure and wind speed and direction. The results obtained provide an input to the behaviour of the leakage current under atmospheric conditions that are particular to the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and principal component analysis are utilised to determine the significant relationships among the different variables under consideration. The necessary information for the study was obtained via historical databases of both atmospheric variables and the leakage current measured in over a period of 1 year in a 220-kV potential transformer insulator. We identified the influencing factors of temperature, humidity, radiation, wind speed and direction on the magnitude of the leakage current as the most relevant. PMID:25339532

  10. Coastal Carbon Synthesis for the Continental Shelf of the North American Pacific Coast (NAPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siedlecki, S. A.; Alin, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    The West Coast represents the longest coastline in North America, stretching from Panama all the way northward to the Aleutians. Key advances in the carbon cycling of this margin have been made since the North American Continental Margins report (Hales et al., 2008), notably the convergence of models and observations on air-sea fluxes; more sophisticated coastal carbon cycle models; and increased observational coverage in space and time, allowing for more data synthesis and model-data comparison. The coast was divided up into sub-regions based on differences in oceanographic drivers of coastal carbon cycling. Those sub-regions include the Gulf of Alaska, the Central American Isthmus, and the California Current System (CCS), which is further subdivided into northern, central, and southern sectors. The carbon budget for the Pacific Coast of North America identifies the best-known fluxes as the air-sea exchange of CO2 and terrestrial inputs. The least constrained fluxes include respiration, cross-shelf exchange, and carbon metabolism in estuaries. Spatial trends were typically consistent among models and observations, but the magnitude of the fluxes varied widely. While more modeling and observational studies exist than are presented here, relevant fluxes for the carbon budget were often unreported. In the long-term, investments in research and monitoring will be needed to better constrain the fluxes of many of the highly variable regions described in this study. In addition to the budget, this synthesis identifies gaps and priorities for future research.

  11. A post-glacial sea level hinge on the central Pacific coast of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaren, Duncan; Fedje, Daryl; Hay, Murray B.; Mackie, Quentin; Walker, Ian J.; Shugar, Dan H.; Eamer, Jordan B. R.; Lian, Olav B.; Neudorf, Christina

    2014-08-01

    Post-glacial sea level dynamics during the last 15,000 calendar years are highly variable along the Pacific coast of Canada. During the Last Glacial Maximum, the Earth's crust was depressed by ice loading along the mainland inner coast and relative sea levels were as much as 200 m higher than today. In contrast, some outer coastal areas experienced a glacial forebulge (uplift) effect that caused relative sea levels to drop to as much as 150 m below present levels. Between these inner and outer coasts, we hypothesize that there would have been an area where sea level remained relatively stable, despite regional and global trends in sea level change. To address this hypothesis, we use pond basin coring, diatom analysis, archaeological site testing, sedimentary exposure sampling, and radiocarbon dating to construct sea level histories for the Hakai Passage region. Our data include 106 newly reported radiocarbon ages from key coastal sites that together support the thesis that this area has experienced a relatively stable sea level over the last 15,000 calendar years. These findings are significant in that they indicate a relatively stable coastal environment amenable to long-term human occupation and settlement of the area. Our results will help inform future archaeological investigations in the region.

  12. The potential effects of global climate change on the distribution of native and introduced Zostera seagrasses on the Pacific Coast of North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    At least two seagrass species in the genus Zostera occur on the Pacific coast of North America: the native species Zostera marina L., and an introduced species, Z. japonica Ascher. & Graeb. Z. marina occurs along the entire Pacific coast of the United States and Canada. Zos...

  13. Tsunamis on the Pacific Coast of Canada Recorded in 1994-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Frederick E.; Rabinovich, Alexander B.

    2009-02-01

    In the last 15 years there have been 16 tsunami events recorded at tide stations on the Pacific Coast of Canada. Eleven of these events were from distant sources covering almost all regions of the Pacific, as well as the December 26, 2004 Sumatra tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Three tsunamis were generated by local or regional earthquakes and two were meteorological tsunamis. The earliest four events, which occurred in the period 1994-1996, were recorded on analogue recorders; these tsunami records were recently re-examined, digitized and thoroughly analysed. The other 12 tsunami events were recorded using digital high-quality instruments, with 1-min sampling interval, installed on the coast of British Columbia (B.C.) in 1998. All 16 tsunami events were recorded at Tofino on the outer B.C. coast, and some of the tsunamis were recorded at eight or more stations. The tide station at Tofino has been in operation for 100 years and these recent observations add to the dataset of tsunami events compiled previously by S.O. W igen (1983) for the period 1906-1980. For each of the tsunami records statistical analysis was carried out to determine essential tsunami characteristics for all events (arrival times, maximum amplitudes, frequencies and wave-train structure). The analysis of the records indicated that significant background noise at Langara, a key northern B.C. Tsunami Warning station located near the northern end of the Queen Charlotte Islands, creates serious problems in detecting tsunami waves. That station has now been moved to a new location with better tsunami response. The number of tsunami events observed in the past 15 years also justified re-establishing a tide gauge at Port Alberni, where large tsunami wave amplitudes were measured in March 1964. The two meteorological events are the first ever recorded on the B.C. coast. Also, there have been landslide generated tsunami events which, although not recorded on any coastal tide gauges, demonstrate, along with

  14. Survey of the Japanese Coast Reveals Abundant Placozoan Populations in the Northern Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Placozoans are the simplest extant free-living animals consisting of only five cell types and lacking neurons and muscle cells. Their phylogenetic position implies they are important for uncovering the origins of metazoans. Although recent studies show multiple groups within the phylum, most placozoan research has been performed on laboratory-cultured clones deriving from a single specimen. Reports of placozoan discovery are concentrated in the tropic and subtropic seas, especially in the Mediterranean and the Caribbean. Here, I report the unexpected abundance of placozoans from the Japanese coast. They were found from all six studied sites, even during winter for two sites, suggesting that they are more tolerant to low temperatures than previously regarded. These results suggest an unknown abundance of placozoans in the Northern Pacific Ocean and further studies on these populations may be essential in solving important biological problems of the phylum. PMID:24942227

  15. Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal Siting in a Highly Seismic Region on the Mexican Pacific Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaczek, Yannick; Lambert, Nicolas

    A new LNG terminal should be built on the Pacific coast of Mexico, one of the most seismic regions in the world. According to International codes, a siting process must be carried out to insure the feasibility of the project, which involves, in a first step, a data collection of all existing documents related to geology, seismicity, and geotechnics. As a second step, a seismo-tectonic study has been performed, with localisation of active faults on or close to the site (aerial and satellite imagery, geophysical investigations) and determination of OBE & SSE levels. Afterwards, the site was globally characterised, with a first geotechnical report, dealing with liquefaction risks, typical soil layers, and general foundation methodology. The general site layout, the general stability of buildings, the detailed soil investigations, and the detailed foundation design are performed in the phases as described in this paper.

  16. Quantitative relationship between potato tuber damage and counts of Pacific Coast wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in baits: seasonal effects.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plots were baited with rolled oats in spring to assess the relationship between counts of Pacific coast wireworm, Limonius canus (Coleoptera: Elateridae) and damage to potato tubers. Baiting was done at 7 intervals beginning before planting of potatoes and ending following germination. Injury (per...

  17. Phenotypic plasticity of invasive Spartina densiflora (Poaceae) along a broad latitudinal gradient on the Pacific Coast of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined morphological and physiological leaf traits of Spartina densiflora plants in populations from invaded estuarine sites across broad latitudinal and climate gradients along the Pacific west coast of North America, and in favourable conditions in a common garden experiment. We hypothesized ...

  18. Trends in marine debris along the U.S. Pacific Coast and Hawai'i 1998-2007.

    PubMed

    Ribic, Christine A; Sheavly, Seba B; Rugg, David J; Erdmann, Eric S

    2012-05-01

    We assessed amounts, composition, and trends of marine debris for the U.S. Pacific Coast and Hawai'i using National Marine Debris Monitoring Program data. Hawai'i had the highest debris loads; the North Pacific Coast region had the lowest debris loads. The Southern California Bight region had the highest land-based debris loads. Debris loads decreased over time for all source categories in all regions except for land-based and general-source loads in the North Pacific Coast region, which were unchanged. General-source debris comprised 30-40% of the items in all regions. Larger local populations were associated with higher land-based debris loads across regions; the effect declined at higher population levels. Upwelling affected deposition of ocean-based and general-source debris loads but not land-based loads along the Pacific Coast. LNSO decreased debris loads for both land-based and ocean-based debris but not general-source debris in Hawai'i, a more complex climate-ocean effect than had previously been found. PMID:22385753

  19. Identification of feeding stimulants for Pacific coast wireworm by use of a filter paper assay (Coleoptera: Elateridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugars and several plant essential oils were evaluated as feeding stimulants for larvae of Pacific coast wireworm, Limonius canus (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Compounds were evaluated by quantifying biting rates of wireworms on treated filter paper disks, modifying a method used previously in assays w...

  20. Extreme wave deposits on the Pacific coast of Mexico: Tsunamis or storms? — A multi-proxy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Herrera, María-Teresa; Lagos, Marcelo; Hutchinson, Ian; Kostoglodov, Vladimir; Machain, Maria Luisa; Caballero, Margarita; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Aguilar, Bertha; Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Goff, James; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana-Carolina; Ortiz, Modesto; Nava, Hector; Bautista, Francisco; Lopez, Gloria I.; Quintana, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    Historical and instrumental data show that the Pacific coast of Mexico has been exposed to destructive tsunamis over at least the past 500 years. This coast is also affected by hurricanes generated in the eastern Pacific. The great 1985 Mexico earthquake and its aftershock generated tsunamis that affected the Ixtapa-Zihuatanejo and Michoacán coast. The purpose of our study was two-fold — a) to determine whether storm and tsunami deposits could be distinguished, and b) whether tsunami deposits from historical events are preserved in the tropical environments of the Ixtapa-Zihuatanejo coast. Two anomalous sand units in the Ixtapa estuary are interpreted to be the result of high-energy marine inundation events that occurred in the last century. Several lines of evidence using a multi-proxy approach (historical studies, interviews with local witnesses, geomorphological and geological surveys, coring and trenching, laboratory analyses including grain size, micropaleontology, geochemistry, magnetic susceptibility and radiometric dating, and numerical modeling) indicate the occurrence of two tsunamis that we link to local events: the 21st September 1985 Mexico and possibly the 14th March 1979 Petatlan earthquakes. We thereby provide the first onshore geological evidence of historical tsunamis on the Pacific coast of Mexico.

  1. Extreme Wave Deposits On The Pacific Coast Of Mexico: Tsunamis Or Storms? - A Multi-Proxy Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez Herrera, M.; Lagos, M.; Hutchinson, I.; Chague-Goff, C.; Kostoglodov, V.; Goff, J. R.; Ruiz-Fernandez, A.; Machain, M.; Caballero, M.; Goguitchaichrili, A.; Aguilar, B.; Urquijo, P.; Laboratorio Universitario de Geofísica Ambiental (Luga)

    2011-12-01

    Historical and instrumental data show that the Pacific coast of Mexico has been exposed to destructive tsunamis over at least the past 500 years. This coast is also affected by hurricanes generated in the eastern Pacific. The great 1985 Mexico earthquake and its aftershock generated tsunamis that affected the Ixtapa-Zihuatanejo and Michoacán coast. The purpose of our study was two-fold, a) to determine whether we could distinguish storm from tsunami deposits, and b) whether tsunami deposits from historical events are preserved in the tropical environments of the Ixtapa-Zihuatanejo coast. Two anomalous sand units in the Ixtapa estuary are interpreted as the result of high-energy marine inundation events that occurred in the last century. Several lines of evidence using a multi-proxy approach (historical studies, interviews with local witnesses, geomorphological and geological surveys, coring and trenching, and laboratory analyses including grain size, micropaleontology, geochemistry, magnetic susceptibility and radiometric dating) indicate the occurrence of two tsunamis that we link to local events: the 1985 Mexico and possibly the 1979 Petatlan earthquakes. We thereby provide the first onshore geological evidence of historical tsunamis on the Pacific coast of Mexico.

  2. Tidal constituent database. West Coast of the United States and Eastern North pacific ocean. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This technical note describes a database of tidal elevation boundary condition information generated in support of the `Long-Term Fate of Dredged Material Disposed in Open Water` research of the Dredging Research Program (DRP), being conducted at the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. The database, described in detail by Hench and others (1994), allows the user to manually generate time series of tidal elevations or to use a program to access the full database to generate time series of both tidal elevations and currents for any location along the West Coast of the United States and Eastern North Pacific Ocean, extending from Seal Cape on Unimak Island, Alaska, in the North to Punta Parada, Peru, in the South. The land boundary includes the Pacific shorelines of Alaska, Canada, mainland United States, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Columbia, and Northern Peru. Although the capability to generate these time series was developed to provide input to the Long-Term Fate and Stability Model (LTFATE), the generated time series can be used for any application requiring tidal forcing data.

  3. The First Dinosaur from Washington State and a Review of Pacific Coast Dinosaurs from North America

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group) and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters). Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis) precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia. PMID:25993090

  4. The first dinosaur from Washington State and a review of Pacific coast dinosaurs from North America.

    PubMed

    Peecook, Brandon R; Sidor, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group) and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters). Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis) precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia. PMID:25993090

  5. NOAA/West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center Pacific Ocean response criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitmore, P.; Benz, H.; Bolton, M.; Crawford, G.; Dengler, L.; Fryer, G.; Goltz, J.; Hansen, R.; Kryzanowski, K.; Malone, S.; Oppenheimer, D.; Petty, E.; Rogers, G.; Wilson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    New West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakes occurring in the Pacific basin are presented. Initial warning decisions are based on earthquake location, magnitude, depth, and - dependent on magnitude - either distance from source or precomputed threat estimates generated from tsunami models. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Changes to the previous criteria include: adding hypocentral depth dependence, reducing geographical warning extent for the lower magnitude ranges, setting special criteria for areas not well-connected to the open ocean, basing warning extent on pre-computed threat levels versus tsunami travel time for very large events, including the new advisory product, using the advisory product for far-offshore events in the lower magnitude ranges, and specifying distances from the coast for on-shore events which may be tsunamigenic. This report sets a baseline for response criteria used by the WCATWC considering its processing and observational data capabilities as well as its organizational requirements. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of slumps). As further research and development provides better tsunami source definition, observational data streams, and improved analysis tools, the criteria will continue to adjust. Future lines of research and development capable of providing operational tsunami warning centers with better tools are discussed.

  6. Clinical and molecular characterisation of two siblings with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, from the Colombian Pacific coast (South America).

    PubMed

    Pachajoa, Harry; Botero, Andres Felipe Ramirez

    2015-01-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP, MIM 135 100) is an uncommon genetic disease with a dominant autosomal germline transmission pattern; however, most cases are products of spontaneous individual mutations. It is a disabling condition that affects connective tissue, and it is distinguished by progressive heterotopic ossifications and congenital malformations of the great toes. The case of 2 brothers with progressive osseous deformation, along with ankylosis of the jaw, scoliosis and mental retardation, is presented. Blood samples were taken from each patient identifying in both of them a heterozygote mutation in exon 6 of the gene ACVR1 (c.617G>A p.Arg206His), which diagnoses the 'classic' form of FOP. The current medical treatment of this disease is early detection to avoid trauma and aggravating factors, prophylactic measures against infections and respiratory decline, symptomatic relief and physical therapy. There is currently no cure for the disease. PMID:26055602

  7. a Relative Sea Level Database for the Pacific Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhart, S. E.; Vacchi, M.; Horton, B.; Nelson, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Reconstruction of relative sea level (RSL) has implications for investigation of crustal movements, calibration of earth rheology models and the reconstruction of ice sheets. Here we present a quality-controlled RSL database compiled using data from the Pacific coast of North America (British Columbia, Canada to California, USA). This dataset includes 446 sea level index points that estimate the position of former RSL in time and space, and 181 limiting dates that constrain whether RSL was above (marine limiting) or below (terrestrial limiting) the sample. This coastal area is characterized by significant tectonic activity due to the Cascadia Subduction Zone in the north from British Columbia to northern California, and the San Andreas Fault in northern and central California. However, the tectonic contribution to RSL change from the Cascadia Subduction Zone and the San Andreas Fault is unknown. Elastic dislocation models of the earthquake deformation cycle have commonly assumed that Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) in the Cascadia subduction zone is non-existent. However, our data indicate ongoing GIA-related subsidence along the coasts of Washington, Oregon and California of a similar magnitude observed along the Atlantic coast of the USA and other proglacial forebulge regions in Europe. This has implications for GPS observations of vertical land movement from Cascadia that assume all motion is due to subduction zone deformation. Using a late Holocene subset of our database, we estimated the land-level changes associated with the ongoing GIA. Comparing this value with long-term (>50 year) tide gauge records allows us to improve estimates of the ongoing vertical deformation at Cascadia due to the subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath the North American plate.

  8. Population genetic structure of annual and perennial populations of Zostera marina L. along the Pacific coast of Baja California and the Gulf of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munoz-Salazar, R.; Talbot, S.L.; Sage, G.K.; Ward, D.H.; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    The Baja California peninsula represents a biogeographical boundary contributing to regional differentiation among populations of marine animals. We investigated the genetic characteristics of perennial and annual populations of the marine angiosperm, Zostera marina, along the Pacific coast of Baja California and in the Gulf of California, respectively. Populations of Z. marina from five coastal lagoons along the Pacific coast and four sites in the Gulf of California were studied using nine microsatellite loci. Analyses of variance revealed significant interregional differentiation, but no subregional differentiation. Significant spatial differentiation, assessed using θ values, was observed among all populations within the two regions. Z. marina populations along the Pacific coast are separated by more than 220 km and had the greatest θ (0.13-0.28) values, suggesting restricted gene flow. In contrast, lower but still significant genetic differentiation was observed among populations within the Gulf of California (θ = 0.04-0.18), even though populations are separated by more than 250 km. This suggests higher levels of gene flow among Gulf of California populations relative to Pacific coast populations. Direction of gene flow was predominantly southward among Pacific coast populations, whereas no dominant polarity in the Gulf of California populations was observed. The test for isolation by distance (IBD) showed a significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances in Gulf of California populations, but not in Pacific coast populations, perhaps because of shifts in currents during El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events along the Pacific coast.

  9. Dynamical suppression of sea level rise along the Pacific coast of North America: Indications for imminent acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromirski, Peter D.; Miller, Arthur J.; Flick, Reinhard E.; Auad, Guillermo

    2011-07-01

    Long-term changes in global mean sea level (MSL) rise have important practical implications for shoreline and beach erosion, coastal wetlands inundation, storm surge flooding, and coastal development. Altimetry since 1993 indicates that global MSL rise has increased about 50% above the 20th century rise rate, from 2 to 3 mm yr-1. At the same time, both tide gauge measurements and altimetry indicate virtually no increase along the Pacific coast of North America during the satellite epoch. Here we show that the dynamical steric response of North Pacific eastern boundary ocean circulation to a dramatic change in wind stress curl, τxy, which occurred after the mid-1970s regime shift, can account for the suppression of regional sea level rise along this coast since 1980. Alarmingly, mean τxy over the North Pacific recently reached levels not observed since before the mid-1970s regime shift. This change in wind stress patterns may be foreshadowing a Pacific Decadal Oscillation regime shift, causing an associated persistent change in basin-scale τxy that may result in a concomitant resumption of sea level rise along the U.S. West Coast to global or even higher rates.

  10. Rapid calculation of a Centroid Moment Tensor and waveheight predictions around the north Pacific for the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polet, Jascha; Thio, Hong Kie

    2011-07-01

    We present the results of a near real-time determination of a Centroid Moment Tensor for the 2011 Tohoku quake and the subsequent rapid prediction of Pacific coast tsunami waveheights based on these CMT parameters. Initial manual CMT results for this event were obtained within 23 minutes of origin time and fully automatic results were distributed by E-mail within 33 minutes. The mechanism, depth and moment magnitude were all well constrained, as was indicated by a bootstrapping analysis. Using an existing library of tsunami Green's functions, we computed predicted waveheights in the north Pacific for several scenarios of the Tohoku earthquake that are consistent with the CMT solution. Overall, these predicted waveheights correspond well with preliminary observations around the Pacific Rim. The predictions for North America were sent out three and a half hours after the origin time of the earthquake, but this system has the potential to provide these predictions within minutes after receiving the CMT solution.

  11. Biomass Carbon in the South Mexican Pacific Coast: Exploring Mangrove Potential to REDD+ Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejarano, M.; Amezcua-Torrijos, I.

    2014-12-01

    Mangroves have the highest carbon stocks amongst tropical forests. In Mexico, however, little is known about their potential to mitigate climate change. In this work, we estimated biomass carbon stocks in the Southern Mexican Pacific Coast (~69,000 ha). We quantified above and belowground biomass carbon stocks at (1) the regional scale along two environmental strata (i.e. dry and wet), and (2) at the local scale along three geomorphological types of mangroves (i.e. fringe, estuarine and basin). Regional strata were defined using intensity and influence of rivers and, the mean annual precipitation and evapotranspiration ratio (i.e., wet < 1 > dry). By lowering the stressing environmental conditions (e.g., low salinity and high sediment accumulation), we expected the highest stocks in mangroves growing in wet and estuarine strata at the regional scale and local scale, respectively. Quantifications were carried out in sixty-six sites chosen through stratified randomized design in which six strata were obtained by a full combination of regional and local strata. In all strata, aboveground carbon represents 64-67% of total carbon. Total biomass carbon was higher in wet than dry stratum (W: 87.3 ± 6.9, D: 47.0 ± 5.0, p<0.001). While at local scale, total biomass carbon was high in estuarine mangroves of both wet and dry regions (W: 91.6 ± 7.8, D: 77.6 ± 14.8, p<0.001), and these were statistically similar to fringe wet mangroves (110.9 ± 24.2, p<0.001), the stratum with the highest total carbon. Following a conservative approach, the Mexican Southern Pacific Coast is storing near 20,344 Gg CO2e. If the historical annual deforestation rate of 0.54% continues, this region could emit between 0.03 and 14.4 Gg of CO2e ha/year, out of which wet estuarine mangroves would have the highest emission values. Evidence suggests that these mangroves are the most important strata in which REDD+ mechanisms could be implemented due to (1) their carbon stocks, and (2) their highest

  12. Population genetics of the invasive cryptogenic anemone, Anemonia alicemartinae, along the southeastern Pacific coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canales-Aguirre, C. B.; Quiñones, A.; Hernández, C. E.; Neill, P. E.; Brante, A.

    2015-08-01

    One of the most important issues in biological invasions is understanding the factors and mechanisms determining the invasion success of non-native species. Theoretical and empirical works have shown that genetic diversity is a determinant of invasion success; thus, studying spatial patterns of genetic diversity, and exploring how biological and physical factors shape this population trait, are fundamental for understanding this phenomenon. Coastal marine ecosystems are one of the most susceptible habitats to invasion given the complex network of maritime transport. In this work we study the cryptogenic anemone, Anemonia alicemartinae, which has rapidly increased its geographical range southward during the last 50 years (approx. 2000 km) along the southeastern Pacific coast. Based on COI mtDNA sequences we evaluated three main hypotheses: a) the genetic diversity of A. alicemartinae decreases according to the direction of invasion (from north to south); b) there is biogeographic-phylogeographic concordance at the 30°S biogeographic break; and c) the demographic history is coherent with a recent geographic expansion. A total of 161 individual samples of A. alicemartinae were collected along the southeastern Pacific coast range of distribution, covering more than 2000 km, including samples along the 30°S biogeographical break. Results showed low genetic diversity (Hd = 0.253; π = 0.08) and a lack of geographic population genetic structure (FST = - 0.009, p-value = 0.656). The highest genetic diversity was observed in Peru (Chero and Mesas) and at localities close to the main Chilean seaports. We did not observe concordance between biogeographic and phylogeographic patterns or isolation by distance. Demographic indices (D = - 2.604, p < 0.001; Fu's = - 26.619, p < 0.001), as well as a star-like configuration of the haplotype network support recent population expansion of this species. Our results, together with historical field observations, support the idea that

  13. Differential recruitment of introduced Pacific oysters and native mussels at the North Sea coast: coexistence possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Susanne

    2005-04-01

    Pacific oysters ( Crassostrea gigas Thunberg 1793) have been introduced into the Wadden Sea (North Sea), where they settle on native mussel beds ( Mytilus edulis L.), which represent the only extensive insular hard substrata in this soft-sediment environment. As abundances of C. gigas rose, some mussel beds became increasingly overgrown with oysters, whereas others did not. Field experiments revealed that recruitment of C. gigas was higher in the lower intertidal than in the upper subtidal zone, that it was higher on conspecifics than on mussels, and that it was not affected by barnacle epigrowth except when settling on mussels. Mussel recruitment is known from inter- and subtidal zones. It occurred equally on oyster and mussel shells but showed a clear preference for barnacle epigrowth over clean shells. Assuming that settlement and recruitment are key processes for species abundances on the North Sea coast, it is predicted that the positive feedback in oyster settlement will lead to rapid reef formation of this invader at the expense of mussel beds. Mussels, however, may escape competitive exclusion by settling between or on the larger oysters especially when barnacles are abundant. Experimental patches with mussels were more often covered by fucoid algae ( Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili Nienburg) than patches with oysters, and oyster recruitment was poor underneath such algal canopies. Thus, fucoids may provide the native mussels with a refuge from the invading oysters and the two bivalves may coexist, provided food is not limiting.

  14. [Inshore cetaceans from the North and South Pacific coast of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Fernández, Damián; Montero-Cordero, Andrea; May-Collado, Laura

    2011-03-01

    Twenty nine cetacean species occur in Costa Rican waters but extensive research has been conducted only for three species. The latter shows there is a lack of general and local information about these mammals, even when the country, has shown a remarkable growth in whale watching activities. The increasing use of marine resources in coastal areas has also developed the need to determine the occurrence of cetaceans in areas showing high tourist presence, in order to propose sound conservation measures. In this study, environmental variables were determined and subsequently related to the presence of the species recorded, out of 166 sightings, between 2005 and 2006. The species with highest proportion of sightings were Stenella attenuata (68%), followed by Megaptera novaeangliae (13%) and Tursiops truncatus (10%). The presence of spotted dolphins is related to changes in salinity and water transparency, while that of the humpback whale was related to wave height (Beaufort scale) and water temperature. The presence of seven species of cetaceans was confirmed in two coastal areas of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, from which three are present throughout the year. Environmental variables were found related to the presence of at least two species. PMID:21516651

  15. Hydrology Affects Environmental and Spatial Structuring of Microalgal Metacommunities in Tropical Pacific Coast Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Rojo, Carmen; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Monrós, Juan S.; Armengol, Javier; Sasa, Mahmood; Bonilla, Fabián; Rueda, Ricardo; Benavent-Corai, José; Piculo, Rubén; Segura, M. Matilde

    2016-01-01

    The alternating climate between wet and dry periods has important effects on the hydrology and therefore on niche-based processes of water bodies in tropical areas. Additionally, assemblages of microorganism can show spatial patterns, in the form of a distance decay relationship due to their size or life form. We aimed to test spatial and environmental effects, modulated by a seasonal flooding climatic pattern, on the distribution of microalgae in 30 wetlands of a tropical dry forest region: the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Three surveys were conducted corresponding to the beginning, the highest peak, and the end of the hydrological year during the wet season, and species abundance and composition of planktonic and benthic microalgae was determined. Variation partitioning analysis (as explained by spatial distance or environmental factors) was applied to each seasonal dataset by means of partial redundancy analysis. Our results show that microalgal assemblages were structured by spatial and environmental factors depending on the hydrological period of the year. At the onset of hydroperiod and during flooding, neutral effects dominated community dynamics, but niche-based local effects resulted in more structured algal communities at the final periods of desiccating water bodies. Results suggest that climate-mediated effects on hydrology can influence the relative role of spatial and environmental factors on metacommunities of microalgae. Such variability needs to be accounted in order to describe accurately community dynamics in tropical coastal wetlands. PMID:26900916

  16. Particulate matter mass and chemical component concentrations over four Chinese cities along the western Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Bi, Xiao-Hui; Zheng, Wei-Wei; Wu, Jian-Hui; Feng, Yin-Chang

    2015-02-01

    China has witnessed rapid economic growth in the past three decades, especially in coastal areas. Particulate matter (PM) pollution is becoming increasingly serious in China's cities along the western Pacific coast with the rapid development of China's society and economy. This study analyzed PM (PM10 and PM2.5) in terms of their mass and chemical composition in four coastal Chinese cities. The goal was to study the spatial variation and characteristics of PM pollution in sites under different levels of economic development and in diverse natural environments. A distinct trend for concentrations of PM and related chemical species was observed and increased from south to north in Haikou, Ningbo, Qingdao, and Tianjin. Secondary inorganic aerosols, crustal materials, and organic matter dominated the composition of both PM10 and PM2.5. Crustal materials were the most abundant species in the northern coastal areas because these areas have less vegetation cover and lower humidity than southern coastal areas. The presence of high SO4 (2-)/nitrate (NO3 (-)) concentrations indicated that the burning of coals gives significant contributions to PM10 and PM2.5. The differences observed in the characteristics of PM pollution in these coastal cities are probably caused by different levels of industrial and urban development. PMID:25292296

  17. Hydrology Affects Environmental and Spatial Structuring of Microalgal Metacommunities in Tropical Pacific Coast Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Carmen; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Monrós, Juan S; Armengol, Javier; Sasa, Mahmood; Bonilla, Fabián; Rueda, Ricardo; Benavent-Corai, José; Piculo, Rubén; Segura, M Matilde

    2016-01-01

    The alternating climate between wet and dry periods has important effects on the hydrology and therefore on niche-based processes of water bodies in tropical areas. Additionally, assemblages of microorganism can show spatial patterns, in the form of a distance decay relationship due to their size or life form. We aimed to test spatial and environmental effects, modulated by a seasonal flooding climatic pattern, on the distribution of microalgae in 30 wetlands of a tropical dry forest region: the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Three surveys were conducted corresponding to the beginning, the highest peak, and the end of the hydrological year during the wet season, and species abundance and composition of planktonic and benthic microalgae was determined. Variation partitioning analysis (as explained by spatial distance or environmental factors) was applied to each seasonal dataset by means of partial redundancy analysis. Our results show that microalgal assemblages were structured by spatial and environmental factors depending on the hydrological period of the year. At the onset of hydroperiod and during flooding, neutral effects dominated community dynamics, but niche-based local effects resulted in more structured algal communities at the final periods of desiccating water bodies. Results suggest that climate-mediated effects on hydrology can influence the relative role of spatial and environmental factors on metacommunities of microalgae. Such variability needs to be accounted in order to describe accurately community dynamics in tropical coastal wetlands. PMID:26900916

  18. Untangling cultural inheritance: language diversity and long-house architecture on the Pacific northwest coast

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Peter; O'Neill, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Many recent studies of cultural inheritance have focused on small-scale craft traditions practised by single individuals, which do not require coordinated participation by larger social collectives. In this paper, we address this gap in the cultural transmission literature by investigating diversity in the vernacular architecture of the Pacific northwest coast, where communities of hunter–fisher–gatherers constructed immense wooden long-houses at their main winter villages. Quantitative analyses of long-house styles along the coastline draw on a range of models and methods from the biological sciences and are employed to test hypotheses relating to basic patterns of macro-scale cultural diversification, and the degree to which the transmission of housing traits has been constrained by the region's numerous linguistic boundaries. The results indicate relatively strong branching patterns of cultural inheritance and also close associations between regional language history and housing styles, pointing to the potentially crucial role played by language boundaries in structuring large-scale patterns of cultural diversification, especially in relation to ‘collective’ cultural traditions like housing that require substantial inputs of coordinated labour. PMID:21041212

  19. Untangling cultural inheritance: language diversity and long-house architecture on the Pacific northwest coast.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Peter; O'Neill, Sean

    2010-12-12

    Many recent studies of cultural inheritance have focused on small-scale craft traditions practised by single individuals, which do not require coordinated participation by larger social collectives. In this paper, we address this gap in the cultural transmission literature by investigating diversity in the vernacular architecture of the Pacific northwest coast, where communities of hunter-fisher-gatherers constructed immense wooden long-houses at their main winter villages. Quantitative analyses of long-house styles along the coastline draw on a range of models and methods from the biological sciences and are employed to test hypotheses relating to basic patterns of macro-scale cultural diversification, and the degree to which the transmission of housing traits has been constrained by the region's numerous linguistic boundaries. The results indicate relatively strong branching patterns of cultural inheritance and also close associations between regional language history and housing styles, pointing to the potentially crucial role played by language boundaries in structuring large-scale patterns of cultural diversification, especially in relation to 'collective' cultural traditions like housing that require substantial inputs of coordinated labour. PMID:21041212

  20. Genetic diversity in two introduced biofouling amphipods (Amphipods valida and Jassa marmorata) along the Pacific North American coast: investigation into molecular identification and cryptic diversity

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated patterns of genetic diversity among invasive populations of A. valida and J. marmorata from the Pacific North American coast to assess the accuracy of morphological identification and determine whether or not cryptic diversity and multiple introductions contribute...

  1. 75 FR 4684 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Data Collection for the Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... Internet at the Office of the Federal Register's Website at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html... proposed rule (74 FR 47545) announcing our intent to collect ownership information from potential... States Marine Fisheries Commission's Pacific Fisheries Information Network (PacFIN) database,...

  2. Comparative ultrastructural study of spermatozoa in some oyster species from the Asian-Pacific Coast.

    PubMed

    Yurchenko, Olga V

    2012-02-01

    Sperm organization in the oysters Crassostrea gigas, Crassostrea nippona, Crassostrea cf. rivularis and Saccostrea cf. mordax inhabiting Asian Pacific coast was studied. The spermatozoa of all studied species had a number of common morphological characters such as a cup-like acrosome with heterogeneous matrix on its top, an axial rod in the subacrosomal space, a barrel-shaped nucleus, four mitochondria in the midpiece, pericentriolar complexes, and a 9+2-organized flagellum. The spermatozoa of C. cf. rivularis differed from the other species by having cytoplasm processes in the midpiece region. Such structures have never been described in the Ostreidae. Additionally, each species could be identified by the shape and size of sperm compartments (acrosome, nucleus, anterior nuclear fossa). The most significant interspecific difference was found in the size of an anterior nuclear fossa. The smallest anterior nuclear fossa was found in C. cf. rivularis (about 0.24 μm in length reaching about 22% of the nuclear length) while the biggest in C. gigas from the Sea of Japan (about 0.53 μm in length reaching about 46% of the nuclear length). The spermatozoa of C. gigas collected from the Sea of Japan and Taiwan Strait differed significantly in almost all the studied parameters. Since sperm morphology has been successfully used for species differentiation, this suggests the existence of two species rather than two populations. The data obtained indicate the species-specific difference in the sperm ultrastructure within the Ostreidae, which may be identified both ultrastructurally and morphometrically. PMID:22019496

  3. Low prevalence of avian influenza virus in shorebirds on the Pacific coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Samuel A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Schwarzbach, Steven; Cardona, Carol J.; Warnock, Nils; Bishop, Mary Anne; Schirato, Greg A.; Paroulek, Sara; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Ip, Hon; Boyce, Walter M.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 has elevated concerns about wild birds as virus hosts; however, little is known about the ecological and epidemiological factors of transmission by shorebirds. Here we summarize results for 2,773 shorebirds that were live-trapped on the Pacific coast of the United States during 2006-2007 and tested for avian influenza virus using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and virus isolation. As was the case throughout North America, HPAI H5N1 was not detected in shorebirds during this interval. Contrary to other wild bird groups, most notably waterfowl, the prevalence of even low pathogenicity virus among shorebirds in our study areas in California, Washington, and Alaska was extremely low (0.5%). Virus was detected by RT-PCR from four different species, including, Dunlin (Calidris alpina; N = 3), Western Sandpiper (C. mauri; N = 8), Long-billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus scolopaceus; N = 1), and American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana; N = 1), with the detections in the latter three constituting the first published records for these birds. Based on studies in the eastern United States, we expected, but did not detect (H1 = 1.6, P = 0.21) elevated avian influenza prevalence among shorebirds during spring migration. Diagnostic tests, which were designed to evaluate testing and sampling methods, indicated poor functioning of traditional virus isolation methods and no improvement in detection likelihood by collecting oropharyngeal swabs in addition to cloacal swab samples for low pathogenicity viruses (Z1 = 0.7, P = 0.48).

  4. Geographical variation of shell thickness in the mussel Perumytilus purpuratus along the southeast Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Briones, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M; Fernández, Miriam; Guiñez, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    At broad geographical scales, the variation in bivalve shell thickness can be modulated by environmental factors that vary with latitude, such as sea surface temperature (SST), seawater pH, or calcium carbonate availability. Mussels usually form multilayered beds, and shell thickness is also expected to be affected by density and layering due to intraspecific competition. In this work, we explored the geographical variation of shell thickness in the intertidal mussel Perumytilus purpuratus between 18° and 42°S along the southeastern Pacific coast. We tested the hypothesis that there was a positive relationship between shell thickness and SST, and then we explored other variables that could have an effect on thickness, such as density, number of layers, and others environmental variables (pH and calcite concentration). The expected positive linear relationship between shell thickness and sea surface temperature was not found, but when the other population variables were included in the analysis, an unexpected inverse SST-thickness relationships appeared as significant, probably because this species could be adapted to colder and more acid seawater as are those of the tips of South America. Thickness was also negatively affected by density, which was expected for a gregarious species showing high intraspecific competition. Finally, our results highlight the importance of including density and crowding effects when macroscale patterns are explored, particularly in gregarious species, since these patterns could also be modulated by density-dependent processes, which might then override latitudinal trends of shell thickness when they are not included in the analyses. PMID:25572210

  5. Comparative health assessment of western Pacific leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) foraging off the coast of California, 2005-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Heather S.; Benson, Scott R.; Gilardi, Kirsten V.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Work, Thierry M.; Dutton, Peter H.; Mazet, Jonna A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are critically endangered, primarily threatened by the overharvesting of eggs, fisheries entanglement, and coastal development. The Pacific leatherback population has experienced a catastrophic decline over the past two decades. Leatherbacks foraging off the coast of California are part of a distinct Western Pacific breeding stock that nests on beaches in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. Although it has been proposed that the rapid decline of Pacific leatherback turtles is due to increased adult mortality, little is known about the health of this population. Health assessments in leatherbacks have examined females on nesting beaches, which provides valuable biological information, but might have limited applicability to the population as a whole. During September 2005 and 2007, we conducted physical examinations on 19 foraging Pacific leatherback turtles and measured normal physiologic parameters, baseline hematologic and plasma biochemistry values, and exposure to heavy metals (cadmium, lead, and mercury), organochlorine contaminants, and domoic acid. We compared hematologic values of foraging Pacific leatherbacks with their nesting counterparts in Papua New Guinea (n=11) and with other nesting populations in the Eastern Pacific in Costa Rica (n=8) and in the Atlantic in St. Croix (n=12). This study provides the most comprehensive assessment to date of the health status of leatherbacks in the Pacific. We found significant differences in blood values between foraging and nesting leatherbacks, which suggests that health assessment studies conducted only on nesting females might not accurately represent the whole population. The establishment of baseline physiologic data and blood values for healthy foraging leatherback turtles, including males, provides valuable data for long-term health monitoring and comparative studies of this endangered population.

  6. Comparative health assessment of Western Pacific leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) foraging off the coast of California, 2005-2007.

    PubMed

    Harris, Heather S; Benson, Scott R; Gilardi, Kirsten V; Poppenga, Robert H; Work, Thierry M; Dutton, Peter H; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2011-04-01

    Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are critically endangered, primarily threatened by the overharvesting of eggs, fisheries entanglement, and coastal development. The Pacific leatherback population has experienced a catastrophic decline over the past two decades. Leatherbacks foraging off the coast of California are part of a distinct Western Pacific breeding stock that nests on beaches in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. Although it has been proposed that the rapid decline of Pacific leatherback turtles is due to increased adult mortality, little is known about the health of this population. Health assessments in leatherbacks have examined females on nesting beaches, which provides valuable biological information, but might have limited applicability to the population as a whole. During September 2005 and 2007, we conducted physical examinations on 19 foraging Pacific leatherback turtles and measured normal physiologic parameters, baseline hematologic and plasma biochemistry values, and exposure to heavy metals (cadmium, lead, and mercury), organochlorine contaminants, and domoic acid. We compared hematologic values of foraging Pacific leatherbacks with their nesting counterparts in Papua New Guinea (n=11) and with other nesting populations in the Eastern Pacific in Costa Rica (n=8) and in the Atlantic in St. Croix (n=12). This study provides the most comprehensive assessment to date of the health status of leatherbacks in the Pacific. We found significant differences in blood values between foraging and nesting leatherbacks, which suggests that health assessment studies conducted only on nesting females might not accurately represent the whole population. The establishment of baseline physiologic data and blood values for healthy foraging leatherback turtles, including males, provides valuable data for long-term health monitoring and comparative studies of this endangered population. PMID:21441185

  7. Anthropophilic biting behaviour of Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai Howard, Dyar & Knab associated with Fishermen’s activities in a malaria-endemic area in the Colombian Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Escovar, Jesús Eduardo; González, Ranulfo; Quiñones, Martha Lucía

    2013-01-01

    On the southwest Pacific Coast of Colombia, a field study was initiated to determine the human-vector association between Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai and fishermen, including their nearby houses. Mosquitoes were collected over 24-h periods from mangrove swamps, marshlands and fishing vessels in three locations, as well as in and around the houses of fishermen. A total of 6,382 mosquitoes were collected. An. neivai was most abundant in mangroves and fishing canoes (90.8%), while Anopheles albimanus was found indoors (82%) and outdoors (73%). One An. neivai and one An. albimanus collected during fishing activities in canoes were positive for Plasmodium vivax , whereas one female An. neivai collected in a mangrove was positive for P. vivax . In the mangroves and fishing canoes, An. neivai demonstrated biting activity throughout the day, peaking between 06:00 pm-07:00 pm and there were two minor peaks at dusk and dawn. These peaks coincided with fishing activities in the marshlands and mangroves, a situation that places the fishermen at risk of contracting malaria when they are performing their daily activities. It is recommended that protective measures be implemented to reduce the risk that fishermen will contract malaria. PMID:24402159

  8. Anthropophilic biting behaviour of Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai Howard, Dyar & Knab associated with Fishermen's activities in a malaria-endemic area in the Colombian Pacific.

