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The Scotts Valley Band of Pomo Indians is located in Lake County in Northern California. Similar to the other five federally recognized Indian Tribes in Lake County participating in this project, Scotts Valley Band of Pomo Indians members are challenged by generally increasing energy costs and undeveloped local energy resources. Currently, Tribal decision makers lack sufficient information to make informed decisions about potential renewable energy resources. To meet this challenge efficiently, the Tribes have committed to the Lake County Tribal Energy Program, a multi Tribal program to be based at the Robinson Rancheria and including The Elem Indian Colony, Big Valley Rancheria, Middletown Rancheria, Habematolel Pomo of Upper Lake and the Scotts Valley Pomo Tribe. The mission of this program is to promote Tribal energy efficiency and create employment opportunities and economic opportunities on Tribal Lands through energy resource and energy efficiency development. This program will establish a comprehensive energystrategic plan for the Tribes based on Tribal specific plans that capture economic and environmental benefits while continuing to respect Tribal cultural practices and traditions. The goal is to understand current and future energy consumption and develop both regional and Tribe specific strategicenergy plans, including action plans, to clearly identify the energy options for each Tribe.
Describes various energy strategies available to Guam to meet the territory's goal of diversifying fuel sources and reducing fossil energy consumption 20% by 2020.The information presented in this strategicenergy plan will be used by the Guam Energy Task Force to develop an energy action plan. Available energy strategies include policy changes, education and outreach, reducing energy consumption at federal facilities, and expanding the use of a range of energy technologies, including buildings energy efficiency and conservation, renewable electricity production, and alternative transportation. The strategies are categorized based on the time required to implement them.
On March 3-4, 2011, the Triangle Institute for Security Studies, North Carolina State University, and the Strategic Studies Institute held a colloquium at the McKimmon Center in Raleigh. The colloquium, entitled 'The Energy and Security Nexus: A Strategic...
NANA StrategicEnergy Plan summary NRC, as an Alaska Native Corporation, has committed to addressing the energy needs for its shareholders. The project framework calls for implicit involvement of the IRA Councils in the Steering Committee. Tribal Members, from the NRC to individual communities, will be involved in development of the NANA Energy Plan. NRC, as the lead tribal entity, will serve as the project director of the proposed effort. The NRC team has communicated with various governmental and policy stakeholders via meetings and discussions, including Denali Commission, Alaska Energy Authority, and other governmental stakeholders. Work sessions have been initiated with the Alaska Village Electric Cooperative, the NW Arctic Borough, and Kotzebue Electric Association. The NRC StrategicEnergy Plan (SEP) Steering committee met monthly through April and May and weekly starting in June 2008 in preparation of the energy summit that was held from July 29-31, 2008. During preparations for the energy summit and afterwards, there was follow through and development of project concepts for consideration. The NANA regional energy summit was held from July 29-31, 2008, and brought together people from all communities of the Northwest Arctic Borough. The effort was planned in conjunction with the Alaska Energy Authoritys state-wide energy planning efforts. Over $80,000 in cash contributions was collected from various donors to assist with travel from communities and to develop the summit project. Available funding resources have been identified and requirements reviewed, including the Denali Commission, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, and the Alaska Energy Authority. A component of the overall plan will be a discussion of energy funding and financing. There are current project concepts submitted, or are ready for submittal, in the region for the following areas: Wind-diesel in Deering, Buckland, Noorik, and Kiana areas; potential development around Red Dog mine. Biomass Feasibility analysis in the upper Kobuk; Run of the river hydroelectric development for the Upper Kobuk; Solar photovoltaic (PV) power demonstration projects for Noatak, Ambler, Selawik, Kiana, and Noorvik; Heat Recovery for several communities; In September 2008, the NRC team participated at the Alaska Rural Energy Conference in Girdwood, Alaska In November 2008, the NRC team gave a presentation on the NANA regional energy plans at a DOE Tribal Energy Program conference in Denver, Colorado. In January 2009, the final SEP report was submitted to NRC.
The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians was awarded a grant under the U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program (TEP) to develop a Tribal StrategicEnergy Plan (SEP). The grant, awarded under the First Steps phase of the TEP, supported the development ...
This focus of this paper is to present a framework in which strategies may developed for the individual participants in an energy brokerage. Such a framework is expected to be important with the increasing interest in electricity market structures, such as the energy brokerage, that deregulation has produced. To illustrate the process of strategic bidding, a simple suboptimal bidding strategy
The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians was awarded a grant under the U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program (TEP) to develop a Tribal StrategicEnergy Plan (SEP). The grant, awarded under the First Steps phase of the TEP, supported the development of a SEP that integrates with the Tribes plans for economic development, preservation of natural resources and the environment, and perpetuation of Tribal heritage and culture. The Tribe formed an Energy Committee consisting of members from various departments within the Tribal government. This committee, together with its consultant, the South Carolina Institute for Energy Studies, performed the following activities: Develop the Tribes energy goals and objectives Establish the Tribes current energy usage Identify available renewable energy and energy efficiency options Assess the available options versus the goals and objectives Create an action plan for the selected options
Souther Carolina Institute of energy Studies-Robert Leitner
Geothermal energy (natural heat in the Earth`s crust) represents a truly enormous amount of energy. The heat content of domestic geothermal resources is estimated to be 70,000,000 quads, equivalent to a 750,000-year supply of energy for the entire Nation at current rates of consumption. World geothermal resources (exclusive of resources under the oceans) may be as much as 20 times larger than those of the US. While industry has focused on hydrothermal resources (those containing hot water and/or steam), the long-term future of geothermal energy lies in developing technology to enable use of the full range of geothermal resources. In the foreseeable future, heat may be extracted directly from very hot rocks or from molten rocks, if suitable technology can be developed. The US Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies (OGT) endorses a vision of the future in which geothermal energy will be the preferred alternative to polluting energy sources. The mission of the Program is to work in partnership with US industry to establish geothermal energy as a sustainable, environmentally sound, economically competitive contributor to the US and world energy supply. In executing its mission and achieving its long-term vision for geothermal energy, the Program has identified five strategic goals: electric power generation; direct use applications and geothermal heat pumps; international geothermal development; science and technology; and future geothermal resources. This report discusses the objectives of these five goals.
