Science.gov

Sample records for colon cancer surveillance

  1. Active chinese mistletoe lectin-55 enhances colon cancer surveillance through regulating innate and adaptive immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yan-Hui; Cheng, Wei-Zhi; Gong, Fang; Ma, An-Lun; Yu, Qi-Wen; Zhang, Ji-Ying; Hu, Chao-Ying; Chen, Xue-Hua; Zhang, Dong-Qing

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential role of Active Chinese mistletoe lectin-55 (ACML-55) in tumor immune surveillance. METHODS: In this study, an experimental model was established by hypodermic inoculating the colon cancer cell line CT26 (5 × 105 cells) into BALB/c mice. The experimental treatment was orally administered with ACML-55 or PBS, followed by the inoculation of colon cancer cell line CT26. Intracellular cytokine staining was used to detect IFN-γ production by tumor antigen specific CD8+ T cells. FACS analysis was employed to profile composition and activation of CD4+, CD8+, γδ T and NK cells. RESULTS: Our results showed, compared to PBS treated mice, ACML-55 treatment significantly delayed colon cancer development in colon cancer -bearing Balb/c mice in vivo. Treatment with ACML-55 enhanced both Ag specific activation and proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and increased the number of tumor Ag specific CD8+ T cells. It was more important to increase the frequency of tumor Ag specific IFN-γ producing-CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, ACML-55 treatment also showed increased cell number of NK, and γδT cells, indicating the role of ACML-55 in activation of innate lymphocytes. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that ACML-55 therapy can enhance function in immune surveillance in colon cancer-bearing mice through regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:18785279

  2. A prediction model for colon cancer surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Good, Norm M; Suresh, Krithika; Young, Graeme P; Lockett, Trevor J; Macrae, Finlay A; Taylor, Jeremy M G

    2015-08-15

    Dynamic prediction models make use of patient-specific longitudinal data to update individualized survival probability predictions based on current and past information. Colonoscopy (COL) and fecal occult blood test (FOBT) results were collected from two Australian surveillance studies on individuals characterized as high-risk based on a personal or family history of colorectal cancer. Motivated by a Poisson process, this paper proposes a generalized nonlinear model with a complementary log-log link as a dynamic prediction tool that produces individualized probabilities for the risk of developing advanced adenoma or colorectal cancer (AAC). This model allows predicted risk to depend on a patient's baseline characteristics and time-dependent covariates. Information on the dates and results of COLs and FOBTs were incorporated using time-dependent covariates that contributed to patient risk of AAC for a specified period following the test result. These covariates serve to update a person's risk as additional COL, and FOBT test information becomes available. Model selection was conducted systematically through the comparison of Akaike information criterion. Goodness-of-fit was assessed with the use of calibration plots to compare the predicted probability of event occurrence with the proportion of events observed. Abnormal COL results were found to significantly increase risk of AAC for 1 year following the test. Positive FOBTs were found to significantly increase the risk of AAC for 3 months following the result. The covariates that incorporated the updated test results were of greater significance and had a larger effect on risk than the baseline variables. PMID:25851283

  3. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  4. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... red or processed meats Have colorectal polyps Have inflammatory bowel disease ( Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis ) Have a family history of colon cancer Have a personal history of breast cancer Some inherited diseases also increase the risk ...

  5. Colon cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - colon cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on colon cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/index Colon Cancer Alliance -- www.ccalliance.org National ...

  6. Surveillance of colonic polyps: Are we getting it right?

    PubMed Central

    Bonnington, Stewart N; Rutter, Matthew D

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. The identification of colonic polyps can reduce CRC mortality through earlier diagnosis of cancers and the removal of polyps: the precursor lesion of CRC. Following the finding and removal of colonic polyps at an initial colonoscopy, some patients are at an increased risk of developing CRC in the future. This is the rationale for post-polypectomy surveillance colonoscopy. However, not all individuals found to have colonic adenomas have a risk of CRC higher than that of the general population. This review examines the literature on post-polypectomy surveillance including current international clinical guidelines. The potential benefits of surveillance procedures must be weighed against the burden of colonoscopy: resource use, the potential for patient discomfort, and the risk of complications. Therefore surveillance colonoscopy is best utilised in a selected group of individuals at a high risk of developing cancer. Further study is needed into the specific factors conferring higher risk as well as the efficacy of surveillance in mitigating this risk. Such evidence will better inform clinicians and patients of the relative benefits of colonoscopic surveillance for the individual. In addition, the decision to continue with surveillance must be informed by the changing profile of risks and benefits of further procedures with the patient’s advancing age. PMID:26877600

  7. Colon cancer - Series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Colon cancer is the third most common cancer in the United States. Risk factors include a diet low ... The treatment of colon cancer depends on the stage of the disease. Stage I cancer is limited to the inner lining of the colon; ...

  8. Colon polyps and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kronborg, O

    2004-01-01

    Screening for colorectal neoplasia still is the best method of reducing the mortality due to colorectal cancer, and it is to be hoped that fecal occult blood test programs will expand in the near future and be combined with appropriate endoscopy. There are substantial problems with compliance in large programs with occult blood tests as well as endoscopy. Colonography and DNA testing in feces are not yet suitable for population screening. Diagnostic strategies in symptomatic patients are becoming more selective, in the hope of avoiding many superfluous examinations without increasing the risk of missing cancers. New results have confirmed the preventive effect of long-term aspirin use on adenoma recurrence, but the most cost-effective dosage is not clear; the mechanism of action is also uncertain, but seems to involve cyclooxygenase-2. The risk of adenomas does not appear to be associated with low consumption of folate, but with low intake of fiber. A number of biomarkers have been evaluated in polyp patients, but so far surveillance is still based on endoscopic experience, which is less than optimal. Attempts have been made to restrict the number of surveillance endoscopies and reduce the pathologist's workload. The place of argon plasma coagulation has been clearly defined in connection with piecemeal removal of large sessile adenomas. Advances have been achieved in surgery and radiotherapy for rectal cancer, and acute surgery for colonic cancer with severe obstruction will be less common after the introduction of the metal stent. PMID:14722849

  9. Colon cancer - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100157.htm Colon cancer - Series To use the sharing features on ... 5 out of 5 Normal anatomy Overview The colon, or large intestine, is a muscular tube that ...

  10. Colon cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test ... death and complications caused by colorectal cancer. SCREENING TESTS There are several ways to screen for colon ...

  11. Liver Colonization Competence Governs Colon Cancer Metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Tsong-Hong; Kubota, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Masahiko; Furukawa, Toshiharu; Teramoto, Tatuso; Ishibiki, Kyuya; Kitajima, Masaki; Rahim Moosa, A.; Penman, Sheldon; Hoffman, Robert M.

    1995-12-01

    Tumors that metastasize do so to preferred target organs. To explain this apparent specificity, Paget, >100 years ago, formulated his seed and soil hypothesis; i.e., the cells from a given tumor would "seed" only favorable "soil" offered by certain organs. The hypothesis implies that cancer cells must find a suitable "soil" in a target organ-i.e., one that supports colonization-for metastasis to occur. We demonstrate in this report that ability of human colon cancer cells to colonize liver tissue governs whether a particular colon cancer is metastatic. In the model used in this study, human colon tumors are transplanted into the nude mouse colon as intact tissue blocks by surgical orthotopic implantation. These implanted tumors closely simulate the metastatic behavior of the original human patient tumor and are clearly metastatic or nonmetastatic to the liver. Both classes of tumors were equally invasive locally into tissues and blood vessels. However, the cells from each class of tumor behave very differently when directly injected into nude mouse livers. Only cells from metastasizing tumors are competent to colonize after direct intrahepatic injection. Also, tissue blocks from metastatic tumors affixed directly to the liver resulted in colonization, whereas no colonization resulted from nonmetastatic tumor tissue blocks even though some growth occurred within the tissue block itself. Thus, local invasion (injection) and even adhesion to the metastatic target organ (blocks) are not sufficient for metastasis. The results suggest that the ability to colonize the liver is the governing step in the metastasis of human colon cancer.

  12. Sphingolipids in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    García-Barros, Mónica; Coant, Nicolas; Truman, Jean-Philip; Snider, Ashley J.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the major causes of death in the western world. Despite increasing knowledge of the molecular signaling pathways implicated in colon cancer, therapeutic outcomes are still only moderately successful. Sphingolipids, a family of N-acyl linked lipids, have not only structural functions but are also implicated in important biological functions. Ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate are the most important bioactive lipids, and they regulate several key cellular functions. Accumulating evidence suggests that many cancers present alterations in sphingolipids and their metabolizing enzymes. The aim of this review is to discuss the emerging roles of sphingolipids, both endogenous and dietary, in colon cancer and the interaction of sphingolipids with WNT/β-catenin pathway, one of the most important signaling cascades that regulate development and homeostasis in intestine PMID:24060581

  13. Active surveillance for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Romero-Otero, Javier; García-Gómez, Borja; Duarte-Ojeda, José M; Rodríguez-Antolín, Alfredo; Vilaseca, Antoni; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Touijer, Karim A

    2016-03-01

    It is worth distinguishing between the two strategies of expectant management for prostate cancer. Watchful waiting entails administering non-curative androgen deprivation therapy to patients on development of symptomatic progression, whereas active surveillance entails delivering curative treatment on signs of disease progression. The objectives of the two management strategies and the patients enrolled in either are different: (i) to review the role of active surveillance as a management strategy for patients with low-risk prostate cancer; and (ii) review the benefits and pitfalls of active surveillance. We carried out a systematic review of active surveillance for prostate cancer in the literature using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's electronic database, PubMed. We carried out a search in English using the terms: active surveillance, prostate cancer, watchful waiting and conservative management. Selected studies were required to have a comprehensive description of the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients at the time of diagnosis, inclusion criteria for surveillance, and a protocol for the patients' follow up. Review articles were included, but not multiple papers from the same datasets. Active surveillance appears to reduce overtreatment in patients with low-risk prostate cancer without compromising cancer-specific survival at 10 years. Therefore, active surveillance is an option for select patients who want to avoid the side-effects inherent to the different types of immediate treatment. However, inclusion criteria for active surveillance and the most appropriate method of monitoring patients on active surveillance have not yet been standardized. PMID:26621054

  14. Solitary lymph node metastasis is a distinct subset of colon cancer associated with good survival: a retrospective study of surveillance, epidemiology, and end-results population-based data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Colon cancer with lymph node metastases has been considered as advanced stage and to have poor survival. We postulated that patients with solitary lymph node metastasis are a distinct subset with better colon cancer-specific survival than those with multiple lymph node metastases. Methods In this retrospective study, we searched Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results (SEER) population-based data and identified 86,674 patients who had been diagnosed with colon cancer without distant metastases and with less than three metastatic nodes between 1991 and 2005. We divided lymph node status into three subgroups: pN0, pN1a, and pN1b and obtained 5-year colon cancer-specific survival for each pT stage. We used Kaplan–Meier and multivariate Cox regression models to assess correlations between risk factors and survival outcomes. Results Analysis of SEER data confirmed that patients with solitary lymph node metastases had better 5-year cancer-specific survival than pN1b according to both univariate and multivariate analysis. This finding was confirmed by further analyses in five pT subgroups. Cancer-specific survival of patients with pT1-2N1a was comparable to that of those with pIIA but higher than those with pIIB. In addition, survival of patients with pT3-4aN1a was better than those with pIIC. Conclusion Colon cancer patients with solitary lymph node metastasis are a distinct subset with a favorable prognosis; full consideration should be given to this in clinical practice. PMID:24885443

  15. Breast cancer surveillance.

    PubMed

    Rachetta, Eleonora; Osano, Silvia; Astegiano, Francesco; Martincich, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Since several studies have demonstrated the inadequate diagnostic performance of mammography in high risk women, over the past two decades, different breast imaging tests have been evaluated as additional diagnostic methods to mammography, and the most relevant ones are the techniques that do not imply the use of X-rays, considering the young age of these patients and the higher radio-sensitivity. Breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has risen growing interest not only because of the absence of use of X-rays, but also because it provides morpho-functional features, which may depict biological characteristics of breast tissues, including invasive and in situ cancers. Different multicenter non-randomized prospective studies aimed to evaluate breast DCE-MRI as an integral part of surveillance programs, agreed about the evidence that in high risk women screening with DCE-MRI is more effective than either mammography and/or ultrasound. Moreover, this modality leads to the identifications of cancers at a more favorable stage, allowing a real advantage in terms of tumor size and nodal involvement. The medical community is evaluating to suggest DCE-MRI alone as screening modality in high-risk women, as it was reported that in these cases the sensitivity of MRI plus conventional imaging was not significantly higher than that of MRI alone. Breast MRI is now recommended as part of screening program for high risk women by both European and American guidelines. PMID:26924173

  16. Hereditary and Familial Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jasperson, Kory W.; Tuohy, Thérèse M.; Neklason, Deborah W.; Burt, Randall W.

    2011-01-01

    Between 2% to 5% of all colon cancers arise in the setting of well defined inherited syndromes, including Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH-associated polyposis, and certain hamartomatous polyposis conditions. Each is associated with a high risk of colon cancer. In addition to the syndromes, up to one-third of colon cancers exhibit increased familial risk, likely related to inheritance. A number of less penetrant, but possibly more frequent susceptibility genes have been identified for this level of inheritance. Clarification of predisposing genes allows for accurate risk assessment and more precise screening approaches. This review examines the colon cancer syndromes, their genetics and management, and also the common familial colon cancers with current genetic advances and screening guidelines. PMID:20420945

  17. A Case of Sigmoid Colon Tuberculosis Mimicking Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Seong-Min; Kim, Min-Dae; Lee, Hee-Ryong; Jung, Peel; Ryu, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Seung-Ho; Lee, Il-Seon

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the sigmoid colon is a rare disorder. An 80-year-old man visited Bongseng Memorial Hospital for medical examination. A colonoscopy was performed, and a lesion in the sigmoid colon that was suspected to be colon cancer was found. A biopsy was performed, and tuberculous enteritis with chronic granulomatous inflammation was diagnosed. Intestinal tuberculosis is most frequent in the ileocecal area, followed by the ascending colon, transverse colon, duodenum, stomach, and sigmoid colon, in descending order. Hence, we report a case of intestinal tuberculosis in the sigmoid colon, which is rare and almost indistinguishable from colon cancer. PMID:23185709

  18. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  19. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer This page ... and rectal cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Colon Cancer Avastin (Bevacizumab) Bevacizumab Camptosar ( ...

  20. Preventing Second Cancers in Colon Cancer Survivors

    Cancer.gov

    In this phase III trial, people who have had curative surgery for colon cancer will be randomly assigned to take sulindac and a placebo, eflornithine and a placebo, both sulindac and eflornithine, or two placebo pills for 36 months.

  1. Colon Cancer Rising in People Under 50

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159004.html Colon Cancer Rising in People Under 50 Incidence up ... TUESDAY, May 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Although overall colon cancer rates are declining, the rates among Americans ...

  2. Colon Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    From 2000 until 2010 with the support from the National Cancer Institute, the Mouse Models for Human Cancer Consortium, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute workshops and conferences to advance the understanding and use of animal models in colorectal cancer research have been organized .

  3. Hereditary Colon Cancer: Lynch Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eunjeong

    2010-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is the most common familial colorectal cancer syndrome. It is linked to germline mutations in one of four DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. A comprehensive family history is one important way to identify at-risk individuals. The elucidation of the molecular genetics of this syndrome has made it possible to screen for the disorder with molecular tests. Microsatellite instability and/or immunohistochemistry followed by germline testing for mutations in MMR genes is now a standard approach for clinically suspected cases. Correctly recognizing Lynch syndrome is essential for the application of appropriate screening and surveillance measures. Close surveillance and risk-reducing operations can decrease cancer-related mortality. In addition, counseling is an important component of the management of any family with Lynch syndrome. PMID:20559516

  4. Five New Genes Linked to Colon Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159556.html Five New Genes Linked to Colon Cancer But researchers say ... 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists have identified five new gene mutations that may be tied to colon ...

  5. STUDIES OF DBP-INDUCED COLON CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of colon carcinomas by trihalomethanes in rats may be relevant to epidemiological findings of increased incidences of colon-rectal cancer associated with exposure to chlorination byproducts. These studies have demonstrated that the brominated THMs in drinking water ind...

  6. Five New Genes Linked to Colon Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159556.html Five New Genes Linked to Colon Cancer But researchers say ... 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists have identified five new gene mutations that may be tied to colon ...

  7. Developmental pathways in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Fred E.; Angus, C. William; Partis, William J.; Sigounas, George

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of cancer is reactivation/alteration of pathways that control cellular differentiation during developmental processes. Evidence indicates that WNT, Notch, BMP and Hedgehog pathways have a role in normal epithelial cell differentiation, and that alterations in these pathways accompany establishment of the tumorigenic state. Interestingly, there is recent evidence that these pathways are intertwined at the molecular level, and these nodes of intersection may provide opportunities for effective targeted therapies. This review will highlight the role of the WNT, Notch, BMP and Hedgehog pathways in colon cancer. PMID:23032367

  8. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in colon cancer and rectal cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  9. PET-MRI in Diagnosing Patients With Colon or Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-25

    Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  10. Patterns of metastasis in colon and rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Riihimäki, Matias; Hemminki, Akseli; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Investigating epidemiology of metastatic colon and rectal cancer is challenging, because cancer registries seldom record metastatic sites. We used a population based approach to assess metastatic spread in colon and rectal cancers. 49,096 patients with colorectal cancer were identified from the nationwide Swedish Cancer Registry. Metastatic sites were identified from the National Patient Register and Cause of Death Register. Rectal cancer more frequently metastasized into thoracic organs (OR = 2.4) and the nervous system (1.5) and less frequently within the peritoneum (0.3). Mucinous and signet ring adenocarcinomas more frequently metastasized within the peritoneum compared with generic adenocarcinoma (3.8 [colon]/3.2 [rectum]), and less frequently into the liver (0.5/0.6). Lung metastases occurred frequently together with nervous system metastases, whereas peritoneal metastases were often listed with ovarian and pleural metastases. Thoracic metastases are almost as common as liver metastases in rectal cancer patients with a low stage at diagnosis. In colorectal cancer patients with solitary metastases the survival differed between 5 and 19 months depending on T or N stage. Metastatic patterns differ notably between colon and rectal cancers. This knowledge should help clinicians to identify patients in need for extra surveillance and gives insight to further studies on the mechanisms of metastasis. PMID:27416752

  11. Patterns of metastasis in colon and rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Riihimäki, Matias; Hemminki, Akseli; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Investigating epidemiology of metastatic colon and rectal cancer is challenging, because cancer registries seldom record metastatic sites. We used a population based approach to assess metastatic spread in colon and rectal cancers. 49,096 patients with colorectal cancer were identified from the nationwide Swedish Cancer Registry. Metastatic sites were identified from the National Patient Register and Cause of Death Register. Rectal cancer more frequently metastasized into thoracic organs (OR = 2.4) and the nervous system (1.5) and less frequently within the peritoneum (0.3). Mucinous and signet ring adenocarcinomas more frequently metastasized within the peritoneum compared with generic adenocarcinoma (3.8 [colon]/3.2 [rectum]), and less frequently into the liver (0.5/0.6). Lung metastases occurred frequently together with nervous system metastases, whereas peritoneal metastases were often listed with ovarian and pleural metastases. Thoracic metastases are almost as common as liver metastases in rectal cancer patients with a low stage at diagnosis. In colorectal cancer patients with solitary metastases the survival differed between 5 and 19 months depending on T or N stage. Metastatic patterns differ notably between colon and rectal cancers. This knowledge should help clinicians to identify patients in need for extra surveillance and gives insight to further studies on the mechanisms of metastasis. PMID:27416752

  12. Colon Cancer After Acute Diverticulitis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kwang Hoon; Kim, Eun Jung; Lee, Je Hoon; Choi, Kyu Un; Han, Myung Sik; Ahn, Jae Hong; Cheon, Gab Jin

    2013-01-01

    Diverticulitis is the most common clinical complication of diverticular disease, affecting 10-25% of the patients with diverticula. The prevalences of diverticulitis and colon cancer tend to increase with age and are higher in industrialized countries. Consequently, diverticulitis and colon cancer have been reported to have similar epidemiological characteristics. However, the relationship between these diseases remains controversial, as is the performance of routine colonoscopy after an episode of diverticulitis to exclude colon cancer. Recently, we experienced three cases of colon cancer after treating acute diverticulitis, based on which we suggest the importance of follow-up colonoscopy after acute diverticulitis. PMID:24032118

  13. Variation in Positron Emission Tomography Use After Colon Cancer Resection

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Christina E.; Hu, Chung-Yuan; You, Y. Nancy; Kaur, Harmeet; Ernst, Randy D.; Chang, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Colon cancer surveillance guidelines do not routinely include positron emission tomography (PET) imaging; however, its use after surgical resection has been increasing. We evaluated the secular patterns of PET use after surgical resection of colon cancer among elderly patients and identified factors associated with its increasing use. Patients and Methods: We used the SEER-linked Medicare database (July 2001 through December 2009) to establish a retrospective cohort of patients age ≥ 66 years who had undergone surgical resection for colon cancer. Postoperative PET use was assessed with the test for trends. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were analyzed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results: Of the 39,221 patients with colon cancer, 6,326 (16.1%) had undergone a PET scan within 2 years after surgery. The use rate steadily increased over time. The majority of PET scans had been performed within 2 months after surgery. Among patients who had undergone a PET scan, 3,644 (57.6%) had also undergone preoperative imaging, and 1,977 (54.3%) of these patients had undergone reimaging with PET within 2 months after surgery. Marriage, year of diagnosis, tumor stage, preoperative imaging, postoperative visit to a medical oncologist, and adjuvant chemotherapy were significantly associated with increased PET use. Conclusion: PET use after colon cancer resection is steadily increasing, and further study is needed to understand the clinical value and effectiveness of PET scans and the reasons for this departure from guideline-concordant care. PMID:25852143

  14. Regular Doctor Visits Can Help Spot Colon Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159699.html Regular Doctor Visits Can Help Spot Colon Cancer Early detection improves likelihood of survival, researchers ... increases the odds you'll be screened for colon cancer, a new study says. Colon cancer is ...

  15. Microbes, Microbiota and Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Cynthia L.; Garrett, Wendy S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Colorectal cancer (CRC) presents a considerable disease burden worldwide. The human colon is also an anatomical location with the largest number of microbes. It is natural therefore to anticipate a role for microbes, particularly bacteria, in colorectal carcinogenesis. The increasing accessibility of microbial meta’omics is fueling a surge in our understanding of the role that microbes and the microbiota play in CRC. In this review, we will discuss recent insights into contributions of the microbiota to CRC and explore conceptual frameworks for evaluating the role of microbes in cancer causation. We also highlight new findings on candidate CRC-potentiating species and current knowledge gaps. Finally, we explore the roles of microbial metabolism as it relates to bile acids, xenobiotics, and diet in the etiology and therapeutics of CRC. PMID:24629338

  16. Colon Cancer Rising in People Under 50

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159004.html Colon Cancer Rising in People Under 50 Incidence up more than 10 percent in ... cancer rates are declining, the rates among Americans under 50 have jumped more than 11 percent in ...

  17. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... explains the most commonly used screening methods, including test preparation, in simple language. View video Narrator : If ... cancer or even going for a colon cancer test can be frightening to you. “What if they ...

  18. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Cancer.gov

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  19. Colorectal cancer surveillance in inflammatory bowel disease: The search continues

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Anis; Polyak, Steven; Draganov, Peter V

    2009-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). Risk factors for the development of CRC in the setting of IBD include disease duration, anatomic extent of disease, age at time of diagnosis, severity of inflammation, family history of colon cancer, and concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis. The current surveillance strategy of surveillance colonoscopy with multiple random biopsies most likely reduces morbidity and mortality associated with IBD-related CRC. Unfortunately, surveillance colonoscopy also has severe limitations including high cost, sampling error at time of biopsy, and interobserver disagreement in histologically grading dysplasia. Furthermore, once dysplasia is detected there is disagreement about its management. Advances in endoscopic imaging techniques are already underway, and may potentially aid in dysplasia detection and improve overall surveillance outcomes. Management of dysplasia depends predominantly on the degree and focality of dysplasia, with the mainstay of management involving either proctocolectomy or continued colonoscopic surveillance. Lastly, continued research into additional chemopreventive agents may increase our arsenal in attempting to reduce the incidence of IBD-associated CRC. PMID:19115469

  20. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinfu; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; Mery, Les

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84), respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC). An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29) for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10) for distal colon cancer (DCC). An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers. PMID:24281033

  1. Colon Cancer Metastatic to the Biliary Tree.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Alexandra T; Clayton, Steven B; Markow, Michael; Mamel, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma is commonly found in the lung, liver, or peritoneum. Common bile duct (CBD) tumors related to adenomas from familial adenomatous polyposis metastasizing from outside of the gastrointestinal tract have been reported. We report a case of biliary colic due to metastatic colon adenocarcinoma to the CBD. Obstructive jaundice with signs of acalculous cholecystitis on imaging in a patient with a history of colon cancer should raise suspicion for metastasis to CBD. PMID:27144209

  2. Colon Cancer Metastatic to the Biliary Tree

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Steven B.; Markow, Michael; Mamel, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma is commonly found in the lung, liver, or peritoneum. Common bile duct (CBD) tumors related to adenomas from familial adenomatous polyposis metastasizing from outside of the gastrointestinal tract have been reported. We report a case of biliary colic due to metastatic colon adenocarcinoma to the CBD. Obstructive jaundice with signs of acalculous cholecystitis on imaging in a patient with a history of colon cancer should raise suspicion for metastasis to CBD. PMID:27144209

  3. Cancer of the Colon and Rectum

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 134,490 % of All New Cancer Cases 8.0% Estimated Deaths in 2016 49,190 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 1,177,556 people living with colon and ...

  4. Redefining Adjuvant Therapy for Colon Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, patients with resected stage III colon cancer are being randomly assigned to receive FOLFOX chemotherapy for either 3 or 6 months and to take either a pill called celecoxib or a matching placebo pill for 3 years.

  5. Oncolytic reovirus against ovarian and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Kensuke; Nishikawa, Sandra G; Norman, Kara L; Alain, Tommy; Kossakowska, Anna; Lee, Patrick W K

    2002-03-15

    Reovirus selectively replicates in and destroys cancer cells with an activated Ras signaling pathway. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using reovirus (serotype 3, strain Dearing) as an antihuman colon and ovarian cancer agent. In in vitro studies, reovirus infection in human colon and ovarian cell lines was assessed by cytopathic effect as detected by light microscopy, [(35)S]Methionine labeling of infected cells for viral protein synthesis and progeny virus production by plaque assay. We observed that reovirus efficiently infected all five human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, DLD-1, HCT-116, HT-29, and SW48) and four human ovarian cancer cell lines (MDAH2774, PA-1, SKOV3, and SW626) which were tested, but not a normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) or a normal ovarian cell line (NOV-31). We also observed that the Ras activity in the human colon and ovarian cancer cell lines was elevated compared with that in normal colon and ovarian cell lines. In animal models, intraneoplastic as well as i.v. inoculation of reovirus resulted in significant regression of established s.c. human colon and ovarian tumors implanted at the hind flank. Histological studies revealed that reovirus infection in vivo was restricted to tumor cells, whereas the surrounding normal tissue remained uninfected. Additionally, in an i.p. human ovarian cancer xenograft model, inhibition of ascites tumor formation and the survival of animals treated with live reovirus was significantly greater than of control mice treated with UV-inactivated reovirus. Reovirus infection in ex vivo primary human ovarian tumor surgical samples was also confirmed, further demonstrating the potential of reovirus therapy. These results suggest that reovirus holds promise as a novel agent for human colon and ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:11912142

  6. How to improve colon cancer screening rates

    PubMed Central

    Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo; Garcia, Diego Paim Carvalho; Coelho, Debora Lucciola; De Lima, David Correa Alves; Petroianu, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is a common cause of death throughout the world and may be prevented by routine control, which can detect precancerous neoplasms and early cancers before they undergo malignant transformation or metastasis. Three strategies may improve colon cancer screening rates: convince the population about the importance of undergoing a screening test; achieve higher efficacy in standard screening tests and make them more available to the community and develop new more sensitive and efficacious screening methods and make them available as routine tests. In this light, the present study seeks to review these three means through which to increase colon cancer screening rates. PMID:26688708

  7. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  8. Metastatic male ductal breast cancer mimicking obstructing primary colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Koleilat, Issam; Syal, Anil; Hena, Muhammad

    2010-03-01

    Male breast cancer comprises only about 1% of all breast cancers. Commonly, sites of metastases include the central nervous system, lungs, bones, and even liver. In females, extrahepatic gastrointestinal metastases are unusual but have been reported with various clinical presentations. We are reporting the first case of a male patient with a history of ductal breast carcinoma that developed colonic metastasis and presented with mechanical large bowel obstruction masquerading as primary colon cancer. PMID:23675178

  9. Metastatic Male Ductal Breast Cancer Mimicking Obstructing Primary Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koleilat, Issam; Syal, Anil; Hena, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Male breast cancer comprises only about 1% of all breast cancers. Commonly, sites of metastases include the central nervous system, lungs, bones, and even liver. In females, extrahepatic gastrointestinal metastases are unusual but have been reported with various clinical presentations. We are reporting the first case of a male patient with a history of ductal breast carcinoma that developed colonic metastasis and presented with mechanical large bowel obstruction masquerading as primary colon cancer. PMID:23675178

  10. Chemoembolization Using Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Liver Metastases From Metastatic Colon or Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-10

    Liver Metastases; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Rectal Cancer

  11. A Little Excess Weight May Boost Colon Cancer Survival

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158930.html A Little Excess Weight May Boost Colon Cancer Survival Researchers saw an effect, but experts ... a surprise, a new study found that overweight colon cancer patients tended to have better survival than ...

  12. Six Ways to Reduce Your Risk of Colon Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Six Ways to Reduce Your Risk of Colon Cancer Diet, weight and physical activity play a significant ... March 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Half of the colon cancer cases in the United States could be prevented ...

  13. Researchers Get Closer to Test Predicting Colon Cancer's Return

    MedlinePlus

    ... Get Closer to Test Predicting Colon Cancer's Return DNA-based screen would aid treatment decisions for people ... News) -- A blood test that detects bits of DNA shed from colon cancers may someday help doctors ...

  14. Chemotherapy for Stage II Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Anna

    2015-12-01

    The adjuvant treatment of patients with stage II colon cancer is an area of controversy in medical oncology. Adjuvant chemotherapy aims to eradicate micrometastatic disease present at the time of surgery, preventing the development of distant metastatic disease and thereby curing those patients of their cancer. National and international guidelines for the adjuvant treatment of stage II colon cancer recommend a range of treatment options from observation to chemotherapy with single-agent or combination regimens, depending on the presence or absence of high-risk features (poorly differentiated histology, presence of lymphovascular invasion, presence of perineural invasion, report of < 12 lymph nodes, bowel obstruction, localized perforation, or positive margins). In the one prospective study designed to address the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II colon cancer, a small but statistically significant benefit in overall survival was seen for those patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy; however, multiple meta-analyses and retrospective subgroup analyses have called these findings into question. Though there may be a role for adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with stage II colon cancer, its incremental benefit is small, at best, and comes with the risks of real and rarely fatal complications of chemotherapy. PMID:26648796

  15. External Beam Radiotherapy for Colon Cancer: Patterns of Care

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Emily F.; Kozak, Kevin R.; Moody, John S.