    PubMed

    Escovar, Jesús Eduardo; González, Ranulfo; Quiñones, Martha Lucía

    2013-12-01

    On the southwest Pacific Coast of Colombia, a field study was initiated to determine the human-vector association between Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai and fishermen, including their nearby houses. Mosquitoes were collected over 24-h periods from mangrove swamps, marshlands and fishing vessels in three locations, as well as in and around the houses of fishermen. A total of 6,382 mosquitoes were collected. An. neivai was most abundant in mangroves and fishing canoes (90.8%), while Anopheles albimanus was found indoors (82%) and outdoors (73%). One An. neivai and one An. albimanus collected during fishing activities in canoes were positive for Plasmodium vivax , whereas one female An. neivai collected in a mangrove was positive for P. vivax . In the mangroves and fishing canoes, An. neivai demonstrated biting activity throughout the day, peaking between 06:00 pm-07:00 pm and there were two minor peaks at dusk and dawn. These peaks coincided with fishing activities in the marshlands and mangroves, a situation that places the fishermen at risk of contracting malaria when they are performing their daily activities. It is recommended that protective measures be implemented to reduce the risk that fishermen will contract malaria. PMID:24402159

  9. National assessment of shoreline change: historical shoreline change along the Pacific Northwest coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerio, Peter; Kratzmann, Meredith G.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Reid, David; Allan, Jonathan; Kaminsky, George

    2013-01-01

    Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to increase and infrastructure is threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline movement that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along the open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii, Alaska, and the Great Lakes. One purpose of this work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic, systematic, and internally consistent updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally. In the case of the analysis of shoreline change in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), the shoreline is the interpreted boundary between the ocean water surface and the sandy beach. This report on the PNW coasts of Oregon and Washington is the seventh in a series of regionally focused reports on historical shoreline change. Previous investigations include analyses and descriptive reports of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (Morton and others, 2004), the southeastern Atlantic (Morton and Miller, 2005), the sandy shorelines (Hapke and others, 2006) and coastal cliffs (Hapke and Reid, 2007) of California, the New England and mid-Atlantic coasts (Hapke and others, 2011), and parts of the Hawaii coast (Fletcher and others, 2012). Like the earlier reports in this series, this report summarizes the methods of analysis, interprets the results of the analysis, provides explanations regarding long- and short-term trends and rates of shoreline change, and describes how different coastal communities are responding to coastal erosion. This report differs from the early USGS reports in the series in that those

  10. Compiling Multibeam Sonar data for the U.S. Pacific West Coast Extended Continental Shelf Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, E.; Gardner, J. V.; Henderson, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The United States Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) Project is a multi-agency collaboration whose goals are to determine and define a potential extension of the U.S. continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles (nmi). Under international law as reflected in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), every coastal state is entitled to a continental shelf out to 200 nmi (the Exclusive Economic Zone) from its coastal baseline or out to a maritime boundary with another coastal country. The extended continental shelf (ECS) is the area that lies beyond this 200 nm limit where a country could gain sovereign rights to the resources of the seafloor and sub-seafloor. In 2007, the U.S. ECS Task Force designated NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) as the Data Management lead for the U.S. ECS Project and the data stewards and archival location for all data related to this project. The process to determine the outer limits of the ECS requires the collection and analysis of data that describe the depth, shape, and geophysical characteristics of the seafloor and sub-seafloor, as well as the thickness of the underlying sediments. The specific types of data that need to be collected include bathymetric data, seismic profiles, magnetic and gravity data, and other geophysical data. NGDC maintains several global geophysical databases, including bathymetric, seismic and geological data, all critical for supporting ECS analysis. Multibeam bathymetry is a primary dataset used for ECS analysis. Since 2003, the U.S. has collected more than 1.65 million square kilometers of multibeam bathymetric data from 18 cruises. One area where new data has been collected and where the U.S. may have an extended continental shelf is off the U.S. Pacific West Coast. New and old multibeam bathymetry archived at and delivered by NGDC were individually gridded by survey for an area within 48-30 degrees north latitude and -140 and -115 west longitude at a resolution of 210

  11. Genetic characterization of Zostera asiatica on the Pacific Coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S.L.; Wyllie-Echeverria, S.; Ward, D.H.; Rearick, J.R.; Sage, G.K.; Chesney, B.; Phillips, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    We gathered sequence information from the nuclear 5.8S rDNA gene and associated internal transcribed spacers, ITS-1 and ITS-2 (5.8S rDNA/ITS), and the chloroplast maturase K (matK) gene, from Zostera samples collected from subtidal habitats in Monterey and Santa Barbara (Isla Vista) bays, California, to test the hypothesis that these plants are conspecific with Z. asiatica Miki of Asia. Sequences from approximately 520 base pairs of the nuclear 5.8S rDNA/ITS obtained from the subtidal Monterey and Isla Vista Zostera samples were identical to homologous sequences obtained from Z. marina collected from intertidal habitats in Japan, Alaska, Oregon and California. Similarly, sequences from the matK gene from the subtidal Zostera samples were identical to matK sequences obtained from Z. marina collected from intertidal habitats in Japan, Alaska, Oregon and California, but differed from Z. asiatica sequences accessioned into GenBank. This suggests the subtidal plants are conspecific with Z. marina, not Z. asiatica. However, we found that herbarium samples accessioned into the Kyoto University Herbarium, determined to be Z. asiatica, yielded 5.8S rDNA/ITS sequences consistent with either Z. japonica, in two cases, or Z. marina, in one case. Similar results were observed for the chloroplast matK gene; we found haplotypes that were inconsistent with published matK sequences from Z. asiatica collected from Japan. These results underscore the need for closer examination of the relationship between Z. marina along the Pacific Coast of North America, and Z. asiatica of Asia, for the retention and verification of specimens examined in scientific studies, and for assessment of the usefulness of morphological characters in the determination of taxonomic relationships within Zosteraceae.

  12. Population assessment of the American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus (Crocodilia: Crocodylidae) on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Mauger, Laurie A; Velez, Elizabeth; Cherkiss, Michael S; Brien, Matthew L; Boston, Michael; Mazzotti, Frank J; Spotila, James R

    2012-12-01

    The American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus, is widely distributed in the American neotropics. It is endangered throughout most of its range and is listed as vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Natural Fauna and Flora (IUCN) and on Appendix I of the Convention for the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES). Despite this listing, there are few published reports on population status throughout most of its range. We investigated the status of the C. acutus, at several locations along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. We carried out spotlight and nesting surveys from 2007-2009 along the Costa Rican Pacific coast in four distinct areas, coastal areas of Las Baulas (N=40) and Santa Rosa (N=9) National Parks and the Osa Conservation Area (N=13), and upriver in Palo Verde National Park (N=11). We recorded crocodile locations and standard environmental data at each observation. Encounter rates, population structure, distribution within each area and data on successful nesting (presence of hatchlings, nests, etc) were determined. We attempted to capture all crocodiles to record standard morphometrics. A total of 586 crocodiles were observed along 185.8km of survey route. The majority of animals encountered (54.9%) were either hatchlings (<0.5m) or juveniles (0.5-1.25m). The average non-hatchling encounter rate per survey for the Pacific coast was 3.1 crocodiles/km, with individual encounter rates ranging from 1.2 crocodiles/km to 4.3 crocodiles/ km in Las Baulas National Park and the Osa Conservation Area respectively. Distribution of size classes within the individual locations did not differ with the exception of Santa Rosa and Las Baulas National Parks, where hatchlings were found in water with lower salinities. These were the first systematic surveys in several of the areas studied and additional work is needed to further characterize the American crocodile population in Costa Rica. PMID:23342536

  13. Distribution of trace metals in the Pacific Oyster, Crassostrea gigas, and crabs from the east coast of Kyushu Island, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Szefer, P.; Frelek, K.; Geldon, J.

    1997-01-01

    Oysters are known to be exceptional accumulators of Zn and Cu, and their tissue concentrations appear to reflect contamination of metals. According to Lauenstein and Dolvin, oysters clearly have a greater affinity for Ag, Cu and Zn than do mussels, while mussels have greater affinity for Cr and Pb. Oysters have been considered to be potential bioindicators for monitoring metallic pollution in marine environments. Extensive investigations of oysters from the east coast of Kyushu Island, Japan, have been performed. The aim of the study was to examine spatial differences in metal concentrations in soft tissues of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and whole bodies (soft tissues with shells) of the crabs Goetice depressa and Leptodius exaratus inhabiting the Japanese coastal region of the Pacific. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Orbital motions and coherent structures in the internal tide on a steep shelf off the Pacific coast of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filonov, Anatoliy; Konyaev, Konstantin

    2006-07-01

    Herein we discuss the results of a study of the structure, evolution and break-up of an internal tidal wave under conditions of a steep shelf with a slope close to that of the internal wave characteristic. Measurements were taken in Navidad Bay on Mexico's Pacific Coast. We demonstrate that, under the conditions of homogeneous density stratification, the internal tidal wave releases its energy and collapses due to resonant excitation in a sequence of third tidal harmonics. Those harmonics generate multiscale vertical bilateral steps that follow at regular intervals and feature coherent oscillations in the form of vertical jets that cover the entire water column.

  15. A new species of antipatharian coral (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia: Schizopathidae) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, Dennis M; Breedy, Odalisca

    2010-09-01

    A new species of black coral, Aphanipathes colombiana (Cnidaria:Antipatharia) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is described. The species forms small flabellate colonies with anisomorphic polypar spines. It is morphologically similar to the western Atlantic species A. thyoides (Pourtales) but its hypostomal polypar spines are not reduced in size. The new species also resembles the Indo-Pacific species A. reticulata van Pesch but it has smooth-surfaced polypar spines, whereas in A. reticulata these spines have small tubercles on their surface

  16. 78 FR 9886 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Coast Groundfish Rationalization...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Coast Groundfish Rationalization Sociocultural Study AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Coast Groundfish limited entry trawl fishery in January 2011. This research aims to continue to study... collected is correlated to changes in the programs' design elements. In addition, the study will...

  17. Redistribution and growth of the Caspian Tern population in the Pacific Coast region of north America, 1981-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suryan, R.M.; Craig, D.P.; Roby, D.D.; Chelgren, N.D.; Collis, K.; Shuford, W.D.; Lyons, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    We examined nesting distribution and demography of the Pacific Coast population of Caspian Terns (Sterna caspia) using breeding records and band recoveries spanning two decades since the first population assessment. Since 1980, population size has more than doubled to about 12 900 pairs, yet the proportion of the population nesting at inland (18%) versus coastal sites (82%) has remained constant. Although the breeding range of the Pacific Coast population has expanded northward into Alaska and farther south in Mexico, there was no net latitudinal shift in the distribution of breeding pairs or new colonies. The distribution of breeding birds among areas changed dramatically, however, with 69% of breeding terns now nesting in Oregon (primarily in the Columbia River estuary) versus 4% during the late 1970s. During the past 20 years, there has continued to be a greater proportion of Caspian Terns breeding at anthropogenic sites compared to natural sites. Estimated annual survival rates for hatch-year and after-third-year birds during 1981-1998 were greater than during 1955-1980, consistent with the higher rate of population increase in recent decades. Fecundity required to maintain a stable population (?? = 1) was estimated at 0.32-0.74 fledglings pair-1, depending on band recovery probabilities for sub-adults. Caspian Terns readily moved among breeding sites and rapidly colonized new areas; however, a greater concentration of breeding Caspian Terns among fewer colonies in response to anthropogenic factors is an important conservation concern for this species.

  18. Changes in the onset and intensity of wind-driven upwelling and downwelling along the North American Pacific coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylhouwer, Brian; Ianson, Debby; Kohfeld, Karen

    2013-05-01

    The timing, duration, and intensity of wind-driven upwelling and downwelling along the North American Pacific coast play an integral role in coastal circulation and basinwide ecosystem composition. It has been suggested that global warming will cause changes in these winds. Here we develop a new set of objective criteria to unambiguously determine the onset, duration, and intensity of upwelling and downwelling seasons due to local wind forcing. We use these criteria to examine and better characterize temporal trends in wind-driven coastal currents over the previous 60 years and relate them to global warming and large-scale climate oscillations in the coastal ocean between northern California and Vancouver Island (37°N and 51°N). We find an exceptionally variable onset of upwelling at all locations. Some significant temporal trends are found in summer onset and upwelling intensity time series near the Juan de Fuca Strait and off the coast of Oregon. Positive phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation are correlated to later and shorter upwelling seasons with weaker upwelling. Warm phases of the El Niño Southern Oscillation are associated with a later onset of summer upwelling south of Oregon and with more intense downwelling throughout the study area. Our analysis identifies strong interannual to interdecadal variability, and emphasizes the importance of time series length when isolating physical temporal trends influenced by large-scale oscillatory behavior of the climate.

  19. Shallow very low frequency earthquakes off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzawa, T.; Asano, Y.; Obara, K.

    2012-12-01

    Activities of shallow very low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs) have been reported around the trench axis of the off-Tokachi region, and the Nankai and the Ryukyu subduction zone around the Japan Islands (e.g., Obara and Ito, 2005; Asano et al., 2008; Ando et al., 2012). In NIED, epicenters of seismic sources including VLFEs are routinely located by an array analysis technique using Hi-net high-sensitivity accelerometers (Asano et al., 2008). Some of the epicenters are also located off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, Japan. However, these events are not fully examined, as most of these sources have been thought to arise from regular earthquakes and microseisms, and the number of events is much smaller than those in the previously reported region. In this study, we aim to detect VLFEs in the off-Tohoku region with a waveform correlation analysis. We examined waveforms of the events detected by the array analysis in the off-Tohoku region. Some of events are very similar to pre-known shallow VLFEs, which are dominant around the frequency of 0.05 Hz and have no clear signals in the high frequency band (above 1 Hz). We successfully estimated CMT solutions of some of these events, using F-net broadband seismometers and Hi-net high-sensitivity accelerometers. The result shows that these events are reverse-fault-type Mw~3.5 earthquakes, and located around the depth of the subducting plate interface. As a typical dominant frequency of regular earthquakes with similar magnitude and close hypocenter is several Hz, these events are considered as shallow VLFEs. To reveal the activity of the off-Tohoku VLFEs, other VLFEs were detected by a waveform correlation analysis using a template event. We selected two VLFEs as template events in the central and southern off-Tohoku region. Averaged cross correlation values for template events were calculated using broadband seismograms at surrounding F-net stations which are bandpass-filtered between 0.02 to 0.1 Hz. Finally, we visually checked

  20. Colombian coal ahead of schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    The north block zone of the Cerrejon mine is estimated to contain from 16 to 40 billion metric tons of coal in the 94,000 acres under development. The Cerrejon project is so rich, potentially, that it warranted Exxon and the Colombian government to construct a 90-mile railroad to haul the coal to the coast, and to expand the harbor to accommodate coal carriers up to 150,000 deadweight tons. This paper briefly discusses to the potential effect of Cerrejon coal on the world market and marketing plans of the company.

  1. Shifts in condition and distribution of eastern North Pacific flatfish along the U.S. west coast (2003-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Aimee A.; Bradburn, Mark J.; Simon, Victor H.

    2013-07-01

    Flatfish condition indices and distribution were examined along the U.S. west coast (55-1280 m) in relation to environmental variability and biomass using data from ten frequently occurring species collected in annual groundfish surveys from 2003 to 2010. The study was conducted during a period characterized by a cooling trend in the northern California Current system and by declining biomass for flatfish in general. Annual condition indices for six species (arrowtooth flounder, Dover sole, English sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and rex sole) were significantly related either to large-scale climatic indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation) and/or annual biomass levels. Condition was most closely related to environmental effects rather than either biomass alone or both variables, with condition typically higher during cool climatic conditions. A similar analysis revealed that changes in distribution (measured as variation in annual catch-weighted mean latitude, longitude, depth and temperature) tended to be best described by models incorporating environmental effects and biomass rather than either variable alone. Linear trends in the center of distribution along a southeast-northwest axis were significant for seven species (arrowtooth flounder, deepsea sole, Dover sole, flathead sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and slender sole) with a tendency for flatfish to be displaced towards the southeast as environmental conditions shifted from warm to cooler conditions and biomass declined. A spatial distribution analysis indicated that for the majority of species (80%) the greatest magnitude of displacement (km) occurred when the centers of biomass were compared between environmental phases (average annual displacement 34 km) rather than changing biomass levels (average displacement 24 km). Taken together both approaches revealed that environmental changes and variation in biomass play

  2. Coral-associated decapods (Crustacea) from the Mexican Tropical Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Luis; Ortiz, Georgina Ramírez; Reyes-Bonilla, Héctor

    2013-01-01

    Our study provides a checklist of 36 crustacean decapods from the Mexican tropical Pacific coastline. Most of the species were previously recorded from coral communities in the Gulf of California. Data were obtained by visual censuses of coral communities and some specimens were collected by extractions of coral branches (approximately eight liters of coral volume). We found new geographic records for three species from the Eastern Pacific and seven species that have extended ranges into Mexican waters. Only one species is documented with a northerly range from Central America to Mexican waters. PMID:24699609

  3. Techno-Arrogance and Halfway Technologies: Salmon Hatcheries on the Pacific Coast of North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meffe, Gary K.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses an attempt to recover Pacific salmonid fisheries with hatcheries as an example of a human attitude toward nature that places technological mastery over nature at the forefront of our approach to many environmental problems. Points out how this approach addresses the symptoms but not the causes of the salmon population decline. Suggests…

  4. Measuring nutrient flux in Pacific Coast salt marshes using fluctuating water-level chambers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient removal from the water column is an important ecosystem function that contributes to the production of clean water, a final valued ecosystem service of wetlands. However, little data is currently available for nutrient exchange in Pacific Northwest tidal ecosystems. We h...

  5. A new species of Peltidium Philippi, 1839 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Pacific coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Jarquín-González, Jani

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During the analysis of phytal meiobenthic samples collected from a rocky-sandy beach in the state of Nayarit, in the Mexican Pacific, several specimens of harpacticoid copepods were obtained and taxonomically examined. These specimens were found to represent an undescribed species of the peltidiid genus Peltidium Philippi, 1839. The new species, Peltidium nayarit sp. n. is described herein. It resembles Peltidium nichollsi Geddes and Peltidium lerneri Geddes from Bahamas but also the widespread Peltidium speciosum Thompson & Scott and Peltidium purpureum Philippi. The new species from the Mexican Pacific differs from its known congeners by its possession of a unique combination of characters, including a modified pectinate seta on the antennary exopod, three terminal setae on the second endopodal segment of leg 1, third exopodal segment of leg 1 with three elements, inner terminal claw twice as long as outer claw, female fifth leg with 5 exopodal setae, exopodal setae I-III stout, spinulose and seta IV being as long as seta V. This is the second species of the family known to be distributed in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in Mexico. Pending additional data, the distribution of this species appears to be restricted to this area of the Mexican Pacific. PMID:24003319

  6. Stable Isotope Identification of Nitrogen Sources for United States (U.S.) Pacific Coast Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used natural abundance stable isotope data to evaluate nitrogen sources to U.S. west coast estuaries. We collected δ15N of macroalgae data and supplemented this with available data from the literature for estuaries from Mexico to Alaska. Stable isotope ratios of green m...

  7. Study of the diversity of culturable actinomycetes in the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Solano, Godofredo; Rojas-Jiménez, Keilor; Jaspars, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 137 actinomycetes were isolated from subtidal marine sediments in the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica. Bioinformatics analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences assigned the isolates to 15 families and 21 genera. Streptomyces was the dominant genus while the remaining 20 genera were poorly represented. Nearly 70% of the phylotypes presented a coastal-restricted distribution whereas the other 30% were common inhabitants of both shores. The coastal tropical waters of Costa Rica showed a high diversity of actinomycetes, both in terms of the number of species and phylogenetic composition, although significant differences were observed between and within shores. The observed pattern of species distribution might be the result of several factors including the characteristics of the ecosystems, presence of endemic species and the influence of terrestrial runoff. PMID:19365710

  8. Tsunami records due to the 2010 Chile Earthquake observed by GPS buoys established along the Pacific coast of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, T.; Terada, Y.; Nagai, T.; Koshimura, S.

    2010-12-01

    The twelve GPS buoys that have been established along the Pacific coast of Japan succeeded to record the tsunami due to the 2010 Central Chile Earthquake (Mw8.8) that occurred on 06:34:14, 27th of February 2010 (UTC) according to USGS, which is on 15:34:14 of the same day by the Japanese Standard Time (JST). We have developed GPS buoy for detecting tsunami for over 12 years, considering that early detection of tsunami serves for mitigating tsunami disaster. The current GPS buoy is now operational at about 10km west of Cape Muroto, southwest Japan. The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism has implemented the similar system with eleven GPS buoys along the Pacific coast of Japan as a part of the Nationwide Ocean Wave information network for Ports and HArbourS (NOWPHAS) system. All of these GPS buoys are located within 20km from the coast. The 2010 Central Chile earthquake generated significant tsunami. The tsunami travelled across the Pacific Ocean and reached the Japanese coasts in about one day. We present the records of tsunamis that have been registered at these GPS buoys. The presentation tries to compare the records with numerically simulated data. The record of experimental GPS buoy operated nearby Muroto is low-pass filtered with 120seconds of cut-off to segregate the long wave length tsunami from higher frequency wind waves. The effect of tide is also removed from the filtered record. The obtained record is visualized through internet facility (http://www.tsunamigps.com/gpsreal.php). The tsunami due to the Chile earthquake arrived at the GPS buoy at around 3:22PM of 28th February (JST), which is nearly one day after the earthquake. The first peak of tsunami is about 12 centimeter above the mean sea surface height. The second peak arrives about one hour and 46 minutes later with about 20cm height, which is the highest peak among the series of the tsunami waves. The later phases of recognizable tsunami waves continued about one day after the

  9. Impact and Recovery Pattern of a Spring Fire on a Pacific Coast Marsh - Observations and Implications for Endangered Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. N.; Willis, K. S.; Ambrose, R. F.; MacDonald, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    The flammability of California coastal marsh vegetation is highest in winter and spring when dominant high marsh plants such as Sarcocornia pacifica are dormant. With climate change the number of cool-season fires are increasing in the state, and marsh systems are becoming more vulnerable to fire disturbance. Very little information exists in peer-reviewed or grey literature on the presence of fire in Pacific Coast tidal marshes. In 1993, the Green Meadows fire in Ventura County, California burned a small portion of tidally influenced Sarcocornia­-dominated marsh at Point Mugu. After the May 2013 Springs Fire burned a similar portion of the salt marsh vegetation, we conducted a two-year vegetation recovery survey using transects of surface vegetation plots and MODIS derived NDVI remote sensing monitoring. Recovery during the first year was limited. Sixteen months into the recovery period, percent plant coverage reached an average of approximately 60% for all plots in the burned area, as opposed to an average of 100% in control plots, and remained at that level for the duration of the study. NDVI did not approach near pre-fire conditions until 19 months after the fire. While recovery may have been influenced by California's current extreme drought conditions, the recurrence of fire and rate of recovery raise many important questions as to the role of fire in Pacific coast tidal marshes. For example, the lack of Salicornia cover over more than an entire breeding season would be detrimental to protected species such as Rallus obsoletus. Fire adds new vulnerabilities on critical tidal marsh habitat already taxed by the threat of sea-level rise, coastal squeeze and invasive species.

  10. Three Cultures: The Hopi Indians of the Southwest Desert, the Indians of the Northwest Pacific Coast, and the People of Midwest U.S.A. An Anthropological Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marksberry, Mary Lee

    Intended to acquaint fifth-, sixth-, and seventh-grade children with the concept of culture, this anthropology unit focuses on two groups of Indians who lived in prehistoric times and present-day non-Indian families living in the Midwest. Objectives are to help students understand the behavior of the Northwest Pacific Coast Indians, the Hopi…

  11. Coda wave attenuation parallel and perpendicular to the Mexican Pacific coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Valdés-González, C.

    2000-10-01

    We calculated the quality factor, Qc, at frequencies from 6 to 24 Hz using coda waves of 97 aftershocks of the Petatlan, Mexico, earthquake (March 14, 1979; MS=7.6). The data were recorded parallel (between Acapulco and Playa Azul) and perpendicular (between Petatlan and Mexico City) to the coast. The results are the following: at 12 and 24 Hz there is no significant difference in the attenuation ( Qc-1) along the two paths; at 6 Hz, Qc-1 has a large scatter in both directions. This observation indicates strong site effects at this frequency; average Qc-1 is slightly higher between Petatlan-Acapulco (toward SE) than between Petatlan-Playa Azul (toward NW); and at high frequencies, Qc-1 remains essentially constant perpendicular to the coast. These results show that the large seismic wave amplifications in Mexico City are caused by shallow site effects.

  12. Ostreid herpesvirus type 1 genomic diversity in wild populations of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas from Italian coasts.

    PubMed

    Burioli, E A V; Prearo, M; Riina, M V; Bona, M C; Fioravanti, M L; Arcangeli, G; Houssin, M

    2016-06-01

    Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) is a significant pathogen affecting the young Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, worldwide. A new variant, OsHV-1 μVar, has been associated with recurrent mortality events in Europe since 2008. Epidemiological data collection is key for global risk assessment; however little is known about health status and genotypes present in European wild oyster beds. Most studies to date have involved only cultivated individuals during mortality events, and reported low genotype diversity. With this study, conducted along the Italian coasts, we investigated for the first time the presence of OsHV-1 in European natural oyster beds. Analysis of three genomic regions revealed the presence of at least nine different genotypes, including two variants close to the OsHV-1 reference, known since the early 1990s but with no European record reported since 2010, and highlights relevant genotype diversity in natural environment. Phylogenetic analysis distinguished two distinct clusters and geographical distribution of genotypes, with the exception of a variant very closely related to the μVar, which appeared the single genotype present in all the Adriatic sites. Interestingly, these wild symptom free populations could represent, in Europe, an accessible alternative to the import of OsHV-1-resistant oyster strains from the East Pacific, the native area of C. gigas, avoiding the high-risk of non-native marine species and new pathogen introductions. PMID:27234424

  13. Regional variations of heavy metal concentrations in tissues of barnacles from the subtropical Pacific Coast of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Paez-Osuna, F.; Bojorquez-Leyva, H.; Ruelas-Inzunza, J.

    1999-07-01

    Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ag, Pb, and Zn in soft and hard tissues of barnacles from eight sampling sites in six harbors on the subtropical Pacific Coast of Mexico were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Some inter-regional differences in metal concentrations, especially concerning Zn, Mn, Fe, Cd, and Pb, were identified. The lowest concentrations of Cu, Cr, Fe, and Ag were observed in the barnacle populations from Ceuta Lagoon, an uncontaminated site with rural agriculture and semi-intensive shrimp farms in the surroundings. Conversely, the highest concentrations of: (1) Zn, Cu, and Ag were found in the soft tissues of Balanus eburneus from Mazatlan piers; (2) Pb, Ni, and Cd in the soft tissue of Megabalanus coccopoma from Puerto Vallarta; (3) Fe in the hard tissue of Balanus sp. from Guaymas Harbour; and (4) Mn in the hard tissue of M. coccopoma from Mazatlan Harbour. Inter-comparison of the present data indicates that the soft (mainly Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and the hard (mainly for Fe and Mn) tissues are useful in detecting areas of selected metallic contaminants. Barnacles such as B. eburneus, M. coccopoma, and Fistulobalanus dentivarians appear to be convenient biomonitors for identification of coastal waters exposed to Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn, Fe, and Ag in the American region of the subtropical Pacific.

  14. Hydrological and geomorphological controls on a mangrove forest maintenance during the dry season in the Pacific Coast of Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, Heyddy; Weeda, Ruben; Uhlenbrook, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological and geomorphological processes are key to mangrove forest growth and development. However, very few studies have been carried out in Central American mangroves to understand their hydrological functioning. Here, a small mangrove forest (0.2 km2) in the South Pacific coast of Nicaragua was investigated to determine sources of freshwater inputs and fluxes of water and nutrients to the sea during the dry season. The general groundwater flow direction is from NE to SW towards the sea. The aquifer is composed of clay and alluvial deposits overlying a fractured shale unit. Shallow groundwater is influenced by a nearby town through infiltration of grey water and pit latrines. Groundwater from the mangrove showed Mn2+ and Fe2+ presence indicating occurrence of denitrification and the role of the mangrove as a nutrient sink. Also, refreshening and salinization processes were identified near the river, indicated by different water facies. Freshwater inputs from precipitation and groundwater discharge maintain adequate salt gradients. The water balance showed an increase of around 619 m3 d-1 in storage during a 22 study period during the dry season, which is reflected by increased hydraulic heads and river stage. Water storage is fostered by low conductivity soil materials and beach ridges parallel to the coast line, whereby the latter occassionally breach due to overtopping of surface water. These conditions favor forest subsistence during the dry season, allowing the mangrove to continue to provide ecological and economic benefits in terms of protection against flooding, habitat for numerous species and tourist attraction.

  15. The Contribution of Trans-Pacific Submicron Aerosols and Local Particle Nucleation Bursts to California's Air Quality as Seen from the Pacific Coast Mountain Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, E. C. C.; Christensen, J. N.; Post, A.; Faloona, I. C.

    2015-12-01

    The long-range transport of dust and anthropogenic aerosols to the Western US has received considerable attention due to the growing disparity between North American and Asian air quality. Using MODIS and space-borne LIDAR measurements some have argued that the transcontinental transport of dust from Asia, Africa, and Europe outweighs that of locally produced combustion aerosols (Yu et al. 2012). This study seeks to compare the aerosol composition, number, and size distribution of locally derived submicron aerosols (including particle nucleation events) vs. long-range transported aerosols observed at a remote mountain site near the Pacific Coast. Toward this aim, rotating drum impactor (RDI) and scanning mobility particle size (SMPS) measurements of size-segregated elemental compositions and size spectra were collected from February to November of 2012 at Chews Ridge (elevation 1450 m) in Monterey County, California. This mountaintop site experiences two main wind modes. The main mode is ohshore-directed winds from the southwest, which are most likely to bring trans-Pacific aerosols to the site; and offshore-directed, northeasterly winds that bring continental aerosols to the site from the interior of California. Elemental ratios (normalized to Al), matrix factorization, and a k-cluster analysis of these data suggest distinct crustal, combustion, and marine sources with considerable seasonal as well as short-term variability. HYSPLIT model back trajectories support the hypothesized sources of these submicron aerosols. Locally, SMPS data reveal consistent nucleation bursts and subsequent growth in the 20-60 nm range during the afternoons. A distinct but weaker diel cycle was observed in the 70 - 100 nm range, corresponding to the smallest RDI impactor stage. Finally, the Pb isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb) of aerosol samples from selected dates will be measured by MC-ICPMS to further identify aerosol origins (e.g. Ewing et al. 2010).

  16. The Pacific Coast Fog Project: A Multi-disciplinary Effort to Provide Web-based Climate Products for Ecologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torregrosa, A.; Combs, C.; Ellrod, G. P.; Faloona, I. C.; Gultepe, I.

    2012-12-01

    The Pacific Coast Fog Project is an effort to pool the expertise from multiple science disciplines to provide regional and local climate information on the frequency and character of fog for effective management of coastal California natural resources. Marine stratocumulus (fog) is a major modifier of the climatic condition along the Pacific coast and has significant effects on the hydrologic cycle and thermodynamic balance in coastal ecological, biological, and economic systems. For example fog is the major source of moisture during summer months for redwood forests, a treasured natural resource. Fog also modulates shallow stream temperatures to reduce the mortality rate of young salmon during their freshwater life stages and adults returning from the ocean to spawn. Fog induced cooling reduces summer energy costs along the Pacific Coast and reduces sun burn on crops such as grapes that are important to the local economy. Furthermore, disruptions in fog distribution or frequency resulting from future climate change would change evapotranspiration rates impacting California water supply and use. Coastal fog is a complex phenomenon with many measurable parameters including extent, frequency, and duration of cloud cover; cloud deck thickness, liquid water content, base height above land, density, heterogeneity, and thermal properties. Variations in fog are a result of processes acting at multiple scales across ocean-land-atmosphere boundaries. Factors that drive the occurrence, duration, and type of fog events along the coast include dynamics of atmospheric summertime inversions, synoptic weather patterns, ocean upwelling, topography, aerosol-cloud dynamics, and differences in temperature between inland valleys and the littoral ocean areas. Estimating the distribution, frequency and characteristics of coastal fog and stratus and evaluating the resulting ecosystem responses require a diverse array of measurements and models that link processes at multiple scales. The

  17. A Capture to Remember: Monitoring the Health of Avian Scavengers on the Pacific Coast.

    PubMed

    Varland, Daniel E

    2015-09-01

    Because of concern over risks to the health of avian communities on the Washington and Oregon coasts, the nonprofit Coastal Raptors and other partners initiated a study where, to date, Coastal Raptors has live-captured and sampled 27 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), 27 turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), and 6 common ravens (Corvus corax) for contaminants and disease study. In this article, the author highlights the events of one of the nearly 100 days on which trapping has occurred. An adult bald eagle was captured north of Ocean Shores, WA, USA, and the trapping team was visited by Quinault Indian Nation members. PMID:26378672

  18. Time-space distribution of tsunamigenic earthquakes along the Pacific and Bering coasts of Kamchatka: insight from paleotsunami deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinegina, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    Kamchatka and Kurile islands are the most seismically active regions of our planet. Strong earthquakes along Kuril-Kamchatka subduction and the west margin of Bering Sea usually generate tsunami. All intensive tsunami leave the geological traces at the coasts. Data about past tsunami, obtained during last ~20 yr, extend significantly the short historical catalogue of such events. Basing on the distribution of tsunami deposits the runup height and inundation distance for historical tsunami and paleotsunami were estimated, as well as sources and magnitudes of tsunamigenic earthquakes for the past ~2000 years. In excavations along the Bering Sea coast 10 layers of tsunami deposits within this period of time were identified. Earthquakes magnitudes (Mt) calculated from tsunami height at the nearest coasts by Abe relation (Abe, 1999) vary between 7.0 and 8.3, and their recurrence interval is 175 to 250 years. In sections along the Kamchatsky Bay coast 15 layers with tsunami deposits for the past ~2000 years were identified. Average recurrence interval of strong tsunami (with runup >3-4 m) there is 125-145 year, and estimated Mt vary between 7.6 and 8.4. Two earthquakes, which took place in the Kamchatsky Bay during the past ~2000 year, caused 1 to 2 m of coseismic subsidence of the coast. At the Kronotsky Bay coast for the past ~2000 years average recurrence interval of tsunami with runup >3-5 m is ~100 year. At the Avachinsky Bay coast the average recurrence interval of all detected tsunami (for the past ~2000 years) is about 100 years. At the southern Kamchatka and northern Kurile Island it lowers to 70-80 years, and calculated magnitudes Mt of tsunamigenic earthquakes fall in an interval from 6.7 to 8.7. Average recurrence of tsunami with runup >5 m at the open bays and >2 m at the closed bays from Avachinsky Bay to northern Kuriles is 130-150 year. Three tsunamigenic earthquakes (1952 AD, 1737 AD, ~600 AD) were accompanied by coastal coseismic subsidence. Each of

  19. Ecology of estuarine channels of the Pacific Northwest coast: a community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Simenstad, C.A.

    1983-12-01

    This report on the estuarine channel habitats of the Pacific Northwest is one of a series of community profiles that synthesize useful information about specific natural coastal habitats. This profile will assist environmental scientists and biologists and coastal planners and managers who are interested in the open-water channels of coastal estuaries from the Straits of Juan de Fuca in Washington, south to Cape Mendocino, California. The profile describes the geomorphological, hydrological, chemical, and biological components and natural processes of the channels, their energy interchange, and interactions among adjacent habitats. In combination these habitat components and their interactions dictate the ecological structures and functions of the channels. The subject materials of the various chapters are integrated and summarized in the last chapter, and considerations for habitat management are identified. 523 references, 31 figures, 13 tables.

  20. A new species of Leptoderma Vaillant, 1886 (Osmeriformes: Alepocephalidae) from the Pacific coast of Central America.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Arturo; Baldwin, Carole C; Robertson, D Ross

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Leptoderma Vaillant, 1886 is described from a single specimen trawled at 1368-1406 m depth off El Salvador, Central America, tropical eastern Pacific. Leptoderma ospesca n. sp. can be readily distinguished from its congeners by the following combination of characters: dermal papillae absent along the lateral line, pectoral-fin rays 6, pelvic-fin rays 5, pre-dorsal length 54.9% of SL, both dorsal and anal fins separated from the caudal fin, dorsal- and anal-fin rays long, procurrent caudal-fin rays numerous and extending far forward on caudal peduncle, caudal-fin rays 16, and total pre-ural vertebrae 60. A key to the species of the genus is presented. PMID:27395850

  1. Coseismic Slip Distribution of the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake Deduced from Land and Seafloor Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iinuma, T.; Kido, M.; Osada, Y.; Inazu, D.; Ohzono, M.; Tsushima, H.; Hino, R.; Ohta, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Fujimoto, H.; Miura, S.; Shinohara, M.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (M9.0) occurred on 11 March 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku district, northeastern Japan, where the Pacific plate is subducting beneath the overriding continental plate. A number of models of the coseismic slip distribution of this earthquake have been already proposed based on seismological, geodetic, and tsunami data. Here, we present comprehensive coseismic slip distribution model based not only on land GPS data but also on seafloor geodetic observations, which are obtained through recent observation cruises. We combined displacements at seafloor sites that are deduced from two different types of seafloor observations with the displacements at land GPS stations. One is the seafloor crustal deformation observation with GPS/Acoustic ranging (GPS/A). Horizontal displacements associated with the 2011 Tohoku earthquake at 2 GPS/A stations are estimated by comparing the station positions deduced from the observations before and after the earthquake. Another type of the seafloor data is seafloor water pressure that is observed by means of ocean bottom pressure gauge (OBP). We analyzed OBP data observed at 2 cabled and 4 self pop-up stations, and estimated vertical displacements due to the main shock. Displacements at 5 GPS/A stations of Japan Coast Guard [Sato et al., 2011, science] are also included to estimate the coseismic slip distribution of the earthquake. Estimated slip distribution of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake shows following features. 1) The area of large slip ( > 20 m) is about 100 km x 200 km on the plate interface shallower than 30 km in depth. 2) There is no large slip occurred off southern Iwate prefecture on the plate interface throughout shallow to deep. 3) The latitudinal range of the area of large slip almost corresponds to the one of the area of strong interplate coupling zone off Miyagi prefecture. 4) Significant slip is estimated around the rupture area of 1978 M7.4 Miyagi-oki earthquake (40

  2. Historic and ancient tsunamis uncovered on the Jalisco-Colima Pacific coast, the Mexican subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Herrera, María Teresa; Bógalo, María Felicidad; Černý, Jan; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Corona, Néstor; Machain, María Luisa; Edwards, Arturo Carranza; Sosa, Susana

    2016-04-01

    Research on extreme wave events such as tsunamis using the geological record in areas of infrequent and or small magnitude earthquakes can aid in extending the long-term history and recurrence intervals of large events. This information is valuable for risk management and community preparedness in coastal areas. Here we investigate tsunami deposits on the Jalisco coast of Mexico that overlies the subducting Rivera Plate under the North American plate, an area due for a large thrust earthquake and potential tsunami. Here, we apply a full battery of rock-magnetic analyses that also include a detailed AMS study and other typically applied proxies in tsunami deposits research. We present evidence to demonstrate that anomalous sand units with sharp basal contacts at La Manzanilla, Tenacatita Bay, and El Tecuán shore sites on the Jalisco coast may be the products of tsunamis generated by known historical (Ms 8.2 earthquake of 3 June 1932) and other earlier tsunamigenic earthquakes. A sandy unit with a sharp basal contact, flame structures at the base, rip-up clasts at La Manzanilla, and four sand units with sharp basal contact overlying buried soils at El Tecuán, together with other proxies, such as magnetic properties and others, suggest tsunami deposits. 210Pb dating of sediments slightly above the upper sand layer indicate an age A.D. 1935 ± 11 at El Tecuán. Historical accounts of tsunami inundation at both sites provide further evidence that this is most probably the result of the 3 June 1932 tsunami. Hence this study may provide the first evidence of a tsunami triggered by this earthquake and also of three probable predecessors. Further evidence of at least three earlier tsunamis that occurred since the fifteenth century is also evident in the stratigraphy. These events may correspond to events listed in historical archives, namely the 1563, 1816, and/or the 1818 events.