The Tribes strategicenergy planning effort is divided into three phases: (1) Completing an Energy Resource Assessment; (2) Developing a Long-Term StrategicEnergy Plan; and (3) Preparing a StrategicEnergy Implementation Plan for the Samish Homelands. The Samish Indian Nation developed a comprehensive StrategicEnergy plan to set policy for future development on tribal land that consists of a long-term, integrated, systems approach to providing a framework under which the Samish Community can use resources efficiently, create energy-efficient infrastructures, and protect and enhance quality of life. Development of the StrategicEnergy plan will help the Samish Nation create a healthy community that will sustain current and future generations by addressing economic, environmental, and social issues while respecting the Samish Indian Nation culture and traditions.
This monograph assists health care managers to cope successfully with the energy-induced transition era we are entering. It also provides a strategic planning framework and rationale for taking immediate action. Energy conservation planning, as an integra...
The use of Process Integration techniques, such as Pinch Technology, have been widely accepted in the process industries. However in many situations in the US, the capital available for implementation of energy cost reduction projects is very limited. Therefore efforts to reduce energy costs have been limited to those which can be achieved with little or no capital investment. Despite this lack of capital, cost reduction still remains very important in the oil refining industry. Besides the cost of crude, energy is the largest cost which can be influenced by improved operation and/or capital investment, and has therefore become a primary focus. At the same time this renewed interest in energy reduction has occurred in the US, new methods have been developed in the field of Pinch Technology which allows the scope of a project to be expanded from an individual process unit, such as the crude unit, to the entire refinery site. A Site Assessment, which is the first step in a site analysis using Pinch Technology, allows an overview of the complete site to: focus future activities into areas where the most potential exists, evaluate on-going projects for improved design, identify potential improvements in the utility system. At the conclusion of such an activity, this knowledge of the site can be used to merge potential improvements with refinery plans. This paper introduces some of these new uses of Pinch Technology as applied to long range planning, describes the approach used in achieving such a plan, and finally reviews a case study which shows how the technique is used in a strategic way to focus the use of limited resources within the refinery.
Rutkowski, M.A. (Veritech, Inc., Leesburg, VA (United States)); Pretty, B.L. (Linnhoff March, Inc., Leesburg, VA (United States))
The thesis presents dynamic models on investment under uncertainty with the focus on strategic interaction and energy market applications. The uncertainty is modelled using stochastic processes as state variables. The specific questions analyzed include t...
Describes various energy strategies available to CNMI to meet the territory's goal of diversifying fuel sources and reducing fossil energy consumption. The information presented in this strategicenergy plan will be used by the CNMI Governor's Energy Task Force to develop an energy action plan. Available energy strategies include policy changes, education and outreach, and expanding the use of a range of energy technologies, including renewable electricity production and buildings energy efficiency and conservation.
It is pointed out that a space manufacturing facility may be economically more effective than alternative industries on the earth for the construction of products which are to be used in geosynchronous or higher orbits. The suggestion is made to construct solar power stations at a space colony and relocate them in geosynchronous orbit to supply energy to the earth. Attention is given to energy problems and approaches for solving them, taking into account environmental effects and economic factors. Economic aspects of space manufacturing are discussed in some detail.
Twenty-first century energy challenges include demand growth, national energy security, and global climate protection. The Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) is a public/private partnership between the State of Idaho and its academic research institutions, the federal government through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) managed by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). CAES serves to advance energy security for our nation by expanding the educational opportunities at the Idaho universities in energy-related areas, creating new capabilities within its member institutions, and delivering technological innovations leading to technology-based economic development for the intermountain region. CAES has developed this strategic plan based on the Balanced Scorecard approach. A Strategy Map (Section 7) summarizes the CAES vision, mission, customers, and strategic objectives. Identified strategic objectives encompass specific outcomes related to three main areas: Research, Education, and Policy. Technical capabilities and critical enablers needed to support these objectives are also identified. This CAES strategic plan aligns with and supports the strategic objectives of the four CAES institutions. Implementation actions are also presented which will be used to monitor progress towards fulfilling these objectives.
This presentation was given by NREL's Elizabeth Doris (Brown) to the New Orleans City Council in January 2008. NREL was funded by DOE to provide technical assistance to New Orleans after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The presentation provides an overview of strategicenergy planning, case studies, and suggested next steps for implementing energy efficiency and renewable energy into the city's rebuilding efforts.
By awarding the Seneca Nation of Indians with a First Steps grant, the Department of Energy enabled us to establish a solid footing for the Seneca StrategicEnergy Plan. The Nation now has a clearly defined vision and objectives for its energy program, an...
In 2011 the Tribe was awarded funds from the Department of Energy to formulate the Soboba Strategic Tribal Energy Plan. This will be a guiding document used throughout the planning of projects focused on energy reduction on the Reservation. The Soboba Strategic Tribal Energy Plan's goal is to create a Five Year Energy Plan for the Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians in San Jacinto, California. This plan will guide the decision making process towards consistent progress leading to the Tribal goal of a 25% reduction in energy consumption in the next five years. It will additionally outline energy usage/patterns and will edentify areas the Tribe can decrease energy use and increase efficiency. The report documents activities undertaken under the grant, as well as incldues the Tribe's strategif energy plan.
Strategic planning processes, which are commonly used as a tool for region development and territorial structuring, can be harnessed by politicians and public administrations, at the local level, to redesign the regional energy system and encourage renewable energy development and environmental preservation. In this sense, the province of Jaén, a southern Spanish region whose economy is mainly based on olive
With the end of the Cold War and the election of President Clinton, the Department of Energy (DOE) set a new course which began with the publication of its first departmental strategic plan in April 1994. Entitled ``Fueling a Competitive Economy, it provided the framework and shared vision for meeting responsibilities in energy, national security, environmental quality, and science and technology. The strategic plan was the guidepost for the formulation of the Department`s FY 1996, FY 1997, and FY 1998 budgets and was critical to the development of the Department`s Strategic Alignment Initiative, designed to save $1.7 billion over five years. This current plan, which has been significantly improved through a very close consultation process with Congress and customers stakeholders, takes DOE to the next important performance level by being more directly linked to actions and results. It defines a strategic goal for each of the Department`s four business lines and, in the spirit of the Government Performance and Results Act and the National Performance Review, identifies a fifth goal addressing corporate management. Reengineering the business practices, managing for results, being open with neighbors and stakeholders, and ensuring the safety and health of DOE workers and the public are, and will continue to be, among the highest of priorities. Over the coming years, DOE plans to achieve their strategic goals through specific identifiable strategies. Each business line has clear objectives and straightforward ways of defining whether DOE has succeeded in meeting those objectives.
