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Sample records for colon volvulus experience

  1. Management of the colonic volvulus in 2016.

    PubMed

    Perrot, L; Fohlen, A; Alves, A; Lubrano, J

    2016-06-01

    Colonic volvulus is the third leading cause of colonic obstruction worldwide, occurring at two principal locations: the sigmoid colon and cecum. In Western countries, sigmoid volvulus preferentially affects elderly men whereas cecal volvulus affects younger women. Some risk factors, such as chronic constipation, high-fiber diet, frequent use of laxatives, personal past history of laparotomy and anatomic predispositions, are common to both locations. Clinical symptomatology is non-specific, including a combination of abdominal pain, gaseous distention, and bowel obstruction. Abdominopelvic computerized tomography is currently the gold standard examination, allowing positive diagnosis as well as detection of complications. Specific management depends on the location, patient comorbidities and colonic wall viability, but treatment is an emergency in every case. If clinical or radiological signs of gravity are present, emergency surgery is mandatory, but is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. For sigmoid volvulus without criteria of gravity, the ideal strategy is an endoscopic detorsion procedure followed, within 2 to 5 days, by surgery that includes a sigmoid colectomy with primary anastomosis. Exclusively endoscopic therapy must be reserved for patients who are at excessive risk for surgical intervention. In cecal volvulus, endoscopy has no role and surgery is the rule. PMID:27132752

  2. Sigmoid volvulus after laparoscopic surgery for sigmoid colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Sadatomo, Ai; Miyakura, Yasuyuki; Zuiki, Toru; Koinuma, Koji; Horie, Hisanaga; Lefor, Alan T; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

    2013-08-01

    We report the first case of sigmoid volvulus after laparoscopic surgery for sigmoid colon cancer. The patient is a 75-year-old man who presented with the sudden onset of severe abdominal pain. He had undergone laparoscopic sigmoidectomy for cancer 2 years before presentation. CT scan showed a distended sigmoid colon with a mesenteric twist, or "whirl sign." Colonoscopy showed a mucosal spiral and luminal stenosis with dilated sigmoid colon distally and ischemic mucosa. The diagnosis of ischemic colonic necrosis due to sigmoid volvulus was established. Resection of the necrotic sigmoid colon was performed and a descending colon stoma was created. A long remnant sigmoid colon and chronic constipation may contribute to the development of sigmoid volvulus after laparoscopic sigmoidectomy. Prompt diagnosis is essential for adequate treatment, and colonoscopy aids in the diagnosis of ischemic changes in patients without definitive findings of a gangrenous colon. PMID:23879414

  3. Colonoscopy in the emergency treatment of colonic volvulus in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Arigbabu, A O; Badejo, O A; Akinola, D O

    1985-11-01

    The commonest cause of large-bowel obstruction in Nigeria is sigmoid volvulus. Patients usually present late, dehydrated, and in very poor condition. The mortality of emergency colonic surgery is undoubtedly high, more so in developing countries poorly equipped to cope with such a condition. To reduce the mortality rate and improve management of the patients, a four-year prospective study of detorsion followed by elective surgery after adequate resuscitation and bowel preparation was carried out between January 1979 and December 1982. Volvulus is classified into three groups: torsion, obstruction, and strangulation. Criteria for short colonoscopic detorsion of torsion and obstruction types are discussed, and the contraindication in the case of strangulation type mentioned. This article describes the management of 92 cases of sigmoid volvulus between 1979 and 1982. PMID:4053889

  4. Volvulus of Sigmoid Colon During Full Term Pregnancy with Rectovaginal Fistula: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Shefali; Prakash, Ravi; Sidhartha, Kanishka; Shashikant

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction due to sigmoid colon volvulus during pregnancy is a rare complication but associated with significant fetomaternal mortality. We describe a case of sigmoid volvulus in a patient with 37 wk pregnancy causing huge dilation of left colon. Patient developed rectovaginal fistula following nonmedical method to relieve distention by inserting stick as told by patient. PMID:25478399

  5. Volvulus of the ascending colon: an unusual complication of non-rotation of the midgut.

    PubMed

    Berger, R B; Hillemeier, A C; Stahl, R S; Markowitz, R I

    1982-01-01

    A case of non-rotation of the bowel is presented wherein volvulus of the colon occurred causing acute obstruction. Spontaneous reduction following a barium enema as well as the patient's history leads us to suspect that volvulus had occurred in the past and was responsible for the intermittent nature of the patient's symptoms. This type of volvulus is distinctly different from midgut volvulus and is a rare complication of the anomaly of intestinal rotation and fixation known as non-rotation of the bowel. Efforts should be made to study patients with malrotation anomalies at a time when they are acutely symptomatic so that intermittent volvulus such as shown here is not overlooked. PMID:7162881

  6. Volvulus of the ascending colon in a non-rotated midgut: Plain film and MDCT findings

    PubMed Central

    Camera, Luigi; Calabrese, Milena; Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Masone, Stefania; Vecchio, Walter Del; Persico, Giovanni; Salvatore, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Colonic volvulus is a relatively uncommon cause of large bowel obstruction usually involving mobile, intra-peritoneal, colonic segments. Congenital or acquired anatomic variation may be associated with an increased risk of colonic volvulus which can occasionally involve retro-peritoneal segments. We report a case of 54-year-old female who presented to our Institution to perform a plain abdominal film series for acute onset of cramping abdominal pain. Both the upright and supine films showed signs of acute colonic obstruction which was thought to be due to an internal hernia of the transverse colon into the lesser sac. The patient was therefore submitted to a multi-detector contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). CT findings were initially thought to be consistent with the presumed diagnosis of internal hernia but further evaluation and coronal reformatting clearly depicted the presence of a colonic volvulus possibly resulting from a retro-gastric colon. At surgery, a volvulus of the ascending colon was found and a right hemi-colectomy had to be performed. However, a non rotated midgut with a right-sided duodeno-jejunal flexure and a left sided colon was also found at laparotomy and overlooked in the pre-operative CT. Retrospective evaluation of CT images was therefore performed and a number of CT signs of intestinal malrotation could be identified. PMID:23150768

  7. [Volvulus of the pelvic colon. Apropos of 59 cases in the western Africa savannah area].

    PubMed

    Ribault, L; Gournier, J P; Barthe, B L

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe their experience after treatment of 59 cases of volvulus of the pelvic colon. This disorder is frequent in West Africa and affects the protein deficient malnourished population. A definite predominance of volvulus occurred during the dry season between December and April, perhaps related to a diet richer in cellulose or deficient in water. There was a delay in presentation at the Hospital Center; necrosis of the twisted loop, the age of the patient and multiple associated conditions all contributed to the severity of this condition. Treatment had three aims: removal of the obstruction, reestablishment of continuity and avoidance of recurrence. Indications were dictated by the patient's general condition and the vascular status of the loop of bowel. It is reasonable to attempt reduction via intubation if the loop of bowel appears viable. Success enables a colectomy to be performed after a preparation, while failure necessitates surgical correction of ideally colectomy in a one stage procedure. On the other hand, a gangrenous loop necessitates colectomy without untwisting, with closure of the distal end using the Hartmann technique and with reestablishment of continuity 3 weeks later. PMID:2805924

  8. Cecal volvulus in a dairy cow: partial resection of the proximal portion of the ascending colon.

    PubMed

    Pankowski, R L; Fubini, S L; Stehman, S

    1987-08-15

    Cecal volvulus in a dairy cow with vascular compromise of the proximal portion of the ascending colon was corrected surgically with preservation of the ileocecocolic junction. Partial cecectomy was combined with resection of the proximal portion of the ascending colon and anastomosis of the remaining cecum to the distal portion of the ascending colon. The procedure was done with the use of mechanical suturing devices while the cow was standing. Previously, general anesthesia and relocation of the ileocecocolic junction had been suggested. PMID:3654317

  9. Role of the Enteric Nervous System in the Elongated Sigmoid Colon of Patients With Sigmoid Volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Ryouichi; Sugitou, Kiminobu; Sakurai, Kenichi; Fujisaki, Shigeru; Ikeda, Taro; Koshinaga, Tsugumichi

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the physiologic function of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in the elongated sigmoid colon (ESC) of patients with sigmoid volvulus (SV), we examined the enteric nerve responses in lesional and normal longitudinal muscle strips (LMS) derived from patients with ESC and patients who underwent colon resection for colonic cancers. Thirty preparations of LMS were taken from the lesional sigmoid colons of 10 ESC patients with SV (8 men and 2 women, aged 53 to 80 years, mean 66.2 years). Forty preparations of LMS were taken from the normal sigmoid colons (NSC) of 20 patients with colonic cancer (12 men and 8 women, aged 55 to 76 years, mean 62.3 years). A mechanographic technique was used to evaluate in vitro muscle responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS) before and after treatment with various autonomic nerve blockers. Response to EFS before blockade of the adrenergic and cholinergic nerves was as follows: NSC and ESC significantly demonstrated relaxation reaction rather than contraction reaction (P = 0.0253, P < 0.0001, respectively). ESC showed relaxation reaction more than NSC (P = 0.1138). Response to EFS after blockade of the adrenergic and cholinergic nerves was as follows: NSC and ESC significantly demonstrated relaxation reaction via nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC) inhibitory nerves rather than contraction reaction via NANC excitatory nerves (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, respectively). ESC with SV significantly showed relaxation reaction more than NSC (P = 0.0092). An increased response of relaxation mediated NANC inhibitory nerves may play a role in impaired motility in the ESC of patients with SV. PMID:25437573

  10. [Cecal volvulus].

    PubMed

    Abita, T; Lachachi, F; Durand-Fontanier, S; Maisonnette, F; Roudaut, P Y; Valleix, D; Descottes, B

    2005-01-01

    The cecum is the second most common site of colonic volvulus after the sigmoid. The mechanism is torsion or hyperflexion of the enlarged, poorly-fixed, and hypermobile cecum. It presents clinically as an acute bowel obstruction with strangulation. Diagnosis can be made by plain abdominal X-ray in more than half the cases on the basis of cecal distention (with a classical "teardrop" or "comma" appearance), proximal small bowel distention with air-fluid levels, and a gasless distal colon. Barium enema shows lack of filling of the cecum, often with a "beaked" termination of the column of contrast. CT images are pathognomonic when they reveal a cecal "vortex". After surgical reduction of the torsion, ileo-cecal resection is usually the best therapeutic alternative. Cecopexy may be aDDrouriate in older and debilitated Datients if there is no concomitant cecal necrosis. PMID:16335894

  11. Undiagnosed hypothyroidism presenting with sigmoid volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Meytes, Vadim; Schulberg, Steven P.; Morin, Nicholas; Glinik, Galina

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of hypothyroidism presenting with sigmoid volvulus, a phenomenon known as myxedema pseudovolvulus, is exceedingly rare. A male in his late thirties presented to our institution with a chief complaint of abdominal pain. The patient underwent CT scan, which was consistent with massive colonic dilatation with sigmoid volvulus. He was taken to the operating room for exploration and was found to have sigmoid volvulus and underwent a segmental resection. Postoperatively, the patient was newly diagnosed with severe hypothyroidism. PMID:27106615

  12. Undiagnosed hypothyroidism presenting with sigmoid volvulus.

    PubMed

    Meytes, Vadim; Schulberg, Steven P; Morin, Nicholas; Glinik, Galina

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of hypothyroidism presenting with sigmoid volvulus, a phenomenon known as myxedema pseudovolvulus, is exceedingly rare. A male in his late thirties presented to our institution with a chief complaint of abdominal pain. The patient underwent CT scan, which was consistent with massive colonic dilatation with sigmoid volvulus. He was taken to the operating room for exploration and was found to have sigmoid volvulus and underwent a segmental resection. Postoperatively, the patient was newly diagnosed with severe hypothyroidism. PMID:27106615

  13. An Unusual Case of Small Bowel Volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Manjunath, Srinidhi; Balasubramanya, Kanakapura Srinivasamurthy; Nanjaiah, Basavaraju

    2015-01-01

    Small bowel volvulus is a rare and life threatening surgical emergency. Nearly 75% of volvulus occurs in colon and 25% occurs in small bowel. Small bowel volvulus is abnormal twisting of bowel loops around the axis of its own mesentry leading to twisting and occlusion of mesenteric vessels causing intestinal obstruction, venous engorgement, gangrene and perforation. Small bowel volvulus is more common in neonates and young adults and very rare in adults. We are reporting a first case of small bowel volvulus and gangrene caused by herniation of ovarian cyst through mesenteric defect and twisting of small bowel around the axis of ovarian cyst leading to closed loop obstruction, small bowel volvulus and gangrene. Outcome of the disease is mainly based on the early diagnosis and intervention. Mortality is about 5.8 - 8% in nongangrenous SBV which increases drastically to 20 – 100% in gangrenous bowel. PMID:26676224

  14. The surgery of malrotation and midgut volvulus: a nine year experience in neonates.

    PubMed Central

    Welch, G. H.; Azmy, A. F.; Ziervogel, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty four neonates presented with acute duodenal obstruction due to malrotation during a 9 year period between 1973 and the end of 1981. Of these, 20 patients (58.8%) presented in the first week of life, and 24 (70.5%) had an associated midgut volvulus. This frequent association is stressed as bowel necrosis occurs very rapidly. Massive gangrene of small bowel was present in 5 patients, extensive resection was necessary in 3 patients, of whom 2 died postoperatively (5.8%). Five patients required reoperation and 10 had additional G.I. malformations (29.4%). Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6870133

  15. Umbilical incision laparoscopic surgery with one assist port for an elderly patient with recurrent sigmoid volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Tasuku; Osawa, Naoshi; Yoh, Taiho; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2012-01-01

    Single-port access laparoscopic surgery has recently emerged as a method to improve morbidity and cosmetic benefit of conventional laparoscopic surgery. Herein, we report the experience of transumbilical incision laparoscopic sigmoidectomy with one assist port in a 71-year-old man who had developed recurrent sigmoid volvulus in these several years since his first visit to the hospital. The patient presented abdominal distension and severe constipation. A plain x-ray film and CT of the abdomen showed grossly distended sigmoid colon loops and stenosis of recto-sigmoid colon. Sigmoid volvulus associated with megacolon was diagnosed and emergence endoscopic decompression was performed. After his condition improved, transumbilical incision laparoscopic sigmoidectomy was carried out as the minimally invasive approach, due to the several risk of patient such as aging and pulmonary disorder. Postoperative course was uneventful and on postoperative visit to the hospital he reported resolution of abdominal distension. PMID:23235104

  16. Umbilical incision laparoscopic surgery with one assist port for an elderly patient with recurrent sigmoid volvulus.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Tasuku; Osawa, Naoshi; Yoh, Taiho; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2012-01-01

    Single-port access laparoscopic surgery has recently emerged as a method to improve morbidity and cosmetic benefit of conventional laparoscopic surgery. Herein, we report the experience of transumbilical incision laparoscopic sigmoidectomy with one assist port in a 71-year-old man who had developed recurrent sigmoid volvulus in these several years since his first visit to the hospital. The patient presented abdominal distension and severe constipation. A plain x-ray film and CT of the abdomen showed grossly distended sigmoid colon loops and stenosis of recto-sigmoid colon. Sigmoid volvulus associated with megacolon was diagnosed and emergence endoscopic decompression was performed. After his condition improved, transumbilical incision laparoscopic sigmoidectomy was carried out as the minimally invasive approach, due to the several risk of patient such as aging and pulmonary disorder. Postoperative course was uneventful and on postoperative visit to the hospital he reported resolution of abdominal distension. PMID:23235104

  17. Single-port laparoscopic surgery for sigmoid volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Byung Jo; Jeong, Won Jun; Kim, Say-June; Lee, Sang Chul

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To report our experience with single-port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) for sigmoid volvulus (SV). METHODS: Between October 2009 and April 2013, 10 patients underwent SPLS for SV. SPLS was performed transumbilically or through a predetermined stoma site. Conventional straight and rigid-type laparoscopic instruments were used. After intracorporeal, segmental resection of the affected sigmoid colon, the specimen was extracted through the single-incision site. Patient demographics and perioperative data were analyzed. RESULTS: SPLS for SV was successful in all 10 patients (4, resection and primary anastomosis; 6, Hartmann’s procedure). The median operative time and postoperative hospitalization period were 168 (range, 85-315) min and 6.5 (range, 4-29) d, respectively. No intraoperative complications were noted; there were 2 postoperative complications, including 1 anastomotic leak. CONCLUSION: SPLS was a safe and feasible therapeutic approach for SV, when performed by a surgeon experienced in conventional laparoscopic surgery. PMID:25741145

  18. Intestinal volvulus in cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Begeman, L; St Leger, J A; Blyde, D J; Jauniaux, T P; Lair, S; Lovewell, G; Raverty, S; Seibel, H; Siebert, U; Staggs, S L; Martelli, P; Keesler, R I

    2013-07-01

    Intestinal volvulus was recognized as the cause of death in 18 cetaceans, including 8 species of toothed whales (suborder Odontoceti). Cases originated from 11 institutions from around the world and included both captive (n = 9) and free-ranging (n = 9) animals. When the clinical history was available (n = 9), animals consistently demonstrated acute dullness 1 to 5 days prior to death. In 3 of these animals (33%), there was a history of chronic gastrointestinal illness. The pathological findings were similar to those described in other animal species and humans, and consisted of intestinal volvulus and a well-demarcated segment of distended, congested, and edematous intestine with gas and bloody fluid contents. Associated lesions included congested and edematous mesentery and mesenteric lymph nodes, and often serofibrinous or hemorrhagic abdominal effusion. The volvulus involved the cranial part of the intestines in 85% (11 of 13). Potential predisposing causes were recognized in most cases (13 of 18, 72%) but were variable. Further studies investigating predisposing factors are necessary to help prevent occurrence and enhance early clinical diagnosis and management of the condition. PMID:23150643

  19. Sigmoid volvulus: an uncommon complication of Hirschsprung's disease.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Abhishek; Jain, Vishesh; Sharma, Shilpa; Gupta, Devendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Sigmoid volvulus is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition that is usually seen in adults, however, when diagnosed in children, it is often associated with Hirschsprung's disease (HD). We report a case of an 11-year-old boy who presented with a history of constipation since 1.5 months of age, with acute onset of severe abdominal pain and marked distention of the abdomen. Sigmoid volvulus was suspected, detected and successfully managed with resection of the sigmoid colon and primary Scott Boley's pull-through. This report underscores the importance of suspecting sigmoid volvulus in the pertinent clinical setting; also, a primary definitive procedure can be performed in select cases. PMID:27229747

  20. A case of acute mesentero-axial gastric volvulus in a patient with a diaphragmatic hernia: experience with a laparoscopic approach

    PubMed Central

    Al-Faraj, Dalal; Al-Haddad, Mohanned; Al-Hadeedi, Omar; Al-Subaie, Saud

    2015-01-01

    Gastric volvulus is an uncommon but serious surgical condition mandating an early diagnosis and surgical intervention. It may present either acutely or chronically with epigastric pain, retching and vomiting. There are two types of gastric volvulus: organo-axial and mesentero-axial. We report a case of a mesentero-axial gastric volvulus in a 49-year-old woman with a left-sided diaphragmatic hernia. She presented with a significant epigastric pain and vomiting. A flexible upper endoscopy, a barium meal and a contrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging had confirmed the diagnosis. She was treated with a laparoscopic mesh repair of the diaphragmatic defect followed by a gastropexy. She had an uneventful postoperative course and was asymptomatic thereafter. PMID:26391688

  1. Chronic gastric volvulus: is it so rare?

    PubMed

    Bautista-Casasnovas, A; Varela-Cives, R; Fernandez-Bustillo, J M; Estévez Martínez, E; Prada Arias, M; Villanueva Jeremias, A; Pavón Belinchon, P; Peña Guitian, J

    2002-04-01

    Gastric volvulus has traditionally been considered a rare entity in children, and standard texts on paediatrics typically make scant reference to it. In our experience, however, careful radiographic study of children with digestive symptoms reveals gastric volvulus to be more frequent than is commonly thought. We report 52 cases of this disorder, and discuss its diagnosis and treatment. Material and Methods. We performed a retrospective study of all children treated for chronic gastric volvulus in our department since 1976. Results. All 52 patients (27 boys, 25 girls) were term infants, mean age 2.8 months at diagnosis. The principal symptoms were crying and colic (90 %), vomiting and nausea (67 %). The mean age at onset of symptoms was 1.1 months. Diagnosis was in all cases on the basis of upper intestinal transit studies. The most frequent radiological signs were high greater curvature (87 %) and greater curvature crossing the oesophagus (83 %). Nine of the 52 children underwent primary surgery. The remaining 43 patients underwent conservative (i.e. postural) treatment; 11 of these patients showed no significant improvement and thus underwent surgery. We performed 20 surgical interventions (19 simple anterior gastropexies and one a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy). All patients showed good recovery after surgery. Conclusion. Careful examination of patients with vomiting, abdominal distension, gastro-oesophageal reflux, colic, crying, retarded growth, sleep problems, anxiety, and even repeated respiratory infections will reveal chronic gastric volvulus with greater frequency than has traditionally been thought. We believe that this entity is often undetected, and that, as a result, it is often inappropriately treated. PMID:12015655

  2. [Dolichomegacolon of the Andes and intestinal volvulus due to altitude].

    PubMed

    Frisancho, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    Sigmoid volvulus is a frequent cause of emergencies in hospitals in the Andean area, representing more than 50% of all intestinal obstructions. Andean dolichomegacolon (DCMA) and retractile mesocolonitis are the main contributing factors for volvulus. The mesocolonitis nears the proximal and distal segment of the sigmoid handle, favoring its torsion. Copious intake of fermentable food is the precipitating factor for volvulus. The majority of patients are seen during sowing and harvest periods, in which the consumption of this type of food increases. Andean people who live at an altitude of 3,000 m have a larger and thicker colon than coastal residents. We call this acquired characteristic the Andean dolichomegacolon (DCMA). A fiber-rich diet may inhibit the histological phenomenon known as elastogenesis, developing--over the years--the megacolon. Another important factor may be the lower atmospheric pressure in the altitude, and according to Boyle and Mariotte's physical law, the expansion of intraluminal gas may have an influence on intestinal enlargement. DCMA has many special anatomic, clinical, radiological, histological and serological features which make it different from the . chagasic megacolon. Mild emergency procedures may be performed to treat the sigmoid volvulus, such as endoscopic disvolvulation. Changing the colon rotation is helpful in diminishing abdominal pressure and restore complete blood circulation. An emergency surgery treatment must take the patient's general condition and the colon handle condition during surgery as a guiding point. High rates of mortality are found in relation to elderly patients, disease evolution time and stage of intestinal ischemia. Other new therapeutic procedures such as percutaneous sigmoidpexy, laparoscopic sigmoidectomy and mesosigmoplasty are under review, and have precise indications. Wider series are needed to evaluate them better. PMID:18958141

  3. The role of sigmoidoscopy in thediagnosis and treatment of sigmoid volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Atamanalp, Sabri Selcuk; Atamanalp, Refik Selim

    2016-01-01

    Sigmoid volvulus (SV) is a rare form of acute intestinal obstruction in which the sigmoid colon wraps around itself. The disease generally presents as a mechanical bowel obstruction with clinical features that are not pathognomonic. Similarly, X-ray films are not diagnostic in most cases. It is difficult to establish the correct preoperative diagnosis when CT and MRI are not used. The principal strategy in the treatment of SV in uncomplicated patients is emergency endoscopic detorsion followed by elective surgery; emergent surgery is required in patients with bowel gangrene, bowel perforation, peritonitis, or unsuccessful endoscopic treatment. In this review, we have discussed the role of sigmoidoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of SV. Additionally, we have retrospectively and prospectively evaluated our 49-year, 987-patient clinical experience, the largest single-center SV series ever reported. PMID:27022384

  4. Intestinal malrotation and midgut volvulus.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Hidayatullah; Obaidy, Yalda; Maroof, Sahar

    2016-09-01

    A four-day-old boy presented with persistent bilious vomiting, bloody stained stool, and mild abdominal distension. Transabdominal ultrasound demonstrated a round soft-tissue mass-like structure in the right upper quadrant. With color Doppler ultrasound, the whirlpool sign was observed. Abdominal radiograph showed nonspecific findings. Upper gastrointestinal series revealed upper gastrointestinal tract obstruction at the level of distal duodenum. The diagnosis of intestinal malrotation with midgut volvulus was established and the treated surgically. Intestinal malrotation is congenital abnormal positioning of the bowel loops within the peritoneal cavity resulting in abnormal shortening of mesenteric root that is predisposed to midgut volvulus. Neonates and infants with persistent bilious vomiting should undergo diagnostic workup and preferably ultrasound as the first step. With classic sonographic appearance of whirlpool sign, even further imaging investigations is often not needed, and the surgeon should be alerted to plan surgery. PMID:27594965

  5. A Rare Case of Splenic Torsion with Sigmoid Volvulus in a 14-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Hamid; Tehrani, Mahdieh Mohammad Khan

    2016-01-01

    Wandering spleen is an uncommon entity in adults and has been described only rarely with sigmoid volvulus, that rarely affects children and adolescents. It is usually described in adults.Wandering spleen characterized by the abnormal location of the spleen, caused by incomplete fusion of the four primary splenic ligaments, allowing the spleen to be mobile within the abdomen.The wandering spleen can lead to torsion and subsequent splenic infarction or rupture. Clinical suspicion plus urgent investigation and intervention are important. We present a rare clinical case of acute abdomen due to torsion of wandering spleen and volvulus of sigmoid in a 14-year-old girl presented with painful periumbilical mass. Detorsion of sigmoid occurred while undergoing exploratory laparotomy and splenectomy was performed. The possibility of torsion and its complication like gastric, pancreas tail and colon volvulus should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen to avoid serious complications. PMID:26853294

  6. Diagnosis of a sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy: ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Palmucci, Stefano; Lanza, Maria Letizia; Gulino, Fabrizio; Scilletta, Beniamino; Ettorre, Giovanni Carlo

    2014-02-01

    Sigmoid volvulus complicating pregnancy is a rare, non-obstetric cause of abdominal pain that requires prompt surgical intervention (decompression) to avoid intestinal ischemia and perforation. We report the case of a 31-week pregnant woman with abdominal pain and subsequent development of constipation. Preoperative diagnosis was achieved using magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography: the large bowel distension and a typical whirl sign - near a sigmoid colon transition point - suggested the diagnosis of sigmoid volvulus. The decision to refer the patient for emergency laparotomy was adopted without any ionizing radiation exposure, and the pre-operative diagnosis was confirmed after surgery. Imaging features of sigmoid volvulus and differential diagnosis from other non-obstetric abdominal emergencies in pregnancy are discussed in our report, with special emphasis on the diagnostic capabilities of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:24967020

  7. A case of cecal volvulus mimicking Ogilvie Syndrome in a hospitalized patient with a pelvis fracture

    PubMed Central

    Tampakis, Athanasios; Droeser, Raoul A.; Tampaki, Ekaterini Christina; von Holzen, Urs; Delko, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cecal volvulus and ogilvie syndrome are two entities which may display similar clinical presentation but require different treatment approaches. Presentation of case An 84-year old male patient admitted for conservative treatment of a pelvis fracture, complained of abdominal cramps and flatulence on the third hospitalization day. Abdominal radiographs arose suspicion of cecal volvulus. The diagnosis was ruled out on the CT scan but however was later confirmed by an exploratory laparotomy. Discussion The management of cecal volvulus requires prompt (emergency) surgical intervention while Ogilvie syndrome can be principally managed with conservative treatment. Our patient's profile was typical for both entities. The absence of air throughout all colonic segments including the rectosigmoid on plain abdominal radiographs seems to be the most important sign in the exclusion of the Ogilvie syndrome diagnosis. Conclusion Cecal volvulus and Ogilvie syndrome display overlapping clinical features at their time of presentation and need to be carefully distinguished. By uncertainty, an exploratory laparotomy should always be performed, in view of the reported high mortality rate of cecal volvulus if surgery is delayed. PMID:27054035

  8. Preoperative mechanical preparation of the colon: the patient's experience

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Barbel; Lannerstad, Olof; Påhlman, Lars; Arodell, Malin; Unosson, Mitra; Nilsson, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Background Preoperative mechanical bowel preparation can be questioned as standard procedure in colon surgery, based on the result from several randomised trials. Methods As part of a large multicenter trial, 105 patients planned for elective colon surgery for cancer, adenoma, or diverticulitis in three hospitals were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding perceived health including experience with bowel preparation. There were 39 questions, each having 3 – 10 answer alternatives, dealing with food intake, pain, discomfort, nausea/vomiting, gas distension, anxiety, tiredness, need of assistance with bowel preparation, and willingness to undergo the procedure again if necessary. Results 60 patients received mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) and 45 patients did not (No-MBP). In the MBP group 52% needed assistance with bowel preparation and 30% would consider undergoing the same preoperative procedure again. In the No-MBP group 65 % of the patients were positive to no bowel preparation. There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to postoperative pain and nausea. On Day 4 (but not on Days 1 and 7 postoperatively) patients in the No-MBP group perceived more discomfort than patients in the MBP group, p = 0.02. Time to intake of fluid and solid food did not differ between the two groups. Bowel emptying occurred significantly earlier in the No-MBP group than in the MBP group, p = 0.03. Conclusion Mechanical bowel preparation is distressing for the patient and associated with a prolonged time to first bowel emptying. PMID:17480223

  9. Severe Hypothyroidism-Induced Volvulus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rafay; Ahmed, Amar; Tulpule, Sunil; Regeti, Kalyani; Sen, Shuvendu; Mathew, Teena

    2015-12-01

    Thyroid disorders have been found to be associated with multiple organ systems and thus have a broad spectrum of presenting symptoms and clinical conditions. Certain aspects of the gastrointestinal (GI) system have yet to be fully understood and documented. Hypothyroidism and even hyperthyroidism have been identified in patients with motility symptoms involving the GI tract. These symptoms can vary and can be a complication of undertreated or undiagnosed condition involving the thyroid. Unfortunately, the mechanism in which these hormones can impact intestinal motility remains poorly understood and not well documented. In this case report, we discuss the presentation of a 71-year-old female with poorly managed hypothyroidism presenting with significant abdominal distention and pain secondary to underlying volvulus formation. By better understanding the complications induced by hypothyroidism, physicians may be able to prevent further life-threatening outcomes with early management and intervention. PMID:26566414

  10. Recurrent intestinal volvulus in midgut malrotation causing acute bowel obstruction: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Fayed; Balarajah, Vickna; Ayantunde, Abraham Abiodun

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal malrotation occurs when there is a disruption in the normal embryological development of the bowel. The majority of patients present with clinical features in childhood, though rarely a first presentation can take place in adulthood. Recurrent bowel obstruction in patients with previous abdominal operation for midgut malrotation is mostly due to adhesions but very few reported cases have been due to recurrent volvulus. We present the case of a 22-year-old gentleman who had laparotomy in childhood for small bowel volvulus and then presented with acute bowel obstruction. Preoperative computerised tomography scan showed small bowel obstruction and features in keeping with midgut malrotation. Emergency laparotomy findings confirmed midgut malrotation with absent appendix, abnormal location of caecum, ascending colon and small bowel. In addition, there were small bowel volvulus and a segment of terminal ileal stricture. Limited right hemicolectomy was performed with excellent postoperative recovery. This case is presented to illustrate a rare occurrence and raise an awareness of the possibility of dreadful recurrent volvulus even several years following an initial Ladd’s procedure for midgut malrotation. Therefore, one will need to exercise a high index of suspicion and this becomes very crucial in order to ensure prompt surgical intervention and thereby preventing an attendant bowel ischaemia with its associated high fatality. PMID:23556060

  11. Colonization by aerobic bacteria in karst: Laboratory and in situ experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Personne, J.-C.; Poty, F.; Mahler, B.J.; Drogue, C.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the potential for bacterial colonization of different substrates in karst aquifers and the nature of the colonizing bacteria. Laboratory batch experiments were performed using limestone and PVC as substrates, a natural bacterial isolate and a known laboratory strain (Escherichia coli [E. coli]) as inocula, and karst ground water and a synthetic formula as growth media. In parallel, fragments of limestone and granite were submerged in boreholes penetrating two karst aquifers for more than one year; the boreholes are periodically contaminated by enteric bacteria from waste water. Once a month, rock samples were removed and the colonizing bacteria quantified and identified. The batch experiments demonstrated that the natural isolate and E. coli both readily colonized limestone surfaces using karst ground water as the growth medium. In contrast, bacterial colonization of both the limestone and granite substrates, when submerged in the karst, was less intense. More than 300 bacterial strains were isolated over the period sampled, but no temporal pattern in colonization was seen as far as strain, and colonization by E. coli was notably absent, although strains of Salmonella and Citrobacter were each observed once. Samples suspended in boreholes penetrating highly fractured zones were less densely colonized than those in the borehole penetrating a less fractured zone. The results suggest that contamination of karst aquifers by enteric bacteria is unlikely to be persistent. We hypothesize that this may be a result of the high flow velocities found in karst conduits, and of predation of colonizing bacteria by autochthonous zooplankton.