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Despite its common and well characterized use in other gastrointestinal malignancies, little is known about radiotherapy (RT) use in nonmetastatic colon cancer in the United States. To address the paucity of data regarding RT use in colon cancer management, we examined the RT patterns of care in this patient population. Methods and Materials: Patients with nonmetastatic colon cancer, diagnosed between 1988 and 2005, were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Univariate and multivariate methods were used to identify factors associated with RT use. Results: On univariate analysis, tumor location, age, sex, race, T stage, N stage, and geographic location were each associated with differences in RT use (all p < 0.01). In general, younger patients, male patients, and patients with more advanced disease were more likely to receive RT. On multivariate analysis, tumor location, age, gender, T and N stage, time of diagnosis and geographic location were significantly associated with RT use (all p < 0.001). Race, however, was not associated with RT use. On multivariate analysis, patients diagnosed in 1988 were 2.5 times more likely to receive RT than those diagnosed in 2005 (p = 0.001). Temporal changes in RT use reflect a responsiveness to evolving evidence related to the therapeutic benefits of adjuvant RT. Conclusions: External beam RT is infrequently used for colon cancer, and its use varies according to patient and tumor characteristics. RT use has declined markedly since the late 1980s; however, it continues to be used for nonmetastatic disease in a highly individualized manner.

  16. Novel diet-related mouse model of colon cancer parallels human colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Anil R; Prasad, Shilpa; Nguyen, Huy; Facista, Alexander; Lewis, Cristy; Zaitlin, Beryl; Bernstein, Harris; Bernstein, Carol

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the close parallels between our novel diet-related mouse model of colon cancer and human colon cancer. METHODS: Twenty-two wild-type female mice (ages 6-8 wk) were fed the standard control diet (AIN-93G) and an additional 22 female mice (ages 6-8 wk) were fed the control diet supplemented with 0.2% deoxycholic acid [diet + deoxycholic acid (DOC)] for 10 mo. Tumors occurred in the colons of mice fed diet + DOC and showed progression to colon cancer [adenocarcinoma (AC)]. This progression is through the stages of tubular adenoma (TA), TA with high grade dysplasia or adenoma with sessile serrated morphology, intramucosal AC, AC stage T1, and AC stage T2. The mouse tumors were compared to human tumors at the same stages by histopathological analysis. Sections of the small and large intestines of mice and humans were evaluated for glandular architecture, cellular and nuclear morphology including cellular orientation, cellular and nuclear atypia, pleomorphism, mitotic activity, frequency of goblet cells, crypt architecture, ulceration, penetration of crypts through the muscularis mucosa and presence of malignant crypts in the muscularis propria. In addition, preserved colonic tissues from genetically similar male mice, obtained from a prior experiment, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The male mice had been fed the control diet or diet + DOC. Four molecular markers were evaluated: 8-OH-dG, DNA repair protein ERCC1, autophagy protein beclin-1 and the nuclear location of beta-catenin in the stem cell region of crypts. Also, male mice fed diet + DOC plus 0.007% chlorogenic acid (diet + DOC + CGA) were evaluated for ERCC1, beclin-1 and nuclear location of beta-catenin. RESULTS: Humans with high levels of diet-related DOC in their colons are at a substantially increased risk of developing colon cancer. The mice fed diet + DOC had levels of DOC in their colons comparable to that of humans on a high fat diet. The 22 mice without added DOC in their diet

  17. ARMc8 indicates aggressive colon cancers and promotes invasiveness and migration of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guiyang; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Xiupeng; Fan, Chuifeng; Wang, Liang; Xu, Hongtao; Yu, Juanhan; Wang, Enhua

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have implicated ARMc8 in promoting tumor formation in non-small cell lung cancer and breast cancer; however, so far, no studies have revealed the expression pattern or cellular function of ARMc8 in colon cancer. In this study, we used immunohistochemical staining to measure ARMc8 expression in 206 cases of colon cancer and matched adjacent normal colon tissue. Clinically important behaviors of cells, including invasiveness and migration, were evaluated after upregulation of ARMc8 expression in HT29 cells through gene transfection or downregulation of expression in LoVo cells using RNAi. We found that ARMc8 was primarily located in the membrane and cytoplasm of tumor cells, and its expression level was significantly higher in colon cancer in comparison to that in the adjacent normal colon tissues (p < 0.001). ARMc8 expression was closely related to TNM stage (p = 0.006), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.001), and poor prognosis (p = 0.002) of colon cancer. The invasiveness and migration capacity of HT29 cells transfected with ARMc8 were significantly greater than those of control cells (p < 0.001), while ARMc8 siRNA treatment significantly reduced cell invasion and migration in LoVo cells (p < 0.001). Furthermore, we demonstrated that ARMc8 could upregulate the expression of MMP7 and snail and downregulate the expression of p120ctn and α-catenin. Therefore, ARMc8 probably enhanced invasiveness and metastatic capacity by affecting these tumor-associated factors, thereby playing a role in enhancing the tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells. ARMc8 is likely to become a potential therapeutic target for colon cancer. PMID:26081621

  18. Laparoscopic sigmoidectomy for colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Kanellos, D; Pramateftakis, M G; Vrakas, G; Mantzoros, I; Tsachalis, T; Hatzigianni, P; Kanellos, I

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to report our experience with laparoscopic sigmoidectomy due to cancer. Between 2007 and 2009, laparoscopic sigmoidectomy for cancer was performed in 3 patients. The average operative time was 176 min. The average hospital stay was 10.2 days. There was one anastomotic leak. The patient was subjected to laparotomy and a Hartmann's procedure and drainage of the peritoneal cavity was performed. In conclusion, laparoscopic sigmoidectomy for cancer is a safe and efficient procedure. PMID:20694496

  19. The Value of Continuity between Primary Care and Surgical Care in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Tanvir; Chang, Hsien-Yen; Luu, Ngoc-Phuong; Pollack, Craig Evan

    2016-01-01

    Background Improving continuity between primary care and cancer care is critical for improving cancer outcomes and curbing cancer costs. A dimension of continuity, we investigated how regularly patients receive their primary care and surgical care for colon cancer from the same hospital and whether this affects mortality and costs. Methods Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program Registry (SEER)-Medicare data, we performed a retrospective cohort study of stage I-III colon cancer patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2009. There were 23,305 stage I-III colon cancer patients who received primary care in the year prior to diagnosis and underwent operative care for colon cancer. Patients were assigned to the hospital where they had their surgery and to their primary care provider’s main hospital, and then classified according to whether these two hospitals were same or different. Outcomes examined were hazards for all-cause mortality, subhazard for colon cancer specific mortality, and generalized linear estimate for costs at 12 months, from propensity score matched models. Results Fifty-two percent of stage I-III colon patients received primary care and surgical care from the same hospital. Primary care and surgical care from the same hospital was not associated with reduced all-cause or colon cancer specific mortality, but was associated with lower inpatient, outpatient, and total costs of care. Total cost difference was $8,836 (95% CI $2,746–$14,577), a 20% reduction in total median cost of care at 12 months. Conclusions Receiving primary care and surgical care at the same hospital, compared to different hospitals, was associated with lower costs but still similar survival among stage I-III colon cancer patients. Nonetheless, health care policy which encourages further integration between primary care and cancer care in order to improve outcomes and decrease costs will need to address the significant proportion of patients receiving health care

  20. Right colon cancer presenting as hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Tomoyuki; Konishi, Kazuo; Yamazaki, Takahisa; Kitamura, Katsuya; Katagiri, Atsushi; Muramoto, Takashi; Kubota, Yutaro; Yano, Yuichiro; Kobayashi, Yoshiya; Yamochi, Toshiko; Ohike, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Masahiko; Gokan, Takehiko; Yoshikawa, Nozomi; Imawari, Michio

    2011-02-15

    A 67-year-old man visited our hospital with a history of continuous hematochezia leading to hemorrhagic shock. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a large mass in the ascending colon invading the duodenum and pancreatic head as well as extravasation of blood from the gastroduodenal artery (GDA) into the colon. Colonoscopy revealed an irregular ulcerative lesion and stenosis in the ascending colon. Therefore, right hemicolectomy combined with pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Histologically, the tumor was classified as a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Moreover, cancer cells were mainly located in the colon but had also invaded the duodenum and pancreas and involved the GDA. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK)20 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) but not for CK7 and carbohydrate antigen (CA)19-9. The patient died 23 d after the surgery because he had another episode of arterial bleeding from the anastomosis site. Although En bloc resection of the tumor with pancreaticoduodenectomy and colectomy performed for locally advanced colon cancer can ensure long-term survival, patients undergoing these procedures should be carefully monitored, particularly when the tumor involves the main artery. PMID:21607161

  1. Role of colonic stents in the management of colorectal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, Jayesh

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the commonly encountered cancers across the Western World. In United Kingdom, this constitutes third most common ranked cancer and second most common ranked cause of cancer related deaths. Its acute presentation as a malignant colonic obstruction imposes challenges in its management. Colonic stent has been used for many years to alleviate acute obstruction in such cases allowing optimisation of patient’s physiological status and adequate staging of cancer. In this review, current literature evidence regarding use of colonic stent in acute malignant colonic obstruction is critically appraised and recommendations on the use of colonic stent are advocated. PMID:26962401

  2. Modulation of colon cancer by nutmeg.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Krausz, Kristopher W; Nichols, Robert G; Xu, Wei; Patterson, Andrew D; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2015-04-01

    Colon cancer is the most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer mortality in humans. Using mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, the current study revealed the accumulation of four uremic toxins (cresol sulfate, cresol glucuronide, indoxyl sulfate, and phenyl sulfate) in the serum of mice harboring adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene mutation-induced colon cancer. These uremic toxins, likely generated from the gut microbiota, were associated with an increase in the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and a disorder of lipid metabolism. Nutmeg, which exhibits antimicrobial activity, attenuated the levels of uremic toxins and decreased intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(min/+) mice. Nutmeg-treated Apc(min/+) mice had decreased IL-6 levels and normalized dysregulated lipid metabolism, suggesting that uremic toxins are responsible, in part, for the metabolic disorders that occur during tumorigenesis. These studies demonstrate a potential biochemical link among gut microbial metabolism, inflammation, and metabolic disorders and suggest that modulation of gut microbiota and lipid metabolism using dietary intervention or drugs may be effective in colon cancer chemoprevention strategies. PMID:25712450

  3. Terahertz polarization imaging for colon cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doradla, Pallavi; Alavi, Karim; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

    2014-03-01

    Continuous wave terahertz (THz) imaging has the potential to offer a safe, noninvasive medical imaging modality for delineating colorectal cancer. The terahertz reflectance measurements of fresh 3 - 5 mm thick human colonic excisions were acquired using a continuous-wave polarization imaging technique. A CO2 optically pumped Far- Infrared molecular gas laser operating at 584 GHz was used to illuminate the colon tissue, while the reflected signals were detected using a liquid Helium cooled silicon bolometer. Both co-polarized and cross-polarized remittance from the samples was collected using wire grid polarizers in the experiment. The experimental analysis of 2D images obtained from THz reflection polarization imaging techniques showed intrinsic contrast between cancerous and normal regions based on increased reflection from the tumor. Also, the study demonstrates that the cross-polarized terahertz images not only correlates better with the histology, but also provide consistent relative reflectance difference values between normal and cancerous regions for all the measured specimens.

  4. Detection of colon cancer by terahertz techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahaia, Faustino; Valusis, Gintaras; Bernardo, Luis M.; Almeida, Abílio; Moreira, J. Agostinho; Lopes, Patricia C.; Macutkevic, Jan; Kasalynas, Irmantas; Seliuta, Dalius; Adomavicius, Ramunas; Henrique, Rui; Lopes, Machado

    2011-05-01

    Normal and cancer affected samples of colon tissue have been measured using transmission time-domain terahertz spectroscopy and continuous wave terahertz imaging. We show that it is possible to distinguish between normal and cancerous regions in the samples when they are fixed in formalin or embedded in paraffin. Plots of the refractive index of normal and cancer affected tissues as well as 2-D transmission THz images are shown. Experimental results will be presented and the conditions for discrimination between normal and affected tissue will be discussed.

  5. Preoperative Serum Levels of Mesothelin in Patients with Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bostancı, Özgür; Kemik, Özgür; Kemik, Ahu; Battal, Muharrem; Demir, Uygar; Purisa, Sevim; Mihmanlı, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Background. Screening for biochemical markers is important for diagnosing colon cancer. In this study, the reliability of serum mesothelin levels as a potential diagnostic and screening instrument was evaluated concerning colon cancer. Methods. Ninety-five patients who had undergone colonoscopic examination and who were diagnosed with colon cancer were included in the study. The serum mesothelin levels were measured with the ELISA kits and were evaluated in terms of significant difference when compared between colon cancer and control group. Results. Patients with colon cancer had significantly higher mesothelin serum levels (P < 0.001) than the control groups. We found significant associations between serum levels and tumor grade, perineural invasion, and vascular invasion (resp., P < 0.001). Conclusion. Evaluating the serum levels of mesothelin has a potential to detect and screen the colon cancer in affected patients. Our data suggest that mesothelin exhibits effects towards colon cancer and serves as a biomarker for this deadly disease. PMID:25477701

  6. Screening for and surveillance of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Compare, Debora; Rocco, Alba; Nardone, Gerardo

    2014-10-14

    Although the prevalence of gastric cancer (GC) progressively decreased during the last decades, due to improved dietary habit, introduction of food refrigeration and recovered socio-economic level, it still accounts for 10% of the total cancer-related deaths. The best strategy to reduce the mortality for GC is to schedule appropriate screening and surveillance programs, that rises many relevant concerns taking into account its worldwide variability, natural history, diagnostic tools, therapeutic strategies, and cost-effectiveness. Intestinal-type, the most frequent GC histotype, develops through a multistep process triggered by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and progressing from gastritis to atrophy, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and dysplasia. However, the majority of patients infected with H. pylori and carrying premalignant lesions do not develop GC. Therefore, it remains unclear who should be screened, when the screening should be started and how the screening should be performed. It seems reasonable that screening programs should target the general population in eastern countries, at high prevalence of GC and the high-risk subjects in western countries, at low prevalence of GC. As far as concern surveillance, currently, we are lacking of standardized international recommendations and many features have to be defined regarding the optimal diagnostic approach, the patients at higher risk, the best timing and the cost-effectiveness. Anyway, patients with corpus atrophic gastritis, extensive incomplete IM and dysplasia should enter a surveillance program. At present, screening and surveillance programs need further studies to draw worldwide reliable recommendations and evaluate the impact on mortality for GC. PMID:25320506

  7. Metastatic colon cancer, version 3.2013: featured updates to the NCCN Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Benson, Al B; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Chan, Emily; Chen, Yi-Jen; Choti, Michael A; Cooper, Harry S; Engstrom, Paul F; Enzinger, Peter C; Fakih, Marwan G; Fenton, Moon J; Fuchs, Charles S; Grem, Jean L; Hunt, Steven; Kamel, Ahmed; Leong, Lucille A; Lin, Edward; May, Kilian Salerno; Mulcahy, Mary F; Murphy, Kate; Rohren, Eric; Ryan, David P; Saltz, Leonard; Sharma, Sunil; Shibata, David; Skibber, John M; Small, William; Sofocleous, Constantinos T; Venook, Alan P; Willett, Christopher G; Gregory, Kristina M; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A

    2013-02-01

    The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Colon Cancer begin with the clinical presentation of the patient to the primary care physician or gastroenterologist and address diagnosis, pathologic staging, surgical management, perioperative treatment, patient surveillance, management of recurrent and metastatic disease, and survivorship. The NCCN Colon Cancer Panel meets annually to review comments from reviewers within their institutions and to reevaluate and update their recommendations. In addition, the panel has interim conferences as new data necessitate. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the NCCN Colon Cancer Panel's discussions surrounding metastatic colorectal cancer for the 2013 update of the guidelines. Importantly, changes were made to the continuum of care for patients with advanced or metastatic disease, including new drugs and an additional line of therapy. PMID:23411381

  8. IEX-1 deficiency protects against colonic cancer.

    PubMed

    Ustyugova, Irina V; Zhi, Liang; Abramowitz, Joel; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Wu, Mei X

    2012-06-01

    The immediate early response gene X-1 (IEX-1) is involved in regulation of various cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis in part by controlling homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at mitochondria. The present study shows reduced inflammatory responses and colorectal cancer in IEX-1 knockout (KO) mice treated with azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). However, DSS induced worse colitis in RAG(-/-)IEX-1(-/-) double KO mice than in RAG and IEX-1 single KO mice, underscoring an importance of T cells in IEX-1 deficiency-induced protection against colon inflammation. Lack of IEX-1 promoted the differentiation of interleukin (IL)-17-producing T cells, concomitant with upregulation of Gαi2 expression, a gene that is well-documented for its role in the control of inflammation in the colon. In accordance with this, T-helper 17 (T(H)17) cell differentiation was compromised in the absence of Gαi2, and deletion of Gαi2 in T cells alone aggravated colon inflammation and colorectal cancer development after azoxymethane/DSS treatment. Null mutation of IEX-1 also enhanced both proliferation and apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) after injury. A potential impact of this altered IEC turnover on colon inflammation and cancer development is discussed. These observations provide a linkage of IEX-1 and Gαi2 expression in the regulation of T(H)17 cell differentiation and suggest a previously unappreciated role for IEX-1 in the control of colon epithelial homeostasis. PMID:22550081

  9. Recent advances in the treatment of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, R; Zhou, B; Fung, P C W; Li, X

    2006-08-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although surgical resection is still the only treatment capable of curing colon cancer, adjuvant therapy continues to play an important role in preventing recurrence and metastasis. In recent years remarkable progress has been made in the treatment of colon cancer. This review discusses recent advances in adjuvant therapy for colon cancer, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy, antiangiogenic therapy and apoptosis induction. In the meantime, molecular therapy is also elucidated in the above methods. All these new advances will provide new promises for patients of colon cancer. PMID:16691539

  10. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... the chance that you could get cancer. Some risk factors you can control, such as drinking alcohol. Others, such as family ... cannot be changed. But just because you have risk factors you cannot control does not mean you cannot take steps to ...

  11. Establishment of a cancer surveillance programme: the South African experience

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Elvira; Ruff, Paul; Babb, Chantal; Sengayi, Mazvita; Beery, Moira; Khoali, Lerato; Kellett, Patricia; Underwood, J Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is projected to become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries in the future. However, cancer incidence in South Africa is largely under-reported because of a lack of nationwide cancer surveillance networks. We describe present cancer surveillance activities in South Africa, and use the International Agency for Research on Cancer framework to propose the development of four population-based cancer registries in South Africa. These registries will represent the ethnic and geographical diversity of the country. We also provide an update on a cancer surveillance pilot programme in the Ekurhuleni Metropolitan District, and the successes and challenges in the implementation of the IARC framework in a local context. We examine the development of a comprehensive cancer surveillance system in a middle-income country, which might serve to assist other countries in establishing population-based cancer registries in a resource-constrained environment. PMID:26248849

  12. Establishment of a cancer surveillance programme: the South African experience.

    PubMed

    Singh, Elvira; Ruff, Paul; Babb, Chantal; Sengayi, Mazvita; Beery, Moira; Khoali, Lerato; Kellett, Patricia; Underwood, J Michael

    2015-08-01

    Cancer is projected to become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries in the future. However, cancer incidence in South Africa is largely under-reported because of a lack of nationwide cancer surveillance networks. We describe present cancer surveillance activities in South Africa, and use the International Agency for Research on Cancer framework to propose the development of four population-based cancer registries in South Africa. These registries will represent the ethnic and geographical diversity of the country. We also provide an update on a cancer surveillance pilot programme in the Ekurhuleni Metropolitan District, and the successes and challenges in the implementation of the IARC framework in a local context. We examine the development of a comprehensive cancer surveillance system in a middle-income country, which might serve to assist other countries in establishing population-based cancer registries in a resource-constrained environment. PMID:26248849

  13. Human Colon Cancer Cells Cultivated in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Within five days, bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells (shown) grown in Microgravity on the STS-70 mission in 1995, had grown 30 times the volume of the control specimens on Earth. The samples grown in space had a higher level of cellular organization and specialization. Because they more closely resemble tumors found in the body, microgravity grown cell cultures are ideal for research purposes.

  14. Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Kuppusamy, Palaniselvam; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Maniam, Gaanty Pragas; Ichwan, Solachuddin Jauhari Arief; Soundharrajan, Ilavenil; Govindan, Natanamurugaraj

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment of various chronic diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer׳s disease. Nutraceuticals are derived from various natural sources such as medicinal plants, marine organisms, vegetables and fruits. Nutraceuticals have shown the potential to reduce the risk of colon cancer and slow its progression. These dietary substances target different molecular aspects of colon cancer development. Accordingly, this review briefly discusses the medicinal importance of nutraceuticals and their ability to reduce the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:26579381

  15. Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, Palaniselvam; Yusoff, Mashitah M; Maniam, Gaanty Pragas; Ichwan, Solachuddin Jauhari Arief; Soundharrajan, Ilavenil; Govindan, Natanamurugaraj

    2014-06-01

    Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment of various chronic diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer׳s disease. Nutraceuticals are derived from various natural sources such as medicinal plants, marine organisms, vegetables and fruits. Nutraceuticals have shown the potential to reduce the risk of colon cancer and slow its progression. These dietary substances target different molecular aspects of colon cancer development. Accordingly, this review briefly discusses the medicinal importance of nutraceuticals and their ability to reduce the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:26579381

  16. Clinical significance of HOTAIR expression in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhi-Fen; Zhao, Dan; Li, Xi-Qing; Cui, Yong-Xia; Ma, Ning; Lu, Chuang-Xin; Liu, Ming-Yue; Zhou, Yun

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To detect the expression of the long noncoding RNA HOTAIR in colon cancer and analyze its relationship with clinicopathological parameters of colon cancer. METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from 80 colon cancer tissues and matched tumor-adjacent normal colon tissues and reverse transcribed. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression of HOTAIR. The relationship between the expression of HOTAIR and clinicopathological parameters of colon cancer was analyzed. RESULTS: The expression of HOTAIR was significantly higher in colon cancer tissues than in matched tumor-adjacent normal colon tissues (P < 0.05). HOTAIR expression was significantly higher in cases with lymph node metastasis than in those without metastasis; in lowly differentiated and undifferentiated cases than in highly and moderately differentiated cases; and in stages III + IV cases than in stages I + II cases (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: HOTAIR expression is upregulated in colon cancer, suggesting that HOTAIR plays an important role in the tumorigenesis, development and metastasis of colon cancer. HOTAIR may act as an oncogene and represents a new molecular target for the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:27298568

  17. Enhanced endoscopic detection of early colon cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandar, Gowra; Trowers, Eugene A.

    1999-06-01

    Enhanced endoscopic detection of small flat adenomas is becoming increasingly important as they have a reported 14 percent incidence of dysplasia when compared with 5% incidence in polypod adenomas of the same size. These lesions even when invasive do not show up against the translucent surrounding mucosa making endoscopic detection difficult. Dye spraying with indigo carmine makes their morphology clear, with well-circumscribed borders. Dye spraying and magnifying endoscopes can be used to observe pit patterns on the surface of the bowel. Combining dye spraying and high-resolution video endoscopy demonstrates well the colorectal epithelial surface. Scanning immersion video endoscopy visualizes the epithelial surface of the colorectal mucosa by high-resolution endoscopy after filling the lumen with water. Endoscopic ultrasound can be used to see if the lesion is intramucosal or not and assess the depth of invasion if malignancy is presented. Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy has the potential to detect colonic dysplasia in vivo. Combining such technologies with conventional colonoscopy can help in the surveillance of large areas of colonic mucosa for the presence of dysplasia. Guided biopsy can replace random biopsy based on information provided at the time of colonoscopic examination.

  18. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Colon or Rectal Cancer That is Metastatic or Locally Advanced and Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-10

    Colon Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Colon Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Colon Carcinoma; Recurrent Rectal Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  19. Detection of colon cancer by terahertz techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahaia, Faustino; Valusis, Gintaras; Bernardo, Luis M.; Almeida, Abílio; Moreira, Joaquim A.; Lopes, Patricia C.; Macutkevic, Jan; Kasalynas, Irmantas; Seliuta, Dalius; Adomavicius, Ramunas; Henrique, Rui; Lopes, Machado

    2011-12-01

    Human normal and cancer affected samples of colon tissue have been measured using transmission time-domain terahertz spectroscopy and continuous wave terahertz imaging. We show that it is possible to distinguish between normal and cancerous regions in the samples when they are fixed in formalin or embedded in paraffin. The still noticeable contrast in the dried paraffin-embedded tissues could indicate that there are additional contrast-contributing factors other than water, which is the main goal of the present work. Plots of the refractive index of normal and cancer affected tissues as well as 2-D transmission THz images are shown. Experimental results are presented and the conditions for discrimination between normal and affected formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue are discussed.

  20. Microbial sensing by goblet cells controls immune surveillance of luminal antigens in the colon.

    PubMed

    Knoop, K A; McDonald, K G; McCrate, S; McDole, J R; Newberry, R D

    2015-01-01

    The delivery of luminal substances across the intestinal epithelium to the immune system is a critical event in immune surveillance, resulting in tolerance to dietary antigens and immunity to pathogens. How this process is regulated is largely unknown. Recently goblet cell-associated antigen passages (GAPs) were identified as a pathway delivering luminal antigens to underlying lamina propria (LP) dendritic cells in the steady state. Here, we demonstrate that goblet cells (GCs) form GAPs in response to acetylcholine (ACh) acting on muscarinic ACh receptor 4. GAP formation in the small intestine was regulated at the level of ACh production, as GCs rapidly formed GAPs in response to ACh analogs. In contrast, colonic GAP formation was regulated at the level of GC responsiveness to ACh. Myd88-dependent microbial sensing by colonic GCs inhibited the ability of colonic GCs to respond to Ach to form GAPs and deliver luminal antigens to colonic LP-antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Disruption of GC microbial sensing in the setting of an intact gut microbiota opened colonic GAPs, and resulted in recruitment of neutrophils and APCs and production of inflammatory cytokines. Thus GC intrinsic sensing of the microbiota has a critical role regulating the exposure of the colonic immune system to luminal substances. PMID:25005358

  1. Cathelicidin suppresses colon cancer development by inhibition of cancer associated fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Michelle; Ho, Samantha; Yoo, Jun Hwan; Tran, Deanna Hoang-Yen; Bakirtzi, Kyriaki; Su, Bowei; Tran, Diana Hoang-Ngoc; Kubota, Yuzu; Ichikawa, Ryan; Koon, Hon Wai

    2015-01-01

    Background Cathelicidin (LL-37 in humans and mCRAMP in mice) represents a family of endogenous antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory peptides. Cancer-associated fibroblasts can promote the proliferation of colon cancer cells and growth of colon cancer tumors. Methods We examined the role of cathelicidin in the development of colon cancer, using subcutaneous human HT-29 colon-cancer-cell-derived tumor model in nude mice and azoxymethane- and dextran sulfate-mediated colon cancer model in C57BL/6 mice. We also determined the indirect antitumoral mechanism of cathelicidin via the inhibition of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of colon cancer cells and fibroblast-supported colon cancer cell proliferation. Results Intravenous administration of cathelicidin expressing adeno-associated virus significantly reduced the size of tumors, tumor-derived collagen expression, and tumor-derived fibroblast expression in HT-29-derived subcutaneous tumors in nude mice. Enema administration of the mouse cathelicidin peptide significantly reduced the size and number of colonic tumors in azoxymethane- and dextran sulfate-treated mice without inducing apoptosis in tumors and the adjacent normal colonic tissues. Cathelicidin inhibited the collagen expression and vimentin-positive fibroblast expression in colonic tumors. Cathelicidin did not directly affect HT-29 cell viability, but did significantly reduce tumor growth factor-β1-induced EMT of colon cancer cells. Media conditioned by the human colonic CCD-18Co fibroblasts promoted human colon cancer HT-29 cell proliferation. Cathelicidin pretreatment inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation mediated by media conditioned by human colonic CCD-18Co fibroblasts. Cathelicidin disrupted tubulin distribution in colonic fibroblasts. Disruption of tubulin in fibroblasts reduced fibroblast-supported colon cancer cell proliferation. Conclusion Cathelicidin effectively inhibits colon cancer development by interfering with EMT and fibroblast

  2. Diet, genes, and microbes: complexities of colon cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Birt, Diane F; Phillips, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and generally, as countries climb the economic ladder, their rates of colon cancer increase. Colon cancer was an early disease where key genetic mutations were identified as important in disease progression, and there is considerable interest in determining whether specific mutations sensitize the colon to cancer prevention strategies. Epidemiological studies have revealed that fiber- and vegetable-rich diets and physical activity are associated with reduced rates of colon cancer, while consumption of red and processed meat, or alcoholic beverages, and overconsumption as reflected in obesity are associated with increased rates. Animal studies have probed these effects and suggested directions for further refinement of diet in colon cancer prevention. Recently a central role for the microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract in colon cancer development is being probed, and it is hypothesized that the microbes may integrate diet and host genetics in the etiology of the disease. This review provides background on dietary, genetic, and microbial impacts on colon cancer and describes an ongoing project using rodent models to assess the ability of digestion-resistant starch in the integration of these factors with the goal of furthering colon cancer prevention. PMID:24129759

  3. Sigmoid volvulus after laparoscopic surgery for sigmoid colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Sadatomo, Ai; Miyakura, Yasuyuki; Zuiki, Toru; Koinuma, Koji; Horie, Hisanaga; Lefor, Alan T; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

    2013-08-01

    We report the first case of sigmoid volvulus after laparoscopic surgery for sigmoid colon cancer. The patient is a 75-year-old man who presented with the sudden onset of severe abdominal pain. He had undergone laparoscopic sigmoidectomy for cancer 2 years before presentation. CT scan showed a distended sigmoid colon with a mesenteric twist, or "whirl sign." Colonoscopy showed a mucosal spiral and luminal stenosis with dilated sigmoid colon distally and ischemic mucosa. The diagnosis of ischemic colonic necrosis due to sigmoid volvulus was established. Resection of the necrotic sigmoid colon was performed and a descending colon stoma was created. A long remnant sigmoid colon and chronic constipation may contribute to the development of sigmoid volvulus after laparoscopic sigmoidectomy. Prompt diagnosis is essential for adequate treatment, and colonoscopy aids in the diagnosis of ischemic changes in patients without definitive findings of a gangrenous colon. PMID:23879414

  4. Gene Signature in Sessile Serrated Polyps Identifies Colon Cancer Subtype.

    PubMed

    Kanth, Priyanka; Bronner, Mary P; Boucher, Kenneth M; Burt, Randall W; Neklason, Deborah W; Hagedorn, Curt H; Delker, Don A

    2016-06-01

    Sessile serrated colon adenoma/polyps (SSA/P) are found during routine screening colonoscopy and may account for 20% to 30% of colon cancers. However, differentiating SSA/Ps from hyperplastic polyps (HP) with little risk of cancer is challenging and complementary molecular markers are needed. In addition, the molecular mechanisms of colon cancer development from SSA/Ps are poorly understood. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on 21 SSA/Ps, 10 HPs, 10 adenomas, 21 uninvolved colon, and 20 control colon specimens. Differential expression and leave-one-out cross-validation methods were used to define a unique gene signature of SSA/Ps. Our SSA/P gene signature was evaluated in colon cancer RNA-Seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to identify a subtype of colon cancers that may develop from SSA/Ps. A total of 1,422 differentially expressed genes were found in SSA/Ps relative to controls. Serrated polyposis syndrome (n = 12) and sporadic SSA/Ps (n = 9) exhibited almost complete (96%) gene overlap. A 51-gene panel in SSA/P showed similar expression in a subset of TCGA colon cancers with high microsatellite instability. A smaller 7-gene panel showed high sensitivity and specificity in identifying BRAF-mutant, CpG island methylator phenotype high, and MLH1-silenced colon cancers. We describe a unique gene signature in SSA/Ps that identifies a subset of colon cancers likely to develop through the serrated pathway. These gene panels may be utilized for improved differentiation of SSA/Ps from HPs and provide insights into novel molecular pathways altered in colon cancer arising from the serrated pathway. Cancer Prev Res; 9(6); 456-65. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27026680

  5. Field Cancerization in Sporadic Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo-Kyung; Song, Chang Seok; Yang, Hyo-Joon; Jung, Yoon Suk; Choi, Kyu Yong; Koo, Dong Hoe; Kim, Kyung Eun; Jeong, Kyung Uk; Kim, Hyung Ook; Kim, Hungdai; Chun, Ho-Kyung; Park, Dong Il

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Aberrant DNA methylation has a specific role in field cancerization. Certain molecular markers, including secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2), tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI2), N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 4 (NDRG4) and bone morphogenic protein 3 (BMP3), have previously been shown to be hypermethylated in colorectal cancer (CRC). We aim to examine field cancerization in CRC based on the presence of aberrant DNA methylation in normal-appearing tissue from CRC patients. Methods We investigated promoter methylation in 34 CRC patients and five individuals with normal colonoscopy results. CRC patients were divided into three tissue groups: tumor tissue, adjacent and nonadjacent normal-appearing tissue. The methylation status (positive: methylation level >20%) of SFRP2, TFPI2, NDRG4, and BMP3 promoters was investigated using methylation-specific PCR. Results The methylation frequencies of the SFRP2, TFPI2, NDRG4 and BMP3 promoters in tumor/adjacent/nonadjacent normal-appearing tissue were 79.4%/63.0%/70.4%, 82.4%/53.6%/60.7%, 76.5%/61.5%/69.2%, 41.2%/35.7%/50.0%, respectively. The methylation levels of the SFRP,TFPI2, NDRG4 and BMP3 promoters in tumor tissues were significantly higher than those in normal-appearing tissue (SFRP2, p=0.013; TFPI2, p<0.001; NDRG4, p=0.003; BMP3, p=0.001). No significant correlation was observed between the methylation levels of the promoters and the clinicopathological variables. Conclusions The field effect is present in CRC and affects both the adjacent and nonadjacent normal-appearing mucosa. PMID:27114416

  6. Small Study Supports New Stool-Based Colon Cancer Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... never be used as a substitute for the "gold standard" colon cancer test, colonoscopy. Cologuard is a ... a welcome addition to screening, colonoscopy "remains the gold standard in the prevention of colorectal cancer." Dr. ...