Adopting a strategicenergy management plan (SEMP) has positioned PeaceHealth to proactively manage energy use for: 1. Operational cost savings,2. Improved environmental comfort and performance,3. Effective stewardship of resources.This plan was developed collectively by PeaceHealth facilities personnel to establish a set of guiding principles for energy management system wide. The PeaceHealth network includes regional healthcare facilities in Bellingham and Longview,
A summary is presented of the latest advances in lasers, optics, beam control, and particle-beam technology in enhancing the prospects for directed energy applications in strategic defense. The specific topics covered here include space-based chemical lasers, ground-based free-electron lasers, excimer laser technology, ground-based laser propagation, and particle-beam technology.
The goal of the Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) Program is to provide a highly capable and reliable communications infrastructure that supports the Department of Energy`s (DOE) missions and enables DOE researchers to tap the power of leading-edge information technologies. ESnet provides an essential infrastructure that enhances national competitiveness and accelerates the development of future generations of high-performance, distributed computing systems and networks. These computing systems and networks are vital to modern scientific research. In addition, they enable development of new approaches to energy management, environmental restoration and waste management, national security, industrial processing, and health care, and also facilitate public access to government information. Extensive networks developed by the DOE`s high-energy physics and fusion energy research communities were the forerunners of the ESnet. These networks initially provided improved access to high-energy accelerator sites and to the Magnetic Fusion Energy Supercomputer Center, which opened at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1974.
Energy Security, Oil Shocks and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve is a Website created by Paul N. Leiby of the Resource Analysis Section and Center for Transportation Analysis of the Energy Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The site offers a collection of papers and reports examining the SPR, which is described as an "emergency supply of crude oil stored in huge underground salt caverns along the coastline of the Gulf of Mexico." The papers and reports span the years 1997 to 1999 and cover Oak Ridge National Laboratory's research on this topic, including papers on oil imports and the cost of benefits, strategic petroleum reserves, and macroeconomic cost of oil price shocks. Be sure to check out the SPR description through a small link at the bottom of the page, which gives an information-rich overview of the SPR and links to the Department of Energy's SPR homepage.
About 8 months after President Reagan called on the US scientific community to develop SDI, the American Physical Society commissioned a study to evaluate the status of directed-energy weapons (DEW). Focus was on DEW because they would be needed in almost all stages of the destruction of a missile, including: detecting the launch; locating and tracking the target; distinguishing warheads
The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians was awarded a grant under the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Tribal Energy Program to develop a comprehensive Tribal energy plan. The grant, awarded under DOEs First Steps program, supported the development of a strategicenergy plan that integrates with the Tribes overall planning and economic development goals, and aligns with Tribal cultural, social, political, and spiritual values. The Tribe set out to incorporate its energy plan into (i) a broader economic development strategy developed by investigators at the University of California at Riverside, and (ii) the overarching goals for job-creation and wealth-creation that are held by both the Tribe and the surrounding Coachella Valley. With these wide-ranging objectives in mind, the Tribe and its consultant, Red Mountain Energy Partners, engaged in a phased approach to creating the strategicenergy plan. As illustrated in Figure 1 below, the proposed approach involved both serial and parallel activities. The capacity-building component of this approach occurred throughout the duration of the project period.
About 8 months after President Reagan called on the US scientific community to develop SDI, the American Physical Society commissioned a study to evaluate the status of directed-energy weapons (DEW). Focus was on DEW because they would be needed in almost all stages of the destruction of a missile, including: detecting the launch; locating and tracking the target; distinguishing warheads from decoys; and destroying the target itself and verifying the kill. Results of the study were released in the spring of 1987, and SDI partisans have attacked and SDI critics have invoked the findings of the APS committee. The authors were cochairmen of the 17-member committee, and here summarize their conclusions, namely: (1) although substantial progress has been made in many technologies of DEW over the last two decades, significant gaps remain in these technologies; (2) successful resolution of these issues is critical for extrapolation to performance levels needed for an effective BMD systems; (3) at present, there is insufficient information to decide whether the required extrapolations can be achieved; improvements of several orders of magnitude are needed; (4) under the best of circumstances, another decade of intensive research is needed to provide the knowledge needed for an informed decision; and (5) important issues of overall system integration and effectiveness depend critically upon information that does not yet exist.
The mission of the Department of Energy is to ensure America's security and prosperity by addressing its energy, environmental, and nuclear challenges through transformative science and technology solutions. Goal 1 is to catalyze the timely, material, and efficient transformation of the nation's energy system and secure U.S. leadership in clean energy technologies. Goal 2 is to maintain a vibrant U.S. effort in science and engineering as a cornerstone of our economic prosperity with clear leadership in strategic areas. Goal 3 is to enhance nuclear security through defense, nonproliferation, and environmental efforts. Goal 4 is to establish an operational and adaptable framework that combines the best wisdom of all Department stakeholders to maximize mission success.
The overall goal of this project is to create a Tribal Energy Action Plan that will serve as the TribeÃ¢Â?Â?s blueprint for creating long term energy selfÃ¢Â?Âsufficiency. The Plan will be developed with input from a committed group of key stakeholders and landowners in the area, will be based on sound data and research, and will address both Ã¢Â?Â?supplyÃ¢Â?ÂsideÃ¢Â?Â options of the development of sustainable energy sources, as well as Ã¢Â?Â?demand-sideÃ¢Â?Â options for reducing energy consumption. The resulting plan will include defined comprehensive energy strategies and built upon a baseline assessment of where the Tribe currently is in terms of alternative and renewable energy activities; a vision of where the Tribe wants to go; and an action plan of how the Tribe will reach its vision including the identification of viable energy options based on the long-term strategic plan of the Tribe.
The purpose of this Strategic Plan Report is to provide an introduction and in-depth analysis of the issues and opportunities, resources, and technologies of energy efficiency and renewable energy that have potential beneficial application for the people of the Jicarilla Apache Nation and surrounding communities. The Report seeks to draw on the best available information that existed at the time of writing, and where necessary, draws on new research to assess this potential. This study provides a strategic assessment of opportunities for maximizing the potential for electrical energy efficiency and renewable energy development by the Jicarilla Apache Nation. The report analyzes electricity use on the Jicarilla Apache Reservation in buildings. The report also assesses particular resources and technologies in detail, including energy efficiency, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and small hydropower. The closing sections set out the elements of a multi-year, multi-phase strategy for development of resources to the maximum benefit of the Nation.