  12. Obstructive jaundice secondary to chronic midgut volvulus.

    PubMed Central

    Spitz, L; Orr, J D; Harries, J T

    1983-01-01

    A case of progressive extrahepatic biliary obstruction due to chronic midgut volvulus secondary to malrotation in a 5-month-old girl is presented. The obstruction to the bile duct was relieved after correction of the malrotation and division of the obstructing bands. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6859923

  13. Imaging, Endoscopic and Genetic Assessment of Marfan Syndrome Presenting with Sigmoid Volvulus: A Review.

    PubMed

    Inayat, Faisal; Hurairah, Abu; Shaikh, Faiq

    2016-01-01

    The Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a pleiotropic, autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue with highly variable clinical manifestations. It primarily involves the skeletal, cardiovascular, and ocular systems; however, gastrointestinal complications are rare. Herein, we describe the case of a 31-year-old male who initially presented with acute abdominal pain for one day. His imaging features revealed a dilated sigmoid colon, consistent with sigmoid volvulus that was immediately decompressed. Surgical resection was recommended to treat the sigmoid volvulus. Preceding the treatment, the patient underwent an extensive workup, including an echocardiography that revealed aortic root dilatation. His clinical history, physical exam, and echocardiographic findings raised the suspicion for MFS. Subsequently, the diagnosis of MFS was confirmed on genetic testing. This is a case that highlights the multidisciplinary (clinical, radiological, endoscopic, molecular/genetic) approach to diagnose a patient with MFS who presented with symptomatic sigmoid volvulus. As this presentation may be a harbinger of more severe manifestations of MFS, it is important to identify it as such in order to accomodate for timely management. PMID:27382527

  14. Imaging, Endoscopic and Genetic Assessment of Marfan Syndrome Presenting with Sigmoid Volvulus: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hurairah, Abu; Shaikh, Faiq

    2016-01-01

    The Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a pleiotropic, autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue with highly variable clinical manifestations. It primarily involves the skeletal, cardiovascular, and ocular systems; however, gastrointestinal complications are rare. Herein, we describe the case of a 31-year-old male who initially presented with acute abdominal pain for one day. His imaging features revealed a dilated sigmoid colon, consistent with sigmoid volvulus that was immediately decompressed. Surgical resection was recommended to treat the sigmoid volvulus. Preceding the treatment, the patient underwent an extensive workup, including an echocardiography that revealed aortic root dilatation. His clinical history, physical exam, and echocardiographic findings raised the suspicion for MFS. Subsequently, the diagnosis of MFS was confirmed on genetic testing. This is a case that highlights the multidisciplinary (clinical, radiological, endoscopic, molecular/genetic) approach to diagnose a patient with MFS who presented with symptomatic sigmoid volvulus. As this presentation may be a harbinger of more severe manifestations of MFS, it is important to identify it as such in order to accomodate for timely management. PMID:27382527

  15. [Intestinal volvulus due to yeyunal duplication].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Iglesias, P; Carazo Palacios, M E; Lluna González, J; Ibáñez Pradas, V; Rodríguez Caraballo, L

    2014-10-01

    Duplications of the alimentary tract are congenital malformations. The ileum is the most commonly affected organ. A lot of duplications are incidentally diagnosed but most of patients present a combination of pain or complications such as obstructive symptoms, intestinal intussusception, perforation or volvulus. We report the case of a 6-years-old girl, with intermittent abdominal pain and vomits for two months long. Laboratory work was completely normal and in the radiology analysis (abdominal sonography and magnetic resonance) a cystic image with intestinal volvulus was observed. The patient underwent laparotomy, Ladd's procedure was done and the cyst was resected. In conclusion, if a patient is admitted with abdominal pain and obstructive symptoms, it is important to consider duplication of the alimentary tract as a possible diagnosis. PMID:26065113

  16. The effects of drugs on Onchocerca volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Duke, B. O. L.

    1968-01-01

    Antimonial preparations (Pentostam, Neostibosan, stibophen, and tartar emetic) have occasionally been used in the treatment of onchocerciasis without very promising results. The advent of the preparations TWSb (stibocaptate) and MSbE (Friedheim) of allegedly reduced toxicity made it desirable to test them against Onchocerca volvulus. The action of both preparations on the parasites was found to vary from one patient to another, ranging from complete elimination of all parasites in a few cases to no detectable action in others. A microfilaricidal action was detectable in many patients, particularly after treatment with TWSb, which was used at higher doses than MSbE. A lethal or sterilizing action on some or all adult female worms was observed in some patients. However, toxic reactions to the drugs were common and distressing, and often it was necessary to stop treatment on this account. Anorexia, nausea, vomiting and prostration were the most common manifestations, and there was one fatality from coincident yellow fever, which may well have been aggravated by antimony treatment. The uncertain action of these preparations on O. volvulus and the toxic manifestations that accompany their use render them unsuitable for the treatment of onchocerciasis, and it is probable that the effects of antimony on O. volvulus are produced only at or above the normal level of human tolerance. PMID:4881067

  17. Emergency repair of Morgagni hernia with partial gastric volvulus: our approach.

    PubMed

    Razi, Kasra; Light, Duncan; Horgan, Liam

    2016-01-01

    Morgagni hernias are a rare form of congenital diaphragmatic hernias, thus there is paucity in literature about the diagnosis and management of the condition. We report an 83-year-old woman who presented with vomiting and a metabolic acidosis with a previous computed tomography diagnosis of Bochdalek's hernia. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed a Morgagni hernia containing transverse colon, greater curvature of the stomach and a partial gastric volvulus. The hernia was reduced with the sac untouched, and the defect was closed with a composite mesh using tac fixation. The operation was done successfully in 45 minutes with no complications. PMID:27605660

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of caecal volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Consorti, E; Liu, T

    2005-01-01

    Caecal volvulus is an infrequently encountered clinical condition and an uncommon cause of intestinal obstruction. Patients with this condition may present with highly variable clinical presentations ranging from intermittent, self limiting abdominal pain to acute abdominal pain associated with intestinal strangulation and sepsis. Lack of familiarity with this condition is a factor contributing to diagnostic and treatment delays. The objective of this review is to promote clinicians' awareness of this disease through patient case illustration, discussion of disease pathogenesis, clinical features, and management strategies. PMID:16344301

  19. [Caecal volvulus after heart surgery with artificial circulation].

    PubMed

    Korostelev, A N; Kuznetsov, A M; Chzhao, A V

    2016-01-01

    Presented herein is a description of a rare complication, i.e. caecal volvulus, after heart surgery. This case report illustrates difficulty of diagnosis of abdominal organs complications after artificial circulation and necessity of active surgical policy. PMID:27336350

  20. Emergence of Onchocerca volvulus from Skin Mimicking Dracunculiasis medinensis

    PubMed Central

    Eberhard, Mark L.; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Korkor, Andrew S.; Roy, Sharon L.; Downs, Philip

    2010-01-01

    We describe 11 cases of suspected Dracunculus medinensis infection in which the worm recovered was identified as Onchocerca volvulus. Identification was based on morphology of the examined specimen. PMID:21118947

  1. Endoscopic management of sigmoid volvulus in children

    PubMed Central

    Parolini, Filippo; Orizio, Paolo; Bulotta, Anna Lavinia; Garcia Magne, Miguel; Boroni, Giovanni; Cengia, Gianpaolo; Torri, Fabio; Alberti, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Sigmoid volvulus (SV) is extremely uncommon in children and is usually associated with a long-standing history of constipation or pseudo-obstruction. An early diagnosis and management are crucial in order to prevent the appearance of hemorrhagic infarction of the twisted loop, avoiding further complications such as necrosis, perforation and sepsis. In patients with no evidence of peritonitis or ischemic bowel, treatment starts with resuscitation and detorsion of the SV, accomplished by means of sigmoidoscopy and concomitant rectal tube placement. The bowel is then prepared and surgery is undertaken electively during the same hospitalization. We report a detailed review of the literature focusing on technical details, risks and benefits of endoscopic management of SV in childhood. PMID:27358669

  2. Strain differentiation of Onchocerca volvulus from Uganda using DNA probes.

    PubMed

    Fischer, P; Bamuhiiga, J; Kilian, A H; Büttner, D W

    1996-04-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with non-radioactive DNA hybridization was applied for the detection and characterization of a 150 bp tandem repeat of Onchocerca volvulus. DNA of worms from western Uganda was amplified and then probed with a digoxygenin-labelled oligonucleotide, specific for the forest form of O. volvulus and compared to samples from various African countries. Hybridization was only observed with PCR products from the forest in Liberia, south-eastern Ghana, Benin and southern Cameroon, but not with worms from Uganda or the savannah in Burkina Faso and northern Ghana. A nested PCR using primers derived form the forest form-specific DNA sequence confirmed these results. Morphometric studies revealed length differences between the microfilariae of Ugandan O. volvulus to those of West Africa, especially to those of the savannah in Burkina Faso. It is concluded that the forest/savannah classification of O. volvulus from West Africa is not suitable for Simulium neavei-transmitted O. volvulus from Uganda. PMID:8935951

  3. [Megacolon and sigmoid volvulus: incidence and physiopathology].

    PubMed

    Saravia Burgos, Jaime; Acosta Canedo, Abel

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of Megacolon is multiple. One of these causes and the most frequent is Chagas disease. Its complication: sigmoid volvulus was de main diagnosis in the admitted patients at the Bolivian and Japanese Gastroenterological Institute of Cochabamba Bolivia. It usually affects people of a low economic income. In this Gastroenterological Hospital a transversal and prospective study has been done, in order to know the real incidence and the physiopathology of this disease. In a six year period, from 2000 to 2006, 8.954 patients were admitted to the Hospital: of these, 814 (9.09%), where diagnosticated as lower intestinal obstruction. In 608 (74.7%) the final diagnosis was sigmoid torsion. Radiological diagnosis was made in 84% of the patients and endoscopic decompression was successful in 88.7%. As reported in the medical literature, the main cause of megacolon in this part of the world is Chagas disease. In our investigation 22% (98 patients), were serology positive to Chagas disease, and another 21.44% (95 patients) were serology negative. They were coca leaf chewers. One of coca leaf compounds is cocaine which blocks the adrenaline and noradrenaline degradation by mean of monoamine oxidase inactivation. These two hormones stay a long term of time in the target organ: the large bowel. By this mean chronic and persistent vessel constriction develops intestinal wall atrophy and lower resistance to the intraintestinal pressure. PMID:25875517

  4. [Prenatal discovery of Joubert syndrome associated with small bowel volvulus].

    PubMed

    Aurégan, C; Donciu, V; Millischer, A-E; Khen-Dunlop, N; Deloison, B; Sonigo, P; Magny, J-F

    2016-03-01

    Joubert syndrome and prenatal volvulus are difficult to diagnose during pregnancy. Joubert syndrome and related diseases should be considered in case of prenatal abnormal features of the fourth ventricle. Small bowel volvulus is also a surgical emergency because of the risk of intestinal necrosis before or after delivery. This type of condition justifies the transfer of pregnant women to a specialized hospital where the newborn may receive appropriate care. We report the case of a 31-week and 4-day gestational-age fetus in whom intrauterine growth retardation and small-bowel volvulus were diagnosed. Additional imaging revealed associated Joubert syndrome. This highlights the need for regular ultrasound monitoring during pregnancy and the comanagement of obstetricians and pediatricians to provide appropriate care before and after delivery. PMID:26850151

  5. Absolute constipation caused by sigmoid volvulus in a young man

    PubMed Central

    Nuevo, Sergio Pozo; Macías Robles, María Dolores; Sevillano, Ramón Delgado; Pérez-Gallarza, Susana Serrano

    2013-01-01

    We describe a challenging case of sigmoid volvulus where a previously unrecognised anatomical condition, rather than the patient's age, was the main predisposing factor. A man in his thirties presented to the emergency department with a 3-day history of constipation and acute abdominal pain. Initial assessment and studies were inconclusive, but a CT scan revealed torsion of the large bowelSigmoid volvulus is a frequent cause of bowel obstruction that can be missed if appropriate imaging is not available. Clinical presentation and blood analysis can be similar to the findings in acute abdomen caused by other more common causes. PMID:23744852

  6. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus.

    PubMed

    Crainey, James L; Silva, Túllio R R da; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource. PMID:26814648

  7. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus

    PubMed Central

    Crainey, James L; da Silva, Túllio RR; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio LB

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource. PMID:26814648

  8. The effects of drugs on Onchocerca volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Duke, B. O. L.

    1970-01-01

    The effects of the arsenical drug melarsonyl potassium on Onchocerca volvulus were investigated in patients in Cameroon infected with the Cameroon forest and Sudan savanna strains of the parasite. Two intramuscular dosage schedules were tested: the first comprised 4 consecutive daily doses of 200 mg repeated once after a 10-14 day interval, i.e., 2 (4×200 mg). The second was a single dose schedule at 7.1 mg/kg—10 mg/kg, with a maximum of 500 mg. In most trials the drug had no immediate action on microfilarial concentrations. Only after the 2(4×200 mg) melarsonyl course against the Sudan savanna strain was a slight microfilaricidal action detected. The 2(4×200 mg) course of melarsonyl apparently killed or sterilized most or all of the adult female worms in the patients tested, leaving the residual population of microfilariae to decline gradually, from natural mortality, over the ensuing 2 years. These residual microfilariae could be killed with diethylcarbamazine. Single doses of melarsonyl at 7.1 mg/kg—10 mg/kg were somewhat less effective in killing or sterilizing adult worms, but it is suggested that if doses at the higher end of this range were to be repeated annually patients could be rendered free from microfilariae by the end of 3 years. It is emphasized that the risks of arsenical encephalopathy should at present preclude the use of melarsonyl potassium in the treatment of onchocerciasis, but that if this danger could be avoided the drug might prove to be of considerable use for mass therapy in control campaigns. PMID:5309509

  9. Sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Serafeimidis, Costas; Waqainabete, Ifereimi; Creaton, Anne; Vakamacawai, Esala; Kumar, Ronal

    2016-08-01

    Sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy is a very rare condition. Despite this, clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of this condition if they encounter a pregnant woman with symptoms suggestive of bowel obstruction. Incorrect diagnosis may be catastrophic, resulting in major complications, including fetal and maternal death. PMID:27525078

  10. A Spiral Tack as a Lead Point for Volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Background and Objectives: We present a case of small bowel volvulus around an endotack applied during total extraperitoneal laparoscopic hernia repair (TEP). This complication prompts reconsideration of the role of tacks during extraperitoneal laparoscopic hernia repairs. Methods: We undertook a chart review and provide a case presentation with review of the literature. Result: A 66-year-old male with bilateral inguinal hernias underwent elective, bilateral, total extraperitoneal laparoscopic hernia repair. During dissection, a small peritoneal tear occurred. The tear was closed with a spiral tack. On postoperative day 22, the patient developed an acute abdomen. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a volvulus rotated around an adhesion to the spiral tack. Discussion: Volvulus can cause vascular compromise leading to bowel ischemia and necrosis. A tack resulting in adhesion and volvulus is an unusual, but serious, complication. Repair of a peritoneal tear during preperitoneal hernia repair is advocated to improve visualization obstructed by a pneumoperitonuem and decrease adhesions to the abdominal wall. Conclusion: The use of blunt Endoloops or crimps may prove safer than tacks for repairing the peritoneum and placement in proximity to delicate or thin tissues. Additionally, careful placement of foreign bodies to ensure their stability and to minimize protrusion may decrease the risk of erosion of the hardware. PMID:16882430

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Diagnosis of Volvulus through Mesenteric Defect in Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Scott; Al-Qaraghouli, Mohammed; Hussain, Naveed; Finck, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Antenatal midgut volvulus is a rare surgical emergency in which bowel is severely compromised. Rarely the etiology is a mesenteric defect. Early diagnosis is essential and lifesaving in the immediate newborn period. Typically upper gastrointestinal or ultrasound imaging can be suggestive of the diagnosis of volvulus in the neonate. Sometimes, however, the diagnosis may be elusive. Herein, we report on the use of neonatal magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose a midgut volvulus that occurred through a congenital mesenteric defect. PMID:27551577

  12. Dual protonophore-chitinase inhibitors dramatically affect O. volvulus molting.

    PubMed

    Gooyit, Major; Tricoche, Nancy; Lustigman, Sara; Janda, Kim D

    2014-07-10

    The L3-stage-specific chitinase OvCHT1 has been implicated in the development of Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of onchocerciasis. Closantel, a known anthelmintic drug, was previously discovered as a potent and specific OvCHT1 inhibitor. As closantel is also a known protonophore, we performed a simple scaffold modulation to map out the structural features that are relevant for its individual or dual biochemical roles. Furthermore, we present that either OvCHT1 inhibition or protonophoric activity was capable of affecting O. volvulus L3 molting and that the presence of both activities in a single molecule yielded more potent inhibition of the nematode's developmental process. PMID:24918716

  13. Gastric Dilatation and Volvulus in a Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens)

    PubMed Central

    Neilsen, Colleen; Mans, Christoph; Colopy, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    A 12-year-old male red panda (Ailurus fulgens) was evaluated for acute onset inappetance, staggering, collapse, and tachypnea. Gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) was diagnosed by radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and exploratory celiotomy. Torsion of the stomach was corrected and an incisional gastropexy performed to prevent recurrence. No organs were devitalized, no other abnormalities detected, and the red panda recovered fully within 72 hours. PMID:24467661

  14. Self-expanding metal stenting for obstructing left colon cancer: A district hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Harilingam, Mohan Raj; Khushal, Amjad; Aikoye, Abdulmalik

    2016-07-01

    Stenting of malignant colonic obstructions using self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) is commonly used for palliation and can be used as an interim procedure prior to definitive surgery. We retrospectively reviewed prospectively collected data from all consecutive colonic stenting procedures undertaken between September 2007 and December 2014 at a district general hospital. Technical and clinical success rates, mortality, colonic perforation, and other complications were documented and analyzed. Sixty-four colonic stenting procedures were undertaken. Fifty-three (83 %) were for palliation and eleven (17 %) were performed as a bridge to definitive surgery. Technical (98.4 %) and clinical (89.9 %) success rates were excellent. The single documented failure was secondary to complete luminal obstruction. Three stent occlusions (4.6 %), one colonic perforation (1.5 %), and one migration were encountered. There were no procedure-related deaths. Colonic stenting for obstructing left-sided colon cancer is a safe and effective procedure, even in the district general hospital setting. The use of SEMS as a bridge to elective surgery balances surgical and oncological considerations and, therefore, is most appropriate for high surgical risk patients in this setting. PMID:27448435

  15. Epibenthic colonization of concrete and steel pilings in a cold-temperate embayment: a field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Mathias H.; Berggren, Matz; Wilhelmsson, Dan; Öhman, Marcus C.

    2009-09-01

    With large-scale development of offshore wind farms, vertical structures are becoming more common in open water areas. To examine how vertical structures of different materials may be colonized by epibenthic organisms, an experiment was carried out using steel and concrete pilings constructed to resemble those commonly used in wind farm constructions as well as in bridges, jetties and oil platforms. The early recruitment and succession of the epibenthic communities were sampled once a month for the first 5 months and then again after 1 year. Further, the fish assemblages associated with the pillars were sampled and compared to natural areas. The main epibenthic species groups, in terms of coverage, differed between the two materials at five out of six sampling occasions. Dominant organisms on steel pillars were the barnacle Balanus improvisus, the calcareous tubeworm Pomatoceros triqueter and the tunicate Ciona intestinalis. On the concrete pillars, the hydroid Laomedea sp. and the tunicates Corella parallelogramma and Ascidiella spp. dominated. However, there was no different in coverage at different heights on the pillars or in biomass and species abundance at different directions (north-east or south-west) 5 months after submergence. Fish showed overall higher abundances and species numbers on the pillars (but no difference between steel and concrete) compared to the surrounding soft bottom habitats but not compared to natural vertical rock walls. Two species were attracted to the pillars, indicating a reef effect; Gobiusculus flavescens and Ctenolabrus rupestris. The bottom-dwelling gobies, Pomatoschistus spp., did not show such preferences.

  16. A Case of Fetal Intestinal Volvulus Without Malrotation Causing Severe Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Tomoko; Tachibana, Daisuke; Kitada, Kohei; Kurihara, Yasushi; Terada, Hiroyuki; Koyama, Masayasu; Sakae, Yukari; Morotomi, Yoshiki; Nomura, Shiho; Saito, Mika

    2015-01-01

    Fetal intestinal volvulus without malrotation is a rare, life-threatening disease. Left untreated, hemorrhage from necrotic bowel tissue will lead to severe fetal anemia and even intrauterine death. We encountered a case of fetal intestinal volvulus causing severe anemia, which was diagnosed postnatally and successfully treated with surgical intervention. PMID:25628516

  17. Inherited and predisposing factors in the development of gastric dilatation volvulus in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jerold S

    2014-09-01

    This review article summarizes what is known as well as what is undetermined concerning the inherited and environmental pathogenesis of gastric dilatation volvulus in dogs. The disorder primarily affects large and giant, deep-chested breeds. A concise description of a typical dog affected with gastric dilatation volvulus is presented. PMID:25496921

  18. Volvulus of the jejunum on cystic lymphangioma: About a clinical case

    PubMed Central

    Coulibaly, Yacaria; Keita, Soumaila; Doumbia, Aliou; Togo, Adegne

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal volvulus on mesenteric cysticum lymphangioma (CL) is rare in children. The clinical picture is not very suggestive. We report a case of intestinal volvulus on CL in a 7-year-old girl after an abdominal trauma. Resection and anastomosis were made. The confirmation diagnosis was done by anatomopathological examination. Early diagnosis of intra-abdominal CL will allow avoiding complication. PMID:27251660

  19. Chronic Gastric Volvulus with Laparoscopic Gastropexy after Endoscopic Reduction: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Yeon; Park, Jung Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Gastric volvulus is an uncommon clinical entity. There are three types of gastric volvulus; organoaxial, mesenteroaxial and combined type. This condition can lead to a closed-loop obstruction or strangulation. Traditional surgical therapy for gastric volvulus is based on an open approach. Here we report a successful case of a patient with chronic gastric volvulus with a laparoscopic treatment. A 79-year-old woman came to the emergency department with epigastric pain accompanied by nausea for 2 weeks. Abdominal computed tomography revealed markedly distended stomach with transposition of gastroesophageal Junction and gastric antrum. Barium meal study revealed presence of the antrum was folded over 180 degrees that was located above gastroesophageal junction. We attempted an endoscopic reduction, but it was unsuccessful. The patient got laparoscopic anterior gastropexy. Based on our result, laparoscopic gastropexy can be considered as a good choice of the treatment for gastric volvulus. PMID:26161290

  20. Campylobacter jejuni Colonization in Wild Birds: Results from an Infection Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Waldenström, Jonas; Axelsson-Olsson, Diana; Olsen, Björn; Hasselquist, Dennis; Griekspoor, Petra; Jansson, Lena; Teneberg, Susann; Svensson, Lovisa; Ellström, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in most parts of the world. The bacterium has a broad host range and has been isolated from many animals and environments. To investigate shedding patterns and putative effects on an avian host, we developed a colonization model in which a wild bird species, the European Robin Erithacus rubecula, was inoculated orally with C. jejuni from either a human patient or from another wild bird species, the Song Thrush Turdus philomelos. These two isolates were genetically distinct from each other and provoked very different host responses. The Song Thrush isolate colonized all challenged birds and colonization lasted 6.8 days on average. Birds infected with this isolate also showed a transient but significant decrease in body mass. The human isolate did not colonize the birds and could be detected only in the feces of the birds shortly after inoculation. European Robins infected with the wild bird isolate generated a specific antibody response to C. jejuni membrane proteins from the avian isolate, which also was cross-reactive to membrane proteins of the human isolate. In contrast, European Robins infected with the human isolate did not mount a significant response to bacterial membrane proteins from either of the two isolates. The difference in colonization ability could indicate host adaptations. PMID:20140204

  1. Colonic Polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colonic polyps grow in the large intestine, or colon. Most polyps are not dangerous. However, some polyps ... member with polyps Have a family history of colon cancer Most colon polyps do not cause symptoms. ...

  2. Spontaneous Acute Mesenteroaxial Gastric Volvulus Diagnosed by Computed Tomography Scan in a Young Man

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Gaby; Afifi, Ibrahim; Ellabib, Mohamed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 23 Final Diagnosis: Acute spontaneous gastric volvulus Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparotomy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Acute gastric volvulus is a surgical emergency that requires early recognition and treatment. Acute idiopathic mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus is a rare sub-type and there are few cases reported in children and there are even fewer reports in adults. Case Report: We report a rare case of a 23-year-old man who presented with a 1-day history of vomiting, epigastric pain, distention, and constipation. The diagnosis for mesenteroaxial type gastric volvulus was confirmed by abdominal radiography and computed tomography. The patient was successfully treated by laparotomy with resection of the ischemic stomach wall and anastomosis. Acute spontaneous mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus is rare in adults and early diagnosis is challenging due to non-specific symptoms. A missed or delayed diagnosis may result in serious complications due to gastric obstruction. Conclusions: A patient presenting with severe epigastric pain and clinical evidence of gastric outlet obstruction should be considered as a surgical emergency to rule out gastric volvulus. High index of suspicion, early diagnosis and prompt surgical management are important for favorable outcome in patients with acute spontaneous gastric volvulus. PMID:27112797

  3. Immune recognition of Onchocerca volvulus proteins in the human host and animal models of onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    Manchang, T K; Ajonina-Ekoti, I; Ndjonka, D; Eisenbarth, A; Achukwi, M D; Renz, A; Brattig, N W; Liebau, E; Breloer, M

    2015-05-01

    Onchocerca volvulus is a tissue-dwelling, vector-borne nematode parasite of humans and is the causative agent of onchocerciasis or river blindness. Natural infections of BALB/c mice with Litomosoides sigmodontis and of cattle with Onchocerca ochengi were used as models to study the immune responses to O. volvulus-derived recombinant proteins (OvALT-2, OvNLT-1, Ov103 and Ov7). The humoral immune response of O. volvulus-infected humans against OvALT-2, OvNLT-1 and Ov7 revealed pronounced immunoglobulin G (IgG) titres which were, however, significantly lower than against the lysate of O. volvulus adult female worms. Sera derived from patients displaying the hyperreactive form of onchocerciasis showed a uniform trend of higher IgG reactivity both to the single proteins and the O. volvulus lysate. Sera derived from L. sigmodontis-infected mice and from calves exposed to O. ochengi transmission in a hyperendemic area also contained IgM and IgG1 specific for O. volvulus-derived recombinant proteins. These results strongly suggest that L. sigmodontis-specific and O. ochengi-specific immunoglobulins elicited during natural infection of mice and cattle cross-reacted with O. volvulus-derived recombinant antigens. Monitoring O. ochengi-infected calves over a 26-month period, provided a comprehensive kinetic of the humoral response to infection that was strictly correlated with parasite load and occurrence of microfilariae. PMID:24721822

  4. Fetal primary small bowel volvulus in a child without intestinal malrotation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Hee; Lim, Gye-Yeon; We, Ji Sun

    2013-07-01

    Fetal primary small bowel volvulus without atresia or malrotation is an extremely rare but life-threatening surgical emergency. We report a case of primary small bowel volvulus that presented as sudden fetal distress and was diagnosed on the basis of the 'whirl-pool sign' of fetal sonography. This diagnosis led to emergency operation after birth at the third trimester with a good outcome. Although the pathogenesis of fetal primary small bowel volvulus is unclear, ganglion cell immaturity may play a role in the etiology. PMID:23895987

  5. Effects of landscape transformation on bird colonization and extinction patterns in a large-scale, long-term natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Mortelliti, Alessio; Lindenmayer, David B

    2015-10-01

    Conversion of agricultural land to forest plantations is a major driver of global change. Studies on the impact of forest plantations on biodiversity in plantations and in the surrounding native vegetation have been inconclusive. Consequently, it is not known how to best manage the extensive areas of the planet currently covered by plantations. We used a novel, long-term (16 years) and large-scale (30,000 ha) landscape transformation natural experiment (the Nanangroe experiment, Australia) to test the effects of land conversion on population dynamics of 64 bird species associated with woodland and forest. A unique aspect of our study is that we focused on the effects of plantations on birds in habitat patches within plantations. Our study design included 56 treatment sites (Eucalyptus patches where the surrounding matrix was converted from grazed land to pine plantations), 55 control sites (Eucalyptus patches surrounded by grazed land), and 20 matrix sites (sites within the pine plantations and grazed land). Bird populations were studied through point counts, and colonization and extinction patterns were inferred through multiple season occupancy models. Large-scale pine plantation establishment affected the colonization or extinction patterns of 89% of studied species and thus led to a comprehensive turnover in bird communities inhabiting Eucalyptus patches embedded within the maturing plantations. Smaller bodied species appeared to respond positively to plantations (i.e., colonization increased and extirpation of these species decreased in patches surrounded by plantations) because they were able to use the newly created surrounding matrix. We found that the effects of forest plantations affected the majority of the bird community, and we believe these effects could lead to the artificial selection of one group of species at the expense of another. PMID:25926353

  6. Molecular cloning of an Onchocerca volvulus extracellular Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed Central

    James, E R; McLean, D C; Perler, F

    1994-01-01

    Onchocerca volvulus, a human parasitic nematode, is the third leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. This study describes the molecular cloning of a novel superoxide dismutase (SOD) from the parasite. This putative O. volvulus extracellular SOD (OvEcSOD) is 628 nucleotides (nt) long, including a 22-nt 5' spliced leader (SL1) and a portion encoding an N-terminal hydrophobic 42-amino-acid signal peptide. The remainder of the cDNA shares 71% identity with an O. volvulus cytosolic SOD sequence and is 3 nt longer. All residues involved in metal ion binding, active site formation, folding, and dimer formation in SODs are conserved. Data indicate the OvEcSOD and O. volvulus cytosolic SOD are separate gene products and that the OvEcSOD appears to possess the characteristics of a membrane-bound or secreted enzyme which may be involved in the parasite defense against phagocyte-generated reactive oxygen species. Images PMID:8300230

  7. A Fatal Twist: Volvulus of the Small Intestine in a 46-Year-Old Woman

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Jared; Baxstrom, Kathryn; Donnelly, Stephen; Feasel, Patrick; Koles, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A 46-year-old woman presented to two emergency departments within 12 hours because of acute abdominal pain. Physical exam demonstrated tenderness and epigastric guarding. An ultrasound was interpreted as negative; she was discharged home. Later that evening, she was found dead. Postmortem exam revealed acute hemorrhagic necrosis of a segment of jejunum secondary to volvulus. Clinical clues suggesting presentations of small bowel volvulus are usually nonspecific; the diagnosis is typically confirmed at surgery. Her unremitting abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, and absolute neutrophilia were consistent with an acute process. The etiology of this volvulus was caused by an elastic fibrous band at the root of the jejunal mesentery. While congenital fibrous bands are rare in adults, this interpretation is favored for two reasons. First, the band was located 20 cm superior to postsurgical adhesions in the lower abdomen and pelvis. Second, there was no history of trauma or previous surgery involving the site of volvulus. PMID:26612989

  8. Acute gastric volvulus and congenital diaphragmatic hernia, case report and review.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Egido, Laura; Parente, Alberto; Cerdá, Julio Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is the result of the incomplete fusion and closure of the pleuroperitoneal canal during the fetal development. CDH is usually diagnosed prenatally but, if undiagnosed, the clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic children to serious respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms. Acute gastric volvulus associated with CDH is a rare surgical emergency in children. We report two cases of acute gastric volvulus associated with CDH and review the literature. PMID:26612128

  9. Spontaneous Acute Mesenteroaxial Gastric Volvulus Diagnosed by Computed Tomography Scan in a Young Man.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Gaby; Afifi, Ibrahim; Ellabib, Mohamed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acute gastric volvulus is a surgical emergency that requires early recognition and treatment. Acute idiopathic mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus is a rare sub-type and there are few cases reported in children and there are even fewer reports in adults. CASE REPORT We report a rare case of a 23-year-old man who presented with a 1-day history of vomiting, epigastric pain, distention, and constipation. The diagnosis for mesenteroaxial type gastric volvulus was confirmed by abdominal radiography and computed tomography. The patient was successfully treated by laparotomy with resection of the ischemic stomach wall and anastomosis. Acute spontaneous mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus is rare in adults and early diagnosis is challenging due to non-specific symptoms. A missed or delayed diagnosis may result in serious complications due to gastric obstruction. CONCLUSIONS A patient presenting with severe epigastric pain and clinical evidence of gastric outlet obstruction should be considered as a surgical emergency to rule out gastric volvulus. High index of suspicion, early diagnosis and prompt surgical management are important for favorable outcome in patients with acute spontaneous gastric volvulus. PMID:27112797

  10. Gastric Dilitation-Volvulus in a Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens)

    PubMed Central

    SCHLANSER, Justin R.; AGNEW, Dalen; PAPERD, Deborah W.; HARRISON, Tara M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 10-year-old male red panda presented acutely with symptoms of shock due to acute abdominal distress and respiratory compromise. Abdominal ultrasound confirmed a severely distended stomach for which passage of an orogastric tube for relief was unsuccessful. Intra-operatively, the stomach was found to be distended and torsed around its long axis supporting the diagnosis of Gastric dilitation-volvulus (GDV). The animal arrested and died intra-operatively and was submitted for necropsy with lesions supportive of the diagnosis of GDV. No risk factors for GDV were found to correlate between the panda and those described in domestic dogs. This case suggests that red pandas can be susceptible to this condition in captive settings. PMID:24521795

  11. No evidence for local adaptation in an invasive alien plant: field and greenhouse experiments tracing a colonization sequence

    PubMed Central

    Pahl, Anna T.; Kollmann, Johannes; Mayer, Andreas; Haider, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Local adaptation enables plant species to persist under different environmental conditions. Evolutionary change can occur rapidly in invasive annual species and has been shown to lead to local adaptation. However, the patterns and mechanisms of local adaptation in invasive species along colonization sequences are not yet understood. Thus, in this study the alien annual Impatiens glandulifera was used to investigate local adaptation to distinct habitats that have been consecutively invaded in central Europe. Methods A reciprocal transplant experiment was performed using 15 populations from alluvial deciduous forests, fallow meadows and coniferous upland forests, and a greenhouse experiment was performed in which plants from these habitats were grown under treatments reflecting the main habitat differentiators (shade, soil acidity, competition). Key Results Biomass production, specific leaf area, plant height and relative growth rate differed between habitats in the field experiment and between treatments in the greenhouse, but not between seed origins. Overall, there was no indication of local adaptation in either experiment. Conclusions Since I. glandulifera is a successful invader in many habitats without showing local adaptation, it is suggested that the species is coping with environmental variation by means of high phenotypic plasticity. The species seems to follow a ‘jack-and-master’ strategy, i.e. it is able to maintain high fitness under a wide range of environmental conditions, but performs particularly well in favourable habitats. Therefore, the proposed colonization sequence is likely to be based primarily on changes in propagule pressure. It is concluded that invasive alien plants can become dominant in distinct habitats without local adaptation. PMID:24214934

  12. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  13. Early experiences with magnetic rings in resection of the distal colon.