  7. [Individualized therapy of synchronous ovarian and colon cancers with lymph].

    PubMed

    Deme, Dániel; Bishr, Abdulfatah M; Nizar, Jamool; Telekes, András

    2015-06-01

    A 71-year-old female patient underwent urgent laparotomy due to severe right lower quadrant abdominal pain and fever. Macroscopically duplex coecal and transverse colon cancer as well as a sigmoid or left ovarian cancer were suspected. Pathological findings revealed synchronous left ovarian and transverse colonic neoplasms. Both primaries metastatized to their regional lymph nodes. Furthermore, the ovarian cancer infiltrating the sigmoid colon gave distant metastasis in the coecum, too. Ovarian cancer histology showed papillary adenocarcinoma, and transverse colon cancer was a tubular adenocarcinoma. The affected lymph nodes were clearly distinguished by immunohistochemistry staining: ovarian metastases were CK7 positive, and colonic metastases were CK20 and CEA positive. The patient was treated with combinated chemotherapy: FOLFOX-4 two weekly and paclitaxel monotherapy every other week. The patient tolerated this combined treatment well. The authors conclude that multiple synchronous neoplasms can be treated with individualized chemotherapeutic protocol with good efficacy and few adverse reactions. PMID:26027602

  8. Variation in use of surveillance colonoscopy among colorectal cancer survivors in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines recommend colonoscopies at regular intervals for colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. Using data from a large, multi-regional, population-based cohort, we describe the rate of surveillance colonoscopy and its association with geographic, sociodemographic, clinical, and health services characteristics. Methods We studied CRC survivors enrolled in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance (CanCORS) study. Eligible survivors were diagnosed between 2003 and 2005, had curative surgery for CRC, and were alive without recurrences 14 months after surgery with curative intent. Data came from patient interviews and medical record abstraction. We used a multivariate logit model to identify predictors of colonoscopy use. Results Despite guidelines recommending surveillance, only 49% of the 1423 eligible survivors received a colonoscopy within 14 months after surgery. We observed large regional differences (38% to 57%) across regions. Survivors who received screening colonoscopy were more likely to: have colon cancer than rectal cancer (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.05-1.90); have visited a primary care physician (OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.14-1.82); and received adjuvant chemotherapy (OR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.27-2.41). Compared to survivors with no comorbidities, survivors with moderate or severe comorbidities were less likely to receive surveillance colonoscopy (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49-0.98 and OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.29-0.66, respectively). Conclusions Despite guidelines, more than half of CRC survivors did not receive surveillance colonoscopy within 14 months of surgery, with substantial variation by site of care. The association of primary care visits and adjuvant chemotherapy use suggests that access to care following surgery affects cancer surveillance. PMID:20809966

  9. Role of dietary factors in cell replication and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, R

    1988-09-01

    Human studies and experimental data from animals suggest that high rates of colonic epithelial cell replication enhance the development of colon cancer. Vegetarians and individuals following a prudent diet have lower rates of colorectal cell proliferation than subjects at high risk for colon cancer. Animal studies show that colonic cell proliferation is stimulated by feeding in general and specifically by a number of dietary fibers, fats, bile acids, and short-chain fatty acids. Many of these growth factors also increase the induction of experimental tumorigenesis. On the other hand factors that reduce cell growth, including ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyanisole, inhibit colon carcinogenesis. These results support the concept that dietary chemoprevention is feasible and could significantly reduce the rate of colon cancer development in high risk populations. PMID:3046307

  10. The association of percentage energy from fat and colon cancer risk among members of the U.S. military

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Stephanie; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Eckhaus, Janet; Bourgeois, Jolie; Perera, Kanchana; Zhu, Kangmin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiologic studies have previously reported an association between high fat intake and colon cancer risk. However, findings have generally been inconclusive. This study aimed to investigate the association between fat as a percentage of energy intake and colon cancer risk. Methods Study subjects included 215 cases and 215 matched controls identified by the Defense Medical Surveillance System. Percentage energy from fat (Pfat) was estimated using a short dietary screener developed by the National Cancer Institute for two time periods: the year before first blood draw and colon cancer diagnosis. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between colon cancer risk and Pfat. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results Compared with the lowest quartile of Pfat, the adjusted odds of having colon cancer were 2.00 (95% CI 0.96–4.18), 2.83 (95% CI 1.41–5.66) and 3.37 (95% CI 1.58–7.17) for the second, third, and highest quartiles in the year before cancer diagnosis. Similar results were observed for Pfat at an earlier time. Conclusion Our findings suggest a positive association between Pfat and colon cancer in the U.S. military population. PMID:25075879

  11. Adherence to Surveillance Care Guidelines after Breast and Colorectal Cancer Treatment with Curative Intent

    PubMed Central

    Salloum, Ramzi G.; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Fishman, Paul A.; Ritzwoller, Debra P.; Rossetti, Maureen C. O’Keeffe; Lafata, Jennifer Elston

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence-based guidelines recommend routine surveillance, including office visits and testing, to detect new and recurrent disease among breast and colorectal cancer survivors. The extent to which surveillance practice is consistent with guideline recommendations or may vary by age is not known. Methods Cohorts of adult patients diagnosed with breast (n=6,205) and colorectal (n=2,297) cancer between 2000 and 2008 and treated with curative intent in four, geographically diverse, managed care environments were identified via tumor registries. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to describe time to initial and subsequent surveillance service receipt. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the relationship between patient characteristics and receipt of metastatic screening. Results Within 18-months of treatment, 87.2% of breast cancer survivors received recommended mammograms, with significantly higher rates for patients aged 50–65. Among colorectal cancer survivors, only 55.0% received recommended colon examinations, with significantly lower rates for those ≥ aged 75. Most breast (64.7%) and colorectal (73.3%) cancer survivors received non-recommended metastatic disease testing. In breast cancer, factors associated with metastatic disease testing include white race (HR=1.13), comorbidities (HR=1.17), and younger age. In colorectal cancer, these factors included younger age and comorbidities (HR=1.10). Conclusions Among an insured population, we found wide variation in the use of surveillance care by age and relative to guideline recommendations. Breast cancer survivors have high rates of both guideline recommended recurrence testing and non-guideline recommended metastatic testing. Only about half of colorectal cancer survivors receive recommended tests but over two thirds received metastatic testing. PMID:22434568

  12. Colorectal cancer surveillance in inflammatory bowel disease: A critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Desai, Devendra; Desai, Nutan

    2014-11-16

    Colonoscopic surveillance is advocated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) for detection of dysplasia. There are many issues regarding surveillance in IBD: the risk of colorectal cancer seems to be decreasing in the majority of recently published studies, necessitating revisions of surveillance strategy; surveillance guidelines are not based on concrete evidence; commencement and frequency of surveillance, cost-effectiveness and adherence to surveillance have been issues that are only partly answered. The traditional technique of random biopsy is neither evidence-based nor easy to practice. Therefore, highlighting abnormal areas with newer technology and biopsy from these areas are the way forward. Of the newer technology, digital mucosal enhancement, such as high-definition white light endoscopy and chromoendoscopy (with magnification) have been incorporated in guidelines. Dyeless chromoendoscopy (narrow band imaging) has not yet shown potential, whereas some forms of digital chromoendoscopy (i-Scan more than Fujinon intelligent color enhancement) have shown promise for colonoscopic surveillance in IBD. Other techniques such as autofluorescence imaging, endomicroscopy and endocytoscopy need further evidence. Surveillance with genetic markers (tissue, serum or stool) is at an early stage. This article discusses changing epidemiology of colorectal cancer development in IBD and critically evaluates issues regarding colonoscopic surveillance in IBD. PMID:25400868

  13. Surveillance and Care of the Gynecologic Cancer Survivor

    PubMed Central

    MacLaughlin, Kathy L.; Long, Margaret E.; Pruthi, Sandhya; Casey, Petra M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Care of the gynecologic cancer survivor extends beyond cancer treatment to encompass promotion of sexual, cardiovascular, bone, and brain health; management of fertility, contraception, and vasomotor symptoms; and genetic counseling. Methods: This is a narrative review of the data and guidelines regarding care and surveillance of the gynecologic cancer survivor. We searched databases including PubMed, Cochrane, and Scopus using the search terms gynecologic cancer, cancer surveillance, and cancer survivor and reached a consensus for articles chosen for inclusion in the review based on availability in the English language and publication since 2001, as well as key older articles, consensus statements, and practice guidelines from professional societies. However, we did not undertake an extensive systematic search of the literature to identify all potentially relevant studies, nor did we utilize statistical methods to summarize data. We offer clinical recommendations for the management of gynecologic cancer survivors based on review of evidence and our collective clinical experience. Results: Key messages include the limitations of laboratory studies, including CA-125, and imaging in the setting of gynecologic cancer surveillance, hormonal and non-hormonal management of treatment-related vasomotor symptoms and genitourinary syndrome of menopause, as well as recommendations for general health screening, fertility preservation, and contraception. Conclusions: A holistic approach to care extending beyond cancer treatment alone benefits gynecologic cancer survivors. In addition to surveillance for cancer recurrence and late treatment side effects, survivors benefit from guidance on hormonal, contraceptive, and fertility management and promotion of cardiovascular, bone, brain, and sexual health. PMID:26208166

  14. Microbial dysbiosis and colon carcinogenesis: could colon cancer be considered a bacteria-related disease?

    PubMed Central

    Amiot, Aurelien; Le Baleur, Yann; Levy, Michael; Auriault, Marie-Luce; Van Nhieu, Jeanne Tran; Delchier, Jean Charles

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is posing an increasingly important burden on the health care system, with western countries seeing a growing incidence of the disease. Except for germline DNA mutations which have been attributed to less than 5% of patients, little is known about the main causes of CRC. However, environment factors such as food, lifestyle and medication are now suspected to have a major influence on inducing cancers. Today, exhaustive quantitative and qualitative evaluation of all environmental factors is not possible. Various environment-induced diseases have been characterized based on colon microflora, also called microbiota, analyses. Growing data have shown specific changes in microflora (i.e. dysbiosis) in the stools of patients with colon cancer or those adherent to the colonic mucosa. Thus, it appears that microbiota may be considered a platform offering host and environment interactions for studying CRCs. The hypothesis that colon cancer might be a bacteria-related disease is suggested and perspectives are discussed. PMID:23634186

  15. Cancers of the colon and rectum: identical or fraternal twins?

    PubMed

    Hong, Theodore S; Clark, Jeffrey W; Haigis, Kevin M

    2012-02-01

    Colorectal cancer represents a major cause of cancer morbidity and mortality, with approximately 1.2 million cases and 600,000 deaths worldwide each year. Because of the anatomic continuity of the colon into the rectum, cancers affecting these organs have historically been considered equivalent. In this Prospective, we discuss the clinical and experimental data suggesting that colon cancer and rectal cancer are highly related, but distinct, diseases. Reconsidering the relationship between these cancers has implications for the development of new therapeutic paradigms. PMID:22585856

  16. A national framework for cancer surveillance in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wingo, Phyllis A; Howe, Holly L; Thun, Michael J; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Ward, Elizabeth; Brown, Martin L; Sylvester, JoAnne; Friedell, Gilbert H; Alley, Linda; Rowland, Julia H; Edwards, Brenda K

    2005-03-01

    Enhancements to cancer surveillance systems are needed for meeting increased demands for data and for developing effective program planning, evaluation, and research on cancer prevention and control. Representatives from the American Cancer Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Cancer Institute, National Cancer Registrars Association, and North American Association of Central Cancer Registries have worked together on the National Coordinating Council for Cancer Surveillance to develop a national framework for cancer surveillance in the United States. The framework addresses a continuum of disease progression from a healthy state to the end of life and includes primary prevention (factors that increase or decrease cancer occurrence in healthy populations), secondary prevention (screening and diagnosis), and tertiary prevention (factors that affect treatment, survival, quality of life, and palliative care). The framework also addresses cross-cutting information needs, including better data to monitor disparities by measures of socioeconomic status, to assess economic costs and benefits of specific interventions for individuals and for society, and to study the relationship between disease and individual biologic factors, social policies, and the environment. Implementation of the framework will require long-term, extensive coordination and cooperation among these major cancer surveillance organizations. PMID:15868456

  17. Smaller tumor size is associated with poor survival in T4b colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ben; Feng, Yang; Mo, Shao-Bo; Cai, San-Jun; Huang, Li-Yong

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To hypothesize that in patients with colon cancer showing heavy intestinal wall invasion without distant metastasis (T4bN0-2M0), small tumor size would correlate with more aggressive tumor behaviors and therefore poorer cancer-specific survival (CSS). METHODS: We analyzed T4bN0-2M0 colon cancer patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. A preliminary analysis of T4bN0-2M0 colon cancer patients at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center is also presented. RESULTS: A total of 1734 T4bN0-2M0 colon cancer patients from the SEER database were included. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed decreasing CSS with decreasing tumor size (P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed a significant association between poorer CSS with smaller tumor size in T4bN0 patients (P = 0.024), and a trend of association in T4bN1 (P = 0.182) and T4bN2 patients (P = 0.191). Multivariate analysis identified tumor size as an independent prognostic factor for CSS in T4bN0-2M0 patients (P = 0.024). Preliminary analysis of Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center samples suggested the 5-year CSS was 50.0%, 72.9% and 77.1% in patients with tumors ≤ 4.0 cm, 4.0-7.0 cm and ≥ 7.0 cm. CONCLUSION: Smaller tumor size is associated with poorer CSS in the T4bN0-2M0 subset of colon cancer, particularly in the T4bN0M0 subgroup. PMID:27547015

  18. Chemopreventive effect of apple and berry fruits against colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko; Octorina Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti; Narayanan, Aqilah Leela T; Balaji, Arunpandian; Subramanian, Aruna Priyadarshini; Yusof, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer arises due to the conversion of precancerous polyps (benign) found in the inner lining of the colon. Prevention is better than cure, and this is very true with respect to colon cancer. Various epidemiologic studies have linked colorectal cancer with food intake. Apple and berry juices are widely consumed among various ethnicities because of their nutritious values. In this review article, chemopreventive effects of these fruit juices against colon cancer are discussed. Studies dealing with bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of apple and berry juices are emphasized in this article. A thorough literature survey indicated that various phenolic phytochemicals present in these fruit juices have the innate potential to inhibit colon cancer cell lines. This review proposes the need for more preclinical evidence for the effects of fruit juices against different colon cancer cells, and also strives to facilitate clinical studies using these juices in humans in large trials. The conclusion of the review is that these apple and berry juices will be possible candidates in the campaign against colon cancer. PMID:25493015

  19. Endoscopic management of polypoid early colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Williams, C B; Saunders, B P; Talbot, I C

    2000-09-01

    Endoscopic management of polypoid early colonic cancer (malignant polyps and polypoid carcinomas) is no longer controversial. When the endoscopist is satisfied that excision is complete and histology is "favorable" (a resection margin of 2 mm and well or moderately well differentiated tumor), surgery is unnecessary. When histology show "unfavorable" characteristics (which a few histologists still take to include invasion into lymphatics), surgical or laparoscopic resection may be indicated, providing the patient is considered at suitable risk. Surgery kills some patients without finding residual cancer and cannot save others with metastases, so it should be recommended only with due clinical consideration. Sessile or broad-based polyps, especially those in the rectum, are more likely to be "high risk" and merit specialist management if local removal is to be attempted and to allow proper histologic assessment. Endoscopic approaches such as saline injection polypectomy, india-ink tattooing, and use of the argon beam coagulator are applicable in some cases. New approaches that still require trials include ultrasonographic probes, which occasionally clarify the degree of invasion, and prototype stapling devices to allow full-thickness histologic specimens to be obtained. PMID:11036280

  20. The rationale for patient-reported outcomes surveillance in cancer and a reproducible method for achieving it.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tenbroeck G; Castro, Kathleen M; Troeschel, Alyssa N; Arora, Neeraj K; Lipscomb, Joseph; Jones, Shelton M; Treiman, Katherine A; Hobbs, Connie; McCabe, Ryan M; Clauser, Steven B

    2016-02-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) measure quality of life, symptoms, patient functioning, and patient perceptions of care; they are essential for gaining a full understanding of cancer care and the impact of cancer on people's lives. Repeatedly captured facility-level and/or population-level PROs (PRO surveillance) could play an important role in quality monitoring and improvement, benchmarking, advocacy, policy making, and research. This article describes the rationale for PRO surveillance and the methods of the Patient Reported Outcomes Symptoms and Side Effects Study (PROSSES), which is the first PRO study to use the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer's Rapid Quality Reporting System to identify patients and manage study data flow. The American Cancer Society, the National Cancer Institute, the Commission on Cancer, and RTI International collaborated on PROSSES. PROSSES was conducted at 17 cancer programs that participated in the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program among patients diagnosed with locoregional breast or colon cancer. The methods piloted in PROSSES were successful as demonstrated by high eligibility (93%) and response (61%) rates. Differences in clinical and demographic characteristics between respondents and nonrespondents were mostly negligible, with the exception that non-white individuals were somewhat less likely to respond. These methods were consistent across cancer centers and reproducible over time. If repeated and expanded, they could provide PRO surveillance data from patients with cancer on a national scale. PMID:26619031

  1. Devil's Wake: Early-stage bone colonization by breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai; Yu, Cuijuan; Zhang, Xiang H. F.

    2016-01-01

    We recently discovered that bone micrometastases of breast cancer predominantly reside in the microenvironment termed the “osteogenic niche”. The heterotypic adherens junctions between cancer cells and osteogenic cells promote early-stage bone colonization by activating the mTOR pathway in cancer cells. Here, we discuss a few questions raised by these findings.

  2. Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: What Are the Risk Factors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Are the Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Cancer Institute) Learning About Colon Cancer Stay Informed Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

  3. Tea consumption and risk of cancer of the colon and rectum.

    PubMed

    Cerhan, J R; Putnam, S D; Bianchi, G D; Parker, A S; Lynch, C F; Cantor, K P

    2001-01-01

    The association between tea consumption and risk of colon and rectal cancers was investigated in a population-based case-control study conducted in Iowa (United States). Colon (n = 685) and rectal (n = 655) cancer cases age 40-85 yr were identified through the Iowa Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Cancer Registry (86% response rate); controls (n = 2,434) were frequency matched by sex and 5-yr age group (80% response rate). The usual adult consumption of tea (hot and iced), along with other information including dietary data, was self-reported using a mailed questionnaire. Total tea consumption (cups/day) was categorized as none (reference category), low (< 3.1), medium (3.1-5.0), and high (> 5.0), with cut points for tea consumers based on the 75th and 90th percentiles of use among controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals. There was no association between total tea consumption and colon cancer (ORs = 1.0, 1.1, 1.3, and 0.7) or rectal cancer (ORs = 1.0, 0.9, 1.4, and 1.0) after adjustment for age, sex, education, physical activity, smoking history, and intake of coffee, fiber, and fruits and vegetables. Results were similar when hot tea and iced tea were evaluated individually. Further adjustment for other colorectal cancer risk factors did not alter these results. There was no association with proximal or distal colon cancer. There was also no interaction between tea consumption and any of the dietary variables or total fluid on risk of colon or rectal cancer, with the exception of a suggestive positive association between an increasing frequency of tea consumption and colon cancer risk among current smokers (multivariate ORs = 1.0, 1.4, 2.0, and 1.8; P for trend = 0.1), but not among never smokers (multivariate ORs = 1.0, 1.0, 1.1, and 0.4; P for trend = 0.3). These data do not support an overall association, either positive or negative, between tea consumption and risk of

  4. Low-Dose Aspirin Tied to Longer Colon Cancer Survival

    MedlinePlus

    ... used aspirin were 15 percent less likely to die of the disease over the next several years. ... diagnosis: They were 23 percent less likely to die of colon cancer -- and 14 percent less likely ...

  5. Feedback - Colon Cancer Conference and Workshop 2010 —

    Cancer.gov

    This document contains feedback given by the participants of the Colon Cancer Conference and the Histopathology workshop. The meetings took place in October 2010 at the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine.

  6. Statins Might Not Lower Colon Cancer Risk: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158506.html Statins Might Not Lower Colon Cancer Risk: Study But ... HealthDay News) -- Long-term use of cholesterol-lowering statins does not appear to reduce the risk of ...

  7. Small Study Supports New Stool-Based Colon Cancer Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158388.html Small Study Supports New Stool-Based Colon Cancer Test Cologuard may help ... 2016 TUESDAY, April 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new, but small, study finds more evidence that a ...

  8. Predictors of recurrence free survival for patients with stage II and III colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate clinico-pathologic specific predictors of recurrence for stage II/III disease. Improving recurrence prediction for resected stage II/III colon cancer patients could alter surveillance strategies, providing opportunities for more informed use of chemotherapy for high risk individuals. Methods 871 stage II and 265 stage III patients with colon cancers were included. Features studied included surgery date, age, gender, chemotherapy, tumor location, number of positive lymph nodes, tumor differentiation, and lymphovascular and perineural invasion. Time to recurrence was evaluated, using Cox’s proportional hazards models. The predictive ability of the multivariable models was evaluated using the concordance (c) index. Results For stage II cancer patients, estimated recurrence-free survival rates at one, three, five, and seven years following surgery were 98%, 92%, 90%, and 89%. Only T stage was significantly associated with recurrence. Estimated recurrence-free survival rates for stage III patients at one, three, five, and seven years following surgery were 94%, 78%, 70%, and 66%. Higher recurrence rates were seen in patients who didn’t receive chemotherapy (p = 0.023), with a higher number of positive nodes (p < 0.001). The c-index for the stage II model was 0.55 and 0.68 for stage III. Conclusions Current clinic-pathologic information is inadequate for prediction of colon cancer recurrence after resection for stage II and IIII patients. Identification and clinical use of molecular markers to identify the earlier stage II and III colon cancer patients at elevated risk of recurrence are needed to improve prognostication of early stage colon cancers. PMID:24886281

  9. Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Colon, Pancreatic, or Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-27

    Recurrent Colon Cancer; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IVB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Pancreatic Cancer

  10. Irinotecan-Eluting Beads in Treating Patients With Refractory Metastatic Colon or Rectal Cancer That Has Spread to the Liver

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-22

    Liver Metastases; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  11. EGFR and colon cancer: a clinical view.

    PubMed

    de Castro-Carpeño, J; Belda-Iniesta, C; Casado Sáenz, E; Hernández Agudo, E; Feliu Batlle, J; González Barón, M

    2008-01-01

    Signalling pathways that emerge from EGFR activation are critical in colon cancer (CC) biology. Its targeting with specific drugs has opened a new window in the treatment of this disease. In this regard, monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have evidenced a high degree of efficiency opposed to the uselessness of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors. Cetuximab is the mAb that has evidenced most activity in CC. After its initial approval as an irinotecan-resistance reversal agent, cetuximab has demonstrated its efficiency from the first line to heavily pretreated patients. In the first line, its addition may increase response rate to chemotherapy, improving liver metastases resection rate. Another promising approach has been suggested from combination schedules with bevacizumab. Panitumumab has been recently approved for CC. Although there is limited clinical experience, the latest data have confirmed its activity in heavily pretreated patients resulting in a clinical benefit vs. best support care. In spite of the clinical benefits, adverse events and the high sanitary cost derived from these drugs force the selection of patients with the highest probability of benefit. At the moment, when EGFR expression evidenced by immunohistochemistry has no value, skin toxicity and, fundamentally, K-Ras mutations may hint at critical information for confirmatory prospective studies. PMID:18208787

  12. Endoscopic surveillance strategy after endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Tsutomu; Tsujii, Masahiko; Kato, Motohiko; Hayashi, Yoshito; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Iijima, Hideki; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of early gastric cancer (EGC) is important to improve the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer. Recent advances in endoscopic modalities and treatment devices, such as image-enhanced endoscopy and high-frequency generators, may make endoscopic treatment, such as endoscopic submucosal dissection, a therapeutic option for gastric intraepithelial neoplasia. Consequently, short-term outcomes of endoscopic resection (ER) for EGC have improved. Therefore, surveillance with endoscopy after ER for EGC is becoming more important, but how to perform endoscopic surveillance after ER has not been established, even though the follow-up strategy for more advanced gastric cancer has been outlined. Therefore, a surveillance strategy for patients with EGC after ER is needed. PMID:24891981

  13. Acidic microenvironment and bone pain in cancer-colonized bone

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Toshiyuki; Hiasa, Masahiro; Nagata, Yuki; Okui, Tatsuo; White, Fletcher A

    2015-01-01

    Solid cancers and hematologic cancers frequently colonize bone and induce skeletal-related complications. Bone pain is one of the most common complications associated with cancer colonization in bone and a major cause of increased morbidity and diminished quality of life, leading to poor survival in cancer patients. Although the mechanisms responsible for cancer-associated bone pain (CABP) are poorly understood, it is likely that complex interactions among cancer cells, bone cells and peripheral nerve cells contribute to the pathophysiology of CABP. Clinical observations that specific inhibitors of osteoclasts reduce CABP indicate a critical role of osteoclasts. Osteoclasts are proton-secreting cells and acidify extracellular bone microenvironment. Cancer cell-colonized bone also releases proton/lactate to avoid intracellular acidification resulting from increased aerobic glycolysis known as the Warburg effect. Thus, extracellular microenvironment of cancer-colonized bone is acidic. Acidosis is algogenic for nociceptive sensory neurons. The bone is densely innervated by the sensory neurons that express acid-sensing nociceptors. Collectively, CABP is evoked by the activation of these nociceptors on the sensory neurons innervating bone by the acidic extracellular microenvironment created by bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-colonizing cancer cells. As current treatments do not satisfactorily control CABP and can elicit serious side effects, new therapeutic interventions are needed to manage CABP. Understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanism by which the acidic extracellular microenvironment is created in cancer-colonized bone and by which the expression and function of the acid-sensing nociceptors on the sensory neurons are regulated would facilitate to develop novel therapeutic approaches for the management of CABP. PMID:25987988

  14. 'Active Surveillance' of Prostate Cancer Doesn't Dampen Quality of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Active Surveillance' of Prostate Cancer Doesn't Dampen Quality of Life Choosing no treatment and regular check- ... with low-risk prostate cancer report a good quality of life after choosing active surveillance as a ...