Due to the limited availability of energy within network nodes, energy-efficient routing mechanism is one of the most critical issues in wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a multi-path routing algorithm with energy-aware based on ant colony system. The algorithm introduces three improved rules: Ant Marginalization Rule, State Transition Rule and Global Pheromone Update Rule to solve the
This plan describes the initial six corporate quality goals for DOE. It also includes accompanying performance measures which will help DOE determine progress towards meeting these goals. The six goals are: (1) There is effective use of performance measurement based on regular assessment of Energy operations using the Presidential Award for Quality, the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, or equivalent criteria. (2) All managers champion continuous quality improvement training for all employees through planning, attendance, and active application. (3) The Department leadership has provided the environment in which employees are enabled to satisfy customer requirements and realize their full potential. (4) The Department management practices foster employee involvement, development and recognition. (5) The Department continuously improves customer service and satisfaction, and internal and external customers recognize Energy as an excellent service provider. (6) The Department has a system which aligns strategic and operational planning with strategic intent, ensures this planning drives resource allocation, provides for regular evaluation of results, and provides feedback.
Based on the characteristics of routing protocol for wireless sensor networks, an energy aware ant colony algorithm (EAACA) for the routing of wireless sensor networks is proposed in this paper. When EAACA routing protocol chooses the next neighbor node, not only the distance of sink node, but also the residual energy of the next node and the path of the average energy are taken into account. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that compared with the traditional ACA algorithm for the routing of wireless sensor network, EAACA routing protocol balances the energy consumption of nodes in the network and extends the network lifetime.
Strategic Planning and Energy Options Analysis provides the Fort Peck Tribes with a tool to build analytical capabilities and local capacity to extract the natural and energy resource potential for the benefit of the tribal community. Each resource is identified irrespective of the development potential and is viewed as an absolute resulting in a comprehensive resource assessment for Tribal energy planning
Jim S. Williamson New West Technologies, Inc. 9250 E. Costilla Avenue, Suite 202 Greenwood Village, CO 80112
This dissertation studies Thailand's energy security from three related perspectives, the role of oil on the Thai macroeconomy, the sectoral demand for oil in Thailand, and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) policy for the Thai economy. The first part of my dissertation estimates an error correction model of aggregate production function for Thailand. Thai economic growth is modeled as a function of labor, capital, and oil consumption. Unlike previous studies that focus on testing the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, I focus on measuring the elasticity of economic growth with respect to oil consumption and oil prices. I find a cointegration relationship between GDP, capital, labor, and oil consumption. The results suggest that there exists a constant-return-to-scale characteristic in Thailand's aggregate production function with the contribution of labor, oil, and capital to output around 68, 19, and 13 percent respectively. The long-run and short-run contribution of oil consumption to the economy appears to be fairly close, suggesting that oil has a critical role in the Thai economy. In the short run, oil shortages have a much more severe impact on Thai economy than the effects of an oil price shock. For example, a 10 percent shortfall in oil consumption might cause economic growth to shrink by 2 percent within the same year while a sharp10 percent rise in oil prices canlead output growth to a fall by about 0.5 percent. The response of output to increases and decreases in oil prices is found to be asymmetric in the short run. The second part of my dissertation examines the short-run and long-run determinants of final oil consumption in seven major economic sectors in Thailand. Two different approaches are compared. The first approach uses dynamic panel data estimation techniques taking into account oil consumption of the whole economy in an aggregate manner. The second approach employs the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL) error correction framework to model oil demand in each economic sector separately. The results show that the dynamic panel data approach appears to give estimates consistent with the economic theory. The signs on the coefficients are correct and the magnitude of long-run responses is larger than that of the short-run responses. The single sector model approach yields similar but richer results. Since constant slopes are not imposed across sectors the characteristics and dynamics and responses can differ across sectors. The third part of my dissertation develops a simple Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) model to investigate the economic consequences of the SPR for a "small oil-importing economy." This economy is subject to the risk of oil shocks. Government policy-makers attempt to mitigate the macroeconomic impacts of the shocks by establishing a SPR. The assigned values of the parameters in the model aim to reflect the basic characteristics of the Thai economy. The simulation results show that the impulse responses of key economic variables for different degrees of oil shocks follow the same pattern. When the degree of the shock increases, the magnitude of the stock drawdown increases, which helps lower the negative impact on economic welfare. I examine the welfare effects from alternative sizes of the SPR and the opportunity cost for the economy that result when it has to sacrifice additional resources to maintain and operate the SPR. This lowers the level of resources available for production and consumption in the long run. There exists a trade-off relationship between the sacrificed welfare in the long run and the less volatile welfare in the short run.
Strategic planning processes, which are commonly used as a tool for region development and territorial structuring, can be harnessed by politicians and public administrations, at the local level, to redesign the regional energy system and encourage renewable energy development and environmental preservation. In this sense, the province of Jaén, a southern Spanish region whose economy is mainly based on olive
Renewable energy sources are considered as strategic opportunities to improve the populations quality of life, to promote the development of more efficient and equitable economic systems, and to favor environmental sustainability in the territorial planning of Lerma Valley (Salta, Argentina). The mapping in raster format (each pixel having a reference value) of the potential renewable energy sources (solar, wind, biomass,
The Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) program is designed to provide the computational resources which are required to provide a simulation based approach to the Science Based Stockpile Stewardship (SBSS) program. The capability to predict the properties of energetic materials is one of the areas of interest to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) ASCI program. This capability will support computational assessments of the safety and reliability of systems containing explosives and other energetic materials subjected to normal and abnormal environments. Several research elements related to energetic material properties are described in more detail below. They are: (A) calculation of decomposition rates, (B) molecular potential functions, (C) physical properties and transport coefficients, (D) molecular energization mechanisms, (E) fracture/failure of energetic material crystals, (F) grain-grain and grain- binder interactions, and (G) aging effects in energetic material. These elements have in common the need to develop computational methods that have a strong foundation in basic physical principles. They will generally have to be implemented to run efficiently on advanced parallel computing platforms to achieve sufficient accuracy.