    PubMed

    Jansen, A; Keeman, J N; Davies, G A; Klopper, P J

    1980-01-01

    We have developed an anastomosis technique for resection of the distal colon based on the principle of submucosal layer apposition. The anastomosis apparatus consists of two rings of Ertalyte (polyester-polyethyleneterephtalate) containing two magnetic rings of polymer bonded rare earth cobalt. For low anastomoses we developed a magnetic ring holder, protecting cap and hexagonal connecting rod. The working principle is based on progressive compression leading to necrosis of the intermediate mucosal and submucosal layers by increasing magnetic force while bowel healing takes place. After 7 to 17 days the magnets cut through and are propelled by peristalis out of the anastomotic region. From our initial series of five patients we performed three sigmoid resections and two low anterior resections. There were no postoperative complications. Sigmoidoscopic and radiological investigations two weeks postoperatively, showed no evidence of leakage or anastomotic narrowing. The technique and the special advantages of the apparatus are discussed. PMID:7366876

  14. Chemokines and cytokines in patients with an occult Onchocerca volvulus infection.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Christian J; Gantin, Richard G; Seeger, Tanja; Sarnecka, Alicja; Portillo, Jennifer; Schulz-Key, Hartwig; Karabou, Potochoziou K; Helling-Giese, Gertrud; Heuschkel, Christoph; Banla, Meba; Soboslay, Peter T

    2012-05-01

    Repeated ivermectin treatment will clear microfilaria (Mf) of Onchocerca volvulus from skin and eyes of onchocerciasis patients while adult filaria remains alive and reproductive, and such occult O. volvulus infection may persist for years. To investigate the effect of residual adult filaria on the immune response profile, chemokines and cytokines were quantified 1) in onchocerciasis patients who developed an occult O. volvulus infection (Mf-negative) due to repeated ivermectin treatments, 2) patients who became Mf-negative without ivermectin treatments due to missing re-infection, and 3) endemic and non-endemic O. volvulus Mf-negative controls. With occult O. volvulus infection, serum levels of pro-inflammatory chemokines MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1α/CCL3, MIP-1β/CCL4, MPIF-1/CCL23 and CXCL8/IL-8 enhanced and approached higher concentrations as determined in infection-free controls, whilst regulatory and Th2-type cytokines and chemokines MCP-4/CCL13, MIP-1δ/CCL15, TARC/CCL17 and IL-13 lessened. Levels of Eotaxin-2/CCL24, MCP-3/CCL7 and BCA-1/CXCL13 remained unchanged. At 3 days post-initial ivermectin treatment, MCP-1/CCL2, MCP-4/CCL13, MPIF-1/CCL23 and Eotaxin-2/CCL24 were strongly enhanced, suggesting that monocytes and eosinophil granulocytes have mediated Mf clearance. In summary, with occult and expiring O. volvulus infections the serum levels of inflammatory chemokines enhanced over time while regulatory and Th2-type-promoting cytokines and chemokines lessened; these changes may reflect a decreasing effector cell activation against Mf of O. volvulus, and in parallel, an enhancing inflammatory immune responsiveness. PMID:22202179

  15. Implementation of the fast track surgery in patients undergoing the colonic resection: own experience.

    PubMed

    Morończyk, Daniel Antoni F; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz Wojciech

    2011-09-01

    A perioperative care in the colorectal surgery has been considerably changed recently. The fast track surgery decreases complications rate, shortens length of stay, improves quality of life and leads to cost reduction. It is achieved by: resignation of a mechanical bowel preparation before and a nasogastric tube insertion after operation, optimal pain and intravenous fluid management, an early rehabilitation, enteral nutrition and removal of a vesical catheter and abdominal drain if used.The aim of the study was to compare the results of an implementation the fast track surgery protocol with results achieving in the conventional care regimen.Material and methods. Two groups of patients undergoing colonic resection have been compared. The study group was formed by patients treated with fast track concept, the control group - by patients who were dealt with hitherto regimen. Procedures needed stoma performing, rectal and laparoscopic surgery were excluded. The perioperative period was investigated by telephone call to patient or his family.Results. Statistical significant reduction was reached in a favour of the fast track group in the following parameters: the length of hospital stay (2.5 days shorter), duration of an abdominal cavity and vesicle drainage (3 and 2 days shorter respectively), postoperative day on which oral diet was implemented (2,5 days faster) and finally extended (1.5 days faster). There were no statistical difference in mortality, morbidity neither reoperation rate between two groups.Conclusion. The fast track surgery is a safe strategy and may improve a perioperative care. PMID:22166736

  16. A dual flowing continuum approach to model denitrification experiments in porous media colonized by biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delay, Frederick; Porel, Gilles; Chatelier, Marion

    2013-07-01

    We present a modeling exercise of solute transport and biodegradation in a coarse porous medium widely colonized by a biofilm phase. Tracer tests in large laboratory columns using both conservative (fluorescein) and biodegradable (nitrate) solutes are simulated by means of a dual flowing continuum approach. The latter clearly distinguishes concentrations in a flowing porous phase from concentrations conveyed in the biofilm. With this conceptual setting, it becomes possible to simulate the sharp front of concentrations at early times and the flat tail of low concentrations at late times observed on the experimental breakthrough curves. Thanks to the separation of flow in two phases at different velocities, dispersion coefficients in both flowing phases keep reasonable values with some physical meaning. This is not the case with simpler models based on a single continuum (eventually concealing dead-ends), for which inferred dispersivity may reach the unphysical value of twice the size of the columns. We also show that the behavior of the dual flowing continuum is mainly controlled by the relative fractions of flow passing in each phase and the rate of mass transfer between phases. These parameters also condition the efficiency of nitrate degradation, the degradation rate in a well-seeded medium being a weakly sensitive parameter. Even though the concept of dual flowing continuum appears promising for simulating transport in complex porous media, its inversion onto experimental data really benefits from attempts with simpler models providing a rough pre-evaluation of parameters such as porosity and mean fluid velocity in the system.

  17. A 25-year experience with total portosystemic shunts and reappraisal of colon exclusion.

    PubMed

    Talman, E A; Johns, T N; Regan, W W

    1983-05-01

    The results of 43 total shunt procedures for bleeding esophageal varices performed consecutively at two community hospitals from 1956 to 1981 are reviewed. Of 15 patients with immediate preoperative bilirubins greater than 2.0 mg/dl, 11 died following shunt surgery. Of 28 other shunted patients with immediate preoperative bilirubins of less than 2.0 mg/dl, there was only one in-hospital death, thus substantiating the contention that the last preoperative serum bilirubin value is the best predictor of operative mortality. Of ten patients with appreciable ascites verified at the time of operation, there were only two survivors, and both of these had preoperative bilirubins of less than 2.0 mg/dl. Twenty-nine of the 31 patients who left the hospital were still living at least one year after operation. All 23 patients operated on prior to 1977 were available for 5-year follow-up, and there were 14 survivors (60%). Thirteen of the 31 patients (42%) manifested some degree of hepatic encephalopathy, as interpreted by necessity for protein restriction and either Neomycin or Lactulose. Incapacitating post-shunt hepatic encephalopathy developed in one patient who required recurrent hospitalizations for episodic coma. This patient underwent a total abdominal colectomy and ileorectal anastomosis, with elimination of all episodes of encephalopathy for the subsequent 4 1/2 years. The previous 16 cases in the literature of surgical treatment of post-shunt encephalopathy are reviewed, and the efficacy of such colon exclusion is reassessed. PMID:6601935

  18. [Recent experience in the short-term etizolam treatment of irritable colon syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tarantino, G; Morelli, L; Falce, M T; Schipani, G; Liguori, C

    1992-09-01

    Twenty-two subjects (8 males, 14 females, mean age 36 years, range 21-57) with symptoms of diffuse pain or fullness in a lower abdominal quadrant, without repercussions on general health but with chronic anxiety of which the subjects complained or which emerged during confidential conversation with the physicians, were enrolled in our outpatient department for liver and gastroenterologic pathology at the Institute of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Disorders, II Faculty of Medicine, Naples University. After an average 30-day wash-out period, patients were treated with etizolam, a new psychoactive drug for somatized anxiety. Mean dosage and duration of treatment were 1 tablet twice daily for 25 days. Painful symptoms disappeared in 16.3% of patients, decreased in 38.3% and remained stationary in 22.7% and became worse in 22.7%. Number of bowel motions decreased in 14 patients (63.6%, from an average of 2.04 to 1.56). It can therefore be concluded that etizolam treatment was effective in subjects with colon disorders accompanied by chronic anxiety syndrome or that became acute as result of stressful socio-economic or affective situations or personal disappointment. PMID:1458807

  19. Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in Northern Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis is caused by Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted by Simulium species (black flies). In the Americas, the infection has been previously described in 13 discrete regional foci distributed among six countries (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela) where more than 370,000 people are currently considered at risk. Since 2001, disease control in Venezuela has relied on the mass drug administration to the at-risk communities. This report provides empirical evidence of interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission by Simulium metallicum in 510 endemic communities from two Northern foci of Venezuela, after 10–12 years of 6-monthly Mectizan® (ivermectin) treatment to all the eligible residents. Methods In-depth entomologic and epidemiologic surveys were serially conducted from 2001–2012 in selected (sentinel and extra-sentinel) communities from the North-central (NC) and North-east (NE) onchocerciasis foci of Venezuela in order to monitor the impact of ivermectin treatment. Results From 2007–2009, entomological indicators in both foci confirmed that 0 out of 112,637 S. metallicum females examined by PCR contained L3 infection in insect heads. The upper bound of the 95% confidence intervals of the infective rate of the vector reached values below 1% by 2009 (NC) and 2012 (NE). Additionally, after 14 (NC) and 22 (NE) rounds of treatment, the seasonal transmission potential (±UL CIs) of S. metallicum was under the critical threshold of 20 L3 per person per season. Serological analysis in school children < 15 years-old demonstrated that 0 out of 6,590 individuals were harboring antibodies to Ov-16. Finally, epidemiological surveys made during 2010 (NC) and 2012 (NE) showed no evidence of microfilariae in the skin and eyes of the population. Conclusions These results meet the WHO criteria for absence of parasite transmission and disease morbidity in these endemic areas which represent 91% of the population previously at

  20. Colon volvulus displaced into the chest – right-sided posttraumatic hernia or congenital malformation?

    PubMed Central

    Dębek, Wojciech; Matuszczak, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 13.5-year-old girl who was admitted to the Pediatric Surgery Department from the Pediatric Department of a district hospital, where she stayed because of stomachache and vomiting. Interview revealed blunt injury of the epigastrium a week ago. Chest X-ray revealed a loss of the right diaphragmatic outline, irregular radiolucency on the right side of the chest, collapsed right lung and mediastinal displacement to the left. The patient was operated on, and the surgery revealed herniation of the intestines and half of the stomach into the defect of the right dome of the diaphragm. The patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery. A small innate defect of the diaphragm can remain asymptomatic and undiagnosed as long as there is no herniation of the abdominal organs into the chest.

  1. A diagnostic skin test for Onchocerca volvulus infection.

    PubMed

    Ngu, J L; Ndumbe, P M; Titanji, V; Leke, R

    1981-09-01

    Onchocerca supernatant (OS) was prepared by a technique permitting live microfilariae to migrate from nodule tissue through agar gel into sterile Hanks balanced salt/Penicillin-Streptomycin solution where they metabolized. The OS, after dialysis, was passed through Seitz viral filter and either concentrated or lyophilized. Using rabbit antiserum in immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis tests, microfilariae proteins and also human protein were detected in out OS. No common antigens were found between this and somatic extracts of Loa loa, O. gutturosa, O. volvulus, L. carinii, D. immittis and A. lumbricoides. 125I labelled OS was purified by passage through protein A column and then through immunosorbent column of horse anti-human serum linked to CNB-activated sepharose 4B. Autoradiography, after sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacylamide slab gel eletrophoresis of purified OS, showed 10 protein bands in the molecular range 10,000 to 125,000. Skin prick tests with OS, shown not to be contaminated with Hepatitis B antigens, elicited immediate hypersensitivity reaction. Using our criteria, positive reactions were seen in 81% of proven onchocerca cases and only occasionally in Loasis 4.5%, ascaridiasis 13.5% or healthy controls 2.4%. The poor skin reactivity to OS in loasis was not due to immunosuppression as these patients, when also infested with ascaris, reacted just as well as onchocerca patients with ascaris to skin prick test using somatic extracts of ascaris. PMID:6808726

  2. An unexpected cause of small bowel obstruction in an adult patient: midgut volvulus.

    PubMed

    Söker, Gökhan; Yılmaz, Cengiz; Karateke, Faruk; Gülek, Bozkurt

    2014-01-01

    The most important complication of intestinal malrotation is midgut volvulus because it may lead to intestinal ischaemia and necrosis. A 29-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain. Ultrasonography (US), colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS), CT and barium studies were carried out. On US and CDUS, twisting of intestinal segments around the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and superior mesenteric vein (SMV) and alteration of the SMA-SMV relationship were detected. CT demonstrated that the small intestine was making a rotation around the SMA and SMV, which amounted to more than 360°. The upper gastrointestinal barium series revealed a corkscrew appearance of the duodenum and proximal jejunum, which is a pathognomonic finding of midgut volvulus. Prior knowledge of characteristic imaging findings of midgut volvulus is essential in order to reach proper diagnosis and establish proper treatment before the development of intestinal ischaemia and necrosis. PMID:24811563

  3. [Angiodysplasia of the colon].

    PubMed

    Bruni, R; Rossodivita, I; Santoro, M; La Banca, G; Rollo, R; Putti, R

    1990-01-01

    The Authors report their experience with a case of angiodysplasia of the colon. It is outlined how these lesions can be demonstrated by angiography and colonoscopy. The pathophysiology, diagnosis and management are discussed as well. PMID:2223469

  4. Primary intrathoracic gastric volvulus in the neonatal period: a differential diagnosis of esophageal atresia

    PubMed Central

    El Azzouzi, Driss

    2014-01-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in the neonatal period is a rare surgical emergency. Delays in diagnosis and treatment are life-threatening due to progressive deterioration of the gastric walls. Presentation in this period can be confused with the possibility of esophageal atresia or esophageal web. The upper gastrointestinal tract contrast study is diagnostic in this disease. The authors report a case of acute intrathoracic gastric volvulus diagnosis by radiologic-contrast-study in 1-day-old girl that was confirmed at surgery. The physiopathology, classification and different presentations of this entity are briefly reviewed. PMID:25309661

  5. Connecting bacterial colonization to physical and biochemical changes in a sand box infiltration experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubol, S.; Freixa, A.; Carles-Brangarí, A.; Fernàndez-Garcia, D.; Romaní, A. M.; Sanchez-Vila, X.

    2014-09-01

    Infiltration through sediments is linked to complex biogeochemical processes occurring at small spatial scales, often leading to a progressive reduction in infiltration rates due to microbial growth and/or mechanical clogging. Unraveling the linkage between microbial dynamics and water infiltration in a heterogeneous medium is of concern in artificial recharge ponds and natural infiltration systems. We present an 84-day laboratory infiltration experiment that aims at studying the temporal variation of selected biogeochemical parameters at different depths along the infiltration path. The experimental setup consists of a 1.2 m high tank packed with a heterogeneous soil and instrumented with arrays of sensors as well as soil and liquid samplers. Results indicate that: (i) microbial processes are responsible for infiltration reduction, enhancing the spatially heterogeneous distribution of infiltration rates with time, (ii) bacteria and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are present at all monitored depths, indicating the potential for deep biological clogging, (iii) bacteria functioning and richness exhibit depth zonation after the system reaches a mature state and (iv) the retention curve changes towards highest saturation by the end of the experiment. The increase in water holding capacity is largest at depth, where the presence of EPS is noticeable. The reduction in time of the quantity of water infiltrating along the tank can only be accounted for with a truly interdisciplinary approach involving physical, chemical and biological processes.

  6. Elimination of Onchocerca volvulus Transmission in the Huehuetenango Focus of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Ortiz, Nancy; Gonzalez, Rodrigo J; Lindblade, Kim A; Richards, Frank O; Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Zea-Flores, Guillermo; Dominguez, Alfredo; Oliva, Orlando; Catú, Eduardo; Rizzo, Nidia

    2012-01-01

    In Latin America, onchocerciasis is targeted for elimination by 2012 through twice-yearly mass treatment of the eligible population with ivermectin. In Guatemala, two of the four historical endemic foci have demonstrated elimination of transmission, following World Health Organization guidelines. Using established guidelines ophthalmological, serological, and entomological evaluations were conducted in 2007-8 to determine the transmission status of onchocerciasis in the Huehuetenango focus. The prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in the anterior segment of the eye in 365 residents was 0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0-0.8%), the prevalence of infection of O. volvulus in Simulium ochraceum among 8252 flies collected between November 2007 and April 2008 was 0% (95% CI 0-0.02%), and the prevalence of antibodies to a recombinant O. volvulus antigen in 3118 school age children was 0% (95% CI 0-0.1%). These results showed transmission interruption; thus, in 2009 mass treatment was halted and posttreatment surveillance began. To verify for potential recrudescence an entomological evaluation (from December 2010 to April 2011) was conducted during the 2nd and 3rd year of posttreatment surveillance. A total of 4587 S. ochraceum were collected, and the prevalence of infection of O. volvulus was 0% (95% CI 0-0.04%). Transmission of onchocerciasis in the Huehuetenango focus has been eliminated. PMID:22970346

  7. Acute gastric volvulus: a deadly but commonly forgotten complication of hiatal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Brandon; Vincentelli, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Gastric volvulus is a rare condition resulting from rotation of the stomach beyond 180 degrees. It is a difficult condition to diagnose, mostly because it is rarely considered. Furthermore, the imaging findings are often subtle resulting in many cases being diagnosed at the time of surgery or, as in our case, at autopsy. We present the case of a 76-year-old man with an extensive medical history, including coronary artery disease with multiple bypass grafts, who became diaphoretic and nauseated while eating. His presumptive diagnosis at arrival to the hospital was an acute coronary event; however, his initial cardiac work-up was negative. A computed tomography scan revealed a type III hiatal hernia. The following day, after consistent complaints of nausea and episodes of nonbloody emesis, he suddenly became hypotensive, tachycardic and had an episode of coffee-ground emesis. Subsequently, the patient's condition suddenly deteriorated and resuscitation attempts were unsuccessful. The autopsy revealed a partially sliding hiatal hernia, which was consistent with the radiologic impression. Additionally, a gastric volvulus was present with extensive, focally transmural necrosis involving the body/fundus. Gastric volvulus is a rare entity with variable, nonspecific clinical presentations, which requires a high level of suspicion for radiologic diagnosis. Acute cases have a high mortality rate and require emergency surgery. This case highlights the value of autopsy in the diagnosis of unsuspected cases of gastric volvulus when death occurs prior to surgical intervention. PMID:27284537

  8. Ultrasonographic findings in cows with right displacement of the abomasum and abomasal volvulus.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Feller, B

    2008-03-01

    Seventeen cows with right displacement of the abomasum (rda) without abomasal volvulus, nine cows with abomasal volvulus and 10 clinically healthy cows were examined ultrasonographically. A 5.0 MHz transducer was used to scan the eighth to 12th intercostal spaces and the cranial and caudal aspects of the flank on the right side. The position, size and dorsal and ventral margins of the abomasum were determined at each imaging position. In both groups of diseased cows, the ventral abomasum contained fluid ingesta, which appeared hypoechogenic with diffuse echogenic stippling. The abomasal folds could be seen clearly as echogenic sickle-shaped structures within the ingesta. The dorsal abomasal gas cap varied in size and was characterised by reverberation artefacts, which appeared as echogenic lines running parallel to the body surface. Compared with the healthy cows, the abomasum was larger and located significantly closer to the midline of the dorsum in both groups of cows. Compared with the cows with rda, the abomasum in the cows with abomasal volvulus was significantly smaller in the eighth intercostal space and significantly larger in the 11th intercostal space. It was not possible to differentiate between rda and abomasal volvulus on the basis of the ultrasonographic findings. PMID:18326843

  9. Longitudinal Rates of Colon Cancer Screening Use in Winnipeg, Canada: The Experience of a Universal Health-Care System with an Organized Colon Screening Program

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Kathleen M; Demers, Alain A; Nugent, Zoann; Biswanger, Natalie; Singh, Harminder

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined trends in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening (fecal occult blood test (FOBT), colonoscopy, and flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS)) and differences in CRC screening by income in a population with an organized CRC screening program and universal health-care coverage. METHODS: Individuals who had an FOBT, colonoscopy, or FS were identified from the provincial Physician Claims database and the population-based colon cancer screening registry. Trends in age-standardized rates were determined. Logistic regression was performed to explore the association between CRC screening and income quintiles by year. RESULTS: Up-to-date CRC screening (FOBT, colonoscopy, or FS) increased over time for men and women, all age groups, and all income quintiles. Up-to-date CRC screening was very high among 65- to 69- and 70- to 74-year-olds (70% and 73%, respectively). There was a shift toward the use of an FOBT for CRC screening for individuals in the lower income quintiles. The disparity in colonoscopy/FS coverage by income quintile was greater in 2012 than in 1995. Overall, there was no reduction in disparities by income in up-to-date CRC screening nor did the rate of increase in up-to-date CRC screening or FOBT use change after the introduction of the organized provincial CRC screening program. CONCLUSIONS: CRC screening is increasing over time for both men and women and all age groups. However, a disparity in up-to-date CRC screening by income persisted even with an organized CRC screening program in a universal health-care setting. PMID:26169513

  10. Successful Interruption of Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Escuintla-Guatemala Focus, Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Rodrigo J.; Cruz-Ortiz, Nancy; Rizzo, Nidia; Richards, Jane; Zea-Flores, Guillermo; Domínguez, Alfredo; Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Catú, Eduardo; Oliva, Orlando; Richards, Frank O.; Lindblade, Kim A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Elimination of onchocerciasis (river blindness) through mass administration of ivermectin in the six countries in Latin America where it is endemic is considered feasible due to the relatively small size and geographic isolation of endemic foci. We evaluated whether transmission of onchocerciasis has been interrupted in the endemic focus of Escuintla-Guatemala in Guatemala, based on World Health Organization criteria for the certification of elimination of onchocerciasis. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted evaluations of ocular morbidity and past exposure to Onchocerca volvulus in the human population, while potential vectors (Simulium ochraceum) were captured and tested for O. volvulus DNA; all of the evaluations were carried out in potentially endemic communities (PEC; those with a history of actual or suspected transmission or those currently under semiannual mass treatment with ivermectin) within the focus. The prevalence of microfilariae in the anterior segment of the eye in 329 individuals (≥7 years old, resident in the PEC for at least 5 years) was 0% (one-sided 95% confidence interval [CI] 0–0.9%). The prevalence of antibodies to a recombinant O. volvulus antigen (Ov-16) in 6,432 school children (aged 6 to 12 years old) was 0% (one-sided 95% IC 0–0.05%). Out of a total of 14,099 S. ochraceum tested for O. volvulus DNA, none was positive (95% CI 0–0.01%). The seasonal transmission potential was, therefore, 0 infective stage larvae per person per season. Conclusions/Significance Based on these evaluations, transmission of onchocerciasis in the Escuintla-Guatemala focus has been successfully interrupted. Although this is the second onchocerciasis focus in Latin America to have demonstrated interruption of transmission, it is the first focus with a well-documented history of intense transmission to have eliminated O. volvulus. PMID:19333366

  11. Human colonic myocytes are involved in postischemic inflammation through ADAM17-dependent TNFα production

    PubMed Central

    Jarry, Anne; Bach-Ngohou, Kalyane; Masson, Damien; Dejoie, Thomas; Lehur, Paul-Antoine; Mosnier, Jean-François; Denis, Marc G; Laboisse, Christian L

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify human colonic resident cells able to initiate an inflammatory response in postischemic injury. Postischemic colonic injury, a condition relevant to various clinical settings, involves an inflammatory cascade in intestinal tissues through the recruitment of circulating inflammatory cells. However, there is no information on the nature of resident cells of the different intestinal layers able to initiate a postischemic inflammatory response. It is however an important issue in the context of a pharmacological approach of the early phase of intestinal ischemia. We reasoned that maintaining the different colonic layers as explant cultures in an oxygenated medium immediately after colonic resection, that is, after an ischemic period, would allow one to identify the resident cells able to initiate an inflammatory cascade, without interference of recruited inflammatory/immune cells. To this end, we designed an explant culture system that operationally defines three compartments in surgical specimens of the human colon, based on the microdissected layers, that is, mucosa, submucosa (containing muscularis mucosae) and muscularis propria. To validate the results obtained in explant cultures in the clinical setting of ischemic colitis, eight cases of sigmoid volvulus were examined. Only the myocytes-containing explants produced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), via an ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17)-dependent pathway, as shown by the abrogation of TNFα production by the inhibitor Tapi-2. Immunofluorescence studies identified nonvascular and vascular myocytes as resident cells coexpressing TNFα and ADAM17, both in our postischemic explant system and in surgical specimens from ischemic colitis patients. Finally, time-course experiments on explanted tissues showed that TNFα production by myocytes was an early event triggered by a postischemic oxidative stress involving nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). In conclusion

  12. Ischaemia/reperfusion injury in experimentally induced abomasal volvulus in sheep.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, K; Mostaghni, K; Maleki, M; Badiei, K

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate ischaemia/reperfusion injury in simulated abomasal volvulus in sheep. Sixteen ewes were randomly allocated to three groups. The control group (n=4) served as sham-operated controls. The animals of the ischaemia group and reperfusion group (n=6, each) underwent a simulated 'abomasal volvulus'. The abomasum was exteriorized under general inhalation anesthesia and forced into a 180( composite function) anticlockwise rotation around its longitudinal axis, followed by another 270( composite function) anticlockwise rotation around its transectional axis. All ewes were monitored for 4 h. In the reperfusion group, volvulus was released after 3 h (i.e., 1 h of reperfusion). In the ischaemia group, the volvulus remained for 4 h (no reperfusion). Vital signs were monitored and some haematological and biochemical parameters were measured, without any significant differences. Full-section biopsy specimens were taken at the 3rd and 4th hours from the greater curvature of the abomasum. Histopathological lesions were scored according to the severity of mucosal oedema, submucosal oedema, haemorrhage submucosal and submuscularis layers, and polymorphonuclear infiltration on a scale of 0 to 4 (nil, mild, moderate, severe, and extreme). Another biopsy specimen was taken at the 4th hour for transmission electron microscopic examination. The scored lesions in light-microscopic examination were significantly different at the 3rd and 4th hours between the control and the experimental groups (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between the reperfusion and ischaemia groups (p>0.1). Within-group comparisons (3rd hour with 4th hour) revealed no significant differences. In transmission electron microscopic examination there were no remarkable changes in the control group, but in the ischaemia and reperfusion groups there were remarkable cellular (epithelial and goblet cells), mitochondrial and microvillous changes that strongly implied the

  13. Low Enteric Colonization with Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens in Soldiers Returning from Deployments- Experience from the Years 2007-2015.

    PubMed

    Frickmann, Hagen; Wiemer, Dorothea; Frey, Claudia; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Hinz, Rebecca; Podbielski, Andreas; Köller, Thomas; Warnke, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This assessment describes the enteric colonization of German soldiers 8-12 weeks after returning from mostly but not exclusively subtropical or tropical deployment sites with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Between 2007 and 2015, 828 stool samples from returning soldiers were enriched in nonselective broth and incubated on selective agars for Enterobacteriaceae expressing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), VRE and MRSA. Identification and resistance testing of suspicious colonies was performed using MALDI-TOF-MS, VITEK-II and agar diffusion gradient testing (bioMérieux, Marcy-l'Étoile, France). Isolates with suspicion of ESBL were characterized by ESBL/ampC disc-(ABCD)-testing and molecular approaches (PCR, Sanger sequencing). Among the returnees, E. coli with resistance against third-generation cephalosporins (37 ESBL, 1 ESBL + ampC, 1 uncertain mechanism) were found in 39 instances (4.7%). Associated quinolone resistance was found in 46.2% of these isolates. Beta-lactamases of the blaCTX-M group 1 predominated among the ESBL mechanisms, followed by the blaCTX-M group 9, and blaSHV. VRE of vanA-type was isolated from one returnee (0.12%). MRSA was not isolated at all. There was no clear trend regarding the distribution of resistant isolates during the assessment period. Compared with colonization with resistant bacteria described in civilians returning from the tropics, the colonization in returned soldiers is surprisingly low and stable. This finding, together with high colonization rates found in previous screenings on deployment, suggests a loss of colonization during the 8- to 12-week period between returning from the deployments and assessment. PMID:27598775

  14. Wandering spleen with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in an adult male patient.

    PubMed

    Ooka, Minako; Kohda, Eiichi; Iizuka, Yuo; Nagamoto, Masashi; Ishii, Tomotaka; Saida, Yoshihisa; Shimizu, Norikazu; Gomi, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of wandering spleen (WS) complicated with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in a male adult. A 22-year-old man who had been previously treated for Wilson disease was admitted with severe abdominal pain. Radiological findings showed WS in the midline of the pelvic area. The stomach was mesenteroaxially twisted and intestinal non-rotation was observed. Radiology results did not show any evidence of splenic or gastrointestinal (GI) infarction. Elective emergency laparoscopy confirmed WS and intestinal non-rotation; however, gastric volvulus was not observed. It was suspected that the stomach had untwisted when gastric and laparoscopic tubes were inserted. Surgery is strongly recommended for WS because of the high risk of serious complications; however, some asymptomatic adult patients are still treated conservatively, such as the patient in this study. The present case is reported with reference to the literature. PMID:24349711

  15. Wandering spleen with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in an adult male patient

    PubMed Central

    Kohda, Eiichi; Iizuka, Yuo; Nagamoto, Masashi; Ishii, Tomotaka; Saida, Yoshihisa; Shimizu, Norikazu; Gomi, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of wandering spleen (WS) complicated with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in a male adult. A 22-year-old man who had been previously treated for Wilson disease was admitted with severe abdominal pain. Radiological findings showed WS in the midline of the pelvic area. The stomach was mesenteroaxially twisted and intestinal non-rotation was observed. Radiology results did not show any evidence of splenic or gastrointestinal (GI) infarction. Elective emergency laparoscopy confirmed WS and intestinal non-rotation; however, gastric volvulus was not observed. It was suspected that the stomach had untwisted when gastric and laparoscopic tubes were inserted. Surgery is strongly recommended for WS because of the high risk of serious complications; however, some asymptomatic adult patients are still treated conservatively, such as the patient in this study. The present case is reported with reference to the literature. PMID:24349711

  16. Development of Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae injected into Simulium species from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Eichner, M; Renz, A; Wahl, G; Enyong, P

    1991-07-01

    Microfilariae (mff) of the savanna and forest strains of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) were injected intrathoracically into adult females of Simulium damnosum Theobald sensu stricto, S.sirbanum Vajime & Dunbar, S.squamosum Enderlein and S.mengense Vajime & Dunbar. Nine days post infection (pi) 27-29% of the savanna mff and 31-38% of the forest strain had developed to third-stage larvae (L3), irrespective of the fly species, size or injection dose (5, 10 or 15 mff). Savanna flies supported the development of forest O.volvulus better than forest flies, in contrast to the results after per os infections. Therefore, in these four species of the S.damnosum complex from Cameroon, the peritrophic membrane is considered to be the main factor limiting the success rate of microfilarial development following the ingestion of blood infections, while the fly's haemolymph and intracellular environment play minor roles. PMID:1768922

  17. Exploiting the Polypharmacology of ß-Carbolines to Disrupt O. volvulus Molting

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is an infection caused by the filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus, which can eventually result in blindness. The lack of an effective macrofilaricide and the possible development of ivermectin-resistant strains of O. volvulus necessitate the need for alternative treatment strategies. We have shown that targeting the L3-stage-specific chitinase OvCHT1 impairs the shedding of the filarial cuticle. In our continued efforts to discover OvCHT1 inhibitors, we identified the β-carboline alkaloid scaffolding as a chitinase inhibitor that is capable of penetrating the worm cuticle. Herein, we disclose the rich polypharmacology of the β-carboline class of compounds as an approach to abrogate the molting of the parasite and thus the initiation of infection in the human host. PMID:25815157

  18. Exploiting the Polypharmacology of ß-Carbolines to Disrupt O. volvulus Molting.

    PubMed

    Gooyit, Major; Tricoche, Nancy; Javor, Sacha; Lustigman, Sara; Janda, Kim D

    2015-03-12

    Onchocerciasis is an infection caused by the filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus, which can eventually result in blindness. The lack of an effective macrofilaricide and the possible development of ivermectin-resistant strains of O. volvulus necessitate the need for alternative treatment strategies. We have shown that targeting the L3-stage-specific chitinase OvCHT1 impairs the shedding of the filarial cuticle. In our continued efforts to discover OvCHT1 inhibitors, we identified the β-carboline alkaloid scaffolding as a chitinase inhibitor that is capable of penetrating the worm cuticle. Herein, we disclose the rich polypharmacology of the β-carboline class of compounds as an approach to abrogate the molting of the parasite and thus the initiation of infection in the human host. PMID:25815157

  19. Gastric dilatation and volvulus in a brachycephalic dog with hiatal hernia.

    PubMed

    Aslanian, M E; Sharp, C R; Garneau, M S

    2014-10-01

    A brachycephalic dog was presented with an acute onset of retching and abdominal discomfort. The dog had a chronic history of stertor and exercise intolerance suggestive of brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome. Radiographs were consistent with a Type II hiatal hernia. The dog was referred and within hours of admission became acutely painful and developed tympanic abdominal distension. A right lateral abdominal radiograph confirmed gastric dilatation and volvulus with herniation of the pylorus through the hiatus. An emergency exploratory coeliotomy was performed, during which the stomach was derotated, and an incisional gastropexy, herniorrhaphy and splenectomy were performed. A staphylectomy was performed immediately following the exploratory coeliotomy. The dog recovered uneventfully. Gastric dilatation and volvulus is a potentially life-threatening complication that can occur in dogs with Type II hiatal hernia and should be considered a surgical emergency. PMID:24871205

  20. Le volvulus gastrique idiopathique aigu: à propos d'une nouvelle observation

    PubMed Central

    Abdelilah, Mouhsine; Jihad, Anzaoui; Rachid, Bouchentouf

    2013-01-01

    Le volvulus gastrique est une rotation anormale de l'estomac autour de son axe. La forme aiguë constitue une urgence chirurgicale. Le diagnostic est souvent retardé en raison d'une symptomatologie fréquemment non spécifique. Des signes respiratoires tels la dyspnée et le hoquet peuvent révéler cette pathologie. Les auteurs rapportent une nouvelle observation de volvulus gastrique aigu chez un adolescent de 17 ans, diagnostiqué par la tomodensitométrie, et confirmé par une intervention chirurgicale. Le traitement est chirurgical et consiste à détordre et fixer l'estomac pour prévenir la récidive. PMID:23503200

  1. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... red or processed meats Have colorectal polyps Have inflammatory bowel disease ( Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis ) Have a family history of colon cancer Have a personal history of breast cancer Some inherited diseases also increase the risk ...