  3. Teleconnections between upwelling along the Pacific coast of Baja California and marine and terrestrial gross primary production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, J. J.; Vargas, R.; Gaxiola-Castro, G.; Hernandez-Ayon, M.; Lara-Lara, R.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial processes are closely connected to the oceans through teleconnections in the atmosphere. The global terrestrial carbon cycle is known to be affected by a teleconnection to large scale atmospheric events such as El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO; 2 to 7 year cycles), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO; decadal cycles). ENSO and PDO are the predominate atmospheric patterns which impact the Pacific coast of North America. Correlations between ENSO indices and gross primary production have shown that ENSO may partially explain the variability in the global terrestrial carbon cycle. We hypothesize that the remaining variability (for those ecosystems along eastern basin margins) may be explained by the teleconnection between terrestrial primary production and upwelling along continental margins. The study sites were selected along the Baja California peninsula due to the fact that each one is characterized by year round coastal upwelling (though stronger during the boreal spinr/summer months) and their respective terrestrial climate characteristics: 1. Punta Colonet/Sierra San Pedro Martir is located in a mediterranean climate with conifer forest; 2. Punta Abre Ojos (just south of Guerrero Negro) is located in the central desert region; 3. at approximate 29°00' N (west of Bahía de los Angeles) is in the central desert region but is also characterized by fog; and 4. Magdalena Bay is located in a subtropical desert region with sporadic rain events (here the marine portion of the transect will extend out from the mouth of the bay). Using ten years of MODIS Terra and Aqua (terrestrial gross primary production [TGPP]) and SeaWif's (chlorophyll a [chl. a] as a proxy for biomass) data for four transects along the Baja California peninsula (extending from approximately 300 km off the coast to up to 50 km inland depending on the transect) the gross primary production will be analyzed in relation to upwelling (represented by sea

  4. Rapid estimation of the moment magnitude of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake from coseismic strain steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itaba, S.; Matsumoto, N.; Kitagawa, Y.; Koizumi, N.

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake, of moment magnitude (Mw) 9.0, occurred at 14:46 Japan Standard Time (JST) on March 11, 2011. The coseismic strain steps caused by the fault slip of this earthquake were observed in the Tokai, Kii Peninsula and Shikoku by the borehole strainmeters which were carefully set by Geological Survey of Japan, AIST. Using these strain steps, we estimated a fault model for the earthquake on the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. Our model, which is estimated only from several minutes' strain data, is largely consistent with the final fault models estimated from GPS and seismic wave data. The moment magnitude can be estimated about 6 minutes after the origin time, and 4 minutes after wave arrival. According to the fault model, the moment magnitude of the earthquake is 8.7. On the other hand, based on the seismic wave, the prompt report of the magnitude which the Japan Meteorological Agency announced just after earthquake occurrence was 7.9. Generally coseismic strain steps are considered to be less reliable than seismic waves and GPS data. However our results show that the coseismic strain steps observed by the borehole strainmeters, which were carefully set and monitored, can be relied enough to decide the earthquake magnitude precisely and rapidly. In order to grasp the magnitude of a great earthquake earlier, several methods are now being suggested to reduce the earthquake disasters including tsunami. Our simple method of using strain steps is one of the strong methods for rapid estimation of the magnitude of great earthquakes.

  5. Investigation of mercury deposition and potential sources at six sites from the Pacific Coast to the Great Basin, USA.

    PubMed

    Wright, Genine; Gustin, Mae Sexauer; Weiss-Penzias, Peter; Miller, Matthieu B

    2014-02-01

    The Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project showed that USA National Parks had fish mercury (Hg) concentrations above threshold concentrations set for wildlife. Since significant areas of the Western USA are arid, we hypothesized that dry deposition would be important. The primary question was whether sources of Hg were local and thus, easily addressed, or regional (from within the United States), or global (long range transport), and more difficult to address. To investigate this, surrogate surfaces and passive samplers for the measurement of GOM deposition and concentration, respectively, were deployed from the coast of California to the eastern edge of Nevada. Meteorological data, back trajectory modeling, and ozone concentrations were applied to better understand potential sources of Hg. Lowest seasonal mean Hg deposition (0.2 to 0.4 ng m(-2)h(-1)) was observed at low elevation (<100 m) Pacific Coast sites. Highest values were recorded at Lick Observatory, a high elevation coastal site (1,279 m), and Great Basin National Park (2,062 m) in rural eastern Nevada (1.5 to 2.4 ng m(-2)h(-1)). Intermediate values were recorded in Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks (0.9 to 1.2 ng m(-2)h(-1)). Results indicate that local, regional and global sources of air pollution, specifically oxidants, are contributing to observed deposition. At Great Basin National Park air chemistry was influenced by regional urban and agricultural emissions and free troposphere inputs. Dry deposition contributed ~2 times less Hg than wet deposition at the coastal locations, but 3 to 4 times more at the higher elevation sites. Based on the spatial trends, oxidation in the marine boundary layer or ocean sources contributed ~0.4 ng m(-2)h(-1) at the coastal locations. Regional pollution and long range transport contributed 1 to 2 ng m(-2)h(-1) to other locations, and the source of Hg is global and as such, all sources are important to consider. PMID:24252197

  6. Reproductive dynamics of Pacific sanddab, Citharichthys sordidus, off the central coast of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Lyndsey S.; Payne, Amber M.; Field, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Female Pacific sanddab were collected from the Monterey Bay, California to describe their reproductive strategy and annual reproductive cycle, as well as to estimate length at maturity, fecundity, spawning fraction (SF), and spawning interval (SI). Captive females were held to examine degradation of spawning markers and confirmed the biological spawning capabilities of the species. The reproductive season extended from May through January, as determined through macroscopic and histological examination of ovaries. Oocyte development was asynchronous, and an indeterminate fecundity pattern was displayed. Absolute and relative batch fecundity values were variable (means = 6663 eggs and 54 eggs g- 1 somatic weight, respectively) and significantly related to maternal length. During the period of highest reproductive activity, SF ranged from 0.42 to 0.98, suggesting some females were spawning on a daily basis. Monthly SF and SI were related to length, with smaller females having a truncated season and lower SF compared to larger females. Lengths at 50% (119 mm) and 95% (149 mm) maturity showed a downward shift relative to the 1940s, though the magnitude and cause of this shift remain unknown. This study highlights the importance of considering demographic shifts and size-related dynamics when modeling a stock's reproductive potential.

  7. Growth of the Pacific jack Caranx caninus (Pisces: Carangidae) from the coast of Colima, México.

    PubMed

    Barr, Elaine Espino; Cabello, Manuel Gallardo; Solis, Esther Guadalupe Cabral; Boa, Arturo Garcia; Gómez, Marcos Puente

    2008-03-01

    The Pacific jack Caranx caninus is a common species fished by artisanal fishermen off the coast of Colima, México. During 2002, monthly samples of morphometric data and otoliths were taken to determine age and growth. Seven age groups were identified. The highest growth, 14.4 cm, takes place during the first year of life. During the second year, C caninus grows 11.76 cm; the third year 9.61 cm; the fourth 7.85 cm; the fifth 6.41 cm and sixth year 5.24 cm. The constants of von Bertalanffy's growth equation were: L(infinity) = 83.26 cm, W(infinity) = 18.138 g, K = 0.202, t(0) = -0.283 and A(0.95) = 15 years. Growth curves of other species of the same genus were calculated in order to compare them with the one obtained in the present work. The gonadosomatic index presented higher values during November and May. The periods of more intensive feeding are from August to February. PMID:18624235

  8. Trichomonas stableri n. sp., an agent of trichomonosis in Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis)☆

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Yvette A.; Rogers, Krysta H.; Gerhold, Richard; Land, Kirkwood M.; Lenaghan, Scott C.; Woods, Leslie W.; Haberkern, Nathan; Hopper, Melissa; Cann, Jeff D.; Johnson, Christine K.

    2013-01-01

    Trichomonas gallinae is a ubiquitous flagellated protozoan parasite, and the most common etiologic agent of epidemic trichomonosis in columbid and passerine species. In this study, free-ranging Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis) in California (USA) were found to be infected with trichomonad protozoa that were genetically and morphologically distinct from T. gallinae. In microscopic analysis, protozoa were significantly smaller in length and width than T. gallinae and were bimodal in morphology. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2, rpb1, and hydrogenosomal Fe-hydrogenase regions revealed that the protozoan shares an ancestor with Trichomonas vaginalis, the sexually-transmitted agent of trichomoniasis in humans. Clinical and pathologic features of infected birds were similar to infections with T. gallinae. Evidence presented here strongly support taxonomical distinction of this parasite, which we hereby name Trichomonas stableri n. sp. This work contributes to a growing body of evidence that T. gallinae is not the sole etiologic agent of avian trichomonosis, and that the incorporation of molecular tools is critical in the investigation of infectious causes of mortality in birds. PMID:24918075

  9. Do early growth dynamics explain recruitment success in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus off the Pacific coast of northern Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Masakane; Robert, Dominique; Kurita, Yutaka; Yoneda, Michio; Tominaga, Osamu; Tomiyama, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoh; Uehara, Shinji

    2010-07-01

    We examined the relative importance of growth-related processes operating during the larval and early juvenile stage in explaining variability in year class success of Japanese flounder off the Pacific coast of northern Japan. Early growth trajectory of larvae and juveniles sampled in 2005 (strong year class) and in 2006 (weak year class) was estimated from the analysis of the lapillar otolith. The larval pelagic stage was characterized by lower growth and developmental rates, as well as high selection for fast growth in the metamorphosis/settlement period, during the strong recruitment event of 2005 relative to 2006. Growth appeared higher in 2005 only after settlement despite high density in the nursery, which likely reflected superior productivity during that year combined with an increased probability of cannibalism from early settlers on late settlers. This implies that larval growth dynamics did not play an important role in determining recruitment strength in the two years considered. The decreasing distance from the nursery areas of pelagic larvae through ontogeny in 2005, combined with low age at settlement, suggest that larvae benefited from positive transport conditions during the dominant year class. To the contrary, unfavorable hydrographic conditions likely prevailed in 2006 as distance from the nurseries increased with ontogeny and settlement occurred later than in 2005 despite faster growth potential and developmental rate. We conclude that transport conditions to the nursery grounds, rather than larval growth potential, represented the most important determinant of year class success in the two years considered.

  10. Epizootiology of Perkinsus marinus, parasite of the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis, in the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge; Madero-López, Luis Humberto; Padilla-Lardizábal, Gloria; Vásquez-Yeomans, Rebeca

    2016-09-01

    The protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus is the etiological agent of "dermo disease". This pathogen is considered by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) as reportable due to the high mortalities that it produces in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica in the US. In 2006, this parasite was detected in the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis in Nayarit on the Pacific coast of Mexico, indicating a new host and an extension of its known distribution. Epizootiological data of P. marinus in the pleasure oyster are unknown. With the objective of determining the prevalence and intensity in relation with temperature and salinity throughout time, as well as for studying interactions of host size and sex with the parasite, a monthly sampling was carried out in two aquaculture sites of Nayarit from 2007 to 2014. A total of 7700 oysters were analyzed. In both localities, prevalence was low in winter (<6%) when temperature and salinity fluctuated around 24°C and 33, respectively; and the highest prevalence values occurred during summer (37%) when temperature and salinity were around 30°C and 20, respectively. Infection intensity increased in summer, but severe cases remained on average <10%. Larger oysters showed the highest prevalence and intensity, and higher prevalence were generally observed in females. No unusual mortalities directly related with P. marinus were observed. PMID:27403560

  11. [Spatial-temporal dynamics of red tide precursor organisms at the Pacific coast of North and Central America].

    PubMed

    Sierra-Beltrán, A P; Lluch-Cota, D B; Lluch-Cota, S E; Cortés-Altamirano, R; Cortés-Lara, M C; Castillo-Chávez, M; Carrillo, L; Pacas, L; Víquez, R; García-Hansen, I

    2004-09-01

    The Pacific coast of Central and North America has long been and still is impacted by the flourishing of microalgal populations known as Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). The organisms that have caused recent HABs episodes in the region are among others, Gymnodinium catenatum, Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum, and recently Cochlodinium cf. catenatum. In spite of the accumulated effects on the human health, the economic activities and the environment, scarce information is available on the subject. The augmented use of coastal zones for human activities is also paralleled by increased awareness of global climate changes. Thus, it is not an easy task to discriminate anthropogenic or natural phenomena, or both, as the major driving forces. The long-term data sets available for limited regions, as well as some sporadic observations during notorious blooms, allowed us to discriminate major changes in the biodiversity and biogeography of HAB organisms. Main changes refer to number of events, covered area, duration and frequency, number of blooming species and appearance of not previously reported harmful taxa. The variables more clearly related to these dynamic phenomena, seems to be sea surface temperature and wind force, but it is not yet possible to weight their contributions. The participation of rain is not fully evaluated to date. The collaborative communication among small-budget monitoring operations in the region allowed to "pass the voice" about peaking concentrations of HAB organisms, diminishing the risk of poisoning. PMID:17465122

  12. Crossover fluctuations of DFA-exponents of geoelectrical signals possibly linked to seismic activity in the South Pacific Mexican Coast.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes Ramirez, Israel; Guzman Vargas, Lev; Angulo Brown, Fernando; Ramirez Rojas, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    Since the ends of 2012 we have continuously measured the electric self-potential of the ground at two sites in the south pacific Mexican coast. The two geoelectrical stations (16o21'33″N, 98o14'52″O in Oaxaca, and 17o29'29″N, 101o57'08″O in Guerrero, Mex.) are very near to the border of the Cocos and The north American tectonic plates. The registered signals are in the Ultra Low frequency (ULF) range and are analyzed by means of the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA). In the log-log DFA plane the analyzed signals typically shows two scaling regimes; one in the 'large' scales range with α ≡ 0.5 (white noise) and other in the 'low' scales range when α ≡ 1.5 (Brownian noise). However, in some cases the crossover disappears and α1 = α2 = α with α in the interval (0.7,1.3). Interestingly, in several occasions, specially when the collapsed exponent α is close to 1/f noise some few days after this, a seismic event with M ≥ 4.5 occurs inside a circle of around 100km centered in the station. Besides, we discuss some additional statistical features of the evolution of scaling exponents for almost 1-year period.

  13. Aphelochaeta (Polychaeta: Cirratulidae) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, with a description of five new species.

    PubMed

    Dean, Harlan K; Blake, James A

    2016-01-01

    Five new species of bitentaculate Cirratulidae belonging to the genus Aphelochaeta are herein described from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, all from shallow subtidal depths. Aphelochaeta antelonga sp. nov. is characterized by a long biannulate peristomium and fibrillated capillary setae and is from 11-18 m in the Gulf of Nicoya. Aphelochaeta guimondi sp. nov., with a wide dorsal trough in the thorax and hirsute capillaries (visible using SEM), is described from 11-26 m in the Gulf of Nicoya. Aphelochaeta praeacuta sp. nov., with its first peristomial annulation extending as a dorsal crest over the second annulation and first setiger, was collected from 11-28 m in Bahia Culebra. Aphelochaeta striata sp. nov., collected from 11-28 m in the Gulf of Nicoya, is recognized by its narrow body and the transverse blue stripes across the venter of setigers 5-8 produced with methyl green stain. Aphelochaeta zebra sp. nov., collected from a coral reef in Golfo Dulce, is characterized by its expanded posterior end and the darkly staining intersegmental regions using methyl green stain. Additionally, A. glandaria Blake, 1996, a species reportedly with a widespread geographic distribution (Blake, 1996), was also encountered subtidally from the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce. PMID:27394621

  14. Partial Chemical Remagnetization of Sediments from the Equatorial Pacific off the Coast of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Grasiane; Trindade, Ricardo; Salvatteci, Renato; Sifeddine, Abdel

    2013-04-01

    The study of the geomagnetic field in the past is made through the fossil magnetization recorded in geological and archeological materials. In sediments the magnetization is acquired during or after deposition (pós-depositional remanent magnetization - pDRM), and the dating of geomagnetic features recorded in this materials depends on the time between deposition and magnetization lock-in and the depth in which the magnetization is mechanically blocked (e.g. Tauxe et al, 2006). Besides these processes, diagenesis (e.g. sulfate reduction) can compromise the paleomagnetic record in sedimentary sequences. Marine sediments are exposed to many different chemical environments which can drive the formation of new magnetic minerals. In presence of H2S, magnetite can be dissolved and iron sulphides be formed, such as greigite a precursor of pyrite in anoxic sulfate-reducing sedimentary environment (Roberts & Weaver, 2005; Rowan et al, 2009; Roberts et al, 2011). The age of magnetization in sediments affected by chemical magnetization (CRM) is much harder to be stablished. Here we performed a detailed magnetic characterization using 'environmagnetic' parameters (χ, ARM, IRM, S-Ratio, HIRM, ARM%) and hysteresis curves for sediments from the equatorial Pacific which were deposited in a strong redox gradient, from oxic to anoxic conditions in the water column. Magnetic mineralogy and SEM images show both authigenic iron sulphide (greigite) and detrital iron oxide (magnetite) all across the core, suggesting that reducing conditions prevailed in pore waters all along the sedimentation history. Scattering in directions are usually associated to intensely altered intervals, where greigite is the dominant magnetic carrier. Yet, besides the presence of greigite all through the analysed cores it is still possible to obtain a reliable geomagnetic field record from most samples after classical paleomagnetic treatment.

  15. Phylogeography of Ostreopsis along West Pacific Coast, with Special Reference to a Novel Clade from Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shinya; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Uehara, Keita; Sakanari, Hiroshi; Tawong, Wittaya; Hariganeya, Naohito; Smith, Kirsty; Rhodes, Lesley; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Taira, Yosuke; Suda, Shoichiro; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Adachi, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Background A dinoflagellate genus Ostreopsis is known as a potential producer of Palytoxin derivatives. Palytoxin is the most potent non-proteinaceous compound reported so far. There has been a growing number of reports on palytoxin-like poisonings in southern areas of Japan; however, the distribution of Ostreopsis has not been investigated so far. Morphological plasticity of Ostreopsis makes reliable microscopic identification difficult so the employment of molecular tools was desirable. Methods/Principal Finding In total 223 clones were examined from samples mainly collected from southern areas of Japan. The D8–D10 region of the nuclear large subunit rDNA (D8–D10) was selected as a genetic marker and phylogenetic analyses were conducted. Although most of the clones were unable to be identified, there potentially 8 putative species established during this study. Among them, Ostreopsis sp. 1–5 did not belong to any known clade, and each of them formed its own clade. The dominant species was Ostreopsis sp. 1, which accounted for more than half of the clones and which was highly toxic and only distributed along the Japanese coast. Comparisons between the D8–D10 and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear rDNA, which has widely been used for phylogenetic/phylogeographic studies in Ostreopsis, revealed that the D8–D10 was less variable than the ITS, making consistent and reliable phylogenetic reconstruction possible. Conclusions/Significance This study unveiled a surprisingly diverse and widespread distribution of Japanese Ostreopsis. Further study will be required to better understand the phylogeography of the genus. Our results posed the urgent need for the development of the early detection/warning systems for Ostreopsis, particularly for the widely distributed and strongly toxic Ostreopsis sp. 1. The D8–D10 marker will be suitable for these purposes. PMID:22164222

  16. The distribution of 4-nonylphenol in marine organisms of North American Pacific Coast estuaries.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Jennifer; Johnson, Sarah E; Xia, Kang; West, Amy; Tomanek, Lars

    2012-04-01

    One of the chemical breakdown products of nonylphenol ethoxylates, 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), accumulates in organisms and is of concern as an environmental pollutant due to its endocrine disrupting effects. We measured 4-NP levels in the seawater, sediment, and twelve organisms within the California estuary, Morro Bay, and examined biomagnification of 4-NP using stable isotope abundances (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) to quantify trophic position. 4-NP concentrations in organisms from Morro Bay included 25000±8600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of California sea lion, 14000±5600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of harbor porpoise, 138000±55000 ng g(-1) lw in liver of sea otters, 15700±3600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of seabirds, 36100±6100 ng g(-1) lw in arrow goby fish, 62800±28400 ng g(-1) lw in oysters, and 12700±1300 ng g(-1) lw in mussels. 4-NP levels generally showed a pattern of trophic dilution among organisms in Morro Bay, with exceptions of biomagnification observed between three trophic links: mussel to sea otter (BMF 10.9), oyster to sea otter (BMF 2.2), and arrow goby to staghorn sculpin (BMF 2.7). Our examination of other west coast estuaries of USA and Canada revealed that mean 4-NP concentrations in gobies and mussels from Morro Bay were significantly higher than those from a more urbanized estuary, San Francisco Bay (goby: 11100±3800 ng g(-1) lw) and from a remote estuary, Bamfield Inlet, Canada (goby: 9000±900 ng g(-1) lw, mussel: 6100±700 ng g(-1) lw). Relative to other estuaries worldwide, 4-NP levels in seawater (0.42±0.16 μg L(-1)) and sediment (53±14 ng g(-1) dw) of Morro Bay are low, but gobies and oysters have higher 4-NP levels than comparable fauna. PMID:22257992

  17. AMS analyses of I-129 from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in the Pacific Ocean waters of the Coast La Jolla--San Diego, USA.

    PubMed

    Stan-Sion, C; Enachescu, M; Petre, A R

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study we performed by using the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) method with iodine 129 (T1/2 = 15.7 My), to determine the increase of the radionuclide content in the USA West Pacific Coast waters, two years after the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. The collection of the water samples took place between April and July 2013 at regular intervals of time, from the Pacific Ocean, at the cove of La Jolla, San Diego, USA. The results of the experiments showed a significant increase of the radionuclide concentration during the late spring of 2013. Compared to the isotopic ratio (129)I/(127)I, measured at a 40 km distance, offshore of Fukushima and immediately after the accident, our results show an increase on the USA West Coast that was more than a 2.5 factor higher. Also, compared with the pre-Fukushima background values, our results show an isotopic ratio of about two orders of magnitude higher. A distinct feature of the reconstructed radioactive plume was that it traveled with a speed of 12 cm s(-1), which we estimated and is consistent with the zonal speed in the Pacific. We coupled our (129)I results with the measurements from the June 2011 KOK cruise and we derived the levels of activity for (3)H and (137)Cs. On the USA West Coast, they did not exceed the international regulatory limits. PMID:25901961

  18. Migratory patterns of pelagic fishes and possible linkages between open ocean and coastal ecosystems off the Pacific coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beamish, R. J.; McFarlane, G. A.; King, J. R.

    2005-03-01

    We review studies relevant to the migration of pelagic fishes between the coastal and open-ocean ecosystems off the subarctic coast of North America. We review the life history strategies of these migratory fish and to compare to the life history strategies of major coastal migrants. The oceanography in this region is dominated by north and south currents that provide a boundary between the offshore and coastal waters. Commercial fisheries off the west coast of North America are virtually all inshore of this oceanographic separation. Migrations for some species in these major fisheries are also north and south rather than east and west. However, exceptions occur for Pacific salmon, species associated with seamounts, and for transitional pelagic species such as tuna, squid and sharks. Three species of Pacific salmon, sockeye, pink and chum salmon, migrate along the coast in their first marine year and move off shore in the fall and winter in their first marine year. Three other species, coho salmon, chinook salmon, and steelhead trout, also migrate offshore, although they are less abundant and some stocks remain within the coastal regions. Pacific salmon species are a dominant daytime biomass in the surface waters in the offshore areas. It is known that albacore tuna and some sharks migrate between the offshore and coastal areas, but more research is needed to assess the relative importance of these migrations. Although the biomass of species on seamounts is small relative to coastal areas, the similarity in fauna is evidence that there is recruitment from coastal ecosystems.

  19. The National assessment of shoreline shange—A GIS compilation of vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the Pacific Northwest coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzmann, Meredith; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Ruggiero, Peter; Thieler, E. Robert; Reid, David

    2013-01-01

    Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination and are often surrounded by communities that consist of valuable real estate. Development along sandy coastal areas is increasing despite the fact that coastal infrastructure may be repeatedly subjected to flooding and erosion. As a result, the demand for accurate information regarding past and present shoreline changes is increasing. Investigators with the U.S. Geological Survey's National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project have compiled a comprehensive database of digital vector shorelines and rates of shoreline change for the Pacific Northwest coast including the states of Washington and Oregon. No widely accepted standard for analyzing shoreline change currently exists. Current measurement and methods for calculating rates of change vary from study to study, precluding the combination of study results into statewide or regional assessments. The impetus behind the national assessment was to develop a standardized method that is consistent from coast to coast for measuring changes in shoreline position. The goal was to facilitate the process of periodically and systematically updating the measurements in an internally consistent manner. A detailed report on shoreline change for the Pacific Northwest coast that contains a discussion of the data presented here is available and cited in the Geospatial Data section of this report.

  20. Synoptic View of a Swell Field in the Pacific: from Spaceborne SAR Measurements to Seismic Noise on the Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husson, R.; Collard, F.; Ardhuin, F.; Stutzmann, E.; Balanche, A.

    2010-12-01

    . Hereby, our approach confirms that the observed micro-seismic activity in the Pacific has a strong contribution from swell, probably due to the reflection to the coast. This result emphasizes the possibility to use the energy of the swell signal measured by the seismic noise to validate the energy dynamic of the synthetic swell field, taking advantage of numerous seismic stations. Additionally, the estimation of transfer functions from the seismic noise to the swell energy would be a unique opportunity to revisit world-wide swell energy of the last 60 years given the historical seismic data available.

  1. A Simple Model for the Vertical Crustal Movement Associated with the Earthquake Cycle Along the Pacific Coast of Northeast Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagiya, T.

    2013-12-01

    Before the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake, rapid subsidence more than 5mm/yr has been observed along the Pacific coast of the Tohoku area by leveling, tide gauges, and GPS (Kato, 1979, Kato and Tsumura, 1979, El-Fiky and Kato, 1999). On the other hand, Stage 5e (~125 ka) marine terraces are widely recognized along the same area, implying the area is uplifting in a long-term. Ikeda (1999) hypothesized that these deformation signals reflect accumulation of elastic strain at the plate interface and there is a possibility of a giant earthquake causing a coastal uplift. However, the coastal area subsided as large as 1m during the 2011 main shock. Though we observe significant postseismic uplift, it is not certain if the preseismic as well as coseismic subsidence will be recovered. We construct a simple model of earthquake deformation cycle to interpret the vertical movement along the Pacific coast of northeast Japan. The model consists of a 40 km thick elastic lithosphere overlying a Maxwell viscoelastic asthenospher with a viscosity of 10^19 Pa s. Plate boundary is modeled as two rectangular faults located in the lithosphere and connected each other. As for the kinematic conditions of these faults, we represent the temporal evolution of fault slip as a sum of the steady term and the perturbation term following Savage and Prescott (1978). The first steady term corresponds to the long-term plate subduction, which contributes to long-term geomorphic evolution such as the marine terraces (Hashimoto et al., 2004). The second perturbation term represent earthquake cycle effects. We evaluate this effect under assumptions that earthquake occurrence is perfectly periodic, plate interface is fully coupled during interseismic periods, and the slip deficit is fully released by earthquakes. If the earthquake recurrence interval is shorter than the relaxation time of the structure, interseismic movement is in the opposite direction to the coseismic ones and changes almost linearly

  2. Estimating Limit Reference Points for Western Pacific Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the U.S. West Coast EEZ.

    PubMed

    Curtis, K Alexandra; Moore, Jeffrey E; Benson, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    Biological limit reference points (LRPs) for fisheries catch represent upper bounds that avoid undesirable population states. LRPs can support consistent management evaluation among species and regions, and can advance ecosystem-based fisheries management. For transboundary species, LRPs prorated by local abundance can inform local management decisions when international coordination is lacking. We estimated LRPs for western Pacific leatherbacks in the U.S. West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (WCEEZ) using three approaches with different types of information on local abundance. For the current application, the best-informed LRP used a local abundance estimate derived from nest counts, vital rate information, satellite tag data, and fishery observer data, and was calculated with a Potential Biological Removal estimator. Management strategy evaluation was used to set tuning parameters of the LRP estimators to satisfy risk tolerances for falling below population thresholds, and to evaluate sensitivity of population outcomes to bias in key inputs. We estimated local LRPs consistent with three hypothetical management objectives: allowing the population to rebuild to its maximum net productivity level (4.7 turtles per five years), limiting delay of population rebuilding (0.8 turtles per five years), or only preventing further decline (7.7 turtles per five years). These LRPs pertain to all human-caused removals and represent the WCEEZ contribution to meeting population management objectives within a broader international cooperative framework. We present multi-year estimates, because at low LRP values, annual assessments are prone to substantial error that can lead to volatile and costly management without providing further conservation benefit. The novel approach and the performance criteria used here are not a direct expression of the "jeopardy" standard of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, but they provide useful assessment information and could help guide international

  3. Diversity of mosquitoes and the aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites along the Pacific coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The abundance, richness and diversity of mosquitoes and aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites were surveyed along eight states of the Pacific coast of Mexico. Diversity was estimated using the Shannon index (H’), similarity measures and cluster analysis. Methods Oviposition sites were sampled during 2–3 months per year, over a three year period. Field collected larvae and pupae were reared and identified to species following adult emergence. Aquatic insects present at oviposition sites were also collected, counted and identified to species or genus. Results In total, 15 genera and 74 species of mosquitoes were identified: Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, An. albimanus and Aedes aegypti were the most abundant and widely-distributed species, representing 47% of total mosquito individuals sampled. New species records for certain states are reported. Anopheline diversity was lowest in Sinaloa state (H’ = 0.54) and highest in Chiapas (H’ = 1.61) and Michoacán (H’ = 1.56), whereas culicid diversity was lowest in Michoacán (H’ = 1.93), Colima (H’ = 1.95), Sinaloa (H’ = 1.99) and Jalisco (H’ = 2.01) and highest in Chiapas (H’ = 2.66). In total, 10 orders, 57 families, 166 genera and 247 species of aquatic insects were identified in samples. Aquatic insect diversity was highest in Chiapas, Oaxaca and Michoacán (H’ = 3.60-3.75). Mosquito larval/pupal abundance was not correlated with that of predatory Coleoptera and Hemiptera. Conclusion This represents the first update on the diversity and geographic distribution of the mosquitoes and aquatic insects of Mexico in over five decades. This information has been cataloged in Mexico’s National Biodiversity Information System (SNIB-CONABIO) for public inspection. PMID:24450800

  4. Estimating Limit Reference Points for Western Pacific Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the U.S. West Coast EEZ

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, K. Alexandra; Moore, Jeffrey E.; Benson, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Biological limit reference points (LRPs) for fisheries catch represent upper bounds that avoid undesirable population states. LRPs can support consistent management evaluation among species and regions, and can advance ecosystem-based fisheries management. For transboundary species, LRPs prorated by local abundance can inform local management decisions when international coordination is lacking. We estimated LRPs for western Pacific leatherbacks in the U.S. West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (WCEEZ) using three approaches with different types of information on local abundance. For the current application, the best-informed LRP used a local abundance estimate derived from nest counts, vital rate information, satellite tag data, and fishery observer data, and was calculated with a Potential Biological Removal estimator. Management strategy evaluation was used to set tuning parameters of the LRP estimators to satisfy risk tolerances for falling below population thresholds, and to evaluate sensitivity of population outcomes to bias in key inputs. We estimated local LRPs consistent with three hypothetical management objectives: allowing the population to rebuild to its maximum net productivity level (4.7 turtles per five years), limiting delay of population rebuilding (0.8 turtles per five years), or only preventing further decline (7.7 turtles per five years). These LRPs pertain to all human-caused removals and represent the WCEEZ contribution to meeting population management objectives within a broader international cooperative framework. We present multi-year estimates, because at low LRP values, annual assessments are prone to substantial error that can lead to volatile and costly management without providing further conservation benefit. The novel approach and the performance criteria used here are not a direct expression of the “jeopardy” standard of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, but they provide useful assessment information and could help guide

  5. Assessing the Age of Particulate Organic Matter Exported from a Temperate Rainforest Catchment of the North American Pacific Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, E. E.; Ingalls, A. E.; Santos, G.; Keil, R. G.; Wefferling, L.; Jones, A.; Druffel, E. R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Although temperate rainforests of the North American Pacific Coast contain a small proportion of the world's forests, they contain some of the highest densities of biomass of any terrestrial system, and they store large quantities of carbon in soil. Understanding the residence time of organic carbon in these watersheds is of ecological significance. Given that rivers can mobilize sediment (and associated carbon) from across the catchment, carefully deciphering the organic signatures found within riverine particles can be a powerful tool to inform our understanding of carbon cycling catchment-wide. Here we examine the lignin phenol content (lignin is a biomarker unique to vascular plants) and the radiocarbon age (Δ14C) of fine particulate organic carbon (FPOC) exported by the Queets River of Washington State's Olympic Peninsula over the course of one year, targeting winter storm events. This mountainous catchment is one of the largest and most pristine found on the Olympic Peninsula. The Δ14C of FPOC was quantified for each of the twelve sampling events, whereas the Δ14C of the individual lignin phenols was determined during a late-winter storm event. Sediments were enriched in lignin phenols at the end of the summer dry season and into the first storm of the fall, suggesting that surface soils were transported early on. The Δ14C of individual lignin phenols ranged from -161 to 26‰, with biomarkers for non-woody vegetation being most depleted. These results suggest that particulate lignin exported from temperate catchments is considerably aged, especially relative to the tropics. These findings are consistent with cool temperatures and abundant moisture limiting microbial decomposition, increasing the residence time of plant-derived organic carbon in temperate rainforests. We will compare the Δ14C content of lignin phenols to that of bulk organic matter to partition riverine FPOC amongst possible organic matter sources.

  6. Trophic structure and flows of energy in the Huizache-Caimanero lagoon complex on the Pacific coast of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zetina-Rejón, Manuel J.; Arreguín-Sánchez, Francisco; Chávez, Ernesto A.

    2003-08-01

    The Huizache-Caimanero coastal lagoon complex on the Pacific coast of Mexico supports an important shrimp fishery and is one of the most productive systems in catch per unit area of this resource. Four other less important fish groups are also exploited. In this study, we integrated the available information of the system into a mass-balance trophic model to describe the ecosystem structure and flows of energy using the E COPATH approach. The model includes 26 functional groups consisting of 15 fish groups, seven invertebrate groups, macrophytes, phytoplankton, and a detritus group. The resulting model was consistent as indicated by the output parameters. According to the overall pedigree index (0.75), which measures the quality of the input data on a scale from 0 to 1, it is a high quality model. Results indicate that zooplankton, microcrustaceans, and polychaetes are the principal link between trophic level (TL) one (primary producers and detritus) and consumers of higher TLs. Most production from macrophytes flows to detritus, and phytoplankton production is incorporated into the food web by zooplankton. Half of the flow from TL one to the next level come from detritus, which is an important energy source not only for several groups in the ecosystem but also for fisheries, as shown by mixed trophic impacts. The Huizache-Caimanero complex has the typical structure of tropical coastal lagoons and estuaries. The TL of consumers ranges from 2.0 to 3.6 because most groups are composed of juveniles, which use the lagoons as a nursery or protection area. Most energy flows were found in the lower part of the trophic web.

  7. RESISTANCE OF EARTH BANK AGAINST TSUNAMI AND STRUCTURE OF DUG POOL FORMED BY TSUNAMI IN THE 2011 OFF THE PACIFIC COAST OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokida, Ken-Ichi; Tanimoto, Ryusuke

    In the 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake, very huge damages of civil engineering structures etc. occurred by tsunami strikes along the rias coast and plane coast of the Pacific Ocean. For the urgent repair and the future reconstruction of these structures, the fundamental damage characteristics of these structures should be clarified by the field surveys from which effective lessons can be expected. In this paper, several important lessons on the resistance characteristics of 13 earth structures such as river dykes and sand banks which are obtained from the field surveys conducted by the authors are indicated. Because many dug pools were formed by the tsunami overflow at the backside of earth embankments and sea walls in this earthquake, the fundamental characteristics of the 10 dug pools are investigated thorough the field survey to estimate the effects of the dug pools quantitatively in the future. Furthermore through the field survey conducted at the representative site named Idoura, the scale and waterbed conditions of the natural canals and the strength characteristics of the river dykes and the base ground neighboring the natural canals are measured in detail and discussed. These fundamental lessons and data on the earth banks and dug pools will be able to be used to simulate the effects of the dug pools and to discuss the artificial canals as one of the hard countermeasures to reduce the tsunami height and/or force.

  8. Assessing morphological, climatic and structural factors controlling water discharge and sediment load of rivers flowing from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas to the Pacific Coast (Southern Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz-Salinas, E.; Castillo, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Sierra Madre de Chiapas (SMC) is a steep mountain range located in the south-western part of Mexico with elevations higher than 2000 m. The SMC is ~30 km off the Pacific Coast and it is oriented parallel to the coast. The annual rainfall exceeds 6 m and most of this takes place during summer season when low-pressure systems and cyclones are frequent. The rivers in SMC incise into the granite and transport large volumes of sediment. Even though rivers can be regarded as bedrock bedrock channels these suddenly change to alluvial-type rivers when these flow in the coastal plain which is ~10 km from the headwater of rivers. There are not data available of the sediment yield of rivers, however, the well-broad coastal plain and the wide continental shelf suggest that the sediment transport from the mountain area to the lowlands is significantly high. Here we assess the main morphological, climatic and structural factors controlling water discharge and sediment load of the rivers flowing from the SMC to the Pacific Coast by means of (1) topographical analysis on a high-resolution DEM, (2) grain-size and OSL analysis on sediment extracted from the riverbed of the main rivers and (3) time-series analysis from the available data of sediment discharge and sediment load. Our results indicate that the river incision and sediment transport is particularly high at the southern sector of the SMC where the topographic and climatic factors promote higher erosion rates.

  9. First record of the polychaete Ficopomatus uschakovi (Pillai, 1960) (Annelida, Serpulidae) in the Colombian Caribbean, South America

    PubMed Central

    Arteaga-Flórez, Catalina; Fernández-Rodríguez, Vanessa; Londoño-Mesa, Mario H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Ficopomatus (Serpulidae) consists of sessile, tubicolous polychaete annelid worms that may colonize a diversity of substrata, and tolerate considerable variations in salinity. Thus, members of this genus, including Ficopomatus uschakovi, in some cases are exotic and maybe invasive. The purpose of our research was to collect and identify marine organisms associated with the submerged roots of mangrove trees in the Gulf of Urabá, Colombian Caribbean, South America. Within the Gulf, there is a well-developed forest of the Red Mangrove, Rhizophora mangle, along the margins of El Uno Bay. We sampled the roots of R. mangle from five stations of the bay, and we identified specimens of F. uschakovi from each of those stations. Ficopomatus uschakovi was found to be more abundant in regions of the bay that exhibit the lowest salinity. Based on a morphological comparison of the present specimens with the original species description, revised descriptions, and other records from the Indo-West Pacific, Mexican Pacific, and Venezuelan and Brazilian Caribbean, we suggest that F. uschakovi has a broader geographical distribution. Furthermore, because of this broad distribution, and the observed tolerance for low salinity in our study, we also suggest that F. uschakovi is a euryhaline species. It is also likely that F. uschakovi will be found in other localities in the Gulf of Urabá, and in other regions of the Colombian Caribbean. Thus, this record extends the distribution of the species to the Colombian Caribbean, giving the species a continuous distribution across the northern coast of South America. PMID:24493951

  10. High-resolution seismic stratigraphy of the late Neogene of the central sector of the Colombian Pacific continental shelf: A seismic expression of an active continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Jaime Orlando; López Ramos, Eduardo

    2011-02-01

    The sedimentary prism of the central Pacific continental shelf of Colombia was affected by regional folding and faulting, and probably later mud diapirism, from the Late Miocene to the Holocene. Interpretation of high-resolution seismic lines (2 s/dt) revealed that the prism consists of 13 high-resolution seismic units, that can be separated into 5 seismic groups. Deposition of the prism and the associated stacking pattern, are probably the response to variable uplift and subsidence in a fore-arc basin that underwent important tectonic events by the end of the Miocene. Throughout the Pliocene, the continental shelf sedimentation was affected by the growing of a dome structure probable due to mud diapirism. This fact caused peripheral faults both normal and reverse that controlled the distribution of some of the seismic units. During the Late Pleistocene (Wisconsin stage?) a eustatic sea level fall caused the shoreline to advance about 50 km westward of its present position. Because of this eustatic sea level change, a strong fluvial dissection took place and is interpreted as the probable extension of the San Juan River to the south of the present day river mouth. Within this framework it is believed that the Malaga and Buenaventura Bays were the passageways of branches of the old drainage system of the San Juan River. The inner branch circulated through the present Buenaventura Bay and runs southward leaving the mark of an apparent valley identified in the seismic information in the eastern sector of the study area. This old fluvial valley and its filling material located in the present day inner continental shelf front of Buenaventura are postulated as important targets to find placer minerals such as gold and platinum.

  11. Continuous GPS observations in Tohoku University and recovery effort after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demachi, T.; Miura, S.; Ohta, Y.; Tachibana, K.; Ueki, S.; Sato, T.; Ohzono, M.; Umino, N.