  15. Impact of national guidelines on family history breast cancer surveillance.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, J D; Garrett, R M; Snaddon, L; Longmuir, M; Bradshaw, N; Watt, C; George, W D; Wilson, C R; Doughty, J C; Stallard, S; Reid, I; Murday, V; Davidson, R

    2011-11-01

    The breast cancer risk of women already under family history surveillance was accurately assessed according to national guidelines in an attempt to rationalize the service. Women attending two breast units in Glasgow between November 2003 and February 2005 were included. One thousand and five women under annual surveillance were assessed and had their relatives diagnoses verified. Four hundred and ninety-seven women were at significantly increased risk and eligible for follow-up. Five hundred and eight (50%) women attending were not eligible for family history surveillance, and 498 (98%) of these women accepted discharge. In conclusion, national guidelines have helped to more clearly define women who should undergo surveillance. This avoids unnecessary and potentially harmful routine investigations, and the service has been improved. PMID:22089040

  16. Short chain fatty acids and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Augenlicht, Leonard H; Mariadason, John M; Wilson, Andrew; Arango, Diego; Yang, WanCai; Heerdt, Barbara G; Velcich, Anna

    2002-12-01

    The development of intestinal cancer involves complex genetic and epigenetic alterations in the intestinal mucosa. The principal signaling pathway responsible for the initiation of tumor formation, the APC-beta-catenin-TCF4 pathway, regulates both cell proliferation and colonic cell differentiation, but many other intrinsic and extrinsic signals also modulate these cell maturation pathways. The challenge is to understand how signaling and cell maturation are also modulated by nutritional agents. Through gene expression profiling, we have gained insight into the mechanisms by which short chain fatty acids regulate these pathways and the differences in response of gene programs, and of the specific regulation of the c-myc gene, to physiological regulators of intestinal cell maturation, such as butyrate, compared with pharmacological regulators such as the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug sulindac. Moreover, we used a combination of gene expression profiling of the response of cells in culture to sulindac and the response of the human mucosa in subjects treated with sulindac for 1 month, coupled with a mouse genetic model approach, to identify the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/Cip1) as an important suppressor of Apc-initiated intestinal tumor formation and a necessary component for tumor inhibition by sulindac. Finally, the mucous barrier, secreted by intestinal goblet cells, is the interface between the luminal contents and the intestinal mucosa. We generated a mouse genetic model with a targeted inactivation of the Muc2 gene that encodes the major intestinal mucin. These mice have no recognizable goblet cells due to the failure of cells to synthesize and store mucin. This leads to perturbations in intestinal crypt architecture, increased cellular proliferation and rates of cell migration, decreased apoptosis and development of adenomas and adenocarcinomas in the small and large intestine and the rectum. PMID:12468628

  17. Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy used to discriminate human colon cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adur, Javier; Pelegati, Vitor B.; Bianchi, Mariana; de Thomaz, André A.; Baratti, Mariana O.; Carvalho, Hernandes F.; Casco, Víctor H.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2013-02-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most diffused cancers in the Western World, ranking third worldwide in frequency of incidence after lung and breast cancers. Even if it is curable when detected and treated early, a more accurate premature diagnosis would be a suitable aim for both cancer prognostic and treatment. Combined multimodal nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopies, such as two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF), second-harmonic generation (SHG), third harmonic generation (THG), and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) can be used to detect morphological and metabolic changes associated with stroma and epithelial transformation in colon cancer disease. NLO microscopes provide complementary information about tissue microstructure, showing distinctive patterns between normal and malignant human colonic mucosa. Using a set of scoring methods significant differences both in the content, distribution and organization of stroma collagen fibrils, and lifetime components of NADH and FAD cofactors of human colon mucosa biopsies were found. Our results provide a framework for using NLO techniques as a clinical diagnostic tool for human colon cancer, and also suggest that the SHG and FLIM metrics could be applied to other intestinal disorders, which are characterized by abnormal cell proliferation and collagen assembly.

  18. Intestinal protozoa are hypothesized to stimulate immunosurveillance against colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Juckett, David A; Aylsworth, Charles F; Quensen, Janet Murphy

    2008-01-01

    Colon cancer in humans results in considerable morbidity and mortality throughout most of the world. During the twentieth century, there was a rapid rise in colon cancer within modernizing countries that has not been adequately explained, although the role of diet has been widely explored. Previously, we showed that the presence of the endemic Eimeria spp. protozoan in intestinal tissues is associated with regions of low tumorigenesis in the large and small bovine intestine and that an Eimeria surface protein is a potent activator of dendritic cells and a useful immunomodulator, with anti-cancer and anti-viral properties. Therefore, we hypothesize that the persistent presence of such an intestinal protozoan enhances immunosurveillance by elevating the intestinal alert status and that the loss of these organisms could lead to a higher incidence of colon cancer. Preliminary support of this hypothesis derives from the observations that domestic animals, known to maintain this protozoan, have very low colon cancer incidence. We propose that this also may occur in human populations that use human excrement (night soil) as a fertilizer, a practice that serves to complete the life cycle of this type of microbe. We examine some evidence for this hypothesis in Japan's mortality patterns, where we show that colon cancer increased after the cessation of night soil use, but before the change to a western diet. We conclude that this hypothesis, a variation of the hygiene hypothesis, is worth further consideration and continued elaboration. PMID:18343044

  19. Induction of pyroptosis in colon cancer cells by LXRβ

    PubMed Central

    Rébé, Cédric; Derangère, Valentin; Ghiringhelli, François

    2015-01-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) have been proposed to have some anticancer properties. We recently identified a new non-genomic role of LXRβ in colon cancer cells. Under LXR agonist treatment, LXRβ induces pyroptosis of these cells in vitro and in vivo, raising the possibility of targeting this isoform in cancer treatment. PMID:27308405

  20. Linking cancer registry and hospital discharge data for treatment surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ge; Ma, Jihyun; Zhang, Lei; Qu, Ming

    2013-06-01

    Cancer registry data often lack complete chemotherapy and radiation therapy information. To conduct treatment disparity surveillance, we linked 2005-2009 Nebraska Cancer Registry data with Nebraska hospital discharge data. Due to the high quality of both datasets and the proposed linkage procedure, we had a linkage rate of 97 percent. We demonstrate the utilization of the linked dataset in case finding, treatment update, and treatment surveillance. The results show that the linked dataset is likely to identify up to 5 percent of potential missed cases. We investigated the use of radiation therapy in treating colorectal and breast cancers as case-finding examples. The linked dataset found 12 percent and 14 percent more treatment cases for colorectal and breast cancer patients, respectively. PMID:23715212

  1. SRPK2 promotes the growth and migration of the colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Wu, Hai-Feng; Shen, Wei; Xu, Dong-Yan; Ruan, Ting-Yan; Tao, Guo-Qing; Lu, Pei-Hua

    2016-07-15

    Colon cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related death in the world. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying this malignancy will facilitate the diagnosis and treatment. Serine-arginine protein kinase 2 (SRPK2) has been reported to be upregulated in several cancer types. However, its expression and functions in colon cancer remains unknown. In this study, it was found that the expression of SRPK2 was up-regulated in the clinical colon cancer samples. Overexpression of SRPK2 promoted the growth and migration of colon cancer cells, while knocking down the expression of SRPK2 inhibited the growth, migration and tumorigenecity of colon cancer cells. Molecular mechanism studies revealed that SRPK2 activated ERK signaling in colon cancer cells. Taken together, our study demonstrated the tumor promoting roles of SRPK2 in colon cancer cells and SRPK2 might be a promising therapeutic target for colon cancer. PMID:27041240

  2. Near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for colonic cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    Mueller matrix imaging along with polar decomposition method was employed for the colonic cancer detection by polarized light in the near-infrared spectral range (700-1100 nm). A high-speed (<5s) Muller matrix imaging system with dual-rotating waveplates was developed. 16 (4 by 4) full Mueller matrices of the colonic tissues (i.e., normal and caner) were acquired. Polar decomposition was further implemented on the 16 images to derive the diattentuation, depolarization, and the retardance images. The decomposed images showed clear margin between the normal and cancerous colon tissue samples. The work shows the potential of near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  3. [Cases of Obstructive Colon Cancer for Which Elective Surgery Was Performed after Colonic Stent Placement].

    PubMed

    Maruo, Hirotoshi; Nakamura, Koichi; Higashi, Yukihiro; Shoji, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Masanori; Nishiyama, Raisuke; Koike, Kota; Kubota, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated the short-term outcomes of 20 patients with obstructive colon cancer who underwent colonic stent placement as a bridge to surgery (BTS) during the 3-year period between April 2012 and March 2015. Subjects comprised 13 men and 7 women, with a mean age of 68.3 years. Placement and decompression were successfully achieved in all of the patients. Oral ingestion became possible from a mean of 2.7 days after placement. No serious complications associated with placement were encountered. Total colonoscopy was performed after placement in 17 patients (85%), and independent advanced cancer was seen in the proximal portion of the colon in 1 patient. Elective surgery was performed for all of the patients after placement. Excluding the 2 patients for whom preoperative chemotherapy or treatment of another disease was prioritized, the mean interval to surgery for the remaining 18 patients was 23.2 days. The operative procedure performed was laparoscopic surgery in 8 patients (40%). Although minor leakage (n=1) and abdominal wall abscess (n=1) were observed as postoperative complications, the patients generally had an uneventful course. Colonic stent placement for obstructive colon cancer is relatively easy and safe, and may be considered as an effective treatment method that enables favorable intestinal decompression preoperatively and one-stage resection. PMID:26805323

  4. Effects of commercial anthocyanin-rich extracts on colonic cancer and nontumorigenic colonic cell growth.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Cuiwei; Giusti, M Monica; Malik, Minnie; Moyer, Mary P; Magnuson, Bernadene A

    2004-10-01

    Commercially prepared grape (Vitis vinifera), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), and chokeberry (Aronia meloncarpa E.) anthocyanin-rich extracts (AREs) were investigated for their potential chemopreventive activity against colon cancer. The growth of colon-cancer-derived HT-29 and nontumorigenic colonic NCM460 cells exposed to semipurified AREs (10-75 microg of monomeric anthocyanin/mL) was monitored for up to 72 h using a sulforhodamine B assay. All extracts inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells, with chokeberry ARE being the most potent inhibitor. HT-29 cell growth was inhibited approximately 50% after 48 h of exposure to 25 microg/mL chokeberry ARE. Most importantly, the growth of NCM460 cells was not inhibited at lower concentrations of all three AREs, illustrating greater growth inhibition of colon cancer, as compared to nontumorigenic colon cells. Extracts were semipurified and characterized by high-pressure liquid chromatography, spectrophotometry, and colorimetry. Grape anthocyanins were the glucosylated derivatives of five different anthocyanidin molecules, with or without p-coumaric acid acylation. Bilberry contained five different anthocyanidins glycosylated with galactose, glucose, and arabinose. Chokeberry anthocyanins were cyanidin derivatives, monoglycosylated mostly with galactose and arabinose. The varying compositions and degrees of growth inhibition suggest that the anthocyanin chemical structure may play an important role in the growth inhibitory activity of commercially available AREs. PMID:15453676

  5. Wnt signaling in cancer stem cells and colon cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ze'ev, Avri

    2016-01-01

    Overactivation of Wnt signaling is a hallmark of colorectal cancer (CRC). The Wnt pathway is a key regulator of both the early and the later, more invasive, stages of CRC development. In the normal intestine and colon, Wnt signaling controls the homeostasis of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) that fuel, via proliferation, upward movement of progeny cells from the crypt bottom toward the villus and differentiation into all cell types that constitute the intestine. Studies in recent years suggested that cancer stem cells (CSCs), similar to ISCs of the crypts, consist of a small subpopulation of the tumor and are responsible for the initiation and progression of the disease. Although various ISC signature genes were also identified as CRC markers and some of these genes were even demonstrated to have a direct functional role in CRC development, the origin of CSCs and their contribution to cancer progression is still debated. Here, we describe studies supporting a relationship between Wnt-regulated CSCs and the progression of CRC. PMID:27134739

  6. Rural-Urban Differences in Colon Cancer Risk in Blacks and Whites: The North Carolina Colon Cancer Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeomans Kinney, Anita; Harrell, Janna; Slattery, Marty; Martin, Christopher; Sandler, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Geographic and racial variations in cancer incidence have been observed. Studies of colorectal carcinoma indicate a higher incidence and mortality rate for blacks than for whites in the United States. Purpose: We evaluated the effect of rural versus urban residence on colon cancer risk and stage of disease at diagnosis in blacks and…

  7. Oncostatic effects of fluoxetine in experimental colon cancer models.

    PubMed

    Kannen, Vinicius; Garcia, Sergio Britto; Silva, Wilson A; Gasser, Martin; Mönch, Romana; Alho, Eduardo Joaquim Lopes; Heinsen, Helmut; Scholz, Claus-Jürgen; Friedrich, Mike; Heinze, Katrin Gertrud; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Stopper, Helga

    2015-09-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most common tumors in the human population. Recent studies have shown a reduced risk for colon cancer in patients given the antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX). The exact mechanism by which FLX might protect from colon cancer remains however controversial. Here, FLX reduced the development of different colon tumor xenografts, as well as proliferation in hypoxic tumor areas within them. FLX treatment also decreased microvessel numbers in tumors. Although FLX did not increase serum and tumor glucose levels as much as the colon chemotherapy gold standard Fluorouracil did, lactate levels were significantly augmented within tumors by FLX treatment. The gene expression of the MCT4 lactate transporter was significantly downregulated. Total protein amounts from the third and fifth mitochondrial complexes were significantly decreased by FLX in tumors. Cell culture experiments revealed that FLX reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential significantly and disabled the reactive oxygen species production of the third mitochondrial complex. Furthermore, FLX arrested hypoxic colon tumor cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell-cycle. The expression of key cell-cycle-related checkpoint proteins was enhanced in cell culture and in vivo experiments. Therefore, we suggest FLX impairs energy generation, cell cycle progression and proliferation in tumor cells, especially under condition of hypoxia. This then leads to reduced microvessel formation and tumor shrinkage in xenograft models. PMID:26004136

  8. Colon-available raspberry polyphenols exhibit anti-cancer effects on in vitro models of colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Emma M; Popa, Gina; Gill, Chris IR; McCann, Mark J; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Rowland, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Background There is a probable association between consumption of fruit and vegetables and reduced risk of cancer, particularly cancer of the digestive tract. This anti-cancer activity has been attributed in part to anti-oxidants present in these foods. Raspberries in particular are a rich source of the anti-oxidant compounds, such as polyphenols, anthocyanins and ellagitannins. Methods A "colon-available" raspberry extract (CARE) was prepared that contained phytochemicals surviving a digestion procedure that mimicked the physiochemical conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The polyphenolic-rich extract was assessed for anti-cancer properties in a series of in vitro systems that model important stages of colon carcinogenesis, initiation, promotion and invasion. Results The phytochemical composition of CARE was monitored using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The colon-available raspberry extract was reduced in anthocyanins and ellagitannins compared to the original raspberry juice but enriched in other polyphenols and polyphenol breakdown products that were more stable to gastrointestinal digestion. Initiation – CARE caused significant protective effects against DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in HT29 colon cancer cells measured using single cell microgelelectrophoresis. Promotion – CARE significantly decreased the population of HT29 cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, effectively reducing the number of cells entering the cell cycle. However, CARE had no effect on epithelial integrity (barrier function) assessed by recording the trans-epithelial resistance (TER) of CACO-2 cell monolayers. Invasion – CARE caused significant inhibition of HT115 colon cancer cell invasion using the matrigel invasion assay. Conclusion The results indicate that raspberry phytochemicals likely to reach the colon are capable of inhibiting several important stages in colon carcinogenesis in vitro. PMID:17442116

  9. The Vitamin D Receptor, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, and Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Rong; Wu, Shaoping; Xia, Yinglin; Sun, Jun

    2012-03-01

    The nuclear receptor is an emerging therapeutic target in various human diseases. Vitamin D receptor (VDR), a nuclear receptor, mediates the biological functions of vitamin D. Classically, vitamin D is recognized as an essential contributor to mineral and bone homeostasis. Increasing evidence demonstrates that vitamin D is involved in inflammatory responses. Persistent intestinal inflammation is associated with colon cancer. This review focuses on vitamin D and VDR in inflammatory bowel diseases and colon cancer. We place emphasis on the regulatory roles of vitamin D/VDR on in inflammation, enteric bacteria, and tumorigenesis. We summarize the signaling pathways regulated by VDR in intestinal homeostasis. Finally, we discuss the potential application of the insights gleaned from these findings to personalized therapies in chronic inflammation and colon cancer. PMID:23814529

  10. Risk and Surveillance of Cancers in Primary Biliary Tract Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hrad, Valery; Abebe, Yoftahe; Ali, Syed Haris; Velgersdyk, Jared

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary diseases have been associated in several studies with various malignancies. Understanding the risk and optimizing surveillance strategy of these malignancies in this specific subset of patients are an important facet of clinical care. For instance, primary sclerosing cholangitis is associated with an increased risk for cholangiocarcinoma (which is very challenging to diagnose) and when IBD is present for colorectal cancer. On the other hand, primary biliary cirrhosis patients with cirrhosis or not responding to 12 months of ursodeoxycholic acid therapy are at increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review we will discuss in detail the risks and optimal surveillance strategies for patients with primary biliary diseases. PMID:27413366

  11. NDC80 promotes proliferation and metastasis of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xing, X K; Wu, H Y; Chen, H L; Feng, H G

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome instability is a common feature of tumor cells, and may be an important mechanism in tumor formation. Nuclear division cycle 80 (NDC80) is closely associated with the stability of chromosomes. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between NDC80 and development of colon cancer using a range of methods. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were employed to determine the expression of this protein in different colon cells and tissues, cell proliferation was measured with an MTT assay, levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen were examined by immunofluorescence, and cell migration was observed using wound healing tests. Our results showed that the expression of NDC80 in colon cancer cells (CACO2, HCT8, HCT116, and SW480) and tissues (from 20 patients) was higher than that in controls. Moreover, cell proliferation and migration rates were elevated in cells transfected with NDC80 compared to control groups. In summary, NDC80 promotes the proliferation and metastasis of colon cancer cells, and may constitute a new target for gene therapy in treating this disease. Combined with clinicopathological grading, measurement of positive NDC80 expression may be helpful in diagnosing and estimating the prognosis of colon cancer patients. PMID:27173328

  12. Transcriptional recapitulation and subversion of embryonic colon development by mouse colon tumor models and human colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Sergio; Park, Young-Kyu; Franklin, Jeffrey L; Halberg, Richard B; Yu, Ming; Jessen, Walter J; Freudenberg, Johannes; Chen, Xiaodi; Haigis, Kevin; Jegga, Anil G; Kong, Sue; Sakthivel, Bhuvaneswari; Xu, Huan; Reichling, Timothy; Azhar, Mohammad; Boivin, Gregory P; Roberts, Reade B; Bissahoyo, Anika C; Gonzales, Fausto; Bloom, Greg C; Eschrich, Steven; Carter, Scott L; Aronow, Jeremy E; Kleimeyer, John; Kleimeyer, Michael; Ramaswamy, Vivek; Settle, Stephen H; Boone, Braden; Levy, Shawn; Graff, Jonathan M; Doetschman, Thomas; Groden, Joanna; Dove, William F; Threadgill, David W; Yeatman, Timothy J; Coffey, Robert J; Aronow, Bruce J

    2007-01-01

    Background The expression of carcino-embryonic antigen by colorectal cancer is an example of oncogenic activation of embryonic gene expression. Hypothesizing that oncogenesis-recapitulating-ontogenesis may represent a broad programmatic commitment, we compared gene expression patterns of human colorectal cancers (CRCs) and mouse colon tumor models to those of mouse colon development embryonic days 13.5-18.5. Results We report here that 39 colon tumors from four independent mouse models and 100 human CRCs encompassing all clinical stages shared a striking recapitulation of embryonic colon gene expression. Compared to normal adult colon, all mouse and human tumors over-expressed a large cluster of genes highly enriched for functional association to the control of cell cycle progression, proliferation, and migration, including those encoding MYC, AKT2, PLK1 and SPARC. Mouse tumors positive for nuclear β-catenin shifted the shared embryonic pattern to that of early development. Human and mouse tumors differed from normal embryonic colon by their loss of expression modules enriched for tumor suppressors (EDNRB, HSPE, KIT and LSP1). Human CRC adenocarcinomas lost an additional suppressor module (IGFBP4, MAP4K1, PDGFRA, STAB1 and WNT4). Many human tumor samples also gained expression of a coordinately regulated module associated with advanced malignancy (ABCC1, FOXO3A, LIF, PIK3R1, PRNP, TNC, TIMP3 and VEGF). Conclusion Cross-species, developmental, and multi-model gene expression patterning comparisons provide an integrated and versatile framework for definition of transcriptional programs associated with oncogenesis. This approach also provides a general method for identifying pattern-specific biomarkers and therapeutic targets. This delineation and categorization of developmental and non-developmental activator and suppressor gene modules can thus facilitate the formulation of sophisticated hypotheses to evaluate potential synergistic effects of targeting within- and

  13. Skin Cancer Surveillance Behaviors among U.S. Hispanic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Coups, Elliot J.; Stapleton, Jerod L.; Hudson, Shawna V.; Medina-Forrester, Amanda; Rosenberg, Stephen A.; Gordon, Marsha; Natale-Pereira, Ana; Goydos, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little skin cancer prevention research has focused on the U.S. Hispanic population. Objective This study examined the prevalence and correlates of skin cancer surveillance behaviors among Hispanic adults. Methods A population-based sample of 788 Hispanic adults residing in five southern and western states completed an online survey in English or Spanish in September 2011. The outcomes were ever having conducted a skin self-examination (SSE) and having received a total cutaneous examination (TCE) from a health professional. The correlates included sociodemographic, skin cancer-related, and psychosocial factors. Results The rates of ever conducting a SSE or having a TCE were 17.6% and 9.2%, respectively. Based on the results of multivariable logistic regressions, factors associated with ever conducting a SSE included older age, English linguistic acculturation, a greater number of melanoma risk factors, more frequent sunscreen use, sunbathing, job-related sun exposure, higher perceived skin cancer risk, physician recommendation, more SSE benefits, and fewer SSE barriers. Factors associated with ever having a TCE were older age, English linguistic acculturation, a greater number of melanoma risk factors, ever having tanned indoors, greater skin cancer knowledge, higher perceived skin cancer severity, lower skin cancer worry, physician recommendation, more TCE benefits, and fewer SSE barriers. Limitations The cross-sectional design limits conclusions regarding the causal nature of observed associations. Conclusions Few Hispanic adults engage in skin cancer surveillance behaviors. The study highlights Hispanic subpopulations that are least likely to engage in skin cancer surveillance behaviors and informs the development of culturally appropriate interventions to promote these behaviors. PMID:23182066

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Papillary Thyroid Cancer Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Laura Y.; Roman, Benjamin R.; Migliacci, Jocelyn C.; Palmer, Frank L.; Tuttle, R. Michael; Shaha, Ashok R.; Shah, Jatin P.; Patel, Snehal G.; Ganly, Ian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The recent overdiagnosis of subclinical, low-risk papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) coincides with a growing national interest in cost-effective health care practices. The aim of this study was to measure the relative cost-effectiveness of disease surveillance of low-risk PTC patients versus intermediate- and high-risk patients in accordance with American Thyroid Association risk categories. METHODS Two thousand nine hundred thirty-two patients who underwent thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer between 2000 and 2010 were identified from the institutional database; 1845 patients were excluded because they had non-PTC cancer, underwent less than total thyroidectomy, had a secondary cancer, or had <36 months of follow-up. In total, 1087 were included for analysis. The numbers of postoperative blood tests, imaging scans and biopsies, clinician office visits, and recurrence events were recorded for the first 36 months of follow-up. Costs of surveillance were determined with the Physician Fee Schedule and Clinical Lab Fee Schedule of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. RESULTS The median age was 44 years (range, 7–83 years). In the first 36 months after thyroidectomy, there were 3, 44, and 22 recurrences (0.8%, 7.8%, and 13.4%) in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk categories, respectively. The cost of surveillance for each recurrence detected was US $147,819, US $22,434, and US $20,680, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The cost to detect a recurrence in a low-risk patient is more than 6 and 7 times greater than the cost for intermediate- and high-risk PTC patients. It is difficult to justify this allocation of resources to the surveillance of low-risk patients. Surveillance strategies for the low-risk group should, therefore, be restructured. PMID:26280253

  15. [Multidisciplinary tailoring of therapy of metastatic colon cancer].

    PubMed

    Österlund, Pia; Isoniemi, Helena; Scheinin, Tom; Ristimäki, Ari; Lantto, Eila

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of colon cancer requires multidisciplinary team work. The multitude of therapies in metastatic colon cancer have led to longer overall survival with fewer symptoms. Median survival has increased from 5 months with the best supportive care to 30-40 months in randomized studies, even with curative treatment in some patients. Tailoring of the treatment is best done by a multidisciplinary team considering radiotherapy and operation of the primary tumor, resection of liver, lung and peritoneal metastases, medical treatment alternatives, palliative care, ablative methods etc. Without skillful surgeons, oncologists, pathologists, geneticists, radiologists etc. the best treatment opportunities may be missed. PMID:27483635

  16. miR-126: A novel regulator in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, WEINA; LIN, JIE; ZHANG, HONGXUAN

    2016-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most common, lethal diseases worldwide. Tumor metastasis and chemotherapy resistance are the main reasons for its poor prognosis and high fatality rate. Tumor development is thought of as one of the most complex cellular events as it is a multi-step cascading process involving infinite proliferation, invasion and immigration. Recently, increasing studies have demonstrated that microRNA-126 (miR-126) has an important role in colon cancer. The expression of miR-126 decreased significantly in colon cancer, particularly in highly metastatic cell lines. miR-126 controls tumor cell growth, metastasis and survival via inactivation of the oncogene signaling pathway, indicating that miR-126 may serve as a therapeutic target for anticancer therapy. Potentially, miR-126 was also reported to be an ideal molecular target as a novel biomarker for liver metastasis from colorectal cancer due to its changeable expression level. In the present review, the current knowledge regarding regulatory function of miR-126 is summarized along with its underlying mechanisms in colon cancer. PMID:26893826

  17. Inhibition of azoxymethane-induced colon cancer by orange juice.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Y; Om, A S; Chee, K M; Bennink, M R

    2000-01-01

    Previous research has shown that hesperidin, a flavanone glycoside in orange juice, inhibits colon carcinogenesis and that feeding double-strength orange juice delays the onset of chemically induced mammary cancer in rats. This study determined whether feeding single-strength, pasteurized orange juice would inhibit azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer in male Fischer 344 rats. Colon cancer was initiated by injecting AOM (15 mg/kg body wt) at 22 and 29 days of age. One week after the second AOM injection, orange juice replaced drinking water for the experimental group (n = 30). The rats were killed 28 weeks later, and tumors were removed for histological analysis. Feeding orange juice reduced tumor incidence by 22% (p < 0.05). Tumor reduction was associated with a decreased labeling index and proliferation zone in the colonic mucosa. Hesperidin, other flavonoids, limonin 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and other limonoid glucosides are potential chemopreventive agents in orange juice that could account for the decreased colon tumorigenesis associated with feeding orange juice. PMID:10890034

  18. The integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibin; Yatawara, Mahendra; Huang, Shao-Chi; Dudley, Kevin; Szekely, Christine; Holden, Stuart; Piantadosi, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of the integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer (PASS-PC). The integrated PASS-PC is a multi-institutional web-based system aimed at collecting a variety of data on prostate cancer patients in a standardized and efficient way. The integrated PASS-PC was commissioned by the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) and built through the joint of efforts by a group of experts in medical oncology, genetics, pathology, nutrition, and cancer research informatics. Their main goal is facilitating the efficient and uniform collection of critical demographic, lifestyle, nutritional, dietary and clinical information to be used in developing new strategies in diagnosing, preventing and treating prostate cancer.The integrated PASS-PC is designed based on common industry standards - a three tiered architecture and a Service- Oriented Architecture (SOA). It utilizes open source software and programming languages such as HTML, PHP, CSS, JQuery, Drupal and MySQL. We also use a commercial database management system - Oracle 11g. The integrated PASS-PC project uses a "confederation model" that encourages participation of any interested center, irrespective of its size or location. The integrated PASS-PC utilizes a standardized approach to data collection and reporting, and uses extensive validation procedures to prevent entering erroneous data. The integrated PASS-PC controlled vocabulary is harmonized with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Thesaurus. Currently, two cancer centers in the USA are participating in the integrated PASS-PC project.THE FINAL SYSTEM HAS THREE MAIN COMPONENTS: 1. National Prostate Surveillance Network (NPSN) website; 2. NPSN myConnect portal; 3. Proactive Surveillance System for Prostate Cancer (PASS-PC). PASS-PC is a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) compatible product. The integrated PASS-PC provides a foundation for collaborative prostate cancer research. It has been built to

  19. Dietary fibre and colon cancer: epidemiologic and experimental evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, B S

    1980-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have identified two dietary factors, a relatively high intake of fat and a relatively low intake of fibre, that are associated with colon cancer in humans. However, a recent study has shown a low risk of large bowel cancer in a rural Finnish population with a high dietary intake of fat, but also a high intake of fibre. Observations in humans and studies in animals have indicated that dietary fibre may protect against colon carcinogenesis by binding bile acids in the intestinal tract, by a direct effect on the colonic mucosa and by an indirect effect on the metabolism of carcinogens. The strength of protection varies with the type of fibre. PMID:6254626

  20. Active surveillance for prostate cancer: patient selection and management

    PubMed Central

    Klotz, L.