  2. A Simple Isothermal DNA Amplification Method to Screen Black Flies for Onchocerca volvulus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Alhassan, Andy; Makepeace, Benjamin L.; LaCourse, Elwyn James; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Carlow, Clotilde K. S.

    2014-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is a debilitating neglected tropical disease caused by infection with the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus. Adult worms live in subcutaneous tissues and produce large numbers of microfilariae that migrate to the skin and eyes. The disease is spread by black flies of the genus Simulium following ingestion of microfilariae that develop into infective stage larvae in the insect. Currently, transmission is monitored by capture and dissection of black flies and microscopic examination of parasites, or using the polymerase chain reaction to determine the presence of parasite DNA in pools of black flies. In this study we identified a new DNA biomarker, encoding O. volvulus glutathione S-transferase 1a (OvGST1a), to detect O. volvulus infection in vector black flies. We developed an OvGST1a-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay where amplification of specific target DNA is detectable using turbidity or by a hydroxy naphthol blue color change. The results indicated that the assay is sensitive and rapid, capable of detecting DNA equivalent to less than one microfilaria within 60 minutes. The test is highly specific for the human parasite, as no cross-reaction was detected using DNA from the closely related and sympatric cattle parasite Onchocerca ochengi. The test has the potential to be developed further as a field tool for use in the surveillance of transmission before and after implementation of mass drug administration programs for onchocerciasis. PMID:25299656

  3. A simple isothermal DNA amplification method to screen black flies for Onchocerca volvulus infection.

    PubMed

    Alhassan, Andy; Makepeace, Benjamin L; LaCourse, Elwyn James; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Carlow, Clotilde K S

    2014-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is a debilitating neglected tropical disease caused by infection with the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus. Adult worms live in subcutaneous tissues and produce large numbers of microfilariae that migrate to the skin and eyes. The disease is spread by black flies of the genus Simulium following ingestion of microfilariae that develop into infective stage larvae in the insect. Currently, transmission is monitored by capture and dissection of black flies and microscopic examination of parasites, or using the polymerase chain reaction to determine the presence of parasite DNA in pools of black flies. In this study we identified a new DNA biomarker, encoding O. volvulus glutathione S-transferase 1a (OvGST1a), to detect O. volvulus infection in vector black flies. We developed an OvGST1a-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay where amplification of specific target DNA is detectable using turbidity or by a hydroxy naphthol blue color change. The results indicated that the assay is sensitive and rapid, capable of detecting DNA equivalent to less than one microfilaria within 60 minutes. The test is highly specific for the human parasite, as no cross-reaction was detected using DNA from the closely related and sympatric cattle parasite Onchocerca ochengi. The test has the potential to be developed further as a field tool for use in the surveillance of transmission before and after implementation of mass drug administration programs for onchocerciasis. PMID:25299656

  4. [Experience of the Pharmacotherapy against Appendix and Sigmoid Colon Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma with the Peritoneal Dissemination].

    PubMed

    Harada, Shingo; Tsuchida, Kazuhito; Shibuya, Taisuke; Doi, Yuki; Kikuchi, Akitomo; Mori, Koichi; Yabushita, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Takuo; Murakami, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Seiji; Fukushima, Tadao; Ike, Hideyuki; Nakayama, Takashi

    2015-10-01

    We report 2 cases of signet ring cell carcinoma of the appendix and colon. Case 1: A 61-year-old man was admitted for lower abdominal pain. Colonoscopy revealed an elevated lesion in the orifice of the appendix. Signet ring cell carcinoma was diagnosed on biopsy. The surgical findings showed multiple peritoneal dissemination nodules, while the primary tumor was unresectable owing to extensive invasion into the retroperitoneum. The histopathological findings were signet ring cell carcinoma, T4b (retroperitoneum), NX, P3, Stage Ⅳ. Although the patient received 14 courses of treatment with S-1 as postoperative chemotherapy, he died of his illness at 32 postoperative months. Case 2: A 76-year-old man was admitted for abdominal pain. Perforation of the lower gastrointestinal tract was diagnosed on abdominal CT, and an emergency operation was performed. The surgical findings demonstrated a large number of peritoneal dissemination nodules, cecal invasion of a sigmoid tumor, and perforation of the ascending colon. The primary tumor was thought to be unresectable, and the perforated segment was resected. The histopathological findings were signet ring cell carcinoma, T4b (cecum), NX, P3, Stage Ⅳ. Although 11 courses of treatment using FOLFIRI+Bev were administered as postoperative chemotherapy, the patient died of his illness at 26 postoperative months. PMID:26489568

  5. Colonic lipomas. Report of two unusual cases and review of the Mayo Clinic experience, 1976-1985.

    PubMed

    Taylor, B A; Wolff, B G

    1987-11-01

    Two cases of symptomatic submucosal lipomas of the large intestine are described. One occurred in a patient with familial multiple lipomatosis causing an intussusception and intermittent obstruction. The other caused subacute obstruction and rectal bleeding and was thought to represent a carcinoma. These two cases closely resemble those few patients with symptomatic lipomas of the colon that make up a small subgroup (6 percent) of a series of 91 patients with this diagnosis managed surgically at the Mayo Clinic between the years 1976 to 1985. The majority of patients in this series had lipomas that were entirely incidental findings usually associated with more significant pathology that dictated the operative procedures undertaken. Lipomas themselves may be managed by local excision only although segmental resection may be necessary in isolated cases. PMID:3677966

  6. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    NASA interest in colonization encompasses space tourism; space exploration; space bases in orbit, at L1, on the Moon, or on Mars; in-situ resource utilization; and planetary terraforming. Activities progressed during 2002 in areas such as Mars colonies, hoppers, and biomass; space elevators and construction; and in-situ consumables. PMID:12506926

  7. Onchocerca volvulus-neurotransmitter tyramine is a biomarker for river blindness.

    PubMed

    Globisch, Daniel; Moreno, Amira Y; Hixon, Mark S; Nunes, Ashlee A K; Denery, Judith R; Specht, Sabine; Hoerauf, Achim; Janda, Kim D

    2013-03-12

    Onchocerciasis, also known as "river blindness", is a neglected tropical disease infecting millions of people mainly in Africa and the Middle East but also in South America and Central America. Disease infectivity initiates from the filarial parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus, which is transmitted by the blackfly vector Simulium sp. carrying infectious third-stage larvae. Ivermectin has controlled transmission of microfilariae, with an African Program elimination target date of 2025. However, there is currently no point-of-care diagnostic that can distinguish the burden of infection--including active and/or past infection--and enable the elimination program to be effectively monitored. Here, we describe how liquid chromatography-MS-based urine metabolome analysis can be exploited for the identification of a unique biomarker, N-acetyltyramine-O,β-glucuronide (NATOG), a neurotransmitter-derived secretion metabolite from O. volvulus. The regulation of this tyramine neurotransmitter was found to be linked to patient disease infection, including the controversial antibiotic doxycycline treatment that has been shown to both sterilize and kill adult female worms. Further clues to its regulation have been elucidated through biosynthetic pathway determination within the nematode and its human host. Our results demonstrate that NATOG tracks O. volvulus metabolism in both worms and humans, and thus can be considered a host-specific biomarker for onchocerciasis progression. Liquid chromatography-MS-based urine metabolome analysis discovery of NATOG not only has broad implications for a noninvasive host-specific onchocerciasis diagnostic but provides a basis for the metabolome mining of other neglected tropical diseases for the discovery of distinct biomarkers and monitoring of disease progression. PMID:23440222

  8. Use of percutaneous endoscopic colostomy (PEC) to treat sigmoid volvulus: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Lucinda; Moran, Alex; Beaton, Ceri

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim: Percutaneous endoscopic colostomy provides an alternative management option for patients with recurrent sigmoid volvulus who are considered too high risk to undergo surgery. We reviewed the literature to assess whether the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines published in 2006 supporting the use of percutaneous endoscopic colostomy are still valid. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase. The exploded search terms “Percutaneous Endoscopic Colostomy” and “Sigmoid Volvulus” were used. Librarian support was used to ensure the maximum number of relevant articles were returned. Identified abstracts were then analyzed and included if they met the inclusion criteria. Results: Five observational studies and 5 case reports were identified that met the inclusion criteria. They provided data on 56 patients with recurrent sigmoid volvulus treated with percutaneous endoscopic colostomy placement. Sixteen of the 56 patients were treated with a single percutaneous endoscopic colostomy (PEC) tube while 38 patients were treated with 2 PEC tubes. For 2 patients the details of the procedure were unknown. Five patients developed major complications following the procedure: 1 patient developed peritonitis after 4 days, due to fecal contamination secondary to tube migration and 2 patients with cognitive impairment pulled their PEC tubes out. Two other patients died following PEC insertion. Nine patients developed minor complications following the procedure. The most commonly reported minor complication was infection at the PEC site. Four of 56 patients developed a recurrent sigmoid volvulus with a PEC tube in situ. Conclusion: Although in these case series there is a 21 % risk of morbidity and 5 % risk of mortality from the use of a PEC, this is favorable compared to the mortality risk of 6.6 % to 44 % reported with operative intervention. This review of contemporary

  9. Neonatal obstructed Treitz’s hernia with abdominal cocoon simulating volvulus neonatorum

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ramnik V; Lawther, Suzanne; Starzyk, Bozena; de la Hunt, Michael N

    2013-01-01

    A case of congenital obstructed Treitz's hernia presenting with bilious vomiting in a newborn baby girl has been presented. Internal herniation of contents within a peritoneal sac of the right paramesocolic hernia formed abdominal cocoon which simulated volvulus neonatorum. Plain radiographs and contrast studies were helpful in defining the nature and extent of the lesion. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy, reduction of small bowel contents from the hernial sac forming an abdominal cocoon, Ladd's procedure to correct associated midgut malrotation with incidental appendicectomy uneventfully and recovered well. PMID:23832996

  10. Preliminary studies on the histochemical differentiation of strains of Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in Togo*

    PubMed Central

    Braun-Munzinger, R. A.; Southgate, B. A.

    1977-01-01

    Skin snips were taken from 75 people living in four villages of northern Togo. The 7824 microfilariae that emerged were examined by staining for the presence of acid phosphatase. Four distinct patterns of enzyme staining were observed, and descriptions of the stained microfilariae are given. The study confirms the view that a number of biological strains or variants of Onchocerca volvulus coexist in West Africa, and suggestions are made for further research that could result in the practical application of these observations in onchocerciasis control programmes. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:303958

  11. Small Bowel Ischemia due to Jejunum Volvulus in Pregnancy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Vassiliou, Ioannis; Tympa, Aliki; Derpapas, Michalis; Kottis, Georgios; Vlahos, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of intestinal obstruction in pregnancy is difficult, as the symptoms may mimic pregnancy-associated complaints. The surgical management is challenging, as the mortality rate of midgut volvulus in pregnancy is high. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman at 21 weeks and 5 days of gestation with small bowel obstruction who presented to our institution with a 24 h history of colicky abdominal pain and nausea and who finally had a successful open repair. PMID:23304583

  12. DNA vaccine encoding the moonlighting protein Onchocerca volvulus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Ov-GAPDH) leads to partial protection in a mouse model of human filariasis.

    PubMed

    Steisslinger, Vera; Korten, Simone; Brattig, Norbert W; Erttmann, Klaus D

    2015-10-26

    River blindness, caused by the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus, is a major socio-economic and public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. In January 2015, The Onchocerciasis Vaccine for Africa (TOVA) Initiative has been launched with the aim of providing new tools to complement mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin, thereby promoting elimination of onchocerciasis in Africa. In this context we here present Onchocerca volvulus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Ov-GAPDH) as a possible DNA vaccine candidate. We report that in a laboratory model for filariasis, immunization with Ov-GAPDH led to a significant reduction of adult worm load and microfilaraemia in BALB/c mice after challenge infection with the filarial parasite Litomosoides sigmodontis. Mice were either vaccinated with Ov-GAPDH.DNA plasmid (Ov-pGAPDH.DNA) alone or in combination with recombinantly expressed Ov-GAPDH protein (Ov-rGAPDH). During the following challenge infection of immunized and control mice with L. sigmodontis, those formulations which included the DNA plasmid, led to a significant reduction of adult worm loads (up to 57% median reduction) and microfilaraemia (up to 94% reduction) in immunized animals. In a further experiment, immunization with a mixture of four overlapping, synthetic Ov-GAPDH peptides (Ov-GAPDHpept), with alum as adjuvant, did not significantly reduce worm loads. Our results indicate that DNA vaccination with Ov-GAPDH has protective potential against filarial challenge infection in the mouse model. This suggests a transfer of the approach into the cattle Onchocerca ochengi model, where it is possible to investigate the effects of this vaccination in the context of a natural host-parasite relationship. PMID:26320419

  13. Autopsy findings for a case of acute gastric volvulus in a child.

    PubMed

    Kozawa, Shuji; Murakami, Tomonori; Kakizaki, Eiji; Ikemura, Mayumi; Nakagawa, Yasuhisa; Kiyofuji, Yuma; Ikematsu, Kazuya; Nata, Masayuki

    2015-09-01

    Acute gastric volvulus resulting in abdominal compartment syndrome was determined to be the cause of death in a 4-year-old girl who presented with abdominal distension. At about 1AM on the day of her death, she was brought to our emergency medical center. Physical examination and plain abdominal X-ray revealed pronounced gastric dilatation. A decompression procedure was performed, followed by observation. She went into cardiopulmonary arrest around 1PM on the same day and died. Postmortem investigation, including an autopsy and computed tomography (CT), was performed to determine the cause of death. The findings included that the stomach was severely distended. Evidence was seen of mucosal hemorrhage in the gastric mucosa on the greater curvature side, which was thinned in places but without perforation. No necrosis of the gastric mucosa was observed; reversible changes were evident on histopathological examination. The postmortem CT images suggested that the pyloric region was positioned cranioventrally to the cardiac region. None of the findings indicated sudden blockage, and the cause of death was determined to be acute gastric volvulus resulting in abdominal compartment syndrome. The abnormal placement of the organs was difficult to determine based on physical examination alone; postmortem CT and careful examination were helpful in conducting the autopsy in this case. PMID:25957510

  14. Efficiency of Simulium sanctipauli as a vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the forest zone of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kutin, K; Kruppa, T F; Brenya, R; Garms, R

    2004-06-01

    The role of Simulium sanctipauli Vajime & Dunbar (Diptera: Simuliidae) as a vector of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) in the forest zone of central Ghana was studied in the Upper Denkyira district, where onchocerciasis is hyperendemic. Simulium sanctipauli was found to be a highly efficient vector, with a mean of 377 infective (L3) larvae in the heads of 1000 parous and 122 in the heads of 1000 biting flies. The overall infection rate of 44% of the parous flies with L1, L2 and L3 stages of O. volvulus (identity confirmed by polymerase chain reaction) demonstrates marked anthropophily. Female flies dispersed over a wide area and can transmit onchocerciasis up to at least 10 km away from their breeding sites. Annual community-directed treatments with ivermectin did not have a noticeable effect on the infection rates and parasitic loads of fly populations, which were as high 2 months after as 3 months before the distribution of ivermectin. This failure can be attributed to poor coverage, with treatment taken by only 24.4% of the population of the six study villages. PMID:15189242

  15. The novel cuticular collagen Ovcol-1 of Onchocerca volvulus is preferentially recognized by immunoglobulin G3 from putatively immune individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, G R; Zhu, Y; Parredes, W; Tree, T I; Guderian, R; Bradley, J E

    1997-01-01

    The cDNA sequence encoding an Onchocerca volvulus collagen, Ovcol-1, has been isolated and the corresponding native antigen has been identified. The cDNA encodes an open reading frame of 96 amino acid residues containing an uninterrupted 66-residue Gly-X-Y repeat triple-helical (TH) domain (where X and Y may be any amino acids) flanked by a 26-residue amino non-TH domain and a 4-residue carboxyl non-TH domain. The size (9.7 kDa) and structure of the deduced molecule are unique among previously identified collagen chains. This novel collagen type has been designated "mini-chain collagen." Native Ovcol-1 is aqueous soluble and resolves by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at 14.2 kDa under reducing conditions. Immunoelectron microscopy of adult female O. volvulus localized Ovcol-1 to the cuticles of both the adult worm and uterine microfilaria. A group of individuals from an area in Ecuador where O. volvulus is hyperendemic have been classified as putatively immune (PI) to O. volvulus infection. Analysis of the humoral immune responses to Ovcol-1 demonstrated that immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) of PI individuals preferentially recognized this antigen in comparison to IgG3 of infected individuals. PMID:8975907

  16. Transmission and dose–response experiments for social animals: a reappraisal of the colonization biology of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dose-response experiments characterize the relationship between infectious agents and their hosts. They are used to estimate the minimum e'ective infectious dose (ID50), compare between di'erent agents and quantify the e'ect of treatment regimes. The statistical analysis of dose-response data typica...

  17. Colon cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - colon cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on colon cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/index Colon Cancer Alliance -- www.ccalliance.org National ...

  18. Immunoglobulin G subclass responses of children during infection with Onchocerca volvulus.

    PubMed Central

    Gbakima, A A; Nutman, T B; Bradley, J E; McReynolds, L A; Winget, M D; Hong, Y; Scott, A L

    1996-01-01

    To characterize the patterns of immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass and IgE reactivity during the early stages of onchocerciasis, sera were collected from 224 children (age groups, 2 to 5, 6 to 10, and 11 to 15 years) residing in a region of Sierra Leone where Onchocerca volvulus is endemic, and these samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for their reactivity to adult antigens (OvAg) and against four recombinant proteins (OV11, OV27, OV29, and OV16). Over 88% of the samples contained detectable levels of anti-OvAg IgG. In samples from microfilaria (MF)-positive children, IgG4 responses were significantly elevated and constituted on average 39, 35 and 28% of the total IgG responses for the age groups of 2 to 5, 6 to 10, and 11 to 15 years, respectively. For MF-negative individuals, the mean contributions of IgG4 to the total IgG response were 11% (2 to 5 years), 27% (6 to 10 years), and 56% (11 to 15 years). OvAg-specific IgE was detectable in the sera from both MF-negative and MF-positive individuals. To increase the specificity of the response, recombinant antigens OV11, OV27, and OV29 were tested individually or as a cocktail. Nearly 50% of the MF-negative children and 85% of the MF-positive children had detectable levels of IgG against at least one of the recombinant antigens. Only a small portion of the IgG against the recombinant peptides was IgG4. The prevalence of IgG against OV16 in samples from MF-negative children was 51%, and that for MF-positive children was 75%. The general profile of the humoral immune responses mounted by both MF-positive and a large percentage of the MF-negative children during the initial phases of infection with O. volvulus is similar to the profile reported for adults harboring chronic O. volvulus infections. These results suggest that very quickly after infection, the interactions between parasite and host result in an immunological environment that may contribute to the maintenance of a long-term, chronic

  19. Exposure of seasonal migrant workers to Onchocerca volvulus on coffee plantations in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Lindblade, Kim A; Richards, Michael; Richards, Jane; Gonzalez, Rodrigo J; Cruz-Ortiz, Nancy; Zea-Flores, Guillermo; Morales, Alba Lucia; Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Castro, Julio; Catú, Eduard; Arana, Byron; Richards, Frank O; Klein, Robert E

    2009-09-01

    Onchocerciasis (river blindness), which is close to being eliminated from Guatemala through semiannual administration of ivermectin, is still transmitted in one area of the country that coincidentally receives an annual influx of migrant workers to harvest coffee. Migrant workers generally are not included in semiannual ivermectin treatments, but if infected could serve as a reservoir. We report on two studies undertaken to measure the exposure to onchocerciasis (presence of IgG4 antibodies to a recombinant Onchocerca volvulus antigen, OV-16) among migrant workers. During two coffee harvest seasons, 170 migrant workers with a history of working in the disease-endemic area were tested and 1 (0.6%, 95% confidence interval = 0-3.2%) was seropositive. This low rate of exposure in migrant workers indicates that they are unlikely to play a significant role in transmission of onchocerciasis and may indicate that transmission in the last remaining disease-endemic area of Guatemala is decreasing significantly. PMID:19706910

  20. Occurrence and recurrence of gastric dilatation with or without volvulus after incisional gastropexy

    PubMed Central

    Przywara, John F.; Abel, Steven B.; Peacock, John T.; Shott, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated recurrence of gastric dilatation without (GD) or with volvulus (GDV) after incisional gastropexy (IG) in dogs that underwent IG for prevention of GDV. Signalment, concurrent surgical procedures, presence of GD or GDV at the time of IG were obtained from medical records of dogs that underwent IG. Owners were contacted to determine whether the dogs experienced GD or GDV after IG, dates of postoperative GD or GDV episodes, survival status, date of death for deceased dogs. Gastric dilatation and GDV recurrence rates were calculated for 40 dogs that had at least 2 y follow-up from the time when IG was performed and for dogs that experienced GD or GDV during the follow-up period. No dogs experienced GDV after IG and 2 dogs (5.0%) experienced GD after IG. The results suggest that GD and GDV rates after IG may be comparable to recurrence rates after other methods of gastropexy. PMID:25320388

  1. Transmission and dose–response experiments for social animals: a reappraisal of the colonization biology of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Conlan, Andrew J. K.; Line, John E.; Hiett, Kelli; Coward, Chris; Van Diemen, Pauline M.; Stevens, Mark P.; Jones, Michael A.; Gog, Julia R.; Maskell, Duncan J.

    2011-01-01

    Dose–response experiments characterize the relationship between infectious agents and their hosts. These experiments are routinely used to estimate the minimum effective infectious dose for an infectious agent, which is most commonly characterized by the dose at which 50 per cent of challenged hosts become infected—the ID50. In turn, the ID50 is often used to compare between different agents and quantify the effect of treatment regimes. The statistical analysis of dose–response data typically makes the assumption that hosts within a given dose group are independent. For social animals, in particular avian species, hosts are routinely housed together in groups during experimental studies. For experiments with non-infectious agents, this poses no practical or theoretical problems. However, transmission of infectious agents between co-housed animals will modify the observed dose–response relationship with implications for the estimation of the ID50 and the comparison between different agents and treatments. We derive a simple correction to the likelihood for standard dose–response models that allows us to estimate dose–response and transmission parameters simultaneously. We use this model to show that: transmission between co-housed animals reduces the apparent value of the ID50 and increases the variability between replicates leading to a distinctive all-or-nothing response; in terms of the total number of animals used, individual housing is always the most efficient experimental design for ascertaining dose–response relationships; estimates of transmission from previously published experimental data for Campylobacter spp. in chickens suggest that considerable transmission occurred, greatly increasing the uncertainty in the estimates of dose–response parameters reported in the literature. Furthermore, we demonstrate that accounting for transmission in the analysis of dose–response data for Campylobacter spp. challenges our current understanding of

  2. Phosphorus homeostasis in dairy cows with abomasal displacement or abomasal volvulus.

    PubMed

    Grünberg, Walter; Constable, Peter; Schröder, Ulf; Staufenbiel, Rudolf; Morin, Dawn; Rohn, Marina

    2005-01-01

    Abnormal phosphorus homeostasis occurs in dairy cows with an abomasal displacement or volvulus. The goal of this study was to identify potential mechanisms for hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia in cows with a left displaced abomasum (LDA), right displaced abomasum (RDA), or abomasal volvulus (AV). Accordingly, the results of preoperative clinicopathologic analyses for 1,368 dairy cows with an LDA (n = 1,189), RDA, or AV (n = 179) (data set 1) and for 44 cows with an AV (data set 2) were retrieved. Laboratory values were compared by Student's t-tests, and correlation and regression analyses were performed. Thirty-four percent of the animals from data set 1 (463/1,368) were hypophosphatemic (serum phosphorus concentration ([Pi]) < 1.4 mmol/L), and 9% (122/1,368) were hyperphosphatemic ([Pi] >2.3 mmol/L). Serum [Pi] was significantly lower (P < .05) in cows with an LDA (1.60 +/- 0.53 mmol/L; mean +/- SD) than in cows with an RDA or AV (1.85 +/- 0.68 mmol/L). For cows with an LDA, [Pi] was correlated with serum urea nitrogen concentration ([SUN]) (r = 0.34) and serum concentration of magnesium ([Mg]) (r = 0.20). For cows with an RDA or AV, linear correlations existed between [Pi] and [SUN] (r = 0.45), [Mg] (r = 0.43), and serum chloride concentration ([Cl]) (r = -0.27). Stepwise logistic regression analysis indicated that low [SUN] and the diagnosis of an LDA had the strongest associations with hypophosphatemia. In cows with hyperphosphatemia, [Pi] was most strongly associated with azotemia. In cows with an AV, the strongest correlations with [Pi] were found for [SUN] and serum creatinine. We conclude that hypophosphatemia in cows with an LDA is primarily due to decreased feed intake. In contrast, hyperphosphatemia in cattle with an RDA or AV appears to result from dehydration and decreased renal blood flow. PMID:16355687

  3. LIFE Experiment: Isolation of Cryptoendolithic Organisms from Antarctic Colonized Sandstone Exposed to Space and Simulated Mars Conditions on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalzi, Giuliano; Selbmann, Laura; Zucconi, Laura; Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; Albertano, Patrizia; Onofri, Silvano

    2012-06-01

    Desiccated Antarctic rocks colonized by cryptoendolithic communities were exposed on the International Space Station (ISS) to space and simulated Mars conditions (LiFE— Lichens and Fungi Experiment). After 1.5 years in space samples were retrieved, rehydrated and spread on different culture media. Colonies of a green alga and a pink-coloured fungus developed on Malt-Agar medium; they were isolated from a sample exposed to simulated Mars conditions beneath a 0.1 % T Suprasil neutral density filter and from a sample exposed to space vacuum without solar radiation exposure, respectively. None of the other flight samples showed any growth after incubation. The two organisms able to grow were identified at genus level by Small SubUnit (SSU) and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) rDNA sequencing as Stichococcus sp. (green alga) and Acarospora sp. (lichenized fungal genus) respectively. The data in the present study provide experimental information on the possibility of eukaryotic life transfer from one planet to another by means of rocks and of survival in Mars environment.

  4. LIFE experiment: isolation of cryptoendolithic organisms from Antarctic colonized sandstone exposed to space and simulated Mars conditions on the international space station.

    PubMed

    Scalzi, Giuliano; Selbmann, Laura; Zucconi, Laura; Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; Albertano, Patrizia; Onofri, Silvano

    2012-06-01

    Desiccated Antarctic rocks colonized by cryptoendolithic communities were exposed on the International Space Station (ISS) to space and simulated Mars conditions (LiFE-Lichens and Fungi Experiment). After 1.5 years in space samples were retrieved, rehydrated and spread on different culture media. Colonies of a green alga and a pink-coloured fungus developed on Malt-Agar medium; they were isolated from a sample exposed to simulated Mars conditions beneath a 0.1 % T Suprasil neutral density filter and from a sample exposed to space vacuum without solar radiation exposure, respectively. None of the other flight samples showed any growth after incubation. The two organisms able to grow were identified at genus level by Small SubUnit (SSU) and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) rDNA sequencing as Stichococcus sp. (green alga) and Acarospora sp. (lichenized fungal genus) respectively. The data in the present study provide experimental information on the possibility of eukaryotic life transfer from one planet to another by means of rocks and of survival in Mars environment. PMID:22688852

  5. Volvulus - childhood

    MedlinePlus

    ... Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 95. Read More Abdominal pain Fetal development Intestinal obstruction Nausea and vomiting - adults Peritonitis - secondary ...

  6. Afferent Loop Syndrome after Roux-en-Y Total Gastrectomy Caused by Volvulus of the Roux-Limb

    PubMed Central

    Tahara, Kana; Yoshikawa, Kentaro; Lefor, Alan Kawarai; Kubota, Tadao; Mizokami, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Afferent loop syndrome is a rare complication of gastric surgery. An obstruction of the afferent limb can present in various ways. A 73-year-old man presented with one day of persistent abdominal pain, gradually radiating to the back. He had a history of total gastrectomy with a Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed dilation of the duodenum and small intestine in the left upper quadrant. Exploratory laparotomy showed volvulus of the biliopancreatic limb that caused afferent loop syndrome. In this patient, the 50 cm long limb was the cause of volvulus. It is important to fashion a Roux-limb of appropriate length to prevent this complication.

  7. CT Angiographic Demonstration of a Mesenteric Vessel "Whirlpool" in Intestinal Malrotation and Midgut Volvulus: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ugurel, Mehmet Sahin; Ustunsoz, Bahri; Coskun, Unsal

    2008-01-01

    Although the color Doppler ultrasonography diagnosis of intestinal malrotation with midgut volvulus, based on the typical "whirlpool" appearance of the mesenteric vascular structures is well-defined in the peer-reviewed literature, the combination of both the angiographic illustration of these findings and the contemporary state-of-the-art imaging techniques is lacking. We report the digital subtraction angiography and multidetector computed tomography angiography findings of a 37-year-old male with intestinal malrotation. PMID:18838858

  8. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in β-tubulin selected in Onchocerca volvulus following repeated ivermectin treatment: possible indication of resistance selection.

    PubMed

    Nana-Djeunga, Hugues; Bourguinat, Catherine; Pion, Sébastien D S; Kamgno, Joseph; Gardon, Jacques; Njiokou, Flobert; Boussinesq, Michel; Prichard, Roger K

    2012-09-01

    The control of onchocerciasis or river blindness by mass treatment of the population with ivermectin (IVM) has been a great success until now, so that in certain foci its elimination has become feasible. However, after more than 20 years of repeated IVM mass treatment, the disease still persists in many endemic countries. Sub-optimal responses and genetic changes have been reported in Onchocerca volvulus populations under high IVM pressure but more work is needed to determine whether resistance is developing. The situation needs to be urgently clarified to preserve the achievements of onchocerciasis control programs. In this study, O. volvulus adult worms were collected from the same individuals, before IVM exposure and following three years of annual or three-monthly treatments at 150 μg/kg or 800 μg/kg. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occurring in the β-tubulin gene of these parasites were investigated. We found changes in genotype frequencies in O. volvulus β-tubulin gene associated with IVM treatments. The SNP at position 1545 (A/G) showed a significant increase in frequency of the less common nucleotide in the female worms following treatment. After 13 three-monthly treatments, female worm homozygotes with the less common genotype, prior to treatment, increased in frequency. The selected homozygotes, as well as heterozygotes, appeared to be less fertile (without or with very few embryonic stages in their uteri) than the wild-type homozygotes. These results provide additional evidence for genetic selection and strengthen the warning that selection for IVM resistance may be occurring in some O. volvulus populations. PMID:22677339

  9. Analysis of Wuchereria bancrofti infections in a village community in northern Nigeria: increased prevalence in individuals infected with Onchocerca volvulus.

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, Fred; Oettl, Tobias; Herter, Ursula; Link, Claudia; Philipp, Diana; Edeghere, Henry; Kaliraj, P; Enwezor, Felicia

    2003-03-01

    Infections with Wuchereria bancrofti causing lymphatic filariasis still represent one of the major health problems in the tropics, with 120 million people infected and over 750 million exposed to this filarial parasite. We have studied lymphatic filariasis infections as part of a multi-parasite survey in a village community in the savannah of northern Nigeria. We analysed serum samples from 341 individuals aged 5-70 years, detecting a W. bancrofti circulating antigen using the commercially available ICT Filariasis card test. The prevalence of infections was 10% and clearly age-dependent, increasing from below 2% in children to over 20% in subjects older than 40 years. Measuring IgG4 antibodies against the recombinant W. bancrofti antigen SXP1 showed that 36% of all tested individuals had been at least exposed to the parasite. Antibody levels also increased very significantly with age. A further analysis measuring Onchocerca volvulus-specific IgG4 antibodies showed a very significant association between infections with O. volvulus and those with W. bancrofti. Our data show that infections with W. bancrofti in Nigeria are still a frequently occurring health problem, since they are more prevalent than previously reported, and that individuals with an O. volvulus infection are more often infected with W. bancrofti than expected statistically. PMID:12543143

  10. Liver Colonization Competence Governs Colon Cancer Metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Tsong-Hong; Kubota, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Masahiko; Furukawa, Toshiharu; Teramoto, Tatuso; Ishibiki, Kyuya; Kitajima, Masaki; Rahim Moosa, A.; Penman, Sheldon; Hoffman, Robert M.

    1995-12-01

    Tumors that metastasize do so to preferred target organs. To explain this apparent specificity, Paget, >100 years ago, formulated his seed and soil hypothesis; i.e., the cells from a given tumor would "seed" only favorable "soil" offered by certain organs. The hypothesis implies that cancer cells must find a suitable "soil" in a target organ-i.e., one that supports colonization-for metastasis to occur. We demonstrate in this report that ability of human colon cancer cells to colonize liver tissue governs whether a particular colon cancer is metastatic. In the model used in this study, human colon tumors are transplanted into the nude mouse colon as intact tissue blocks by surgical orthotopic implantation. These implanted tumors closely simulate the metastatic behavior of the original human patient tumor and are clearly metastatic or nonmetastatic to the liver. Both classes of tumors were equally invasive locally into tissues and blood vessels. However, the cells from each class of tumor behave very differently when directly injected into nude mouse livers. Only cells from metastasizing tumors are competent to colonize after direct intrahepatic injection. Also, tissue blocks from metastatic tumors affixed directly to the liver resulted in colonization, whereas no colonization resulted from nonmetastatic tumor tissue blocks even though some growth occurred within the tissue block itself. Thus, local invasion (injection) and even adhesion to the metastatic target organ (blocks) are not sufficient for metastasis. The results suggest that the ability to colonize the liver is the governing step in the metastasis of human colon cancer.

  11. Colon diverticula - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100158.htm Colon diverticula - series To use the sharing features on ... 6 out of 6 Normal anatomy Overview The colon, or large intestine, is a muscular tube that ...

  12. Colon cancer - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100157.htm Colon cancer - Series To use the sharing features on ... 5 out of 5 Normal anatomy Overview The colon, or large intestine, is a muscular tube that ...