    2012-04-01

    The nation-wide GPS observation network which is named GPS Earth Observation Network System (GEONET) has been established by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) (Miyazaki et al., 1997). The network composed more than 1,200 stations with baseline length is about 20-25 km. Tohoku University has also conducted continuous GPS observations since 1987 in the Tohoku district, Northeastern Japan (Miura et al., 1993). Recently, to investigate short-length crustal deformations such as volcanic deformation, co- and post-seismic deformation of M6-7 class earthquakes and inter-seismic deformations, we have deployed continuous GPS observation stations to complement the location of GEONET stations (Miura et al. 2000, 2002, and 2004). We installed GPS receiver, PC for data logging (ALIX series, PC Engines GmbH) and re-booter (e.g., WATCH BOOT nino, Meikyo Electric Co., Ltd.) in each station. We have secure and stable online access to each station from our university (Sendai city, Japan) using IP-VPN over fixed telephone lines (FLET'S Office service, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone East Corp.). Through this network, the data are transferred to our university and we can restart the devices if the devices hang up. Since 2010, we have tried to use on-line system through internet by prepaid mobile data-communication (b-mobile3G and b-mobileSIM U300, Japan Communications Inc.) in eight observation stations. Compared with the FLET'S Office service, we can conveniently and inexpensively establish wherever the mobile phone service is provided. The two stations are located in volcanoes, we activate the network system for an hour in every day using motor time switch, because of these devices are operated by limited DC power supplies through solar cell. In other six stations, we can use commercial AC power supplies, so that data connections are always available. On March 11, 2011, the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw 9.0) occurred and a huge tsunami caused

  12. Isopods of the genus Ligia as potential biomonitors of trace metals from the gulf of California and pacific coast of the Baja California peninsula.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, Jaqueline; Hurtado, Luis A; Leyva-García, Germán; Güido-Moreno, Adrián; Aguilera-Márquez, Daniela; Mazzei, Veronica; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-02-01

    Supralittoral and high intertidal coastal zones are exposed to pollution from both marine and terrestrial sources and undergo higher deposition rates than the subtidal zone. It is therefore important to identify organisms for this section of the coastal area that can be tolerant to contaminants. The aim of this study was to determine if supralittoral isopods of the genus Ligia can be used as biomonitors, since they are abundant and widely distributed. For this purpose, concentrations of trace elements were determined in Ligia isopods in toto from 26 locations across the Gulf of California and Pacific coast of the Baja California peninsula, which were collected during the summers of 2009 and 2010. The concentrations of trace elements followed the order of; Zn≥Cu>As>Cd>Pb>Hg. Elevated concentrations of copper (up to 1010 μg/g) were detected in Ligia from Santa Rosalía (SRo), a locality where industrial mining of copper has historically occurred. Industrial and municipal sewage discharges appear to have contributed to the high concentrations of zinc (326 μg/g) and lead (144 μg/g) found in organisms from Guaymas location. The high mercury concentration in organisms from Mazatlán (M) (2.01 μg/g) was associated with a thermoelectric plant. Natural sources of metals were also detected; coastal upwelling appears to be associated with high cadmium concentrations in Ligia from Punta Baja (PB) (256 μg/g) in the Pacific coast, whereas hydrothermal vents may have contributed to high concentrations of arsenic at Ensenada (E) (61 μg/g). Our results suggest that Ligia isopods reflect the natural and anthropogenic inputs of trace metals in the environment and could potentially be used as biomonitor organisms of the intertidal rocky shores of the Gulf of California and Pacific coast. PMID:25463869

  13. Benthic foraminiferal evidence on origin of possible submarine tsunami deposit formed by the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usami, K.; Ikehara, K.; Jenkins, R.; Ashi, J.

    2012-12-01

    Tsunami by the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake brought significant damage along the northeastern Japan coast. After events, we conducted marine survey to clarify the influence of earthquake/tsunami to sea bottom environments. As the results, we found the 2011 earthquake- and/or tsunami-induced turbidites at 13 sites from outer shelf (122 m in water depth) to trench slope (5522 m) off Sanriku. At two sites from slope (893 m and 1446 m), the turbidites have sharp erosional bases, and upward-fining graded structures started from v.f.s-c.silt. Basal sands include abundant benthic foraminifera. In our preliminary investigation, a meaningful occurrence of species inhabiting the outer shelf areas have recognized, suggesting transport of sediment from outer shelf by tsunami-induced turbidity currents. Increasing of friction velocity by tsunami in the shelf area is most probable mechanism on the sediment resuspension including benthic foraminiferal tests.

  14. Change in groundwater environment caused by the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake in the southern part of Sendai Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kazushi; Takahashi, Tomohiro; Okaniwa, Nobuyuki; Shibasaki, Naoaki; Ouchi, Takuya

    Southern part of Sendai Plain was extensively attacked by tsunami caused by the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake. Continuous observation since 2008 has revealed that the groundwater level rose instantaneously right after the earthquake, and then the tsunami, which occurred about an hour later, involved the succeeding drastic rise. Salinity of groundwater was increased from below 0.7 mS/cm to at most 3 mS/cm, and has not been restored to the state before the earthquake.

  15. Performance of JMA Earthquake Early Warning for the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw9.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshiba, M.; Wakayama, A.; Ishigaki, Y.; Doi, K.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation outlines the Earthquake Early Warning of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) for the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw9.0). EEW has been operational nationwide in Japan by JMA since October, 2007. For JMA EEW, the hypocenter is determined by a combination of several techniques, using approximately 1,100 stations from the JMA network and the Hi-net network of NIED; magnitude is mainly from maximum displacement amplitudes. JMA EEWs are updated as available data increases with elapsed time. Accordingly EEWs are issued repeatedly with improving accuracy for a single earthquake. JMA EEWs are divided into two grades depending on the expected intensities. The JMA intensity scale is based on instrumental measurements in which not only the amplitude but also the frequency and duration of the shaking are considered. The 10-degree JMA intensity scale rounds off the instrumental intensity value to the integer. Intensities of 5 and 6 are divided into two degrees, namely 5-lower, 5-upper, 6-lower and 6-upper, respectively. Intensity 1 corresponds to ground motion that people can barely detect, and 7 is the upper limit. JMA EEWs are announced to general public when intensity 5-lower (or greater) is expected. The JMA EEW system was triggered for the Mw 9.0 earthquake when station OURI (138km from the epicenter) detected the initial P wave at 14:46:40.2 (Japan Standard Time). The first EEW, the first of 15 announcements, was issued 5.4 s later. The waveform started with small amplitude, which was comparable to noise level for displacement. The small amplitude does not indicate that the initial rupture of the Mw 9.0 event is large, and does not suggest a large magnitude event. By the fourth EEW, 8.6 s after the first trigger, the expected intensity exceeded the criteria of the warning to the general public. JMA issued the fourth EEW announcements to the general public of the Tohoku district, and then the warning was automatically broadcast

  16. Uranium-Series Ages of Marine Terrace Corals from the Pacific Coast of North America and Implications for Last-Interglacial Sea Level History

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Kennedy, G.L.; Rockwell, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Few of the marine terraces along the Pacific coast of North America have been dated using uranium-series techniques. Ten terrace sequences from southern Oregon to southern Baja California Sur have yielded fossil corals in quantities suitable for U-series dating by alpha spectrometry. U-series-dated terraces representing the ???80,000 yr sea-level high stand are identified in five areas (Bandon, Oregon; Point Arena, San Nicolas Island, and Point Loma, California; and Punta Banda, Baja California); terraces representing the ???125,000 yr sea-level high stand are identified in eight areas (Cayucos, San Luis Obispo Bay, San Nicolas Island, San Clemente Island, and Point Loma, California; Punta Bands and Isla Guadalupe, Baja California; and Cabo Pulmo, Baja California Sur). On San Nicolas Island, Point Loma, and Punta Bands, both the ???80,000 and the ???125,000 yr terraces are dated. Terraces that may represent the ???105,000 sea-level high stand are rarely preserved and none has yielded corals for U-series dating. Similarity of coral ages from midlatitude, erosional marine terraces with coral ages from emergent, constructional reefs on tropical coastlines suggests a common forcing mechanism, namely glacioeustatically controlled fluctuations in sea level superimposed on steady tectonic uplift. The low marine terrace dated at ???125,000 yr on Isla Guadalupe, Baja California, presumed to be tectonically stable, supports evidence from other localities for a +6-m sea level at that time. Data from the Pacific Coast and a compilation of data from other coasts indicate that sea levels at ???80,000 and ???105,000 yr may have been closer to present sea level (within a few meters) than previous studies have suggested.

  17. Three new species of Ammonicera from the Eastern Pacific coast of North America, with redescriptions and comments on other species of Omalogyridae (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia).

    PubMed

    Sartori, André F; Bieler, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    The family Omalogyridae comprises some of the smallest known marine snails. Like all micromolluscs, they have been historically neglected and are underrepresented in faunistic surveys. Based on a few focused studies of the family, 15 valid omalogyrid species were previously recognised in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. To these, we add 3 new species based on a morphological analysis of material in the dry collection of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, applying light and scanning electron microscopies. The new species, Ammonicera mcleani, A. mexicana and A. sleursi, are the first omalogyrid species described from the Eastern Pacific coast of North America. Redescriptions of the Australian omalogyrids Ammonicera sucina (Laseron, 1954) and Omalogyra liliputia (Laseron, 1954) are also presented, detailing for the first time ultrastructural aspects of their shell morphology. Additionally, we present here the first record of Ammonicera binodosa Sleurs, 1985b in Sri Lanka, introduce the new combination Ammonicera vangoethemi (Sleurs, 1985c) for Omalogyra vangoethemi, and formally remove Transomalogyra Palazzi & Gaglini, 1979 from Omalogyridae by fixing its type species as Homalogyra densicostata Jeffreys, 1884. Finally, we present lists, geographic records and a bibliography of all currently recognised omalogyrid species in the Indian, Pacific and Antarctic Oceans, as well as an update to a previously published compilation of the Atlantic and Mediterranean representatives of the family. PMID:25544067

  18. Recent advances in understanding Colombian mangroves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polanía, J.; Urrego, L. E.; Agudelo, C. M.

    2015-02-01

    Throughout the last 15 years, researchers at the National University of Colombia at Medellin have studied Colombian mangroves. Remote sensing, pollen analysis of superficial and deep sediments, Holocene coastal vegetation dynamics, sediment dating using 14C and 210Pb, sampling in temporary plots, sampling in temporary and permanent plots, and other techniques have been applied to elucidate long- and short-term mangrove community dynamics. The studied root fouling community is structured by several regulatory mechanisms; habitat heterogeneity increases species richness and abundance. Fringe mangroves were related to Ca concentration in the soil and the increased dominance of Laguncularia racemosa and other nonmangrove tree species, while the riverine mangroves were associated with Mg concentration and the dominance of Rhizophora mangle. The seedling and mangrove tree distributions are determined by a complex gradient of natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Mangrove pollen from surface sediments and the existing vegetation and geomorphology are close interrelated. Plant pollen of mangrove and salt marsh reflects environmental and disturbance conditions, and also reveals forest types. Forest dynamics in both coasts and their sensitivity of to anthropogenic processes are well documented in the Late Quaternary fossil record. Our studies of short and long term allow us to predict the dynamics of mangroves under different scenarios of climate change and anthropogenic stress factors that are operating in Colombian coasts. Future research arises from these results on mangrove forests dynamics, sea-level rise at a fine scale using palynology, conservation biology, and carbon dynamics.

  19. Colombian export oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, K. ); Enright, B. )

    1989-06-01

    The authors discuss how bringing crude oil to market often requires extraordinary determination and effort to overcome the obstacles of terrain and time. They describe a pipeline project on a 53-week suicide schedule to get oil across the Colombian Andes. After confronting setbacks, they completed a job that included 304 miles of pipeline, 497 miles of telecommunications and a major offshore terminal in only 47 weeks.

  20. Neothalassius, a new genus of Parathalassiinae (Diptera: Dolichopodidae s.lat.) from the Pacific coast of South America.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Scott E; Cumming, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    A new genus, Neothalassius gen. nov., and two new species, Neothalassius triton sp. nov. and Neothalassius villosus sp. nov., are described from rocky shorelines along the Pacific seacoast of South America. The phylogenetic placement of Neothalassius within the subfamily Parathalassiinae is discussed. PMID:27395554

  1. Changes in abundance and composition of anthropogenic marine debris on the continental slope off the Pacific coast of northern Japan, after the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tomoaki; Shibata, Haruka

    2015-06-15

    Abundance and composition of anthropogenic marine debris were assessed on the basis of six bottom trawl surveys conducted on the continental slope off Iwate Prefecture, Pacific coast of northern Japan, in 2003, 2004 and 2011, and the temporal changes due to the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 evaluated. In 2003 and 2004, 54-94 items km(-2) of marine debris, dominated by sea-base sourced items mainly comprising fishing gear and related items from adjacent fishing grounds on the continental shelf, were quantified. In the post-earthquake period, the density increased drastically to 233-332 items km(-2), due to an increase in land-base sourced items generated by the tsunami. However, a major increase in abundance after the disaster, compared to the total amount of tsunami debris swept into the sea, was not found. Additional sources of land-based debris from the adjacent continental shelf are suggested in the present waters. PMID:25921637

  2. Cyathura odaliscae, a new species of anthurid isopod (Crustacea: Peracarida) from a brackish habitat on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Heard, Richard W; Vargas, Rita

    2015-01-01

    During a preliminary survey of a brackish mangrove habitat in the Terraba River delta on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, several adult and subadult specimens of a new anthurid isopod, Cyathura odaliscae n. sp. were discovered. The specimens were collected from decaying wood in low salinity conditions (<5‰). The unique shape and complexity of the male copulatory stylet of C. odaliscae distinguishes it from the other 22 species for which males have been described. A combination of other characters (e.g., morphology of the mouth parts, body setation, shape of telson and first pereopod) is used to distinguish the female from the others within the genus. Illustrations of the known male copulatory stylets for the genus and a table listing diagnostic information, depth ranges, and general distribution for the 32 currently recognized species of Cyathura are provided.  PMID:25662134

  3. Extreme long-period ground motions locally amplified in the Kanto Basin, by recording data of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuno, S.; Yamanaka, H.; Midorikawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Hirata, N.; Miyake, H.; Koketsu, K.

    2013-12-01

    We evaluated long-period ground motions locally amplified in the Kanto Basin, during the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0). At first, in this study, we collected recording data of more than 1000 for the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake. As a result, the complex distributions of earthquake ground motions by PGA and PGV in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area were shown. Especially, the pseudo velocity responses for periods of 2 and 3 seconds in Kawasaki to Shinagawa, Tokyo and Odawara, Kanagawa have significantly large amplitudes of more than 100 cm/s. To comprehend the wave part in which ground motions for periods of 2 and 3 seconds were excited, we applied the time-frequency analysis to the seismic records in Shinagawa and Odawara. Ground motions in Shinagawa were dominated at periods of 1.5 to 3.5 seconds in the main phase. On the other hand, ground motions in Odawara were dominated at periods of 2 to 3 seconds in the main phase. In the Ashigara Valley (Odawara), the seismic records in the bed rock are obtained. Also, the S-wave velocity structure at the central area of the Ashigara Valley is already estimated by the previous study. Therefore, we evaluated the strong ground motion at the central area, using the multi-reflection method by the S-wave velocity structure. The velocity at the bed rock (Vs 2.8km/sec), which was calculated using the seismic records obtained on the surface at the central area, reproduced well the velocity observed in the bed rock. We concluded that the large velocity response for 2 and 3 seconds observed at the central area in Odawara is caused by the local site effect excited in the deep sedimentary basin.

  4. A new genus of mellitid sand dollar (Echinoidea: Mellitidae) from the eastern Pacific coast of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Coppard, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    Lanthonia gen. nov. Coppard 2016 is a genus of clypeasteroid sand dollar whose members inhabit shallow, sandy waters from Mexico (including the Gulf of California) to Colombia in the tropical and subtropical eastern Pacific. Lanthonia includes Lanthonia longifissa (Michelin, 1858) and Lanthonia grantii (Mortensen, 1948), with L. longifissa hereby designated as the type species. Both L. longifissa and L. grantii were previously placed in the genus Mellita (L. Agassiz, 1841). However, levels of genetic divergence between a lineage containing L. longifissa and L. grantii and a lineage containing all other species of Mellita, including the type species M. quinquiesperforata (Leske, 1778), indicate genus level differentiation. The systematic interpretation of this group also supports the designation of this new genus as it allows the tree topology to be recovered from the nomenclature and clarifies the historical biogeography of these clades. This has resulted in members of both lineages today being sympatric in the eastern Pacific. Members of Lanthonia are morphologically differentiated from the type species of Mellita and all Pacific Mellita in having very narrow ambulacral regions between the food grooves and the ambulacral lunules on the oral surface, these being very broad in both M. quinquiesperforata and M. notabilis. The dentation of the bidentate pedicellariae also differentiate these genera, with small peripheral teeth present along the edge of the blade in species of Lanthonia and one to three enlarged intersecting teeth present distally in all species of Mellita. PMID:27394905

  5. Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 infection (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in Pygmy Sperm Whale Kogia breviceps Blainville, 1838 from west Pacific region off the coast of Philippine archipelago.

    PubMed

    Quiazon, Karl Marx A

    2016-09-01

    Cetaceans are definitive hosts of anisakid nematodes known to cause human anisakidosis. Despite the reported strandings of different cetaceans in the Philippines, studies on anisakids from these definitive hosts are limited. Here, the morphologically and molecularly identified anisakid species, specifically those of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 in stranded Pygmy Sperm Whale Kogia breviceps Blainville, 1838 in the west Pacific region off Philippine waters are presented. Morphological data using SEM and LM revealed multi-infections with different Anisakis species belonging to Anisakis type I and type II groups. Molecularly, PCR-RFLP on the ITS rDNA and sequence data analyses of both ITS rDNA and mtDNA cox2 regions identified those from Anisakis type I group as A. typica (Diesing, 1860), whereas those from type II group as A. brevispiculata Dollfus, 1968, and A. paggiae Mattiucci et al. (Syst Parasitol 61:157-171, 2005). This is the first record of Anisakis infection from this host stranded in the west Pacific region off the coast of Philippine waters and new geographical record for A. paggiae. PMID:27300704

  6. Health risk assessment from mercury levels in bycatch fish species from the coasts of Guerrero, Mexico (Eastern Pacific).

    PubMed

    Spanopoulos-Zarco, P; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Meza-Montenegro, M; Osuna-Sánchez, K; Amezcua-Martínez, F

    2014-09-01

    With the aim of determining Hg distribution in muscle and liver of bycatch fish from Guerrero state in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and assess the potential risk to consumer, Hg was quantified in 14 species of bycatch fish. For the majority of fish the order of Hg levels was liver > muscle. The highest concentration corresponded to the liver of Isopisthus remifer (2.05 µg g(-1)) and the lowest (0.02 µg g(-1)) was detected in muscle of Prionotus sp. The highest hazard quotient (0.75) was found in the Mexican milkfish Micropogonias ectenes; considering all the individuals, mean hazard quotient was 0.336. PMID:24902649

  7. Phylogeographic structure in benthic marine invertebrates of the southeast Pacific coast of Chile with differing dispersal potential.

    PubMed

    Haye, Pilar A; Segovia, Nicolás I; Muñoz-Herrera, Natalia C; Gálvez, Francisca E; Martínez, Andrea; Meynard, Andrés; Pardo-Gandarillas, María C; Poulin, Elie; Faugeron, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    The role of dispersal potential on phylogeographic structure, evidenced by the degree of genetic structure and the presence of coincident genetic and biogeographic breaks, was evaluated in a macrogeographic comparative approach along the north-central coast of Chile, across the biogeographic transition zone at 30°S. Using 2,217 partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene of eight benthic invertebrate species along ca. 2,600 km of coast, we contrasted dispersal potential with genetic structure and determined the concordance between genetic divergence between biogeographic regions and the biogeographic transition zone at 30°S. Genetic diversity and differentiation highly differed between species with high and low dispersal potential. Dispersal potential, sometimes together with biogeographic region, was the factor that best explained the genetic structure of the eight species. The three low dispersal species, and one species assigned to the high dispersal category, had a phylogeographic discontinuity coincident with the biogeographic transition zone at 30°S. Furthermore, coalescent analyses based on the isolation-with-migration model validate that the split between biogeographic regions north and south of 30°S has a historic origin. The signatures of the historic break in high dispersers is parsimoniously explained by the homogenizing effects of gene flow that have erased the genetic signatures, if ever existed, in high dispersers. Of the four species with structure across the break, only two had significant albeit very low levels of asymmetric migration across the transition zone. Historic processes have led to the current biogeographic and phylogeographic structure of marine species with limited dispersal along the north-central coast of Chile, with a strong lasting impact in their genetic structure. PMID:24586356

  8. Phylogeographic Structure in Benthic Marine Invertebrates of the Southeast Pacific Coast of Chile with Differing Dispersal Potential

    PubMed Central

    Haye, Pilar A.; Segovia, Nicolás I.; Muñoz-Herrera, Natalia C.; Gálvez, Francisca E.; Martínez, Andrea; Meynard, Andrés; Pardo-Gandarillas, María C.; Poulin, Elie; Faugeron, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    The role of dispersal potential on phylogeographic structure, evidenced by the degree of genetic structure and the presence of coincident genetic and biogeographic breaks, was evaluated in a macrogeographic comparative approach along the north-central coast of Chile, across the biogeographic transition zone at 30°S. Using 2,217 partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene of eight benthic invertebrate species along ca. 2,600 km of coast, we contrasted dispersal potential with genetic structure and determined the concordance between genetic divergence between biogeographic regions and the biogeographic transition zone at 30°S. Genetic diversity and differentiation highly differed between species with high and low dispersal potential. Dispersal potential, sometimes together with biogeographic region, was the factor that best explained the genetic structure of the eight species. The three low dispersal species, and one species assigned to the high dispersal category, had a phylogeographic discontinuity coincident with the biogeographic transition zone at 30°S. Furthermore, coalescent analyses based on the isolation-with-migration model validate that the split between biogeographic regions north and south of 30°S has a historic origin. The signatures of the historic break in high dispersers is parsimoniously explained by the homogenizing effects of gene flow that have erased the genetic signatures, if ever existed, in high dispersers. Of the four species with structure across the break, only two had significant albeit very low levels of asymmetric migration across the transition zone. Historic processes have led to the current biogeographic and phylogeographic structure of marine species with limited dispersal along the north-central coast of Chile, with a strong lasting impact in their genetic structure. PMID:24586356

  9. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Sandra; Sage, Kevin; Rearick, Jolene; Fowler, Megan C.; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alehandro; Ward, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128–0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation.

  10. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K; Rearick, Jolene R.; Fowler, Meg C.; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro; Ward, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128–0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation. PMID:27104836

  11. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Sandra L; Sage, George K; Rearick, Jolene R; Fowler, Meg C; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro; Ward, David H

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128-0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation. PMID:27104836

  12. Molecular identification of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium larvae in marine fishes from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qingming; Fan, Lanfen; Zhang, Junhe; Akao, Nobuaki; Dong, Kewei; Lou, Di; Ding, Jianzu; Tong, Qunbo; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Rui; Ohta, Nobuo; Lu, Shaohong

    2015-04-16

    Anisakiasis is a human disease caused by the accidental ingestion of larvae belonging to the family Anisakidae. Three fish species, the small yellow croaker Pseudosciaena polyactis, the mackerel Pneumatophorus japonicus and the hairtail Trichiurus haumela are important source for food products in the East China Sea. The prevalence and the identification of Anisakidae larvae in these fishes will benefit the prevention and control of anisakiasis. In this study, fish samples were obtained from fish markers in the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan during April 2011 and July 2013. For species identification, the PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the entire ITS region (ITS1, 5.8 S and ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed. In total, 2004 larvae were collected from 80 hairtail fish, 20 small yellow croaker, and 27 mackerel from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan. High prevalence of Anisakidae larvae infection (116/122, 95.1%) was detected in the East China Sea. Seven species were identified belonging to the genera Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Anisakis pegreffii was the predominant species accounting for 84.8% of all larvae examined in East China Sea, while all Anisakidae larvae isolated from Japan were identified as Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.). In the East China Sea, A. simplex s.s. and Anisakis typica were 0.6% (4/619) and 1.5% (9/619) of the identified nematodes, respectively. Interestingly, one larva was identified as a recombinant genotype of A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii. In addition, four species of the genus Hysterothylacium, namely, Hysterothylacium amoyense (31/619, 5.0%), Hysterothylacium aduncum (10/619, 1.6%), Hysterothylacium fabri (21/619, 3.4%) and Hysterothylacium spp. (18/619, 2.9%) were also identified in the present study. This is a comprehensive epidemiological dataset for the family Anisakidae in

  13. Effect of temperature on growth and paralytic toxin profiles in isolates of Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Band-Schmidt, Christine J; Bustillos-Guzmán, José J; Hernández-Sandoval, Francisco E; Núñez-Vázquez, Erick J; López-Cortés, David J

    2014-11-01

    The effects of temperature on growth, cell toxicity, toxin content, and profile of paralytic shellfish toxins was determined in eight isolates of Gymnodinium catenatum from several localities along the Pacific Coast of Mexico. The isolates were cultivated in modified f/2 media with Se (10(-8) M), and a reduced concentration of Cu (10(-8) M), under a 12 h:12 h day-night cycle with an irradiance of 150 μE m(-2) s(-1). Isolates were progressively adapted for three generations to each of the temperatures (16, 19, 22, 24, 27, 30, and 33 °C). The cultures were grown in 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks with 60 mL of media and harvested by filtration in late exponential growth. Toxins were analyzed by HPLC with a post-column oxidation and fluorescent detection (FLD). G. catenatum isolates tolerate temperatures between 16 and 33 °C, with maximum growth rates of 0.32 and 0.39 div day(-1) at 21 °C and 24 °C, respectively; maximum cell densities of 4700 and 5500 cells mL(-1) were obtained at 27 and 21 °C, respectively. No effect of toxicity per cell with temperature was observed, varying between 10.10 and 28.19 pgSXTeq cell(-1). Ten saxitoxin analogues were detected in all isolates, observing changes in the toxin profile with temperature. C1/2 toxins decreased from 80% mol at 16 °C to 20% mol at 33 °C, B1/2 toxins increased from 19% mol at 16 °C to 42% mol at 33 °C, and decarbamoyl toxins were more abundant at 21 °C. These results show that G. catenatum isolates from different regions of the Pacific coast of Mexico have a similar response to temperature and that this parameter can modify growth rate, cell density, and toxin profile of the species, particularly the decarbamoyl and sulfocarbamoyl toxins. PMID:25151371

  14. A pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 clone causing most associated diarrhea cases in the Pacific Northwest coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    de Jesús Hernández-Díaz, Lucio; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; Flores-Villaseñor, Héctor; Guadron-Llanos, Alma M.; Martinez-Garcia, J. Javier; Vidal, Jorge E.; Canizalez-Roman, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Between September and October of 2004, more than 1230 cases of gastroenteritis due to pandemic O3:K6 strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) were reported in the relatively small geographical area of Southern Sinaloa, a state located in Northwest Mexico. Since then, V. parahaemolyticus-associated gastroenteritis cases have gradually increased in prevalence spreading from south to north. The present study conducted an epidemiological surveillance of V. parahaemolyticus strains in both environmental and clinical samples along the Pacific coast of Sinaloa from 2011 to 2013. The genetic relatedness, serotype dominance and antibiotic resistance of isolates were investigated. A total of 46 strains were isolated from environmental samples (e.g., sediment, seawater and shrimp), whereas 249 strains were obtained from stools of patients with gastroenteritis. Nine different O serogroups and 16 serovars were identified. Serovars O3:K6 and O6:K46 were identified in both environmental and clinical strains. Whereas most environmental isolates carried the tdh gene (71.74%, 33/46), only three (6.52%) belonged to pandemic clones (O3:K6, O3:KUT and OUT:KUT). In contrast, 81.1% (202/249) of clinical isolates belonged to pandemic serotypes, with O3:K6 (tdh, toxRS/new, and/or orf8) representing the predominant serovar (97%, 196/202). This prevalence of pathogenic (tdh and/or trh positive) and O3:K6 pandemic V. parahaemolyticus isolates in this study were similar to those found from 2004 to 2010. As investigated by REP-PCR, genetic lineages of selected O3:K6 strains isolated in this study and some isolated earlier were nearly identical. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that most strains (93.8%) were resistant to ampicillin but sensitive to chloramphenicol (98.8%). Multidrug resistance significantly increased from 8.6% (2004–2010) to 22.93% (2011–2013; p < 0.05). Our data indicate that pandemic O3:K6 clone has endemically established in the Pacific Coast of

  15. A trans-Pacific Asian dust episode and its impacts to air quality in the east coast of U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yonghua; Han, Zaw; Nazmi, Chowdhury; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred

    2015-04-01

    The transport of an intense trans-Pacific Asian dust episode to the Northeast United States (U.S.) is studied using a synergistic suite of observations and models including a ground-based lidar, AERONET-sunphotometer, satellite measurements and global aerosol transport model for New York City (40.821°N, 73.949°W). During the dust intrusion on March 17-19, 2010, the multi-wavelength lidar observations indicate dense dust plumes (∼80% of total column AOD) located between 3 and 9 km altitudes with the lower layer mixing toward the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The column AOD shows a significant increase from 0.08 to 0.38 at 532-nm while the Angstrom exponent indicates a decrease from 1.3 to 0.7. The linear particle depolarization ratio is estimated to be 0.1-0.15 and the single-scattering-albedo shows the dust-like spectral dependence with the value of 0.9-0.95 at 440-nm. The NOAA-NCEP reanalysis and HYSPLIT model indicate that this long-range transport is driven by the strong western jets and travels for 6 days to arrive the U.S. east coast versus the western and northern U.S. Both the NAAPS aerosol transport model and satellite CALIPSO observations for multiple orbits clearly illustrate the dust-dominated aerosol along the transport path. In addition, coincident increase of both particulate matter (PM) and fine soil concentrations indicate the potential impact of transported dust on the air quality that is found to be associated with a large area of sinking air along the U.S. east coast.

  16. Scorched mussels (BIVALVIA: MYTILIDAE: BRACHIDONTINAE) from the temperate coasts of South America: phylogenetic relationships, trans-Pacific connections and the footprints of Quaternary glaciations.

    PubMed

    Trovant, Berenice; Orensanz, J M Lobo; Ruzzante, Daniel E; Stotz, Wolfgang; Basso, Néstor G

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses aspects of the phylogeny and phylogeography of scorched mussels (BIVALVIA: MYTILIDAE: BRACHIDONTINAE) from southern South America (Argentina and Chile), as well as their ecophylogenetic implications. Relationships were inferred from sequences of two nuclear (28S and 18S) and one mitochondrial (COI) genes, using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. Our results indicate that the monophyletic BRACHIDONTINAE include three well supported clades: [i] Brachidontes Swainson (=Hormomya Mörch), [ii] Ischadium Jukes-Browne+Geukensia van de Poel, and [iii] Austromytilus Laseron+Mytilisepta Habe (usually considered a member of the SEPTIFERINAE)+Perumytilus Olsson. Species of clade [iii] are distributed along the temperate coasts of the Pacific Ocean. Available evidence supports divergence between Austromytilus (Australia) and Perumytilus (South American) following the breakup of Australian, Antarctic and South American shelves. Four brachidontins occur in southern South America: Brachidontes rodriguezii (d'Orbigny), B. granulatus (Hanley), and two genetically distinct clades of Perumytilus. The latter are confined to the Chile-Peru (North Clade) and Magellanic (South Clade) Biogeographic Provinces, respectively warm- and cold-temperate. The South Clade is the only brachidontin restricted to cold-temperate waters. Biogeographic considerations and the fossil record prompted the hypothesis that the South Clade originated from the North Clade by incipient peripatric differentiation, followed by isolation during the Quaternary glaciations, genetic differentiation in the non-glaciated coasts of eastern Patagonia, back-expansion over southern Chile following post-LGM de-glaciation, and development of a secondary contact zone between the two clades in south-central Chile. Evidence of upper Pleistocene expansion of the South Clade parallels similar results on other organisms that have colonized coastal ecosystems from eastern Patagonia since the LGM

  17. Spatial and temporal trends in brominated flame retardants in seabirds from the Pacific coast of Canada.

    PubMed

    Miller, Aroha; Elliott, John E; Elliott, Kyle H; Guigueno, Mélanie F; Wilson, Laurie K; Lee, Sandi; Idrissi, Abde

    2014-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) are bioaccumulative flame retardants. PBDEs increased in many ecosystems during the late 20th century, but recently have declined in some environments. To examine trends in the northern Pacific, we analysed PBDEs, HBCDD and carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) to account for dietary effects in archived eggs of three seabird species from British Columbia, Canada, 1990-2011 (rhinoceros auklets, Cerorhinca monocerata; Leach's storm-petrels, Oceanodroma leucorhoa; ancient murrelets, Synthliboramphus antiquus, 2009 only). PBDEs increased until approximately 2000 and then decreased, while HBCDD increased exponentially throughout the examined period. No significant changes in dietary tracers were observed. HBCDD and ΣPBDE levels varied among species; ΣPBDE also varied among sites. Temporal changes in contaminant concentrations are unlikely to have been caused by dietary changes, and likely reflect the build-up followed by decreases associated with voluntary phase-outs and regulations implemented in North America to control PBDEs. PMID:25194271

  18. Piscine Reovirus: Genomic and Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis from Farmed and Wild Salmonids Collected on the Canada/US Pacific Coast

    PubMed Central

    Siah, Ahmed; Morrison, Diane B.; Fringuelli, Elena; Savage, Paul; Richmond, Zina; Johns, Robert; Purcell, Maureen K.; Johnson, Stewart C.; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Piscine reovirus (PRV) is a double stranded non-enveloped RNA virus detected in farmed and wild salmonids. This study examined the phylogenetic relationships among different PRV sequence types present in samples from salmonids in Western Canada and the US, including Alaska (US), British Columbia (Canada) and Washington State (US). Tissues testing positive for PRV were partially sequenced for segment S1, producing 71 sequences that grouped into 10 unique sequence types. Sequence analysis revealed no identifiable geographical or temporal variation among the sequence types. Identical sequence types were found in fish sampled in 2001, 2005 and 2014. In addition, PRV positive samples from fish derived from Alaska, British Columbia and Washington State share identical sequence types. Comparative analysis of the phylogenetic tree indicated that Canada/US Pacific Northwest sequences formed a subgroup with some Norwegian sequence types (group II), distinct from other Norwegian and Chilean sequences (groups I, III and IV). Representative PRV positive samples from farmed and wild fish in British Columbia and Washington State were subjected to genome sequencing using next generation sequencing methods. Individual analysis of each of the 10 partial segments indicated that the Canadian and US PRV sequence types clustered separately from available whole genome sequences of some Norwegian and Chilean sequences for all segments except the segment S4. In summary, PRV was genetically homogenous over a large geographic distance (Alaska to Washington State), and the sequence types were relatively stable over a 13 year period. PMID:26536673

  19. Piscine reovirus: Genomic and molecular phylogenetic analysis from farmed and wild salmonids collected on the Canada/US Pacific Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siah, Ahmed; Morrison, Diane B.; Fringuelli, Elena; Savage, Paul S.; Richmond, Zina; Purcell, Maureen K.; Johns, Robert; Johnson, Stewart C.; Sakasida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Piscine reovirus (PRV) is a double stranded non-enveloped RNA virus detected in farmed and wild salmonids. This study examined the phylogenetic relationships among different PRV sequence types present in samples from salmonids in Western Canada and the US, including Alaska (US), British Columbia (Canada) and Washington State (US). Tissues testing positive for PRV were partially sequenced for segment S1, producing 71 sequences that grouped into 10 unique sequence types. Sequence analysis revealed no identifiable geographical or temporal variation among the sequence types. Identical sequence types were found in fish sampled in 2001, 2005 and 2014. In addition, PRV positive samples from fish derived from Alaska, British Columbia and Washington State share identical sequence types. Comparative analysis of the phylogenetic tree indicated that Canada/US Pacific Northwest sequences formed a subgroup with some Norwegian sequence types (group II), distinct from other Norwegian and Chilean sequences (groups I, III and IV). Representative PRV positive samples from farmed and wild fish in British Columbia and Washington State were subjected to genome sequencing using next generation sequencing methods. Individual analysis of each of the 10 partial segments indicated that the Canadian and US PRV sequence types clustered separately from available whole genome sequences of some Norwegian and Chilean sequences for all segments except the segment S4. In summary, PRV was genetically homogenous over a large geographic distance (Alaska to Washington State), and the sequence types were relatively stable over a 13 year period.

  20. The evolutionary history of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) along the US Pacific Coast: Developing a conservation strategy using genetic diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in genetic variation across a species range may indicate patterns of population structure resulting from past ecological and demographic events that are otherwise difficult to infer and thus provide insight into evolutionary development. Genetic data is used, drawn from 11 microsatellite loci amplified from anadromous steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sampled throughout its range in the eastern Pacific Ocean, to explore population structure at the southern edge in California. Steelhead populations in this region represent less than 10% of their reported historic abundance and survive in very small populations found in fragmented habitats. Genetic data derived from three independent molecular systems (allozymes, mtDNA, and microsatellites) have shown that the southernmost populations are characterized by a relatively high genetic diversity. Two hypothetical models supporting genetic population substructure such as observed were considered: (1) range expansion with founder-flush effects and subsequent population decline; (2) a second Pleistocene radiation from the Gulf of California. Using genetic and climatic data, a second Pleistocene refugium contributing to a southern ecotone seems more feasible. These data support strong conservation measures based on genetic diversity be developed to ensure the survival of this uniquely diverse gene pool.

  1. Rapid Source Characterization of the 2011 Mw 9.0 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Gavin P.

    2011-01-01

    On March 11th, 2011, a moment magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck off the coast of northeast Honshu, Japan, generating what may well turn out to be the most costly natural disaster ever. In the hours following the event, the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center led a rapid response to characterize the earthquake in terms of its location, size, faulting source, shaking and slip distributions, and population exposure, in order to place the disaster in a framework necessary for timely humanitarian response. As part of this effort, fast finite-fault inversions using globally distributed body- and surface-wave data were used to estimate the slip distribution of the earthquake rupture. Models generated within 7 hours of the earthquake origin time indicated that the event ruptured a fault up to 300 km long, roughly centered on the earthquake hypocenter, and involved peak slips of 20 m or more. Updates since this preliminary solution improve the details of this inversion solution and thus our understanding of the rupture process. However, significant observations such as the up-dip nature of rupture propagation and the along-strike length of faulting did not significantly change, demonstrating the usefulness of rapid source characterization for understanding the first order characteristics of major earthquakes.

  2. Re-Evaluating the Geological Evidence for Late Holocene Marine Incursion Events along the Guerrero Seismic Gap on the Pacific Coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bianchette, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of tsunamis that impact Mexico’s Pacific coast, stratigraphic studies focusing on geological impacts are scanty, making it difficult to assess the long-term risks for this vulnerable region. Surface samples and six cores were taken from Laguna Mitla near Acapulco to examine sedimentological and geochemical evidence for marine incursion events. Sediment cores collected from behind the beach barrier are dominated by intercalated layers of peat and inorganic sediments, mostly silt and clay, with little or no sand. Sand- and shell-rich clastic layers with high levels of sulfur, calcium, and strontium only occur adjacent to the relict beach ridge remnants near the center of the lagoon. With the exception of one thin fine sand layer, the absence of sand in the near-shore cores and the predominance of the terrigenous element titanium in the inorganic layers, evidently eroded from the surrounding hillslopes, suggests that these large-grained intervals do not represent episodic marine incursions, but rather were likely formed by the erosion and redeposition of older marine deposits derived from the beach ridge remnants when water levels were high. These results do not support the occurrence of a large tsunami event at Laguna Mitla during the Late Holocene. PMID:27571270

  3. Further investigations of geomagnetic diurnal variations associated with the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Peng; Hattori, Katsumi; Xu, Guangjing; Ashida, Ryo; Chen, Chieh-Hung; Febriani, Febty; Yamaguchi, Hiroki

    2015-12-01

    As one of the most promising candidates for short-term earthquake forecasting, the seismo-electromagnetic phenomena have been intensively studied for several decades. Recently, Xu et al. (2013) have reported unusual behaviors of geomagnetic diurnal variations in the vertical component prior to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0). To validate this result, further investigations have been applied in this study. Geomagnetic data of 16 years' long term observation have been analyzed using the same method in Xu et al. (2013). Ratios of diurnal variation range between the target station Esashi (ESA) which is about 130 km from the epicenter and the remote reference station Kakioka (KAK) about 300 km distant to the epicenter have been computed. After removing seasonal variations revealed by wavelet transform analysis, the 15-day mean values of the ratios in the vertical component shows a clear anomaly exceeding the statistical threshold about 2 months before the mega event. This anomaly is unique over a 16-year long background, and further discussions indicate that this anomaly is unlikely caused by strong geomagnetic storms or a statistical fluke. Therefore, this study has provided a strong support to the previous results in Xu et al. (2013).