    2010-01-01

    Screening for prostate cancer using prostate-specific antigen (psa) has been appealing. However, the significant associated decline in prostate cancer mortality comes at the cost of a very high rate of diagnosis, and many patients with indolent, non-life-threatening cancer are exposed to the risk of significant side effects from radical treatment. Most men with favourable-risk prostate cancer are not destined to die of their disease, even in the absence of treatment. The challenge is to identify the subset that harbour more aggressive disease early enough that curative therapy is still a possibility, thereby allowing the others to enjoy improved quality of life, free from the side effects of treatment. This article reviews current research into active surveillance in favourable-risk disease and some of the issues that arise when prostate cancer is monitored rather than being treated immediately. PMID:20882126

  1. Escaping immune surveillance in cancer: is denbinobin the panacea?

    PubMed Central

    Magwere, Tapiwanashe

    2009-01-01

    The bane of anti-cancer therapy is usually the development of resistance to apoptosis in malignant cells. Identification of strategies to re-sensitize cancer cells to apoptosis has now become a top priority in anti-cancer research. Denbinobin is a novel, naturally occurring phenathroquinone isolated from orchids of the genus Dendrobium that has remarkable anti-cancer activities demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Recently denbinobin has been shown to diminish the levels of expression of the decoy receptor-3 and also to act synergistically with Fas ligand to induce apoptosis in a pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line. There is hope that denbinobin could be developed as an adjuvant in combination therapies aimed at killing cancers that rely on decoy receptors to evade the host's immune surveillance. PMID:19664137

  2. Signaling in colon cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sanchita; Majumdar, Adhip Pn

    2012-01-01

    : Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common form of cancer worldwide and ranks third among the cancer-related deaths in the US and other Western countries. It occurs with equal frequency in men and women, constituting 10% of new cancer cases in men and 11% in women. Despite recent advancement in therapeutics, the survival rates from metastatic are less than 5%. Growing evidence supports the contention that epithelial cancers including colorectal cancer, the incidence of which increases with aging, are diseases driven by the pluripotent, self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSCs). Dysregulation of Wnt, Notch, Hedgehog and/or TGF-β signaling pathways that are involved in proliferation and maintenance of CSCs leads to the development of CRC. This review focuses on the signaling pathways relevant for CRC to understand the mechanisms leading to tumor progression and therapy resistance, which may help in the development of therapeutic strategies for CRC. PMID:22866952

  3. IDO1 Metabolites Activate β-catenin Signaling to Promote Cancer Cell Proliferation and Colon Tumorigenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Thaker, Ameet I.; Rao, M Suprada; Bishnupuri, Kumar S.; Kerr, Thomas A; Foster, Lynne; Marinshaw, Jeffrey M.; Newberry, Rodney D.; Stenson, William F.; Ciorba, Matthew A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) catabolizes tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway. Though IDO1 is expressed in inflamed and neoplastic epithelial cells of the colon, its role in colon tumorigenesis is not well understood. We used genetic and pharmacologic approaches to manipulate IDO1 activity in mice with colitis-associated cancer and human colon cancer cell lines. METHODS C57Bl6 wild type (control), IDO1−/−, Rag1−/−, Rag1/IDO1 double knockout mice were exposed to azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce colitis and tumorigenesis. Colitis severity was assessed by measurements of disease activity, cytokine levels and histologic analysis. In vitro experiments were conducted using HCT116 and HT29 human colon cancer cells. 1-methyl tryptophan and small interfering RNA were used to inhibit IDO1. Kynurenine pathway metabolites were used to simulate IDO1 activity. RESULTS C57Bl6 mice given pharmacologic inhibitors of IDO1 and IDO1−/− mice had lower tumor burdens and reduced proliferation in the neoplastic epithelium following administration of DSS and azoxymethane than control mice. These reductions were also observed in Rag1/IDO1 double knockout mice compared to Rag1−/− mice (which lack mature adaptive immunity). In human colon cancer cells, blockade of IDO1 activity reduced nuclear and activated β-catenin, transcription of its target genes (cyclin D1 and Axin2), and ultimately proliferation. Exogenous administration of IDO1 pathway metabolites kynurenine and quinolinic acid led to activation of β-catenin and proliferation of human colon cancer cells, and increased tumor growth in mice. CONCLUSIONS IDO1, which catabolizes tryptophan, promotes colitis-associated tumorigenesis in mice, independent of its ability to limit T-cell mediated immune surveillance. The epithelial cell-autonomous survival advantage provided by IDO1 to colon epithelial cells indicate its potential as a therapeutic target. PMID:23669411

  4. Automated Recommendation for Cervical Cancer Screening and Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Wagholikar, Kavishwar B; MacLaughlin, Kathy L; Casey, Petra M; Kastner, Thomas M; Henry, Michael R; Hankey, Ronald A; Peters, Steve G; Greenes, Robert A; Chute, Christopher G; Liu, Hongfang; Chaudhry, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Because of the complexity of cervical cancer prevention guidelines, clinicians often fail to follow best-practice recommendations. Moreover, existing clinical decision support (CDS) systems generally recommend a cervical cytology every three years for all female patients, which is inappropriate for patients with abnormal findings that require surveillance at shorter intervals. To address this problem, we developed a decision tree-based CDS system that integrates national guidelines to provide comprehensive guidance to clinicians. Validation was performed in several iterations by comparing recommendations generated by the system with those of clinicians for 333 patients. The CDS system extracted relevant patient information from the electronic health record and applied the guideline model with an overall accuracy of 87%. Providers without CDS assistance needed an average of 1 minute 39 seconds to decide on recommendations for management of abnormal findings. Overall, our work demonstrates the feasibility and potential utility of automated recommendation system for cervical cancer screening and surveillance. PMID:25368505

  5. Automated recommendation for cervical cancer screening and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Wagholikar, Kavishwar B; MacLaughlin, Kathy L; Casey, Petra M; Kastner, Thomas M; Henry, Michael R; Hankey, Ronald A; Peters, Steve G; Greenes, Robert A; Chute, Christopher G; Liu, Hongfang; Chaudhry, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Because of the complexity of cervical cancer prevention guidelines, clinicians often fail to follow best-practice recommendations. Moreover, existing clinical decision support (CDS) systems generally recommend a cervical cytology every three years for all female patients, which is inappropriate for patients with abnormal findings that require surveillance at shorter intervals. To address this problem, we developed a decision tree-based CDS system that integrates national guidelines to provide comprehensive guidance to clinicians. Validation was performed in several iterations by comparing recommendations generated by the system with those of clinicians for 333 patients. The CDS system extracted relevant patient information from the electronic health record and applied the guideline model with an overall accuracy of 87%. Providers without CDS assistance needed an average of 1 minute 39 seconds to decide on recommendations for management of abnormal findings. Overall, our work demonstrates the feasibility and potential utility of automated recommendation system for cervical cancer screening and surveillance. PMID:25368505

  6. Tolfenamic acid downregulates β-catenin in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Ha, Taekyu; Lou, Zhiyuan; Baek, Seung Joon; Lee, Seong-Ho

    2016-06-01

    Tolfenamic acid is one of the fenamic acid-derived non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and has been shown to exhibit anti-cancer activities in several types of cancer. Both mutations and aberrant expression of β-catenin are highly associated with progression of cancer. Therefore, β-catenin is considered to be a promising molecular target for cancer prevention and treatment. The current study investigates the role of tolfenamic acid on β-catenin expression in colon cancer. Treatment with tolfenamic acid led to inhibition of cell growth and down-regulation of β-catenin expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in human colon cancer cell lines. Reduction of β-catenin upon tolfenamic acid treatment was associated with ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation, without affecting mRNA level and promoter activity of β-catenin. In addition, treatment with tolfenamic acid downregulated Smad2 and Smad3 expression, while overexpression of Smad2, but not Smad3, blocked tolfenamic acid-induced suppression of β-catenin expression. Tolfenamic acid also decreased expression of β-catenin target genes, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Compared to adjacent normal tissue, intestinal tumor tissues of Apc(Min/+) mice exhibited increased expression of β-catenin, Smad2, Smad3, and VEGF, which were down-regulated with tolfenamic acid treatment at a dose of 50mg/kg body weight. In conclusion, our findings suggest that tolfenamic acid inhibits growth of colon cancer cells through downregulation of Smad2 and, subsequently, facilitating ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated β-catenin degradation in colon cancer. PMID:27089389

  7. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which mod...

  8. Endoscopic surveillance of gastric cancers after Helicobacter pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Masaaki; Sato, Yuichi; Terai, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer remains high in East Asian countries. Current data suggest that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication might be more effective for preventing gastric cancer in young people before they develop atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. However, the long-term effect of H. pylori eradication on metachronous cancer prevention after endoscopic resection (ER) of early gastric cancer remains controversial, with some discordance between results published for Japanese and Korean studies. The detection ability of synchronous lesions before ER and eradication of H. pylori directly influences these results. After eradication, some gastric cancers are more difficult to diagnose by endoscopy because of morphologic changes that lead to a flat or depressed appearance. Narrow-band imaging with magnifying endoscopy (NBI-ME) is expected to be useful for identifying metachronous cancers. However, some gastric cancers after eradication show a “gastritis-like” appearance under NBI-ME. The gastritis-like appearance correlates with the histological surface differentiation of the cancer tubules and superficial non-neoplastic epithelium atop or interspersed with the cancer. Till date, it remains unclear whether H. pylori eradication could prevent progression of gastric cancer. Until we can establish more useful endoscopic examination methodologies, regular endoscopic surveillance of high-risk groups is expected to be the most beneficial approach for detection. PMID:26457015

  9. Endoscopic surveillance of gastric cancers after Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaaki; Sato, Yuichi; Terai, Shuji

    2015-10-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer remains high in East Asian countries. Current data suggest that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication might be more effective for preventing gastric cancer in young people before they develop atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. However, the long-term effect of H. pylori eradication on metachronous cancer prevention after endoscopic resection (ER) of early gastric cancer remains controversial, with some discordance between results published for Japanese and Korean studies. The detection ability of synchronous lesions before ER and eradication of H. pylori directly influences these results. After eradication, some gastric cancers are more difficult to diagnose by endoscopy because of morphologic changes that lead to a flat or depressed appearance. Narrow-band imaging with magnifying endoscopy (NBI-ME) is expected to be useful for identifying metachronous cancers. However, some gastric cancers after eradication show a "gastritis-like" appearance under NBI-ME. The gastritis-like appearance correlates with the histological surface differentiation of the cancer tubules and superficial non-neoplastic epithelium atop or interspersed with the cancer. Till date, it remains unclear whether H. pylori eradication could prevent progression of gastric cancer. Until we can establish more useful endoscopic examination methodologies, regular endoscopic surveillance of high-risk groups is expected to be the most beneficial approach for detection. PMID:26457015

  10. Childhood colon cancer in a patient with ataxia telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Kyeong Min; Park, Jong Ha; Kim, Tae Oh; Jeong, Heui Jeong; Heo, Chang Min; Jang, Ji Hoon; Hur, So Chong; Jeong, Na Ri; Jeong, Su Jin; Seol, Sang Hoon; Nam, Kyung Han

    2016-01-01

    Background Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by progressive neurologic impairment and cerebellar ataxia. In addition, patients with this disease are known to have an inherent increased susceptibility to the development of cancer, predominantly hematologic malignancies. Methods We report the case of a young boy with AT from Russia, who had abdominal pain. Laboratory tests and radiologic examinations were performed to him. Results After abdominal computed tomography (CT), colonoscopy and surgical interventions, the young boy was diagnosed with colon cancer that had signet ring cell features. Conclusions It is known that the patient with AT appeared to be predisposed to various tumors, including leukemia or lymphoma, which are more common in childhood. Even if the patient with AT could have solid tumor such as stomach cancer or breast cancer, it is less likely to have colon cancer, especially signet ring cell type. Actually, no case of colon cancer has ever been reported, especially in young patient and hence, we have focused on this point and are hereby reporting this unique case. PMID:26855947

  11. Surveillance, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome of Liver Cancer in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common type of cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. HCC is most common in Asia, but its prevalence is rapidly increasing in Western countries; consequently, HCC is a global medical issue that urgently needs to be addressed. Japan is the only developed country that has experienced both hepatitis B-related and hepatitis C-related HCC and has a long history of innovation when it comes to new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, such as computed tomography angiography, anatomical resection, ablation, and transarterial chemoembolization. Among these innovations, a nationwide surveillance program was well established by the 1980s, and such a long-term national program does not exist anywhere else in the world. Summary More than 60% of the initially detected HCCs in Japan are Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage 0 or A, which can undergo curative therapies such as resection, ablation, or transplantation. The recent 5-year survival rate of HCC patients in Japan was 43% and the median survival time was 50 months. In addition, both incidence and mortality rates are drastically declining as a result of the successful surveillance program, careful diagnostic flow, and extensive repeated treatments. Key Message Japan's successful model in the surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment of HCC should be adopted as widely as possible to improve the survival of HCC patients worldwide. PMID:26020028

  12. Colon Cancer Cell Separation by Dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fang; Yang, Xiaoming; Jiang, H.; Wood, P.; Hrushesky, W.; Wang, Guiren

    2009-11-01

    Separation of cancer cells from the other biological cells can be useful for clinical cancer diagnosis and cancer treatment. In this presentation, conventional dielectrophoresis (c-DEP) is used in a microfluidic chip to manipulate and collect colorectal cancer HCT116 cell, which is doped with Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells (HEK 293). It is noticed that, the HCT116 cell are deflected to a side channel from a main channel clearly by apply electric field at particular AC frequency band. This motion caused by negative DEP can be used to separate the cancer cell from others. In this manuscript, chip design, flow condition, the DEP spectrum of the cancer cell are reported respectively, and the separation and collection efficiency are investigated as well. The sorter is microfabricated using plastic laminate technology. -/abstract- This work has been financially supported by the NSF RII funding (EP

  13. Eugenia jambolana (Java Plum) Fruit Extract Exhibits Anti-Cancer Activity against Early Stage Human HCT-116 Colon Cancer Cells and Colon Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Charepalli, Venkata; Reddivari, Lavanya; Vadde, Ramakrishna; Walia, Suresh; Radhakrishnan, Sridhar; Vanamala, Jairam K. P

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization predicts over a 70% increase in cancer incidents in developing nations over the next decade. Although these nations have limited access to novel therapeutics, they do have access to foods that contain chemopreventive bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins, and as such, consumption of these foods can be encouraged to combat cancer. We and others have previously characterized the anti-colon cancer properties of dietary anthocyanins from different sources. Eugenia jambolana (Java plum) is a tropical medicinal fruit rich in anthocyanins, however, its anti-colon cancer properties are not well characterized. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that colon cancer stem cells (colon CSCs) promote resistance to chemotherapy, relapse of tumors and contribute to poor prognosis. The objectives of this study were to 1) characterize the anthocyanin profile of Java plum using HPLC-MS; and 2) determine the anti-proliferative (cell counting and MTT) and pro-apoptotic (TUNEL and caspase 3/7 glo assay) properties of Java plum fruit extract (JPE) using HCT-116 colon cancer cell line and colon CSCs (positive for CD 44, CD 133 and ALDH1b1 markers). HPLC-MS analysis showed that JPE contains a variety of anthocyanins including glucosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. JPE anthocyanins suppressed (p < 0.05) proliferation in HCT-116 cells and elevated (p < 0.05) apoptosis in both HCT-116 cells and colon CSCs. JPE also suppressed the stemness in colon CSCs as evaluated using colony formation assay. These results warrant further assessment of the anti-cancer activity of JPE, and its molecular mechanisms using pre-clinical models of colon cancer. PMID:26927179

  14. Eugenia jambolana (Java Plum) Fruit Extract Exhibits Anti-Cancer Activity against Early Stage Human HCT-116 Colon Cancer Cells and Colon Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Charepalli, Venkata; Reddivari, Lavanya; Vadde, Ramakrishna; Walia, Suresh; Radhakrishnan, Sridhar; Vanamala, Jairam K P

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization predicts over a 70% increase in cancer incidents in developing nations over the next decade. Although these nations have limited access to novel therapeutics, they do have access to foods that contain chemopreventive bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins, and as such, consumption of these foods can be encouraged to combat cancer. We and others have previously characterized the anti-colon cancer properties of dietary anthocyanins from different sources. Eugenia jambolana (Java plum) is a tropical medicinal fruit rich in anthocyanins, however, its anti-colon cancer properties are not well characterized. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that colon cancer stem cells (colon CSCs) promote resistance to chemotherapy, relapse of tumors and contribute to poor prognosis. The objectives of this study were to 1) characterize the anthocyanin profile of Java plum using HPLC-MS; and 2) determine the anti-proliferative (cell counting and MTT) and pro-apoptotic (TUNEL and caspase 3/7 glo assay) properties of Java plum fruit extract (JPE) using HCT-116 colon cancer cell line and colon CSCs (positive for CD 44, CD 133 and ALDH1b1 markers). HPLC-MS analysis showed that JPE contains a variety of anthocyanins including glucosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. JPE anthocyanins suppressed (p < 0.05) proliferation in HCT-116 cells and elevated (p < 0.05) apoptosis in both HCT-116 cells and colon CSCs. JPE also suppressed the stemness in colon CSCs as evaluated using colony formation assay. These results warrant further assessment of the anti-cancer activity of JPE, and its molecular mechanisms using pre-clinical models of colon cancer. PMID:26927179

  15. Walnut Phenolic Extract and Its Bioactive Compounds Suppress Colon Cancer Cell Growth by Regulating Colon Cancer Stemness.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jisoo; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Lee, JaeHwan; Heo, Seung Chul; Lee, Kook Lae; Choi, Sang-Woon; Kim, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Walnut has been known for its health benefits, including anti-cardiovascular disease and anti-oxidative properties. However, there is limited evidence elucidating its effects on cancer stem cells (CSCs) which represent a small subset of cancer cells that provide resistance against chemotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-CSCs potential of walnut phenolic extract (WPE) and its bioactive compounds, including (+)-catechin, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, and gallic acid. In the present study, CD133⁺CD44⁺ cells were isolated from HCT116 cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and then treated with WPE. As a result, survival of the CD133⁺CD44⁺ HCT116 cells was inhibited and cell differentiation was induced by WPE. In addition, WPE down-regulated the CSC markers, CD133, CD44, DLK1, and Notch1, as well as the β-catenin/p-GSK3β signaling pathway. WPE suppressed the self-renewal capacity of CSCs. Furthermore, the WPE exhibited stronger anti-CSC effects than its individual bioactive compounds. Finally, the WPE inhibited specific CSC markers in primary colon cancer cells isolated from primary colon tumor. These results suggest that WPE can suppress colon cancer by regulating the characteristics of colon CSCs. PMID:27455311

  16. Walnut Phenolic Extract and Its Bioactive Compounds Suppress Colon Cancer Cell Growth by Regulating Colon Cancer Stemness

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jisoo; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Lee, JaeHwan; Heo, Seung Chul; Lee, Kook Lae; Choi, Sang-Woon; Kim, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Walnut has been known for its health benefits, including anti-cardiovascular disease and anti-oxidative properties. However, there is limited evidence elucidating its effects on cancer stem cells (CSCs) which represent a small subset of cancer cells that provide resistance against chemotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-CSCs potential of walnut phenolic extract (WPE) and its bioactive compounds, including (+)-catechin, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, and gallic acid. In the present study, CD133+CD44+ cells were isolated from HCT116 cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and then treated with WPE. As a result, survival of the CD133+CD44+ HCT116 cells was inhibited and cell differentiation was induced by WPE. In addition, WPE down-regulated the CSC markers, CD133, CD44, DLK1, and Notch1, as well as the β-catenin/p-GSK3β signaling pathway. WPE suppressed the self-renewal capacity of CSCs. Furthermore, the WPE exhibited stronger anti-CSC effects than its individual bioactive compounds. Finally, the WPE inhibited specific CSC markers in primary colon cancer cells isolated from primary colon tumor. These results suggest that WPE can suppress colon cancer by regulating the characteristics of colon CSCs. PMID:27455311

  17. Methylselenol, a selenium metabolite, plays common and different roles in cancerous colon HCT116 cell and noncancerous NCM460 colon cell proliferation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methylselenol has been hypothesized to be a critical selenium (Se) metabolite for anticancer activity in vivo. To determine differential chemopreventive effects of methylselenol on colon cancer cells versus colon noncancerous cells, colon-cancer-derived HCT-116 cells and noncancerous colonic NCM460 ...

  18. The influence of hormone therapies on colon and rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Lidegaard, Øjvind; Keiding, Niels; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Kjær, Susanne Krüger

    2016-05-01

    Exogenous sex hormones seem to play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Little is known about the influence of different types or durations of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on colorectal cancer risk. A nationwide cohort of women 50-79 years old without previous cancer (n = 1,006,219) were followed 1995-2009. Information on HT exposures was from the National Prescription Register and updated daily, while information on colon (n = 8377) and rectal cancers (n = 4742) were from the National Cancer Registry. Potential confounders were obtained from other national registers. Poisson regression analyses with 5-year age bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. Use of estrogen-only therapy and combined therapy were associated with decreased risks of colon cancer (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.77, 95 % confidence interval 0.68-0.86 and 0.88, 0.80-0.96) and rectal cancer (0.83, 0.72-0.96 and 0.89, 0.80-1.00), compared to never users. Transdermal estrogen-only therapy implied more protection than oral administration, while no significant influence was found of regimen, progestin type, nor of tibolone. The benefit of HT was stronger for long-term hormone users; and hormone users were at lower risk of advanced stage of colorectal cancer, which seems supportive for a causal association between hormone therapy and colorectal cancer. PMID:26758900

  19. Functional and genetic analysis of the colon cancer network

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease that has proven to be difficult to understand on the single-gene level. For this reason a functional elucidation needs to take interactions among genes on a systems-level into account. In this study, we infer a colon cancer network from a large-scale gene expression data set by using the method BC3Net. We provide a structural and a functional analysis of this network and also connect its molecular interaction structure with the chromosomal locations of the genes enabling the definition of cis- and trans-interactions. Furthermore, we investigate the interaction of genes that can be found in close neighborhoods on the chromosomes to gain insight into regulatory mechanisms. To our knowledge this is the first study analyzing the genome-scale colon cancer network. PMID:25079297

  20. Functional and genetic analysis of the colon cancer network.

    PubMed

    Emmert-Streib, Frank; de Matos Simoes, Ricardo; Glazko, Galina; McDade, Simon; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Holzinger, Andreas; Dehmer, Matthias; Campbell, Frederick

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease that has proven to be difficult to understand on the single-gene level. For this reason a functional elucidation needs to take interactions among genes on a systems-level into account. In this study, we infer a colon cancer network from a large-scale gene expression data set by using the method BC3Net. We provide a structural and a functional analysis of this network and also connect its molecular interaction structure with the chromosomal locations of the genes enabling the definition of cis- and trans-interactions. Furthermore, we investigate the interaction of genes that can be found in close neighborhoods on the chromosomes to gain insight into regulatory mechanisms. To our knowledge this is the first study analyzing the genome-scale colon cancer network. PMID:25079297

  1. Correlation of trace elements in hair with colon cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Cholewa, M.; Kajfosz, J.; Jones, K.W.; Shore, R.E.; Redrick, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The trace element content of 116 hair samples from patients with colon cancer and from referent series of patients who had a variety of other diseases were measured using proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE). The patients had been on largely uncontrolled diets, and the interest was whether there were differences in trace element concentrations attributable to the effects of colon cancer. The concentrations of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, and Rb were determined using a beam of 2.5-MeV protons. Minimum detectable limits (MDL) of 0.3 ppM were obtained for Zn and Se. Cluster analysis of the data set did not reveal any significant differences between the cancer and control groups. Mean values and ranges obtained for the elemental concentrations show good agreement with other published determinations. 20 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Recurrent R-spondin fusions in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Seshagiri, Somasekar; Stawiski, Eric W; Durinck, Steffen; Modrusan, Zora; Storm, Elaine E; Conboy, Caitlin B; Chaudhuri, Subhra; Guan, Yinghui; Janakiraman, Vasantharajan; Jaiswal, Bijay S; Guillory, Joseph; Ha, Connie; Dijkgraaf, Gerrit J P; Stinson, Jeremy; Gnad, Florian; Huntley, Melanie A; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Haverty, Peter M; Bourgon, Richard; Wang, Weiru; Koeppen, Hartmut; Gentleman, Robert; Starr, Timothy K; Zhang, Zemin; Largaespada, David A; Wu, Thomas D; de Sauvage, Frederic J

    2012-08-30

    Identifying and understanding changes in cancer genomes is essential for the development of targeted therapeutics. Here we analyse systematically more than 70 pairs of primary human colon tumours by applying next-generation sequencing to characterize their exomes, transcriptomes and copy-number alterations. We have identified 36,303 protein-altering somatic changes that include several new recurrent mutations in the Wnt pathway gene TCF7L2, chromatin-remodelling genes such as TET2 and TET3 and receptor tyrosine kinases including ERBB3. Our analysis for significantly mutated cancer genes identified 23 candidates, including the cell cycle checkpoint kinase ATM. Copy-number and RNA-seq data analysis identified amplifications and corresponding overexpression of IGF2 in a subset of colon tumours. Furthermore, using RNA-seq data we identified multiple fusion transcripts including recurrent gene fusions involving R-spondin family members RSPO2 and RSPO3 that together occur in 10% of colon tumours. The RSPO fusions were mutually exclusive with APC mutations, indicating that they probably have a role in the activation of Wnt signalling and tumorigenesis. Consistent with this we show that the RSPO fusion proteins were capable of potentiating Wnt signalling. The R-spondin gene fusions and several other gene mutations identified in this study provide new potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention in colon cancer. PMID:22895193

  3. Thrombin drives tumorigenesis in colitis-associated colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeldt, Leah; Kombrinck, Keith; Flick, Matthew J.; Steinbrecher, Kris A.; Harmel-Laws, Eleana; Mullins, Eric S.; Shaw, Maureen; Witte, David P.; Revenko, Alexey; Monia, Brett; Palumbo, Joseph S.

    2014-01-01

    The established association between inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer underscores the importance of inflammation in colon cancer development. Based on evidence that hemostatic proteases are powerful modifiers of both inflammatory pathologies and tumor biology, gene-targeted mice carrying low levels of prothrombin were used to directly test the hypothesis that prothrombin contributes to tumor development in colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC). Remarkably, imposing a modest 50% reduction in circulating prothrombin in fII+/− mice, a level that carries no significant bleeding risk, dramatically decreased adenoma formation following an azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate challenge. Similar results were obtained with pharmacological inhibition of prothrombin expression or inhibition of thrombin proteolytic activity. Detailed longitudinal analyses showed that the role of thrombin in tumor development in CAC was temporally associated with the antecedent inflammatory colitis. However, direct studies of the antecedent colitis showed that mice carrying half-normal prothrombin levels were comparable to control mice in mucosal damage, inflammatory cell infiltration and associated local cytokine levels. These results suggest that thrombin supports early events coupled to inflammation-mediated tumorigenesis in CAC that are distinct from overall inflammation-induced tissue damage and inflammatory cell trafficking. That prothrombin is linked to early events in CAC was strongly inferred by the observation that prothrombin deficiency dramatically reduced the formation of very early, pre-cancerous aberrant crypt foci. Given the importance of inflammation in the development of colon cancer, these studies suggest that therapeutic interventions at the level of hemostatic factors may be an effective means to prevent and/or impede colitis-associated colon cancer progression. PMID:24710407

  4. Mucin production by human colonic carcinoma cells correlates with their metastatic potential in animal models of colon cancer metastasis.

    PubMed Central

    Bresalier, R S; Niv, Y; Byrd, J C; Duh, Q Y; Toribara, N W; Rockwell, R W; Dahiya, R; Kim, Y S

    1991-01-01

    Patients with mucinous colorectal cancers characteristically present with advanced disease, however, the relationship between mucin production by colon cancer cells and their metastatic potential remains unclear. We therefore sought to define the relationship between mucin production by human colon cancer cells and metastatic ability by employing animal models of colon cancer metastasis. LS LiM 6, a colon carcinoma cell line with high liver metastasizing ability during cecal growth in nude mice produced twofold more metabolically labeled intracellular mucin and secreted four- to fivefold more mucin into the culture medium compared to poorly metastatic parental line LS174T. This was accompanied by a similar elevation in poly(A)+ RNA detected by blot hybridization with a human intestinal mucin cDNA probe, and increases in mucin core carbohydrate antigens determined immunohistochemically. Variants of LS174T selected for high (HM 7) or low (LM 12) mucin synthesizing capacity also yielded metastases after cecal growth and colonized the liver after splenic-portal injection in proportion to their ability to produce mucin. Inhibition of mucin glycosylation by the arylglycoside benzyl-alpha-N-acetyl-galactosamine greatly reduced liver colonization after splenic-portal injection of the tumor cells. These data suggest that mucin production by human colon cancer cells correlates with their metastatic potential and affects their ability to colonize the liver in experimental model systems. Images PMID:1999484

  5. Geographic Variation in Oxaliplatin Chemotherapy and Survival in Patients With Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Janki M; Lairson, David R; Chan, Wenyaw; Du, Xianglin L

    2016-01-01

    Geographic disparity in colon cancer survival has received less attention, despite the fact that health care delivery varied across regions. To examine geographic variation in colon cancer survival and explore factors affecting this variation, including the use of oxaliplatin chemotherapy, we studied cases with resected stage-III colon cancer in 2004-2009, identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare linked database. Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effect of oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy on survival across regions. Propensity score adjustments were made to control for potential selection bias and confounding. Rural regions showed lowest 3-year survival, whereas big metro regions showed better 3-year survival rate than any other region (67.3% in rural regions vs. 69.5% in big metro regions). Hazard ratio for patients residing in metro region was comparable with those residing in big metro region (1.27, 95% confidence interval: 0.90-1.80). However, patients residing in urban area were exhibiting lower mortality than those in other regions, although not statistically significant. Patients who received oxaliplatin chemotherapy were 23% significantly less likely to die of cancer than those received 5-fluorouracil only chemotherapy (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.63-0.95). In conclusion, there were some differences in survival across geographic regions, which were not statistically significant after adjusting for sociodemographic, tumor, chemotherapy, and other treatment characteristics. Oxaliplatin chemotherapy was associated with improved survival outcomes compared with 5-fluorouracil only chemotherapy across regions. Further studies may evaluate other factors and newer chemotherapy regimens on mortality/survival of older patients. PMID:24368611

  6. A case of leptospirosis simulating colon cancer with liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Granito, Alessandro; Ballardini, Giorgio; Fusconi, Marco; Volta, Umberto; Muratori, Paolo; Sambri, Vittorio; Battista, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Francesco B.

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of a 61-year-old man who presented with fatigue, abdominal pain and hepatomegaly. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed hepatomegaly and multiple hepatic lesions highly suggestive of metastatic diseases. Due to the endoscopic finding of colon ulcer, colon cancer with liver metastases was suspected. Biochemically a slight increase of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and gammaglutamyl transpeptidase were present; α - fetoprotein, carcinoembryogenic antigen and carbohydrate 19-9 antigen serum levels were normal. Laboratory and instrumental investigations, including colon and liver biopsies revealed no signs of malignancy. In the light of spontaneous improvement of symptoms and CT findings, his personal history was revaluated revealing direct contact with pigs and their tissues. Diagnosis of leptospirosis was considered and confirmed by detection of an elevated titer of antibodies to leptospira. After two mo, biochemical data, CT and colonoscopy were totally normal. PMID:15285043

  7. Stenting for Obstructing Colon Cancer: Fewer Complications and Colostomies

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Peter; Goldstein, Rachel; Coury, Joseph; Hackford, Alan; Dao, Haisar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Colonic stenting has been used in the setting of malignant obstruction to avoid an emergent colectomy. We sought to determine whether preoperative placement of a colonic stent decreases morbidity and the rate of colostomy formation. Methods: Cases of obstructing sigmoid, rectosigmoid, and rectal cancer from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2011, were identified in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. All patients were treated at hospitals in the United States, and the database generated national estimates. Postoperative complications, mortality, and the rate of colostomy formation were analyzed. Results: Of the estimated 7891 patients who presented with obstructing sigmoid, rectosigmoid, or rectal cancer necessitating intervention, 12.1% (n = 956) underwent placement of a colonic stent, and the remainder underwent surgery without stent placement. Of the patients who underwent stenting, 19.9% went on to have colon resection or stoma creation during the same admission. Patients who underwent preoperative colonic stent placement had a lower rate of total postoperative complications (10.5% vs 21.7%; P < .01). There was no significant difference in mortality (4.7% vs 4.2%; P = .69). The rate of colostomy formation was more than 2-fold higher in patients who did not undergo preoperative stenting (42.5% vs 19.5%; P < .01). Preoperative stenting was associated with increased use of laparoscopy (32.6% vs 9.7%; P < .01). Conclusions: Our study characterizes the national incidence of preoperative placement of a colonic stent in the setting of malignant obstruction. Preoperative stent placement is associated with lower postoperative complications and a lower rate of colostomy formation. The results support the hypothesis that stenting as a bridge to surgery may benefit patients by converting an emergent surgery into an elective one. PMID:25848200

  8. Surgical Treatment of Colon Cancer in Patients Eighty Years of Age and Older: Analysis of 31,574 Patients in the SEER-Medicare Database

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Heather B.; O’Connor, Erin S.; Weiss, Jennifer; LoConte, Noelle K.; Greenblatt, David Y.; Greenberg, Caprice C.; Smith, Maureen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Age-related disparities in colon cancer treatment exist, with older patients less likely to receive recommended therapy. However, few studies have focused on receipt of surgery. The objective was to describe patterns of surgery in colon cancer patients ≥80 years and examine outcomes with and without colectomy. Methods Medicare beneficiaries ≥80 years with colon cancer diagnosed from 1992–2005 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results- Medicare database. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was utilized to assess factors associated with non-operative management. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis determined one-year overall and colon cancer-specific survival. Results Of 31,574 patients, 80% underwent colectomy. 46% occurred during an urgent/emergent admission, with decreased 1-year overall survival (70% vs. 86% during an elective admission). Factors most predictive of non-operative management include older age, black race, more hospital admissions, use of home oxygen, use of a wheel chair, being frail and dementia. For both operative and non-operative patients, one-year overall survival was lower than colon cancer-specific survival (colectomy 78% vs. 89%; no colectomy 58% vs. 78%). Conclusions Most older colon cancer patients are receiving surgery, with improved outcomes compared to non-operative management. However, many patients not selected for surgery die of unrelated causes, reflecting good surgical selection. Patients undergoing surgery during an urgent/emergent admission have an increased short-term mortality. As earlier detection of colon cancer may increase the proportion of older patients undergoing elective surgery, these findings have policy implications for colon cancer screening and suggest that age should not be the only factor driving cancer screening recommendations. PMID:22893570

  9. Identifying Molecular Targets of Lifestyle Modifications in Colon Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Molly M.; Raina, Komal; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    One in four deaths in the United States is cancer-related, and colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Screening strategies are utilized but have not reduced disease incidence or mortality. In this regard, there is an interest in cancer preventive strategies focusing on lifestyle intervention, where specific etiologic factors involved in cancer initiation, promotion, and progression could be targeted. For example, exposure to dietary carcinogens, such as nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons influences colon carcinogenesis. Furthermore, dietary deficiencies could alter sensitivity to genetic damage and influence carcinogen metabolism contributing to CRC. High alcohol consumption increases the risk of mutations including the fact that acetaldehyde, an ethanol metabolite, is classified as a group 1 carcinogen. Tobacco smoke exposure is also a risk factor for cancer development; approximately 20% of CRCs are associated with smoking. Additionally, obese patients have a higher risk of cancer development, which is further supported by the fact that physical activity decreases CRC risk by 55%. Similarly, chronic inflammatory conditions also increase the risk of CRC development. Moreover, the circadian clock alters digestion and regulates other biochemical, physiological, and behavioral processes that could influence CRC. Taken together, colon carcinogenesis involves a number of etiological factors, and therefore, to create effective preventive strategies, molecular targets need to be identified and beleaguered prior to disease progression. With this in mind, the following is a comprehensive review identifying downstream target proteins of the above lifestyle risk factors, which are modulated during colon carcinogenesis and could be targeted for CRC prevention by novel agents including phytochemicals. PMID:23675573

  10. Colonic Polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colonic polyps grow in the large intestine, or colon. Most polyps are not dangerous. However, some polyps ... member with polyps Have a family history of colon cancer Most colon polyps do not cause symptoms. ...