  13. [The epidemiological significance of neo-natal parasitism with microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Prost, A; Gorim de Ponsay, E

    1979-12-01

    Between April 1977 and June 1978, 214 babies born of 210 mothers infected with Onchocerciasis, were examined at the maternity of Po Hospital (Upper Volta). In four of them (1.9%) dermal microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus were found during the first week after birth. In two other cases microfilariae were seen in the tissue of the umbilical cord. All specimens from placentas and amniotic fluid gave negative results. The infected babies were reexamined monthly monthly from 2 to 18 months, depending on the cases. One child remained positive until the 6th month follow-up. The base-line examination of 5.757 children less than 2 years old from different villages in the WHO Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River Basin Area showed that 1% of children less than one year old and 2% of children of 12 to 23 months old were carriers of dermal microfilariae. These results indicate that in meso- or hyperendemic areas children less than one year old and carriers of microfilariae of Onchocerca volbulus may have been infected in utero. The existence of such cases, in an area of vector control, does not prove a residual vector borne transmission. PMID:575449

  14. Viability of adult Onchocerca volvulus after six 2-weekly doses of ivermectin.

    PubMed Central

    Duke, B. O.; Pacqué, M. C.; Muñoz, B.; Greene, B. M.; Taylor, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    Ivermectin is a safe, effective microfilaricide and microfilarial suppressant for Onchocerca volvulus; but in single doses of 100-200 micrograms/kg body weight it has no macrofilaricidal action. The present trial aimed to determine whether 6 doses of 100 micrograms/kg ivermectin, given at 2-week intervals, would kill the adult worms. Eighty-two nodules from 28 otherwise healthy adult male Liberian patients treated with this ivermectin schedule, and 102 nodules from a similar group of 25 control patients, were removed four months after the last dose of ivermectin. They were coded and assessed in a masked fashion either by routine histology or by examination of whole worms extracted from the nodules after collagenase digestion. The drug had no visible effect on adult male worms. More adult female worms were assessed as moribund or dead in the ivermectin-treated group than in the control group (for the collagenase digests P = 0.09; for the histological assessment P = 0.47). The data suggest that repeated dosage with ivermectin may lead to a slow attrition of some female worms and this possibility should be investigated in patients receiving regular doses every 3, 6 or 12 months as part of onchocerciasis control programmes. PMID:1860146

  15. Perforated Gastric Gangrene without Pneumothorax in an Adult Bochdalek Hernia due to Volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, George Mathew; Ambady, Venugopal; Hariharan, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Bochdalek hernia is the most frequent congenital diaphragmatic hernia which occurs due to a defect in the posterior attachment of the diaphragm when there is a failure of closure of the pleuroperitoneal membrane in utero. It rarely presents for the first time in adults. We report one such case of a 23-year-old male patient who presented with an acute abdomen. Chest X-ray showed air under diaphragm and he was taken up for an emergency laparotomy. Intraoperatively an organoaxial volvulus of the stomach was found in a bochdaleks hernia with a focal gangrene of the stomach fundus with perforation and peritonitis. However, there was no breach of pleural cavity. A sleeve resection of the gangrenous portion of the stomach was performed and the diaphragmatic defect was repaired. Patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery. Gastric gangrene with perforation as a manifestation of the adult bochdalek hernia is indeed rare. A concomitant pneumothorax occurs along with this condition which requires an intercostal drainage tube prior to the laparotomy. We report this case for its unique presentation without pneumothorax. PMID:27190884

  16. Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in the Abu Hamed focus, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Higazi, Tarig B; Zarroug, Isam M A; Mohamed, Hanan A; Elmubark, Wigdan A; Deran, Tong Chor M; Aziz, Nabil; Katabarwa, Moses; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R; Mackenzie, Charles D; Richards, Frank; Hashim, Kamal

    2013-07-01

    Abu Hamed, Sudan, the northernmost location of onchocerciasis in the world, began community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in 1998, with annual treatments enhanced to semiannual in 2007. We assessed the status of the parasite transmission in 2011 entomologically, parasitologically, and serologically. O-150 pool screening showed no parasite DNA in 17,537 black flies collected in 2011 (95% confidence interval upper limit [95% CI UL] = 0.023). Skin microfilariae, nodules, and signs of skin disease were absent in 536 individuals in seven local communities. Similarly, no evidence of Onchocerca volvulus Ov16 antibodies was found in 6,756 school children ≤ 10 years (95% CI UL = 0.03%). Because this assessment of the focus meets the 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for interrupted transmission, treatment was halted in 2012, and a post-treatment surveillance period was initiated in anticipation of declaration of disease elimination in this area. We provide the first evidence in East Africa that long-term CDTI alone can interrupt transmission of onchocerciasis. PMID:23690554

  17. Meteorological influence on the occurrence of gastric dilatation-volvulus in military working dogs in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, George E.; Levine, Michael; Anderson, Johnna D.; Trapp, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a life-threatening condition in dogs and other species in which the stomach dilates and rotates on itself. The etiology of the disease is multi-factorial, but explicit precipitating causes are unknown. This study sought to determine if there was a significant association between changes in hourly-measured temperature and/or atmospheric pressure and the occurrence of GDV in the population of high-risk working dogs in Texas. The odds of a day being a GDV day, given certain temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions for that day or the day before, was estimated using logistic regression models. There were 57 days in which GDV(s) occurred, representing 2.60% of the days in the 6-year study period. The months of November, December, and January collectively accounted for almost half (47%) of all cases. Disease risk was negatively associated with daily maximum temperature. An increased risk of GDV was weakly associated with the occurrence of large hourly drops in temperature that day and of higher minimum barometric pressure that day and the day before GDV occurrence, but extreme changes were not predictive of the disease.

  18. Lack of Active Onchocerca volvulus Transmission in the Northern Chiapas Focus of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Morales-Castro, Alba L.; Richards, Frank; Peña-Flores, Graciela P.; Orozco-Algarra, María Eugenia; Prado-Velasco, Gibert

    2010-01-01

    The northern Chiapas onchocerciasis focus has undergone 11 years of ivermectin mass treatment. No evidence of microfilariae in the cornea and/or anterior chamber of the eye or in skin snips was seen in residents examined in 2006 in two sentinel communities (upper limit of the 95% confidence interval [UL 95% CI] = 0.5% and 0.3%, respectively). In children 10 and under, 0 of 305 were found to harbor antibodies to Ov16, a marker of parasite exposure; 0 of 4,400 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected in 2005 contained parasite DNA, giving an UL 95% CI for the infective rate of 0.9/2,000, and an UL 95% CI of the seasonal transmission potential of 1.2 L3/person. These data, assumed to be representative of the focus as a whole, suggest that there is no ongoing transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the northern Chiapas focus. Community-wide treatments with ivermectin were halted in 2008, and a post-treatment surveillance phase was initiated. PMID:20595471

  19. Peritoneal fluid analysis in dairy cows with left displaced abomasum and abomasal volvulus.

    PubMed

    Grosche, A; Fürll, M; Wittek, T

    2012-04-21

    Peritoneal fluid (PF) was evaluated in 40 cows with left displaced abomasum (LDA) and 15 cows with abomasal volvulus (AV). PF was obtained by abdominocentesis at the right ventral abdomen at admission. Simultaneously, a blood sample was taken from the jugular vein. Biochemical and cytological variables in blood and PF specific for ischaemia, inflammation and cell damage were compared. Total protein, albumin, glucose and cholesterol were normal in PF of cows with LDA and AV. Although L-lactate increased in both groups, cows with AV had significantly higher values (LDA: 1.47/0.69/2.68 mmol/l; AV: 6.45/4.55/12.89 mmol/l (median/1. quartile/3. quartile)). D-dimer (LDA: 0.50/0.22/0.88 mg/l; AV: 1.11/0.40/1.85 mg/l) and LDH (LDA: 663/437/943 U/l; AV: 1099/750/1439 U/l) were only increased in PF of cows with AV. The number of leucocytes was normal; however, significantly more peritoneal neutrophils appeared necrotic or apoptotic after AV. PF of cows with abomasal displacement showed distinctive features of ischaemia and inflammation. Characteristics of haemostatic dysfunction and cell damage were mainly evident in PF of cows with AV. The results suggest that anti-inflammatory therapy is indicated in each cow with abomasal displacement. Additionally, medical treatment should be directed to prevent complications of ischaemia and reperfusion in cows with AV. PMID:22383328

  20. A stochastic model for the aggregation of Onchocerca volvulus in nodules.

    PubMed

    Duerr, H P; Dietz, K; Buttner, D W; Schulz-Key, H

    2001-08-01

    A model is presented which describes the aggregation of female Onchocerca volvulus in nodules and their distribution in the human population. The basic model is based on a single parameter, the formation probability q, which represents the probability with which incoming larvae form a new nodule. This parameter describes parasite behaviour which cannot easily be recognized in available data without modelling. The estimate for the average formation probability of muq = 0.39 suggests an attraction of the invading infective larvae to already existing nodules or resident worms with probability 0.61. No significant difference in muq was found between the forest and savanna parasite strains. The model can be used inversely to estimate the worm burden of persons from palpation data. The observed variance in the number of nodules per person requires the assumption of a variance-increasing mechanism which was implemented by heterogeneity within the host population (extended model with 2 parameters). Possible reasons for this heterogeneity are presented and its implications concerning the reproductive biology of the parasite are discussed. PMID:11510685

  1. Histochemical enzyme-staining patterns of onchocerca volvulus microfilariae and their occurrence in different onchocerciasis areas.

    PubMed

    Omar, M S

    1978-12-01

    Histochemical differentiation of Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae from 164 patients in West African rain-forest (Liberia), Sudan-savanna (Upper Volta), Guatemala and the Yemen has been carried out using a staining method for the demonstration of acid phosphatase. Intrauterine microfilariae showed considerable changes in their enzyme activity during embryonic development which are probably associated with the maturation of the parasite before migration to the tissues. Five distinct types of staining patterns could be distinguished among microfilariae from the skin according to the localization of the enzyme in specific structures of the microfilaria. Two or more types of staining patterns were found in most persons in the different geographic regions. There were significant differences in the overall distribution of the various staining patterns in persons from the different areas. At the present state of our knowledge, little is known about the nature and significance of these differences in the staining patterns of microfilariae. The question of whether they can be ascribed to an ageing process, strain differences or other factors is discussed. PMID:84419

  2. Colon cancer - Series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Colon cancer is the third most common cancer in the United States. Risk factors include a diet low ... The treatment of colon cancer depends on the stage of the disease. Stage I cancer is limited to the inner lining of the colon; ...

  3. Cross-sectional study of the association of abomasal displacement or volvulus with serum electrolyte and mineral concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Lecaroz, R; Warnick, L D; Guard, C L; Smith, M C; Barry, D A

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate serum mineral and electrolyte concentrations at the time of on-farm diagnosis of left displaced abomasum, right displaced abomasum, or abomasal volvulus in dairy cows. Data were collected from 104 affected cows and 96 control cows matched with cases, based on herd, parity, and stage of lactation. Cows with abomasal displacement or volvulus had significantly lower calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, potassium, and chloride concentrations and increased anion gap at the time of diagnosis compared with control cows from the same herds. The percentages of cases and controls with total serum calcium concentrations below the lower limit of the laboratory reference range (2.08 mmol/L [8.3 mg/dL]) were 70% and 23%, respectively. Based on the large percentage of cases with hypocalcemia, administering calcium salts at the time of treatment of field cases of abomasal displacement or volvulus may be beneficial. PMID:10769767

  4. Cross-sectional study of the association of abomasal displacement or volvulus with serum electrolyte and mineral concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Lecaroz, R; Warnick, L D; Guard, C L; Smith, M C; Barry, D A

    2000-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate serum mineral and electrolyte concentrations at the time of on-farm diagnosis of left displaced abomasum, right displaced abomasum, or abomasal volvulus in dairy cows. Data were collected from 104 affected cows and 96 control cows matched with cases, based on herd, parity, and stage of lactation. Cows with abomasal displacement or volvulus had significantly lower calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, potassium, and chloride concentrations and increased anion gap at the time of diagnosis compared with control cows from the same herds. The percentages of cases and controls with total serum calcium concentrations below the lower limit of the laboratory reference range (2.08 mmol/L [8.3 mg/dL]) were 70% and 23%, respectively. Based on the large percentage of cases with hypocalcemia, administering calcium salts at the time of treatment of field cases of abomasal displacement or volvulus may be beneficial. PMID:10769767

  5. Acute gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen in an adult treated laparoscopically after endoscopic reduction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Omata, Jiro; Utsunomiya, Katsuyuki; Kajiwara, Yoshiki; Takahata, Risa; Miyasaka, Nobuo; Sugasawa, Hidekazu; Sakamoto, Naoko; Yamagishi, Yoji; Fukumura, Makiko; Kitagawa, Daiki; Konno, Mitsuhiko; Okusa, Yasushi; Murayama, Michinori

    2016-12-01

    A 43-year-old female was referred to our hospital for sudden onset of abdominal pain, fullness, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed abdominal distension with mild epigastric tenderness. Abdominal radiography showed massive gastric distension and plain computed tomography (CT) a markedly enlarged stomach filled with gas and fluid. A large volume of gastric contents was suctioned out via a nasogastric (NG) tube. Contrast-enhanced CT showed a grossly distended stomach with displacement of the antrum above the gastroesophageal junction, and the spleen was dislocated inferiorly. Upper gastrointestinal (GI) series showed the greater curvature to be elevated and the gastric fundus to be lower than normal. Acute mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus was diagnosed. GI endoscopy showed a distortion of the gastric anatomy with difficulty intubating the pylorus. Various endoscopic maneuvers were required to reposition the stomach, and the symptoms showed immediate and complete solution. GI fluoroscopy was performed 3 days later. Initially, most of the contrast medium accumulated in the fundus, which was drawn prominently downward, and then began flowing into the duodenum with anteflexion. Elective laparoscopic surgery was performed 1 month later. The stomach was in its normal position, but the fundus was folded posteroinferiorly. The spleen attached to the fundus was normal in size but extremely mobile. We diagnosed a wandering spleen based on the operative findings. Gastropexy was performed for the treatment of gastric volvulus and wandering spleen. The patient remained asymptomatic, and there was no evidence of recurrence during a follow-up period of 24 months. This report describes a rare adult case of acute gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen. Because delay in treatment can result in lethal complications, it is critical to provide a prompt and correct diagnosis and surgical intervention. We advocate laparoscopic surgery after endoscopic reduction because

  6. Are Organic Falls Bridging Reduced Environments in the Deep Sea? - Results from Colonization Experiments in the Gulf of Cádiz

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Marina R.; Matos, Fábio L.; Génio, Luciana; Hilário, Ana; Moura, Carlos J.; Ravara, Ascensão; Rodrigues, Clara F.

    2013-01-01

    Organic falls create localised patches of organic enrichment and disturbance where enhanced degradation is mediated by diversified microbial assemblages and specialized fauna. The view of organic falls as “stepping stones” for the colonization of deep-sea reducing environments has been often loosely used, but much remains to be proven concerning their capability to bridge dispersal among such environments. Aiming the clarification of this issue, we used an experimental approach to answer the following questions: Are relatively small organic falls in the deep sea capable of sustaining taxonomically and trophically diverse assemblages over demographically relevant temporal scales? Are there important depth- or site-related sources of variability for the composition and structure of these assemblages? Is the proximity of other reducing environments influential for their colonization? We analysed the taxonomical and trophic diversity patterns and partitioning (α- and β-diversity) of the macrofaunal assemblages recruited in small colonization devices with organic and inorganic substrata after 1-2 years of deployment on mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cádiz. Our results show that small organic falls can sustain highly diverse and trophically coherent assemblages for time periods allowing growth to reproductive maturity, and successive generations of dominant species. The composition and structure of the assemblages showed variability consistent with their biogeographic and bathymetric contexts. However, the proximity of cold seeps had limited influence on the similarity between the assemblages of these two habitats and organic falls sustained a distinctive fauna with dominant substrate-specific taxa. We conclude that it is unlikely that small organic falls may regularly ensure population connectivity among cold seeps and vents. They may be a recurrent source of evolutionary candidates for the colonization of such ecosystems. However, there may be a critical size of

  7. Severe Symptomatic Hypermagnesemia Associated with Over-the-Counter Laxatives in a Patient with Renal Failure and Sigmoid Volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Khairi, Talal; Amer, Syed; Spitalewitz, Samuel; Alasadi, Lutfi

    2014-01-01

    Hypermagnesemia is an uncommon but a potentially serious clinical condition. Over-the-counter magnesium containing products are widely used as antacids or laxatives. Although generally well tolerated in patients with normal renal function, their unsupervised use in the elderly can result in severe symptomatic hypermagnesemia, especially in those patients with concomitant renal failure and bowel disorders. We report a case of severe symptomatic hypermagnesemia associated with over-the-counter laxatives in a 70-year-old male patient with renal failure and sigmoid volvulus, who was successfully treated with hemodialysis. PMID:24563801

  8. A case of fatal sigmoid volvulus visualized on postmortem radiography: The importance of image optimization with multidetector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Usui, Akihito; Kawasumi, Yusuke; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Ishizuka, Yuya; Ikeda, Tomoya; Saito, Haruo; Funayama, Masato

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the case of a man who developed fatal sigmoid volvulus that was identified on postmortem radiography before forensic autopsy. Postmortem radiography is useful for visualizing the body prior to autopsy. We discuss postmortem multidetector computed tomography that was tailored for optimum image quality to allow reconstruction of the fatal findings in multiple axes and in three dimensions, helping to pinpoint the anatomical sites of interest. This involves techniques such as manipulation of the scanning beam pitch and overlapping CT section acquisition. These techniques are best performed by personnel with CT technology training. PMID:26980251

  9. The EndoRotor®: endoscopic mucosal resection system for non-thermal and rapid removal of esophageal, gastric, and colonic lesions: initial experience in live animals

    PubMed Central

    Hollerbach, Stephan; Wellmann, Axel; Meier, Peter; Ryan, Jeffery; Franco, Ramon; Koehler, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: The EndoRotor® is a novel, non-thermal, automated mechanical endoscopic resection system designed to remove benign mucosal neoplastic tissue throughout the gastrointestinal tract. It uses suction pressure to pull in mucosa and rapidly and precisely cut it while automatically transporting the samples to a collection trap for later histologic evaluation. Patients and methods: To study the technical properties and therapeutic potential of this new tool, we performed multiple upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopic mucosal resections in three healthy live pigs. Animals were anesthetized and kept artificially ventilated while two physicians performed multiple qualitative mucosal resections on various sites of the pigs’ esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and colon. Results: Rapid resection of flat and slightly elevated mucosa up to several centimeters in size/diameter was performed. No major bleeding occurred during and after resections. When used properly, no gastrointestinal wall perforations occurred during superficial resections. Perforations in the colon were only observed when the device was deliberately pushed against deeper sub-mucosal layers or when exceptional force was applied to penetrate the gastrointestinal wall. Histologic specimens showed complete mucosal removal at resection sites. The flexible catheter could be moved and directed towards most of the areas of interest in the gastrointestinal tract. Conclusion: The EndoRotor rapidly and easily resects flat and slightly elevated gastrointestinal mucosa with a short learning curve. Future studies in humans should be performed to prove its ability for large-area mucosal resections in benign conditions such as laterally spreading adenomas in the colon, or Barrett’s mucosa in the distal esophagus. PMID:27092332

  10. Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus by Simulium neavei in Mount Elgon focus of Eastern Uganda has been interrupted.

    PubMed

    Katabarwa, Moses; Lakwo, Tom; Habomugisha, Peace; Agunyo, Stella; Byamukama, Edson; Oguttu, David; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Tukesiga, Ephraim; Ochieng, Galex Orukan; Abwaimo, Francis; Onapa, Ambrose; Lwamafa, Dennis W K; Walsh, Frank; Unnasch, Thomas R; Richards, Frank O

    2014-06-01

    The study determined that Simulium neavei-transmitted onchocerciasis in Mount Elgon onchocerciasis focus had been interrupted. Annual mass treatment with ivermectin changed to two times per year along with vector elimination in 2007. Then, baseline microfilaria (mf) prevalence data of 1994 in five sentinel communities were compared with follow-up data in 2005 and 2011. Blood spots from 3,051 children obtained in 2009 were analyzed for Onchocerca volvulus immunoglobulin G4 antibodies. Fresh water crab host captures and blackflies collected indicated their infestation with larval stages of S. neavei and presence or absence of the vector, respectively. Mf rates dropped from 62.2% to 0.5%, and 1 (0.03%) of 3,051 children was positive for O. volvulus antibodies. Crab infestation dropped from 41.9% in 2007 to 0%, and S. neavei biting reduced to zero. Both remained zero for the next 3 years, confirming interruption of onchocerciasis transmission, and interventions were halted. PMID:24686740

  11. Is nodding syndrome an Onchocerca volvulus-induced neuroinflammatory disorder? Uganda's story of research in understanding the disease.

    PubMed

    Idro, Richard; Opar, Bernard; Wamala, Joseph; Abbo, Catherine; Onzivua, Sylvester; Mwaka, Deogratius Amos; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Mbonye, Anthony; Aceng, Jane R

    2016-04-01

    Nodding syndrome is a devastating neurological disorder, mostly affecting children in eastern Africa. An estimated 10000 children are affected. Uganda, one of the most affected countries, set out to systematically investigate the disease and develop interventions for it. On December 21, 2015, the Ministry of Health held a meeting with community leaders from the affected areas to disseminate the results of the investigations made to date. This article summarizes the presentation and shares the story of studies into this peculiar disease. It also shares the results of preliminary studies on its pathogenesis and puts into perspective an upcoming treatment intervention. Clinical and electrophysiological studies have demonstrated nodding syndrome to be a complex epilepsy disorder. A definitive aetiological agent has not been established, but in agreement with other affected countries, a consistent epidemiological association has been demonstrated with infection by Onchocerca volvulus. Preliminary studies of its pathogenesis suggest that nodding syndrome may be a neuroinflammatory disorder, possibly induced by antibodies to O. volvulus cross-reacting with neuron proteins. Histological examination of post-mortem brains has shown some yet to be characterized polarizable material in the majority of specimens. Studies to confirm these observations and a clinical trial are planned for 2016. PMID:26987477

  12. Usability of Elective Laparoscopic Sigmoidectomy and Feasibility of Single-Incision Laparoscopic Surgery for Sigmoid Volvulus: Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Masami; Onishi, Tadashi; Hata, Taishi; Nishida, Kentaro; Yanagawa, Takehiro; Fujita, Shoichiro; Fujita, Junya; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Tono, Takeshi; Monden, Takushi; Imaoka, Shingi; Mori, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    A therapeutic guideline for sigmoid volvulus (SV) has not been established, and the most recommended surgical procedure for SV has not been determined. Our objective is to assess the usability of elective laparoscopic sigmoidectomy and the feasibility of single-incision laparoscopic surgery for SV following endoscopic reduction. SV typically affects the elderly and accounts for 1% to 7% of intestinal obstructions in Western countries. We report on 3 patients with SV who underwent elective laparoscopic sigmoidectomy following endoscopic reduction, and we first describe single-port surgery for SV. We discuss the 3 patients (a 79-year-old male, an 88-year-old female, and a 67-year-old female) with SV who underwent elective laparoscopic sigmoidectomy following endoscopic reduction. All 3 patients underwent laparoscopic sigmoidectomy, and 2 patients underwent single-port laparoscopic surgery without complications. Recurrence of volvulus was not seen during the course of 12 to 24 months. In experienced hands, elective laparoscopic sigmoidectomy after colonoscopic detorsion is a valuable alternative, and single-port surgery is also feasible. PMID:25785318

  13. Usability of elective laparoscopic sigmoidectomy and feasibility of single-incision laparoscopic surgery for sigmoid volvulus: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Masami; Onishi, Tadashi; Hata, Taishi; Nishida, Kentaro; Yanagawa, Takehiro; Fujita, Shoichiro; Fujita, Junya; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Tono, Takeshi; Monden, Takushi; Imaoka, Shingi; Mori, Masaki

    2015-03-01

    A therapeutic guideline for sigmoid volvulus (SV) has not been established, and the most recommended surgical procedure for SV has not been determined. Our objective is to assess the usability of elective laparoscopic sigmoidectomy and the feasibility of single-incision laparoscopic surgery for SV following endoscopic reduction. SV typically affects the elderly and accounts for 1% to 7% of intestinal obstructions in Western countries. We report on 3 patients with SV who underwent elective laparoscopic sigmoidectomy following endoscopic reduction, and we first describe single-port surgery for SV. We discuss the 3 patients (a 79-year-old male, an 88-year-old female, and a 67-year-old female) with SV who underwent elective laparoscopic sigmoidectomy following endoscopic reduction. All 3 patients underwent laparoscopic sigmoidectomy, and 2 patients underwent single-port laparoscopic surgery without complications. Recurrence of volvulus was not seen during the course of 12 to 24 months. In experienced hands, elective laparoscopic sigmoidectomy after colonoscopic detorsion is a valuable alternative, and single-port surgery is also feasible. PMID:25785318

  14. Ongoing Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus after 25 Years of Annual Ivermectin Mass Treatments in the Vina du Nord River Valley, in North Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Eisenbarth, Albert; Achukwi, Mbunkah Daniel; Renz, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent reports of transmission interruption of Onchocerca volvulus, the causing agent of river blindness, in former endemic foci in the Americas, and more recently in West and East Africa, raise the question whether elimination of this debilitating disease is underway after long-term treatment of the population at risk with ivermectin. The situation in Central Africa has not yet been clearly assessed. Methods and findings Entomologic data from two former endemic river basins in North Cameroon were generated over a period of 43 and 48 months to follow-up transmission levels in areas under prolonged ivermectin control. Moreover, epidemiologic parameters of animal-borne Onchocerca spp. transmitted by the same local black fly vectors of the Simulium damnosum complex were recorded and their impact on O. volvulus transmission success evaluated. With mitochondrial DNA markers we unambiguously confirmed the presence of infective O. volvulus larvae in vectors from the Sudan savannah region (mean Annual Transmission Potential 2009–2012: 98, range 47–221), but not from the Adamawa highland region. Transmission rates of O. ochengi, a parasite of Zebu cattle, were high in both foci. Conclusions/significance The high cattle livestock density in conjunction with the high transmission rates of the bovine filaria O. ochengi prevents the transmission of O. volvulus on the Adamawa plateau, whereas transmission in a former hyperendemic focus was markedly reduced, but not completely interrupted after 25 years of ivermectin control. This study may be helpful to gauge the impact of the presence of animal-filariae for O. volvulus transmission in terms of the growing human and livestock populations in sub-Saharan countries. PMID:26926855

  15. Uptake of Onchocerca volvulus (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) by Simulium (Diptera: Simuliidae) is not strongly dependent on the density of skin microfilariae in the human host.

    PubMed

    Soumbey-Alley, Edoh; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Bissan, Yeriba; Boatin, Boakye A; Remme, Jan H F; Nagelkerke, Nico J D; de Vlas, Sake J; Borsboom, Gerard J J M; Habbema, J Dik F

    2004-01-01

    The relation between the number of microfilariae (mf) ingested by host-seeking vectors of human onchocerciasis and skin mf load is an important component of the population biology of Onchocerca volvulus, with implications for disease control and evaluation of the risk of transmission recrudescence. The microsimulation model ONCHOSIM has been used to assess such risk in the area of the Onchocerciasis Control Program (OCP) in West Africa, based on a strongly nonlinear relation between vector mf uptake and human mf skin density previously published. However, observed levels of recrudescence have exceeded predictions, warranting a recalibration of the model. To this end, we present the results of a series of fly-feeding experiments carried out in savanna and forest localities of West Africa. Flies belonging to Simulium damnosum s.s., S. sirbanum, S. soubrense, and S. leonense were fed on mf carriers and dissected to assess the number of ingested mf escaping imprisonment by the peritrophic matrix (the number of exo-peritrophic mf), a predictor of infective larval output. The method of instrumental variables was used to obtain (nearly) unbiased estimates of the parameters of interest, taking into account error in the measurement of skin mf density. This error is often neglected in these types of studies, making it difficult to ascertain the degree of density-dependence truly present in the relation between mf uptake and skin load. We conclude that this relation is weakly (yet significantly) nonlinear in savanna settings but indistinguishable from linearity in forest vectors. Exo-peritrophic mf uptake does not account for most of the density dependence in the transmission dynamics of the parasite as previously thought. The number of exo-mf in forest simuliids is at least five times higher than in the savanna vectors. Parasite abundance in human onchocerciasis is regulated by poorly known mechanisms operating mainly on other stages of the lifecycle. PMID:14989351

  16. A Case of Sigmoid Colon Tuberculosis Mimicking Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Seong-Min; Kim, Min-Dae; Lee, Hee-Ryong; Jung, Peel; Ryu, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Seung-Ho; Lee, Il-Seon

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the sigmoid colon is a rare disorder. An 80-year-old man visited Bongseng Memorial Hospital for medical examination. A colonoscopy was performed, and a lesion in the sigmoid colon that was suspected to be colon cancer was found. A biopsy was performed, and tuberculous enteritis with chronic granulomatous inflammation was diagnosed. Intestinal tuberculosis is most frequent in the ileocecal area, followed by the ascending colon, transverse colon, duodenum, stomach, and sigmoid colon, in descending order. Hence, we report a case of intestinal tuberculosis in the sigmoid colon, which is rare and almost indistinguishable from colon cancer. PMID:23185709

  17. Gastropexy for prevention of gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs: history and techniques.

    PubMed

    Allen, Philip; Paul, April

    2014-09-01

    Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a common and catastrophic disease of large and giant-breed dogs. Treatment of GDV includes medical stabilization followed by prompt surgical repositioning of the stomach in its normal anatomic position. To prevent reoccurrence, gastropexy is used to securely adhere the stomach to the body wall. Effective gastropexy decreases the recurrence of GDV from as high as 80% to less than 5%. The purpose of this article is to describe the history, indications, and techniques for gastropexy. Gastropexy was first reported in veterinary medicine in 1971 for the management of gastric reflux, and later in 1979 for treating and preventing the recurrence of GDV. Gastropexy is indicated in all dogs that undergo surgical correction of GDV. Additionally, prophylactic gastropexy should be strongly considered at the time of surgery in dogs undergoing splenectomy for splenic torsion and potentially other splenic pathology, and in dogs of at-risk breeds, such as Great Danes, that are undergoing exploratory celiotomy for any reason owing to evidence for increased risk of GDV in these patients. Although there are numerous techniques described, gastropexy is always performed on the right side of the abdomen, near the last rib. Ensuring an anatomically correct gastropexy location is vital to prevent postoperative complications such as partial pyloric outflow obstruction. Gastropexy can be performed as part of an open surgical approach to the abdomen or using a minimally invasive technique. When combined with surgical correction of GDV, gastropexy is almost always performed as an open procedure. The stomach is repositioned, the abdomen explored, and then a permanent gastropexy is performed. Techniques used for open gastropexy include incisional, belt-loop, circumcostal, and incorporating gastropexy, as well as gastrocolopexy. Each of these has been described later. Incisional gastropexy is currently the most commonly performed method of surgical gastropexy

  18. A Recombinant Positive Control for Serology Diagnostic Tests Supporting Elimination of Onchocerca volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Allison; Stevens, Eric J.; Yokobe, Lindsay; Faulx, Dunia; Kalnoky, Michael; Peck, Roger; Valdez, Melissa; Steel, Cathy; Karabou, Potochoziou; Banla, Méba; Soboslay, Peter T.; Adade, Kangi; Tekle, Afework H.; Cama, Vitaliano A.; Fischer, Peter U.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; de los Santos, Tala; Domingo, Gonzalo J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Serological assays for human IgG4 to the Onchocerca volvulus antigen Ov16 have been used to confirm elimination of onchocerciasis in much of the Americas and parts of Africa. A standardized source of positive control antibody (human anti-Ov16 IgG4) will ensure the quality of surveillance data using these tests. Methodology/Principal Findings A recombinant human IgG4 antibody to Ov16 was identified by screening against a synthetic human Fab phage display library and converted into human IgG4. This antibody was developed into different positive control formulations for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) platforms. Variation in ELISA results and utility as a positive control of the antibody were assessed from multiple laboratories. Temperature and humidity conditions were collected across seven surveillance activities from 2011–2014 to inform stability requirements for RDTs and positive controls. The feasibility of the dried positive control for RDT was evaluated during onchocerciasis surveillance activity in Togo, in 2014. When the anti-Ov16 IgG4 antibody was used as a standard dilution in horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) ELISAs, the detection limits were approximately 1ng/mL by HRP ELISA and 10ng/mL by AP ELISA. Positive control dilutions and spiked dried blood spots (DBS) produced similar ELISA results. Used as a simple plate normalization control, the positive control antibody may improve ELISA data comparison in the context of inter-laboratory variation. The aggregate temperature and humidity monitor data informed temperature parameters under which the dried positive control was tested and are applicable inputs for testing of diagnostics tools intended for sub-Saharan Africa. As a packaged positive control for Ov16 RDTs, stability of the antibody was demonstrated for over six months at relevant temperatures in the laboratory and for over 15 weeks under field conditions. Conclusions The

  19. Primary anastomosis in the treatment of acute disease of the unprepared left colon.

    PubMed

    Trillo, C; Paris, M F; Brennan, J T

    1998-09-01

    Between June 1, 1990 and December 31, 1996, 58 consecutive patients with unprepared colons were urgently explored for nontraumatic disease with intent to proceed with primary left-sided colonic anastomosis. Unprotected anastomoses were not attempted in 15 patients. The causes of exclusion included preoperative and intraoperative shock in three patients, and three patients were on long-term high-dose steroids, four had gross fecal contamination of the peritoneal cavity, four had large pelvic abscesses, and one had ischemic colitis. All 43 patients undergoing anastomosis without protective colostomy had stapled anastomoses. Indications included complicated diverticular disease in 32 cases. There were nine cases of obstruction from colorectal carcinoma and one obstruction due to sigmoid volvulus. There was one case of perforation from pseudomembranous enterocolitis. The most common complications were: atelectasis in nine cases, wound infection in two cases, and prolonged ileus in two cases. Pelvic abscess occurred in one case. There was one wound dehiscence. There was one anastomotic dehiscence, and there was no mortality. Operative time averaged 85 minutes and hospital length of stay 9.7 days. Primary anastomosis of the unprepared left colon is safe in most urgent and emergent situations, thus avoiding the significant morbidity and cost of colostomy closure. PMID:9731807

  20. Comorbidities and Disease Severity as Risk Factors for Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Colonization: Report of an Experience in an Internal Medicine Unit

    PubMed Central

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Lauretani, Fulvio; Maggio, Marcello; Lippi, Giuseppe; Guida, Loredana; Morelli, Ilaria; Ridolo, Erminia; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Background Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is an emerging multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen, spreading to hospitalized elderly patients. Risk factors in this setting are unclear. Our aims were to explore the contribution of multi-morbidity and disease severity in the onset of CRKP colonization/infection, and to describe changes in epidemiology after the institution of quarantine-ward managed by staff-cohorting. Methods and Findings With a case-control design, we evaluated 133 CRKP-positive patients (75 M, 58 F; mean age 79±10 years) and a control group of 400 CRKP-negative subjects (179 M, 221 F; mean age 79±12 years) admitted to Internal Medicine and Critical Subacute Care Unit of Parma University Hospital, Italy, during a 10-month period. Information about comorbidity type and severity, expressed through Cumulative Illness Rating Scale-CIRS, was collected in each patient. During an overall 5-month period, CRKP-positive patients were managed in an isolation ward with staff cohorting. A contact-bed isolation approach was established in the other 5 months. The effects of these strategies were evaluated with a cross-sectional study design. CRKP-positive subjects had higher CIRS comorbidity index (12.0±3.6 vs 9.1±3.5, p<0.0001) and CIRS severity index (3.2±0.4 vs 2.9±0.5, p<0.0001), along with higher cardiovascular, respiratory, renal and neurological disease burden than control group. CIRS severity index was associated with a higher risk for CRKP-colonization (OR 13.3, 95%CI6.88–25.93), independent of comorbidities. Isolation ward activation was associated with decreased monthly incidence of CRKP-positivity (from 16.9% to 1.2% of all admissions) and infection (from 36.6% to 22.5% of all positive cases; p = 0.04 derived by Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Mortality rate did not differ between cases and controls (21.8% vs 15.2%, p = 0.08). The main limitations of this study are observational design and lack of data about prior

  1. Colon polyps and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kronborg, O

    2004-01-01

    Screening for colorectal neoplasia still is the best method of reducing the mortality due to colorectal cancer, and it is to be hoped that fecal occult blood test programs will expand in the near future and be combined with appropriate endoscopy. There are substantial problems with compliance in large programs with occult blood tests as well as endoscopy. Colonography and DNA testing in feces are not yet suitable for population screening. Diagnostic strategies in symptomatic patients are becoming more selective, in the hope of avoiding many superfluous examinations without increasing the risk of missing cancers. New results have confirmed the preventive effect of long-term aspirin use on adenoma recurrence, but the most cost-effective dosage is not clear; the mechanism of action is also uncertain, but seems to involve cyclooxygenase-2. The risk of adenomas does not appear to be associated with low consumption of folate, but with low intake of fiber. A number of biomarkers have been evaluated in polyp patients, but so far surveillance is still based on endoscopic experience, which is less than optimal. Attempts have been made to restrict the number of surveillance endoscopies and reduce the pathologist's workload. The place of argon plasma coagulation has been clearly defined in connection with piecemeal removal of large sessile adenomas. Advances have been achieved in surgery and radiotherapy for rectal cancer, and acute surgery for colonic cancer with severe obstruction will be less common after the introduction of the metal stent. PMID:14722849

  2. [A case of cross infection by Onchocerca volvulus and Onchocerca ochengi in Simulium damnosum S.L].