This report provides information regarding options available, their advantages and disadvantages, and the costs for pursuing activities to advance Smith River Rancheria toward an energy program that reduces their energy costs, allows greater self-sufficie...
The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians was awarded a grant under the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Tribal Energy Program to develop a comprehensive Tribal energy plan. The grant, awarded under DOEs First Steps program, supported the development of ...
Three possible energy strategies are described and each is analyzed in terms of its economic, environmental, and national security benefits and costs. Each strategy is represented by a specific policy. The results indicate that conservation can substantially reduce import dependence and slow the growth of energy demand, with only a small macroeconomic cost and with substantial benefits; the synfuels policy
H. Davitian; R. J. Goettle IV; P. J. Groncki; E. A. Hudson; P. Kleeman; J. Lukachinski
This study describes three possible energy strategies and analyses each in terms of its economic, environmental, and national security benefits and costs. Each strategy is represented by a specific policy. In the first strategy no additional programs or policies are initiated beyond those currently in effect or announced. The second is directed toward reducing the growth in energy demand, i.e.,
H. Davitian; P. J. Groncki; P. Kleeman; J. Lukachinski; R. J. Goettle IV; E. A. Hudson
Students are introduced to the futuristic concept of the moon as a place people can inhabit. They brainstorm what people would need to live on the moon and then design a fantastic Moon colony and decide how to power it. Student use the engineering design process, which includes researching various types of energy sources and evaluating which would be best for their moon colonies.
This guide provides an overview of strategic electricity planning for communities, using a step-by-step approach to develop the plan. This method has a high chance of success, because it is based on stakeholder buy-in and political commitment. Not all communities will need to follow all steps, but the process is designed to incorporate all parties, maximize solution-based thinking, and develop a plan that can be carried out by community leaders.
The Department of Energy has a rich heritage of meeting important national goals in the areas of energy, national security, science, and technology. The end of the Cold War, and the election of President Clinton, have given us a new national agenda. Through a comprehensive strategic planning process, we have determined that the Department must now unleash its extraordinary scientific and technical talent and resources on new and more sharply focused goals: fueling a competitive economy, improving the environment through waste management and pollution prevention, and reducing the nuclear danger.
Presents resources for grades K-8, on the subject of Colonial America. Describes Web sites; CD-ROMs and software; videos; books; audios; magazines; and professional resources. Includes two articles, "Native Americans in the Colonies," and "The Golden Age of Pirates," which also highlight resources. Presents a Web activity focusing on daily life in
In 1926, at the urging of the Revered Dr. D.A.R. Goodwin, John D. Rockefeller Jr. began a complex and elaborate restoration project in the quiet town of Williamsburg that sought to preserve a few of the more important Revolutionary War-era buildings around the town. The project became increasingly ambitious, and eventually grew to encompass around 85 percent of the town's area from the 18th century. Today, Colonial Williamsburg is the world's largest living history museum, and is noted for its ability to incorporate and interpret diverse perspectives on America's colonial period. Those persons unable to visit Colonial Williamsburg in person may want to first peruse the "Explore & Learn" section of the site, where they can learn about the different social and ethnic groups that inhabited the town (such as African-American slaves and colonial children), and see the various buildings within the community. The archaeology section of the site is particularly compelling, as visitors can learn about the many ongoing projects underway, and younger users can learn about the practice of archaeology through various games, quizzes, and puzzles. Additionally, users can read selected articles from the organization's popular history magazine, "Colonial Williamsburg," dating back to 1992. [KMG
Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program, which is part of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Working with its network of about 100 local coalitions and more than 6,500 stakeholders across the country, Clean Cities delivers on its mission to reduce petroleum consumption in on-road transportation. In its work to reduce petroleum use, Clean Cities focuses on a portfolio of technologies that includes electric drive, propane, natural gas, renewable natural gas/biomethane, ethanol/E85, biodiesel/B20 and higher-level blends, fuel economy, and idle reduction. Over the past 17 years, Clean Cities coalitions have displaced more than 2.4 billion gallons of petroleum; they are on track to displace 2.5 billion gallons of gasoline per year by 2020. This Clean Cities Strategic Plan lays out an aggressive five-year agenda to help DOE Clean Cities and its network of coalitions and stakeholders accelerate the deployment of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles, while also expanding the supporting infrastructure to reduce petroleum use. Today, Clean Cities has a far larger opportunity to make an impact than at any time in its history because of its unprecedented $300 million allocation for community-based deployment projects from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) (see box below). Moreover, the Clean Cities annual budget has risen to $25 million for FY2010 and $35 million has been requested for FY2011. Designed as a living document, this strategic plan is grounded in the understanding that priorities will change annually as evolving technical, political, economic, business, and social considerations are woven into project decisions and funding allocations. The plan does not intend to lock Clean Cities into pathways that cannot change. Instead, with technology deployment at its core, the plan serves as a guide for decision-making at both the national and local levels of Clean Cities over the next five years. The plan recognizes the need for flexibility and sets out a strategic direction that will build on the progress of current technologies and new opportunities presented in emerging fuels and technologies, such as hydrogen and fuel cells, as well as new niche markets such as off-road applications that build additional throughput at existing alternative fuel stations.
The administration plans to reduce the effects of a severe oil supply disruption by selling oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Under a Department of Energy (DOE) plan, the oil would be sold at periodic auctions, with sales contracts awarded to the highest bidders. All interested parties who agree to DOE's contract terms and conditions would be eligible to bid. GAO's evaluation of DOE's plan addressed (1) its potential effects on world oil prices, (2) issues affecting who would get SPR oil under this plan, and (3) how the plan compares with alternative sales mechanisms. GAO found that the plan's market approach would, as intended, probably limit oil price increases in a severe supply disruption and would allow broad participation in the sale. Nevertheless, GAO identified some potential problems relating to buyer participation under the plan. 1 fig.
Sandia embarked on its first exercise in corporate strategic planning during the winter of 1989. The results of that effort were disseminated with the publication of Strategic Plan 1990. Four years later Sandia conducted their second major planning effort and published Strategic Plan 1994. Sandia`s 1994 planning effort linked very clearly to the Department of Energy`s first strategic plan, Fueling a Competitive Economy. It benefited as well from the leadership of Lockheed Martin Corporation, the management and operating contractor. Lockheed Martin`s corporate success is founded on visionary strategic planning and annual operational planning driven by customer requirements and technology opportunities. In 1996 Sandia conducted another major planning effort that resulted in the development of eight long-term Strategic Objectives. Strategic Plan 1997 differs from its predecessors in that the robust elements of previous efforts have been integrated into one comprehensive body. The changes implemented so far have helped establish a living strategic plan with a stronger business focus and with clear deployment throughout Sandia. The concept of a personal line of sight for all employees to this strategic plan and its objectives, goals, and annual milestones is becoming a reality.