  4. Re-Evaluating the Geological Evidence for Late Holocene Marine Incursion Events along the Guerrero Seismic Gap on the Pacific Coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bianchette, Thomas A; McCloskey, Terrence A; Liu, Kam-Biu

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of tsunamis that impact Mexico's Pacific coast, stratigraphic studies focusing on geological impacts are scanty, making it difficult to assess the long-term risks for this vulnerable region. Surface samples and six cores were taken from Laguna Mitla near Acapulco to examine sedimentological and geochemical evidence for marine incursion events. Sediment cores collected from behind the beach barrier are dominated by intercalated layers of peat and inorganic sediments, mostly silt and clay, with little or no sand. Sand- and shell-rich clastic layers with high levels of sulfur, calcium, and strontium only occur adjacent to the relict beach ridge remnants near the center of the lagoon. With the exception of one thin fine sand layer, the absence of sand in the near-shore cores and the predominance of the terrigenous element titanium in the inorganic layers, evidently eroded from the surrounding hillslopes, suggests that these large-grained intervals do not represent episodic marine incursions, but rather were likely formed by the erosion and redeposition of older marine deposits derived from the beach ridge remnants when water levels were high. These results do not support the occurrence of a large tsunami event at Laguna Mitla during the Late Holocene. PMID:27571270

  5. Reproductive traits of the symbiotic pea crab Austinotheres angelicus (Crustacea, Pinnotheridae) living in Saccostrea palmula (Bivalvia, Ostreidae), Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Moya, Carolina; Mena, Sebastián; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pea crabs of the family Pinnotheridae exhibit a symbiotic life style and live associated with a variety of different marine organisms, especially bivalves. Despite the fact that pea crabs can cause serious problems in bivalve aquaculture, the available information about the ecology of these crabs from Central America is extremely limited. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe different reproductive features of the pinnotherid crab Austinotheres angelicus associated with the oyster Saccostrea palmula in the Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Monthly sampling was conducted from April to December 2012. Average carapace width (CW) of the 47 analyzed ovigerous females was 7.62 mm. The species produced on average 2677 ± 1754 recently -extruded embryos with an average volume of 0.020 ± 0.003 mm3; embryo volume increased during embryogenesis by 21%, but did not vary significantly between developmental stages. Brood mass volume varied greatly (between 11.7 and 236.7 mm3), and increased significantly with female CW. Females invested on average 76.7% (minimum: 21.7%; maximum: 162.8%) of their body weight in brood production, which confirms a substantially higher energy allocation for embryo production in pinnotherid crabs compared to free-living decapods. PMID:25561840

  6. Population subdivision of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Japan detected by means of mitochondrial phylogenetic information.

    PubMed

    Shigenobu, Yuya; Yoneda, Michio; Kurita, Yutaka; Ambe, Daisuke; Saitoh, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with mitochondrial phylogenetic information of Japanese flounder in the Pacific coast of Tohoku Japan to estimate the genetic population subdivision that was undetectable by conventional population statistics. We determined complete sequences of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit-2 (ND2) and subunit-5 (ND5) genes for 151 individuals from northern (Aomori and Iwate prefectures, 40-41°N) and southern (Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, 37-38°N) waters. Samples from both waters showed high genetic diversity, including 126 haplotypes. These haplotypes were located at mixed and nested positions on an inferred phylogenetic tree, and traditional F-statistics indicated no significant population divergence (φ(ST) = -0.00335, p > 0.05), corroborating our previous study. Three variable sites, however, showed significant base composition heterogeneity between samples from the northern and southern waters (Fisher's exact-test, p < 0.01). Nucleotide substitutions at the three sites converged on an apical clade, which consisted of the five southern individuals, whereas its sister clade consisted only of the three northern individuals. This phylogenetic information corroborates previous ecological studies indicating the presence of separate stocks in the northern and southern waters. PMID:23296272

  7. Application of the positive matrix factorization approach to identify heavy metal sources in sediments. A case study on the Mexican Pacific Coast.

    PubMed

    González-Macías, C; Sánchez-Reyna, G; Salazar-Coria, L; Schifter, I

    2014-01-01

    During the last two decades, sediments collected in different sources of water bodies of the Tehuantepec Basin, located in the southeast of the Mexican Pacific Coast, showed that concentrations of heavy metals may pose a risk to the environment and human health. The extractable organic matter, geoaccumulation index, and enrichment factors were quantified for arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel, lead, vanadium, zinc, and the fine-grained sediment fraction. The non-parametric SiZer method was applied to assess the statistical significance of the reconstructed metal variation along time. This inference method appears to be particularly natural and well suited to temperature and other environmental reconstructions. In this approach, a collection of smooth of the reconstructed metal concentrations is considered simultaneously, and inferences about the significance of the metal trends can be made with respect to time. Hence, the database represents a consolidated set of available and validated water and sediment data of an urban industrialized area, which is very useful as case study site. The positive matrix factorization approach was used in identification and source apportionment of the anthropogenic heavy metals in the sediments. Regionally, metals and organic matter are depleted relative to crustal abundance in a range of 45-55 %, while there is an inorganic enrichment from lithogenous/anthropogenic sources of around 40 %. Only extractable organic matter, Pb, As, and Cd can be related with non-crustal sources, suggesting that additional input cannot be explained by local runoff or erosion processes. PMID:23974534

  8. Anomalous behaviors of geomagnetic diurnal variations prior to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guangjing; Han, Peng; Huang, Qinghua; Hattori, Katsumi; Febriani, Febty; Yamaguchi, Hiroki

    2013-11-01

    There have been many reports on ultra-low-frequency (ULF) electromagnetic phenomena associated with earthquakes in a very wide frequency range. In this study, unusual behaviors of geomagnetic diurnal variations prior to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0) have been reported. Ratios of diurnal variation range between the target station Esashi (ESA) which is about 135 km from the epicenter and the remote reference station Kakioka (KAK) about 302 km distant to the epicenter have been computed. The results of 10-day running mean of the ratios showed a clear anomaly exceeding the statistical threshold in the vertical component about 2 months before the mega event. This anomaly is unique over a 3-year background, and the further stochastic test indicates that this anomaly is unlikely a random anomaly, which is highly suggestive of correlation with the mega event. The original records of geomagnetic fields of the ESA station also exhibit continuous anomalous behaviors for about 10 days in the vertical component approximate 2 months prior to the Mw9.0 earthquake.

  9. Anomalous behaviors of geomagnetic diurnal variations prior to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, P.; Hattori, K.; Huang, Q.; Xu, G.

    2013-12-01

    There have been many reports on ultra-low-frequency (ULF) electromagnetic phenomena associated with earthquakes in a very wide frequency range. In this study, unusual behaviors of geomagnetic diurnal variations prior to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0) have been reported. Ratios of diurnal variation range between the target station Esashi (ESA) which is about 135 km from the epicenter and the remote reference station Kakioka (KAK) about 302 km distant to the epicenter have been computed. The results of 10-day running mean of the ratios showed a clear anomaly exceeding the statistical threshold in the vertical component about 2 months before the mega event. This anomaly is unique over a three-year background, and the further statistical test indicates that this anomaly is unlikely a random anomaly, which is highly suggestive of correlation with the mega event. The original records of geomagnetic fields of the ESA station also exhibits continuous anomalous behaviors for about 10 days in the vertical component approximate two months prior to the Mw 9.0 earthquake.

  10. Currents off the east coast of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea, and their relevance to regional undercurrents in the Western Equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butt, Jeff; Lindstrom, Eric

    1994-06-01

    In the Western Equatorial Pacific Ocean a coastal undercurrent lying within 40 km of the east coast of New Ireland was in May 1988 found to be transporting high-salinity, low dissolved oxygen, high-nutrient thermocline waters northwestwards towards the equator. Acoustic doppler current profiler measurements showed the peak alongshore current speeds of approximately 60 cm s-1 occurred at 235 m depth and the volume transport between the 24.5 and 26.5 kg m3 isopycnals (approximately 176 to 320 m) was 2.0±0.1×106 m3 s-1. We suggest that this current be called the New Ireland Coastal Undercurrent (NICU). Just to the east of 149°E, the NICU was diverted to the north and forced to interact with the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC). Transport budgets in the region bounded by 149°E, 153°E, 2°S and the equator, between the 24.5 and 26.5 kg m-3 isopycnals show that approximately 5×106 m3 s-1 of water originating from east of New Ireland, including the NICU was added to the EUC system. This accounted for approximately half of the southern hemisphere thermocline waters in the EUC system at 153°E.

  11. Is the nestedness of metazoan parasite assemblages of marine fishes from the southeastern Pacific coast a pattern associated with the geographical distributional range of the host?

    PubMed

    González, M T; Oliva, M E

    2009-04-01

    Nested structure is a pattern originally described in island biogeography to characterize how a set of species is distributed among a set of islands. In parasite communities, nestedness has been intensively studied among individual fish from a locality. However, nested patterns among parasite assemblages from different host populations (localities) have scarcely been investigated. We recorded the occurrence of parasites in 9 fish species widely distributed along the southeastern Pacific coast to determine whether the ecto- and endoparasite assemblages of marine fishes show a nested structure associated with host distributional range. Nestedness was tested using Brualdi-Sanderson index of discrepancy (BR); and 5 null models incorporated in a 'Nestedness' programme (Ulrich, 2006). The ecto- and endoparasite richness do not show similar patterns of latitudinal gradients among fish hosts, with 33-66% of analysed ectoparasite assemblages, and 25-75% of endoparasite assemblages showing nested structures through the host distributional range. For ectoparasites, species richness gradients and nested structure (when present) might be associated with decreased host densities or could reflect negative environmental conditions in the distributional border of the host species, whereas for endoparasites might be caused by geographical breaks of prey or changes in prey availability (intermediate hosts). The sampled extension of the distributional range of the host species, as well as the lack of specificity of some parasites, could influence the detection of nestedness. PMID:19195414

  12. Geochemistry of soils along a transect from Central Mexico to the Pacific Coast: a pilot study for continental-scale geochemical mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiprés, J.A.; de la Calleja, Alfredo; Tellez, J.I.; Jiménez, F.; Cruz, Carlos; Guerrero, E.G.; Castro, J.; Monroy, M.G.; Salinas, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mexican Geological Survey (SGM), the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics (INEGI) and the Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi (UASLP) have established a multidisciplinary team with the objective of creating a national program of geochemical mapping of soils in Mexico. This is being done as part of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project in partnership with the US Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada. As the first step, a pilot study was conducted over a transect that extends from the Mexico–US border near Ciudad Juarez in the north to the Pacific Ocean in the south. This pilot transect was conducted in two phases, and this paper presents results from the first phase, which sampled soils at about a 40-km spacing along a 730-km transect beginning in Central Mexico and ending at the Pacific Coast. Samples were collected from the A and C horizons at each site and 60 elements were analyzed. This pilot study demonstrates that geochemical mapping based on a 40-km spacing is adequate to identify broad-scale geochemical patterns. Geologic influence (i.e., soil parent material) was the most important factor influencing the distribution of elements along the transect, followed by the influence of regional mineralization. The study also showed that influence by human activities over the transect is minimal except possibly in large mining districts. A comparison of element abundance in the A horizon with the environmental soil guidelines in Mexico showed that the natural concentrations of the studied soils were lower than the established threshold for soil restoration with the exception of V and As. The former had a median value (75 mg/kg) approximately equal to the value established in Mexico for soil restoration in agricultural and residential lands (78 mg/kg), and the latter had three values higher than the 22 mg/kg threshold for soil restoration in agricultural and residential lands. These cases demonstrate

  13. The MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network) confronts the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake, Japan (Mw 9.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Nanjo, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Morita, Y.; Tsuruoka, H.; Kurashimo, E.; Obara, K.; Hirata, N.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.

    2011-12-01

    On April 2007, we have launched the special project for earthquake disaster mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area (Fiscal 2007-2011). As a part of this project, construction of the MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network) has been completed, with about 300 stations deployed at mainly elementary and junior-high schools with an interval of about 5 km in space. This results in a highly dense network that covers the metropolitan area. To achieve stable seismic observation with lower surface ground noise, relative to a measurement on the surface, sensors of all stations were installed in boreholes at a depth of about 20m. The sensors have a wide dynamic range (135dB) and a wide frequency band (DC to 80Hz). Data are digitized with 200Hz sampling and telemetered to the Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo. The MeSO-net that can detect and locate most earthquakes with magnitudes above 2.5 provides a unique baseline in scientific and engineering researches on the Tokyo metropolitan area, as follows. One of the main contributions is to greatly improve the image of the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) (Nakagawa et al., 2010) and provides an accurate estimation of the plate boundaries between the PSP and the Pacific plate, allowing us to possibly discuss clear understanding of the relation between the PSP deformation and M7+ intra-slab earthquake generation. Also, the latest version of the plate model in the metropolitan area, proposed by our project, attracts various researchers, comparing with highly-accurate solutions of fault mechanism, repeating earthquakes, etc. Moreover, long-periods ground motions generated by the 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) were observed by the MeSO-net and analyzed to obtain the Array Back-Projection Imaging of this event (Honda et al., 2011). As a result, the overall pattern of the imaged asperities coincides well with the slip distribution determined based on other waveform inversion

  14. Aftershock and induced seismic activity of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake in the northern part of Tohoku district, NE Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuga, M.; Watanabe, K.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the seismic activity around the northern neighbor of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw 9.0) with special attention to a potential large aftershock in the area. We obtained a combined data set by adding our manually-picked locations to the catalog locations by the Japan Meteorological Agency. The hypocenter distribution delineates active and inactive bands of seismicity. The band of low seismicity corresponds to a zone of a large seismic slip, indicating that aftershocks occurred in peripheral neighbors of the mainshock asperity. The broad band of active seismicity along the coast corresponds to the zone of a large postseismic slip, suggesting the enhancement of the aftershock activity by the slip. Although the northern neighbor of the mainshock fault is a favored region of increased seismicity, as shown from a Coulomb stress calculation, no significant seismic activity is observed within the potential source area except along the Japan Trench and the SW corner. This implies that the zone of interplate moment release by previous large earthquakes and the subsequent slow slip acted as a barrier to the migration of both the mainshock rupture and aftershock activity. However, an aftershock area in the zone may reflect inhomogeneous moment release by past seismic and aseismic sequences. Induced inland seismicity is quite high in the Akita Prefecture on the Japan Sea side apart more than 100 km from the mainshock fault. There are some active clusters including moderate earthquakes with magnitude greater than 5. They are newly formed clusters after the mainshock, while the seismicity of previously active areas decreased significantly. Focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes in the new clusters show the types of strike-slip with consistently NW-SE trending T-axes. The predominant type of focal mechanisms in the Akita area before the mainshock was E-W compressional reverse faulting. Thus the stress field in the area has changed

  15. Impact of Tsunami caused by the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake on groundwater usage and quality in Asahi-city, Chiba Prefecture Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, Fumi

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake on March 11, 2011 was followed by massive Tsunami which had a devastating effect on the coastal area of eastern Japan. The impact of the Tsunami on groundwater usage and quality in Asahi-city, Chiba prefecture was investigated. The maximum height of the Tsunami reached Asahi-city was estimated to be 7.6 m. All wells that covered by the Tsunami higher than human knee level lost their groundwater usage due to electric pump failure. Only 3 out of 67 wells investigated were collapsed by the Tsunami. Many wells and pumps were repaired/replaced within one week after the Tsunami and all wells are in use 2 month after the Tsunami. This suggests that groundwater could be obtained through the wells right after the Tsunami if proper pumping measure would have been implemented. Most groundwater affected by the Tsunami showed high electric conductivity (EC) of more than 1,000μS/cm, indicating broad area of groundwater contamination by seawater. The seawater entered into the shallow aquifer by infiltrating through the ground surface during the inundation, and also by flowing downward along/through the wells. The large variation in EC was observed among the affected wells. The EC value was, however, correlated with height of the Tsunami reached, topography and also with post-tsunami groundwater pumping. The post-tsunami pumping is effective in reducing salt concentration in the groundwater. The groundwater quality should recover naturally in the long term. It was, however, suggested that removing salt containing deposits on the ground surface to avoid further salt infiltration, and groundwater pumping with careful monitoring to remove contaminated groundwater from the aquifer would be effective for faster recovery of the groundwater quality.

  16. Dynamics in benthic community composition and influencing factors in an upwelling-exposed coral reef on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Stuhldreier, Ines; Sánchez-Noguera, Celeste; Roth, Florian; Jiménez, Carlos; Rixen, Tim; Cortés, Jorge; Wild, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal upwelling at the northern Pacific coast of Costa Rica offers the opportunity to investigate the effects of pronounced changes in key water parameters on fine-scale dynamics of local coral reef communities. This study monitored benthic community composition at Matapalo reef (10.539°N, 85.766°W) by weekly observations of permanent benthic quadrats from April 2013 to April 2014. Monitoring was accompanied by surveys of herbivore abundance and biomass and measurements of water temperature and inorganic nutrient concentrations. Findings revealed that the reef-building corals Pocillopora spp. exhibited an exceptional rapid increase from 22 to 51% relative benthic cover. By contrast, turf algae cover decreased from 63 to 24%, resulting in a corresponding increase in crustose coralline algae cover. The macroalga Caulerpa sertularioides covered up to 15% of the reef in April 2013, disappeared after synchronized gamete release in May, and subsequently exhibited slow regrowth. Parallel monitoring of influencing factors suggest that C. sertularioides cover was mainly regulated by their reproductive cycle, while that of turf algae was likely controlled by high abundances of herbivores. Upwelling events in February and March 2014 decreased mean daily seawater temperatures by up to 7 °C and increased nutrient concentrations up to 5- (phosphate) and 16-fold (nitrate) compared to mean values during the rest of the year. Changes in benthic community composition did not appear to correspond to the strong environmental changes, but rather shifted from turf algae to hard coral dominance over the entire year of observation. The exceptional high dynamic over the annual observation period encourages further research on the adaptation potential of coral reefs to environmental variability. PMID:26623190

  17. Dynamics in benthic community composition and influencing factors in an upwelling-exposed coral reef on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Noguera, Celeste; Roth, Florian; Jiménez, Carlos; Rixen, Tim; Cortés, Jorge; Wild, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal upwelling at the northern Pacific coast of Costa Rica offers the opportunity to investigate the effects of pronounced changes in key water parameters on fine-scale dynamics of local coral reef communities. This study monitored benthic community composition at Matapalo reef (10.539°N, 85.766°W) by weekly observations of permanent benthic quadrats from April 2013 to April 2014. Monitoring was accompanied by surveys of herbivore abundance and biomass and measurements of water temperature and inorganic nutrient concentrations. Findings revealed that the reef-building corals Pocillopora spp. exhibited an exceptional rapid increase from 22 to 51% relative benthic cover. By contrast, turf algae cover decreased from 63 to 24%, resulting in a corresponding increase in crustose coralline algae cover. The macroalga Caulerpa sertularioides covered up to 15% of the reef in April 2013, disappeared after synchronized gamete release in May, and subsequently exhibited slow regrowth. Parallel monitoring of influencing factors suggest that C. sertularioides cover was mainly regulated by their reproductive cycle, while that of turf algae was likely controlled by high abundances of herbivores. Upwelling events in February and March 2014 decreased mean daily seawater temperatures by up to 7 °C and increased nutrient concentrations up to 5- (phosphate) and 16-fold (nitrate) compared to mean values during the rest of the year. Changes in benthic community composition did not appear to correspond to the strong environmental changes, but rather shifted from turf algae to hard coral dominance over the entire year of observation. The exceptional high dynamic over the annual observation period encourages further research on the adaptation potential of coral reefs to environmental variability. PMID:26623190

  18. Diversity of A-conotoxins of three worm-hunting cone snails (Conus brunneus, Conus nux, and Conus princeps) from the Mexican Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Morales-González, Daniel; Flores-Martínez, Ernesto; Zamora-Bustillos, Roberto; Rivera-Reyes, Reginaldo; Michel-Morfín, Jesús Emilio; Landa-Jaime, Víctor; Falcón, Andrés; Aguilar, Manuel B

    2015-06-01

    Conus marine snails (∼500 species) are tropical predators that use venoms mainly to capture prey and defend themselves from predators. The principal components of these venoms are peptides that are known as "conotoxins" and generally comprise 7-40 amino acid residues, including 0-5 disulfide bridges and distinct posttranslational modifications. The most common molecular targets of conotoxins are voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors, and neurotransmitter transporters, to which they bind, typically, with high affinity and specificity. Due to these properties, several conotoxins have become molecular probes, medicines, and leads for drug design. Conotoxins have been classified into genetic superfamilies based on the signal sequence of their precursors, and into pharmacological families according to their molecular targets. The objective of this work was to identify and analyze partial cDNAs encoding conotoxin precursors belonging to the A superfamily from Conus brunneus, Conus nux, and Conus princeps. These are vermivorous species of the Mexican Pacific coast from which only one A-conotoxin, and few O- and I2-conotoxins have been reported. Employing RT-PCR, we identified 30 distinct precursors that contain 13 different predicted mature toxins. With the exception of two groups of four highly similar peptides, these toxins are diverse at both the sequence and the physicochemical levels, and they belong to the 4/3, 4/4, 4/5, 4/6, and 4/7 structural subfamilies. These toxins are predicted to target diverse nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes: nx1d, muscle; pi1a-pi1d, α3β2, α7, and/or α9α10; br1a, muscle, α3β4, and/or α4β2; and nx1a-nx1c/pi1g and pi1h, α3β2, α3β4, α9β10, and/or α7. PMID:25703301

  19. Radiation measurements at the campus of Fukushima Medical University through the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake and subsequent nuclear power plant crisis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01

    An earthquake, Tohoku region Pacific Coast earthquake, occurred on the 11th of March, 2011, and subsequent Fukushima nuclear power plant accidents have been stirring natural radiation around the author's office in Fukushima Medical University (FMU). FMU is located in Fukushima city, and is 57 km (35 miles) away from northwest of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This paper presents three types of radiation survey undertaken through the unprecedented accidents at the campus and the hospital of FMU. First, a group of interested people immediately began radiation surveillance; the group members were assembled from the faculty members of " Life Sciences and Social Medicine" and " Human and Natural Sciences." Second, the present author, regardless of the earthquake, had serially observed natural radiations such as gamma radiation in air with NaI scintillation counter, atmospheric radon with Lucas cell, and second cosmic rays with NaI scintillation. Gamma radiation indicated most drastic change, i.e., peak value (9.3 times usual level) appeared on March 16, and decreased to 1.7 times usual level after two months. A nonlinear least squares regression to this decreasing data gave short half-life of 3.6 days and long half-life of 181 days. These two apparent half-lives are attributed to two groups of radioisotopes, i.e., short half-life one of I-131 and long half-life ones of Cs-134, Cs-137 and Sr-90. Also, atmospheric radon concentration became high since a stop of ventilation, while second cosmic rays did not show any response. Third, late April, 2011, a team of radiation dosimetry under the direct control of Dean, School of Medicine, was established for the continuation of radiation survey in the campus and the hospital of Fukushima Medical University. PMID:22353655

  20. Huge seafloor movements associated with the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake observed by GPS/acoustic combination technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, T.; Sato, M.; Ujihara, N.; Watanabe, S.; Fujita, M.; Mochizuki, M.; Asada, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department, Japan Coast Guard, have been developing precise seafloor positioning systems using the GPS/acoustic combination technique under technical cooperation with the Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo and carrying out campaign observations along the major trenches in the Pacific Ocean, such as the Japan Trench and the Nankai Trough. The primary purpose of these observations is to detect and monitor the crustal deformation caused by the subduction of the oceanic plate near the plate boundary where huge earthquakes repeatedly occur. On 11 March 2011, a large interplate earthquake [Mw = 9.0] occurred at the plate boundary off Miyagi Prefecture, northeastern Japan. Various studies have been under way to understand the mechanism of occurrence of this earthquake. For example, the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) has reported coseismic displacements on land, on the basis of the dense GPS network. The largest displacement has been detected at the Oshika peninsula, amounting to about 5 m toward ESE and about 1 m downward. Because the Oshika peninsula is located about 130 km away from the epicenter of the earthquake, it is preferable to measure crustal movements closer to the focal regions, that is, on the seafloor, to better constrain the focal mechanism of the event. In order to monitor crustal movements offshore, we have been carrying out seafloor geodetic observations. Five sea-floor reference points were installed off the Tohoku region between 2000 and 2004 with campaign observations carried out three times a year on average. After the event, we conducted observations at these sites. Comparison between before and after the event yielded coseismic displacements of 5 to 24 m toward ESE and -0.8 to 3 m upward. In particular, at reference point near the epicenter, we detected a huge coseismic displacement of about 24 m toward ESE and about 3 m upward. This is more than four times larger than that

  1. Molecular Diversity of Denitrifying Genes in Continental Margin Sediments within the Oxygen-Deficient Zone off the Pacific Coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xueduan; Tiquia, Sonia M.; Holguin, Gina; Wu, Liyou; Nold, Stephen C.; Devol, Allan H.; Luo, Kuan; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Tiedje, James M.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2003-01-01

    To understand the composition and structure of denitrifying communities in the oxygen-deficient zone off the Pacific coast of Mexico, the molecular diversity of nir genes from sediments obtained at four stations was examined by using a PCR-based cloning approach. A total of 50 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for nirK and 82 OTUs for nirS were obtained from all samples. Forty-four of the nirS clones and 31 of the nirK clones were sequenced; the levels of similarity of the nirS clones were 52 to 92%, and the levels of similarity of the nirS clones were 50 to 99%. The percentages of overlapping OTUs between stations were 18 to 30% for nirS and 5 to 8% for nirK. Sequence analysis revealed that 26% of the nirS clones were related to the nirS genes of Alcaligenes faecalis (80 to 94% similar) and Pseudomonas stutzeri (80 to 99%), whereas 3 to 31% of the nirK clones were closely related to the nirK genes of Pseudomonas sp. strain G-179 (98 to 99%), Bradyrhizobium japonicum (91%), Blastobacter denitrificans (83%), and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (96%). The rest of the clones, however, were less than 80% similar to nirS and nirK sequences available in sequence databases. The results of a principal-component analysis (PCA) based on the percentage of OTUs and biogeochemical data indicated that the nitrate concentration and oxygen have an effect on the denitrifying communities. The communities at the stations in oxygen-deficient zones were more similar than the communities at the stations in the oxygenated zone. The denitrifying communities were more similar at the stations that were closer together and had similar nitrate levels. Also, the results of PCA based on biogeochemical properties suggest that geographic location and biogeochemical conditions, especially the nitrate and oxygen levels, appear to be the key factors that control the structure of denitrifying communities. PMID:12788762

  2. Seismicity-induced groundwater level changes in boreholes around Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU), Japan: Effect of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, M.; Takeuchi, R.; Onoe, H.; Asamori, K.; Umeda, K.; Sugihara, K.

    2011-12-01

    For improving the scientific basis for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, multidisciplinary researches are approached in the MIU, in which two vertical shafts are excavated in the crystalline rock mass. Groundwater levels are continuously logged in multiple boreholes, for understanding the regional groundwater flow around the MIU site. Soon after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, groundwater level changes were observed in the almost boreholes. All boreholes arranged away from the MIU (approximately 1 to 5 km) showed drawdown ranging from 1 to 5 m. Several studies (e.g. Wang, 1997, JGR; Ge and Stover, 2000, JGR; Hamiel et al., 2005, EPSL) suggest that coseismic changes of groundwater level correspond to static volumetric strain changes induced by earthquakes, i.e., drawdown/elevation of groundwater level is reflected by crustal dilatation/constriction. We calculated volumetric strain changes due to the Tohoku earthquake based on the previously-reported fault models (slip models estimated by teleseismic source inversion; Yagi and Nishimura, Univ. of Tsukuba; Poiata et al., ERI, Univ. of Tokyo). We determined crustal deformation and stress change using the program Coulomb 3.0 (Lin and Stein, 2004, JGR; Toda et al., 2005, JGR). The calculation outputs approximately 2.3E-7 strain of dilatation around the MIU. Thus the drawdown observed in the boreholes arranged away from the MIU is consistent with the volumetric strain changes associated with the Tohoku earthquake. In contrast, groundwater levels were elevated up to 15 m in the boreholes localized in the vicinity of the MIU (within 600 m). These boreholes had shown successive drawdown since the shaft excavations started in the MIU, while voluminous sump water had been released successively from the shafts. Soon after the Tohoku earthquake, volume of the sump water increased approximately ten percent. Irregular elevation of water level soon after an earthquake like the case of the MIU

  3. Empirical Tsunami Hazard Assessment of Near-Field Plate-Boundary and Crustal Fault Sources Demonstrated for the Pacific Coast of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, L. J.; Rogers, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate an empirical method for preliminary tsunami hazard assessment of near-field fault sources that lack long historic records, paleoseismic/paleotsunami data and/or adequate tsunami modelling studies. Along the Pacific coast of Canada, the North America plate boundary is characterized by varying degrees of convergence with adjacent oceanic plates and microplates. The 1700 M~9 Cascadia earthquake ruptured at least the full extent of Juan de Fuca plate subduction as far north as central Vancouver Island; paleoseismic data show that similar events have occurred approximately every 500 years throughout the Holocene, accompanied by large tsunamis. Further north along the margin, the paleoseismic and paleotsunami histories of the Explorer, Winona, and Haida Gwaii segments of the margin are unknown. The Explorer plate is subducting beneath Vancouver Island at about half the rate of the Juan de Fuca plate; this locked segment may rupture independently or it may slip concurrently with the rest of the Cascadia subduction zone system to the south. The tsunamigenic potential of the Winona segment off northern Vancouver Island is poorly understood. The occurrence of the 2012 M7.8 thrust earthquake off southern Haida Gwaii confirmed the tsunamigenic nature of partitioned convergent slip on this dominantly transform margin segment. Parts of the coastline face additional tsunami hazard from submarine crustal faults. For potentially tsunamigenic faults with unknown history, we use (1) geophysical data to constrain fault rupture area, (2) empirical relations to estimate earthquake magnitude from the rupture area, (3) plate motion models and geodetic data to constrain convergence and thrust earthquake recurrence rates, and (4) empirical relations to estimate near-field tsunami runup at coastal sites, given distance from the rupture. The success of this approach is demonstrated by general agreement between expected and observed earthquake magnitude and near-field tsunami

  4. Seismic activities of earthquake clusters and small repeating earthquakes in Japan before and after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (M9.0) had a great effect on seismic activities over vast areas. In this study, we investigated spatio-temporal changes of seismic activities of earthquake clusters and small repeating earthquakes before and after the main shock. We have already reported many small repeating earthquakes occur at the upper boundary of the subducting plates in Japan. From these sequences, we can estimate the space-time characteristics of the inter-plate slip. In the 21st century, the resultant slip-rates correspond to relative plate motion in the Ryukyu-arc. In contrast, the shallow part and the southern part of the northeastern Japan arc indicated slip deficits. There were few after-slips following the 2005 off Miyagi earthquake (M7.2), which located near the hypocenter of the 2011 main shock. On the other hand, slip deficits of the southern shallow part were slightly decreased by after-slips following the 2003 and 2008 M7 class earthquakes. We also identified quasi-static slips associated with foreshocks off Miyagi that started from February 2011. After the main shock, we detect many small repeating earthquakes in the aftershocks. The distributions suggest after-slips near the trench of the southeastern part as well as in the deep part of the source region estimated by GPS data analysis. However, some of them are burst-type repeating sequences which occurred only after the main shock. Many continual-type repeating sequences are distributed in the southern part of the source region, and it is difficult to estimate slip-rates in the northern part at present. This uneven distribution may have been caused because observed seismograms are distorted by the multiplicity of the waves to come from various locations, the seismic velocity changes at the propagation path or site, or changes of physical properties at the plate interface. Furthermore, we automatically extracted earthquake clusters by using the unified JMA hypocenter catalogue

  5. Demersal crustacean assemblages along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica: a quantitative and multivariate assessment based on the Victor Hensen Costa Rica expedition (1993/1994).

    PubMed

    Jesse, S

    1996-12-01

    During the first cruise leg with the RV Victor Hensen to the Pacific coast of Costa Rica in December 1993 (end of the rainy season) the crustacean fauna found in the demersal collections revealed an unexpected species richness and biomass. The Crustacea collections were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively during the fourth leg (February 1994, dry season) in the three study areas Golfo Dulce (GD), Bahía Coronado in the Sierpe-Térraba-estuary (ST) and Golfo de Nicoya (GN). Qualitative data were available for comparison from the first leg in december 1993. A total of 24 beamtrawl and ten ottertrawl sample collections were done on an area of 860.000 m2 yielding a total of 119 species with a biomass of 37.8 kg (10275 specimens). Despite the smaller area covered by the beamtrawl, it collected a higher number of species and more biomass than the ottertrawl due to the smaller mesh size (0.8 cm). Judging from the shape of the species -per-area-curves, the crustacean fauna appeared as representatively sampled for the study area. As compared with the GN (biomass 0.36 g +/- 0.26, SR = 97) and the ST (0.41 g +/- 0.27, SR = 59) and according to the results of the log-series-plots constructed from the abundance data, the GD seems to be a depauperated area with significantly lower biomass (0.05 g +/- 0.07) and species richness (45 sp.). No crustaceans were found in the center of the deep basin of the GD put parts of the interior gulf with adjacent mangrove areas seem to be important as nursery area for some commercially important penaeid shrimp species. The ST-estuary revealed the highest mean species number per station in the whole study area, but the GN had the highest total number of species. Biomass seems to be regularly distributed and not depth-depending within the GN, while species abundance varies clearly, confirming previous results. In contrast, abundance and biomass correlated well in the ST. Based on the results of the multivariate analysis, seven station

  6. DAMAGE ASSESSMENT ON WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM AND SEWERAGE SYSTEM AT THE 2011 OFF THE PACIFIC COAST OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE - CASE STUDY FOR THE DATA AT IBARAKI AND CHIBA PREFECTURES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naba, Satoshi; Tsukiji, Takuya; Shoji, Gaku; Nagata, Shigeru

    We evaluate the dependency of damage and restoration of water supply systems and sewerage system on the seismic hazards in the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake focusing on the damage at Ibaraki and Chiba prefectures. We use the damage data of the systems by carrying out field survey, interviews for related local government sectors and surveying the information in web sites. We quantify two damage ratios defined by the ratio of number of physical damage points Np with the related pipeline lengths L and that of disrupted lengths Ld with L. In addition, we discuss relation between restoration periods with the seismic hazards. Finally, we verify the fitting of the damage data with previous seismic fragility curves on sewerage pipelines.

  7. Population and the Colombian economy.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1983-01-01

    Colombia is the only one of the 6 most populous Latin American countries that is currently free of major economic crisis requiring an agreement with the International Monetary Fund. The difference in the economic performances of these countries is relative, since the rate of growth in the Colombian economy was only 1.5% in 1982. Yet, Colombia seems to have weathered the international recession better than most. The crisis atmosphere in the rest of Latin America, triggered by overall economic decline, high rates of inflation, and an indebtedness that soaks up much of export earnings to service it, is lacking in Colombia or present in lesser degree. If Colombia can strengthen its political performance and tighten national unity, it could move through the 1980s with considerable confidence and success in economic development. Colombia differs little from other major Latin American countries with regard to traditionalism and modernization. Most Colombians are secularized. Colombia is far ahead of most comparable Latin American countries in fertility control. The lower rate of population increase defines the extent to which the economy must provide education, health, food, and jobs. 2 other factors are essential for understanding the current situation in Colombia and its prospects for the 1980s. Government policy in the 1970s opted for an austerity program while the other countries were growing rapidly, in large part through borrowed resources. A 2nd factor is the prospect of attaining autonomy in energy production. These special characteristics--population, public policy, and energy--are discussed. Since the mid 1960s Colombia has functioned with 3 family planning programs. Their existence makes contraception easily available to the population generally. In 1960 Colombia had a higher total fertility rate (TFR) 7.0, than either Venezuela (6.6) or Brazil (5.3), but by 1976 its TFR was down to 4.1, while Venezuela's (4.8) and Brazil's (4.3) were now higher. On balance

  8. Revision of the amphiamerican Neotetraonchus Bravo-Hollis, 1968 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), with a description of N. vegrandis n. sp. from the gill lamellae of the blue sea catfish Ariopsis guatemalensis (Siluriformes: Ariidae) off the Pacific Coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Bullard, Stephen A; Vidal-Martínez, Victor M

    2009-09-01

    Neotetraonchus Bravo-Hollis, 1968 is revised and reassigned to the Dactylogyridae Bychowsky, 1933 based on examinations of specimens representing four species from the gill lamellae of sea catfishes (Ariidae). The monotypic Neotetraonchidae Bravo-Hollis, 1968 is placed in synonymy with the Dactylogyridae. Neotetraonchus bychowskyi Bravo-Hollis, 1968 (type-species), is redescribed from the tete sea catfish Ariopsis seemanni (Günther) (type-host) in the eastern Pacific Ocean off Panama (new geographical record). Neotetraonchus vegrandis n. sp. is described from the blue sea catfish A. guatemalensis (Günther) off the Pacific Coast of Mexico. Neotetraonchus bravohollisae Paperna, 1977 is redescribed from the hardhead sea catfish A. felis (L.) in the Gulf of Mexico off the Yucatan Peninsula. Neotetraonchus felis (Hargis, 1955) Paperna, 1977 is redescribed from A. felis in the Gulf of Mexico off Mississippi and the Yucatan Peninsula (new geographical record). Morphological similarities between species of Neotetraonchus suggest the likely presence of geminate species pairs flanking the Isthmus of Panama. PMID:19633926

  9. Six new and one previously described species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) infecting the gills of groupers (Perciformes, Serranidae) from the Pacific coasts of Mexico and Panama.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Violante-González, Juan; Rojas Herrera, Agustín A

    2011-02-01

    Six new and 1 previously described species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Diplectanidae) are described and/or reported from the gill lamellae of 5 serranid (Perciformes) fish species from the Pacific waters in Guerrero State of Mexico and Panama City, Panama. These species are Pseudorhabdosynochus guerreroensis n. sp. from the Pacific mutton hamlet Alphestes inmaculatus Breder (type host), rivulated mutton hamlet Alphestes multiguttatus (Günther), and spotted grouper Epinephelus analogus Gill from Mexico; Pseudorhabdosynochus urceolus n. sp. from the Pacific graysby Cephalopholis panamensis (Steindachner) from Taboga Island in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus spirani n. sp. from the starry grouper Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns) from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus fulgidus n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus tabogaensis n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus anulus n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; and Pseudorhabdosynochus amplidiscatum (Bravo-Hollis, 1954) Kritsky and Beverley-Burton, 1986 from E. analogus and E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island in Panama. All new species are mainly distinguished from other species of the genus by the shape and size of the sclerotized vagina and haptoral structures. The present specimens of Alphestes, Cephalopholis, and Epinephelus spp. represent new host records and Panama represents a new geographic record for species of Pseudorhabdosynochus. The apparent common feature supporting a close similarity of these diplectanids is a single, secondary ejaculatory bulb with thickened wall. PMID:21348602

  10. Updated Colombian Seismic Hazard Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eraso, J.; Arcila, M.; Romero, J.; Dimate, C.; Bermúdez, M. L.; Alvarado, C.

    2013-05-01

    The Colombian seismic hazard map used by the National Building Code (NSR-98) in effect until 2009 was developed in 1996. Since then, the National Seismological Network of Colombia has improved in both coverage and technology providing fifteen years of additional seismic records. These improvements have allowed a better understanding of the regional geology and tectonics which in addition to the seismic activity in Colombia with destructive effects has motivated the interest and the need to develop a new seismic hazard assessment in this country. Taking advantage of new instrumental information sources such as new broad band stations of the National Seismological Network, new historical seismicity data, standardized global databases availability, and in general, of advances in models and techniques, a new Colombian seismic hazard map was developed. A PSHA model was applied. The use of the PSHA model is because it incorporates the effects of all seismic sources that may affect a particular site solving the uncertainties caused by the parameters and assumptions defined in this kind of studies. First, the seismic sources geometry and a complete and homogeneous seismic catalog were defined; the parameters of seismic rate of each one of the seismic sources occurrence were calculated establishing a national seismotectonic model. Several of attenuation-distance relationships were selected depending on the type of seismicity considered. The seismic hazard was estimated using the CRISIS2007 software created by the Engineering Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México -UNAM (National Autonomous University of Mexico). A uniformly spaced grid each 0.1° was used to calculate the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and response spectral values at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3.0 seconds with return periods of 75, 225, 475, 975 and 2475 years. For each site, a uniform hazard spectrum and exceedance rate curves were calculated. With the results, it is

  11. Organchlorine content and shell thickness in brown booby (Sula leucogaster) eggs in the Gulf of California and the southern Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mellink, Eric; Riojas-López, Mónica E; Luévano-Esparza, Jaime

    2009-07-01

    We determined egg concentrations of organochlorines and thickness of eggshells from brown boobies at eight colonies ranging from the northern Gulf of California to southern Mexico. The only common residue was that of DDE, which was found in almost all eggs. DDE content apparently reflected pre-1990 DDT use in nearby agricultural areas and, at one site, intensive mosquito control for high-end tourism development. There were no inter-colony differences in eggshell thickness, and variation in this variable likely reflected individual bird characteristics and/or individual feeding source. This variable was not a good proxy to DDE exposure of brown boobies, under current DDE levels in the brown booby trophic chain. In the northern Gulf of California, eggshell thickness has recovered to pre-DDT conditions. Our data indicate that the Gulf of California and southwestern coast of Mexico have a healthy near-shore marine environment, as far as organochlorines are concerned. PMID:19356832

  12. The land crab Johngarthiaplanata (Stimpson, 1860) (Crustacea, Brachyura, Gecarcinidae) colonizes human-dominated ecosystems in the continental mainland coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Perger, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The land crab Johngarthiaplanata (Stimpson, 1860) has been reported from the Baja California Peninsula and several oceanic islands in the Eastern Pacific as well as inshore islands of the Mexican, Costa Rican and Colombian coast. However, the species has not been observed on the continental mainland, as it is likely that the high diversity of terrestrial predators/competitors make the establishment of mainland populations nearly impossible. In this contribution, several new records of this species that have been observed in urban areas along the continental Pacific coast of Mexico are reported. These records demonstrate that the presence of humans does not necessarily have a negative impact on land crab species. Indeed, the presence of humans may actually discourage the presence of native crab predators/competitors and hence increase the likelihood of a successful mainland settlement of land crab species that are otherwise island and peninsula restricted. The presence of Johngarthiaplanata is ecologically relevant for coastal forests because gecarcinid crabs significantly influence plant recruitment and Johngarthiaplanata is considerably larger than the mainland species Gecarcinusquadratus. PMID:25057257

  13. The land crab Johngarthia planata (Stimpson, 1860) (Crustacea, Brachyura, Gecarcinidae) colonizes human-dominated ecosystems in the continental mainland coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The land crab Johngarthia planata (Stimpson, 1860) has been reported from the Baja California Peninsula and several oceanic islands in the Eastern Pacific as well as inshore islands of the Mexican, Costa Rican and Colombian coast. However, the species has not been observed on the continental mainland, as it is likely that the high diversity of terrestrial predators/competitors make the establishment of mainland populations nearly impossible. In this contribution, several new records of this species that have been observed in urban areas along the continental Pacific coast of Mexico are reported. These records demonstrate that the presence of humans does not necessarily have a negative impact on land crab species. Indeed, the presence of humans may actually discourage the presence of native crab predators/competitors and hence increase the likelihood of a successful mainland settlement of land crab species that are otherwise island and peninsula restricted. The presence of Johngarthia planata is ecologically relevant for coastal forests because gecarcinid crabs significantly influence plant recruitment and Johngarthia planata is considerably larger than the mainland species Gecarcinus quadratus. PMID:25057257

  14. Recovery of wild Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas in terms of reproduction and gametogenesis two-years after the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Accident off the West Coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondol, Mostafizur Rahman; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Lee, Hee-Jung; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Park, Heung-Sik; Park, Sang-Rul; Kang, Chang-Keun; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2015-12-01

    The Hebei Spirit oil spill in December 2007 at Taean off the west coast of Korea was the largest oil tanker accident in Korea. However, the impact of the spill on physiology of benthic animals remains largely unknown. Two-years after the accident, we compared reproductive effort and annual gametogenesis of the wild Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, residing at oil spill site with a control oyster population in Incheon Bay, North-West coast of Korea. Results showed that the oyster sampled from the oil spill site showed a significantly higher (279.0 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05) growth by tissue dry weight to that of the control population (228.0 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05). Histology revealed that there was no significant difference in the annual gametogenic pattern between the two populations, and most of the females of both populations spawned between August and September. During spawning season, egg mass of oysters determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) in the oil spill area was significantly higher (136.3 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05) than the control population (120.5 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05). The tissue protein level in the oysters at the contaminated area was significantly higher (102.6 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05) than the level measured from the control oysters (81.4 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05). The observed better biological performances of oysters at the contaminated site suggested their recovery of the physiological status to normal level after two years of the oil spill accident.