    PubMed

    Toe, L; Adjami, A; Bissan, Y; Hougard, J M

    1998-01-01

    During a routine entomological survey conducted within the framework of the Program to Control Onchocerciasis in West Africa, a female simulium forest fly was found to be contaminated by 13 Onchocerca volvulus larvae and 7 Onchocerca ochengi larvae. The two Onchocerca species were identified using specific DNA probes. We speculate that cross infection could be related either to behavioral factors, e.g. interruption of blood meals on two different hosts, or developmental factors, e.g. asynchronous development of parasites of the same species or specific differences in the duration of parasite cycles. Further study will be needed to determine the incidence and scope of cross infection in areas where accurate assessment of the impact of vector control on transmission of onchocerciasis in man is required. PMID:10088105

  3. Classical ligands interact with native and recombinant tubulin from Onchocerca volvulus with similar rank order of magnitude.

    PubMed

    Wampande, Eddie M; Richard McIntosh, J; Lubega, George W

    2007-10-01

    The alpha- and beta-tubulin genes from Onchocerca volvulus were individually expressed for the first time in Escherichia coli (DH5alpha). The recombinant tubulins were purified, renatured and reconstituted into oligomers, probably dimers, which were competent to bind three classical tubulin ligands: mebendazole (MBZ), taxol (TAX) and vinblastine (VBN). A new charcoal-dependent binding assay allowed accurate discrimination between specific and non-specific ligand binding in crude cell extracts. To compare the magnitude of binding of both native and recombinant forms of tubulin, we developed an ELISA assay for estimating the amount of tubulin in soluble protein extracts of O. volvulus. Binding assays were performed; both the maximum binding at saturating ligand concentrations (B(max)) and the equilibrium dissociation constants (K(d)) were determined. The B(max) values of the different ligands were significantly different from one another (P<0.05), but the order of the B(max) and K(d) for each drug were VBN > TAX > MBZ for both native and recombinant tubulin. Indeed, B(max) values for MBZ with native and recombinant tubulins were similar. On average, native tubulin had higher or similar binding capacity (B(max)) but a consistently higher affinity (lower K(d)) than the recombinant tubulin. We conclude that at least some of the recombinant molecules form receptors that are similar to those in native tubulin dimers. These data suggest that recombinant tubulin can be used to develop a molecular screen for novel anti-tubulin ligands to develop into drugs against onchocerciasis. PMID:17662615

  4. Rapid Point-of-Contact Tool for Mapping and Integrated Surveillance of Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus Infection.

    PubMed

    Steel, Cathy; Golden, Allison; Stevens, Eric; Yokobe, Lindsay; Domingo, Gonzalo J; de los Santos, Tala; Nutman, Thomas B

    2015-08-01

    Elimination programs for Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus are in critical need of sensitive, specific, and point-of-contact (POC) tools that can be used for surveillance years beyond cessation of mass drug administration when infection intensities are low. Previously, Wb123 and Ov16 were identified individually as potential filarial antigens for an antibody-based POC test. The present study compares single-antigen Wb123- and Ov16-based POC tests with an integrated configuration to detect antibodies to Wb123 and Ov16 simultaneously. Wb123 and Ov16 isolates were striped onto lateral flow strips containing anti-IgG4. Sera from W. bancrofti-, O. volvulus-, and other helminth-infected or -uninfected individuals were added to the strips with buffer. Strips were read for the appearance of a positive or negative test line for both antigens at 20 min and following drying. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were calculated for the single-antigen and biplex strips. Single and biplex lateral flow strips showed nearly identical results, with >90% sensitivity for Ov16 and >92% sensitivity for Wb123. Overall specificities for the single and biplex tests were 98% and 96% for Ov16 and Wb123, respectively. Biplex tests performed as well as the single-antigen tests regardless of the intensity of patient IgG4 response. The high sensitivity and specificity make these new biplex tests extremely useful for POC long-term surveillance following mass drug administration in Africa that should reduce time and cost in areas where bancroftian filariasis and onchocerciasis are coendemic. PMID:26018537

  5. Genotypic analysis of β-tubulin in Onchocerca volvulus from communities and individuals showing poor parasitological response to ivermectin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Awadzi, Kwablah; Gyapong, John O.; Prichard, Roger K.

    2012-01-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) has been in operational use for the control of onchocerciasis for two decades and remains the only drug of choice. To investigate the parasitological responses and genetic profile of Onchocerca volvulus, we carried out a 21 month epidemiological study to determine the response of the parasite to IVM in 10 Ghanaian endemic communities. Onchocerca nodules were surgically removed from patients in three IVM response categories (good, intermediate and poor) and one IVM naïve community. DNA from adult worms was analyzed to determine any association between genotype and IVM response phenotypic. Embryogramme analysis showed significantly higher reproductive activity in worms from poor response communities, which had up to 41% of females with live stretched microfilaria (mf) in utero, despite IVM treatment, compared with good response communities, which had no intra-uterine stretched mf. β-tubulin isotype 1 gene has been shown to be linked to IVM selection in O. volvulus and also known to be associated with IVM resistance in veterinary nematodes. We have genotyped the full length genomic DNA sequence of the β-tubulin gene from 127 adult worms obtained from the four community categories. We found SNPs at 24 sites over the entire 3696 bp. Eight of the SNPs occurred at significantly higher (p < 0.05) frequencies in the poor response communities compared with the good response communities and the IVM naïve community. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses show that IVM resistance has been selected and the genotype (1183GG/1188CC/1308TT/1545GG) was strongly associated with the resistance phenotype. Since the region in the β-tubulin gene where these four SNPs occur is within 362 bp, it is feasible to develop a genetic marker for the early detection of IVM resistance. PMID:24533268

  6. Genotypic analysis of β-tubulin in Onchocerca volvulus from communities and individuals showing poor parasitological response to ivermectin treatment.

    PubMed

    Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Boakye, Daniel A; Awadzi, Kwablah; Gyapong, John O; Prichard, Roger K

    2012-12-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) has been in operational use for the control of onchocerciasis for two decades and remains the only drug of choice. To investigate the parasitological responses and genetic profile of Onchocerca volvulus, we carried out a 21 month epidemiological study to determine the response of the parasite to IVM in 10 Ghanaian endemic communities. Onchocerca nodules were surgically removed from patients in three IVM response categories (good, intermediate and poor) and one IVM naïve community. DNA from adult worms was analyzed to determine any association between genotype and IVM response phenotypic. Embryogramme analysis showed significantly higher reproductive activity in worms from poor response communities, which had up to 41% of females with live stretched microfilaria (mf) in utero, despite IVM treatment, compared with good response communities, which had no intra-uterine stretched mf. β-tubulin isotype 1 gene has been shown to be linked to IVM selection in O. volvulus and also known to be associated with IVM resistance in veterinary nematodes. We have genotyped the full length genomic DNA sequence of the β-tubulin gene from 127 adult worms obtained from the four community categories. We found SNPs at 24 sites over the entire 3696 bp. Eight of the SNPs occurred at significantly higher (p < 0.05) frequencies in the poor response communities compared with the good response communities and the IVM naïve community. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses show that IVM resistance has been selected and the genotype (1183GG/1188CC/1308TT/1545GG) was strongly associated with the resistance phenotype. Since the region in the β-tubulin gene where these four SNPs occur is within 362 bp, it is feasible to develop a genetic marker for the early detection of IVM resistance. PMID:24533268

  7. Laparoscopic Colon Resection

    MedlinePlus

    ... inches to complete the procedure. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Colon Resection? Results may vary depending ... type of procedure and patient’s overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain May shorten hospital stay ...

  8. Colon cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test ... death and complications caused by colorectal cancer. SCREENING TESTS There are several ways to screen for colon ...

  9. Culture - colonic tissue

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the large intestine. The cause may be bacteria, fungi, or viruses. ... bacteria Cytomegalovirus Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria Salmonella bacteria Shigella bacteria These organisms may lead to diarrhea or infections involving the colon.

  10. Transverse colon conduit diversion

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.D.; Buchsbaum, H.J.

    1986-05-01

    The versatility and other advantages of the transverse colon conduit for urinary diversion have been described and implemented in 50 patients. Because most patients considered for this procedure will be at high risk because of a history of significant pelvic irradiation, underlying malignancy, poor renal function, fistula, and so forth, the technical details of surgery and patient selection cannot be minimized. The transverse colon segment is indicated for primary supravesical diversion as well as for salvage of problems related to ileal conduits. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is an unlikely long-term complication of this form of diversion because the fecal stream is absent. Now that the transverse colon conduit has been used for more than 10 years, meaningful comparisons with ileal segments should soon be available.

  11. Intestinal colonization resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Trevor D; Walker, Alan W

    2013-01-01

    Dense, complex microbial communities, collectively termed the microbiota, occupy a diverse array of niches along the length of the mammalian intestinal tract. During health and in the absence of antibiotic exposure the microbiota can effectively inhibit colonization and overgrowth by invading microbes such as pathogens. This phenomenon is called ‘colonization resistance’ and is associated with a stable and diverse microbiota in tandem with a controlled lack of inflammation, and involves specific interactions between the mucosal immune system and the microbiota. Here we overview the microbial ecology of the healthy mammalian intestinal tract and highlight the microbe–microbe and microbe–host interactions that promote colonization resistance. Emerging themes highlight immunological (T helper type 17/regulatory T-cell balance), microbiota (diverse and abundant) and metabolic (short-chain fatty acid) signatures of intestinal health and colonization resistance. Intestinal pathogens use specific virulence factors or exploit antibiotic use to subvert colonization resistance for their own benefit by triggering inflammation to disrupt the harmony of the intestinal ecosystem. A holistic view that incorporates immunological and microbiological facets of the intestinal ecosystem should facilitate the development of immunomodulatory and microbe-modulatory therapies that promote intestinal homeostasis and colonization resistance. PMID:23240815

  12. Colonic diverticulitis in adolescents: an index case and associated syndromes.

    PubMed

    Santin, Brian J; Prasad, Vinay; Caniano, Donna A

    2009-10-01

    Diverticular disease of the colon, a common problem among adults, is diagnosed rarely in children. We report an adolescent patient with sigmoid diverticulitis who required operative treatment. Pediatric patients with the complications of diverticula typically have conditions that result in genetic alterations affecting the components of the colonic wall. Our patient had Williams-Beuren syndrome, although Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome, and cystic fibrosis may also be associated with colonic diverticula in adolescence. Pediatric patients with these disorders who experience abdominal pain should be evaluated for the presence of colonic diverticular complications. PMID:19711089

  13. Text Passage Retrieval Based on Colon Classification: Retrieval Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Michael A.

    1981-01-01

    Reports the results of experiments using colon classification for the analysis, representation, and retrieval of primary information from the full text of documents. Recall, precision, and search length measures indicate colon classification did not perform significantly better than Boolean or simple word occurrence systems. Thirteen references…

  14. Colon distention induces persistent visceral hypersensitivity by mechanotranscription of pain mediators in colonic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, You-Min; Fu, Yu; Wu, Chester C; Xu, Guang-Yin; Huang, Li-Yen; Shi, Xuan-Zheng

    2015-03-01

    Abdominal pain and distention are major complaints in irritable bowel syndrome. Abdominal distention is mainly attributed to intraluminal retention of gas or solid contents, which may cause mechanical stress to the gut wall. Visceral hypersensitivity (VHS) may account for abdominal pain. We sought to determine whether tonic colon distention causes persistent VHS and if so whether mechanical stress-induced expression (mechanotranscription) of pain mediators in colonic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) plays a role in VHS. Human colonic SMCs were isolated and stretched in vitro to investigate whether mechanical stress upregulates expression of the pain mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Rat colon was distended with a 5-cm-long balloon, and gene expression of COX-2, visceromotor response (VMR), and sensory neuron excitability were determined. Static stretch of colonic SMCs induced marked expression of COX-2 mRNA and protein in a force- and time-dependent manner. Subnoxious tonic distention of the distal colon at ∼30-40 mmHg for 20 or 40 min induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in colonic smooth muscle, but not in the mucosa layer. Lumen distention also increased VMR in a force- and time-dependent manner. The increase of VMR persisted for at least 3 days. Patch-clamp experiments showed that the excitability of colon projecting sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia was markedly augmented, 24 h after lumen distention. Administration of COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 partially but significantly attenuated distention-induced VHS. In conclusion, tonic lumen distention upregulates expression of COX-2 in colonic SMC, and COX-2 contributes to persistent VHS. PMID:25540231

  15. Comparative analysis of macrophage migration inhibitory factors (MIFs) from the parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus and the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Ajonina-Ekoti, Irene; Kurosinski, Marc Andre; Younis, Abuelhassan Elshazly; Ndjonka, Dieudonne; Tanyi, Manchang Kingsley; Achukwi, Mbunkah; Eisenbarth, Albert; Ajonina, Caroline; Lüersen, Kai; Breloer, Minka; Brattig, Norbert W; Liebau, Eva

    2013-09-01

    The macrophage migration inhibitory factors (MIFs) from the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus (OvMIF) were compared to the MIFs from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (CeMIF) with respect to molecular, biochemical and immunological properties. Except for CeMIF-4, all other MIFs demonstrated tautomerase activity. Surprisingly, OvMIF-1 displayed oxidoreductase activity. The strongest immunostaining for OvMIF-1 was observed in the outer cellular covering of the adult worm body, the syncytial hypodermis; moderate immunostaining was observed in the uterine wall. The generation of a strong humoral immune response towards OvMIF-1 and reduced reactivity to OvMIF-2 was indicated by high IgG levels in patients infected with O. volvulus and cows infected with the closely related Onchocerca ochengi, both MIFs revealing identical amino acid sequences. Using Litomosoides sigmodontis-infected mice, a laboratory model for filarial infection, MIFs derived from the tissue-dwelling O. volvulus, the rodent gut-dwelling Strongyloides ratti and from free-living C. elegans were recognized, suggesting that L. sigmodontis MIF-specific IgM and IgG1 were produced during L. sigmodontis infection of mice and cross-reacted with all MIF proteins tested. Thus, MIF apparently functions as a target of B cell response during nematode infection, but in the natural Onchocerca-specific human and bovine infection, the induced antibodies can discriminate between MIFs derived from parasitic or free-living nematodes. PMID:23820606

  16. Advances in understanding colonic function.

    PubMed

    Milla, Peter J

    2009-04-01

    The colon is an organ of conservation that salvages water, electrolytes, and energy. The organization of colonic function is determined by the roles played by the luminal flora, the function of the different mucosal epithelial cell types, immunocompetent cells, and the neuromusculature. These different components of the colon interact with one another and with the colonic flora, and different areas of the colon serve different functions. In the normal adult during the course of a day the colon absorbs approximately 1.5 L of fluid, but under the influence of aldosterone increases up to 5 to 6 L. Diarrhoea occurs when secretion exceeds absorptive processes by either small intestinal secretion overwhelming colonic salvage or salvage being impaired by reduced colonic absorption or increased colonic secretion. PMID:19300122

  17. Novel diet-related mouse model of colon cancer parallels human colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Anil R; Prasad, Shilpa; Nguyen, Huy; Facista, Alexander; Lewis, Cristy; Zaitlin, Beryl; Bernstein, Harris; Bernstein, Carol

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the close parallels between our novel diet-related mouse model of colon cancer and human colon cancer. METHODS: Twenty-two wild-type female mice (ages 6-8 wk) were fed the standard control diet (AIN-93G) and an additional 22 female mice (ages 6-8 wk) were fed the control diet supplemented with 0.2% deoxycholic acid [diet + deoxycholic acid (DOC)] for 10 mo. Tumors occurred in the colons of mice fed diet + DOC and showed progression to colon cancer [adenocarcinoma (AC)]. This progression is through the stages of tubular adenoma (TA), TA with high grade dysplasia or adenoma with sessile serrated morphology, intramucosal AC, AC stage T1, and AC stage T2. The mouse tumors were compared to human tumors at the same stages by histopathological analysis. Sections of the small and large intestines of mice and humans were evaluated for glandular architecture, cellular and nuclear morphology including cellular orientation, cellular and nuclear atypia, pleomorphism, mitotic activity, frequency of goblet cells, crypt architecture, ulceration, penetration of crypts through the muscularis mucosa and presence of malignant crypts in the muscularis propria. In addition, preserved colonic tissues from genetically similar male mice, obtained from a prior experiment, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The male mice had been fed the control diet or diet + DOC. Four molecular markers were evaluated: 8-OH-dG, DNA repair protein ERCC1, autophagy protein beclin-1 and the nuclear location of beta-catenin in the stem cell region of crypts. Also, male mice fed diet + DOC plus 0.007% chlorogenic acid (diet + DOC + CGA) were evaluated for ERCC1, beclin-1 and nuclear location of beta-catenin. RESULTS: Humans with high levels of diet-related DOC in their colons are at a substantially increased risk of developing colon cancer. The mice fed diet + DOC had levels of DOC in their colons comparable to that of humans on a high fat diet. The 22 mice without added DOC in their diet

  18. Colonization, mouse-style

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325 PMID:20977781

  19. Serotonin and colonic motility.

    PubMed

    Kendig, D M; Grider, J R

    2015-07-01

    The role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) in gastrointestinal motility has been studied for over 50 years. Most of the 5-HT in the body resides in the gut wall, where it is located in subsets of mucosal cells (enterochromaffin cells) and neurons (descending interneurons). Many studies suggest that 5-HT is important to normal and dysfunctional gut motility and drugs affecting 5-HT receptors, especially 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors, have been used clinically to treat motility disorders; however, cardiovascular side effects have limited the use of these drugs. Recently studies have questioned the importance and necessity of 5-HT in general and mucosal 5-HT in particular for colonic motility. Recent evidence suggests the importance of 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors for initiation and generation of one of the key colonic motility patterns, the colonic migrating motor complex (CMMC), in rat. The findings suggest that 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors are differentially involved in two different types of rat CMMCs: the long distance contraction (LDC) and the rhythmic propulsive motor complex (RPMC). The understanding of the role of serotonin in colonic motility has been influenced by the specific motility pattern(s) studied, the stimulus used to initiate the motility (spontaneous vs induced), and the route of administration of drugs. All of these considerations contribute to the understanding and the controversy that continues to surround the role of serotonin in the gut. PMID:26095115

  20. Colonic interposition: radiographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Agha, F P; Orringer, M B

    1984-04-01

    This report reviews the clinical and radiographic features of 40 patients who underwent visceral esophageal substitution with colon for benign or malignant lesions of the esophagus. The incidence and radiographic identification of complications are discussed. All patients were routinely examined with barium esophagrams on postoperative day 10. If an anastomotic leak was suspected clinically before this time, studies were performed using water-soluble iodinated contrast material. Follow-up barium esophagrams were obtained 1-96 months after operation (average, 60 months) in 24 patients. Eight patients (21%) demonstrated asymptomatic "jejunization" of the colonic mucosa with no attributable clinical manifestations; this finding resolved in 1-3 months, without sequelae, and has not been reported before. The spectrum of ischemic changes in the colonic segment included mucosal edema, spasm, ulceration, loss of haustration, and frank necrosis. Radiographically detectable early postoperative complications included anastomotic leak in six (three pharyngocolic, three cervical esophagocolic) and aspiration of barium into the tracheobronchial tree due to incoordinated swallowing in eight. Late postoperative complications included anastomotic narrowing (12) malfunctioning of the colon due to impaired emptying (five), recurrent aspiration pneumonia (three), small bowel obstruction (three), transhiatal herniation of small bowel through the diaphragmatic hiatus (one), and reflux into the retained bypassed esophagus (one). PMID:6608225

  1. Streptococcus Adherence and Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Nobbs, Angela H.; Lamont, Richard J.; Jenkinson, Howard F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Streptococci readily colonize mucosal tissues in the nasopharynx; the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts; and the skin. Each ecological niche presents a series of challenges to successful colonization with which streptococci have to contend. Some species exist in equilibrium with their host, neither stimulating nor submitting to immune defenses mounted against them. Most are either opportunistic or true pathogens responsible for diseases such as pharyngitis, tooth decay, necrotizing fasciitis, infective endocarditis, and meningitis. Part of the success of streptococci as colonizers is attributable to the spectrum of proteins expressed on their surfaces. Adhesins enable interactions with salivary, serum, and extracellular matrix components; host cells; and other microbes. This is the essential first step to colonization, the development of complex communities, and possible invasion of host tissues. The majority of streptococcal adhesins are anchored to the cell wall via a C-terminal LPxTz motif. Other proteins may be surface anchored through N-terminal lipid modifications, while the mechanism of cell wall associations for others remains unclear. Collectively, these surface-bound proteins provide Streptococcus species with a “coat of many colors,” enabling multiple intimate contacts and interplays between the bacterial cell and the host. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated direct roles for many streptococcal adhesins as colonization or virulence factors, making them attractive targets for therapeutic and preventive strategies against streptococcal infections. There is, therefore, much focus on applying increasingly advanced molecular techniques to determine the precise structures and functions of these proteins, and their regulatory pathways, so that more targeted approaches can be developed. PMID:19721085

  2. Diurnal biting activity and transmission of Onchocerca volvulus (Filariata: Onchocercidae) by Simulium yahense (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Liberia.

    PubMed

    Davis, J R; Wasserman, S S; Trpis, M

    1994-03-01

    To determine the influence of meterological factors on the diurnal biting cycle of Simulium yahense Vajime & Dunbar (a member of the Simulium damnosum Theoblad complex), we captured host-seeking females as they landed on the exposed lower legs of humans in the Harbel area of Liberia. Biting activity was greatest during the morning hours and was characterized by a unimodal harmonic curve. Although meteorological conditions had no decisive influence on the unimodal pattern of diurnal biting activity, hourly variation in the number of S. yahense captured at human bait was affected by meterological factors (i.e., the diurnal pattern of S. yahense biting activity is regulated by an internal clock, but the number of bits during any given hour is in response to meterological conditions). The transmission of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) was highest during the morning hours when high transmission potentials were in phase with peak human activity and served to maintain the hyperendemicity of onchocerciasis in the Harbel area. PMID:8189413

  3. Vaccines to combat river blindness: expression, selection and formulation of vaccines against infection with Onchocerca volvulus in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hess, Jessica A; Zhan, Bin; Bonne-Année, Sandra; Deckman, Jessica M; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J; Klei, Thomas R; Lustigman, Sara; Abraham, David

    2014-08-01

    Human onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Onchocerca volvulus and an important cause of blindness and chronic disability in the developing world. Although mass drug administration of ivermectin has had a profound effect on control of the disease, additional tools are critically needed including the need for a vaccine against onchocerciasis. The objectives of the present study were to: (i) select antigens with known vaccine pedigrees as components of a vaccine; (ii) produce the selected vaccine antigens under controlled conditions, using two expression systems and in one laboratory and (iii) evaluate their vaccine efficacy using a single immunisation protocol in mice. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that joining protective antigens as a fusion protein or in combination, into a multivalent vaccine, would improve the ability of the vaccine to induce protective immunity. Out of eight vaccine candidates tested in this study, Ov-103, Ov-RAL-2 and Ov-CPI-2M were shown to reproducibly induce protective immunity when administered individually, as fusion proteins or in combination. Although there was no increase in the level of protective immunity induced by combining the antigens into one vaccine, these antigens remain strong candidates for inclusion in a vaccine to control onchocerciasis in humans. PMID:24907553

  4. Onchocerca volvulus: enzyme polymorphism in relation to the differentiation of forest and savannah strains of this parasite.

    PubMed

    Flockhart, H A; Cibulskis, R E; Karam, M; Albiez, E J

    1986-01-01

    Isozyme analysis was carried out on Onchocerca volvulus worms collected from Liberia, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso and Sudan to see whether this technique could detect differences between forest and savannah populations of this parasite. A total of 243 forest and 189 savannah individual female worms were electrophoresed and stained for seven enzymes. Four showed some polymorphism, LDH, MDH, PGM and MPI and the other three, GAPDH, PEP and GPI were invariant. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the relative proportions of genotypes from within the different countries conformed to Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Pairwise comparisons of allele frequencies between countries showed that populations from Liberia and Ivory Coast had a very similar composition; there was some divergence between all the other pairs of populations and the genetic distance was calculated to summarize the degree of divergence. The number of loci examined was small and the genetic distances were within the range expected for separate geographical populations of the same species. The usefulness of this technique in worm identification is discussed. PMID:3024365

  5. Sphingolipids in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    García-Barros, Mónica; Coant, Nicolas; Truman, Jean-Philip; Snider, Ashley J.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the major causes of death in the western world. Despite increasing knowledge of the molecular signaling pathways implicated in colon cancer, therapeutic outcomes are still only moderately successful. Sphingolipids, a family of N-acyl linked lipids, have not only structural functions but are also implicated in important biological functions. Ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate are the most important bioactive lipids, and they regulate several key cellular functions. Accumulating evidence suggests that many cancers present alterations in sphingolipids and their metabolizing enzymes. The aim of this review is to discuss the emerging roles of sphingolipids, both endogenous and dietary, in colon cancer and the interaction of sphingolipids with WNT/β-catenin pathway, one of the most important signaling cascades that regulate development and homeostasis in intestine PMID:24060581

  6. Giant colon lipoma

    PubMed Central

    Yaman, İsmail; Derici, Hayrullah; Demirpolat, Gülen

    2015-01-01

    Colon lipomas are rare, non-epithelial tumors. They are generally smaller than two centimeters and asymptomatic, they are incidentally diagnosed and do not require treatment. Large and symptomatic colon lipomas are rather rare. Its differential diagnosis is generally made by histopathological examination of the resected specimen. A fifty-year-old female patient presented with the symptoms of abdominal pain, swelling in the abdomen and loss of weight. During colonoscopy, there was a submucosal mass of 8×6 cm, which almost completely obstructed the lumen in the hepatic flexure and was covered by a mucosa that was sporadically ulcerated and necrotic in nature. In magnetic resonance imaging, an ovoid mass with a diameter of 8.5 cm at its widest dimension was detected, which had signal intensity similar to that of adipose tissue. Since the patient was symptomatic and differential diagnosis could not be made, she underwent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy. A submucosal lipoma was detected on histopathological examination of the specimen. The patient was discharged without any problems on post-operative day 7. Definite diagnosis of lipomas before surgery is challenging; they may be mistaken for malignancy, especially if the lesion is large and ulcerated. For large and symptomatic colon lipomas, surgery is required to both prevent complications and rule out malignancy. PMID:26170744

  7. Assessments of the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus by Simulium sanctipauli in the Upper Denkyira District, Ghana, and the intermittent disappearance of the vector.

    PubMed

    Garms, R; Badu, K; Owusu-Dabo, E; Baffour-Awuah, S; Adjei, O; Debrah, A Y; Nagel, M; Biritwum, N K; Gankpala, L; Post, R J; Kruppa, T F

    2015-03-01

    Following studies on the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) by Simulium sanctipauli Vajime & Dunbar (Diptera, Simuliidae) in Upper Denkyira District in Ghana in 2001 and 2002 (Kutin et al., Med Vet Ent 18:167-173, 2004), further assessments were carried out in 2006 and 2013/2014 to determine whether transmission parameters had changed since community-directed ivermectin treatment (CDTI) began in 1999. There were no marked changes of the transmission intensities in 2006. Only slight, but non-significant, reductions were observed in infection rates of parous flies with larval stages (L1-L3) of O. volvulus from 44.1 % (of 1672 parous flies) in 2001/2002 to 42.1 % (506) in 2006 and from 6.5 to 5.9 % of flies carrying infective larvae in their heads. This suggested that there was an ongoing transmission in the area and the parasite reservoir in the human population was still high. Unexpectedly, further assessments conducted in October 2013 and March and October 2014 revealed that the vector S. sanctipauli had apparently disappeared and transmission had ceased, probably as a result of intensified gold mining activities along the rivers Ofin and Pra. The water of both rivers was extremely turbid, heavily loaded with suspended solids, probably preventing the development of blackfly larvae. Some breeding and biting of Simulium yahense Vajime & Dunbar was observed in a small tributary of the Pra, the Okumayemfuo, which is not affected by gold mining. However, the infection rate of flies was low, only 3.7 % of 163 parous flies were infected with first stage (L1) larvae of O. volvulus. PMID:25592754

  8. Identification of potential vaccine and drug target candidates by expressed sequence tag analysis and immunoscreening of Onchocerca volvulus larval cDNA libraries.

    PubMed

    Lizotte-Waniewski, M; Tawe, W; Guiliano, D B; Lu, W; Liu, J; Williams, S A; Lustigman, S

    2000-06-01

    The search for appropriate vaccine candidates and drug targets against onchocerciasis has so far been confronted with several limitations due to the unavailability of biological material, appropriate molecular resources, and knowledge of the parasite biology. To identify targets for vaccine or chemotherapy development we have undertaken two approaches. First, cDNA expression libraries were constructed from life cycle stages that are critical for establishment of Onchocerca volvulus infection, the third-stage larvae (L3) and the molting L3. A gene discovery effort was then initiated by random expressed sequence tag analysis of 5,506 cDNA clones. Cluster analyses showed that many of the transcripts were up-regulated and/or stage specific in either one or both of the cDNA libraries when compared to the microfilariae, L2, and both adult stages of the parasite. Homology searches against the GenBank database facilitated the identification of several genes of interest, such as proteinases, proteinase inhibitors, antioxidant or detoxification enzymes, and neurotransmitter receptors, as well as structural and housekeeping genes. Other O. volvulus genes showed homology only to predicted genes from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans or were entirely novel. Some of the novel proteins contain potential secretory leaders. Secondly, by immunoscreening the molting L3 cDNA library with a pool of human sera from putatively immune individuals, we identified six novel immunogenic proteins that otherwise would not have been identified as potential vaccinogens using the gene discovery effort. This study lays a solid foundation for a better understanding of the biology of O. volvulus as well as for the identification of novel targets for filaricidal agents and/or vaccines against onchocerciasis based on immunological and rational hypothesis-driven research. PMID:10816503

  9. A Case of Apparent Life-Threatening Event: Comorbid Gastric Volvulus Associated Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Epilepsy in a 4-Month-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Takano, Yoshihiko; Horiike, Masaki; Tatsumi, Ako; Sakamoto, Haruko; Fujino, Hisanori; Sumimoto, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Most isolated episodes of apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs) do not lead to the diagnosis of serious conditions, and their prognoses are generally benign. However, recurrent ALTEs are often associated with a risk of future serious adverse events and should be evaluated for appropriate management. Here we present ALTE case in which gastric volvulus associated gastroesophageal reflux disease was detected as an etiology initially, followed by the detection of epilepsy as another etiology. Clinicians should consider possibility of two or more etiologies in a single recurrent ALTE case. PMID:27293941

  10. Functional characterization and immune recognition of the extracellular superoxide dismutase from the human pathogenic parasite Onchocerca volvulus (OvEC-SOD).