  11. Chemoprevention of colon cancer: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Gustin, David M; Brenner, Dean E

    2002-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is an important public health problem in the western world. Although some progress has been made in the prevention and management of this disease, colon cancer still remains one of the most common types of epithelial malignancies in both genders and is essentially incurable when it reaches the most advanced stages. Given the substantial morbidity and mortality associated with colorectal malignancies and their treatment, cancer prevention in its many forms emerges as a very attractive approach. Colorectal cancer chemoprevention refers to the administration of natural or synthetic compounds to block, reverse, delay or prevent the development of invasive large bowel neoplasms. The ultimate goal of implementing a chemopreventive intervention in the general, or alternatively, in an at-risk population is to decrease the incidence rate of the specific cancer being targeted. This article reviews the present status of colorectal cancer chemoprevention. Current insights into the molecular and genetic models of human colorectal carcinogenesis, preclinical models for efficacy testing as well as into promising biomarkers for colorectal chemoprevention are provided. The developmental status of many promising agents is also discussed emphasizing the epidemiological evidence, preclinical information substantiating an anticarcinogenic effect, their postulated mechanism of action and the status of human clinical development. Our perspective of the future prospects in this scientific area is also provided and has been predicated primarily on the firm belief that the proper integration of advances in the biology of colon carcinogenesis, experimental therapeutics and clinical trial methodology will be critical for the success of this promising field. PMID:12549770

  12. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Huawei; Lazarova, Darina L; Bordonaro, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which modifies the host’s metabolism in various ways. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which dietary fiber-dependent changes in gut microbiota enhance bile acid deconjugation, produce short chain fatty acids, and modulate inflammatory bioactive substances can lead to a better understanding of the beneficial role of dietary fiber. This article reviews the current knowledge concerning the mechanisms via which dietary fiber protects against colon cancer. PMID:24567795

  13. Modeling survival in colon cancer: a methodological review

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Farid E; Vos, Paul W; Holbert, Don

    2007-01-01

    The Cox proportional hazards model is the most widely used model for survival analysis because of its simplicity. The fundamental assumption in this model is the proportionality of the hazard function. When this condition is not met, other modifications or other models must be used for analysis of survival data. We illustrate in this review several methodological approaches to deal with the violation of the proportionality assumption, using survival in colon cancer as an illustrative example. PMID:17295918

  14. Potential Therapy for Refractory Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The drug MM-1151 may overcome resistance to cetuximab and panitumumab caused by some mutations in the extracellular domain of EGFR. The drug slowed disease progression in a colorectal cancer cell line that carried some of the mutations and curbed growth of cells derived from a cetuximab-resistant patient tumor. In a phase I trial, tumors shrank or stabilized in patients who carried the mutations and received the drug. PMID:26928314

  15. Cancer Surveillance in Patients with Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Razumilava, Nataliya; Gores, Gregory J.; Lindor, Keith D.

    2011-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic fibroinflammatory syndrome involving the biliary tract, often accompanied by inflammatory bowel disease. This syndrome is a prototype disease linking chronic inflammation to carcinogenesis. Indeed, PSC is associated with an increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and colorectal cancer. Herein, we review the risk for these malignancies in PSC and discuss rational cancer surveillance strategies for these patients. Where evidence is limited, we suggest a pragmatic approach. In this regard we recommend interval screening for cholangiocarcinoma with non-invasive imaging modalities and serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 determinations annually. These imaging studies also serve to screen for gallbladder cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. Screening for colorectal cancer is more firmly established in PSC patients with inflammatory bowel disease and includes colonoscopy at the time of PSC diagnosis and, thereafter, at 1-2 year intervals. We also highlight areas where more information is required such as management of biliary tract dysplasia and cancer chemoprevention in PSC. PMID:21793028

  16. Isolated splenic metastasis from colon cancer: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Jiddou; Omor, Youssef; Boutayeb, Saber; Elkhannoussi, Basma; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Isolated splenic metastases from colorectal cancer are very rare clinical entities and when they are present, they usually manifest widely disseminated disease. In this paper we report a case of metachronous solitary isolated splenic metastasis from colon cancer in a 64-year-old woman who was successfully treated by laparoscopic splenectomy. We discuss the pathological and clinical aspects of this condition. We furthermore comment on the diagnostic and therapeutic options of this rare entity through our observation of the case and consideration of the 31 case reports published in the literature. PMID:27182171

  17. Isolated splenic metastasis from colon cancer: Case report.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Jiddou; Omor, Youssef; Boutayeb, Saber; Elkhannoussi, Basma; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-05-14

    Isolated splenic metastases from colorectal cancer are very rare clinical entities and when they are present, they usually manifest widely disseminated disease. In this paper we report a case of metachronous solitary isolated splenic metastasis from colon cancer in a 64-year-old woman who was successfully treated by laparoscopic splenectomy. We discuss the pathological and clinical aspects of this condition. We furthermore comment on the diagnostic and therapeutic options of this rare entity through our observation of the case and consideration of the 31 case reports published in the literature. PMID:27182171

  18. Gastrointestinal microflora, food components and colon cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Cindy D.; Milner, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that the intestinal microbiota is intrinsically linked with overall health, including cancer risk. Moreover, its composition is not fixed, but can be influenced by several dietary components. Dietary modifiers, including the consumption of live bacteria (probiotics), nondigestible or limited digestible food constituents such as oligosaccharides (prebiotics) and polyphenols, or both (synbiotics), are recognized modifiers of the numbers and types of microbes and have been reported to reduce colon cancer risk experimentally. Microorganisms also have the ability to generate bioactive compounds from food components. Examples include equol from isoflavones, enterodiol and enterolactone from lignans, and urolithins from ellagic acid, which have also been demonstrated to retard experimentally induced cancers. The gastrointestinal microbiota can also influence both sides of the energy balance equation; namely, as a factor influencing energy utilization from the diet and as a factor that influences host genes that regulate energy expenditure and storage. Because of the link between obesity and cancer incidence and mortality, this complex relationship deserves greater attention. Thus, a complex interrelationship exists between the intestinal microbiota and colon cancer risk which can be modified by dietary components and eating behaviors. PMID:19716282

  19. Linking Nucleoporins, Mitosis, and Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wong, Richard W; D'Angelo, Maximiliano

    2016-05-19

    Suppression of a nuclear pore protein Nup358/RanBP2 is linked to mitotic cell death, but the clinical relevance of this link is unknown. In a recent issue of Cell, Vecchione et al. (2016) show that in approximately 10% of BRAF-like colorectal cancer (CC) patients, Nup358/RanBP2 is critical for survival. Treatment with vinorelbine, a microtubule-depolymerizing drug that inhibits mitosis, might be a potential treatment for these CCs. PMID:27203373

  20. Risk and surveillance of individuals with heritable factors for colorectal cancer. WHO Collaborating Centre for the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Burt, R. W.; Bishop, D. T.; Lynch, H. T.; Rozen, P.; Winawer, S. J.

    1990-01-01

    Heritable and genetic factors pertinent to colon cancer can be divided into three categories: inherited syndromes, genetic epidemiology, and molecular genetics. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and Gardner syndrome (GS) are rare dominantly inherited syndromes characterized by hundreds to thousands of colonic adenomatous polyps. Colon cancer occurs at a young age in both diseases unless the colon is removed. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and familial juvenile polyposis are inherited hamartomatous polyposis conditions with a less dramatic, but definite, increased risk for colon cancer. These four polyposis syndromes together account for less than 1% of cases of colon malignancy. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is a dominantly inherited form of colon cancer characterized by an early age of onset and a predilection for proximal colonic tumours. Multiple primary malignancies are frequently observed and one or several adenomatous polyps are often present in affected individuals; 4-6% of colon cancer cases occur in relationship to this syndrome. Genetic epidemiological studies have consistently shown that first-degree relatives of persons with colon cancer have a twofold to threefold increased risk of having colon malignancy. More recent studies have found a similar risk among relatives of those with adenomatous polyps. Studies of colon cancer and adenomatous polyps in pedigrees have further demonstrated that this familial clustering probably occurs on the basis of partially penetrant inherited susceptibilities. These inherited susceptibilities probably interact with environmental factors to give rise to polyp growth and finally colon cancer. Molecular studies have begun to elucidate the genetic mechanisms of colon cancer at the DNA level. The germinal mutation of FAP and GS has been localized to the long arm of chromosome 5. Tissue samples from "random" adenomatous polyps and colon cancers have shown frequent and specific acquired DNA sequence deletions on

  1. Functional annotation of colon cancer risk SNPs

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Lijing; Tak, Yu Gyoung; Berman, Benjamin P.; Farnham, Peggy J.

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with increased risk for CRC. A molecular understanding of the functional consequences of this genetic variation has been complicated because each GWAS SNP is a surrogate for hundreds of other SNPs, most of which are located in non-coding regions. Here we use genomic and epigenomic information to test the hypothesis that the GWAS SNPs and/or correlated SNPs are in elements that regulate gene expression, and identify 23 promoters and 28 enhancers. Using gene expression data from normal and tumour cells, we identify 66 putative target genes of the risk-associated enhancers (10 of which were also identified by promoter SNPs). Employing CRISPR nucleases, we delete one risk-associated enhancer and identify genes showing altered expression. We suggest that similar studies be performed to characterize all CRC risk-associated enhancers. PMID:25268989

  2. Treatment of colon cancer with oncolytic herpes simplex virus in preclinical models.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Peng, T; Li, J; Wang, Y; Zhang, W; Zhang, P; Peng, S; Du, T; Li, Y; Yan, Q; Liu, B

    2016-05-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are a rare population in any type of cancer, including colon cancer, are tumorigenic and responsible for cancer recurrence and metastasis. CSCs have been isolated from a number of different solid tumors recently, although the isolation of CSCs in colon cancer is still challenging. We cultured colon cancer cells in stem cell medium to obtain colonosphere cells. These cells possessed the characteristics of CSCs, with a high capacity of tumorigenicity, migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. The isolation and identification of CSCs have provided new targets for the therapeutics. Oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (oHSV) are an effective strategy for killing colon cancer cells in preclinical models. Here, we examined the efficacy of an oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 2 (oHSV2) in killing colon cancer cells and colon cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs). oHSV2 was found to be highly cytotoxic to the adherent and sphere cells in vitro, and oHSV2 treatment in vivo significantly inhibited tumor growth. This study demonstrates that oHSV2 is effective against colon cancer cells and colon CSLCs and could be a promising strategy for treating colon cancer patients. PMID:26871935

  3. Red meat and colon cancer: dietary haem, but not fat, has cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects on rat colonic epithelium.

    PubMed

    Sesink, A L; Termont, D S; Kleibeuker, J H; Van Der Meer, R

    2000-10-01

    High intake of red meat is associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. It has been suggested that fat from red meat is responsible, because high fat intake increases the concentration of cytotoxic lipids in the colon. Experimental studies have not unequivocally supported such a role for fat, however. Recently, we showed that dietary haem, which is abundant in red meat, increased colonic cytotoxicity and epithelial proliferation. In this study, we wanted to clarify whether dietary fat affects colon cancer risk by itself or by modulating the detrimental effects of haem on the colonic epithelium. Rats were fed control or haem-supplemented diets with 10%, 25% or 40% of the energy derived from fat for 14 days. Faeces were collected for biochemical analyses. Colonic cytotoxicity was determined from the degree of lysis of erythrocytes by faecal water. Colonic epithelial proliferation was measured in vivo using [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. Increasing the fat content of the control diets stimulated faecal disposal of both fatty acids and bile acids. It also increased the concentration of fatty acids, but not that of bile acids, in faecal water in control rats. The cytolytic activity of faecal water and colonic epithelial proliferation were unaffected. Dietary haem increased faecal cation content and cytolytic activity of faecal water at all fat levels, suggesting that the colonic mucosa was exposed to high amounts of luminal irritants. This effect was smaller in rats on the low-fat diet. Dietary haem also increased colonic epithelial proliferation at all fat levels. The haem-induced effects were independent of fatty acids or bile acids in the faecal water. In western societies, 30-40% of ingested energy is supplied by dietary fat, so our results suggest that the association between consumption of red meat and risk of colon cancer is mainly due to its haem content, and is largely independent of dietary fat content. PMID:11023550

  4. Oral bisphosphonates and colon cancer: an update

    PubMed Central

    Vestergaard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are widely used as the main treatment for osteoporosis. In vitro and animal studies suggest that use of BPs may have a potential for colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention. Safety and efficacy in terms of osteoporosis prevention have only been evaluated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of relatively short duration (3–5 years), with smaller extension studies. The evidence for a benefit beyond 5 years is limited and intake of BPs has not shown any relationship with CRC in intervention studies. Observational studies and meta-analysis have shown unchanged or decreased risk of CRC. BPs used for treatment and prevention of osteoporosis should not be applied for prevention of CRC in clinical practice. PMID:26288666

  5. Active surveillance for prostate cancer: a legal perspective

    PubMed Central

    Venderbos, Lionne DF; Roobol, Monique J; de Hoogh, August NL

    2014-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) for prostate cancer (PCa) has become a viable management strategy for men with low-risk PCa. With AS being offered more often and more patients being included in AS studies, the aim of this paper is to describe AS from a legal perspective. What might be pitfalls in the management strategy that urologists should be aware of? In order to construct an answer to our research question, a patient from the Prostate cancer Research International: Active Surveillance (PRIAS) study will be used as an example. In the methods section, first some information on the PRIAS study is given. Then a PRIAS case will be described after which the Dutch legal framework will be set-out. Finally, the Dutch legal framework will be applied to the PRIAS case to find what would happen if that particular patient would file a complaint. On the basis of the analysis we can conclude that urologists that offer AS should be aware of the information that they provide to patients when entering AS but also during follow-up. It is furthermore important that urologists act in line with their medical professional standards. Therefore it is advised that urologists follow the progress that is made within the field of AS carefully, as the field is moving rapidly. PMID:25606578

  6. Active surveillance for prostate cancer: a legal perspective.

    PubMed

    Venderbos, Lionne Df; Roobol, Monique J; de Hoogh, August Nl

    2014-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) for prostate cancer (PCa) has become a viable management strategy for men with low-risk PCa. With AS being offered more often and more patients being included in AS studies, the aim of this paper is to describe AS from a legal perspective. What might be pitfalls in the management strategy that urologists should be aware of? In order to construct an answer to our research question, a patient from the Prostate cancer Research International: Active Surveillance (PRIAS) study will be used as an example. In the methods section, first some information on the PRIAS study is given. Then a PRIAS case will be described after which the Dutch legal framework will be set-out. Finally, the Dutch legal framework will be applied to the PRIAS case to find what would happen if that particular patient would file a complaint. On the basis of the analysis we can conclude that urologists that offer AS should be aware of the information that they provide to patients when entering AS but also during follow-up. It is furthermore important that urologists act in line with their medical professional standards. Therefore it is advised that urologists follow the progress that is made within the field of AS carefully, as the field is moving rapidly. PMID:25606578

  7. Body mass index and colon cancer screening: the road ahead.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Kanwarpreet; Imam, Mohamad; Ismail, Bahaa Eldeen Senousy; Castro, Fernando

    2015-02-01

    Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) has been associated with a decreased incidence and mortality from CRC. However, patient adherence to screening is less than desirable and resources are limited even in developed countries. Better identification of individuals at a higher risk could result in improved screening efforts. Over the past few years, formulas have been developed to predict the likelihood of developing advanced colonic neoplasia in susceptible individuals but have yet to be utilized in mass screening practices. These models use a number of clinical factors that have been associated with colonic neoplasia including the body mass index (BMI). Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which obesity contributes to colonic neoplasia as well as clinical studies on this subject have proven the association between BMI and colonic neoplasia. However, there are still controversies on this subject as some studies have arrived at different conclusions on the influence of BMI by gender. Future studies should aim at resolving these discrepancies in order to improve the efficiency of screening strategies. PMID:25663756

  8. Approaches that ascertain the role of dietary compounds in colonic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Bordonaro, Michael; Venema, Koen; Putri, Adeline K; Lazarova, Darina

    2014-01-01

    Preventive approaches against cancer have not been fully developed and applied. For example, the incidence of some types of cancer, including colon cancer, is highly dependent upon lifestyle, and therefore, amenable to prevention. Among the lifestyle factors, diet strongly affects the incidence of colon cancer; however, there are no definitive dietary recommendations that protect against this malignancy. The association between diet-derived bioactives and development of colonic neoplasms will remain ill defined if we do not take into account: (1) the identity of the metabolites present in the colonic lumen; (2) their concentrations in the colon; and (3) the effect of the colonic contents on the function of individual bioactives. We review two approaches that address these questions: the use of fecal water and in vitro models of the human colon. Compared to treatment with individual diet-derived compounds, the exposure of colon cancer cells to samples from fecal water or human colon simulators mimics closer the in vitro conditions and allows for more reliable studies on the effects of diet on colon cancer development. The rationale and the advantages of these strategies are discussed from the perspective of a specific question on how to analyze the combined effect of two types of bioactives, butyrate and polyphenol metabolites, on colon cancer cells. PMID:24578783

  9. A recellularized human colon model identifies cancer driver genes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huanhuan Joyce; Wei, Zhubo; Sun, Jian; Bhattacharya, Asmita; Savage, David J; Serda, Rita; Mackeyev, Yuri; Curley, Steven A; Bu, Pengcheng; Wang, Lihua; Chen, Shuibing; Cohen-Gould, Leona; Huang, Emina; Shen, Xiling; Lipkin, Steven M; Copeland, Neal G; Jenkins, Nancy A; Shuler, Michael L

    2016-08-01

    Refined cancer models are needed to bridge the gaps between cell line, animal and clinical research. Here we describe the engineering of an organotypic colon cancer model by recellularization of a native human matrix that contains cell-populated mucosa and an intact muscularis mucosa layer. This ex vivo system recapitulates the pathophysiological progression from APC-mutant neoplasia to submucosal invasive tumor. We used it to perform a Sleeping Beauty transposon mutagenesis screen to identify genes that cooperate with mutant APC in driving invasive neoplasia. We identified 38 candidate invasion-driver genes, 17 of which, including TCF7L2, TWIST2, MSH2, DCC, EPHB1 and EPHB2 have been previously implicated in colorectal cancer progression. Six invasion-driver genes that have not, to our knowledge, been previously described were validated in vitro using cell proliferation, migration and invasion assays and ex vivo using recellularized human colon. These results demonstrate the utility of our organoid model for studying cancer biology. PMID:27398792

  10. Oncogenic KRAS activates an embryonic stem cell-like program in human colon cancer initiation

    PubMed Central

    Le Rolle, Anne-France; Chiu, Thang K.; Zeng, Zhaoshi; Shia, Jinru; Weiser, Martin R.; Paty, Philip B.; Chiu, Vi K.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. Prevention of colorectal cancer initiation represents the most effective overall strategy to reduce its associated morbidity and mortality. Activating KRAS mutation (KRASmut) is the most prevalent oncogenic driver in colorectal cancer development, and KRASmut inhibition represents an unmet clinical need. We apply a systems-level approach to study the impact of KRASmut on stem cell signaling during human colon cancer initiation by performing gene set enrichment analysis on gene expression from human colon tissues. We find that KRASmut imposes the embryonic stem cell-like program during human colon cancer initiation from colon adenoma to stage I carcinoma. Expression of miR145, an embryonic SC program inhibitor, promotes cell lineage differentiation marker expression in KRASmut colon cancer cells and significantly suppresses their tumorigenicity. Our data support an in vivo plasticity model of human colon cancer initiation that merges the intrinsic stem cell properties of aberrant colon stem cells with the embryonic stem cell-like program induced by KRASmut to optimize malignant transformation. Inhibition of the embryonic SC-like program in KRASmut colon cancer cells reveals a novel therapeutic strategy to programmatically inhibit KRASmut tumors and prevent colon cancer. PMID:26744320

  11. Biological/Chemopreventive Activity of Stilbenes and Their Effect on Colon Cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in men and women in Western countries. Epidemiological studies have linked consumption of fruits and vegetables to a reduced risk of colon cancer, and small fruits are particularly rich sources of many active phytochemical stilbenes, such as ...

  12. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj; Chahdi, Ahmed; Belo, Angelica; Khurana, Sandeep; Xie, Guofeng

    2011-11-18

    Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers - this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked by pre-treatment with anti-MMP1 antibody. This study contributes to understanding mechanisms underlying muscarinic receptor agonist-induced promotion of colon cancer and, more importantly, indicates that blocking MMP1 expression and activation has therapeutic promise to stop or retard colon cancer invasion and dissemination. PMID:22027145

  13. An Apta-Biosensor for Colon Cancer Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadzadeh Raji, Mojgan; Amoabediny, Ghasem; Tajik, Parviz; Hosseini, Morteza; Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the design and implementation of an aptasensor using a modified KCHA10a aptamer. This aptasensor consists of a functionalized electrodes using various materials including 11-mercaptoandecanoic acid (11-MUA) and modified KCHA10a aptamer. The HCT 116, HT 29 and HEp-2 cell lines are used in this study to demonstrate the functionality of aptasensor for colon cancer detection purposes. Flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy and electrochemical cyclic voltammetry are used to verify the binding between the target cells and aptamer. The limit of detection (LOD) of this aptasensor is equal to seven cancer cells. Based on the experimental results, the proposed sensor can be employed for point-of-care cancer disease diagnostics. PMID:26404293

  14. An Apta-Biosensor for Colon Cancer Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Raji, Mojgan Ahmadzadeh; Amoabediny, Ghasem; Tajik, Parviz; Hosseini, Morteza; Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the design and implementation of an aptasensor using a modified KCHA10a aptamer. This aptasensor consists of a functionalized electrodes using various materials including 11-mercaptoandecanoic acid (11-MUA) and modified KCHA10a aptamer. The HCT 116, HT 29 and HEp-2 cell lines are used in this study to demonstrate the functionality of aptasensor for colon cancer detection purposes. Flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy and electrochemical cyclic voltammetry are used to verify the binding between the target cells and aptamer. The limit of detection (LOD) of this aptasensor is equal to seven cancer cells. Based on the experimental results, the proposed sensor can be employed for point-of-care cancer disease diagnostics. PMID:26404293

  15. Anthocyanin-containing purple-fleshed potatoes suppress colon tumorigenesis via elimination of colon cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Charepalli, Venkata; Reddivari, Lavanya; Radhakrishnan, Sridhar; Vadde, Ramakrishna; Agarwal, Rajesh; Vanamala, Jairam K P

    2015-12-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are shown to be responsible for initiation and progression of tumors in a variety of cancers. We previously showed that anthocyanin-containing baked purple-fleshed potato (PP) extracts (PA) suppressed early and advanced human colon cancer cell proliferation and induced apoptosis, but their effect on colon CSCs is not known. Considering the evidence of bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins, against cancers, there is a critical need to study anticancer activity of PP, a global food crop, against colon CSCs. Thus, isolated colon CSCs (positive for CD44, CD133 and ALDH1b1 markers) with functioning p53 and shRNA-attenuated p53 were treated with PA at 5.0 μg/ml. Effects of baked PP (20% wt/wt) against colon CSCs were also tested in vivo in mice with azoxymethane-induced colon tumorigenesis. Effects of PA/PP were compared to positive control sulindac. In vitro, PA suppressed proliferation and elevated apoptosis in a p53-independent manner in colon CSCs. PA, but not sulindac, suppressed levels of Wnt pathway effector β-catenin (a critical regulator of CSC proliferation) and its downstream proteins (c-Myc and cyclin D1) and elevated Bax and cytochrome c, proteins-mediating mitochondrial apoptosis. In vivo, PP reduced the number of crypts containing cells with nuclear β-catenin (an indicator of colon CSCs) via induction of apoptosis and suppressed tumor incidence similar to that of sulindac. Combined, our data suggest that PP may contribute to reduced colon CSCs number and tumor incidence in vivo via suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and elevation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. PMID:26383537

  16. TPX2 is a novel prognostic marker for the growth and metastasis of colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We have previously demonstrated an aberrant overexpression of the microtubule-associated protein TPX2 in colon cancer using a genome-wide gene expression profiling analysis. Here, we aim to investigate its expression pattern, clinical significance, and biological function in colon cancer. Methods TPX2 expression was analyzed in human colon cancer cell lines and tumor samples. The effect of TPX2 on cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, and metastasis was examined in vitro and in vivo. Results TPX2 was overexpressed in 129 of the 203 (60.8%) colon cancer metastatic lesions, with the expression being significantly higher than that in primary cancerous tissue and normal colon mucosa. Overexpression of TPX2 was significantly associated with clinical staging, vessel invasion, and metastasis. In survival analyses, patients with TPX2 overexpression had worse overall survival and metastasis free survival, suggesting that deregulation of TPX2 may contribute to the metastasis of colon cancer. Consistent with this, suppression of TPX2 expression inhibited proliferation and tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Strikingly, we found that TPX2 knockdown significantly attenuated the migration and invasion ability of colon cancer cells, which was further shown to be mechanistically associated with AKT-mediated MMP2 activity. Conclusions These findings suggest that TPX2 plays an important role in promoting tumorigenesis and metastasis of human colon cancer, and may represent a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for the disease. PMID:24341487

  17. Radioimmunotoxin Therapy of Experimental Colon and Ovarian Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, Donald J.; Vallera, Daniel A.

    2006-02-09

    To pursue the development of radiolabeled immunotoxins (RIT) for colon cancer, it was first necessary to identify an immunotoxin (IT) that could selectively kill colon cancer cell lines. Recently, our collaborators in the Vallera laboratory have observed that potent recombinant IT can be synthesized using recombinant single chain antibodies (sFv) spliced to truncated diphtheria toxin (DT) consisting of the first 390 amino acids of native DT. DT was chosen as a toxin because it is a catalytic bacterial toxin that is easily manipulated in genetic engineering studies. Also, the Vallera lab has developed new procedures for preparing the sFv fusion toxins from bacterial inclusion bodies such as DT and another good genetic engineering toxin pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) based on detergent refolding. This allows for enhanced yields and higher purity that is essential for generating the protein that will be needed for preparation of larger amounts of RIT for therapy. Many potential sFvs were considered for targeting colon cancer. The best results have been obtained with an sFv recognizing EpCam. EpCam, also known as ESA or EGP40, is a 40 kDa epithelial transmembrane glycoprotein found on the basolateral surface of simple, pseudostratified, and transitional epithelia. It has been found overexpressed on 81% of adenocarcinomas of the colon (Went et al. Human pathology 35:122, 2004). EpCam sliced to DT (DTEpCam) was highly potent in studies in which we measured its ability to inhibit the proliferation of the HT-29 and COLO 205 colon cancer cell lines since we measured its IC50 at 1-2 x 10-2 nM. Potency is important, but is also critical that DTEpCam is selective in its cytotoxicity against EpCam-expressing target colon cancer cells. The activity of DTEpCam was highly selective since irrelevant control IT that did not recognize any markers on cancer cells, did not show any activity against the same colon cancer cell lines. Also, blocking studies were performed in which DTEpCam was

  18. Up-regulation of CNDP2 facilitates the proliferation of colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cytosolic nonspecific dipetidase (CN2) belongs to the family of M20 metallopeptidases. It was stated in previous articles that higher expression levels of CN2 were observed in renal cell carcinoma and breast cancer. Our study explored the correlation between CN2 and colon carcinogenesis. Methods We analysed the relationship between 183 patients clinicopathological characteristics and its CN2 expression. To detect the levels of CN2 in colon cancer cell lines and colon cancer tissues by western blot. To verify cell proliferation in colon cancer cells with knockdown of CNDP2 and explore the causes of these phenomena. Results The expression levels of CN2 in clinical colon tumors and colon cancer cell lines were significantly higher than that in normal colon mucosa and colon cell lines. The difference in CN2 levels was associated with tumor location (right- and left-sided colon cancer), but there was no significant association with age, gender, tumor size, tumor grade, tumor stage or serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Knockdown of CNDP2 inhibited cell proliferation, blocked cell cycle progression and retarded carcinogenesis in an animal model. The signaling pathway through which knockdown of CNDP2 inhibited cell proliferation and tumorigenesis involved in EGFR, cyclin B1 and cyclin E. Conclusions Knockdown of CNDP2 can inhibit the proliferation of colon cancer in vitro and retarded carcinogenesis in vivo. PMID:24885395

  19. The multihit model of carcinogenesis: etiologic implications for colon cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.V.; Bailar, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    A new multihit model of carcinogenesis is developed for use in evaluating age-specific cancer incidence rates in human populations. The model allows for some heterogeneity in both risk (perhaps genetic) and pathway (number of hits). Fitting the model yields estimates of (1) levels of effect of background exposure to environmental agents, (2) tumor growth times after initiation of a malignant cell, and (3) relative sizes of high-risk groups in a human population. Maximum likelihood procedures are used to fit the model to the polyposis coli data of Veale and the colon cancer incidence data from the Third National Cancer Survey. Model estimates may be verified in some cases by review of independent data in the literature and results have both theoretical and practical implications. Findings are generally consistent with the adenoma-carcinoma etiologic sequence postulated by Hill, Morson and Bussey with one exception. A large proportion of the population may be at risk of four-hit colon tumors following a non-adenoma etiologic sequence.

  20. [Adjuvant treatment of colon cancer MOSAIC study's main results].