  15. Anisakis species (Nematoda: Anisakidae) of Dwarf Sperm Whale Kogia sima (Owen, 1866) stranded off the Pacific coast of southern Philippine archipelago.

    PubMed

    Quiazon, Karl Marx A; Santos, Mudjekeewis D; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi

    2013-10-18

    Anisakid nematodes in the Pacific region of the Philippine archipelago still remain unexplored. This study was carried out to identify anisakid species from one of their final hosts, the Kogiid whale (Dwarf Sperm Whale, Kogia sima) stranded off the southern part (Davao Gulf) of the Philippine archipelago. Anisakid worms were initially identified morphologically using light and scanning electron microscopy, whereas identification to species level was carried out molecularly using PCR-RFLP and sequencing of the ITS (ITS1-5.8s rRNA-ITS2) and mtDNA cox2 regions. Parasitological study revealed new geographical records for the presence of two Anisakis species (A. brevispiculata and A. typica) and two unknown Anisakis species that are genetically close, at mtDNA cox2 region, to A. paggiae and A. ziphidarum. Based on the molecular data on both genes, the current findings suggest possible occurrence of local variations or sibling species of A. paggiae and A. ziphidarum in the region. Given that Anisakis species have not been reported in the Philippine archipelago, their presence in the Dwarf Sperm Whale inhabiting this region indicates high possibility of Anisakis infections in the marine fishes, cephalopods and other intermediate hosts within the Philippine waters. PMID:23786786

  16. Spatial and temporal variation in the diet of the Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus in waters off the coast of British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hipfner, J M; Galbraith, M

    2013-11-01

    Variation in the diet of the Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus was examined in three years (2009-2011) at four sites in British Columbia, Canada. There were 12 major taxa of prey in diets, eight of which were Crustacea, with copepods being by far the dominant taxon in all 12 site-years. Of the 22 copepod taxa recorded, only Calanus marshallae and Pseudocalanus spp. occurred in all collections, and these two calanoid species dominated diets in terms of frequency of occurrence and total numbers of prey (Pseudocalanus spp. in most collections), and total prey biomass (C. marshallae in all collections). Based on an index of relative importance, C. marshallae was the primary prey at the two southerly sampling sites (Pine and Triangle Islands) and Pseudocalanus spp. at the two northerly sites (Lucy Island and S'Gang Gwaay). Based on an index of dietary overlap, the species composition of the copepod component of A. hexapterus diets overlapped very strongly at the northerly and the southerly pairs of sites in both a cold-water La Niña year (2009) and a warm-water El Niño year (2010), but overall there was more homogeneity amongst all four sites in the La Niña year. PMID:24580657

  17. Coseismic slip distribution of the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake (M9.0) refined by means of seafloor geodetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iinuma, T.; Hino, R.; Kido, M.; Inazu, D.; Osada, Y.; Ito, Y.; Ohzono, M.; Tsushima, H.; Suzuki, S.; Fujimoto, H.; Miura, S.

    2012-07-01

    On 11 March 2011, the devastating M9.0 Tohoku Earthquake occurred on the interface of the subducting Pacific plate, and was followed by a huge tsunami that killed about 20,000 people. Several geophysical studies have already suggested that the very shallow portion of the plate interface might have played an important role in producing such a large earthquake and tsunami. However, the sparsity of seafloor observations leads to insufficient spatial resolution of the fault slip on such a shallow plate interface. For this reason, the location and degree of the slip has not yet been estimated accurately enough to assess future seismic risks. Thus, we estimated the coseismic slip distribution based on terrestrial GPS observations and all available seafloor geodetic data that significantly improve the spatial resolution at the shallow portion of the plate interface. The results reveal that an extremely large (greater than 50 m) slip occurred in a small (about 40 km in width and 120 km in length) area near the Japan Trench and generated the huge tsunami. The estimated slip distribution and a comparison of it with the coupling coefficient distribution deduced from the analysis of the small repeating earthquakes suggest that the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake released strain energy that had accumulated over the past 1000 years, probably since the Jogan Earthquake in 869. The accurate assessments of seismic risks on very shallow plate interfaces in subduction zones throughout the world can be obtained by improving the quality and quantity of seafloor geodetic observations.

  18. A 14,000 year vegetation history of a hypermaritime island on the outer Pacific coast of Canada based on fossil pollen, spores and conifer stomata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacourse, Terri; Delepine, J. Michelle; Hoffman, Elizabeth H.; Mathewes, Rolf W.

    2012-11-01

    Pollen and conifer stomata analyses of lake sediments from Hippa Island on the north coast of British Columbia were used to reconstruct the vegetation history of this small hypermaritime island. Between 14,000 and 13,230 cal yr BP, the island supported diverse herb-shrub communities dominated by Cyperaceae, Artemisia and Salix. Pinus contorta and Picea sitchensis stomata indicate that these conifers were present among the herb-shrub communities, likely as scattered individuals. Transition to open P. contorta woodland by 13,000 cal yr BP was followed by increases in Alnus viridis, Alnus rubra and P. sitchensis. After 12,000 cal yr BP, Pinus-dominated communities were replaced by dense P. sitchensis and Tsuga heterophylla forest with Lysichiton americanus and fern understory. Thuja plicata stomata indicate that this species was present by 8700 cal yr BP, but the pollen record suggests that its populations did not expand to dominate regional rainforests, along with Tsuga and Picea, until after 6600 cal yr BP. Conifer stomata indicate that species may be locally present for hundreds to thousands of years before pollen exceed thresholds routinely used to infer local species arrival. When combined, pollen and conifer stomata can provide a more accurate record of paleovegetation than either when used alone.

  19. Trophic Interactions Between Insects and Stream-Associated Amphibians in Steep, Cobble-Bottom Streams of the Pacific Coast of North America

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Trisha; Richardson, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Two native, stream-associated amphibians are found in coastal streams of the west coast of North America, the tailed frog and the coastal giant salamander, and each interacts with stream insects in contrasting ways. For tailed frogs, their tadpoles are the primary life stage found in steep streams and they consume biofilm from rock surfaces, which can have trophic and non-trophic effects on stream insects. By virtue of their size the tadpoles are relatively insensitive to stream insect larvae, and tadpoles are capable of depleting biofilm levels directly (exploitative competition), and may also “bulldoze” insect larvae from the surfaces of stones (interference competition). Coastal giant salamander larvae, and sometimes adults, are found in small streams where they prey primarily on stream insects, as well as other small prey. This predator-prey interaction with stream insects does not appear to result in differences in the stream invertebrate community between streams with and without salamander larvae. These two examples illustrate the potential for trophic and non-trophic interactions between stream-associated amphibians and stream insects, and also highlights the need for further research in these systems. PMID:26466536

  20. Accumulation and mother-to-calf transfer of anthropogenic and natural organohalogens in killer whales (Orcinus orca) stranded on the Pacific coast of Japan.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Koichi; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Endo, Tetsuya

    2009-04-01

    Blubber samples were analyzed for anthropogenic and natural persistent organohalogens in nine killer whales (Orcinus orca) stranded on the northern coast of Japan in 2005. Anthropogenic organohalogens were dominated by DDTs (40-240 microg/g lipid weight (lw)), PCBs (19-68 microg/g lw), and chlordanes (trans-nonachlor, 15-80 microg/g lw). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected at a range of 0.22-0.64 microg/g lw (BDE-47, 42-74% of SigmaPBDE). For natural organohalogens, mixed halogenated dimethylbipyrroles (Br4Cl2-DBP, 6.4-26 microg/g lw), heptachlorinated methylbipyrrole (Cl7-MBP, 0.5-1.9 microg/g lw), two methoxylated tetrabromodiphenyl ethers (6-MeO-BDE47, 0.11-0.58 microg/g lw; 2'-MeO-BDE68, 0.02-0.06 microg/g lw), and dimethoxylated tetrabromobiphenyl (2,2'-diMeO-BB80, 0.06-0.20 microg/g lw) were present. These concentrations in the blubber were higher in calves than in lactating females, indicating that large quantities of the persistent organohalogens transferred from the mother to the calf through lactation. The mother-to-calf transfer ratios of PCBs and PBDEs were significantly decreased with increasing number of halogen substituents, suggesting that higher halogenated congeners are less transferable. PMID:19201449

  1. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in eggs of coastal and offshore birds: Increasing PFAS levels associated with offshore bird species breeding on the Pacific coast of Canada and wintering near Asia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Aroha; Elliott, John E; Elliott, Kyle H; Lee, Sandi; Cyr, Francois

    2015-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) such as perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) have become virtually ubiquitous throughout the environment, and, based on laboratory studies, have known toxicological consequences. Various national and international voluntary phase-outs and restrictions on these compounds have been implemented over the last 10 to 15 years. In the present study, we examine trends (1990/1991-2010/2011) in aquatic birds (ancient murrelet, Synthliboramphus antiquus [2009 only]; Leach's storm-petrels, Oceanodroma leucorhoa; rhinoceros auklets, Cerorhinca monocerata; double-crested cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus; and great blue herons, Ardea herodias). The PFCA, PFSA, and stable isotope (δ(15) N and δ(13) C) data collected from these species from the Pacific coast of Canada, ranging over 20 to 30 years, were used to investigate temporal changes in PFAS coupled to dietary changes. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), the dominant PFSA compound in all 4 species, increased and subsequently decreased in auklet and cormorant eggs in line with the manufacturing phase-out of PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but concentrations continuously increased in petrel eggs and remained largely unchanged in heron eggs. Dominant PFCA compounds varied between the offshore and coastal species, with increases seen in the offshore species and little or variable changes seen in the coastal species. Little temporal change was seen in stable isotope values, indicating that diet alone is not driving observed PFAS concentrations. PMID:25989421

  2. Subsidence by liquefaction-fluidization in man-made strata around Tokyo bay, Japan: from geological survey on damaged part at the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazaoka, O.; Kameyama, S.; Shigeno, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Morisaki, M.; Kagawa, A.; Yoshida, T.; Kimura, M.; Sakai, Y.; Ogura, T.; Kusuda, T.; Furuno, K.

    2015-11-01

    Geological disaster by liquefaction-fluidization happened on southern part of the Quaternary Paleo-Kanto submarine basin at the 2011 Earthquake off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku. Liquefaction-fluidization phenomena occurred mainly in man-made strata over shaking 5+ intensity of Japan Meteorological Agency scale. Many subsided spots, 10-50 m width, 20-100 m length and less than 1 m depth, by liquefaction-fluidization distributed on reclaimed land around northern Tokyo bay. Large amount of sand and groundwater spouted out in the terrible subsided parts. But there are little subsidence and no jetted sand outside the terrible subsided part. Liquefaction-fluidization damaged part at the 1987 earthquake east off Chiba prefecture re-liquefied and fluidized in these parts at the 2011 great earthquake. The damaged area were more wide on the 2011 earthquake than the 1987 quake. Detailed classification maps of subsidence by liquefaction-fluidization on the 2011 grate earthquake were made by fieldwork in Chiba city around Tokyo bay. A mechanism of subsidence by liquefaction-fluidization in man-made strata was solved by geological survey with continuous large box cores on the ACE Liner and large relief peals of the cores at a typical subsided part.

  3. A systematic health assessment of indian ocean bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and indo-pacific humpback (Sousa plumbea) dolphins incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lane, Emily P; de Wet, Morné; Thompson, Peter; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Plön, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea) incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%), abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%), gastroenteritis (70%), hepatitis (62%), and endometritis (42%). Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung), Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle) and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin). Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%), splenic filamentous tags (45%), non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%), and myocardial fibrosis (26%). No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed. PMID:25203143

  4. A Systematic Health Assessment of Indian Ocean Bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and Indo-Pacific Humpback (Sousa plumbea) Dolphins Incidentally Caught in Shark Nets off the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Emily P.; de Wet, Morné; Thompson, Peter; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Plön, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea) incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%), abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%), gastroenteritis (70%), hepatitis (62%), and endometritis (42%). Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung), Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle) and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin). Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%), splenic filamentous tags (45%), non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%), and myocardial fibrosis (26%). No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed. PMID:25203143

  5. A new species of Leptalpheus Williams, 1965 and new records of L. mexicanus Ríos & Carvacho, 1983 and L. hendrickxi Anker, 2011 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alpheidae) from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Barragán, José; Ayón-Parente, Manuel; Hendrickx, Michel E

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Leptalpheus is described from Estero Pérula, Jalisco, on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Leptalpheus corderoae sp. nov. is most similar to Leptalpheus azuero Anker, 2011 from Panama and Leptalpheus axianassae Dworschak & Coelho, 1999 from Brazil, differing from both of them by a combination of morphological characters, especially the presence of tubercles on the ventral surface of the major chela palm and pollex. The most common host of L. corderoae sp. nov. at the type locality is the callianassid ghost shrimp Lepidophthalmus bocourti (A. Milne Edwards, 1870). Additional specimens of Leptalpheus mexicanus Ríos & Carvacho, 1983, from Estero de Urías, Sinaloa, are reported and compared to the type material from Río Mulegé, as well as to Leptalpheus bicristatus Anker, 2011 from Panama. Finally, Leptalpheus hendrickxi Anker, 2011 is reported from Mexico for the first time, representing a significant northward range extension of the species. In Estero Pérula, L. hendrickxi lives in burrows of Lepidophthalmus bocourti, sometimes together with L. corderoae sp. nov.  PMID:25081471

  6. Status of (137)Cs contamination in marine biota along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan derived from a dynamic biological model two years simulation following the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Tateda, Yutaka; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) released into the Fukushima coastal environment was transferred to marine biota inhabiting the Pacific Ocean coastal waters of eastern Japan. Though the levels in most of the edible marine species decreased overtime, radiocesium concentrations in some fishes were still remained higher than the Japanese regulatory limit for seafood products. In this study, a dynamic food chain transfer model was applied to reconstruct (137)Cs levels in olive flounder by adopting the radiocesium concentrations in small demersal fish which constitute an important fraction of the diet of the olive flounder particularly inhabiting area near Fukushima. In addition, (137)Cs levels in slime flounder were also simulated using reported radiocesium concentrations in some prey organisms. The simulated results from Onahama on the southern border of the Fukushima coastline, and at Choshi the southernmost point where the contaminated water mass was transported by the Oyashio current, were assessed in order to identify what can be explained from present information, and what remains to be clarified three years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (1FNPP) accident. As a result, the observed (137)Cs concentrations in planktivorous fish and their predator fish could be explained by the theoretically-derived simulated levels. On the other hand, the slow (137)Cs depuration in slime flounder can be attributed to uptake from unknown sources for which the uptake fluxes were of a similar magnitude as the excretion fluxes. Since the reported (137)Cs concentrations in benthic invertebrates off Onahama were higher than the simulated values, radiocesium transfer from these benthic detritivorous invertebrates to slime flounder via ingestion was suggested as a cause for the observed slow depuration of (137)Cs in demersal fish off southern Fukushima. Furthermore, the slower depuration in the demersal fish likely required an additional source of (137)Cs, i

  7. Sexual Behavior of Colombian High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Useche, Bernardo; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Surveyed sexual behavior of Colombian high school students. Found that prostitutes were playing decreasing role in sexual lives of males as result of trend toward premarital coital permissiveness among females. Findings revealed intrinsic gender differences in intensity and frequency of sexual desires. (Author/NB)

  8. The Colombian National Apprenticeship Service (SENA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negri, Armando N. L.

    1976-01-01

    Described are an urban and rural vocational training program in Colombia and the Colombian national program of advisory services for business enterprises. The author discusses the objectives and methodology of a new plan which will utilize both permanent urban centres and mobile program in the rural sectors in an attempt to assist the unemployed…

  9. California Coast

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... of the cloud bank is San Nicolas Island, and further up the coast are the Channel Islands. The Los Angeles basin is just south of center; ... Mar 14, 2000 Images:  California Coast location:  United States region:  ...

  10. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Meed, R.M.

    1991-10-01

    This paper testifies that water pollution by oil remains significant, and noncompliance with federal regulations to prevent oil pollution continues to be great in the four ports GAO visited. Additionally, the impact of the Coast Guard's efforts to reduce oil spill in unknown because the agency does not compile and analyze inspection and spill data needed to make this determination. Further, the Coast Guard has not been inspecting portions of pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Coast Guard officials now acknowledge this responsibility.

  11. The Entry of Colombian-Sourced Heroin into the US Market: The Relationship between Competition, Price, and Purity

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Unick, Jay; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    There have been large structural changes in the US heroin market over the past 20 years. Colombian-sourced heroin entered the market in the mid-1990s, followed by a large fall in the price per pure gram and the exit of Asian heroin. By the 2000s, Colombian-sourced heroin had become a monopoly on the east coast and Mexican-sourced heroin a monopoly on the west coast with competition between the two in the middle. We estimate the relationship between these changes in competitive market structure on retail-level heroin price and purity. We find that the entry of Colombian-sourced heroin is associated with less competition and a lower price per pure gram of heroin at the national level. However, there is wide variation in changes in market concentration across the US. Controlling for the national fall in the heroin price, more competition in a region or city is associated with a lower price per pure gram. PMID:24211155

  12. Relationships between toxicopathic hepatic lesions and exposure to chemical contaminants in English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus), starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus), and white croaker (Genyonemus lineatus) from selected marine sites on the Pacific Coast, USA.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, M S; Stehr, C M; Olson, O P; Johnson, L L; McCain, B B; Chan, S L; Varanasi, U

    1994-01-01

    Relationships between hepatic lesions and chemical contaminant concentrations in sediments, stomach contents, liver tissue, and bile were statistically evaluated in three species of bottomfish, English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus), starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus), and white croaker (Genyonemus lineatus), captured from 27 urban and nonurban sites on the Pacific Coast from Alaska to southern California. Lesions detected were neoplasms, preneoplastic foci of cellular alteration, nonneoplastic proliferative lesions, unique or specific degenerative/necrotic lesions, nonspecific degenerative/necrotic lesions, and hydropic vacuolation of biliary epithelial cells and hepatocytes. In general, lesion prevalences were significantly higher in all three species captured at chemically contaminated urban sites, and certain lesions had significantly higher relative risks of occurrence at urban sites in Puget Sound, San Francisco Bay, the vicinity of Los Angeles, and San Diego Bay. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT and its derivatives, and chlordanes and dieldrin in sediment, stomach contents, liver, and fluorescent aromatic compounds in bile were significant risk factors for the occurrence of neoplastic, preneoplastic, nonneoplastic proliferative, and specific degenerative/necrotic lesions, as well as hydropic vacuolation. Fish age also had a significant influence on occurrence of several hepatic lesions, but gender was rarely a significant risk factor. These relationships provide strong evidence for the involvement of environmental contaminants in the etiology of hepatic lesions in several marine bottomfish species and clearly indicate the utility of these lesions as biomarkers of contaminant-induced effects in wild fish. Images Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 3. Figure 4. A Figure 4. B PMID:8033852

  13. A list of ectoparasites of Colombian bats.

    PubMed

    Marinkelle, C J; Grose, E S

    1981-07-01

    Of 3,860 Colombian bats, belonging to 109 species, 1,235 individuals (32%) of 100 species were infected with ectoparasites. A total of 3,545 ectoparasites pertaining to 88 species were obtained (Mesostigmata: 1 Halarachnidae; 19 Macronyssidae; 4 Spelaeorhynchidae; 104 Spinturnicidae. Ixodides: 449 Argasidae. Trombidiformes: 1 Spelognathidae; 340 Trombiculidae. Sarcoptiformes: 170 Listrophoridae. Hemiptera: 16 Cimidae; 4 Polyctenidae. Diptera: 7 Nycteribiidae; 2405 Streblidae, Siphonaptera: 25 Pulicidae). No ectoparasites were recovered from 9 species of bats. PMID:7339714

  14. Mitochondrial DNA studies show asymmetrical Amerindian admixture in Afro-Colombian and Mestizo populations.

    PubMed

    Rodas, Clemencia; Gelvez, Nancy; Keyeux, Genoveva

    2003-02-01

    The origin of the African populations that arrived on the Colombian coasts at the time of the Spanish conquest and their subsequent settlement throughout the country and interaction with Amerindian and Spanish populations are features that can be analyzed through the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. For this purpose, the present study investigates the admixture between these populations by analyzing the markers defining the main (A, B, C, D) and minor (X) founder haplogroups in Native Americans, the principal African haplogroup (L), and additional generic markers present in Caucasian (I, J, K, H, T, U, V, W) and minor African lineages (L3). As part of an interdisciplinary research program (the Expedición Humana, furthered by the Universidad Javeriana and directed by J.E. Bernal V.), 159 Afro-Colombians from five populations in which they are the majority and 91 urban Mestizos were studied. No Amerindian haplogroups (A-D, X) were detected in 81% of the Afro-Colombians. In those samples with Amerindian lineages (average 18.8%, with a range from 10% to 43%), haplogroup B predominated. When analyzed for the presence of African haplotypes, Afro-Colombians showed an overall frequency of 35.8% for haplogroup L mtDNAs, although with broad differences between populations. A few Afro-Colombian samples (1.9%) had mutations that have not been described before, and might therefore be considered as previously unsampled African variants or as new mutations arising in the American continent. Conversely, in Mestizos less than 22% of their mtDNAs belonged to non-Amerindian lineages, of which most were likely to be West Eurasian in origin. Haplogroup L mtDNAs were found in only one Mestizo (1.1%), indicating that, if present, admixture with African women would bring in other, rarer African lineages. On the other hand, in an accompanying paper (Keyeux et al. 2002) we have shown that Amerindians from Colombia have experienced little or no matrilineal admixture with

  15. Tropical Storm Gilma in Eastern Pacific

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of satellite observations shows the progression of Tropical Storm Gilma from August 7-10, 2012, along the coast of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This visualization was created by the NASA...

  16. The Teaching of English in Colombian Public Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    This study describes and analyzes the state of English teaching in Colombian public secondary schools in 1971. Examined are the present status of the Colombian school system, the English curriculum, the attitudes of English students, and the organizations which contribute to the study of English in Colombia. The methods used to teach the language…

  17. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 11-million gallon Exxon Valdez oil spill highlighted deficiencies in the nation's ability to contain and recover spilled oil. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 represents a major effort by Congress to address these deficiencies and to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the private sector and the federal government in preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills. This report examines the Coast Guard's efforts to avoid unnecessary and wasteful duplication by coordinating with the private sector and others, including federal and state agencies, its plans to buy oil spill response equipment and the new responsibilities the act places on the private sector and the Coast Guard and if these responsibilities call for a shift in emphasis in Coast Guard oil spill response activities.

  18. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    GAO found the situation in the Philadelphia and New York ports similar to that in Prince William Sound-neither industry nor the Coast Guard are prepared to respond to major oil spills. This report discusses how this unpreparedness is due to a lack of specificity in the industry and Coast Guard's plan on how to deal with spills of various sizes and Coast Guard authority to require ship owners and operators to have contingency plans or to require changes in existing plans. On the basic of recent experiences, GAO believes that prevention of oil spills rather than responding to them should be the main priority. Experiences in Price William Sound and in Philadelphia, however, show that much needs to be done to improve prevention measures like monitoring and guiding ship movements and using harbor pilots or vessel escorts.

  19. Ancestry, admixture and fitness in Colombian genomes

    PubMed Central

    Rishishwar, Lavanya; Conley, Andrew B.; Wigington, Charles H.; Wang, Lu; Valderrama-Aguirre, Augusto; King Jordan, I.

    2015-01-01

    The human dimension of the Columbian Exchange entailed substantial genetic admixture between ancestral source populations from Africa, the Americas and Europe, which had evolved separately for many thousands of years. We sought to address the implications of the creation of admixed American genomes, containing novel allelic combinations, for human health and fitness via analysis of an admixed Colombian population from Medellin. Colombian genomes from Medellin show a wide range of three-way admixture contributions from ancestral source populations. The primary ancestry component for the population is European (average = 74.6%, range = 45.0%–96.7%), followed by Native American (average = 18.1%, range = 2.1%–33.3%) and African (average = 7.3%, range = 0.2%–38.6%). Locus-specific patterns of ancestry were evaluated to search for genomic regions that are enriched across the population for particular ancestry contributions. Adaptive and innate immune system related genes and pathways are particularly over-represented among ancestry-enriched segments, including genes (HLA-B and MAPK10) that are involved in defense against endemic pathogens such as malaria. Genes that encode functions related to skin pigmentation (SCL4A5) and cutaneous glands (EDAR) are also found in regions with anomalous ancestry patterns. These results suggest the possibility that ancestry-specific loci were differentially retained in the modern admixed Colombian population based on their utility in the New World environment. PMID:26197429

  20. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon essential fish habitat (EFH) includes all those water bodies occupied...

  1. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon essential fish habitat (EFH) includes all those water bodies occupied...

  2. 50 CFR 660.323 - Pacific whiting allocations, allocation attainment, and inseason allocation reapportionment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific whiting allocations, allocation...) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.323 Pacific whiting allocations... amounts that will be harvested, or a combination of the two. Estimates of the amount of Pacific...

  3. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon essential fish habitat (EFH) includes all those water bodies occupied...

  4. 50 CFR 660.339 - Limited entry permit and Pacific whiting vessel license fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limited entry permit and Pacific whiting... COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.339 Limited entry permit and Pacific whiting vessel... will charge a one-time fee for the issuance of the original Pacific whiting vessel license....

  5. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon essential fish habitat (EFH) includes all those water bodies occupied...

  6. 76 FR 55865 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Notice of Availability for Secretarial Amendment 1 to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BB27 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Notice of Availability for Secretarial Amendment 1 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery...; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS has prepared Secretarial Amendment 1 to the Pacific Coast...

  7. 33 CFR 165.2030 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Coast Guard Districts are set out in 33 CFR part 3. (b) A naval vessel protection zone exists around U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Area. 165.2030 Section... Vessels § 165.2030 Pacific Area. (a) This section applies to any vessel or person in the navigable...

  8. 33 CFR 165.2030 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Coast Guard Districts are set out in 33 CFR part 3. (b) A naval vessel protection zone exists around U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Area. 165.2030 Section... Vessels § 165.2030 Pacific Area. (a) This section applies to any vessel or person in the navigable...

  9. 33 CFR 165.2030 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Coast Guard Districts are set out in 33 CFR part 3. (b) A naval vessel protection zone exists around U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Area. 165.2030 Section... Vessels § 165.2030 Pacific Area. (a) This section applies to any vessel or person in the navigable...

  10. 33 CFR 165.2030 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Coast Guard Districts are set out in 33 CFR part 3. (b) A naval vessel protection zone exists around U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Area. 165.2030 Section... Vessels § 165.2030 Pacific Area. (a) This section applies to any vessel or person in the navigable...

  11. Citrus alongside the sinking wreckage of MV Pacific Star in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Citrus alongside the sinking wreckage of MV Pacific Star in the Pacific Ocean. Pacific Star's captain used his vessel to ram the cutter after he was ordered to stop and submit to inspection by a boarding team. Citrus was not seriously damaged in the collision. U.S. Coast Guard personnel recovered a large amount of marijuana from the wreckage - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter CITRUS, Coos Bay, Coos County, OR

  12. 33 CFR 3.04-3 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Area. 3.04-3 Section 3.04-3 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Coast Guard Areas § 3.04-3 Pacific Area. (a) The Area Office is...

  13. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports that about 16,000 oil spills involving the release of more than 46 million gallons of oil took place in U.S. navigable waters in 1988; spills at water-front facilities, where vessels load and unload oil, accounted for about half of the oil spilled. While the Coast Guard acknowledges its responsibility for regulating and inspecting waterfront facilities, it efforts in this area have fallen short because it has not been inspecting portions of intrafacility pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Water pollution and noncompliance with federal oil pollution prevention regulations continue to be high at waterfront facilities. Yet the Coast Guard cannot determine how effective its inspection program has been in reducing the risk of oil spills because information on program results, such as the types, severity, and frequency of deficiencies found by inspectors, is not compiled an linked with information on the causes of oil spills found by investigators. Until the Coast Guard collects this type of information, it will not be in a position to establish measurable goals.

  14. 76 FR 2085 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA138 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council) will hold two consecutive meetings related to west coast CPS fisheries. The...

  15. Isoenzyme clustering of Trypanosomatidae Colombian populations.

    PubMed

    Montilla, Marleny M; Guhl, Felipe; Jaramillo, Carlos; Nicholls, Santiago; Barnabe, Christian; Bosseno, Marie F; Breniere, Simone F

    2002-04-01

    Thirty-six Trypanosomatidae stocks isolated from various hosts and geographical areas in Colombia and 7 others from Bolivia, Chile, Honduras and Panama have been surveyed by Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE). Part of the Colombian stocks were previously characterized by morphology and biological behavior as belonging to Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli taxa, others were unknown species. The genetic variability observed at 13 different loci was considerable, since 38 zymodemes could be distinguished and 2 upper branches were observed. The first branch corresponded to T. cruzi and was divided in the two major phylogenetic subdivision of T. cruzi (T. cruzi I, T. cruzi II). The majority of the Colombian T. cruzi stocks (92%) felt into T. cruzi I. Only two stocks, isolated from sylvatic mammals, belonged to T. cruzi II. Among T. cruzi I, we did not observed any additional phylogenetic subdivision and host-dependent genotype specificity. The second branch was genetically very heterogeneous and included all T. rangeli stocks, the stocks isolated from bats and one stock isolated from a sylvatic R. prolixus vector. The stocks belonging to T. rangeli presented only one locus instead of two for the malic enzyme system. Since, the upper level of resolution of the isoenzyme method was exceeded, the current clustering study failed to draw a clear distinction between such a diverse set of Trypanosomatidae species. PMID:12164294

  16. Acrylamide levels in selected Colombian foods.

    PubMed

    Pacetti, Deborah; Gil, Elizabeth; Frega, Natale G; Álvarez, Lina; Dueñas, Pilar; Garzón, Angélica; Lucci, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) levels in conventional (n = 112) and traditional (n = 43) Colombian foods were analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) detection. Samples included: infant powdered formula, coffee and chocolate powders, corn snacks, bakery products and tuber-, meat- and vegetable-based foods. There was a wide variability in AA levels among different foods and within different brands of the same food, especially for coffee powder, breakfast cereals biscuits and French fries samples. Among the conventional foods tested, the highest mean AA value was found in bakery products, such as biscuit (1104 µg kg(-1)) and wafer (1449 µg kg(-1)), followed by potato chips (916 µg kg(-1)). On the other hand, among the traditional foods, higher AA amounts were detected in fried platano (2813 µg kg(-1)) and yuca (3755 µg kg(-1)) compared to other products. Interestingly, the arepa, a traditional Colombian bakery product made with corn flour, showed a lower AA content (< 75 µg kg(-1)) when compared with similar bakery products tested, such as soft bread (102-594 µg kg(-1)), which is a made with wheat flour. PMID:25494681

  17. Reproductive variables of Urotrygon rogersi (Batoidea: Urotrygonidae): a species with a triannual reproductive cycle in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Falla, P A; Navia, A F; Cortés, E

    2012-04-01

    Reproductive aspects of the round ray Urotrygon rogersi were studied based on 2005 specimens obtained in the artisanal shrimp fishery operating on the Colombian Pacific coast. Females reached greater maximum total length (L(T) ), disc width (W(D) ) and mass (M) (38·0 cm, 19·9 cm and 348 g) than males (32·5 cm, 17·0 cm and 165 g). Sex ratio of juveniles and adults was 1:1. Clasper length increased rapidly between 10·0 and 12·5 cm W(D) . The smallest mature male measured 10·5 cm W(D) and the largest immature individual 13·7 cm W(D) . Male first maturity was reached at 61·8% of maximum W(D) , and estimated W(D50) was between 11·5 and 11·8 cm. The smallest mature female measured 10·5 cm W(D) ; the size at first maturity was 52·8% of maximum W(D) , and estimated W(D50) was between 11·8 and 12·3 cm. Embryos were found in females ≥ 10·5 cm W(D) and maximum fecundity was three embryos per female (mode = 1) and varied with maternal size. Embryos were found in all months, but three birthing peaks per year were identified and a gestation period of 4-5 months estimated. Based on ovulation time, embryonic growth and parturition dates, a triannual reproductive cycle was inferred for this species, with overlapping ovarian and uterine cycles. These results suggest that U. rogersi has a reproductive strategy based on low fecundity, a rapid reproductive cycle (short ovulation and gestation time), three birth peaks per year and large embryos. This strategy probably allows U. rogersi to withstand the fishing pressure they are subject to on the Colombian Pacific coast. The results also suggest that the study area is an important nursery and reproductive area for this species. PMID:22497382

  18. Genetic Characterization of Northwestern Colombian Chikungunya Virus Strains from the 2014-2015 Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Rodas, Juan D; Kautz, Tiffany; Camacho, Erwin; Paternina, Luis; Guzmán, Hilda; Díaz, Francisco J; Blanco, Pedro; Tesh, Robert; Weaver, Scott C

    2016-09-01

    Chikungunya fever, an acute and often chronic arthralgic disease caused by the mosquito-borne alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV), spread into the Americas in late 2013. Since then it has caused epidemics in nearly all New World countries, the second largest being Colombia with over 450,000 suspected cases beginning in September, 2014, and focused in Bolivar Department in the north. We examined 32 human sera from suspected cases, including diverse age groups and both genders, and sequenced the CHIKV envelope glycoprotein genes, known determinants of vector host range. As expected for Asian lineage CHIKV strains, these isolates lacked known Aedes albopictus-adaptive mutations. All the Colombian strains were closely related to those from the Virgin Islands, Saint Lucia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Brazil, consistent with a single, point-source introduction from the southeast Asia/Pacific region. Two substitutions in the E2 and E1 envelope glycoprotein genes were found in the Colombian strains, especially E1-K211E involving a residue shown previously to affect epistatically the penetrance of the E1-A226V A. albopictus-adaptive substitution. We also identified two amino acid substitutions unique to all American CHIKV sequences: E2-V368A and 6K-L20M. Only one codon, 6K-47, had a high nonsynonymous substitution rate suggesting positive selection. PMID:27430542

  19. Evidences of the Presence of Methane Seeps in the Colombian Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracia, Adriana; Rangel-Buitrago, Nelson; Sellanes, Javier

    2010-05-01

    For the first time in the southern Caribbean Sea Margin of Colombia (between 450 - 700 m deep) we confirm the presence of methane seep communities near the deltas of the Magdalena and Sinu rivers. Some evidences of the occurrence of those communities include: i) bivalves constituents of marine chemosynthesis-based communities, which are indicators of reducing environments as vesicomyid and lucinid bivalves (Vesicomya caribbea, Calyptogena ponderosa, Ectenagena modioliforma, Lucinoma spp. and Graecina colombiensis), together with the rare solemyid clam Acharax caribbaea, ii) other seep-associated fauna such as the trochid snail Cataegis meroglypta, iii) the first report of vestimentiferan tubeworms for the area and, iv) the presence of authigenic carbonates; these constructions form hard substrates colonized by sessile fauna. Additionally, more than 20 species of benthic non-seep fauna were found associated in the area. The collected fauna exhibits an elevated taxonomic similarity to other modern and fossil seep communities from the Caribbean (Barbados Prism, Gulf of Mexico, Cenozoic seep taxa from Barbados, Trinidad and Venezuela). The presence of these chemosymbiotic species seems to be related to mud diapirism activity in the South West of the Colombian coast, this geologic characteristic indicates tectonic and depositional processes associated with the aforementioned deltas. Further research is necessary to establish biological and geological interactions, geochemical and geophysical controls, and organization of cold seeps communities in this unexplored area of the Caribbean. Keywords: Methane, Chemosynthesis-based communities,Bivalves, Mud diapirs, Colombian Caribbean Sea

  20. Southwest coast of Greenland and Davis Strait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image was taken by MODIS as it passed over the southwest coast of Greenland (right) and the Davis Strait (center and left). The Davis Strait connects Baffin Bay to the north and the Labrador Sea to the south, and separates Greenland from Baffin Island, Canada. The Davis Strait is part of the Northwest Passage, a navigable seaway connecting the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The image shows the prevailing currents in the area, with the warm water of a branch of the North Atlantic Drift flowing northward along the Greenland coast, and the cold, iceberg-filled Labrador Current flowing southward along the Baffin Island coast.

  1. 77 FR 22679 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... specifications and management measures for most species of the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (75 FR 67810... species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27508). This final rule was subsequently amended by several inseason actions (76 FR 39313, 76 FR 67092, 76 FR 79122, 77...

  2. 78 FR 72586 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... specifications and management measures for most species of the Pacific Coast groundfish ] fishery (77 FR 67974... species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on January 3, 2013 (78 FR 580). The Council... total catch of managed species liberal enough to allow the catch of target species to approach, but...

  3. 77 FR 12503 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... specifications ] and management measures for most species of the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (75 FR 67810... species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27508). This final... action, which published on December 21, 2011 (76 FR 79122). This inseason action contains a...

  4. 77 FR 63758 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... specifications and management measures for most species of the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (75 FR 67810... species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27508). This final rule was subsequently amended by several inseason actions (76 FR 39313, 76 FR 67092, 76 FR 79122, 77...

  5. 77 FR 47322 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ...This final rule announces inseason changes to management measures in the Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries. This action, which is authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), is intended to allow fisheries to access more abundant groundfish stocks while protecting overfished and depleted...

  6. 78 FR 49190 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... specifications and management measures for most species of the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (77 FR 67974... species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on January 3, 2013 (78 FR 580). The Council... best available science to approach, without exceeding, the ACLs for federally managed species...

  7. The genesis of Colombian emeralds: a restatement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheilletz, A.; Giuliani, G.

    1996-07-01

    A renewal of metallogenetical studies of Colombian emerald deposits produced new geological and geochemical data that favour a hydrothermal-sedimentary genetic model for these deposits. A comprehensive model is presented which integrates both chemical and structural aspects and invalidates some aspects of the model recently presented by Ottaway et al. The deposits result from a two-stage process in which shortening tectonics affect the two borders of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and provoke decollement planes, thrusting, and thrust-fault related folds in the Early Cretaceous black shale series. Three major descriptive and interpretative aspects of the deposits are presented: (1) time relationships between the two different sets of barren and mineralized extensional veins; (2) the association of graphite and emerald mineralization, and (3) the thermochemical sulfate reduction reaction acting at the site of the emerald deposits to reduce sulfate of evaporitic origin from the hydrothermal brines into hydrogen sulfide by interaction with organic-rich strata.

  8. 75 FR 22829 - National Environmental Policy Act; Final Environmental Impact Statement on U.S. Coast Guard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    .... The Coast Guard published a notice of intent to prepare an EIS in the Federal ] Register (71 FR 14233... SECURITY Coast Guard National Environmental Policy Act; Final Environmental Impact Statement on U.S. Coast Guard Pacific Area Operations: Districts 11 and 13 AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice...