When studying Strategic Supply in the context of Supply Chain Management (SCM), it is quite apparent that Strategic Supply cannot be classified as a particular industry; but rather, as an enabler across all industries. Therefore, this industry study looke...
A. Cural D. Daugherty H. Cole K. Alexander R. Howard
Accurate free energy estimation is needed in many predictive tasks. The molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann solvent accessible surface area (MM/PBSA) approach has proven to be accurate. However, the correlation between the estimated free energy and the distance (e.g., root mean square deviation [RMSD]) from the most stable conformation is hindered by the strong free energy dependence on minor conformational variations. In this paper, a protocol for MM/PBSA free energy estimation is designed and tested on several loop decoy sets. We show that further integration of MM/PBSA free energy estimator with the colonyenergy approach makes the correlation between the free energy and RMSD from the native structure apparent, for the test sets on which it could be applied. Our results suggest that (1) the MM/PBSA free energy estimator is able to detect native-like structures for most decoy sets, and (2) application of the colonyenergy approach greatly hampers the MM/energy strong dependence on minor conformational changes. PMID:15772305
Accurate free energy estimation is needed in many predictive tasks. The molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann solvent accessible surface area (MM/PBSA) approach has proven to be accurate. However, the correlation between the estimated free energy and the distance (e.g., root mean square deviation [RMSD]) from the most stable conformation is hindered by the strong free energy dependence on minor conformational variations. In this paper, a protocol for MM/PBSA free energy estimation is designed and tested on several loop decoy sets. We show that further integration of MM/PBSA free energy estimator with the colonyenergy approach makes the correlation between the free energy and RMSD from the native structure apparent, for the test sets on which it could be applied. Our results suggest that (1) the MM/PBSA free energy estimator is able to detect native-like structures for most decoy sets, and (2) application of the colonyenergy approach greatly hampers the MM/energy strong dependence on minor conformational changes.
This collection of vugraphs states that space power reactors, neutral beams, and flywheel energy storage technologies are important areas to be investigated for application to the strategic defense initiative. (JDH)
In November 1989, the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) was formed within the US Department of Energy (DOE). The EM Program was born of the recognition that a significant national effort was necessary to clean up over 45 years' worth of environmental pollution from DOE operations, including the design and manufacture of nuclear materials and weapons. Within EM, the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration (EM-40) has been assigned responsibility for the assessment and cleanup of areas and facilities that are no longer a part of active DOE operations, but may be contaminated with varying levels and quantifies of hazardous, radioactive, and n-mixed waste. Decontamination and decommissioning (D D) activities are managed as an integral part of Envirorunental Restoration cleanup efforts. The Office of Environmental Restoration ensures that risks to the environment and to human health and safety are either eliminated or reduced to prescribed, acceptable levels. This Strategic Plan has been developed to articulate the vision of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and to crystallize the specific objectives of the Environmental Restoration Program. The document summarizes the key planning assumptions that guide or constrain the strategic planning effort, outlines the Environmental Restoration Program's specific objectives, and identifies barriers that could limit the Program's success.
In November 1989, the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) was formed within the US Department of Energy (DOE). The EM Program was born of the recognition that a significant national effort was necessary to clean up over 45 years` worth of environmental pollution from DOE operations, including the design and manufacture of nuclear materials and weapons. Within EM, the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration (EM-40) has been assigned responsibility for the assessment and cleanup of areas and facilities that are no longer a part of active DOE operations, but may be contaminated with varying levels and quantifies of hazardous, radioactive, and n-mixed waste. Decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities are managed as an integral part of Envirorunental Restoration cleanup efforts. The Office of Environmental Restoration ensures that risks to the environment and to human health and safety are either eliminated or reduced to prescribed, acceptable levels. This Strategic Plan has been developed to articulate the vision of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and to crystallize the specific objectives of the Environmental Restoration Program. The document summarizes the key planning assumptions that guide or constrain the strategic planning effort, outlines the Environmental Restoration Program`s specific objectives, and identifies barriers that could limit the Program`s success.
Mounting problems in the early 1980s resulted in a business crisis for the US uranium enrichment enterprise. To address these problems, the US Dept. of Energy (DOE) developed and announced in 1984 a plan for reestablishing its competitive position in the world marketplace. This recovery plan has been very successful. The US DOE is now implementing the third phase of that strategy, institutional restructuring. Maintaining a healthy, stable, and competitive uranium enrichment capability in the US is a high-priority effort for DOE, whose uranium enrichment enterprise has two major goals: in the near term, DOE's goal is to provide reliable, competitive enrichment services to commercial and defense customers in a manner that assures a reasonable return on the government's investment. In the future, to assure adequate supplies of competitively priced nuclear fuel, DOE must adapt to the changing needs of the marketplace. Thus, we must stabilize and maintain the long-term vitality of the US enrichment enterprise by restructuring it and by providing the means by which the private sector can become involved in the business. Restructuring and private ownership obviously will require the approval of Congress. To achieve these goals, DOE has developed strategic objectives, which are briefly described.
In Zimbabwe, there is still very little realization of the potential of demand side management (DSM) to increase industrial energy efficiency. Without clear guidelines that indicate the most economic energy efficiency strategies to implement, it is difficult for industry to easily evaluate the benefits of energy assessments. This research focused on establishing and evaluating indicators that guide correct implementation of
\\u000a Strategic analysis is the first step in our process, placed before the development of corporate strategy in Step Three and\\u000a the development of business strategies in Step Four. There is no denying, however, that it is rather difficult to carry out\\u000a strategic analysis independently of the development of the strategies. So before dealing with the content and methodology\\u000a of strategic
Low carbon economy calls for the development of new energy vehicles. How to realize the leaping-forward development in the new energy automobile industry, that is a major strategic task we face. The useful tool of Global value chain has the very important reference value in analyzing entry model of new energy automobile industry and the introduction of talent strategy. From
In order to comply with state laws, protect the environment, and protect the national investment in oil stored, it is necessary to periodically verify the integrity of the Department of EnergyStrategic Petroleum Reserve (DOE/SPR) oil storage caverns. The task of developing plans for cavern certification was a responsibility in Sandia's role of geotechnical support for the SPR program. As an implementation of this task, this report includes a plan and procedures for tests and related activities to evaluate the integrity of the DOE/SPR oil storage caverns. 2 references.