    PubMed

    André, Thierry; Tournigand, Christophe; Achille, Emmanuel; Tubiana-Mathieu, Nicole; Lledo, Gérard; Raoul, Yves; Carola, Elisabeth; Flesch, Michel; Muron, Thierry; Boutan-Laroze, Arnaud; Guérin Meyer, Véronique; Boaziz, Catherine; Maigre, Michel; Ganem, Gérard; Mousseau, Mireille; Mounedji-Boudiaf, Lamia; de Gramont, Aimery

    2006-02-01

    Oxaliplatin in combination with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (LV5FU) improves the response rate and survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. The objective of the Mosaic study was to evaluate the efficacy of this association in the adjuvant treatment of stage II and III colon cancer. This international study, including 2,246 patients, compared the efficacy of standard treatment with LV5FU2 alone to that of oxaliplatin-LV5FU (Folfox4 regimen) following R0 resection of the primary tumour. Both treatments were administered every two weeks for six months. At 3-year follow-up, the risk of relapse was decreased by 23% in the Folfox4 group (p = 0.002). The protocol was well tolerated, with an identical overall mortality during treatment (0.5%) in both groups. The main specific complication, peripheral sensory neuropathy was reversible in the great majority of cases. A new analysis at 4-year follow-up (median 48.6 months) confirmed the superior efficacy of the Folfox4 regimen compared to the standard treatment, the reduction in relapse risk being 24% (p = 0.0008). On the strength of these results, oxaliplatin was granted a marketing authorization for the indication adjuvant treatment of stage III colon cancer. Based on the data currently available, physicians should consider adjuvant treatment for stage II patients, making each individual decision for treatment on a case-by-case basis. PMID:16483940

  1. Prognostic significance of preoperative fibrinogen in patients with colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhen-Qiang; Han, Xiao-Na; Wang, Hai-Jiang; Tang, Yong; Zhao, Ze-Liang; Qu, Yan-Li; Xu, Rui-Wei; Liu, Yan-Yan; Yu, Xian-Bo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prognostic significance of preoperative fibrinogen levels in colon cancer patients. METHODS: A total of 255 colon cancer patients treated at the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from June 1st 2005 to June 1st 2008 were enrolled in the study. All patients received radical surgery as their primary treatment method. Preoperative fibrinogen was detected by the Clauss method, and all patients were followed up after surgery. Preoperative fibrinogen measurements were correlated with a number of clinicopathological parameters using the Student t test and analysis of variance. Survival analyses were performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression modeling to measure 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: The mean preoperative fibrinogen concentration of all colon cancer patients was 3.17 ± 0.88 g/L. Statistically significant differences were found between preoperative fibrinogen levels and the clinicopathological parameters of age, smoking status, tumor size, tumor location, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, modified Glasgow prognostic scores (mGPS), white blood cell (WBC) count, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. Univariate survival analysis showed that TNM stage, tumor cell differentiation grade, vascular invasion, mGPS score, preoperative fibrinogen, WBC, NLR, PLR and CEA all correlated with both OS and DFS. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and body mass index correlated only with OS. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that both OS and DFS of the total cohort, as well as of the stage II and III patients, were higher in the hypofibrinogen group compared to the hyperfibrinogen group (all P < 0.05). In contrast, there was no significant difference between OS and DFS in stage I patients with low or high fibrinogen levels. Cox regression analysis indicated preoperative fibrinogen levels, TNM stage, mGPS score, CEA, and

  2. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, diet, and risk of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Slattery, M L; Potter, J D; Samowitz, W; Schaffer, D; Leppert, M

    1999-06-01

    Individuals with different forms of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, carriers of the C677T mutation versus wild type, show differences in enzyme levels; these differences have been hypothesized to be related to DNA methylation and, perhaps, to the nucleotide pool size. Using data from an incident case-control study, we evaluated the combined effect of dietary intake of folate, methionine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and alcohol and various forms of the MTHFR gene on risk of colon cancer. Individuals homozygous for the variant form of the MTHFR gene (TT) had a slightly lower risk of colon cancer than did individuals who were wild type [CC, odds ratio (OR) = 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.6-1.1 for men; and OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.6-1.2 for women]. High levels of intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 were associated with a 30-40% reduction in risk of colon cancer among those with the TT relative to those with low levels of intake who were CC genotype. Associations were stronger for proximal tumors, in which high levels of intake of these nutrients were associated with a halving of risk among those with the TT genotype. The inverse association with high levels of these nutrients in those with the TT genotype was stronger among those diagnosed at an older age. Although imprecise, the inverse association with the low-risk diet that was high in folate and methionine and without alcohol was observed for both the TT genotype (OR = 0.4 95% CI = 0.1-0.9) and the CC/CT genotype (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4-1.0), but this association was not seen with the high-risk diet for either the TT or CC/CT genotype. Although associations were generally weak, these findings suggest that those with differing MTHFR genotypes may have different susceptibilities to colon cancer, based on dietary consumption of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. PMID:10385141

  3. [Treatment outcomes of colon cancer surgery combined with radical lymphadenectomy].

    PubMed

    Lipská, L; Visokai, V; Mrácek, M; Levý, M

    2008-05-01

    The authors analyzed a group of 1281 subjects with colorectal cancer operated and followed up in a single institution from I/1992 to VIII/2007. Colon carcinoma patients were assessed separately (C18). Patients with rectal and rectosigmoid tumors are not included in the presentation. A total of 846 patients were operated for colon carcinomas. In 546 subjects, radical R0 resections were achieved. In the R0 group, the male/female ratio is 315/231, age 29-94 years, the mean age of 69 years. The R0 group stratification by TNM classification was: I 17.8%, II 49.6%, III 24.0%, IV 8.1%, TNMx 0.5%. Irrespective of the TNM staging, three-year, five-year and ten-year survival rates were 80%, 71%, and 51%, resp. The median survival time was 9.85 years. Postoperative morality was 5.5%, morbidity 29.8%, anastomic leak occured in 5.7%. Systematic lymph node dissection up to the apical level, had been gradually introduced as an integral part of the R0 surgery. The aim of the study is to analyze outcomes of the colon carcinoma surgical management, combined with radical lymphadenectomy. Furthermore, effects of the extensive procedure on the postoperative morbidity and moratility rates are analyzed as well. PMID:18595540

  4. [A case of hyperammonemic encephalopathy in a patient with recurrent colon cancer treated with modified FOLFOX6].

    PubMed

    Teraishi, Fuminori; Suzuki, Takeo; Nakamoto, Masako; Chikuba, Akira; Nezu, Masashi; Shimamura, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Takamasa; Matsuda, Tadakazu; Takiue, Takao; Chikuba, Hiroshi

    2009-05-01

    FOLFOX therapy is a commonly used chemotherapeutic regimen against recurrent and unresectable colon cancer. However, its acute neurotoxicity is rare and not well recognized. We herein report a case of mFOLFOX6-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy in a patient having recurrent colon cancer. A 74-year-old female with a history of sigmoid colon cancer was diagnosed as liver, lung, and peritoneal recurrences by surveillance CT and PET/CT. She was initially treated with modified FOLFOX6 therapy. After completing treatment, she presented with sudden onset of confusion, cognitive disturbances, and repeated seizures. None of the other radiographic examinations and laboratory tests provided an explanation for her symptoms except hyperammonemia. She was treated with branched-chain amino acid solutions and high-volume drip infusion, 6 hours after which the encephalopathy resolved. Clinicians should be aware of the adverse hyperammonemia induced by mFOLFOX6 when patients treated with mFOLFOX6 present with neurological disorders. PMID:19461197

  5. Are dietary fiber-induced alterations in colonic epithelial cell proliferation predictive of fiber's effect on colon cancer?

    PubMed

    Whiteley, L O; Klurfeld, D M

    2000-01-01

    Alterations in cell proliferation of the colon have been observed as a result of changes in amount and type of dietary fiber and in relation to risk of developing colon cancer. Although some human observational and intervention studies contribute to the database, most information results from experiments on rodents. Because of numerous contradictory reports linking dietary fiber, cell proliferation, and colon cancer, we undertook a critical review of existing methods in an attempt to explain the inconsistencies. Although there may be some individual types of dietary fiber that protect against chemically induced colon cancer, dietary fiber as a single entity does not appear to afford any consistent protection. Because of significant differences in experimental protocols among laboratories, it is not yet possible to state with certainty that increases in cell proliferation, induced by fiber consumption, are predictive of increased tumorigenesis. Much of what has been observed and interpreted as elevation of risk may simply be normal homeostatic changes in cell proliferation. Even though fermentation to short-chain fatty acids is a mechanistically attractive hypothesis to explain why fiber modulates cytokinetics, data do not consistently support short-chain fatty acids as biological intermediates in risk of colon cancer. The state of the art in this field has not yet progressed to the point where a clear effect of dietary fiber on cytokinetics and colon carcinogenesis can be assessed with any degree of certainty. Additional markers of apoptosis, differentiation, and cell-cell communication may be required for a more accurate analysis of the relation among fiber, cytokinetics, and colon cancer. PMID:10890023

  6. The Incidence Characteristics of Second Primary Malignancy after Diagnosis of Primary Colon and Rectal Cancer: A Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Xu; Jin, Yinghu; Chen, Yinggang; Jiang, Zheng; Liu, Zheng; Zhao, Zhixun; Yan, Peng; Wang, Guiyu; Wang, Xishan

    2015-01-01

    Background With the expanding population of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors in the United States, one concerning issue is the risk of developing second primary malignancies (SPMs) for these CRC survivors. The present study attempts to identify the incidence characteristics of SPMs after diagnosis of first primary colon cancer (CC) and rectal cancer (RC). Methods 189,890 CC and 83,802 RC cases were identified from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) database. We performed rate analysis on incidence trend of SPMs in both CC and RC. Expected incidence rates were stratified by age, race and stage, calendar year of first CRC diagnosis and latency period since first CRC diagnosis. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), measure for estimating risk of SPMs, were calculated for CC and RC respectively. Results The trends of incidence of SPMs in both CC and RC were decreasing from 1992 to 2012. Both CC and RC survivors had higher risk of developing SPMs (SIRCC = 1.13; SIRRC = 1.05). For CC patients, the highest risks of SPM were cancers of small intestine (SIR = 4.03), colon (SIR = 1.87) and rectum (SIR = 1.80). For RC patients, the highest risks of SPMs were cancers of rectum (SIR = 2.88), small intestine (SIR = 2.16) and thyroid (SIR = 1.46). According to stratified analyses, we also identified incidence characteristics which were contributed to higher risk of developing SPMs, including the age between 20 and 40, American Indian/Alaska Native, localized stage, diagnosed at calendar year from 2002 to 2012 and the latency between 12 and 59 months. Conclusions Both CC and RC survivors remain at higher risk of developing SPMs. The identification of incidence characteristics of SPMs is extremely essential for continuous cancer surveillance among CRC survivors. PMID:26571301

  7. Proteogenomic characterization of human colon and rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bing; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhu, Jing; Liu, Qi; Shi, Zhiao; Chambers, Matthew C.; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Shaddox, Kent F.; Kim, Sangtae; Davies, Sherri; Wang, Sean; Wang, Pei; Kinsinger, Christopher; Rivers, Robert; Rodriguez, Henry; Townsend, Reid; Ellis, Matthew; Carr, Steven A.; Tabb, David L.; Coffey, Robert J.; Slebos, Robbert; Liebler, Daniel

    2014-09-18

    We analyzed proteomes of colon and rectal tumors previously characterized by the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and performed integrated proteogenomic analyses. Protein sequence variants encoded by somatic genomic variations displayed reduced expression compared to protein variants encoded by germline variations. mRNA transcript abundance did not reliably predict protein expression differences between tumors. Proteomics identified five protein expression subtypes, two of which were associated with the TCGA "MSI/CIMP" transcriptional subtype, but had distinct mutation and methylation patterns and associated with different clinical outcomes. Although CNAs showed strong cis- and trans-effects on mRNA expression, relatively few of these extend to the protein level. Thus, proteomics data enabled prioritization of candidate driver genes. Our analyses identified HNF4A, a novel candidate driver gene in tumors with chromosome 20q amplifications. Integrated proteogenomic analysis provides functional context to interpret genomic abnormalities and affords novel insights into cancer biology.

  8. Ascending Colon Cancer Associated with Dermatomyositis Which Was Cured after Colon Resection

    PubMed Central

    Kamiyama, Hirohiko; Niwa, Koichiro; Ishiyama, Shun; Takahashi, Makoto; Kojima, Yutaka; Goto, Michitoshi; Tomiki, Yuichi; Higashihara, Yoshie; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman with muscle ache, weakness of the extremities, and skin rash was diagnosed with dermatomyositis (DM). Upon the diagnosis of DM, a systemic survey of malignancy revealed an advanced carcinoma of the ascending colon. The patient underwent right hemicolectomy approximately 2 months after the onset of DM. The symptoms and signs of DM disappeared after the surgery without additional therapy. DM is an idiopathic systemic inflammatory disease characterized by muscle ache, muscle weakness, and skin rash. In some cases, DM develops as paraneoplastic syndrome, and it is assumed that 30% of DM patients have cancer. Symptoms and signs of DM can be attenuated by treatment of the malignancy, and they reappear if the malignancy recurs. It is essential to perform a systemic survey of malignancy in DM patients, and treatment of the malignancy has to precede treatment of DM. PMID:27482193

  9. Ascending Colon Cancer Associated with Dermatomyositis Which Was Cured after Colon Resection.

    PubMed

    Kamiyama, Hirohiko; Niwa, Koichiro; Ishiyama, Shun; Takahashi, Makoto; Kojima, Yutaka; Goto, Michitoshi; Tomiki, Yuichi; Higashihara, Yoshie; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman with muscle ache, weakness of the extremities, and skin rash was diagnosed with dermatomyositis (DM). Upon the diagnosis of DM, a systemic survey of malignancy revealed an advanced carcinoma of the ascending colon. The patient underwent right hemicolectomy approximately 2 months after the onset of DM. The symptoms and signs of DM disappeared after the surgery without additional therapy. DM is an idiopathic systemic inflammatory disease characterized by muscle ache, muscle weakness, and skin rash. In some cases, DM develops as paraneoplastic syndrome, and it is assumed that 30% of DM patients have cancer. Symptoms and signs of DM can be attenuated by treatment of the malignancy, and they reappear if the malignancy recurs. It is essential to perform a systemic survey of malignancy in DM patients, and treatment of the malignancy has to precede treatment of DM. PMID:27482193

  10. Colon cancer prediction with genetic profiles using intelligent techniques

    PubMed Central

    Alladi, Subha Mahadevi; P, Shinde Santosh; Ravi, Vadlamani; Murthy, Upadhyayula Suryanarayana

    2008-01-01

    Micro array data provides information of expression levels of thousands of genes in a cell in a single experiment. Numerous efforts have been made to use gene expression profiles to improve precision of tumor classification. In our present study we have used the benchmark colon cancer data set for analysis. Feature selection is done using t‐statistic. Comparative study of class prediction accuracy of 3 different classifiers viz., support vector machine (SVM), neural nets and logistic regression was performed using the top 10 genes ranked by the t‐statistic. SVM turned out to be the best classifier for this dataset based on area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and total accuracy. Logistic Regression ranks as the next best classifier followed by Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP). The top 10 genes selected by us for classification are all well documented for their variable expression in colon cancer. We conclude that SVM together with t-statistic based feature selection is an efficient and viable alternative to popular techniques. PMID:19238250

  11. Study shows colon and rectal tumors constitute a single type of cancer

    Cancer.gov

    The pattern of genomic alterations in colon and rectal tissues is the same regardless of anatomic location or origin within the colon or the rectum, leading researchers to conclude that these two cancer types can be grouped as one, according to The Cancer

  12. SOY ISOFLAVONES AND SAPONINS PROVIDE MODEST PROTECTION FROM COLON CANCER IN A MOUSE MODEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colon cancer risk is highly correlated with dietary factors. We have systematically investigated soy protein and bioactive compounds found in soy, isoflavones (IF) and saponins (SAP) using a mouse model of colon cancer. In previous studies, we found soy IF were protective of azoxymethane (AOM)-ind...

  13. Consumption of lycopene inhibits the growth and progression of colon cancer in a mouse xenograft model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previous study indicated that lycopene could significantly inhibit the proliferation of human colon cancer cells in vitro. However, the in vivo anticancer effects of lycopene against colon cancer have not been demonstrated yet. Therefore, this study investigated whether consumption of lycopene cou...

  14. Current status of active surveillance in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Mun Su

    2016-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is a management strategy involving close monitoring the course of disease with the expectation to intervene if the cancer progress, in a super-selected group of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Determining AS candidates should be based on careful individualized weighing of numerous factors: life expectancy, general health condition, disease characteristics, potential side effects of treatment, and patient preference. Several protocols have been developed to determine insignificant PCa for choosing ideal AS candidates. Results regarding disease reclassification during AS have been also reported. In an effort to enhance accuracy during selection of AS candidate, there were several reports on using magnetic resonance imaging for prediction of insignificant PCa. Currently, there is an urgent need for further clinical studies regarding the criteria for recommending AS, the criteria for reclassification on AS, and the schedule for AS. Considering the racial differences in behavior of PCa between Western and Asian populations, more stringent AS protocols for Asian patients should be established from additional, well-designed, large clinical studies. PMID:26966722

  15. Intestinal floras of populations that have a high risk of colon cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, W E; Moore, L H

    1995-01-01

    The fecal floras of polyp patients, Japanese-Hawaiians, North American Caucasians, rural native Japanese, and rural native Africans were compared. The polyp patients and Japanese-Hawaiians were considered to be groups at high risk of colon cancer, and the rural native Japanese and rural native Africans were considered to be groups at low risk. The North American Caucasians were found to have a flora composition intermediate between these two groups. Fifteen bacterial taxa from the human fecal flora were significantly associated with high risk of colon cancer, and five were significantly associated with low risk of colon cancer. Total concentrations of Bacteroides species and, surprisingly, Bifidobacterium species were generally positively associated with increased risk of colon cancer. Some Lactobacillus species and Eubacterium aerofaciens, which also produces major amounts of lactic acid, showed closest associations with low risk of colon cancer. PMID:7574628

  16. Methylselenol, a selenium metabolite, inhibits colon cancer cell growth and cancer xenografts in C57BL/6 mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data indicate that methylselenol is a critical selenium (Se) metabolite for anticancer activity in vivo but its role in colon cancer prevention remains to be characterized. This study tested the hypothesis that methylselenol inhibits the growth of colon cancer cells and tumors. We found that submicr...

  17. Classification of Colon Cancer Patients Based on the Methylation Patterns of Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Wonyoung; Lee, Jungwoo; Lee, Jin-Young; Lee, Sun-Min; Kim, Da-Won

    2016-01-01

    Diverse somatic mutations have been reported to serve as cancer drivers. Recently, it has also been reported that epigenetic regulation is closely related to cancer development. However, the effect of epigenetic changes on cancer is still elusive. In this study, we analyzed DNA methylation data on colon cancer taken from The Caner Genome Atlas. We found that several promoters were significantly hypermethylated in colon cancer patients. Through clustering analysis of differentially methylated DNA regions, we were able to define subgroups of patients and observed clinical features associated with each subgroup. In addition, we analyzed the functional ontology of aberrantly methylated genes and identified the G-protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway as one of the major pathways affected epigenetically. In conclusion, our analysis shows the possibility of characterizing the clinical features of colon cancer subgroups based on DNA methylation patterns and provides lists of important genes and pathways possibly involved in colon cancer development. PMID:27445647

  18. Induction of KIAA1199/CEMIP is associated with colon cancer phenotype and poor patient survival

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Stephen P.; Myeroff, Lois L.; Kariv, Revital; Platzer, Petra; Xin, Baozhong; Mikkola, Debra; Lawrence, Earl; Morris, Nathan; Nosrati, Arman; Willson, James K. V.; Willis, Joseph; Veigl, Martina; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Wang, Zhenghe; Markowitz, Sanford D.

    2015-01-01

    Genes induced in colon cancer provide novel candidate biomarkers of tumor phenotype and aggressiveness. We originally identified KIAA1199 (now officially called CEMIP) as a transcript highly induced in colon cancer: initially designating the transcript as Colon Cancer Secreted Protein 1. We molecularly characterized CEMIP expression both at the mRNA and protein level and found it is a secreted protein induced an average of 54-fold in colon cancer. Knockout of CEMIPreduced the ability of human colon cancer cells to form xenograft tumors in athymic mice. Tumors that did grow had increased deposition of hyaluronan, linking CEMIP participation in hyaluronan degradation to the modulation of tumor phenotype. We find CEMIP mRNA overexpression correlates with poorer patient survival. In stage III only (n = 31) or in combined stage II plus stage III colon cancer cases (n = 73), 5-year overall survival was significantly better (p = 0.004 and p = 0.0003, respectively) among patients with low CEMIP expressing tumors than those with high CEMIP expressing tumors. These results demonstrate that CEMIP directly facilitates colon tumor growth, and high CEMIP expression correlates with poor outcome in stage III and in stages II+III combined cohorts. We present CEMIP as a candidate prognostic marker for colon cancer and a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26437221

  19. Induction of KIAA1199/CEMIP is associated with colon cancer phenotype and poor patient survival.

    PubMed

    Fink, Stephen P; Myeroff, Lois L; Kariv, Revital; Platzer, Petra; Xin, Baozhong; Mikkola, Debra; Lawrence, Earl; Morris, Nathan; Nosrati, Arman; Willson, James K V; Willis, Joseph; Veigl, Martina; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Wang, Zhenghe; Markowitz, Sanford D

    2015-10-13

    Genes induced in colon cancer provide novel candidate biomarkers of tumor phenotype and aggressiveness. We originally identified KIAA1199 (now officially called CEMIP) as a transcript highly induced in colon cancer: initially designating the transcript as Colon Cancer Secreted Protein 1. We molecularly characterized CEMIP expression both at the mRNA and protein level and found it is a secreted protein induced an average of 54-fold in colon cancer. Knockout of CEMIPreduced the ability of human colon cancer cells to form xenograft tumors in athymic mice. Tumors that did grow had increased deposition of hyaluronan, linking CEMIP participation in hyaluronan degradation to the modulation of tumor phenotype. We find CEMIP mRNA overexpression correlates with poorer patient survival. In stage III only (n = 31) or in combined stage II plus stage III colon cancer cases (n = 73), 5-year overall survival was significantly better (p = 0.004 and p = 0.0003, respectively) among patients with low CEMIP expressing tumors than those with high CEMIP expressing tumors. These results demonstrate that CEMIP directly facilitates colon tumor growth, and high CEMIP expression correlates with poor outcome in stage III and in stages II+III combined cohorts. We present CEMIP as a candidate prognostic marker for colon cancer and a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26437221

  20. Preoperative serum markers for individual patient prognosis in stage I-III colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Giessen-Jung, Clemens; Nagel, Dorothea; Glas, Maria; Spelsberg, Fritz; Lau-Werner, Ulla; Modest, Dominik Paul; Schulz, Christoph; Heinemann, Volker; Di Gioia, Dorit; Stieber, Petra

    2015-09-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) remains the only recommended biomarker for follow-up care of colorectal cancer (CRC), but besides CEA, several other serological parameters have been proposed as prognostic markers for CRC. The present retrospective analysis investigates a comprehensive set of serum markers with regard to cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS). A total of 472 patients with colon cancer underwent surgery for curative intent between January 1988 and June 2007. Preoperative serum was analyzed for the following parameters: albumin, alkaline phosphatase (aP), beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (βhCG), bilirubin, cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), cancer antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), CA 72-4, CEA, C-reactive protein (CRP), cytokeratin-19 soluble fragment (CYFRA 21-1), ferritin, gamma-glutamyltransferase (γGT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), hemoglobin, haptoglobin, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum amyloid A (SAA), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. After a median follow-up period of 5.9 years, the overall 3- and 5-year CSS was 91.7 and 84.9 % and DFS rates were 82.7 % (3 years) and 77.6 % (5 years). Multivariate analyses confirmed preoperative CEA as an independent prognostic factor with regard to CSS and DFS. CA 19-9 and γGT also provided prognostic value for CSS and DFS, respectively. Younger age was negatively associated with DFS. According to UICC stage, CEA provided significant prognostic value with regard to CSS and DFS, while CA 19-9 was only prognostic for CSS. Combined analysis is able to identify patients with favorable prognosis. In addition to tumor baseline parameters, preoperative CEA could be confirmed as prognostic marker in colon cancer. CA 19-9 and γGT also provide additional prognostic value with regard to survival and recurrence in stage III and stage I disease, respectively. The combined use of CEA together with CA 19-9 and γGT improve

  1. In-silico analysis of kallikrein gene expression in pancreatic and colon cancers.

    PubMed

    Yousef, George M; Borgoño, Carla A; Popalis, Cynthia; Yacoub, George M; Polymeris, Mary-Ellen; Soosaipillai, Antoninus; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2004-01-01

    Human kallikreins are a cluster of 15 serine protease genes located in the chromosomal band 19q13.4, a non-randomly rearranged region in many solid tumors, including pancreatic cancer. We utilized the SAGE and EST databases of the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project to perform in-silico analysis of kallikrein gene expression in normal and cancerous pancreatic and colon tissues and cell lines using virtual Northern blotting (VNB), digital differential display (DDD) and X-profiler. At least two kallikreins, KLK6 and KLK10, are significantly up-regulated in pancreatic cancer. We probed 2 normal and 6 pancreatic cancer SAGE libraries with gene-specific tags for each of these kallikreins. KLK6 was found to be expressed in 5/6 cancer libraries and showed the most marked (5-fold) increase in average expression levels in cancer vs. normal. These data were verified by screening the EST databases, where all mRNA clones isolated were from cancerous libraries, with no clones detected in normal pancreatic tissues or cell lines. X-profiler comparison of two pools of normal and cancerous pancreatic libraries further verified the significant increase of KLK6 expression levels in pancreatic cancer. DDD data showed a 13-fold increase in KLK10 expression in pancreatic cancer. Three kallikrein genes, KLK6, 8 and 10 are overexpressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon, while one kallikrein, KLK1, is down-regulated. While no expression of KLK6 was detected in normal colon, KLK6-specific tags were detectable in 2 cancer libraries. Similar results were obtained by EST screening; no KLK6 clones were detected in any of the 28 normal libraries examined, while 10 KLK6 EST clones were found in colon adenocarcinoma. KLK10 was not detectable in normal colon. Gene-specific tags were, however, detectable with high density in colon cancer and 7 EST clones were found to be expressed in colon Adenocarcinoma. PMID:15015574

  2. Activation of TIM1 induces colon cancer cell apoptosis via modulating Fas ligand expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Zhang, Xueyan; Sun, Wenjing; Hu, Xiaocui; Li, Xiaolin; Fu, Songbin; Liu, Chen

    2016-04-29

    The pathogenesis of colon cancer is unclear. It is proposed that TIM1 has an association with human cancer. The present study aims to investigate the role of TIM1 activation in the inhibition of human colon cancer cells. In this study, human colon cancer cell line, HT29 and T84 cells were cultured. The expression of TIM1 was assessed by real time RT-PCR and Western blotting. The TIM1 on the cancer cells was activated in the culture by adding recombinant TIM4. The chromatin structure at the FasL promoter locus was assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. The apoptosis of the cancer cells was assessed by flow cytometry. The results showed that human colon cancer cell lines, HT29 cells and T84 cells, expressed TIM1. Activation of TIM1 by exposing the cells to TIM4 significantly increased the frequency of apoptotic colon cancer cells. The expression of FasL was increased in the cancer cells after treating by TIM4. Blocking Fas or FasL abolished the exposure to TIM4-induced T84 cell apoptosis. In conclusion, HT29 cells and T84 cells express TIM1; activation TIM1 can induce the cancer cell apoptosis. TIM1 may be a novel therapeutic target of colon cancer. PMID:26921445

  3. A decision analysis of surveillance for colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Delco, F; Sonnenberg, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Patients with long standing, extensive ulcerative colitis have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer.
AIMS—To assess the feasibility of surveillance colonoscopy in preventing death from colorectal cancer.
PATIENTS—A hypothetical cohort of patients with chronic ulcerative colitis.
METHODS—The benefits of life years saved were weighted against the costs of biannual colonoscopy and proctocolectomy, and the terminal care of patients dying from colorectal cancer. Two separate Markov processes were modelled to compare the cost-benefit relation in patients with or without surveillance. The cumulative probability of developing colorectal cancer served as a threshold to determine which of the two management strategies is associated with a larger net benefit.
RESULTS—If the cumulative probability of colorectal cancer exceeds a threshold value of 27%, surveillance becomes more beneficial than no surveillance. The threshold is only slightly smaller than the actual cumulative cancer rate of 30%. Variations of the assumptions built into the model can raise the threshold above or lower it far below the actual rate. If several of the assumptions are varied jointly, even small changes can lead to extreme threshold values.
CONCLUSIONS—It is not possible to prove that frequent colonoscopies scheduled at regular intervals are an effective means to manage the increased risk of colorectal cancer associated with ulcerative colitis.


Keywords: cancer screening; colorectal cancer; health economics; medical decision analysis; surveillance colonoscopy; ulcerative colitis PMID:10716679

  4. Up-regulation of Tim-3 is associated with poor prognosis of patients with colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Encheng; Huang, Qing; Wang, Ji; Fang, Chengfeng; Yang, Leilei; Zhu, Min; Chen, Jianhui; Chen, Lihua; Dong, Milian

    2015-01-01

    Tim-3 (T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3), belonging to the member of the novel Tim family, has been confirmed that it plays a critical negative role in regulating the immune responses against viral infection and carcinoma. Recently, it has also been reported that the over-expression of Tim-3 is associated with poor prognosis in solid tumors. However, the role of Tim-3 in colorectal cancer remains largely unknown. In the current study, we aim to investigate the expression of Tim-3 in colorectal carcinoma and discuss the relationship between Tim-3 expression and colon cancer prognosis, thus speculating the possible role of Tim-3 in colon cancer progression. Colon cancer tissues and paired normal tissue were obtained from 201 patients with colon cancer for preparation of tissue microarray. Tim-3 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The Tim-3 expression level was evaluated by q-RT-PCR, western blot and immunocytochemistry in four colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT116, LoVo, SW620). Tim-3 was expressed in 92.5% tumor tissue samples and 86.5% corresponding normal tissue samples. Expression of Tim-3 was significantly higher in tumor tissues than in normal tissues (P < 0.0001). Tim-3 expression in colon cancer tissues is in correlation with colon cancer lymphatic metastasis and TNM (P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that Tim-3 expression could be a potential independent prognostic factor for colon cancer patients (P < 0.0001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis result showed that patients with higher Tim-3 expression had a significantly shorter survival time than those with lower Tim-3 expression patients. Our results indicated that Tim-3 might participate in the tumorgenesis of colon cancer and Tim-3 expression might be a potential independent prognostic factor for patients with colorectal cancer. PMID:26339368

  5. The relationship between the clinical presentation and spread of colon cancer in 315 consecutive patients. A significant trend of earlier cancer detection from 1982 through 1988 at a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Cappell, M S; Goldberg, E S

    1992-04-01

    We systematically analyzed the relationship between 47 clinicoepidemiologic parameters and stage of colon cancer in 315 patients who underwent colon cancer surgery from 1982 through 1988 at the Robert Johnson University Hospital. A history of hemorrhoids was correlated with early cancer, possibly because of earlier self-referral (odds ratio = 18.2; chi 2 = 10.4; degrees of freedom = 1; p less than 0.001). However, anemia was correlated with advanced cancer (odds ratio = 0.21; chi 2 = 13.7; degrees of freedom = 1; p less than 0.0002). Anemia may result from chronic bleeding due to a longstanding cancer. Prior studies have suggested that intensive screening programs may produce earlier colon cancer detection; this study demonstrated for all patients at a medical center a significant trend from 1982 through 1988 of detecting colon cancer at an earlier pathologic stage and with a better differentiated histologic grade (for first half of study period 44.4% had Dukes' stage A or B cancer, second half of study period 58.6% had Dukes' stage A or B cancer; odds ratio = 0.56; chi 2 = 5.8; degree of freedom = 1; p less than 0.02). Possible explanations for this phenomenon are earlier self-referral because of increased patient awareness of cancer warning signs, and earlier physician detection because of greater use of colonoscopy and polypectomy and because of increased screening and surveillance. This earlier detection may herald a future significant decrease in colon cancer mortality at this hospital because prognosis is closely related to cancer stage. Further studies are required to determine if this is part of a national trend. PMID:1564298

  6. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer presenting as metastatic kidney cancer at 18 years of age: implications for surveillance.