  9. Caribbean basin framework, 3: Southern Central America and Colombian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarsky, R.A.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors recognize three basin-forming periods in southern Central America (Panama, Costa Rica, southern Nicaragua) that they attempt to correlate with events in the Colombian basin (Bowland, 1984): (1) Early-Late Cretaceous island arc formation and growth of the Central American island arc and Late Cretaceous formation of the Colombian basin oceanic plateau. During latest Cretaceous time, pelagic carbonate sediments blanketed the Central American island arc in Panama and Costa Rica and elevated blocks on the Colombian basin oceanic plateau; (2) middle Eocene-middle Miocene island arc uplift and erosion. During this interval, influx of distal terrigenous turbidites in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks the uplift and erosion of the Central American island arc. In the Colombian basin, turbidites fill in basement relief and accumulate to thicknesses up to 2 km in the deepest part of the basin. In Costa Rica, sedimentation was concentrated in fore-arc (Terraba) and back-arc (El Limon) basins; (3) late Miocene-Recent accelerated uplift and erosion of segments of the Central American arc. Influx of proximal terrigenous turbidites and alluvial fans in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks collision of the Panama arc with the South American continent (late Miocene early Pliocene) and collision of the Cocos Ridge with the Costa Rican arc (late Pleistocene). The Cocos Ridge collision inverted the Terraba and El Limon basins. The Panama arc collision produced northeast-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults and fault-related basins throughout Panama as Panama moved northwest over the Colombian basin.

  10. 'Mary' and 'Eve's' Social Reproduction in the 'Big Apple'; Colombian Voices. Occasional Paper No. 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Mary Garcia

    This paper presents research on the immigration, employment, familial, and social experiences of Colombian women in New York City. The data discussed are derived from both a literature review and extensive interviews with Colombian women residing in the city during recent years. It is hypothesized that Colombian women's perceptions of their actual…

  11. Storms or cold fronts: what is really responsible for the extreme waves regime in the Colombian Caribbean coastal region?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, L. J.; Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Ruiz-Merchan, J. K.; Higgins, A. E.; Henriquez, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the contribution and importance of cold fronts and storms to extreme waves in different areas of the Colombian Caribbean in an attempt to determine the extent of the threat posed by the flood processes to which these coastal populations are exposed. Furthermore, the study wishes to establish the actions to which coastal engineering constructions should be subject. In the calculation of maritime constructions, the most important parameter is the height of the wave. For this reason, it is necessary to establish the design wave height to which a coastal engineering structure should be resistant. This wave height varies according to the return period considered. The significant height values for the areas focused on in the study were calculated in accordance with Gumbel's extreme value methodology. The methodology was evaluated using data from the reanalysis of the spectral National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WAVEWATCH III® (WW3) model for 15 points along the 1600 km of the Colombian Caribbean coastline (continental and insular) between the years 1979 and 2009. The results demonstrated that the extreme waves caused by tropical cyclones and those caused by cold fronts have different effects along the Colombian Caribbean coast. Storms and hurricanes are of greater importance in the Guajira Peninsula (Alta Guajira). In the central area (consisting of Baja Guajira, and the cities of Santa Marta, Barranquilla, and Cartagena), the strong impact of cold fronts on extreme waves is evident. However, in the southern region of the Colombian Caribbean coast (ranging from the Gulf of Morrosquillo to the Gulf of Urabá), the extreme values of wave heights are lower than in the previously mentioned regions, despite being dominated mainly by the passage of cold fronts. Extreme waves in the San Andrés and Providencia insular region present a different dynamic from

  12. Ocean dumping of radioactive waste off the Pacific Coast. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session, October 7, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Hearings of the Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, 96th Congress are reported. Analyses of health and environmental implications of dump sites in the Atlantic as well as the Pacific Ocean are presented. Statements are included from representatives of various federal agencies and from public interest groups such as Friends of the Earth, Project Tektite and the US Mussel Watch Committee. (JMT)

  13. 28. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photocopy of illustration in Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photocopy of illustration in Pacific Coast Architect, V. 33, No. 4 (April 1928) SMOKING ROOM, MEZZANINE. - Oriental Theatre, 828 Southeast Grand Avenue, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  14. 29. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photocopy of illustration in Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photocopy of illustration in Pacific Coast Architect, V. 33, No. 4 (April 1928) MEZZANINE FOYER, FROM SMOKING ROOM. - Oriental Theatre, 828 Southeast Grand Avenue, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  15. 75 FR 42069 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... meeting to develop a draft assessment of the factors triggering an overfishing concern for SRFC. The... consecutive years, an overfishing concern is triggered according to the terms of the Pacific Coast Salmon...

  16. A physical view of La Guajira Upwelling System, Colombian Basin, Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, G.; Beier, E.; Barton, E. D.; Ruiz-Ochoa, M.; Correa, J. G.

    2013-05-01

    La Guajira Peninsula lies within a large upwelling system along the South Caribbean Coast, created by the NE trade winds. In this location, sea surface temperature (SST) exhibits the lowest mean value and the highest variability in the whole Colombian Basin. The seasonal variation of SST explains up to 75 % of the total variability. La Guajira coastal zone also experiences the highest values of wind stress and wind stress curl, with the greatest annual and semiannual variability in the Colombian Basin. It has been shown that wind stress curl enhances the upwelling over the region. Near 90% of the variability of SST in La Guajira can be explained by the seasonality plus the first three EOFs interannual modes: the first, synchronous throughout the Basin, is dominant, and consists of a uniform interannual variation in phase with the North Tropical Atlantic Index; the second co-varies strongly with the second mode of wind stress curl; and the third reflects the role of the vertical atmospheric circulation cell associated with the Caribbean Low Level Jet off Central America. The inclusion of wind stress curl with its maximum offshore of La Guajira explains in part the extension of cool coastal water into the Colombian Basin, with advection in filaments, eddies and meanders. In order to complement the physical knowledge of La Guajira upwelling system, an analysis of water masses, sea surface height, Ekman suction, Ekman transport and coastal upwelling index (CUI) was performed. Hydrographic data was obtained from gridded climatologies from the National Oceanographic Data Center (WOD01); sea surface height anomalies from the Archiving, Validation, and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanography (AVISO) data; and wind data from the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform Ocean Surface Wind Velocity Product for Meteorological and Oceanographic Applications (CCMP). The upwelling forms a local water mass, La Guajira surface water (LGSW), with the mixing of subtropical underwater and

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOCOLS FOR CHRONIC TOXICITY TESTING OF PACIFIC MARINE SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of a year-round capability for conducting short-term toxicity tests for estimating chronic effect levels of toxic materials with a native Pacific coast fish and a native Pacific coast mysid shrimp was the goal of this project. n order to achieve acceptable sensitivity...

  18. 50 CFR 660.131 - Pacific whiting fishery management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the other provisions of 50 CFR part 660, subpart C or D, a vessel that is 75 feet or less LOA that... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific whiting fishery management... West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Trawl Fisheries § 660.131 Pacific whiting fishery...

  19. Gender Differences on the MMPI-2 for Colombian University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maness, Paula; Gomez, Nelson; Velasquez, Roberto J.; Silkowski, Sharon; Savino, Aimee

    In this study the efficacy of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2) was examined with a Colombian college student population. It was projected that the participants would have elevated scales related to psychological distress, marginality, and poor morale, given the current socio-political climate in Columbia. Participants…

  20. West Coast Tsunami: Cascadia's Fault?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Bernard, E. N.; Titov, V.

    2013-12-01

    The tragedies of 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Japan tsunamis exposed the limits of our knowledge in preparing for devastating tsunamis. The 1,100-km coastline of the Pacific coast of North America has tectonic and geological settings similar to Sumatra and Japan. The geological records unambiguously show that the Cascadia fault had caused devastating tsunamis in the past and this geological process will cause tsunamis in the future. Hypotheses of the rupture process of Cascadia fault include a long rupture (M9.1) along the entire fault line, short ruptures (M8.8 - M9.1) nucleating only a segment of the coastline, or a series of lesser events of M8+. Recent studies also indicate an increasing probability of small rupture occurring at the south end of the Cascadia fault. Some of these hypotheses were implemented in the development of tsunami evacuation maps in Washington and Oregon. However, the developed maps do not reflect the tsunami impact caused by the most recent updates regarding the Cascadia fault rupture process. The most recent study by Wang et al. (2013) suggests a rupture pattern of high- slip patches separated by low-slip areas constrained by estimates of coseismic subsidence based on microfossil analyses. Since this study infers that a Tokohu-type of earthquake could strike in the Cascadia subduction zone, how would such an tsunami affect the tsunami hazard assessment and planning along the Pacific Coast of North America? The rapid development of computing technology allowed us to look into the tsunami impact caused by above hypotheses using high-resolution models with large coverage of Pacific Northwest. With the slab model of MaCrory et al. (2012) (as part of the USGS slab 1.0 model) for the Cascadia earthquake, we tested the above hypotheses to assess the tsunami hazards along the entire U.S. West Coast. The modeled results indicate these hypothetical scenarios may cause runup heights very similar to those observed along Japan's coastline during the 2011

  1. Pacific Regional Solar Heating Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Writers' Development Trust, Toronto (Ontario).

    This handbook is intended as a guide for engineers, architects, and individuals familiar with heating and ventilating applications who wish to design a solar heating system for a residential or small commercial building in the Pacific Coast Region. The climate of the region is discussed by selected cities in terms of the effect of climate on solar…

  2. Year of the Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobik, Gray; Lux, Gretchen

    1980-01-01

    President Carter has designated 1980 as the "Year of the Coast" through the efforts of a coalition known as the Coast Alliance. The Coast Alliance will alert people to changes along the coastline, and the need for public participation in the decisions which govern the use and abuse of the coastline. (DS)

  3. Paleomagnetism of the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group in Oregon and Washington from the Pacific Coast to the Columbia Plateau: Magnetostratigraphy, Vertical-Axis Rotations, Paleosecular Variation, and Remagnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrum, J. T.; Wells, R. E.; Evarts, R. C.; Niem, A. R.; Sawlan, M. G.; Blakely, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Identification of individual flows within the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) has mostly relied on minor differences in geochemistry, but magnetic polarity has also proved useful in differentiating flows and establishing a temporal framework. Within the thick, rapidly erupted Grande Ronde Basalt four major polarity chrons (R1 to N2) have been identified. Because cooling times of CRBG flows are brief compared to rates of paleosecular variation (PSV), within-flow paleomagnetic directions are expected to be constant across the extensive east-west reaches of these flows. Vertical-axis rotations in OR and WA, driven by northward-oblique subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate, thus can be measured by comparing directions for western sampling localities to directions for the same flow units on the relatively stable Columbia Plateau. Clockwise rotations calculated for outcrop locations within the Coast Range (CR) block are uniformly about 30° (N=102 sites). East of the northwest-trending en échelon Mt. Angel-Gales Creek, Portland Hills, and northern unnamed fault zones, as well as north of the CR block's northern boundary (~Columbia River), clockwise rotations abruptly drop to about 15° (N=39 sites), with offsets in these bounding fault zones corresponding to the Portland and Willamette pull-apart basins. The general agreement of vertical- axis rotation rates estimated from CRBG magnetizations with those determined from modern GPS velocities indicates a relatively steady rate over the last 10 to 15 Myr. Unusual directions due to PSV, field excursions, or polarity transitions could provide useful stratigraphic markers. Individual flow directions, however, have not been routinely used to identify flows. One reason this has been difficult is that remagnetization is prevalent, particularly in the Coast Ranges, coupled with earlier demagnetization techniques that did not completely remove overprint components. Except for the Ginkgo and Pomona flows of the Wanapum and Saddle

  4. [Transformations of the rural Colombian family].

    PubMed

    Ordonez Gomez, M

    1991-06-01

    This work analyzes sociodemographic changes affecting rural Colombian families in the past 15-20 years. The most recent sources of data on Colombia's rural population are the 1985 census, the 1988 Rural Household Survey, and the 1990 Survey of Contraceptive Prevalence, Demography, and Health. Among the most significant changes observed since the preceding census, in 1973, were declines in illiteracy and increases in educational status, increased economic participation of women, declines in fertility and infant mortality, and declining participation in agriculture and diversification in other rural activities. The absolute size of Colombia's rural population has not changed since 1973 but its relative weight has declined from 39% to 32% in 1985. Due to the fertility decline the proportion of the population under 15 has declined from 48% in 1973 too 39% in 1990. The rural total fertility rate was estimated at 3.8 children per woman in 1987-90 and the crude birth rate at 27/1000. The total fertility rate is much higher in some regions and among some groups of women. The most important determinant of rural fertility decline has been family planning. Between 1969-90, the proportion of rural women using contraception has increased from 10 to 60%. 47% of women in union do not desire more children, with poorly educated mothers of 3 or more children least likely to want more children. A 1990 estimate of infant mortality based on the contraceptive prevalence survey was 36/1000 in rural and 28/1000 in urban areas. Although the overall infant mortality rate has declined by 37% in 25 years, significant regional and socioeconomic differentials persist. Acute diarrheal disease is still the single most important cause of death in children under 5, followed by acute respiratory infections. The main cause of death for adults aged 15-44 is homicide. Among fertile-aged women the most important causes of illness and death are nutritional deficiencies and poor attention in deliveries

  5. Colombian late cretaceous tropical planktonic foraminifera: Redressing the imbalance

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, L.D.

    1993-02-01

    Recent work involving Late Cretaceous planktonic foraminifera has concentrated on European and other areas in the Northern Hemisphere. Many of the biostratigraphical and evolutionary models reflect this geographical restriction and ignore earlier studies from tropical areas. In 1955 Rolando Gandolfi described many new species and subspecies from Colombia and provided a different view of the evolutionary development of planktonic foraminifera. A re-examination of the Gandolfi type collection using Scanning Electron Micrography (Environmental Chamber technique) integrated with Colombian well samples from onshore Guajira area, Middle and Upper Magdalena Valley and Putumayo Basin has given a new view into the evolutionary development of Late Cretaceous planktonic foraminifera. This has enabled a modified globigerine Late Cretaceous biostratigraphy to be constructed for Colombia. This work redresses the imbalance between studies of tropical and northern high latitude Late Cretaceous planktonic foraminifera and provides an insight into the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatological factors influencing the Colombian region at the time.

  6. [Informed consent for genetic information management in Colombian law].

    PubMed

    Gómez Córdoba, Ana Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Deciphering the human genome has allowed the development of new health care ways which have been generically referred to as genomic medicine. However, this new knowledge is not devoid of risks related to the access and use of genetic information, involving not only the individual, but also the biological family, ethnic group and community to which he/she belong to. This affects both individual and collective rights, which must be protected by law. This manuscript reviews the Colombian law, specifically in terms of the access and use of genetic information for diagnostic and treatment purposes, focusing on the informed consent process. The concept of genetic information, the risks and benefits associated with genetic data management and the description and critical analysis of the present Colombian regulations were thus reviewed. As a conclusion, the juridical framework of Colombia shows deficiencies regarding the protection of both individual and collective rights linked to the access and use of genetic information. PMID:22984754

  7. Techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery: Colombian case.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Jonathan; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-05-01

    In this paper a techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery is presented for the Colombian case. It is shown two scenarios for different conversion pathways as function of feedstock distribution and technologies for sugar, fuel ethanol, PHB, anthocyanins and electricity production. These scenarios are compared with the Colombian base case which simultaneously produce sugar, fuel ethanol and electricity. A simulation procedure was used in order to evaluate biorefinery schemes for all the scenarios, using Aspen Plus software, that include productivity analysis, energy calculations and economic evaluation for each process configuration. The results showed that the configuration with the best economic, environmental and social performance is the one that considers fuel ethanol and PHB production from combined cane bagasse and molasses. This result served as the basis to draw recommendations on technological and economic feasibility as well as social aspects for the implementation of such type of biorefinery in Colombia. PMID:23021947

  8. Comparison of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenylethers, and organochlorine pesticides in Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) from offshore oil platforms and natural reefs along the California coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; Tanner, Michael J.; Love, Milton S.; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Schroeder, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the relative exposure of Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at oil-production platforms was reported, indicating negligible exposure to PAHs and no discernible differences between exposures at platforms and nearby natural areas sites. In this report, the potential for chronic PAH exposure in fish is reported, by measurement of recalcitrant, higher molecular weight PAHs in tissues of fish previously investigated for PAH metabolites in bile. A total of 34 PAHs (20 PAHs, 11 alkylated PAHs, and 3 polycyclic aromatic thiophenes) were targeted. In addition, legacy contaminants—polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs),—and current contaminants, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) linked to endocrine disruption, were measured by gas chromatography with electron-capture or mass spectrometric detection, to form a more complete picture of the contaminant-related status of fishes at oil production platforms in the Southern California Bight. No hydrocarbon profiles or unresolved complex hydrocarbon background were found in fish from platforms and from natural areas, and concentrations of aliphatics were low less than 100 nanograms per gram (ng/g) per component]. Total-PAH concentrations in fish ranged from 15 to 37 ng/g at natural areas and from 8.7 to 22 ng/g at platforms. Profiles of PAHs were similar at all natural and platform sites, consisting mainly of naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Total-PCB concentrations (excluding non-ortho-chloro-substituted congeners) in fish were low, ranging from 7 to 22 ng/g at natural areas and from 10 to 35 ng/g at platforms. About 50 percent of the total-PCBs at all sites consisted of 11 congeners: 153 > 138/163/164 > 110 > 118 > 15 > 99 > 187 > 149 > 180. Most OCPs, except dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-related compounds, were not detectable or were at concentrations of less than 1 ng/g in fish. p

  9. [Colombian migration to the Venezuelan agrarian sector: a binational context].

    PubMed

    Mora, J; Gomez, A

    1980-01-01

    The authors attempt to determine the reasons for the chronic national labor shortage in the Venezuelan agrarian sector and for the large-scale emigration of Colombians to work in Venezuelan agriculture. The income of agricultural wage earners and the conditions of labor force reproduction in Venezuela are discussed as factors contributing to the labor shortage. With reference to Colombia, the rapid growth of international commerce and the policy of limiting wages are suggested as factors which contribute to emigration PMID:12338618

  10. Early Risk Factors for Violence in Colombian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David W.; Brook, Judith S.; Rosen, Zohn; De la Rosa, Mario; Montoya, Ivan D.; Whiteman, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Objective Violence and homicide are more prevalent in Colombia, South America, than in the United States, but the role of psychosocial factors in the violent behavior of Colombian adolescents remains unclear. The objective of the study was to identify personality, familial, peer, and ecological variables associated with violence in Colombian adolescents. Method A survey of adolescents was conducted in 1995-1996. A standard self-report measure was adapted to ensure linguistic and cultural relevance. A total of 2,837 adolescents ages 12-17 years from various self-reported ethnic groups were randomly selected from the community in three Colombian cities: Bogota, Medellin, and Barranquilla. Eighty percent of eligible adolescents agreed to participate. Data were collected concerning the adolescent's personality attributes, family characteristics, peer characteristics, and ecological/cultural factors, including the availability of illicit drugs and the prevalence of violence in the community. The dependent variable was the adolescent's self-reported frequency of violent behavior. Results Violence directed at the adolescent and the adolescent's own drug use were both more highly correlated with the adolescent's violent behavior than were other risk factors. Significant risk factors of less importance included tolerance of deviance, peer drug use, peer deviance, and exposure to violence on television. Conclusions The results supported a model in which violent behavior was correlated independently with a number of risk factors from several domains. The findings point to the use of specific intervention procedures for adolescents to prevent their own subsequent acts of violent behavior. PMID:12900310

  11. Chapter 9: The rock coast of the USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Adams, Peter N.; Allan, Jonathan; Ashton, Andrew; Griggs, Gary B.; Hampton, Monty A.; Kelly, Joseph; Young, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    The coastline of the USA is vast and comprises a variety of landform types including barrier islands, mainland beaches, soft bluffed coastlines and hard rocky coasts. The majority of the bluffed and rocky coasts are found in the northeastern part of the country (New England) and along the Pacific coast. Rocky and bluffed landform types are commonly interspersed along the coastline and occur as a result of relative lowering of sea level from tectonic or isostatic forcing, which can occur on timescales ranging from instantaneous to millenia. Recent research on sea cliffs in the contiguous USA has focused on a broad range of topics from documenting erosion rates to identifying processes and controls on morphology to prediction modelling. This chapter provides a detailed synthesis of recent and seminal research on rocky coast geomorphology along open-ocean coasts of the continental United States (USA).

  12. 78 FR 6794 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ...NMFS proposes to implement an annual catch limit (ACL), harvest guideline (HG), and associated annual reference points for Pacific sardine in the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the Pacific coast for the fishing season of January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2013. This rule is proposed according to the Coastal Pelagic Species (CPS) Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The proposed 2013......

  13. 77 FR 47318 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ...NMFS issues this final rule to implement the annual catch limit (ACL), harvest guideline (HG), and associated annual reference points for Pacific sardine in the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the Pacific coast for the fishing season of January 1, 2012, through December 31, 2012. These specifications were determined according to the Coastal Pelagic Species (CPS) Fishery Management Plan......

  14. 78 FR 36117 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...NMFS issues this final rule to implement the annual catch limit (ACL), harvest guideline (HG), and associated annual reference points for Pacific sardine in the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the Pacific coast for the fishing season of January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2013. These specifications were determined according to the Coastal Pelagic Species (CPS) Fishery Management Plan......

  15. 78 FR 18249 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ...NMFS issues this final rule to implement the annual catch limit (ACL), harvest guideline (HG), annual catch target (ACT) and associated annual reference points for Pacific mackerel in the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the Pacific coast for the fishing season of July 1, 2012, through June 30, 2013. These specifications were determined according to the Coastal Pelagic Species (CPS)......

  16. The Emergence of Doctoral Programmes in the Colombian Higher Education System: Trends and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, Orlando; Celis, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The international literature contains few formal analyses of the state of Colombian higher education and its most critical issues. This article systematically and comparatively analyzes the emergence of Colombian doctoral programmes within a national and international context. It shows that, while Colombia has experienced a significant growth in…

  17. Comparison of Plasmodium falciparum infections in Panamanian and Colombian owl monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rossan, R N; Harper, J S; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A; Christensen, H A

    1985-11-01

    Parameters of blood-induced infections of the Vietnam Oak Knoll, Vietnam Smith, and Uganda Palo Alto strains of Plasmodium falciparum studied in 395 Panamanian owl monkeys in this laboratory between 1976-1984 were compared with those reported from another laboratory for 665 Colombian owl monkeys, studied between 1968-1975, and, at the time, designated Aotus trivirgatus griseimembra. The virulence of these strains was less in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, as indicated by lower mortality rates of the Panamanian monkeys during the first 30 days of patency. Maximum parasitemias of the Vietnam Smith and Uganda Palo Alto strain, in Panamanian owl monkeys dying during the first 15 days of patent infection, were significantly higher than in Colombian owl monkeys. Panamanian owl monkeys that survived the primary attack had significantly higher maximum parasitemias than the surviving Colombian owl monkeys. Peak parasitemias were attained significantly earlier after patency in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, irrespective of the strain of P. falciparum. More Panamanian than Colombian owl monkeys evidenced self-limited infection after the primary attack of either the Vietnam Smith or Uganda Palo Alto strain. The duration of the primary attacks and recrudescences were significantly shorter in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys. Mean peak parasitemias during recrudescence were usually higher in Panamanian owl monkeys than in Colombian monkeys. Differences of infection parameters were probably attributable, in part, to geographical origin of the two monkey hosts and parasite strains. PMID:3914842

  18. The Colombian Community in Metropolitan New York; Who Are We and Where Are We Going?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofman, Amparo; Escala, Zuleynan

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Colombian immigrant community in New York as revealed through a survey conducted in May 1997. Study findings show that most of the Colombian immigrants were attracted to the United States because of better material and economic conditions. Once established, most succeed in becoming part of the workforce. (SLD)

  19. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area about one-half mile off the west coast of...

  20. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area about one-half mile off the west coast of...

  1. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area about one-half mile off the west coast of...

  2. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area about one-half mile off the west coast of...

  3. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area about one-half mile off the west coast of...

  4. Development of protocols for chronic toxicity testing of Pacific marine species

    SciTech Connect

    Langdon, C.J.; Seim, W.K.; Hoffman, R.L.; Weber, L.

    1990-03-01

    The development of a year-round capability for conducting short-term toxicity tests for estimating chronic-effect levels of toxic materials with a native Pacific coast fish and a native Pacific coast mysid shrimp was the goal of the project. In order to achieve acceptable sensitivity as a surrogate for chronic toxicity tests, targeting the reproductive portion of the mysid life cycle and all or part of the embryonic, larval, or early post-larval portion of the fish life cycle was deemed necessary. This targeting is consistent with conclusions based upon earlier work in developing similar tests with Atlantic coast, Gulf coast, and freshwater fish and invertebrates.

  5. Gulf Coast Wetlands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Wetlands of the Gulf Coast     View Larger ... highlights coastal areas of four states along the Gulf of Mexico: Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and part of the Florida panhandle. The ... date:  Oct 15, 2001 Images:  Gulf Coast location:  United States Gulf of ...

  6. The Servita Fault, Colombian Eastern Cordillera: Origin, Geotectonics, and Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicangana, G.; Kammer, A.; Vargas Jiménez, C. A.; Caneva, A.; Pedraza, P.; Salcedo, E.; Gomez, A.; Muñoz, F.

    2014-12-01

    The Servita fault is a thrust located in the center of Colombia and whose main scarp is at 5 km west of Villavicencio (500.000 inhabitants). According to geophysics data as gravity, magnetic, and seismic, this fault was confirmed how a large cortical structure in the Colombian Eastern Cordillera. The Servita fault possibly was originated like a suture that derived of a continental collision in Late Mesoproterozoic times when Rodinia was conform totally. The Servita Fault as normal fault in Mesozoic times contributed to the Colombian Cretaceous basin development. In Late Cretaceous because to collision of the Caribbean plate with the northwestern corner of South America a strong compressive stress was occur and kinematics changes were presented in the normal faults restrained to the basin like among others the Servita Fault, where these were converted in inverse faults. From early Pliocene until Present times the Servita Fault controlled the growth of the Cordillera and the Llanos foothills in this sector of Central Colombia. Result of this is the seismicity activity registered for this region from historical times (less of 500 years for Colombian case). Two earthquakes have transcended in this region in last three centuries: the first one occurred on October 18th, 1743 with a current probabilistic magnitude greater than 6.5 and the second one struck on May 24th, 2008 with a M = 5.9. In this work we show how this fault has develop from its origin, and how this can would produce a M > 6.5 earthquake very close to metropolitan area of Bogota D.C., and Villavicencio. This earthquake would destroy both urban areas resulting in high losses in lives and economic terms. The seismicity activity of the Servita Fault and its associated structures is registered by the National Seismological Network of Colombia and the Sabana de Bogotá Seismological Network.

  7. Methylmercury concentrations in six fish species from two Colombian rivers.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Santiago; Jessick, Ashley M; Palacio, Jaime A; Kolok, Alan S

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether fish collected from the La Miel or Nechí Rivers (Colombia) differed in muscle methyl mercury (meHg) concentration. Two fish from six different species were collected from markets adjacent to each river. Overall, fish collected from the market adjacent to the Nechí River contained higher levels of meHg. This result however is being driven by very high meHg concentrations in four individual fish, three of which are Pimelodid, long-whiskered catfish. These catfish may represent ideal sentinel organism for the detection of meHg contamination in Colombian rivers. PMID:22065125

  8. Cervical cancer detection by electrical impedance in a Colombian setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, David A.; Corzo, Sandra P.; González Correa, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    Electrical properties of normal and neoplastic cervical tissues in a heterogeneous group of 56 Colombian women were studied by electrical impedance spectroscopy and a model based on the Generalized Effective-Medium Theory of Induced Polarization (GEMTIP). Differences between the electrical bioimpedance spectra were correlated with cellular and tissue parameters. The analysis performed by the proposed model suggest that the number of different types of cellular layers that form the biological tissue, the intracellular and extracellular conductivity could be used to explain the differences between electrical bioimpedance spectra in normal and neoplastic tissues.

  9. GEOMORPHOLOGY AND ANTHROPOGENIC INFLUENCES ON FISH AND AMPHIBIANS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST COASTAL STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical habitat degradation has been implicated as a major contributor to the historic decline of salmonids in Pacific Northwest streams. Native aquatic vertebrate assemblages in the Oregon and Washington Coast Range consist primarily of coldwater salmonids, cottids, and amphib...

  10. Colombian approaches to psychology in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, Gilberto Leonardo

    2012-11-01

    Colombian intellectuals of the 19th century widely consulted scientific psychology in regard to their political, religious, and educational interests. Colombian independence from Spain (1810) introduced the necessity of transforming the former subjects into illustrious citizens and members of a modern state. After independence, political liberals embraced Bentham's thesis of utilitarianism and the theories of sensibility, with a teaching style based in induction. Conservatives defended the Catholic tradition about the divine origin of the soul and used scholasticism as a model of teaching. A bipartisan coalition, the Regeneration, incorporated the ideas of modern psychology based on the principles of Thomistic thought (Neo-Thomism). The Neo-Thomists considered psychology as a science of the soul and debated physiological explanations of the mind. The conceptual advances of the period have been trivialized in historical accounts of psychology in Colombia, due to the emphasis on the institutionalization processes of the discipline in 1947. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23397920

  11. Shelfbreak circulation, fronts and physical oceanography: east and west coast perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrafesa, L.J.

    1983-06-01

    A survey of fundamental physical oceanographic processes that may affect sediment distribution along shelfbreak regions is presented, emphasizing the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the USA. These shelfbreak strips couple the bounded coastal oceans to the open seas, but there is no systematic pattern to this coupling. Pacific coast shelfbreak processes tend to be less energetic than those on the Atlantic coast since the Pacific coast is missing a Western Boundary Current and because the shelf is narrow and deep. Subinertial frequency shelfbreak motions on the west coast are typically manifested across the entire shelf, while those on the east coast tend to be confined to a loosely defined band, which brackets the break. Principal Pacific coast circulation elements include forms of continental shelf waves and thermohaline driven and mechanically wind forced currents, as well as the California Current System. While high frequency edge waves and inertial current are indigenous in similar fashion to all coasts, east and west coast tides are shown to be quite disparate, given tradeoffs between dominance of diurnal and semidiurnal constituents as a function of topographic constraint and strength of density stratification. All of the shelfbreak zones are graced by thermohaline fronts. The fronts are progradational on the west and southeastern coasts and retrogradational on the northeastern shelf. These fronts are an integral ingredient of all aspects of physical processes at the shelfbreak strip. The interplay of bottom topography with the physics of the outer continental margin is significant. Bottom features such as shoals, bumps, ridges and canyons are shown to be regions of sediment erosion, deposition and draping. Moreover, these features are shown to be casually related to upwelling and downwelling phenomena and to the deflection and scattering of waves and currents.

  12. Order parameter analysis of seismicity of the Mexican Pacific coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Rojas, A.; Flores-Márquez, E. L.

    2013-05-01

    The natural time domain has shown to be an important tool to obtain relevant information hidden in time series of complex systems not easily obtainable by means of standard analysis methods. By assuming that tectonism is a complex system and that earthquakes are similar to a phase transition, it is possible to define an order parameter for seismicity in the context of the natural time domain. In this work we analyze the statistical features of the order parameter (OP) computed for the seismic Mexican catalog spanning from 1974 to 2012. We found that in four out of the six regions the pdf of the order parameter fluctuations is similar with that earlier reported by other authors, but in two of these regions noticeable differences are identified. Also, except for Michoacán, the scaled pdfs analysis of all regions collapse on a universal curve with non-Gaussian tails.

  13. 33 CFR 165.T11-577 - Security Zone; Naval Exercise; Pacific Ocean, Coronado, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; Naval Exercise; Pacific Ocean, Coronado, CA. 165.T11-577 Section 165.T11-577 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.T11-577 Security Zone; Naval Exercise; Pacific Ocean, Coronado, CA. (a) Location. The limits...

  14. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  15. 33 CFR 110.235 - Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). 110.235 Section 110.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). (a) The anchorage...

  16. 33 CFR 110.237 - Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage. 110.237 Section 110.237 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.237 Pacific Ocean at...

  17. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  18. 33 CFR 110.216 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Catalina Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Catalina Island, Calif. 110.216 Section 110.216 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.216 Pacific Ocean at...

  19. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted area....

  20. 33 CFR 110.237 - Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage. 110.237 Section 110.237 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.237 Pacific Ocean at...

  1. 33 CFR 110.237 - Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage. 110.237 Section 110.237 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.237 Pacific Ocean at...

  2. 33 CFR 110.216 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Catalina Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Catalina Island, Calif. 110.216 Section 110.216 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.216 Pacific Ocean at...

  3. 33 CFR 110.235 - Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). 110.235 Section 110.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). (a) The anchorage...

  4. 33 CFR 110.235 - Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). 110.235 Section 110.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). (a) The anchorage...

  5. 33 CFR 110.216 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Catalina Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Catalina Island, Calif. 110.216 Section 110.216 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.216 Pacific Ocean at...

  6. 33 CFR 110.222 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif. 110.222 Section 110.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.222 Pacific Ocean at...

  7. 33 CFR 110.222 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif. 110.222 Section 110.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.222 Pacific Ocean at...

  8. 33 CFR 110.222 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif. 110.222 Section 110.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.222 Pacific Ocean at...

  9. 33 CFR 110.237 - Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage. 110.237 Section 110.237 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.237 Pacific Ocean at...

  10. 33 CFR 110.222 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif. 110.222 Section 110.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.222 Pacific Ocean at...

  11. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  12. 33 CFR 110.235 - Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). 110.235 Section 110.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). (a) The anchorage...

  13. 33 CFR 110.235 - Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). 110.235 Section 110.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). (a) The anchorage...

  14. 33 CFR 110.222 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif. 110.222 Section 110.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.222 Pacific Ocean at...

  15. 33 CFR 110.216 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Catalina Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Catalina Island, Calif. 110.216 Section 110.216 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.216 Pacific Ocean at...

  16. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  17. 33 CFR 110.216 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Catalina Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Catalina Island, Calif. 110.216 Section 110.216 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.216 Pacific Ocean at...

  18. 33 CFR 110.237 - Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage. 110.237 Section 110.237 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.237 Pacific Ocean at...

  19. Pacific Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakatsu, H.; Takeo, A.; Isse, T.; Nishida, K.; Shiobara, H.; Suetsugu, D.

    2014-12-01

    Based on our recent results on broadband ocean bottom seismometry, we propose a next generation large-scale array experiment in the ocean. Recent advances in ocean bottom broadband seismometry (e.g., Suetsugu & Shiobara, 2014, Annual Review EPS), together with advances in the seismic analysis methodology, have now enabled us to resolve the regional 1-D structure of the entire lithosphere/asthenosphere system, including seismic anisotropy (both radial and azimuthal), with deployments of ~10-15 broadband ocean bottom seismometers (BBOBSs) (namely "ocean-bottom broadband dispersion survey"; Takeo et al., 2013, JGR; Kawakatsu et al., 2013, AGU; Takeo, 2014, Ph.D. Thesis; Takeo et al., 2014, JpGU). Having ~15 BBOBSs as an array unit for 2-year deployment, and repeating such deployments in a leap-frog way (an array of arrays) for a decade or so would enable us to cover a large portion of the Pacific basin. Such efforts, not only by giving regional constraints on the 1-D structure, but also by sharing waveform data for global scale waveform tomography, would drastically increase our knowledge of how plate tectonics works on this planet, as well as how it worked for the past 150 million years. International collaborations might be sought.

  20. 75 FR 2077 - Safety Zone; Todd Pacific Shipyards Vessel Launch, West Duwamish Waterway, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Duwamish Waterway, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the West Duwamish Waterway, Seattle, Washington. Entry... Pacific Shipyards, located at the entrance to the West Duwamish Waterway. DATES: This rule is...

  1. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries...

  2. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project : Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Close, David A.

    2002-11-01

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) has significantly declined along the Oregon coast and in the Columbia River Basin (Downey et al. 1993; Close and Jackson 2001). Declines in adults can be partially attributed to hydroelectric dams, which have impeded passage of adult Pacific lamprey in the Columbia and Snake rivers, thus effecting larval recruitment in the basin. Adult pacific lamprey also declined in numbers in the Umatilla River, a tributary of the Columbia River. In addition to hydro power dams in the Columbia River, habitat alterations and chemical treatments have been involved in the collapse of Pacific lamprey populations in the Umatilla River. To initiate the restoration effort, CTUIR began developing a restoration plan in 1998. The goal of the lamprey research and restoration project is to restore natural production of Pacific lampreys in the Umatilla River to self-sustaining and harvestable level. This report is summarizing the studies and restoration efforts concluded in 2001.

  3. Coasts under pressure.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1994-01-01

    In most areas of the world, too many people live or play along the coast. Municipal and industrial wastes pollute coastal waters. Rivers spew erosion sediment and pollutants into these waters. Economic development is often the only management strategy for coastal zones, and economic development has little concern for resource degradation and watershed management. 53 countries have coastal management plans, but few have adequately implemented them. Almost 66% of the world's population lives within 150 km of the coast; by 2025, 75% will live as close to the coast. In the US, the coastal population has grown faster than that of the entire US, so that the population density is now almost 400 persons/sq m compared to 275 persons/sq m in 1960. Urbanization continues in the US coastal zones, where 7 of the 10 US largest cities exist. 94% of China's population lives in the eastern 3rd of the country. The population density along China's coast is more than 600/sq km. In Shanghai, it is more than 2000/sq km. Many people are moving from poorer provinces in the central and western regions to the economic free zones and special economic zones along the coast. At any moment, 30-60 million Chinese are moving. Most everyone in southeastern Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America live in coastal areas. By 2025, the coastal zone between Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo will be all urbanized This is also occurring on Chile's coast between Valparaiso and Concepcion. The Mediterranean has the most overcrowded coastline in the developed world. Unchecked development could lead to continuous urban sprawl between Spain and Greece. Development pressures have caused a sizable decline in or a collapse of coastal fisheries. In Asia, all waters within 15 km of the coastline have been overfished. Coral reefs and mangrove forests are being destroyed with inadequate resources targeted for their protection. PMID:12287493

  4. Antioxidant activity of twenty five plants from Colombian biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Mosquera, Oscar M; Correa, Yaned M; Buitrago, Diana C; Niño, Jaime

    2007-08-01

    The antioxidant activity of the crude n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts from 25 species belonging to the Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae families collected at natural reserves from the Eje Cafetero Ecorregión Colombia, were evaluated by using the spectrophotometric 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging method. The strongest antioxidant activities were showed by the methanol and dichloromethane extracts from the Euphorbiaceae, Alchornea coelophylla (IC50 41.14 mg/l) and Acalypha platyphilla (IC50 111.99 mg/l), respectively. These two species had stronger DPPH radical scavenging activities than hydroquinone (IC50 151.19 mg/l), the positive control. The potential use of Colombian flora for their antioxidant activities is discussed. PMID:17710309

  5. Identification of mutations in Colombian patients affected with Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Alfredo; Mateus, Heidi Eliana; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Palacios, Maria Fernanda; Ospina, Sandra Yaneth; Pasqualim, Gabriela; da Silveira Matte, Ursula; Giugliani, Roberto

    2015-12-15

    Fabry Disease (FD) is an X-linked inborn error of glycosphingolipid catabolism, caused by a deficiency of the lisosomal α-galactosidase A (AGAL). The disorder leads to a vascular disease secondary to the involvement of kidney, heart and the central nervous system. The mutation analysis is a valuable tool for diagnosis and genetic counseling. Although more than 600 mutations have been identified, most mutations are private. Our objective was to describe the analysis of nine Colombian patients with Fabry disease by automated sequencing of the seven exons of the GLA gene. Two novel mutations were identified in two patients affected with the classical subtype of FD, in addition to other 6 mutations previously reported. The present study confirms the heterogeneity of mutations in Fabry disease and the importance of molecular analysis for genetic counseling, female heterozygotes detection as well as therapeutic decisions. PMID:26297554

  6. Dengue in an area of the Colombian Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Barreto, Heidi; Mattar-Velilla, Salim

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Colombia, dengue is an endemic disease and the four serotypes have been reported. Objective: To describe the frequency and severity of dengue in an area of the Colombian Caribbean (Department of Cordoba) Methods: A retrospective study was conducted. Two data sources were analysed: The database from the Direction of Health in Córdoba, and clinical registers of patients diagnosed with haemorrhagic fevers and fevers of unknown origin in reference hospitals. Results: The mean incidence of dengue between 2003-2010 was 36.5 cases/105 inhabitants (CI95%: 34.3-37.5) and adjusted for sub-reporting, could be between 178.5 and 521.6. The mean incidence of severe dengue was 4.7 cases/105 inhabitants (CI95%: 4.3-5.0). Mean mortality rate due to dengue was 0.3 cases/105 inhabitants. The fatality rate was below 1%. The mean total leukocyte count in patients with dengue was 6,181 mm3 (CI95%: 5,973-6,389) and with severe Dengue was 4,729 mm3 (CI95%: 4,220-5,238). The average platelet count in patients with Dengue was 118,793/mm3 (CI95%: 107,255-130,331) and in patients with Severe Dengue 77,655 (CI95%: 59,640-95,670). Both differences were statistically significant (p <0.05). The frequency of laboratories test per patient in patients with Dengue and severe Dengue were different. Conclusion: The department of Cordoba is a highly endemic zone of Dengue and severe Dengue in the Colombian Caribbean. Moreover, the results show significant differences between dengue and severe dengue so much in tests as in frequency of use of healthcare services. PMID:26019378

  7. 50 CFR 600.530 - Pacific albacore fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Albacore Tuna Vessels and Port Privileges as amended in 2002. Notwithstanding any other provision of this...: Fishing under the Treaty as amended in 2002 means to engage in fishing for albacore tuna in waters under... the United States of America and the Government of Canada on Pacific Coast Albacore Tuna Vessels...