    PubMed

    Ajonina-Ekoti, Irene; Ndjonka, Dieudonne; Tanyi, Manchang Kingsley; Wilbertz, Meike; Younis, Abuelhassan Elshazly; Boursou, Djafsia; Kurosinski, Marc Andre; Eberle, Raphael; Lüersen, Kai; Perbandt, Markus; Breloer, Minka; Brattig, Norbert W; Liebau, Eva

    2012-10-01

    Onchocerca volvulus is a human pathogenic filarial nematode causing chronic onchocerciasis, a disease characterized by chronic skin and eye lesions. Despite attempts to control this infection from many perspectives, it still remains a threat to public health because of adverse effects of available drugs and recent reports of drug resistance. Under control of an intact immune system, O. volvulus survives for a long time in the host by employing a variety of strategies including the utility of antioxidant enzymes. In the present study, we focus on the extracellular superoxide dismutase from O. volvulus (OvEC-SOD) found in the excretory/secretory products of adult worms. Contrary to previous studies, the OvEC-SOD was found to have a 19 amino acid long signal peptide that is cleaved off during the process of maturation. To validate this result, we designed a novel method based on Caenorhabditis elegans cup5(ar465) mutants to specifically evaluate signal peptide-mediated secretion of nematodal proteins. Following purification, the recombinant OvEC-SOD was active as a dimer. Site-directed mutagenesis of the three cysteines present in the OvEC-SOD shows that enzyme activity is markedly reduced in the Cys-192 mutant. A homology model of the OvEC-SOD underlines the importance of Cys-192 for the stabilization of the adjacent active site channel. The generation of a humoral immune response to secretory OvEC-SOD was indicated by demonstrating IgG reactivity in sera from patients infected with O. volvulus while the cross-reactivity of IgG in plasma samples from cows, infected with the most closely related parasite Onchocerca ochengi, occurred only marginally. High IgG1 and IgM titres were recorded in sera from mice infected with the filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis, however, low or no cellular proliferative responses were observed. Thus, the present data suggest that secretory OvEC-SOD is a target of the humoral immune response in human onchocerciasis and induced strongest Ig

  11. A Case of Apparent Life-Threatening Event: Comorbid Gastric Volvulus Associated Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Epilepsy in a 4-Month-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Yoshihiko; Horiike, Masaki; Tatsumi, Ako; Sakamoto, Haruko; Fujino, Hisanori; Sumimoto, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Most isolated episodes of apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs) do not lead to the diagnosis of serious conditions, and their prognoses are generally benign. However, recurrent ALTEs are often associated with a risk of future serious adverse events and should be evaluated for appropriate management. Here we present ALTE case in which gastric volvulus associated gastroesophageal reflux disease was detected as an etiology initially, followed by the detection of epilepsy as another etiology. Clinicians should consider possibility of two or more etiologies in a single recurrent ALTE case. PMID:27293941

  12. Diffuse lymphoid follicles of the colon associated with colonic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bronen, R A; Glick, S N; Teplick, S K

    1984-01-01

    In four patients aged 59-75 years, colonic carcinoma was associated with diffuse lymphoid follicles in the colon. In one case, the prominence and distribution of the lymphoid follicles corresponded to the progression and regression of the tumor bulk. It is extremely unusual to demonstrate lymphoid follicles, particularly diffuse, on barium enema in patients in this age range. The colonic carcinomas and lymphoid follicles are directly related, possibly representing an immune response. PMID:6606941

  13. Salmonella induces prominent gene expression in the rat colon

    PubMed Central

    Rodenburg, Wendy; Keijer, Jaap; Kramer, Evelien; Roosing, Susanne; Vink, Carolien; Katan, Martijn B; van der Meer, Roelof; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg MJ

    2007-01-01

    Background Salmonella enteritidis is suggested to translocate in the small intestine. In vivo it induces gene expression changes in the ileal mucosa and Peyer's patches. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary prebiotics fermented in colon suggests involvement of the colon as well. However, effects of Salmonella on colonic gene expression in vivo are largely unknown. We aimed to characterize time dependent Salmonella-induced changes of colonic mucosal gene expression in rats using whole genome microarrays. For this, rats were orally infected with Salmonella enteritidis to mimic a foodborne infection and colonic gene expression was determined at days 1, 3 and 6 post-infection (n = 8 rats per time-point). As fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) affect colonic physiology, we analyzed colonic mucosal gene expression of FOS-fed versus cellulose-fed rats infected with Salmonella in a separate experiment. Colonic mucosal samples were isolated at day 2 post-infection. Results Salmonella affected transport (e.g. Chloride channel calcium activated 6, H+/K+ transporting Atp-ase), antimicrobial defense (e.g. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein, Defensin 5 and phospholipase A2), inflammation (e.g. calprotectin), oxidative stress related genes (e.g. Dual oxidase 2 and Glutathione peroxidase 2) and Proteolysis (e.g. Ubiquitin D and Proteosome subunit beta type 9). Furthermore, Salmonella translocation increased serum IFNγ and many interferon-related genes in colonic mucosa. The gene most strongly induced by Salmonella infection was Pancreatitis Associated Protein (Pap), showing >100-fold induction at day 6 after oral infection. Results were confirmed by Q-PCR in individual rats. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary FOS was accompanied by enhancement of the Salmonella-induced mucosal processes, not by induction of other processes. Conclusion We conclude that the colon is a target tissue for Salmonella, considering the abundant changes in mucosal gene expression

  14. Selling space colonization and immortality: A psychosocial, anthropological critique of the rush to colonize Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slobodian, Rayna Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Extensive media coverage regarding the proposal to send four people to Mars by 2025 has exploded recently. Private enterprise has taken the reins to venture into space, which has typically only been reserved for government agencies. I argue, that with this new direction comes less regulation, raising questions regarding the ethics of sending people into outer space to colonize Mars within a decade. Marketers selling colonization to the public include perspectives such as biological drives, species survival, inclusiveness and utopian ideals. I challenge these narratives by suggesting that much of our desire to colonize space within the next decade is motivated by ego, money and romanticism. More specifically, I will examine the roles that fear and stories of immortality play within selling space and how those stories are marketed. I am passionate about space and hope that one day humanity will colonize other worlds, but the rush to settle is dangerous and careless. I assert that humanity should first gain more experience and knowledge before colonizing outer space, using this research to mitigate the risk to astronauts and proceed with careful consideration for the lives of potential astronauts.

  15. Fungal infection of the colon

    PubMed Central

    Praneenararat, Surat

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are pathogens that commonly infect immunocompromised patients and can affect any organs of the body, including the colon. However, the literature provides limited details on colonic infections caused by fungi. This article is an intensive review of information available on the fungi that can cause colon infections. It uses a comparative style so that its conclusions may be accessible for clinical application. PMID:25364269

  16. Colonic lymphangiomatosis associated with anemia

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Woo Chul; Kim, Hye-Kang; Yoo, Jin Young; Lee, Jeong Rok; Lee, Kang-Moon; Paik, Chang Nyol; Jang, U-Im; Yang, Jin Mo

    2008-01-01

    Lymphangioma is an uncommon malformation of lymphatic system. Multiple colonic lymphangioma named as lymphangiomatosis is considered an extremely rare disease. Although lymphangioma is a benign tumor and most colonic lymphangiomas do not cause symptoms and do not require treatment, resection of lymphangioma is necessary in the presence of symptoms such as abdominal pain, bleeding, intussusceptions. We report a case of colonic lymphangiomatosis in a man who presented with abdominal discomfort and anemia, which was diagnosed and treated with endoscopic snare polypectomy. PMID:18837097

  17. Histochemical enzyme variation in Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae from rain-forest and Sudan-savanna areas of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Omar, M. S.; Prost, A.; Marshall, T. F. de C.

    1982-01-01

    Histochemical staining methods for acid phosphatase were used to study the differences among microfilariae of various West African strains of Onchocerca volvulus in both forest and Sudan-savanna onchocerciasis zones. The results have shown statistically significant differences in the staining patterns of microfilarial populations in the two zones. In the rain-forest areas, where onchocerciasis is transmitted by Simulium yahense, S. sanctipauli, S. soubrense and S. squamosum, there were no significant differences of microfilarial staining patterns in patients, by age and sex, between the three Simulium—Onchocerca complexes studied. There was a close relationship between the “strain differences”, as revealed morphoenzymatically, and the clinical picture of the disease in both the forest and the Sudan-savanna zones. The present findings are in favour of the hypothesis that there are intrinsic differences in the strains of the parasite occurring in the two areas. The application of the histochemical means of parasite characterization appears to be a useful tool in differentiating strains of O. volvulus and could contribute towards a better understanding of the epidemiology of human onchocerciasis in different bioclimatic zones where the disease is endemic. ImagesPlate 1 PMID:6186410

  18. Detection of Onchocerca volvulus in Latin American black flies for pool screening PCR using high-throughput automated DNA isolation for transmission surveillance.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Gopal, Hemavathi; Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; De Luna-Santillana, Erick Jesús; Gurrola-Reyes, J Natividad; Guo, Xianwu

    2013-11-01

    The posttreatment entomological surveillance (ES) of onchocerciasis in Latin America requires quite large numbers of flies to be examined for parasite infection to prove that the control strategies have worked and that the infection is on the path of elimination. Here, we report a high-throughput automated DNA isolation of Onchocerca volvulus for PCR using a major Latin American black fly vector of onchocerciasis. The sensitivity and relative effectiveness of silica-coated paramagnetic beads was evaluated in comparison with phenol chloroform (PC) method which is known as the gold standard of DNA extraction for ES in Latin America. The automated method was optimized in the laboratory and validated in the field to detect parasite DNA in Simulium ochraceum sensu lato flies in comparison with PC. The optimization of the automated method showed that it is sensitive to detect O. volvulus with a pool size of 100 flies as compared with PC which utilizes 50 flies pool size. The validation of the automated method in comparison with PC in an endemic community showed that 5/67 and 3/134 heads pools were positive for the two methods, respectively. There was no statistical variation (P < 0.05) in the estimation of transmission indices generated by automated method when compared with PC method. The fact that the automated method is sensitive to pool size up to 100 confers advantage over PC method and can, therefore, be employed in large-scale ES of onchocerciasis transmission in endemic areas of Latin America. PMID:24030195

  19. Pathways to Colonization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David V., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The steps required for space colonization are many to grow from our current 3-person International Space Station, now under construction, to an infrastructure that can support hundreds and eventually thousands of people in space. This paper will summarize the author's findings from numerous studies and workshops on related subjects and identify some of the critical next steps toward space colonization. Findings will be drawn from the author s previous work on space colony design, space infrastructure workshops, and various studies that addressed space policy. In conclusion, this paper will note that significant progress has been made on space facility construction through the International Space Station program, and that significant efforts are needed in the development of new reusable Earth to Orbit transportation systems. The next key steps will include reusable in space transportation systems supported by in space propellant depots, the continued development of inflatable habitat and space elevator technologies, and the resolution of policy issues that will establish a future vision for space development.

  20. Terahertz polarization imaging for colon cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doradla, Pallavi; Alavi, Karim; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

    2014-03-01

    Continuous wave terahertz (THz) imaging has the potential to offer a safe, noninvasive medical imaging modality for delineating colorectal cancer. The terahertz reflectance measurements of fresh 3 - 5 mm thick human colonic excisions were acquired using a continuous-wave polarization imaging technique. A CO2 optically pumped Far- Infrared molecular gas laser operating at 584 GHz was used to illuminate the colon tissue, while the reflected signals were detected using a liquid Helium cooled silicon bolometer. Both co-polarized and cross-polarized remittance from the samples was collected using wire grid polarizers in the experiment. The experimental analysis of 2D images obtained from THz reflection polarization imaging techniques showed intrinsic contrast between cancerous and normal regions based on increased reflection from the tumor. Also, the study demonstrates that the cross-polarized terahertz images not only correlates better with the histology, but also provide consistent relative reflectance difference values between normal and cancerous regions for all the measured specimens.

  1. Hereditary and Familial Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jasperson, Kory W.; Tuohy, Thérèse M.; Neklason, Deborah W.; Burt, Randall W.

    2011-01-01

    Between 2% to 5% of all colon cancers arise in the setting of well defined inherited syndromes, including Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH-associated polyposis, and certain hamartomatous polyposis conditions. Each is associated with a high risk of colon cancer. In addition to the syndromes, up to one-third of colon cancers exhibit increased familial risk, likely related to inheritance. A number of less penetrant, but possibly more frequent susceptibility genes have been identified for this level of inheritance. Clarification of predisposing genes allows for accurate risk assessment and more precise screening approaches. This review examines the colon cancer syndromes, their genetics and management, and also the common familial colon cancers with current genetic advances and screening guidelines. PMID:20420945

  2. Schwannoma of the sigmoid colon.

    PubMed

    Çakır, Tuğrul; Aslaner, Arif; Yaz, Müjgan; Gündüz, Umut rıza

    2015-01-01

    Colonic schwannomas are very rare gastrointestinal tumours originating from Schwann cells, which form the neural sheath. Primary schwannomas of the lower gastrointestinal tract are very rare and usually benign in nature. However, if they are not surgically removed, malign degeneration can occur. We report a case of a 79-year-old woman who presented to our clinic with rectal bleeding and constipation. She underwent a lower gastrointestinal tract endoscopy. A mass subtotally obstructing the lumen of the sigmoid colon was seen and biopsies were taken. Histopathological examination indicated a suspicion of gastrointestinal tumour and the patient underwent sigmoid colon resection after preoperative evaluation by laboratory analysis, abdominal ultrasonography and CT. Her postoperative course was uneventful and she was discharged on the fifth day for outpatient control. The histopathology report revealed schwannoma of the sigmoid colon. This was a case of schwannoma of the sigmoid colon that was successfully treated with total resection. PMID:25976197

  3. Oncostatic effects of fluoxetine in experimental colon cancer models.

    PubMed

    Kannen, Vinicius; Garcia, Sergio Britto; Silva, Wilson A; Gasser, Martin; Mönch, Romana; Alho, Eduardo Joaquim Lopes; Heinsen, Helmut; Scholz, Claus-Jürgen; Friedrich, Mike; Heinze, Katrin Gertrud; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Stopper, Helga

    2015-09-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most common tumors in the human population. Recent studies have shown a reduced risk for colon cancer in patients given the antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX). The exact mechanism by which FLX might protect from colon cancer remains however controversial. Here, FLX reduced the development of different colon tumor xenografts, as well as proliferation in hypoxic tumor areas within them. FLX treatment also decreased microvessel numbers in tumors. Although FLX did not increase serum and tumor glucose levels as much as the colon chemotherapy gold standard Fluorouracil did, lactate levels were significantly augmented within tumors by FLX treatment. The gene expression of the MCT4 lactate transporter was significantly downregulated. Total protein amounts from the third and fifth mitochondrial complexes were significantly decreased by FLX in tumors. Cell culture experiments revealed that FLX reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential significantly and disabled the reactive oxygen species production of the third mitochondrial complex. Furthermore, FLX arrested hypoxic colon tumor cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell-cycle. The expression of key cell-cycle-related checkpoint proteins was enhanced in cell culture and in vivo experiments. Therefore, we suggest FLX impairs energy generation, cell cycle progression and proliferation in tumor cells, especially under condition of hypoxia. This then leads to reduced microvessel formation and tumor shrinkage in xenograft models. PMID:26004136

  4. Colonize, evade, flourish

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Erica J; Trent, M Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an adapted gastric pathogen that colonizes the human stomach, causing severe gastritis and gastric cancer. A hallmark of infection is the ability of this organism to evade detection by the human immune system. H. pylori has evolved a number of features to achieve this, many of which involve glyco-conjugates including the lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan layer, glycoproteins, and glucosylated cholesterol. These major bacterial components possess unique features from those of other gram-negative organisms, including differences in structure, assembly, and modification. These defining characteristics of H. pylori glycobiology help the pathogen establish a long-lived infection by providing camouflage, modulating the host immune response, and promoting virulence mechanisms. In this way, glyco-conjugates are essential for H. pylori pathogenicity and survival, allowing it to carve out a niche in the formidable environment of the human stomach. PMID:23859890

  5. [Irritable colon and constipation].

    PubMed

    Meyenberger, C

    1993-04-20

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a very common clinical problem with a broad spectrum of severity. The management includes a combination of positive diagnosis of typical symptoms with limited investigations to exclude underlying structural or biochemical disorders. Therapeutic trials focus on the relief of predominant symptoms. Identification and modification of factors exacerbating symptoms, behavioural techniques and pharmacologic agents directed to the presumed gastrointestinal motor dysfunction are required. Psychological support by the physician is the most important part of treatment. Chronic constipation may be the predominant symptom of irritable bowel syndrome. Underlying organic disorders must be excluded by clinical examination and endoscopy. Severe chronic constipation requires further investigation of colonic motility and defecation. High fibre diet, osmotic laxatives and procinetic agents may lead to an improvement. In rare cases surgery may be indicated. PMID:8488351

  6. A Randomized, Single-Ascending-Dose, Ivermectin-Controlled, Double-Blind Study of Moxidectin in Onchocerca volvulus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Opoku, Nicholas O.; Attah, Simon K.; Lazdins-Helds, Janis; Kuesel, Annette C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Control of onchocerciasis as a public health problem in Africa relies on annual mass ivermectin distribution. New tools are needed to achieve elimination of infection. This study determined in a small number of Onchocerca volvulus infected individuals whether moxidectin, a veterinary anthelminthic, is safe enough to administer it in a future large study to further characterize moxidectin's safety and efficacy. Effects on the parasite were also assessed. Methodology/Principal Findings Men and women from a forest area in South-eastern Ghana without ivermectin mass distribution received a single oral dose of 2 mg (N = 44), 4 mg (N = 45) or 8 mg (N = 38) moxidectin or 150 µg/kg ivermectin (N = 45) with 18 months follow up. All ivermectin and 97%–100% of moxidectin treated participants had Mazzotti reactions. Statistically significantly higher percentages of participants treated with 8 mg moxidectin than participants treated with ivermectin experienced pruritus (87% vs. 56%), rash (63% vs. 42%), increased pulse rate (61% vs. 36%) and decreased mean arterial pressure upon 2 minutes standing still after ≥5 minutes supine relative to pre-treatment (61% vs. 27%). These reactions resolved without treatment. In the 8 mg moxidectin and ivermectin arms, the mean±SD number of microfilariae/mg skin were 22.9±21.1 and 21.2±16.4 pre-treatment and 0.0±0.0 and 1.1±4.2 at nadir reached 1 and 3 months after treatment, respectively. At 6 months, values were 0.0±0.0 and 1.6±4.5, at 12 months 0.4±0.9 and 3.4±4.4 and at 18 months 1.8±3.3 and 4.0±4.8, respectively, in the 8 mg moxidectin and ivermectin arm. The reduction from pre-treatment values was significantly higher after 8 mg moxidectin than after ivermectin treatment throughout follow up (p<0.01). Conclusions/Significance The 8 mg dose of moxidectin was safe enough to initiate the large study. Provided its results confirm those from this study, availability of moxidectin to control

  7. Colon interposition for oesophageal replacement.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Pascal A; Gilardoni, Adrian; Trousse, Delphine; D'Journo, Xavier B; Avaro, Jean-Philippe; Doddoli, Christophe; Giudicelli, Roger; Fuentes, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The choice of the colon as an oesophageal substitute results primarily from the unavailability of the stomach. However, given its durability and function, colon interposition keeps elective indications in patients with benign or malignant oesophageal disease who are potential candidates for long survival. The choice of the colonic portion used for oesophageal reconstruction depends on the required length of the graft, and the encountered colonic vascular anatomy, the last being characterised by the near-invariability of the left colonic vessels, in contrast to the vascular pattern of the right side of the colon. Accordingly, the transverse colon with all or part of the ascending colon is the substitute of choice, positioned in the isoperistaltic direction, and supplied either from the left colic vessels for long grafts or middle colic vessels for shorter grafts. Technical key points are: full mobilisation of the entire colon, identification of the main colonic vessels and collaterals, and a prolonged clamping test to ensure the permeability of the chosen nourishing pedicle. Transposition through the posterior mediastinum in the oesophageal bed is the shortest one and thereby offers the best functional results. When the oesophageal bed is not available, the retrosternal route is the preferred alternative option. The food bolus travelling mainly by gravity makes straightness of the conduit of paramount importance. The proximal anastomosis is a single-layer hand-fashioned end-to-end anastomosis to prevent narrowing. When the stomach is available, the distal anastomosis is best performed at the posterior part of the antrum for the reasons of pedicle positioning and reflux prevention, and a gastric drainage procedure is added when the oesophagus and vagus nerves have been removed. In the other cases, a Roux-en-Y jejunal loop is preferable to prevent bile reflux into the colon. Additional procedures include re-establishment of the colonic continuity, a careful closure of

  8. [Effect of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on colonic lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase activities from patients with colonic neoplasia].

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, G; Franchi, A; De Los Santos, A R; Martí, M L; Farina, M; Fernández de Gimeno, M A

    2001-01-01

    Lysine clonixinate (LC) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with good gastrointestinal tolerance. Treatment with LC at levels equivalent to those found in plasma following therapeutic doses resulted in significant inhibition of both cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and production of 5 hydroxy-eicosatetraeonic acid (5-HETE) and slightly affected levels of cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) in in vitro studies carried out on human tissues. This study deals with the in vivo effect of the drug on human colon segments. Experiment 1: Five patients about to undergo hemicholectomy due to colon neoplasia were treated preoperatively with a continuous infusion of LC, to achieve a steady-state concentration between 4 and 6 mg/ml. Human colon segments from the five patients and from another five control patients receiving no treatment with [14C]-arachidonic acid were incubated. Human colon segments treated with LC showed significant inhibition of PGE2, the only prostaglandin (PG) synthesised by the tissue, as well as of 5-HETE. Experiment 2: Fifteen patients received an i.v. bolus of LC 100 mg (n1 = 5); LC 200 mg (n2 = 5) or indomethacin (INDO) 50 mg (n3 = 5). Both doses of LC showed greater inhibition of PGE2 synthesis than the INDO bolus. Both NSAIDs studied proved to have different effects on the production of 5-HETE; while treatment with LC elicited significant inhibition, levels with INDO remained unchanged. Western blotting analysis showed expression of both COX isoforms in colon segments, COX-2 levels being 20% higher. Both types of in vivo studies conducted continuous infusion and i.v. bolus, revealed that LC exerted significant inhibition of basal synthesis of PGE2 and 5-HETE. PMID:11721323

  9. Early Outcome of Primary Repair in Colonic Injury.

    PubMed

    Uddin, M A; Reza, E R; Islam, M S; Hoque, M R; Hussain, M F; Alam, I; Sazzad, M F; Biswas, N; Kader, M S; Malek, M S; Sultana, F; Rahman, K S

    2016-07-01

    The management of the colon injury remains controversial in spite of a number of divergent reports during the past decade. Previously surgeons were reluctant to do primary anastomosis but now-a-days they are doing primary repair with good results. The present study is designed to see the early outcomes of primary repair in colonic injury. This prospective observational study performed at Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2013 to June 2013 with allocation of 50 patients with colonic injury who underwent laparotomy with primary repair of that injury in the department of Casualty Surgery. A primary repair was performed after freshening the edges or by resection and primary anastomosis with 3.0 round-body Vicryl by single layer extra mucosal interrupted suture. Data processed using software SPSS version 16.0. For all analytical results a p value <0.05 was considered significant. In this study the commonest site of injury were transvers colon and sigmoid colon 38.0% in each. Out of 50 respondents, 5(10.0%) developed burst abdomen, 1(2.0%) developed entero-cutaneous fistula with none had paralytic ileus or septicaemia or pelvic collection. No mortality observed. This study showed that the increasing in colon injury scale (CIS) score culminate into increasing rate of postoperative complication & post operative complications were more at left colon (24%). On basis of our findings, we recommend the primary repair is a safe and effective surgical technique for addressing the large gut injury. Unnecessary proximal diversions should be avoided. According to our experience, we believe that the policy of primary repair of colon injuries can be applied more liberally in majority of patients with high success rate. PMID:27612892

  10. Recombinant Ov-ASP-1, a Th1-biased protein adjuvant derived from the helminth Onchocerca volvulus, can directly bind and activate antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    He, Yuxian; Barker, Sophie J; MacDonald, Angus J; Yu, Yu; Cao, Long; Li, Jingjing; Parhar, Ranjit; Heck, Susanne; Hartmann, Susanne; Golenbock, Douglas T; Jiang, Shibo; Libri, Nathan A; Semper, Amanda E; Rosenberg, William M; Lustigman, Sara

    2009-04-01

    We previously reported that rOv-ASP-1, a recombinant Onchocerca volvulus activation associated protein-1, was a potent adjuvant for recombinant protein or synthetic peptide-based Ags. In this study, we further evaluated the adjuvanticity of rOv-ASP-1 and explored its mechanism of action. Consistently, recombinant full-length spike protein of SARS-CoV or its receptor-binding domain in the presence of rOv-ASP-1 could effectively induce a mixed but Th1-skewed immune response in immunized mice. It appears that rOv-ASP-1 primarily bound to the APCs among human PBMCs and triggered Th1-biased proinflammatory cytokine production probably via the activation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells and the TLR, TLR2, and TLR4, thus suggesting that rOv-ASP-1 is a novel potent innate adjuvant. PMID:19299698

  11. Macrofilaricidal Activity after Doxycycline Only Treatment of Onchocerca volvulus in an Area of Loa loa Co-Endemicity: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Joseph D.; Tendongfor, Nicholas; Esum, Mathias; Johnston, Kelly L.; Langley, R. Stuart; Ford, Louise; Faragher, Brian; Specht, Sabine; Mand, Sabine; Hoerauf, Achim; Enyong, Peter; Wanji, Samuel; Taylor, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The risk of severe adverse events following treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in areas co-endemic with loiasis currently compromises the development of control programmes and the treatment of co-infected individuals. We therefore assessed whether doxycycline treatment could be used without subsequent ivermectin administration to effectively deliver sustained effects on Onchocerca volvulus microfilaridermia and adult viability. Furthermore we assessed the safety of doxycycline treatment prior to ivermectin administration in a subset of onchocerciasis individuals co-infected with low to moderate intensities of Loa loa microfilaraemia. Methods A double-blind, randomized, field trial was conducted of 6 weeks of doxycycline (200 mg/day) alone, doxycycline in combination with ivermectin (150 µg/kg) at +4 months or placebo matching doxycycline + ivermectin at +4 months in 150 individuals infected with Onchocerca volvulus. A further 22 individuals infected with O. volvulus and low to moderate intensities of Loa loa infection were administered with a course of 6 weeks doxycycline with ivermectin at +4 months. Treatment efficacy was determined at 4, 12 and 21 months after the start of doxycycline treatment together with the frequency and severity of adverse events. Results One hundred and four (60.5%) participants completed all treatment allocations and follow up assessments over the 21-month trial period. At 12 months, doxycycline/ivermectin treated individuals had lower levels of microfilaridermia and higher frequency of amicrofilaridermia compared with ivermectin or doxycycline only groups. At 21 months, microfilaridermia in doxycycline/ivermectin and doxycycline only groups was significantly reduced compared to the ivermectin only group. 89% of the doxycycline/ivermectin group and 67% of the doxycycline only group were amicrofilaridermic, compared with 21% in the ivermectin only group. O. volvulus from doxycycline groups were depleted of Wolbachia

  12. Characterization of pig colonic mucins.

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, F J; Hutton, D A; Jumel, K; Pearson, J P; Harding, S E; Allen, A

    1996-01-01

    Pig colonic mucins isolated from the adherent mucus gel in the presence of proteinase inhibitors were solubilized by homogenization and the component mucins fractionated by CsC1 density-gradient centrifugation. Polymeric and reduced pig colonic mucin were both largely excluded on Sepharose CL-2B, papain-digested colonic mucin was included. The M(r) values of polymeric, reduced and digested mucins were 5.5 x 10(6), 2.1 x 10(6) and 0.6 x 10(6) respectively. This suggests that pig colonic mucin is comprised of 2-3 subunits, each subunit containing 3-4 glycosylated regions. The intrinsic viscosities of polymeric, reduced and digested mucin were 240 ml.g-1, 100 ml.g-1 and 20 ml.g-1 respectively. Polymeric pig colonic mucin comprised 16% protein per mg of glycoprotein and was rich in serine, threonine and proline (43% of total amino acids). There were approx. 150 disulphide bridges and 53 free thiol groups per mucin polymer. A seventh of the protein content was lost on reduction. This protein was particularly rich in proline and the hydrophobic amino acids. Papain-digested pig colonic mucin contained 11% protein per mg of glycoprotein and was rich in serine, threonine, glutamate and aspartate. All types of amino acids with the exception of aspartate were lost on digestion. The amino acid analysis of the proteolytically digested regions of pig colonic mucin are markedly different to the tandem repeat regions of the human mucin genes shown to be expressed in the colon. PMID:8670173

  13. Mechanisms linking obesity to altered metabolism in mice colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nimri, Lili; Saadi, Janan; Peri, Irena; Yehuda-Shnaidman, Einav; Schwartz, Betty

    2015-11-10

    There are an increasing number of reports on obesity being a key risk factor for the development of colon cancer. Our goal in this study was to explore the metabolic networks and molecular signaling pathways linking obesity, adipose tissue and colon cancer. Using in-vivo experiments, we found that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and injected with MC38 colon cancer cells develop significantly larger tumors than their counterparts fed a control diet. In ex-vivo experiments, MC38 and CT26 colon cancer cells exposed to conditioned media (CM) from the adipose tissue of HFD-fed mice demonstrated significantly lower oxygen consumption rate as well as lower maximal oxygen consumption rate after carbonyl cyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenylhydrazone treatment. In addition, in-vitro assays showed downregulated expression of mitochondrial genes in colon cancer cells exposed to CM prepared from the visceral fat of HFD-fed mice or to leptin. Interestingly, leptin levels detected in the media of adipose tissue explants co-cultured with MC38 cancer cells were higher than in adipose tissue explants cultures, indicating cross talk between the adipose tissue and the cancer cells. Salient findings of the present study demonstrate that this crosstalk is mediated at least partially by the JNK/STAT3-signaling pathway. PMID:26472027

  14. Mechanisms linking obesity to altered metabolism in mice colon carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nimri, Lili; Saadi, Janan; Peri, Irena; Yehuda-Shnaidman, Einav; Schwartz, Betty

    2015-01-01

    There are an increasing number of reports on obesity being a key risk factor for the development of colon cancer. Our goal in this study was to explore the metabolic networks and molecular signaling pathways linking obesity, adipose tissue and colon cancer. Using in-vivo experiments, we found that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and injected with MC38 colon cancer cells develop significantly larger tumors than their counterparts fed a control diet. In ex-vivo experiments, MC38 and CT26 colon cancer cells exposed to conditioned media (CM) from the adipose tissue of HFD-fed mice demonstrated significantly lower oxygen consumption rate as well as lower maximal oxygen consumption rate after carbonyl cyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenylhydrazone treatment. In addition, in-vitro assays showed downregulated expression of mitochondrial genes in colon cancer cells exposed to CM prepared from the visceral fat of HFD-fed mice or to leptin. Interestingly, leptin levels detected in the media of adipose tissue explants co-cultured with MC38 cancer cells were higher than in adipose tissue explants cultures, indicating cross talk between the adipose tissue and the cancer cells. Salient findings of the present study demonstrate that this crosstalk is mediated at least partially by the JNK/STAT3-signaling pathway. PMID:26472027

  15. Multicongenic fate mapping quantification of dynamics of thymus colonization.

    PubMed

    Ziętara, Natalia; Łyszkiewicz, Marcin; Puchałka, Jacek; Witzlau, Katrin; Reinhardt, Annika; Förster, Reinhold; Pabst, Oliver; Prinz, Immo; Krueger, Andreas

    2015-09-21

    Postnatal T cell development depends on continuous colonization of the thymus by BM-derived T lineage progenitors. Both quantitative parameters and the mechanisms of thymus seeding remain poorly understood. Here, we determined the number of dedicated thymus-seeding progenitor niches (TSPNs) capable of supporting productive T cell development, turnover rates of niche occupancy, and feedback mechanisms. To this end, we established multicongenic fate mapping combined with mathematical modeling to quantitate individual events of thymus colonization. We applied this method to study thymus colonization in CCR7(-/-)CCR9(-/-) (DKO) mice, whose TSPNs are largely unoccupied. We showed that ∼160-200 TSPNs are present in the adult thymus and, on average, 10 of these TSPNs were open for recolonization at steady state. Preconditioning of wild-type mice revealed a similar number of TSPNs, indicating that preconditioning can generate space efficiently for transplanted T cell progenitors. To identify potential cellular feedback loops restricting thymus colonization, we performed serial transfer experiments. These experiments indicated that thymus seeding was directly restricted by the duration of niche occupancy rather than long-range effects, thus challenging current paradigms of thymus colonization. PMID:26347471

  16. Multicongenic fate mapping quantification of dynamics of thymus colonization

    PubMed Central

    Łyszkiewicz, Marcin; Puchałka, Jacek; Witzlau, Katrin; Reinhardt, Annika; Förster, Reinhold; Pabst, Oliver; Prinz, Immo

    2015-01-01

    Postnatal T cell development depends on continuous colonization of the thymus by BM-derived T lineage progenitors. Both quantitative parameters and the mechanisms of thymus seeding remain poorly understood. Here, we determined the number of dedicated thymus-seeding progenitor niches (TSPNs) capable of supporting productive T cell development, turnover rates of niche occupancy, and feedback mechanisms. To this end, we established multicongenic fate mapping combined with mathematical modeling to quantitate individual events of thymus colonization. We applied this method to study thymus colonization in CCR7−/−CCR9−/− (DKO) mice, whose TSPNs are largely unoccupied. We showed that ∼160–200 TSPNs are present in the adult thymus and, on average, 10 of these TSPNs were open for recolonization at steady state. Preconditioning of wild-type mice revealed a similar number of TSPNs, indicating that preconditioning can generate space efficiently for transplanted T cell progenitors. To identify potential cellular feedback loops restricting thymus colonization, we performed serial transfer experiments. These experiments indicated that thymus seeding was directly restricted by the duration of niche occupancy rather than long-range effects, thus challenging current paradigms of thymus colonization. PMID:26347471

  17. Adult colonic intussusception: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sasatomi, T; Oriishi, T; Nakano, R; Nozoe, Y; Tanaka, T; Horiuchi, H; Noake, T; Takeuchi, K; Tsuji, Y; Shirouzu, K