Considered in the context of an industry study, 'Strategic Supply' relates to any business or industry that has the potential to capitalize on more efficient and effective management of their respective supply chains. Supply Chain Management (SCM) is the ...
B. Dinopoulos D. Cadman M. Butikofer R. Bland S. Boucher
The process of strategic planning wears out institutions. Strategic planning, pursued with high purpose and energy, is enervating and exhausting. In this article, the author describes the value-added work of trustees in high-performing boards and discusses the role boards of trustees play as the process of continuous strategic planning unfolds.
Contents include: the Soviet approach; defensive forces; ballistic missile defense; advanced technologies for defense against ballistic missiles; laser weapons, particle beam weapons, radio frequency weapons, kinetic-energy weapons, computer and sensor technology, antisatellite developments; air defense; passive defenses; Soviet statements on the US Strategic Defense Initiative; annex: offensive forces.
The House passed H.R. 6, the Energy Policy Act of 2005, on April 21, 2005 (249- 183). The legislation would permanently authorize the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) and require, as expeditiously as practicable, expansion of the SPR to its authorized ma...
This study demonstrates how firms use their design of organizational production mode as a strategic instrument. We investigate how the market structure of the input-producing industry affects production efficiency in a differentiated final goods market. We demonstrate how the introduction of competition among input suppliers will achieve the double goal of making components available at average cost without sacrificing the
Patterning of different cell types in embryos is a key mechanism in metazoan development. Communities of microorganisms, such as colonies and biofilms also display patterns of cell types. For example, in the yeast S. cerevisiae, sporulated cells and pseudohyphal cells are not uniformly distributed in colonies. The functional importance of patterning and the molecular mechanisms that underlie these patterns are still poorly understood. One challenge with respect to investigating patterns of cell types in fungal colonies is that unlike metazoan tissue, cells in colonies are relatively weakly attached to one another. In particular, fungal colonies do not contain the same extensive level of extracellular matrix found in most tissues . Here we report on a method for embedding and sectioning yeast colonies that reveals the interior patterns of cell types in these colonies. The method can be used to prepare thick sections (0.5 ?) useful for light microscopy and thin sections (0.1 ?) suitable for transmission electron microscopy. Asci and pseudohyphal cells can easily be distinguished from ovoid yeast cells by light microscopy , while the interior structure of these cells can be visualized by EM. The method is based on surrounding colonies with agar, infiltrating them with Spurr's medium, and then sectioning. Colonies with a diameter in the range of 1-2 mm are suitable for this protocol. In addition to visualizing the interior of colonies, the method allows visualization of the region of the colony that invades the underlying agar.
Background: A number of policy documents suggest that health services should be taking climate change and sustainability seriously and recommendations have been made to mitigate and adapt to the challenges health care providers will face. Actions include, for example, moving towards locally sourced food supplies, reducing waste, energy consumption and travel, and including sustainability in policies and strategies. A Strategic Health Authority (SHA) is part of the National Health Service (NHS) in England. They are responsible for developing strategies for the local health services and ensuring high-quality performance. They manage the NHS locally and are a key link between the U.K. Department of Health and the NHS. They also ensure that national priorities are integrated into local plans. Thus they are in a key position to influence policies and practices to mitigate and adapt to the impact of climate change and promote sustainability. Aim: The aim of this study was to review publicly available documents produced by Strategic Health Authorities (SHA) to assess the extent to which current activity and planning locally takes into consideration climate change and energy vulnerability. Methods: A retrospective thematic content analysis of publicly available materials was undertaken by two researchers over a six month period in 2008. These materials were obtained from the websites of the 10 SHAs in England. Materials included annual reports, plans, policies and strategy documents. Results: Of the 10 SHAs searched, 4 were found to have an absence of content related to climate change and sustainability. Of the remaining 6 SHAs that did include content related to climate change and energy vulnerability on their websites consistent themes were seen to emerge. These included commitment to a regional sustainability framework in collaboration with other agencies in the pursuit and promotion of sustainable development. Results indicate that many SHAs in England have yet to embrace sustainability, or to integrate preparations for climate change and energy vulnerability within their organisational strategies. Evidence also suggests that SHAs that have recognised the importance of sustainability within their documentation and policies have yet to fully demonstrate this in practice through the implementation of these policies. Conclusions: Further research is required to investigate means by which SHAs (U.K.) and agencies responsible for health service policy in other countries may be enabled to include a greater consideration of sustainability and climate change within their policies, and to find effective ways of implementing these policies within daily working practice.
This plan discusses the current energy use on the Lac du Flambeau Reservation, the current status of the Tribe's energy program, as well as the issues and concerns with energy on the reservation. This plan also identifies and outlines energy opportunities, goals, and objectives for the Tribe to accomplish. The overall goal of this plan is to address the energy situation of the reservation in a holistic manner for the maximum benefit to the Tribe. This plan is an evolving document that will be re-evaluated as the Tribe's energy situation changes.
This report provides information regarding options available, their advantages and disadvantages, and the costs for pursuing activities to advance Smith River Rancheria toward an energy program that reduces their energy costs, allows greater self-sufficie...
This Strategic Plan is EMSLs template for achieving our vision of simultaneous excellence in all aspects of our mission as a national scientific user facility. It reflects our understanding of the long-term stewardship we must work toward to meet the scientific challenges of the Department of Energy and the nation. During the next decade, we will implement the strategies contained in this Plan, working closely with the scientific community, our advisory committees, DOEs Office of Biological and Environmental Research, and other key stakeholders. This Strategic Plan is fully aligned with the strategic plans of DOE and its Office of Science. We recognize that shifts in science and technology, national priorities, and resources made available through the Federal budget process create planning uncertainties and, ultimately, a highly dynamic planning environment. Accordingly, this Strategic Plan should be viewed as a living document for which we will continually evaluate changing needs and opportunities posed by our stakeholders (i.e., DOE, users, staff, advisory committees), work closely with them to understand and respond to those changes, and align our strategy accordingly.