  8. 50 CFR 600.530 - Pacific albacore fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Albacore Tuna Vessels and Port Privileges as amended in 2002. Notwithstanding any other provision of this...: Fishing under the Treaty as amended in 2002 means to engage in fishing for albacore tuna in waters under... the United States of America and the Government of Canada on Pacific Coast Albacore Tuna Vessels...

  9. Coast Guard Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a lightweight, helicopter-transportable, completely self-contained firefighting module for combating shipboard and dockside fires. The project draws upon NASA technology in high-capacity rocket engine pumps, lightweight materials and compact packaging.

  10. Spatial and temporal distribution of the invasive lionfish Pterois volitans in coral reefs of Tayrona National Natural Park, Colombian Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón-Moscoso, Javier; Polanco F., Andrea; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The lionfish Pterois volitans is an invasive species throughout the Western Atlantic that disturbs functioning of local ecosystems such as coral reefs via fast and intense consumption of small fish and invertebrates. In 2009, lionfish populated the bays of Tayrona National Natural Park (TNNP), a biodiversity hotspot in the Colombian Caribbean that is strongly influenced by changing environmental conditions due to a rainy and dry season. So far, the spatial and temporal distribution of P. volitans in the bays of TNNP is unknown. Therefore, this study assessed the abundance and body lengths of P. volitans during monthly surveys throughout the year 2012 in four bays (thereof two bays where lionfish removals were undertaken) of TNNP at 10 m water depth in coral reefs using transect tools. Findings revealed lionfish abundances of 2.9 ± 0.9 individuals ha−1 with lengths of 20–25 cm for TNNP, hinting to an established, mostly adult local population. Actual TNNP lionfish abundances are thereby very similar to those at Indo–Pacific reef locations where the invasive lionfish formerly originated from. Significant spatial differences for lionfish abundances and body lengths between different bays in TNNP suggest habitat preferences of P. volitans depending on age. Lionfish abundances were highly variable over time, but without significant differences between seasons. Removals could not reduce lionfish abundances significantly during the period of study. This study therefore recommends improved management actions in order to control the already established invasive lionfish population in TNNP. PMID:24883257

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution of the invasive lionfish Pterois volitans in coral reefs of Tayrona National Natural Park, Colombian Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Alarcón-Moscoso, Javier; Polanco F, Andrea; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The lionfish Pterois volitans is an invasive species throughout the Western Atlantic that disturbs functioning of local ecosystems such as coral reefs via fast and intense consumption of small fish and invertebrates. In 2009, lionfish populated the bays of Tayrona National Natural Park (TNNP), a biodiversity hotspot in the Colombian Caribbean that is strongly influenced by changing environmental conditions due to a rainy and dry season. So far, the spatial and temporal distribution of P. volitans in the bays of TNNP is unknown. Therefore, this study assessed the abundance and body lengths of P. volitans during monthly surveys throughout the year 2012 in four bays (thereof two bays where lionfish removals were undertaken) of TNNP at 10 m water depth in coral reefs using transect tools. Findings revealed lionfish abundances of 2.9 ± 0.9 individuals ha(-1) with lengths of 20-25 cm for TNNP, hinting to an established, mostly adult local population. Actual TNNP lionfish abundances are thereby very similar to those at Indo-Pacific reef locations where the invasive lionfish formerly originated from. Significant spatial differences for lionfish abundances and body lengths between different bays in TNNP suggest habitat preferences of P. volitans depending on age. Lionfish abundances were highly variable over time, but without significant differences between seasons. Removals could not reduce lionfish abundances significantly during the period of study. This study therefore recommends improved management actions in order to control the already established invasive lionfish population in TNNP. PMID:24883257

  12. 77 FR 66577 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... accessible via the Internet at the Office of the Federal Register's Web site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr... implemented through a final rule published in the Federal Register on December 15, 2010 (75 FR 78344). The... FR 53380) further described the prohibition on processing at sea in the Shorebased IFQ Program....

  13. 75 FR 78343 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... trawl participants. This final rule supplements the final rule published on October 1, 2010 (75 FR 60868... final rule (75 FR 4684, January 29, 2010) which announced that potential participants in the program... from potential participants. A notice of availability for Amendments 20 and 21 (75 FR 26702, May...

  14. 76 FR 53833 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ...-6110. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Need for Corrections On October 1, 2010 (75 FR 60868) and December 15, 2010 (75 FR 78344) NMFS published final rules to implement Amendments 20 and 21 to the PCGFMP. The... the definitions for ``B MSY '', Catch monitor'', ``Commercial harvest guideline'', ``Open...

  15. 75 FR 60867 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... (75 FR 4684, January 29, 2010) which announced that potential participants in the program should... participants. A notice of availability for Amendments 20 and 21 (75 FR 26702, May 12, 2010). A proposed rule (75 FR 32994, June 10, 2010) that would implement Amendments 20 and 21, focused on provisions...

  16. 77 FR 67973 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... biennial specifications and management measures (75 FR 67810, November 3, 2010 and 76 FR 27508, May 11... harvest specifications and management measures (75 FR 67810, November 3, 2010). However, unlike the...*- approach can be found in the proposed and final rules from the 2011-2012 biennium. (75 FR 67810, November...

  17. 75 FR 67809 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... consistent with the revised National Standard 1 Guidelines (74 FR 3178, January 16, 2009). DATES: Comments..., NMFS adopted revisions to its guidelines implementing Magnuson-Stevens Act National Standard 1 (74 FR... court order (75 FR 38030). The court further ordered NMFS to publish new specifications within one...

  18. 76 FR 27507 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and documents are available at... specifications and management measures on November 3, 2010 (75 FR 67810). The proposed rule comment period was extended through January 4, 2011 (75 FR 75449, December 23, 2010) to provide additional opportunity...

  19. 76 FR 77415 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... Provisions in This Final Rule NMFS published a proposed rule on September 27, 2011 (76 FR 59634) and a Notice... (PCGFMP) on September 9, 2011 (76 FR 55865). The comment periods on both the proposed rule and FMP... in the proposed rule (75 FR 67810, November 3, 2010) and final rule (75 FR 27508, May 11, 2011)...

  20. 75 FR 11829 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... the Federal Register's Website at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and..., on March 6, 2009 ] (74 FR 9874). Further, NOAA Fisheries established interim individual Tribal set... two instances: January 11, 2001 (66 FR 48370); and May 5, 2009 (74 FR 20620). However,...

  1. 78 FR 3848 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... temporary rule published August 1, 2012 (77 FR 45508) is extended from January 28, 2013, through July 22... provided in the proposed rule, published on May 21, 2012 (77 FR 29955), and in the final rule, published on August 1, 2012 (77 FR 45508), and is not repeated here. This action would extend the effectiveness of...

  2. 76 FR 59634 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... management measures for most species (75 FR 27508, May 11, 2011), pursuant to NFMS' emergency authority under... ``Comments and Responses'' section of the final rule, 76 FR 27509. The provisions implemented pursuant to... for this action can be found in the proposed rule (75 FR 67810, November 3, 2010) and final rule...

  3. 78 FR 75268 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... 2012 meeting. This final rule implements the cost recovery program as proposed at 78 FR 7371 (February... revenue for disbursement to NMFS. The fish buyer is entitled, at any time, to withdraw deposit interest... on the cost recovery proposed rule (78 FR 7371, February 1, 2013). The comment period as published...

  4. 75 FR 23615 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... the Internet at the Office of the Federal Register's Web site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index... management measures was published on December 31, 2008, (73 FR 80516). The final rule to implement the 2009... March 6, 2009 (74 FR 9874). This final rule was subsequently amended by inseason actions on April...

  5. 76 FR 74725 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... parallel process with Amendment 21 to the FMP. On May 12, 2010 (75 FR 26702), NMFS published a notice of... changes to those databases (75 FR 4684, January 29, 2010). The second was a final rule to restructure the... assignments under the IFQ and coop programs (75 FR 60868, October 1, 2010; correction published 75 FR...

  6. 75 FR 53379 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... the Internet at the Office of the Federal Register's Web site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index...) trawl participants. On May 12, 2010 (75 FR 26702), NMFS published a notice of availability of Amendments... rule was published in the Federal Register on June 10, 2010 (75 FR 32994). The preamble to the June...

  7. 78 FR 18879 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... rule published on August 1, 2012 (77 FR 45508), and extended on January 17, 2013 (78 FR 3848... additional background information, were described in detail in the proposed rule (78 FR 72, January 2, 2013... 2003 control date in the Federal Register on January 9, 2004 (69 FR 1563), there has been...

  8. 76 FR 18709 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and documents are available at the....regulations.gov without change. All Personal Identifying Information (for example, name, address, etc... Information or otherwise sensitive or protected information. NMFS will accept anonymous comments....

  9. 78 FR 26526 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... is 1,503,000 mt at the beginning of 2013 and is expected to be stable to increasing through 2015 due... fishery on March 5, 2013 (78 FR 14259). This action finalizes the allocation and management measures... a deduction of 2,500 mt for research and bycatch in non-groundfish fisheries (for 2013 only),...

  10. 78 FR 579 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... decision-making process, which is described in detail in the proposed rule for this action (77 FR 67974..., 2012 (77 FR 62235). The final preferred alternative in the FEIS is the same as the Council's preferred... published a proposed rule on November 14, 2012 (77 FR 67974) with a comment period that closed on December...

  11. 76 FR 54713 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... INFORMATION: Background On May 11, 2011, NMFS published a final rule (76 FR 27508) to establish the 2011-2012... that was published in the final rule (76 FR 27508). The amendatory instructions as published in the proposed rule (75 FR 67810) were correct and would have amended the codified regulations as...

  12. 78 FR 14259 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... to the list of fisheries authorized to take Steller sea lions (77 FR 11493). NMFS is currently... to jeopardize the continued existence of any of the affected ESUs. Lower Columbia River coho (70 FR 37160, June 28, 2005) and Oregon Coastal coho (73 FR 7816, February 11, 2008) were recently relisted...

  13. 76 FR 50449 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... the trawl rationalization program, a catch share program, implemented in January 2011 through... Administrator, Northwest Region, NMFS, 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle, WA 98115-0070, Attn: Jamie Goen... program, a catch share program, implemented in January 2011 through Amendments 20 and 21. Amendment...

  14. 78 FR 43125 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... rationalization program (program), a catch share program, and includes clarifications of regulations that affect... that either implement original provisions of the program, including quota share (QS) permit application... Administrator, Northwest Region, NMFS, 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle, WA 98115-0070; Attn: Ariel Jacobs....

  15. 77 FR 20337 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Advance Notice of Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... Share (QS) for some incidentally caught, nonwhiting species. Additionally, this ANPR announces that the..., Jr., Regional Administrator, Northwest Region, NMFS, 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle, WA 98115- 0070... be accepted in Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR...

  16. 77 FR 10466 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ..., Northwest Region, NMFS, 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle, WA 98115- 0070, Attn: Kevin C. Duffy. Instructions... participate at some point during this biennium. The Quinault Nation indicated that they were interested in.... Following implementation of the catch share program, the Council had additional discussions...

  17. 75 FR 26702 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ..., NMFS, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115-0070, Attn: Jamie Goen. Instructions: All comments... Register's Website at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and documents are..., endorsements, and quota shares under the IFQ and Coop programs. In addition, the proposed rule...

  18. 75 FR 67032 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ...This final rule corrects trip limits for commercial groundfish fisheries through the end of 2010 to reflect recent changes that were implemented on October 4, 2010. This final rule is necessary to ensure that the correct trip limit tables remain effective after November 1,...

  19. 78 FR 68764 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... fleet (75 FR 78344; Dec. 15, 2010). The program was adopted in 2010 through Amendments 20 and 21 to the... information, was described in detail in the proposed rule (78 FR 43125, July 19, 2013), and that information... regulations (78 FR 18879). Comments and Responses NMFS solicited public comment on the second...

  20. 77 FR 55153 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... components rule) published on December 15, 2010, (75 FR 78344); (2) 2011-2012 Biennial Harvest Specifications and Management Measures final rule (2011-2012 specifications rule) published on May 11, 2011, (76 FR..., 2011, (76 FR 74725). As published, the three final rules contain inadvertent errors that, although...

  1. 75 FR 37744 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... dates referenced in the preamble to the proposed rule for the trawl rationalization program (75 FR 32994... notice of availability (NOA) (75 FR 26702, May 12, 2010). NMFS has since learned that the Federal..., the preamble to the proposed rule, published on June 10, 2010, at 75 FR 32994, on page 32994,...

  2. 77 FR 28497 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... site at ] http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and documents are available... provisions on February 22, 2012 (77 FR 10466). This action finalizes the allocation and management measures... rockfish to the whiting fishery were published in a final rule on December 13, 2011 (76 FR 77415)....

  3. 75 FR 82296 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... program, see the preamble to the June 10, 2010, proposed rule (75 FR 32994), the August 31, 2010, proposed rule (75 FR 53380), the October 1, 2010, final rule (74 FR 60868), and the December 15, 2010, final rule (75 FR 78344). The 2011-2012 harvest specifications and management measures final rule...

  4. Nonindigenous near-coastal and estuarine species in the North Pacific: Similarities and disparities in species invasion patterns

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonindigenous species (NIS) are a pervasive problem throughout the world. To help address this threat, the EPA and USGS developed a hierarchical database known as the Pacific Coast Ecological Information System (PCEIS) that synthesizes existing biogeographic, life history, and i...

  5. Unusual records of deepwater teleosteans trawled off the western coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    De La Cruz-Agüero, J; Moncayo-Estrada, R; Cota-Gómez, V M; Villalobos-Ortiz, H; Valdez-Pelayo, A

    2016-09-01

    The first records of three midwater species for the Mexican ichthyofauna (Holtbyrnia laticauda, Brama dussumieri and Cubiceps baxteri), caught off the coast of Baja California, Mexico, in mid 2014, are reported. As far as is known, they are the first verified specimens, geo-referenced and catalogued in a reference fish collection for the west coast of Mexico. The species' known distributions were extended northward in the eastern Pacific Ocean, ranging from 3495 to 8300 km. PMID:27458012

  6. Decadal atmosphere-ocean variations in the Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Trenberth, K.E.; Hurrell, J.W.

    1994-03-01

    Considerable evidence has emerged of a substantial decade-long change in the north Pacific atmosphere and ocean lasting from about 1976 to 1988. Observed significant changes in the atmospheric circulation throughout the troposphere revealed a deeper and eastward shifted Aleutian low pressure system in the winter half year which advected warmer and moister air along the west coast of North America and into Alaska and colder air over the north Pacific. Consequently, there were increases in temperatures and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) along the west coast of North America and Alaska but decreases in SSTs over the central north Pacific, as well as changes in coastal rainfall and stream flow, and decreases in sea ice in the Bering Sea. In addition to the changes in the physical environment, the deeper Aleutian low increased the nutrient supply as seen through increases in total chlorophyll in the water column, phytoplankton and zooplankton. These changes changed the migration patterns and increased the stock of many fish species. The dominant atmosphere-ocean relation in the north Pacific is one where atmospheric changes lead SSTs by one to two months. However, strong ties are revealed with events in the tropical Pacific, with changes in tropical Pacific SSTs leading SSTs in the north Pacific by three months. Changes in the storm tracks in the north Pacific help to reinforce and maintain the anomalous circulation in the upper troposphere. A hypothesis is put forward outlining the tropical and extratropical relationships which stresses the role of tropical forcing but with important feedbacks in the extratropics that serve to emphasize the decadal relative to interannual time scales. The Pacific decadal timescale variations are linked to recent changes in the frequency and intensity of El Nino versus La Nina events but whether climate change associated with {open_quotes}global warming{close_quotes} is a factor is an open question. 79 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Holocene glacier activity in the British Columbia Coast Mountains, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mood, Bryan J.; Smith, Dan J.

    2015-11-01

    The Coast Mountains flank the Pacific Ocean in western British Columbia, Canada. Subdivided into the southern Pacific Ranges, central Kitimat Ranges and northern Boundary Ranges, the majority of large glaciers and icefields are located in the Boundary and Pacific ranges. Prior descriptions of the Holocene glacial history of this region indicate the Holocene was characterized by repeated episodes of ice expansion and retreat. Recent site-specific investigations augment our understanding of the regional character and duration of these events. In this paper, previously reported and new radiocarbon evidence is integrated to provide an updated regional assessment. The earliest evidence of glacier expansion in the Coast Mountains comes from the Boundary Ranges at 8.9 and 7.8 ka and in the Pacific Ranges at 8.5-8.2 ka, with the latter advance corresponding to an interval of rapid, global climate deterioration. Although generally warm and dry climates from 7.3 to 5.3 ka likely limited the size of glaciers in the region, there is radiocarbon evidence for advances over the interval from 7.3 to 6.0 and at 5.4-5.3 ka in the Pacific Ranges. Following these advances, glaciers in the Pacific Ranges expanded down valley at 4.8-4.6, 4.4-4.0, 3.5-2.6, 1.4-1.2, and 0.8-0.4 ka, while glaciers in Boundary Ranges were advancing at 4.1-4.0, 3.7-3.4, 3.1-2.8, 2.3, 1.7-1.1, and 0.8-0.4 ka. After 0.4 ka, it appears that most glaciers in the Coast Mountains continued to expand to attain their maximum Holocene extents by the early 18th to late 19th centuries. This enhanced record of Holocene glacier activity highlights the temporal synchrony in the Coast Mountains. Individual expansion events in the mid-to late Holocene broadly correspond to intervals of regional glacier activity reported in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, in Alaska, and on high-elevation volcanic peaks in Washington State.

  8. Maine coast winds

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  9. Pacific Basin climate variability and patterns of Northeast Pacific marine fish production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollowed, Anne Babcock; Hare, Steven R.; Wooster, Warren S.

    A review of oceanographic and climate data from the North Pacific and Bering Sea has revealed climate events that occur on two principal time scales: a) 2-7 years (i.e. El Niño Southern Oscillation, ENSO), and b) inter-decadal (i.e. Pacific Decadal Oscillation, PDO). The timing of ENSO events and of related oceanic changes at higher latitudes were examined. The frequency of ENSO was high in the 1980s. Evidence of ENSO forcing on ocean conditions in the North Pacific (Niño North conditions) showed ENSO events were more frequently observed along the West Coast than in the western Gulf of Alaska (GOA) and Eastern Bering Sea (EBS). Time series of catches for 30 region/species groups of salmon, and recruitment data for 29 groundfish and 5 non-salmonid pelagic species, were examined for evidence of a statistical relationship with any of the time scales associated with Niño North conditions or the PDO. Some flatfish stocks exhibited high autocorrelation in recruitment coupled with a significant step in recruitment in 1977 suggesting a relationship between PDO forcing and recruitment success. Five of the dominant gadid stocks (EBS and GOA Pacific cod, Pacific hake and EBS and GOA walleye pollock) exhibited low autocorrelation in recruitment. Of these, Pacific hake, GOA walleye pollock and GOA Pacific cod exhibited significantly higher incidence of strong year classes in years associated with Niño North conditions. These findings suggest that the PDO and ENSO may play an important role in governing year-class strength of several Northeast Pacific marine fish stocks.

  10. Canada's east coast play

    SciTech Connect

    Doig, I.M.

    1984-02-01

    The intent of this paper is to give a basic overview presentation on Canada's east coast play - most likely the number one offshore play in the free world - and possibly the world. The play stretches 2,500 miles north and south, as it follows the Labrador Coast, past the Strait of Belle Isle and onto the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and as it makes a 90 degree turn, 1,000 miles east to west along the coast of Nova Scotia to the Georges Bank. 3,500 miles in all - which if placed in western Canada, would stretch from northern Alberta to southern Mexico. It's geologic potential is immense - 15-20 billion barrels of oil and 80-90 Tcf of natural gas. And so far only approximately 2 billion barrels of oil and 5 Tcf of natural gas have been found. There is more out there. And less than 200 wells have been drilled - still very virgin territory. Two world size discoveries have been made in the area. Hibernia, on the Grand Banks, is estimated to contain 1.8 billion barrels. Venture, on the Scotian Shelf, has a natural gas reserve of 2.5 Tcf - big by Canadian standards and significant in that Mobil Oil has also made some other interesting discoveries on the same Sable Island block which have not been delineated.

  11. Gastropod fauna of the Cameroonian coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandel, K.; Kowalke, T.

    1999-11-01

    Eighteen species of gastropods were encountered living near and within the large coastal swamps, mangrove forests, intertidal flats and the rocky shore of the Cameroonian coast of the Atlantic Ocean. These represent members of the subclasses Neritimorpha, Caenogastropoda, and Heterostropha. Within the Neritimorpha, representatives of the genera Nerita, Neritina, and Neritilia could be distinguished by their radula anatomy and ecology. Within the Caenogastropoda, representatives of the families Potamididae with Tympano-tonos and Planaxidae with Angiola are characterized by their early ontogeny and ecology. The Pachymelaniidae are recognized as an independent group and are introduced as a new family within the Cerithioidea. Littorinimorpha with Littorina, Assiminea and Potamopyrgus as well as Neogastropoda (Thais) and Heterostropha (Melampus and Onchidium) are described and compared with representatives of the Caribbean and Indo-Pacific province.

  12. USGS "iCoast - Did the Coast Change?" Project: Crowd-Tagging Aerial Photographs to Improve Coastal Change Prediction Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S. B.; Poore, B. S.; Plant, N. G.; Stockdon, H. F.; Morgan, K.; Snell, R.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been acquiring oblique aerial photographs of the coast before and after major storms since 1995 and has amassed a database of over 140,000 photographs of the Gulf, Atlantic, and Pacific coasts. USGS coastal scientists use these photographs to document and characterize coastal change caused by storms. The images can also be used to evaluate the accuracy of predictive models of coastal erosion. However, the USGS does not have the personnel to manually analyze all of the photographs taken after a storm. Also, computers cannot yet automatically identify damages and geomorphic changes to the coast from the oblique aerial photographs. There is a high public interest in accessing the limited number of pre- and post-storm photographic pairs the USGS is currently able to share. Recent federal policies that encourage open data and open innovation initiatives have resulted in many federal agencies developing new ways of using citizen science and crowdsourcing techniques to share data and collaborate with the public to accomplish large tasks. The USGS launched a crowdsourcing application in June 2014 called "iCoast - Did the Coast Change?" (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/icoast) to allow citizens to help USGS scientists identify changes to the coast by comparing USGS aerial photographs taken before and after storms, and then selecting pre-defined tags like "dune scarp" and "sand on road." The tags are accompanied by text definitions and pictorial examples of these coastal morphology terms and serve to informally and passively educate users about coastal hazards. The iCoast application facilitates greater citizen awareness of coastal change and is an educational resource for teachers and students interested in learning about coastal vulnerability. We expect that the citizen observations from iCoast will assist with probabilistic model development to produce more accurate predictions of coastal vulnerability.

  13. Does vegetation structure limit the distribution of Northern Goshawks in the Oregon Coast ranges?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Mccloskey, J.

    1997-01-01

    Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) breed in a variety of forested areas throughout the Pacific Northwest. Nevertheless, they were only first found breeding in the Coast Ranges of Oregon in 1995, despite apparently suitable habitat and abundant prey. We document the rarity of goshawks in the Coast Ranges by reviewing previous and current survey results for nests of goshawks and other forest birds since the 1960s, examining sightings of goshawks since 1980 and reporting on a survey we conducted in 1994. We suggest that nesting goshawks are rare in the Coast Ranges because of the vegetative structure of the area and its influence on prey availability. ?? 1997 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  14. Active Folding of the Tame Anticline, Eastern Foothills, Colombian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veloza-Fajardo, G.; Taylor, M. H.; Mora, A.; Stockli, D. F.

    2011-12-01

    We integrate neotectonic mapping and interpretation of seismic reflection profiles to evaluate the kinematics of folding and development of the Quaternary Tame anticline and Cusiana fault at 6.5 N Latitude in the eastern foothills of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia. The Tame anticline is located approximately 660 km to the east of the Nazca-South America and 810 km to the south of the Caribbean-South America subduction zones plate boundaries in a retroarc foreland basin setting. The Tame anticline is an elongated, N15E trending structure, 14 km long N-S by 6 km wide E-W, that represents the most frontal active structure of the northern Colombian Andes. The Tame fold is related to the east-directed Cusiana fault that day lights to the south. Seismic reflection profiles indicate the Cusiana fault is a listric, west-dipping blind structure. The east flowing antecedent Macaguana creek has incised the Tame fold forming three prominent terrace levels, uplifted approximately 220, 150 and 100 meters, above current river levels. The surfaces were sampled for terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides using the depth profiling approach to account for inheritance. Surface exposure ages from the highest to lowest surfaces are 93.9, 50.8 and 32.4 kyrs at the 1σ level respectively, which were calculated using Monte Carlo methods. Trishear kinematic modeling was used to retrodeform the folding history and based on the surface abandonment ages, we will present shortening rates at millennial timescales.

  15. Leaching of oxadyxil and tebuconazole in Colombian soil.

    PubMed

    Aldana, M; De Prado, R; Martínez, M J

    2011-01-01

    Lake Tota (Boyaca, Colombia) supplies water for human consumption, agriculture and industry for more than 500.000 people. Oxadixyl and Tebuconazole are fungicides used in onion crops in the lake catchment area. The mobility of pesticides in soil, bioavailability and transfer to other environmental compartments depend on sorption and desorption kinetics and mechanisms. An understanding of these processes is essential for transport modeling and the rational design of corrective measures against pollution. A displacement study was performed on a hand packed soil column in laboratory conditions. A pulse of 0,01 M CaCl2 solution, containing a tracer (Bromide) and the fungicides Oxadixyl y Tebuconazole, was injected. Column experiment was performed at 0.078 cmh(-1) flow rate under unsaturated conditions. Eluates were collected in flasks at constant intervals and the volumes of eluate were recorded. After rainfall simulation, the soil from the column was sliced into six successive sections (5 cm). Methanol extraction was used to determine the fungicide in each soil section. Samples were measured by HPLC. Only Oxadixyl was recovered in leachates. Unlike bromide breakthrough curve, Oxadixyl was asymmetrical, with early breakthrough and increased tailing. The percentage eluted was 96.7% after ten pore volumes. Tebuconazole showed the highest retention in the first five cm of soil layer. The results suggest that oxadyxil presents highs risk to leachate through the soil profile and that Tebuconazole is strongly absorbed in Colombian soil. PMID:22702207

  16. Monitoring microseismicity at the Servita Fault System, Colombian Eastern Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedraza, P.; Dimate, C.

    2013-05-01

    The Servita Fault System is located in the eastern foothills of the Colombian Andes Eastern Cordillera. It is considered a key fault for detailed active tectonics studies by its capacity to generate destructive earthquakes which has been demonstrated historically and its short distance to Bogotá (7 million inhabitants), about 60 km. With the aim of increasing our knowledge on the active deformation pattern, the geometry and the seismogenic depth of the potentially active structures, a dense temporary seismic network was installed in the Servitá Fault region to register microseismic activity. The network consisted of 21 portable stations, 6 broadband and 15 short period sensors, recording in continuous mode and in-situ data storage. Four permanent stations of the National Seismological Network of Colombia (RSNC) installed in the same region were also used to locate events. A thousand events with local magnitude between 0.1 and 3.2 ML were registered in the region during about 10 months of observation from 2011 to 2012. We used an automatic detection algorithm to identify seismic events and picked P and S wave arrival times manually. Recorded seismicity follows the same trend as the fault system, SW-NE. A group of events located westward of its trace suggests a fault plane dipping to the west. Refined seismicity locations show various clusters, consisting of sequences of small earthquakes with very similar waveforms. The most important cluster is located near the rupture zone of the 2008 Quetame earthquake (Mw=5.9).

  17. [Contraception as a determinant factor in Colombian fertility].

    PubMed

    Bayona Nunez, A

    1981-01-01

    A model of contraceptive use as a conditioning factor in Colombian fertility is described and tested using data from the National Fertility Survey of 1976 in which 5378 women representative of the country and its geographical regions were interviewed. The variables included in the model are cumulative fertility, desired fertility, duration of union, use of contraception, knowledge of effective contraception, education, women's labor force participation, zone of residence, and age. The analysis demonstrates that cumulative fertility depends on couple's ideal family size; duration of union, especially in the 1st 10 years and increasingly less thereafter; mother's education, which has a negative effect that was the most consistent of all those measured; and rural or urban residence. The indirect effects of education and area of residence were found to be present but small. The variables of knowledge and use of contraceptive methods deserve consideration because of their potential relevance for family planning campaigns. Although over 95% of women had knowledge of effective methods of contraception, only 50 to 66% reported having used contraception at any time in their lives. PMID:12279165

  18. 33 CFR 165.1406 - Safety Zone: Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... governing safety zones contained in 33 CFR 165.23 apply. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety Zone: Pacific Missile... Areas Fourteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1406 Safety Zone: Pacific Missile Range Facility...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1406 - Safety Zone: Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... governing safety zones contained in 33 CFR 165.23 apply. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone: Pacific Missile... Areas Fourteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1406 Safety Zone: Pacific Missile Range Facility...

  20. 33 CFR 110.218 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. 110.218 Section 110.218 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. (a) The anchorage...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1406 - Safety Zone: Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... governing safety zones contained in 33 CFR 165.23 apply. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Pacific Missile... Areas Fourteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1406 Safety Zone: Pacific Missile Range Facility...

  2. 33 CFR 110.218 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. 110.218 Section 110.218 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. (a) The anchorage...

  3. 33 CFR 110.218 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. 110.218 Section 110.218 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. (a) The anchorage...

  4. 33 CFR 110.218 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. 110.218 Section 110.218 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. (a) The anchorage...

  5. 33 CFR 110.218 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. 110.218 Section 110.218 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.218 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island,...

  6. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages. 110.236 Section 110.236 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.236 Pacific Ocean off...

  7. [Colciencias and disdain for Colombian scientists: from the Stone Age to the impact factor].

    PubMed

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Bayona-Prieto, Jaime; Bayona, Edgardo; Leon, Martha E

    2005-01-01

    Writing has dramatically evolved in the world; however, qualification of scientific production in Colombia has not, including the improper use of decree 1444/93 and 1279/02. The last of these decrees authorized Colciencias, the Colombian government institute created to support scientific research in Colombia, to establish rules for its implementation. Colciencias decided to evaluate scientific papers produced in Colombia based on the non-scientific method of the "impact factor", and considered that citations in MEDLINE/PubMed and PsylNFO were second line publications thus violating Colombian law. This affects not only the progress of scientific research in Colombia but also researchers' income and puts Colombia's scientific journals and publications at great disadvantage. Scientific papers indexed in qualified databases such as MEDLINE/PubMed must be judged according to law in order to prevent further injuries to the developing Colombian scientific production. PMID:16149281

  8. Evaluation of water and energy balances ovet the Colombian Orinoco Catchment Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abril, C.; Baquero-Bernal, A.

    2012-04-01

    This study presents a comparison between in-situ observations and gridded data from reanalyses and from a regional climate model over the Colombian Orinoco Catchment Basin, in South America, with focus on the surface water and energy balances. We use datasets from the regional climate model REMO and re-analyses ERA40, ERAInterim and NCEP/NCAR. The in-situ observations have been provided by the Colombian Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies (IDEAM). The balances are for the 1958-2011 period. Statistical analyses of temperature and precipitation are also presented. Discrepancies between gridded datasets and observations are evaluated and possible sources of error in each of the datasets are discussed. The research presented is the first intercomparison of the surface water and energy balances over the Colombian Orinoco Catchment Basin from different datasets.

  9. Geographic signatures of North American West Coast estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmett, Robert; Llansó, Roberto; Newton, Jan; Thom, Ron; Hornberger, Michelle; Morgan, Cheryl; Levings, Colin; Copping, Andrea; Fishman, Paul

    2000-01-01

    West Coast estuaries are geologically young and composed of a variety of geomorphological types. These estuaries range from large fjords to shallow lagoons; from large to low freshwater flows. Natural hazards include E1 Niños, strong Pacific storms, and active tectonic activity. West Coast estuaries support a wide range of living resources: five salmon species, harvestable shellfish, waterfowl and marine birds, marine mammals, and a variety of algae and plants. Although populations of many of these living resources have declined (salmonids), others have increased (marine mammals). West Coast estuaries are also centers of commerce and increasingly large shipping traffic. The West Coast human population is rising faster than most other areas of the U.S. and Canada, and is distributed heavily in southern California, the San Francisco Bay area, around Puget Sound, and the Fraser River estuary. While water pollution is a problem in many of the urbanized estuaries, most estuaries do not suffer from poor water quality. Primary estuarine problems include habitat alterations, degradation, and loss; diverted freshwater flows; marine sediment contamination; and exotic species introductions. The growing West Coast economy and population are in part related to the quality of life, which is dependent on the use and enjoyment of abundant coastal natural resources.

  10. Determination of biological and physicochemical parameters of Artemia franciscana strains in hypersaline environments for aquaculture in the Colombian Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, William N; Durán, Gabriel C; Rada, Orlando C; Hernández, Licet C; Linero, Juan-Carlos G; Muelle, Igor M; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Background Artemia (Crustacea, Anostraca), also known as brine shrimp, are typical inhabitants of extreme environments. These hypersaline environments vary considerably in their physicochemical composition, and even their climatic conditions and elevation. Several thalassohaline (marine) environments along the Colombian Caribbean coast were surveyed in order to contribute to the knowledge of brine shrimp biotopes in South America by determining some vital biological and physicochemical parameters for Artemia survival. Additionally, cyst quality tests, biometrical and essential fatty acids analysis were performed to evaluate the economic viability of some of these strains for the aquaculture industry. Results In addition to the three locations (Galerazamba, Manaure, and Pozos Colorados) reported in the literature three decades ago in the Colombian Caribbean, six new locations were registered (Salina Cero, Kangaru, Tayrona, Bahía Hondita, Warrego and Pusheo). All habitats sampled showed that chloride was the prevailing anion, as expected, because of their thalassohaline origin. There were significant differences in cyst diameter grouping strains in the following manner according to this parameter: 1) San Francisco Bay (SFB-Control, USA), 2) Galerazamba and Tayrona, 3) Kangarú, 4) Manaure, and 5) Salina Cero and Pozos Colorados. Chorion thickness values were smaller in Tayrona, followed by Salina Cero, Galerazamba, Manaure, SFB, Kangarú and Pozos Colorados. There were significant differences in naupliar size, grouping strains as follows (smallest to largest): 1) Galerazamba, 2) Manaure, 3) SFB, Kangarú, and Salina Cero, 4) Pozos Colorados, and 5) Tayrona. Overall, cyst quality analysis conducted on samples from Manaure, Galerazamba, and Salina Cero revealed that all sites exhibited a relatively high number of cysts.g-1. Essential fatty acids (EFA) analysis performed on nauplii from cyst samples from Manaure, Galerazamba, Salina Cero and Tayrona revealed that cysts

  11. Identification of geopressured occurrences outside of the Gulf Coast. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Strongin, O.

    1980-09-30

    As an extension of its efforts in the development of the geopressured resources of the Gulf Coast, the Division of Geothermal Energy of the US Department of Energy is interested in determining the extent and characteristics of geopressured occurrences in areas outside the Gulf Coast. The work undertaken involved a literature search of available information documenting such occurrences. Geopressured reservoirs have been reported from various types of sedimentary lithologies representing virtually all geologic ages and in a host of geologic environments, many of which are unlike those of the Gulf Coast. These include many Rocky Mountain basins (Green River, Big Horn, Powder River, Wind River, Uinta, Piceance, Denver, San Juan), Mid-Continent basins (Delaware, Anadorko, Interior Salt, Williston, Appalachian), California basins (Sacramento, San Joaquin, Los Angeles, Ventura, Coast Ranges), Alaskan onshore and offshore basins, Pacific Coast offshore basins, and other isolated occurrences, both onshore and offshore.

  12. Cultural bases of images of causation in psychological disorder: a Colombian survey.

    PubMed

    Micklin, M; Leon, C A

    1978-01-01

    This study examines the influence of participation in differing socio-cultural contexts on beliefs about the causes of psychological disorder. Data were obtained through interviews with 794 laymen and 333 health workers, all residing in a single Colombian city. Results indicate an emphasis on organic causes among lay respondents and nearly equal emphasis on organic and social causes among medical-paramedical personnel. Futher variations are evident, between as well as within the two samples, when background characteristics are considered. Differences in these images of causation are explained in terms of the socio-cultural organization of Colombian society as well as that of the medical occupational subculture. PMID:659069

  13. Insight into the Pacific Sea Surface Temperature- North American Hydroclimate Connection from an Eastern Tropical North Pacific Coral Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, J. I.; Briner, J. P.; Mangerud, J.; Hughes, A. L. C.; Young, N. E.; Vasskog, K.

    2014-12-01

    The last few years of record-breaking climate anomalies across North America--a resilient atmospheric ridge and extreme drought over the West Coast, and severe winters across the Midwest and East Coast regions--have been linked to anomalous Pacific sea surface temperatures (Seager et al. 2014, Wang et al. 2014, Hartmann 2015). The synoptic associations prompt important questions on the relation between these unusual phenomena and extreme expressions of known Pacific decadal modes, such as the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO). These questions motivate our pursuit to document multiple realizations of decadal variability in the Pacific-North American region through periods of varied radiative forcing. Here we introduce a 178 year, seasonally resolved Porites coral record from Clarion Island (18N, 115W), the westernmost island of the Revillagigedo Archipelago, a region both highly influenced by NPGO SST and SSS variability and critical for NPGO tropical-extratropical communication via the Seasonal Footprinting Mechanism (Vimont et al. 2003). When coupled with tree ring records from the western United States (Griffin and Anchukaitis 2014, MacDonald and Case 2005) and coral records from the central tropical Pacific (Cobb et al. 2001), the δ18O signal from the Clarion coral offers an extended framework of coherent continental hydroclimate and oceanic variability across the Pacific basin beyond the instrumental record. Over the last 200 years, we find clear commonality in the timing, magnitude and spatial expression of variability (illustrated through the NADA Atlas, Cook et al. 2004) amongst the proxy records. The strong relationship between Northeastern Pacific Clarion and the Central Pacific Palmyra record with the North American hydroclimate records can be viewed within the mechanistic framework of the NPGO; this framework is then explored over the last millennium across intervals of varied radiative forcing.

  14. Insight into the Pacific Sea Surface Temperature- North American Hydroclimate Connection from an Eastern Tropical North Pacific Coral Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, S. C.; Charles, C. D.; Carriquiry, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    The last few years of record-breaking climate anomalies across North America--a resilient atmospheric ridge and extreme drought over the West Coast, and severe winters across the Midwest and East Coast regions--have been linked to anomalous Pacific sea surface temperatures (Seager et al. 2014, Wang et al. 2014, Hartmann 2015). The synoptic associations prompt important questions on the relation between these unusual phenomena and extreme expressions of known Pacific decadal modes, such as the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO). These questions motivate our pursuit to document multiple realizations of decadal variability in the Pacific-North American region through periods of varied radiative forcing. Here we introduce a 178 year, seasonally resolved Porites coral record from Clarion Island (18N, 115W), the westernmost island of the Revillagigedo Archipelago, a region both highly influenced by NPGO SST and SSS variability and critical for NPGO tropical-extratropical communication via the Seasonal Footprinting Mechanism (Vimont et al. 2003). When coupled with tree ring records from the western United States (Griffin and Anchukaitis 2014, MacDonald and Case 2005) and coral records from the central tropical Pacific (Cobb et al. 2001), the δ18O signal from the Clarion coral offers an extended framework of coherent continental hydroclimate and oceanic variability across the Pacific basin beyond the instrumental record. Over the last 200 years, we find clear commonality in the timing, magnitude and spatial expression of variability (illustrated through the NADA Atlas, Cook et al. 2004) amongst the proxy records. The strong relationship between Northeastern Pacific Clarion and the Central Pacific Palmyra record with the North American hydroclimate records can be viewed within the mechanistic framework of the NPGO; this framework is then explored over the last millennium across intervals of varied radiative forcing.

  15. Marine Education--Survey of the Washington Coast and Puget Sound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Provides guidelines for planning a trip to a beach. Also provides a map showing marine education sites in Washington state, particularly those on the Pacific coast, Puget Sound, and the San Juan Islands. A brief description accompanies each site shown. (JN)

  16. Gulf of Fonseca, Pacifica coast of Central America as seen from Apollo 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Gulf of Fonseca, on the Pacific coast of Central America, as photographed from the Apollo 9 spacecraft during its earth-orbital mission. The Gulf is shared by the nations of El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua. The prominent volcano on the peninsula in Nicaragua is Volcan Cosiguina.

  17. 77 FR 24634 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... management measures for most species of the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (75 FR 67810). The final rule to... Groundfish Fishery was published on May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27508). This final rule was subsequently amended by several inseason actions (76 FR 39313, 76 FR 67092, 76 FR 79122, 77 FR 12503, 77 FR 22679). On...

  18. 78 FR 26277 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... for most species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on January 3, 2013 (78 FR 580... the Office of the Federal Register's Web site at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/search/home.action..., Indian Fisheries. Dated: May 1, 2013. Kara Meckley, Acting Deputy Director, Office of...

  19. 77 FR 19991 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... markets fluctuate, the CPS fishery as a whole relies on a group of species for annual revenues... proposed rule. Additionally, no other Federal rules duplicate, overlap or conflict with this proposed rule... intended to conserve and manage the Pacific sardine stock off the U.S. West Coast. DATES: Comments must...

  20. 76 FR 40836 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XA554 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...