    2001-01-01

    Intussusception accounts for almost all cases of intestinal obstruction in children. In contrast, intussusception in adults is relatively rare. An 86-year-old Japanese female with rectal bleeding came to our hospital via ambulance. At first, colonoscopy findings revealed the sigmoid colon cancer. Ultrasonography showed a hypoechoic mass with a multiple concentric ring sign. Computed tomography showed a round fluid-filled cystic structure. Colon contrast studies demonstrated stenosis in the rectosigmoid colon. A laparotomy was performed. The sigmoid colon was intussuscepted to the rectosigmoid colon. We employed both rectosigmoid and sigmoid colon resection. The resected specimen showed that the disease was advanced sigmoid colon cancer with ulcer formation due to an ischemic change. Tumor was 4.5 cm x 2.0 cm in size. The disease was histopathologically diagnosed as advanced sigmoid colon cancer, well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. We report here a case of adult intussusception due to the sigmoid colon cancer. PMID:11501502

  18. Discovery 3: A Simulation of Early American Colonization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesley, John

    This simulation allows students to experience the mystery of exploration and the hazards and perils of colonial life. Students are divided into 4- to 6-person colonizing groups. After acquiring some background information they then become colonists. They spend the remainder of the simulation making decisions, working, coping, surviving, and…

  19. Novel aspects of cholinergic regulation of colonic ion transport.

    PubMed

    Bader, Sandra; Diener, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Nicotinic receptors are not only expressed by excitable tissues, but have been identified in various epithelia. One aim of this study was to investigate the expression of nicotinic receptors and their involvement in the regulation of ion transport across colonic epithelium. Ussing chamber experiments with putative nicotinic agonists and antagonists were performed at rat colon combined with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of nicotinic receptor subunits within the epithelium. Dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP) and nicotine induced a tetrodotoxin-resistant anion secretion leading to an increase in short-circuit current (I sc) across colonic mucosa. The response was suppressed by the nicotinic receptor antagonist hexamethonium. RT-PCR experiments revealed the expression of α2, α4, α5, α6, α7, α10, and β4 nicotinic receptor subunits in colonic epithelium. Choline, the product of acetylcholine hydrolysis, is known for its affinity to several nicotinic receptor subtypes. As a strong acetylcholinesterase activity was found in colonic epithelium, the effect of choline on I sc was examined. Choline induced a concentration-dependent, tetrodotoxin-resistant chloride secretion which was, however, resistant against hexamethonium, but was inhibited by atropine. Experiments with inhibitors of muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors revealed that choline-evoked secretion was mainly due to a stimulation of epithelial M3 receptors. Although choline proved to be only a partial agonist, it concentration-dependently desensitized the response to acetylcholine, suggesting that it might act as a modulator of cholinergically induced anion secretion. Thus the cholinergic regulation of colonic ion transport - up to now solely explained by cholinergic submucosal neurons stimulating epithelial muscarinic receptors - is more complex than previously assumed. PMID:26236483

  20. Novel aspects of cholinergic regulation of colonic ion transport

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Sandra; Diener, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic receptors are not only expressed by excitable tissues, but have been identified in various epithelia. One aim of this study was to investigate the expression of nicotinic receptors and their involvement in the regulation of ion transport across colonic epithelium. Ussing chamber experiments with putative nicotinic agonists and antagonists were performed at rat colon combined with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of nicotinic receptor subunits within the epithelium. Dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP) and nicotine induced a tetrodotoxin-resistant anion secretion leading to an increase in short-circuit current (Isc) across colonic mucosa. The response was suppressed by the nicotinic receptor antagonist hexamethonium. RT-PCR experiments revealed the expression of α2, α4, α5, α6, α7, α10, and β4 nicotinic receptor subunits in colonic epithelium. Choline, the product of acetylcholine hydrolysis, is known for its affinity to several nicotinic receptor subtypes. As a strong acetylcholinesterase activity was found in colonic epithelium, the effect of choline on Isc was examined. Choline induced a concentration-dependent, tetrodotoxin-resistant chloride secretion which was, however, resistant against hexamethonium, but was inhibited by atropine. Experiments with inhibitors of muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors revealed that choline-evoked secretion was mainly due to a stimulation of epithelial M3 receptors. Although choline proved to be only a partial agonist, it concentration-dependently desensitized the response to acetylcholine, suggesting that it might act as a modulator of cholinergically induced anion secretion. Thus the cholinergic regulation of colonic ion transport – up to now solely explained by cholinergic submucosal neurons stimulating epithelial muscarinic receptors – is more complex than previously assumed. PMID:26236483

  1. Complete colonic duplication in children

    PubMed Central

    Khaleghnejad Tabari, Ahmad; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Khaleghnejad Tabari, Nasibeh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in 15% of gastrointestinal duplication. We report two cases of complete colonic duplications, and their characteristics. Case Presentation: We present two patients with complete colonic duplication with different types and presentations. Case 1: A 2- year old boy presented to the clinic with abdominal protrusion, difficulty to defecate, chronic constipation and mucosal prolaps covered bulging (rectocele) since he was 6 months old. The patient had palpable pelvic mass with doughy consistency. Rectal exam confirmed perirectal mass with soft consistency. The patient underwent a surgical operation that had total tubular colorectal duplication with one blind end and was treated with simple fenestration of distal end, and was discharged without complication. After two years follow up, he had normal defecation and good weight gain. Case 2: A 2 –day old infant was referred with imperforate anus and complete duplication of recto-sigmoid colon, diphallus, double bladder, and hypospadiasis. After clinical and paraclinical investigations, he underwent operations in several stages in different periods, and was discharged without complications. After four years follow up, he led a normal life. Conclusion: The patients with complete duplication have to be examined carefully because of the high incidence of other systemic anomalies. Treatment includes simple resection of distal common wall, fenestration, and repair other associated anomalies. PMID:24358440

  2. Streptococcus salivarius K12 Limits Group B Streptococcus Vaginal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Patras, Kathryn A.; Wescombe, Philip A.; Rösler, Berenice; Hale, John D.; Tagg, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) colonizes the rectovaginal tract in 20% to 30% of women and during pregnancy can be transmitted to the newborn, causing severe invasive disease. Current routine screening and antibiotic prophylaxis have fallen short of complete prevention of GBS transmission, and GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. We have investigated the ability of Streptococcus salivarius, a predominant member of the native human oral microbiota, to control GBS colonization. Comparison of the antibacterial activities of multiple S. salivarius strains by use of a deferred-antagonism test showed that S. salivarius strain K12 exhibited the broadest spectrum of activity against GBS. K12 effectively inhibited all GBS strains tested, including disease-implicated isolates from newborns and colonizing isolates from the vaginal tract of pregnant women. Inhibition was dependent on the presence of megaplasmid pSsal-K12, which encodes the bacteriocins salivaricin A and salivaricin B; however, in coculture experiments, GBS growth was impeded by K12 independently of the megaplasmid. We also demonstrated that K12 adheres to and invades human vaginal epithelial cells at levels comparable to GBS. Inhibitory activity of K12 was examined in vivo using a mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization. Mice colonized with GBS were treated vaginally with K12. K12 administration significantly reduced GBS vaginal colonization in comparison to nontreated controls, and this effect was partially dependent on the K12 megaplasmid. Our results suggest that K12 may have potential as a preventative therapy to control GBS vaginal colonization and thereby prevent its transmission to the neonate during pregnancy. PMID:26077762

  3. Streptococcus salivarius K12 Limits Group B Streptococcus Vaginal Colonization.

    PubMed

    Patras, Kathryn A; Wescombe, Philip A; Rösler, Berenice; Hale, John D; Tagg, John R; Doran, Kelly S

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) colonizes the rectovaginal tract in 20% to 30% of women and during pregnancy can be transmitted to the newborn, causing severe invasive disease. Current routine screening and antibiotic prophylaxis have fallen short of complete prevention of GBS transmission, and GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. We have investigated the ability of Streptococcus salivarius, a predominant member of the native human oral microbiota, to control GBS colonization. Comparison of the antibacterial activities of multiple S. salivarius strains by use of a deferred-antagonism test showed that S. salivarius strain K12 exhibited the broadest spectrum of activity against GBS. K12 effectively inhibited all GBS strains tested, including disease-implicated isolates from newborns and colonizing isolates from the vaginal tract of pregnant women. Inhibition was dependent on the presence of megaplasmid pSsal-K12, which encodes the bacteriocins salivaricin A and salivaricin B; however, in coculture experiments, GBS growth was impeded by K12 independently of the megaplasmid. We also demonstrated that K12 adheres to and invades human vaginal epithelial cells at levels comparable to GBS. Inhibitory activity of K12 was examined in vivo using a mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization. Mice colonized with GBS were treated vaginally with K12. K12 administration significantly reduced GBS vaginal colonization in comparison to nontreated controls, and this effect was partially dependent on the K12 megaplasmid. Our results suggest that K12 may have potential as a preventative therapy to control GBS vaginal colonization and thereby prevent its transmission to the neonate during pregnancy. PMID:26077762

  4. Ultrasonographic appearance of colon taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Fabijanić, D; Giunio, L; Ivani, N; Fabijanić, A; Mirić, D; Kardum, D

    2001-03-01

    We present the case of a 50-year-old woman with abdominal pain, nausea, loss of appetite, and frequent stools in whom the routine ultrasonographic examination demonstrated a double-reflective, ribbon-like structure in the lumen of the initial segment of the ascending colon, which suggested colon taeniasis. Because the initial parasitologic analysis yielded negative results and application of albendazol did not have any therapeutic effect, the diagnosis was confirmed by barium enema and subsequently by parasitologic examination of proglottids passed in the stool after application of niclosamide. The double-reflective, ribbon-like structure in the lumen of the intestine seems to be specific to the ultrasonographic appearance of intestinal taeniasis. Transcutaneous ultrasonography of the gastrointestinal tract, performed as a screening method before conventional radiologic or endoscopic examination, can point to the ultimate diagnosis of colon taeniasis. PMID:11270533

  5. Spatial contagion drives colonization and recruitment of frogflies on clutches of red-eyed treefrogs.

    PubMed

    Hughey, Myra C; McCoy, Michael W; Vonesh, James R; Warkentin, Karen M

    2012-10-23

    Spatial contagion occurs when the perceived suitability of neighbouring habitat patches is not independent. As a result, organisms may colonize less-preferred patches near preferred patches and avoid preferred patches near non-preferred patches. Spatial contagion may thus alter colonization dynamics as well as the type and frequency of post-colonization interactions. Studies have only recently documented the phenomenon of spatial contagion and begun to examine its consequences for local recruitment. Here, we test for spatial contagion in the colonization of arboreal egg clutches of red-eyed treefrogs by a frogfly and examine the consequences of contagion for fly recruitment. In laboratory choice experiments, flies oviposit almost exclusively on clutches containing dead frog eggs. In nature, however, flies often colonize intact clutches without dead eggs. Consistent with predictions of contagion-induced oviposition, we found that flies more frequently colonize intact clutches near damaged clutches and rarely colonize intact clutches near other intact clutches. Moreover, contagion appears to benefit flies. Flies survived equally well and suffered less parasitism on clutches lacking dead eggs. This study demonstrates how reward contagion can influence colonization dynamics and suggests that colonization patterns caused by contagion may have important population- and community-level consequences. PMID:22832129

  6. Spatial contagion drives colonization and recruitment of frogflies on clutches of red-eyed treefrogs

    PubMed Central

    Hughey, Myra C.; McCoy, Michael W.; Vonesh, James R.; Warkentin, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial contagion occurs when the perceived suitability of neighbouring habitat patches is not independent. As a result, organisms may colonize less-preferred patches near preferred patches and avoid preferred patches near non-preferred patches. Spatial contagion may thus alter colonization dynamics as well as the type and frequency of post-colonization interactions. Studies have only recently documented the phenomenon of spatial contagion and begun to examine its consequences for local recruitment. Here, we test for spatial contagion in the colonization of arboreal egg clutches of red-eyed treefrogs by a frogfly and examine the consequences of contagion for fly recruitment. In laboratory choice experiments, flies oviposit almost exclusively on clutches containing dead frog eggs. In nature, however, flies often colonize intact clutches without dead eggs. Consistent with predictions of contagion-induced oviposition, we found that flies more frequently colonize intact clutches near damaged clutches and rarely colonize intact clutches near other intact clutches. Moreover, contagion appears to benefit flies. Flies survived equally well and suffered less parasitism on clutches lacking dead eggs. This study demonstrates how reward contagion can influence colonization dynamics and suggests that colonization patterns caused by contagion may have important population- and community-level consequences. PMID:22832129

  7. Are dietary fiber-induced alterations in colonic epithelial cell proliferation predictive of fiber's effect on colon cancer?

    PubMed

    Whiteley, L O; Klurfeld, D M

    2000-01-01

    Alterations in cell proliferation of the colon have been observed as a result of changes in amount and type of dietary fiber and in relation to risk of developing colon cancer. Although some human observational and intervention studies contribute to the database, most information results from experiments on rodents. Because of numerous contradictory reports linking dietary fiber, cell proliferation, and colon cancer, we undertook a critical review of existing methods in an attempt to explain the inconsistencies. Although there may be some individual types of dietary fiber that protect against chemically induced colon cancer, dietary fiber as a single entity does not appear to afford any consistent protection. Because of significant differences in experimental protocols among laboratories, it is not yet possible to state with certainty that increases in cell proliferation, induced by fiber consumption, are predictive of increased tumorigenesis. Much of what has been observed and interpreted as elevation of risk may simply be normal homeostatic changes in cell proliferation. Even though fermentation to short-chain fatty acids is a mechanistically attractive hypothesis to explain why fiber modulates cytokinetics, data do not consistently support short-chain fatty acids as biological intermediates in risk of colon cancer. The state of the art in this field has not yet progressed to the point where a clear effect of dietary fiber on cytokinetics and colon carcinogenesis can be assessed with any degree of certainty. Additional markers of apoptosis, differentiation, and cell-cell communication may be required for a more accurate analysis of the relation among fiber, cytokinetics, and colon cancer. PMID:10890023

  8. 3D Reconstruction of virtual colon structures from colonoscopy images.

    PubMed

    Hong, DongHo; Tavanapong, Wallapak; Wong, Johnny; Oh, JungHwan; de Groen, Piet C

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first fully automated reconstruction technique of 3D virtual colon segments from individual colonoscopy images. It is the basis of new software applications that may offer great benefits for improving quality of care for colonoscopy patients. For example, a 3D map of the areas inspected and uninspected during colonoscopy can be shown on request of the endoscopist during the procedure. The endoscopist may revisit the suggested uninspected areas to reduce the chance of missing polyps that reside in these areas. The percentage of the colon surface seen by the endoscopist can be used as a coarse objective indicator of the quality of the procedure. The derived virtual colon models can be stored for post-procedure training of new endoscopists to teach navigation techniques that result in a higher level of procedure quality. Our technique does not require a prior CT scan of the colon or any global positioning device. Our experiments on endoscopy images of an Olympus synthetic colon model reveal encouraging results with small average reconstruction errors (4.1 mm for the fold depths and 12.1 mm for the fold circumferences). PMID:24225230

  9. Mycorrhizal colonization mediated by species interactions in arctic tundra.

    PubMed

    Urcelay, Carlos; Bret-Harte, M Syndonia; Díaz, Sandra; Chapin, F Stuart

    2003-11-01

    The Alaskan tussock tundra is a strongly nutrient-limited ecosystem, where almost all vascular plant species are mycorrhizal. We established a long-term removal experiment to document effects of arctic plant species on ecto- and ericoid mycorrhizal fungi and to investigate whether species interactions and/or nutrient availability affect mycorrhizal colonization. The treatments applied were removal of Betula nana ( Betulaceae, dominant deciduous shrub species), removal of Ledum palustre ( Ericaceae, dominant evergreen shrub species), control (no removal), and each of these three treatments with the addition of fertilizer. After 3 years of Ledum removal and fertilization, we found that overall ectomycorrhizal colonization in Betula was significantly reduced. Changes in ectomycorrhizal morphotype composition in removal and fertilized treatments were also observed. These results suggest that the effect of Ledum on Betula's mycorrhizal roots is due to sequestration of nutrients by Ledum, leading to reduced nutrient availability in the soil. In contrast, ericoid mycorrhizal colonization was not affected by fertilization, but the removal of Betula and to a lower degree of Ledum resulted in a reduction of ericoid mycorrhizal colonization suggesting a direct effect of these species on ericoid mycorrhizal colonization. Nutrient availability was only higher in fertilized treatments, but caution should be taken with the interpretation of these data as soil microbes may effectively compete with the ion exchange resins for the nutrients released by plant removal in these nutrient-limited soils. PMID:12905060

  10. Trophic levels colonize sequentially but effects of habitat size and quality are transient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piechnik, Denise A.

    2013-02-01

    Ecologists study assembling communities to understand mechanisms responsible for community-level patterns such as trophic structure. As communities assemble the incidence of each trophic level is conditional upon available resources such as prey, habitat area and productivity. Larger, more productive habitats may have more resources, increasing the potential to attract and to support greater species diversity, abundance, and more trophic levels. Predator trophic breadth and prey incidence may influence colonization order because obligate specialists have stricter prey dependencies than generalists do. In a system of stacked specialists, colonization may occur sequentially by trophic level because prey must be present before the next higher trophic level can colonize. Sequential colonization ordered by trophic level and by trophic breadth were tested with a field experiment and a Monte Carlo simulation. Community assembly was observed for an aphid food-web module composed of nine specialist and generalist predators colonizing plots seeded with California native annuals. To test the importance of habitat quality and resources, plots were manipulated for size (1 m2 and 10 m2) and productivity (+/0 fertilizer), and then sampled for colonists many times during the growing season of 2003. Specialists from higher trophic levels were observed to colonize after their prey had arrived in the field experiment only, providing field support for the hypothesis of sequential colonization ordered by trophic level during community assembly. Intriguingly, generalist predators colonized later than specialists, despite the high and early availability of aphid prey. This finding contradicts the assumption that a narrow trophic breadth may disadvantage specialist colonizers. Initially, predator and prey densities increased on fertilized plots, but later this pattern was observed only on small plots. Patterns of sequential colonization order by trophic level and trophic breadth were

  11. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  12. Five New Genes Linked to Colon Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159556.html Five New Genes Linked to Colon Cancer But researchers say ... 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists have identified five new gene mutations that may be tied to colon ...

  13. Colon Cancer Rising in People Under 50

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159004.html Colon Cancer Rising in People Under 50 Incidence up ... TUESDAY, May 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Although overall colon cancer rates are declining, the rates among Americans ...

  14. Evolving colon injury management: a review.

    PubMed

    Greer, Lauren T; Gillern, Suzanne M; Vertrees, Amy E

    2013-02-01

    The colon is the second most commonly injured intra-abdominal organ in penetrating trauma. Management of traumatic colon injuries has evolved significantly over the past 200 years. Traumatic colon injuries can have a wide spectrum of severity, presentation, and management options. There is strong evidence that most non-destructive colon injuries can be successfully managed with primary repair or primary anastomosis. The management of destructive colon injuries remains controversial with most favoring resection with primary anastomosis and others favor colonic diversion in specific circumstances. The historical management of traumatic colon injuries, common mechanisms of injury, demographics, presentation, assessment, diagnosis, management, and complications of traumatic colon injuries both in civilian and military practice are reviewed. The damage control revolution has added another layer of complexity to management with continued controversy. PMID:23336650

  15. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer This page ... and rectal cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Colon Cancer Avastin (Bevacizumab) Bevacizumab Camptosar ( ...

  16. Teaching about the Colonization of Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Jay S.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate course, The Colonization of Space, which introduces nonscience majors at the University of North Florida to current topics in the exploration, industrialization, and colonization of space. References to the audiovisual resources and literature are also included. (HM)

  17. STUDIES OF DBP-INDUCED COLON CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of colon carcinomas by trihalomethanes in rats may be relevant to epidemiological findings of increased incidences of colon-rectal cancer associated with exposure to chlorination byproducts. These studies have demonstrated that the brominated THMs in drinking water ind...

  18. Five New Genes Linked to Colon Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159556.html Five New Genes Linked to Colon Cancer But researchers say ... 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists have identified five new gene mutations that may be tied to colon ...

  19. Variability of spectra of laser-induced fluorescence of colonic mucosa: its significance for fluorescence detection of colonic neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Chwirot, Barbara W; Kowalska, Małgorzata; Płóciennik, Natalia; Piwiński, Mariusz; Michniewicz, Zbigniew; Chwirot, Stanisław

    2003-05-01

    To determine the extent of a natural variability of the spectra of the autofluorescence and its significance for a reproducibility of different approaches typically used in studies on fluorescence detection of colonic lesions. Two independent series of experiments have been conducted during three years in the same laboratory. Macroscopic tissue specimens obtained during operations of patients with colonic cancers were studied in vitro. The tissues were excited using UV lines of c.w. He-Cd laser and pulsed nitrogen laser and the autofluorescence spectra were recorded for areas visually diagnosed as normal or pathologically changed mucosa. Natural variability of the autofluorescence spectra of colonic tissues seems to be most important factor limiting sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic algorithms. The mean fluorescence spectra obtained for normal mucosa and its neoplastic lesions differ significantly but the differences are difficult to observe because of the high natural variability among the individual spectra. Further studies of biological basis of the colonic autofluorescence are necessary for a progress in the field of fluorescence detection of colonic neoplastic lesions. PMID:15244272

  20. Colon Cleansing: Health or Hype?

    MedlinePlus

    ... maintain a healthy bacterial composition, known as your microflora. “Your microflora plays a crucial role in protecting your body ... potassium Kidney damage Plus, colon cleansing changes your microflora. “You may think you’re getting rid of ...

  1. A computational analysis of the binding mode of closantel as inhibitor of the Onchocerca volvulus chitinase: insights on macrofilaricidal drug design.

    PubMed

    Segura-Cabrera, Aldo; Bocanegra-García, Virgilio; Lizarazo-Ortega, Cristian; Guo, Xianwu; Correa-Basurto, José; Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A

    2011-12-01

    Onchocerciasis is a leading cause of blindness with at least 37 million people infected and more than 120 million people at risk of contracting the disease; most (99%) of this population, threatened by infection, live in Africa. The drug of choice for mass treatment is the microfilaricidal Mectizan(®) (ivermectin); it does not kill the adult stages of the parasite at the standard dose which is a single annual dose aimed at disease control. However, multiple treatments a year with ivermectin have effects on adult worms. The discovery of new therapeutic targets and drugs directed towards the killing of the adult parasites are thus urgently needed. The chitinase of filarial nematodes is a new drug target due to its essential function in the metabolism and molting of the parasite. Closantel is a potent and specific inhibitor of chitinase of Onchocerca volvulus (OvCHT1) and other filarial chitinases. However, the binding mode and specificity of closantel towards OvCHT1 remain unknown. In the absence of a crystallographic structure of OvCHT1, we developed a homology model of OvCHT1 using the currently available X-ray structures of human chitinases as templates. Energy minimization and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the model led to a high quality of 3D structure of OvCHIT1. A flexible docking study using closantel as the ligand on the binding site of OvCHIT1 and human chitinases was performed and demonstrated the differences in the closantel binding mode between OvCHIT1 and human chitinase. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations and free-energy calculation were employed to determine and compare the detailed binding mode of closantel with OvCHT1 and the structure of human chitinase. This comparative study allowed identification of structural features and properties responsible for differences in the computationally predicted closantel binding modes. The homology model and the closantel binding mode reported herein might help guide the rational development of

  2. Colon Preneoplastic Lesions in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Suzui, Masumi; Morioka, Takamitsu; Yoshimi, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    The animal model is a powerful and fundamental tool in the field of biochemical research including toxicology, carcinogenesis, cancer therapeutics and prevention. In the carcinogenesis animal model system, numerous examples of preneoplastic lesions have been isolated and investigated from various perspectives. This may indicate that several options of endpoints to evaluate carcinogenesis effect or therapeutic outcome are presently available; however, classification of preneoplastic lesions has become complicated. For instance, these lesions include aberrant crypt foci (ACF), dysplastic ACF, flat ACF, β-catenin accumulated crypts, and mucin-depleted foci. These lesions have been induced by commonly used chemical carcinogens such as azoxymethane (AOM), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), methylnitrosourea (MUN), or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Investigators can choose any procedures or methods to examine colonic preneoplastic lesions according to their interests and the objectives of their experiments. Based on topographical, histopathological, and biological features of colon cancer preneoplastic lesions in the animal model, we summarize and discuss the character and implications of these lesions. PMID:24526805

  3. Effect of island size, distance, and epicenter maturity on colonization in freshwater protozoan communities

    SciTech Connect

    Henebry, M.S.; Cairns, J. Jr.

    1980-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (a) obtain baseline data on the colonization of artificial islands in a closed laboratory system; (b) investigate effects of island area and distance from an epicenter (source of protozoa) on the colonization process, and (c) test the effect of the maturity of an epicenter on the colonization of surrounding islands. Islands which were smallest in area or closest to the epicenter had significantly greater species richness during the 7 days of the experiments. Islands exposed to epicenters of intermediate, maturity had significantly greater species richness than islands tested with mature (fully colonized) epicenters. Evidence gathered thus far strongly suggests that kinds of species during different periods of colonization are responsible for differences in species richness on islands exposed to epicenters of different maturities.

  4. Active colonization dynamics and diversity patterns are influenced by dendritic network connectivity and species interactions

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Mathew; Altermatt, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Habitat network connectivity influences colonization dynamics, species invasions, and biodiversity patterns. Recent theoretical work suggests dendritic networks, such as those found in rivers, alter expectations regarding colonization and dispersal dynamics compared with other network types. As many native and non-native species are spreading along river networks, this may have important ecological implications. However, experimental studies testing the effects of network structure on colonization and diversity patterns are scarce. Up to now, experimental studies have only considered networks where sites are connected with small corridors, or dispersal was experimentally controlled, which eliminates possible effects of species interactions on colonization dynamics. Here, we tested the effect of network connectivity and species interactions on colonization dynamics using continuous linear and dendritic (i.e., river-like) networks, which allow for active dispersal. We used a set of six protist species and one rotifer species in linear and dendritic microcosm networks. At the start of the experiment, we introduced species, either singularly or as a community within the networks. Species subsequently actively colonized the networks. We periodically measured densities of species throughout the networks over 2 weeks to track community dynamics, colonization, and diversity patterns. We found that colonization of dendritic networks was faster compared with colonization of linear networks, which resulted in higher local mean species richness in dendritic networks. Initially, community similarity was also greater in dendritic networks compared with linear networks, but this effect vanished over time. The presence of species interactions increased community evenness over time, compared with extrapolations from single-species setups. Our experimental findings confirm previous theoretical work and show that network connectivity, species-specific dispersal ability, and species

  5. Alteration of gene expression in rat colon mucosa after exercise.

    PubMed

    Buehlmeyer, K; Doering, F; Daniel, H; Kindermann, B; Schulz, T; Michna, H

    2008-01-01

    The development of colon cancer is highly influenced by lifestyle factors such as nutrition and physical inactivity. Detailed biological mechanisms are thus far unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of regular treadmill exercise on gene expression in rat colon mucosa. For this purpose, 6-week-old male Wistar rats completed a stress-free voluntary treadmill exercise period of 12 weeks. Sedentary rats served as a control group. In the colon mucosa, steady-state mRNA expression levels of approximately 10,000 genes were compared between both groups by micro-array analysis (MWG rat 10K array). A total of 8846 mRNAs were detected above background level. Regular exercise led to a decreased expression of 47 genes at a threshold-factor of 2.0. Three genes were found to be up-regulated in the exercise group. The identified genes encode proteins involved in signal transduction (n=11), transport (n=8), immune system (n=7), cytoskeleton (n=6), protein targeting (n=6), metabolism (n=5), transcription (n=3) and vascularization (n=2). Among the genes regulated by regular exercise, the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 2 (BHMT2) seems to be of particular interest. Physical activity may protect against aberrant methylation by repressing the BHMT2 gene and thus contribute to a decreased risk of developing colon cancer. We have also identified vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) and calcium-independent phospholipase a2 (iPL-A2), all of them with markedly reduced transcript levels in the mucosa of active rats. In summary, our experiment presents the first gene expression pattern in rat colon mucosa following regular treadmill activity and represents an important step in understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the preventive effect of physical activity on the development of colon cancer. PMID:18342145

  6. Detection of Onchocerca volvulus in Skin Snips by Microscopy and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Implications for Monitoring and Evaluation Activities.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Elizabeth A; Cama, Vitaliano A; Lakwo, Thomson; Mekasha, Sindeaw; Abanyie, Francisca; Sleshi, Markos; Kebede, Amha; Cantey, Paul T

    2016-04-01

    Microscopic evaluation of skin biopsies is the monitoring and evaluation (M and E) method currently used by multiple onchocerciasis elimination programs in Africa. However, as repeated mass drug administration suppresses microfilarial loads, the sensitivity and programmatic utility of skin snip microscopy is expected to decrease. Using a pan-filarial real-time polymerase chain reaction with melt curve analysis (qPCR-MCA), we evaluated 1) the use of a single-step molecular assay for detecting and identifying Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in residual skin snips and 2) the sensitivity of skin snip microscopy relative to qPCR-MCA. Skin snips were collected and examined with routine microscopy in hyperendemic regions of Uganda and Ethiopia (N= 500 each) and "residual" skin snips (tissue remaining after induced microfilarial emergence) were tested with qPCR-MCA. qPCR-MCA detected Onchocerca DNA in 223 residual snips: 139 of 147 microscopy(+) and 84 among microscopy(-) snips, suggesting overall sensitivity of microscopy was 62.3% (139/223) relative to qPCR-MCA (75.6% in Uganda and 28.6% in Ethiopia). These findings demonstrate the insufficient sensitivity of skin snip microscopy for reliable programmatic monitoring. Molecular tools such as qPCR-MCA can augment sensitivity and provide diagnostic confirmation of skin biopsies and will be useful for evaluation or validation of new onchocerciasis M and E tools. PMID:26880774

  7. One Hundred Years After Its Discovery in Guatemala by Rodolfo Robles, Onchocerca volvulus Transmission Has Been Eliminated from the Central Endemic Zone.

    PubMed

    Richards, Frank; Rizzo, Nidia; Diaz Espinoza, Carlos Enrique; Monroy, Zoraida Morales; Crovella Valdez, Carol Guillermina; de Cabrera, Renata Mendizabal; de Leon, Oscar; Zea-Flores, Guillermo; Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Morales, Alba Lucia; Rios, Dalila; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hassan, Hassan K; Klein, Robert; Eberhard, Mark; Cupp, Ed; Domínguez, Alfredo

    2015-12-01

    We report the elimination of Onchocerca volvulus transmission from the Central Endemic Zone (CEZ) of onchocerciasis in Guatemala, the largest focus of this disease in the Americas and the first to be discovered in this hemisphere by Rodolfo Robles Valverde in 1915. Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin was launched in 1988, with semiannual MDA coverage reaching at least 85% of the eligible population in > 95% of treatment rounds during the 12-year period, 2000-2011. Serial parasitological testing to monitor MDA impact in sentinel villages showed a decrease in microfilaria skin prevalence from 70% to 0%, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based entomological assessments of the principal vector Simulium ochraceum s.l. showed transmission interruption by 2007. These assessments, together with a 2010 serological survey in children 9-69 months of age that showed Ov16 IgG4 antibody prevalence to be < 0.1%, meeting World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for stopping MDA, and treatment was halted after 2011. After 3 years an entomological assessment showed no evidence of vector infection or recrudescence of transmission. In 2015, 100 years after the discovery of its presence, the Ministry of Health of Guatemala declared onchocerciasis transmission as having been eliminated from the CEZ. PMID:26503275

  8. Aberrant Gene Expression Profile of Unaffected Colon Mucosa from Patients with Unifocal Colon Polyp

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Jingjing; Ma, Lili; Yang, Jiayin; Xu, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate gene expression profiles in unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp to investigate the potential mucosa impairment in normal-appearing colon mucosa from these patients. Material/Methods Colon polyp patients were prospectively recruited. We obtained colon biopsies from the normal-appearing sites and polyp tissue through colonoscopy. Gene expression analysis was performed using microarrays. Gene ontology and clustering were evaluated by bioinformatics. Results We detected a total of 711 genes (274 up-regulated and 437 down-regulated) in polyp tissue and 256 genes (170 up-regulated and 86 down-regulated) in normal-appearing colon mucosa, with at least a 3-fold of change compared to healthy controls. Heatmapping of the gene expression showed similar gene alteration patterns between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue. Gene ontology analyses confirmed the overlapped molecular functions and pathways of altered gene expression between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp. The most significantly altered genes in normal-appearing tissues in polyp patients include immune response, external side of plasma membrane, nucleus, and cellular response to zinc ion. Conclusions Significant gene expression alterations exist in unaffected colon mucosa from patients with unifocal colon polyp. Unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue share great similarity and overlapping of altered gene expression profiles, indicating the potential possibility of recurrence of colon polyps due to underlying molecular abnormalities of colon mucosa in these patients. PMID:26675397

  9. Colonic motility in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Elisabetta; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Baldoni, Monia; Dore, Maria Pina

    2014-01-01

    Background Inflammatory conditions affecting the gut may cause motility disturbances, and ulcerative colitis – one of the main disorders among the inflammatory bowel diseases – may display abnormal colonic motility. Aim To review the abnormalities of the large bowel in ulcerative colitis, by considering the motility, laboratory (in vitro) and pathological studies dealing with this topic. Methods A comprehensive online search of Medline and the Science Citation Index was carried out. Results Patients with ulcerative colitis frequently display colonic motor abnormalities, including lack of contractility, an increase of propulsive contractile waves, an excessive production of nitric oxide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide nerves, interleukin 1 beta, neurotensin, tachykinins levels and the weaker action of substance P, likely related to a neuromuscular dysfunction due to the inflammatory process. Conclusions A better understanding of the pathophysiological grounds of altered colonic motility in ulcerative colitis may lead to a more in-depth knowledge of the accompanying symptoms and to better and more targeted therapeutic approaches. PMID:25452840

  10. Explorations of mechanisms regulating ectomycorrhizal colonization of boron-fertilized pine: Quarterly report, January 1, 1989--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, H.E.; Begonia, G.; Sword, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes four experiments that test the chemical basis of mycorrhizal colonization in the root system of pine trees. This quarter, modifications to the experimental design are described, plant growth data are included, and phenolic compounds produced by pine trees in responce to colonization are evaluated. 7 refs., 1 tab. (TEM)