    PubMed

    van Spaendonck-Zwarts, Karin Y; Badeloe, Sadhanna; Oosting, Sjoukje F; Hovenga, Sjoerd; Semmelink, Harry J F; van Moorselaar, R Jeroen A; van Waesberghe, Jan Hein; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Menko, Fred H

    2012-03-01

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skin piloleiomyomas, uterine leiomyomas and papillary type 2 renal cancer caused by germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Previously, we proposed renal imaging for FH mutation carriers starting at the age of 20 years. However, recently an 18-year-old woman from a Dutch family with HLRCC presented with metastatic renal cancer. We describe the patient and family data, evaluate current evidence on renal cancer risk and surveillance in HLRCC and consider the advantages and disadvantages of starting surveillance for renal cancer in childhood. We also discuss the targeted therapies administered to our patient. PMID:22086304

  7. Mast Cell Targeted Chimeric Toxin Can Be Developed as an Adjunctive Therapy in Colon Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shan; Li, Linmei; Shi, Renren; Liu, Xueting; Zhang, Junyan; Zou, Zehong; Hao, Zhuofang; Tao, Ailin

    2016-01-01

    The association of colitis with colorectal cancer has become increasingly clear with mast cells being identified as important inflammatory cells in the process. In view of the relationship between mast cells and cancer, we studied the effect and mechanisms of mast cells in the development of colon cancer. Functional and mechanistic insights were gained from ex vivo and in vivo studies of cell interactions between mast cells and CT26 cells. Further evidence was reversely obtained in studies of mast cell targeted Fcε-PE40 chimeric toxin. Experiments revealed mast cells could induce colon tumor cell proliferation and invasion. Cancer progression was found to be related to the density of mast cells in colonic submucosa. The activation of MAPK, Rho-GTPase, and STAT pathways in colon cancer cells was triggered by mast cells during cell-to-cell interaction. Lastly, using an Fcε-PE40 chimeric toxin we constructed, we confirmed the promoting effect of mast cells in development of colon cancer. Mast cells are a promoting factor of colon cancer and thus also a potential therapeutic target. The Fcε-PE40 chimeric toxin targeting mast cells could effectively prevent colon cancer in vitro and in vivo. Consequently, these data may demonstrate a novel immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment of tumors. PMID:26978404

  8. Activation of ERK signaling and induction of colon cancer cell death by piperlongumine.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, H; Kibble, K; Zeng, H; Moyer, M P; Reindl, K M

    2013-09-01

    Piperlongumine (PPLGM) is a bioactive compound isolated from long peppers that shows selective toxicity towards a variety of cancer cell types including colon cancer. The signaling pathways that lead to cancer cell death in response to PPLGM exposure have not been previously identified. Our objective was to identify the intracellular signaling mechanisms by which PPLGM leads to enhanced colon cancer cell death. We found that PPLGM inhibited the growth of colon cancer cells in time- and concentration-dependent manners, but was not toxic toward normal colon mucosal cells at concentrations below 10 μM. Acute (0-60 min) and prolonged (24h) exposure of HT-29 cells to PPLGM resulted in phosphorylation of ERK. To investigate whether ERK signaling was involved in PPLGM-mediated cell death, we treated HT-29 cells with the MEK inhibitor U0126, prior to treating with PPLGM. We found that U0126 attenuated PPLGM-induced activation of ERK and partially protected against PPLGM-induced cell death. These results suggest that PPLGM works, at least in part, through the MEK/ERK pathway to result in colon cancer cell death. A more thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which PPLGM induces colon cancer cell death will be useful in developing therapeutic strategies to treat colon cancer. PMID:23603476

  9. Activation of ERK signaling and induction of colon cancer cell death by piperlongumine

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, H; Kibble, K; Zeng, H; Moyer, MP; Reindl, KM

    2013-01-01

    Piperlongumine (PPLGM) is a bioactive compound isolated from long peppers that shows selective toxicity towards a variety of cancer cell types including colon cancer. The signaling pathways that lead to cancer cell death in response to PPLGM exposure have not been previously identified. Our objective was to identify the intracellular signaling mechanisms by which PPLGM leads to enhanced colon cancer cell death. We found that PPLGM inhibited the growth of colon cancer cells in time- and concentration-dependent manners, but was not toxic toward normal colon mucosal cells at concentrations below 10 μM. Acute (0-60 minutes) and prolonged (24 hours) exposure of HT-29 cells to PPLGM resulted in phosphorylation of ERK. To investigate whether ERK signaling was involved in PPLGM-mediated cell death, we treated HT-29 cells with the MEK inhibitor U0126, prior to treating with PPLGM. We found that U0126 attenuated PPLGM-induced activation of ERK and partially protected against PPLGM-induced cell death. These results suggest that PPLGM works, at least in part, through the MEK/ERK pathway to result in colon cancer cell death. A more thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which PPLGM induces colon cancer cell death will be useful in developing therapeutic strategies to treat colon cancer. PMID:23603476

  10. Imperatorin exhibits anticancer activities in human colon cancer cells via the caspase cascade.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi Mei; Lu, Amy Xiaoxu; Shen, James Zheng; Kwok, Amy Ho Yan; Ho, Wing Shing

    2016-04-01

    Despite advances in medical treatments for colon cancer, it remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality among men. Thus, more efficacious treatment strategies for colon cancer are needed. Imperatorin is one of the major ingredients present in the root of Angelica dahurica, and has been used in herbal formulations for the treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. However, the medical properties of imperatorin remain unclear. In the present study, the anti‑proliferative activities of imperatorin were investigated in the HT‑29 colon cancer cell line. The results showed that imperatorin significantly inhibited HT‑29 colon cancer cell growth with an IC50 value of 78 µM. Imperatorin induced the apoptosis of colon cancer cells through upregulation of p53 and the caspase cascade. Our findings revealed that imperatorin induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. The apoptotic index showed a steady increment when the imperatorin concentration was increased. The results suggest that imperatorin exerts considerable anti‑proliferative activities in HT‑29 colon cancer cells and highlight the potential of imperatorin as an anticancer agent for colon cancer. PMID:26794238

  11. Epithelial impedance analysis in experimentally induced colon cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, R J; Joseph, R; Kaplan, D; Juncosa, R D; Pempinello, C; Asbun, H; Sedwitz, M M

    1987-01-01

    Epithelial impedance analysis was used to measure the alterations in resistance of the large bowel in a murine model of large bowel cancer. The technique was able to resolve the epithelial resistance from the total resistance of the bowel wall. A progressive decrease in resistance of the bowel epithelium occurs during carcinogenesis induced with dimethyhydrazine. About a 21% decrease in epithelial resistance from 22.0 +/- 1.3 omega.cm-2 to 17.5 +/- 1.1 omega cm-2 (p less than 0.025) was observed after 20 wk of carcinogen administration. The sensitivity of the technique in detecting altered epithelial resistance in premalignant bowel mucosa was improved by examining the impedance profile in a sodium-free Ringer's solution where the epithelium of control colons had a resistance of 24.4 +/- 1.8 omega.cm-2 compared with 19.0 +/- 1.1 omega.cm-2 (p less than 0.02) in colons from animals treated for only 4 wk with the carcinogen. Epithelial impedance analysis would seem to be a sensitive technique capable of identifying changes in the electrical properties or the large bowel early in disease states. PMID:3427187

  12. Incidentally Solitary, Synchronous, Metastatic Left Adrenal Mass From Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alvandipour, Mina; Khalvati, Mehdi; Khodabakhsh, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 63-year-old man who underwent an open adrenalectomy for a synchronous, malignant, metastatic left adrenal tumor and a total colectomy for T3N0M1 (stage 4) primary, malignant colon cancer. Two polypoid lesions, one measuring 40 mm × 30 mm × 30 mm and the other measuring 20 mm × 10 mm × 10 mm, were found in the ascending colon and rectosigmoid (RS) junction, respectively, and a synchronous, malignant, left adrenal gland lesion measuring 70 mm × 50 mm × 30 mm was incidentally found on abdominal computed tomography scan. Histological examination revealed a metastatic, necrotic adenocarcinoma of the left adrenal mass, an adenocarcinoma of the cecal mass, and an adenomatous polyp (tubulovillous type) of the smallest polypoid lesion in RS junction that had invaded deeply into the submucosal layer. The patient recovered uneventfully, and his condition is now stable, with no evidence of local recurrence or metastatic disease, 2 years after the surgery. To the best of our knowledge, only 25 cases of an adrenalectomy for treating metastatic adrenal gland tumors have been reported to date; physicians should be aware of the possibility of this event. PMID:27218099

  13. Expression of Nucleophosmin/NPM1 correlates with migration and invasiveness of colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to examine the expression level of Nucleophosmin (NPM1) protein in colon cancer tissues and to investigate the potential role of NPM1 in the regulation of cell migration and invasiveness. Methods Immunohistochemical assay was performed to examine the expression pattern of NPM1 in 31 groups of colonic carcinoma samples, including colon tumors, adjacent normal tissues, and matched metastatic lymph nodes from the same patients. Small interfering RNA technique and exogenous expression of wild type NPM1 methods were used to further verify the function of NPM1. Results High-expression of NPM1 correlates with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0003) and poor survival rate of human colon cancer patients (P = 0.017). SiRNA-mediated reduction of NPM1 was also shown to inhibit the migration and invasiveness of metastatic colon cancer HCT116 cell line. In addition, the exogenous expression of NPM1 in HT29 cells, a NPM1 low expression and low invasive colon cancer cell line, enhanced cell migration and invasiveness along with increased cell proliferation. Conclusions The current study uncovered the critical role of NPM1 in the regulation of colon cancer cells migration and invasion, and NPM1 may serve as a potential marker for the prognosis of colon cancer patients. PMID:22631075

  14. Host Immune Defense Peptide LL-37 Activates Caspase-Independent Apoptosis and Suppresses Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Shun X.; Cheng, Alfred S.L.; To, Ka F.; Tong, Joanna H.M.; Li, May S.; Shen, Jin; Wong, Clover C.M.; Zhang, Lin; Chan, Ruby L.Y.; Wang, Xiao J.; Ng, Simon S.M.; Chiu, Lawrence C.M.; Marquez, Victor E.; Gallo, Richard L.; Chan, Francis K.L.; Yu, Jun; Sung, Joseph J.Y.; Wu, William K.K.; Cho, Chi H.

    2014-01-01

    Cathelicidins are a family of bacteriocidal polypeptides secreted by macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). LL-37, the only human cathelicidin, has been implicated in tumorigenesis, but there has been limited investigation of its expression and function in cancer. Here, we report that LL-37 activates a p53-mediated, caspase-independent apoptotic cascade that contributes to suppression of colon cancer. LL-37 was expressed strongly in normal colon mucosa but downregulated in colon cancer tissues, where in both settings its expression correlated with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive apoptotic cells. Exposure of colon cancer cells to LL-37 induced phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA fragmentation in a manner independent of caspase activation. Apoptogenic function was mediated by nuclear translocation of the proapoptotic factors, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G (EndoG), through p53-dependent upregulation of Bax and Bak and downregulation of Bcl-2 via a pertussis toxin–sensitive G-protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) pathway. Correspondingly, colonic mucosa of cathelicidin-deficient mice exhibited reduced expression of p53, Bax, and Bak and increased expression of Bcl-2 together with a lower basal level of apoptosis. Cathelicidin-deficient mice exhibited an increased susceptibility to azoxymethane-induced colon tumorigenesis, establishing pathophysiologic relevance in colon cancer. Collectively, our findings show that LL-37 activates a GPCR-p53-Bax/Bak/Bcl-2 signaling cascade that triggers AIF/EndoG–mediated apoptosis in colon cancer cells. PMID:23100468

  15. microRNAs in colon cancer: a roadmap for discovery.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Simona; Di Narzo, Antonio Fabio; Mestdagh, Pieter; Jacobs, Bart; Bosman, Fredrik T; Gustavsson, Bengt; Majoie, Bernard; Roth, Arnaud; Vandesompele, Jo; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Delorenzi, Mauro; Tejpar, Sabine

    2012-09-21

    Cancer omics data are exponentially created and associated with clinical variables, and important findings can be extracted based on bioinformatics approaches which can then be experimentally validated. Many of these findings are related to a specific class of non-coding RNA molecules called microRNAs (miRNAs) (post-transcriptional regulators of mRNA expression). The related research field is quite heterogeneous and bioinformaticians, clinicians, statisticians and biologists, as well as data miners and engineers collaborate to cure stored data and on new impulses coming from the output of the latest Next Generation Sequencing technologies. Here we review the main research findings on miRNA of the first 10 years in colon cancer research with an emphasis on possible uses in clinical practice. This review intends to provide a road map in the jungle of publications of miRNA in colorectal cancer, focusing on data availability and new ways to generate biologically relevant information out of these huge amounts of data. PMID:23166923

  16. Targeting Iron in Colon Cancer via Glycoconjugation of Thiosemicarbazone Prochelators.

    PubMed

    Akam, Eman A; Tomat, Elisa

    2016-08-17

    The implication of iron in the pathophysiology of colorectal cancer is documented at both the biochemical and epidemiological levels. Iron chelators are therefore useful molecular tools for the study and potential treatment of this type of cancer characterized by high incidence and mortality rates. We report a novel prochelation strategy that utilizes a disulfide redox switch to connect a thiosemicarbazone iron-binding unit with carbohydrate moieties targeting the increased expression of glucose transporters in colorectal cancer cells. We synthesized three glycoconjugates (GA2TC4, G6TC4, and M6TC4) with different connectivity and/or carbohydrate moieties, as well as an aglycone analog (ATC4). The sugar conjugates present increased solubility in neutral aqueous solutions, and the ester-linked conjugates M6TC4 and G6TC4 compete as effectively as d-glucose for transporter-mediated cellular uptake. The glycoconjugates show improved selectivity compared to the aglycone analog and are 6-11 times more toxic in Caco-2 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells than in normal CCD18-co colon fibroblasts. PMID:27471913

  17. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj; Chahdi, Ahmed; Belo, Angelica; Khurana, Sandeep; Xie, Guofeng

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulated robust human colon cancer cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-matrix metalloproteinase1 antibody pre-treatment blocks cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bile acids stimulate MMP1 expression, cell migration and MMP1-dependent invasion. -- Abstract: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers - this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked by pre

  18. Streptococcus bovis endocarditis and colon cancer: myth or reality? A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Galdy, Salvatore; Nastasi, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    A relationship between infective endocarditis and colon cancer was established in 1950, and Streptococcus bovis was successfully isolated in 1970. However, this association and its pathogenesis still remain unclear. In this paper, we describe the clinical case of a patient with a history of colon cancer and infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis. The role of S bovis as an aetiological agent in the development of colon cancer is intriguing but uncertain. S bovis infection should be considered a silent sign of gastrointestinal malignancy or hepatic disease. We believe that in order to demonstrate the presence of colon cancer, all patients with S bovis infection require an endoscopic investigation of the colon. PMID:23220436

  19. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC): renal cancer risk, surveillance and treatment.

    PubMed

    Menko, Fred H; Maher, Eamonn R; Schmidt, Laura S; Middelton, Lindsay A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Tomlinson, Ian; Richard, Stéphane; Linehan, W Marston

    2014-12-01

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant condition in which susceptible individuals are at risk for the development of cutaneous leiomyomas, early onset multiple uterine leiomyomas and an aggressive form of type 2 papillary renal cell cancer. HLRCC is caused by germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene which inactivate the enzyme and alters the function of the tricarboxylic acid (Krebs) cycle. Issues surrounding surveillance and treatment for HLRCC-associated renal cell cancer were considered as part of a recent international symposium on HLRCC. The management protocol proposed in this article is based on a literature review and a consensus meeting. The lifetime renal cancer risk for FH mutation carriers is estimated to be 15 %. In view of the potential for early onset of RCC in HLRCC, periodic renal imaging and, when available, predictive testing for a FH mutation is recommended from 8 to 10 years of age. However, the small risk of renal cell cancer in the 10-20 years age range and the potential drawbacks of screening should be carefully discussed on an individual basis. Surveillance preferably consists of annual abdominal MRI. Treatment of renal tumours should be prompt and generally consist of wide-margin surgical excision and consideration of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. The choice for systemic treatment in metastatic disease should, if possible, be part of a clinical trial. Screening procedures in HLRCC families should preferably be evaluated in large cohorts of families. PMID:25012257

  20. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC). Renal cancer risk, surveillance and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Menko, Fred H.; Maher, Eamonn; Schmidt, Laura S.; Middelton, Lindsay A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Tomlinson, Ian; Richard, Stéphane; Linehan, W. Marston

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant condition in which susceptible individuals are at risk for the development of cutaneous leiomyomas, early onset multiple uterine leiomyomas and an aggressive form of type 2 papillary renal cell cancer. HLRCC is caused by germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene, which inactivates the enzyme and alters the function of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA/ Krebs) cycle. Issues surrounding surveillance and treatment for HLRCC-associated renal cell cancer were considered as part of a recent international symposium on HLRCC. The management protocol proposed in this article is based on a literature review and a consensus meeting. The estimated lifetime renal cancer risk for FH mutation carriers is estimated to be 15%. In view of the potential for early onset of RCC in HLRCC, periodic renal imaging and, when available, predictive testing for a FH mutation is recommended from 8 to 10 years of age. However, the small risk of renal cell cancer in the 10-20 years age range and the potential drawbacks of screening should be carefully discussed on an individual basis. Surveillance preferably consists of annual abdominal MRI. Treatment of renal tumours should be prompt and generally consist of wide-margin surgical excision and consideration of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. The choice for systemic treatment in metastatic disease should, if possible, be part of a clinical trial. Screening procedures in HLRCC families should preferably be evaluated in large cohorts of families. PMID:25012257

  1. Participants' perceptions of a phase I colon cancer chemoprevention trial.

    PubMed

    Hudmon, K S; Stoltzfus, C; Chamberlain, R M; Lorimor, R J; Steinbach, G; Winn, R J

    1996-12-01

    To assess participants' perceptions of a phase I colon cancer chemoprevention trial using a calcium intervention, questionnaires were mailed to trial participants at the conclusion of the study. Responses to questionnaire items reported here include (1) perceived benefits and barriers of participation, (2) interest in participating in future trials, (3) willingness to pay trial expenses out of pocket, and (4) posttrial continuation of the calcium regimen. The study found that the most highly rated trial benefit was the perception of potential colon cancer prevention; the trial barrier reported to be the most troublesome was inappropriate or mistaken billing for study visits. Three fourths of the subjects expressed an interest in future trials of the same duration. For trials of longer duration, this percentage decreased to 66%. Approximately half did not object to participation in future trials involving placebos, and just over one third indicated that they would either definitely (8%) or probably (27%) have joined the calcium trial even if they had to pay some study expenses out of pocket. Over 90% indicated they would continue taking the calcium pills if calcium is shown to be effective. The level of perceived benefits was positively associated with reported interest in participating in future trials of the same and longer durations, and the level of reported difficulty with trial pills and procedures was inversely related to interest in future placebo-controlled trials. The results of this study, in conjunction with results of prospective studies of trial participation, may be applied in future chemoprevention trials to facilitate recruitment, reduce attrition, and promote positive trial experiences for participants by emphasizing frequently reported benefits and minimizing frequently reported barriers. PMID:8974209

  2. Association of Family History with Cancer Recurrence and Survival Among Patients with Stage III Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jennifer A.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Hollis, Donna; Saltz, Leonard B.; Mayer, Robert J.; Thomas, James; Schaefer, Paul; Whittom, Renaud; Hantel, Alexander; Goldberg, Richard M.; Warren, Robert S.; Bertagnolli, Monica; Fuchs, Charles S.

    2011-01-01

    Context A family history of colorectal cancer in a first-degree relative increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer. However, the influence of family history on cancer recurrence and survival among patients with established disease remains uncertain. Objective To examine the association of family history of colorectal cancer with cancer recurrence and survival of patients with colon cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective observational study of 1,087 patients with stage III colon cancer enrolled in a randomized adjuvant chemotherapy trial (CALGB 89803) between April 1999 and May 2001. Patients provided data on family history at baseline and were followed up until March 2007 for disease recurrence and death (median follow-up 5.6 years). In a subset of patients, we assessed microsatellite instability (MSI) and expression of the mismatch repair (MMR) proteins, MLH1 and MSH2, in tumor specimens. Main Outcome Measure Disease-free survival, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival according to the presence or absence of a family history of colorectal cancer. Results Among 1,087 eligible patients, 195 (17.9%) reported a family history of colorectal cancer in a first-degree relative. Cancer recurrence or death occurred in 57/195 patients (29%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 23%-36%) with a family history of colorectal cancer and 343/892 patients (38%; 95% CI, 35%-42%) without a family history. Compared to patients without a family history, the adjusted hazard ratios (HR) among those with ≥1 affected first-degree relatives were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.54-0.96) for disease-free survival (DFS), 0.74 (95% CI, 0.55-0.99) for recurrence-free survival (RFS), and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.54-1.05) for overall survival (OS). This reduction in risk of cancer recurrence or death associated with a family history became stronger with an increasing number of affected first-degree relatives. Compared to participants without a family history of colorectal cancer, those with 1

  3. An audit of CT chest surveillance following oral cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Nugent, G; Hughes, T; Hanlon, R; Jones, H Lewis; Rogers, S N

    2016-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the chest is an integral part of the staging of patients with oral cancer. It identifies metastases, synchronous pulmonary primaries, and detects small nodules of indeterminate character that require a follow-up scan. We aimed to find out how many patients with small nodules had had subsequent scans, and the outcome of those who did. Between 2010 and 2013, 413 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were treated with curative intent or were actively monitored at the Merseyside and Cheshire Regional Surgical Head and Neck Unit. A total of 324 (78%) had CT at diagnosis. The scans of 246 were clear, metastases were detected in 4, and 51 showed abnormalities. Forty-nine of the patients with abnormalities were recommended for further interval scans but only 20 (41%) actually had them. Further pathological findings were found in 11 (increase in the size of the nodule n=2; metastatic disease n=5; and primary pulmonary tumour n=4). A substantial number of patients did not have the recommended follow-up scans and potentially serious disease was found in some who did. As a result of this audit we have changed the process regarding the booking of CT surveillance scans, and we now check periodically that they have been done. The audit will be repeated to include other sites in the head and neck. PMID:27156437

  4. Effect of miR27a on proliferation and invasion in colonic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Li, Bao-Dong; Liu, Yong-Gang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the expression of miR196a, miR146a, miR27a and miR200a in patients with colon cancer, and investigate the effect of miR27a expression on proliferation and invasion in colonic cancer cells. RT-PCR was employed to detect the expression levels in colon cancers. Then, colon cancer cells were cultured and transfected with 100 nM of miR27a mimics (80 nmol/L) or 80 nM miR27a inhibitors (80 nmol/L) in 24-well plates. Proliferation and invasion of colonic cancer cells were then determined by CCK-8 and Transwell assays, respectively. Our data showed miR27a to be high-expressed in patients with colon cancer. In addition, proliferation and invasion in the miR27a mimic group were significantly higher than in the control group and negative group (P<0.05), while, proliferation and invasion in the miR27a inhibitor group were obviously lowered (P<0.05). In conclusion, high expression of miR27a may play an important role in enhancing proliferation and invasion of colon cancer cells. PMID:24083724

  5. NTRK1 fusions for the therapeutic intervention of Korean patients with colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eunji; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Kwon, Chae Hwa; Jo, Hong-Jae; Kim, Hyeong-Rok; Kim, Hyun Sung; Oh, Nahmgun; Lee, Ji Shin; Park, Ok Ku; Park, Eok; Park, Jonghoon; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Il; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Park, Hee Dong; Park, Joonghoon

    2016-01-01

    The identification and clinical validation of cancer driver genes are essential to accelerate the translational transition of cancer genomics, as well as to find clinically confident targets for the therapeutic intervention of cancers. Here we identified recurrent LMNA-NTRK1 and TPM3-NTRK1 fusions in Korean patients with colon cancer (3 out of 147, 2%) through next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). NTRK1 fusions were mutually exclusive oncogenic drivers of colon cancer that were accompanied with in vitro potential of colony formation and in vivo tumorigenicity comparable to KM12, a human colon cancer cell line harboring TPM3-NTRK1 fusion. NTRK1-encoded TrkA protein was prevalent in 11 out of 216 Korean (5.1%) and 28 out of 472 Chinese patients (5.9%) from independent cohorts, respectively. The expression level of TrkA was significantly correlated with NTRK1 fusion (p = 0.0192), which was verified by a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Korean patients with TrkA-positive colon cancer had a marginal but significant shorter overall survival time than TrkA-negative colon cancer [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.5346, 95% confidential interval (CI) = 0.2548-0.9722, p = 0.0411]. In addition, KM12 cell line was sensitive to selective TrkA inhibitors. These results demonstrate that NTRK1 fusion is granted as a clinically relevant target for therapeutic intervention of colon cancer. PMID:26716414

  6. Follow-up and surveillance of the lung cancer patient following curative-intent therapy.

    PubMed

    Colice, Gene L; Rubins, Jeffrey; Unger, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The following two distinctly different issues should be taken into account when planning patient care following curative-intent therapy for lung cancer: adequate follow-up to manage complications related to the curative-intent therapy; and surveillance to detect recurrences of the primary lung cancer and/or development of a new primary lung cancer early enough to allow potentially curative retreatment. Follow-up for complications should be performed by the specialist responsible for the curative-intent therapy and should last 3 to 6 months. Recurrences of the original lung cancer will be more likely during the first 2 years after curative-intent therapy, but there will be an increased lifelong risk of approximately 1 to 2% per year of developing a metachronous, or new primary, lung cancer. A standard surveillance program for these patients is recommended based on periodic visits, with chest-imaging studies and counseling patients on symptom recognition. Whether subgroups of patients with a higher risk of developing a metachronous lung cancer (eg, those patients whose primary lung cancer was radiographically occult or central and those patients surviving for > 2 years after treatment for small cell lung cancer) should have a more intensive surveillance program is presently unclear. The surveillance program should be coordinated by a multidisciplinary tumor board and overseen by the physician who diagnosed and initiated therapy for the original lung cancer. Smoking cessation is recommended for all patients following curative-intent therapy for lung cancer. PMID:12527585

  7. MicroRNA Profiles Discriminate among Colon Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Drusco, Alessandra; Nuovo, Gerard J.; Zanesi, Nicola; Di Leva, Gianpiero; Pichiorri, Flavia; Volinia, Stefano; Fernandez, Cecilia; Antenucci, Anna; Costinean, Stefan; Bottoni, Arianna; Rosito, Immacolata A.; Liu, Chang-Gong; Burch, Aaron; Acunzo, Mario; Pekarsky, Yuri; Alder, Hansjuerg; Ciardi, Antonio; Croce, Carlo M.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are being exploited for diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of cancer and other diseases. Their high tissue specificity and critical role in oncogenesis provide new biomarkers for the diagnosis and classification of cancer as well as predicting patients' outcomes. MicroRNAs signatures have been identified for many human tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC). In most cases, metastatic disease is difficult to predict and to prevent with adequate therapies. The aim of our study was to identify a microRNA signature for metastatic CRC that could predict and differentiate metastatic target organ localization. Normal and cancer tissues of three different groups of CRC patients were analyzed. RNA microarray and TaqMan Array analysis were performed on 66 Italian patients with or without lymph nodes and/or liver recurrences. Data obtained with the two assays were analyzed separately and then intersected to identify a primary CRC metastatic signature. Five differentially expressed microRNAs (hsa-miR-21, -103, -93, -31 and -566) were validated by qRT-PCR on a second group of 16 American metastatic patients. In situ hybridization was performed on the 16 American patients as well as on three distinct commercial tissues microarray (TMA) containing normal adjacent colon, the primary adenocarcinoma, normal and metastatic lymph nodes and liver. Hsa-miRNA-21, -93, and -103 upregulation together with hsa-miR-566 downregulation defined the CRC metastatic signature, while in situ hybridization data identified a lymphonodal invasion profile. We provided the first microRNAs signature that could discriminate between colorectal recurrences to lymph nodes and liver and between colorectal liver metastasis and primary hepatic tumor. PMID:24921248

  8. Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer. PMID:24782614

  9. Active Surveillance for Favorable-Risk Prostate Cancer: A Short Review

    PubMed Central

    Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    Active surveillance is becoming a more widely accepted management strategy in men with low-risk localized prostate cancer. This is in recognition of the knowledge that most men with such cancer are likely to die from other causes. The obvious benefits of active surveillance are reduced morbidity by delaying or avoiding radical gland therapy. These advantages should be balanced against appropriate selection criteria and triggers for moving to radical therapy while on active surveillance. The optimal method by which to identify the small number of men who will progress by use of clinical, biopsy, and imaging data is yet to be defined. Nevertheless, active surveillance is an appealing management option in selected men with prostate cancer and represents a solution to the significant problem of the overdiagnosis of clinically insignificant disease that accompanies prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. PMID:21031084

  10. Designing Normative Messages About Active Surveillance for Men With Localized Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Volk, Robert J; Kinsman, Gianna T; Le, Yen-Chi L; Swank, Paul; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; McFall, Stephanie L; Byrd, Theresa L; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Cantor, Scott B

    2015-01-01

    Active surveillance is increasingly recognized as a reasonable option for men with low-risk, localized prostate cancer, yet few men who might benefit from conservative management receive it. The authors examined the acceptability of normative messages about active surveillance as a management option for patients with low-risk prostate cancer. Men with a diagnosis of localized prostate cancer who were recruited through prostate cancer support organizations completed a web-based survey (N = 331). They rated messages about active surveillance for believability, accuracy, and importance for men to hear when making treatment decisions. The message "You don't have to panic … you have time to think about your options" was perceived as believable, accurate, and important by more than 80% of the survivors. In contrast, messages about trust in the active surveillance protocol and "knowing in plenty of time" if treatment is needed were rated as accurate by only about 36% of respondents. For active surveillance to be viewed as a reasonable alternative, men will need reassurance that following an active surveillance protocol is likely to allow time for curative treatment if the cancer progresses. PMID:26066011