The history of U.S. petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century, including the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program, provides a case study of the economic and political aspects of national security, and shows the ways in which the American political economy influences national security. One key problem plagued federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals throughout the twentieth century. In a political economy which traditionally placed strong emphasis upon the sanctity of private property and free markets, could the government develop an emergency petroleum reserve policy despite opposition from the private sector? Previous literature on the SPR and oil-stockpiling programs has largely disregarded the historical perspective, focusing instead upon econometric models, suggesting future oil-stockpiling policy options. This study will also make conclusions about the future of governmental oil-stockpiling policies, particularly with regard to the SPR program, but it will do so informed by a systematic history of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse in the twentieth century. Through a study of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse, one can see how the American political economy of oil and energy changed over the twentieth century. As petroleum became crucial to the military and then economic security of the United States, the federal government sought to develop emergency petroleum reserves first for the military, then for the civilian economy. But while the American petroleum industry could deliver the energy "goods" to American energy consumers at a reasonable price, the companies reigned supreme in the political equation. While that was true, federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals conflicted with and were overwhelmed by the historic American tradition of individual economic and private property rights. The depletion of American petroleum reserves changed that political equation, and the ensuing energy crises of the 1970s not only brought the issue of national energy autonomy into the realm of national security considerations, but also allowed for an unprecedented level of government intervention into the marketplace of oil and energy in peacetime. The federal government assumed the role of protecting and serving the interests of energy consumers, a role which had previously been the sole purview of the private sector. What resulted was a complex, chaotic, and controversial regulatory nightmare that highlighted the deficiencies of micro-management, and stoked the political momentum for deregulation in the 1980s, which continued into the 1990s. Gradually, government micro-management of the energy economy was abandoned. That left the SPR, a passive, market-conforming policy tool as the government's primary mechanism for combating energy crises. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Three possible energy strategies are described and each is analyzed in terms of its economic, environmental, and national security benefits and costs. Each strategy is represented by a specific policy. In the first strategy no additional programs or policies are initiated beyond those currently in effect or announced. The second is directed toward reducing the growth in energy demand, i.e.,
H. Davitian; R. J. Goettle IV; P. J. Groncki; E. A. Hudson; P. Kleeman; J. Lukachinski
The LT Method is an energy-design tool which responds to parameters available early in the design development. It provides an output of annual primary energy for lighting, heating cooling and ventilation. This paper introduces LT 3.01, a version for Southern Europe which includes a procedure to evaluate the affect of shading devices on cooling loads and on lighting.
From a general analysis of the world energy issue, it is argued that an affordable, clean and reliable energy supply will have to consist of a portfolio of primary energy sources, a large fraction of which will be converted to a secondary carrier in large baseload plants. Because of all future uncertainties, it would be irresponsible not to include thermonuclear fusion as one of the future possibilities for electricity generation.The author tries to understand why nuclear-fusion research is not considered of strategic importance by the major world powers. The fusion programs of the USA and Europe are taken as prime examples to illustrate the 'hesitation'. Europe is now advocating a socalled 'fast-track' approach, thereby seemingly abandoning the 'classic' time frame towards fusion that it has projected for many years. The US 'oscillatory' attitude towards ITER in relation to its domestic program is a second case study that is looked at.From the real history of the ITER design and the 'siting' issue, one can try to understand how important fusion is considered by these world powers. Not words are important, but deeds. Fast tracks are nice to talk about, but timely decisions need to be taken and sufficient money is to be provided. More fundamental understanding of fusion plasma physics is important, but in the end, real hardware devices must be constructed to move along the path of power plant implementation.The author tries to make a balance of where fusion power research is at this moment, and where, according to his views, it should be going.
The moral modality of colonial power is still with us when it comes to the recreation of sexual norms of traditional or feudal society. We can examine the emergent properties of colonial knowledge anew by exploring how the colonial regime's strategic attention of regulating brothels in India differed from the analytic of power Foucault described for sexuality in European society. It turns out that amongst other things, public anxieties about the failure of adaptation by South Asians are incapable of leaving sexuality aside as a key interpretive device for their culture. The British preoccupation with reproducing the dynamics of the bourgeois matrimonial market on foreign soil in the mid-nineteenth century similarly necessitated a sociological pretext for racial purity. However, the kind of knowledge a typical traveller and employee of the East India Company brought to the Victorian public from his own researches in the brothels and streets of colonial India, which revealed how popular prostitution was as a vice amongst the officer class, was also more than a welcome imaginary relief from Christian morality; it was an alternative vision of modernity. PMID:23240839
Urban areas are considered net consumers of materials and energy, attracting these from the surrounding hinterland and other parts of the planet. The way these flows are transformed and returned to the environment by the city is important for addressing questions of sustainability and the effect of human behavior on the metabolism of the city. The present work explores these questions with the use of systems analysis, specifically in the form of a Multi-sectoral Systems Analysis (MSA), a tool for research and for supporting decision-making for policy and investment. The application of MSA is illustrated in the context of Greater London, with these three objectives: (a) estimating resource fluxes (nutrients, water and energy) entering, leaving and circulating within the city-watershed system; (b) revealing the synergies and antagonisms resulting from various combinations of water-sector innovations; and (c) estimating the economic benefits associated with implementing these technologies, from the point of view of production of fertilizer and energy, and the reduction of greenhouse gases. Results show that the selection of the best technological innovation depends on which resource is the focus for improvement. Urine separation can potentially recover 47% of the nitrogen in the food consumed in London, with revenue of $33 M per annum from fertilizer production. Collecting food waste in sewers together with growing algae in wastewater treatment plants could beneficially increase the amount of carbon release from renewable energy by 66%, with potential annual revenues of $58 M from fuel production. PMID:24768840
Villarroel Walker, R; Beck, M B; Hall, J W; Dawson, R J; Heidrich, O
This plan addresses the objectives and implementation strategy for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) Polymer Waste Stream (PWS) program through FY 1996. The purpose of the plan is to develop a comprehensive hazard\\/waste minimization program for PWS projects. The overall focus of the strategy is directed toward hazard\\/waste minimization for PWS processes. This involves the
NE-KAMS knowledge base will assist computational analysts, physics model developers, experimentalists, nuclear reactor designers, and federal regulators by: (1) Establishing accepted standards, requirements and best practices for V&V and UQ of computational models and simulations, (2) Establishing accepted standards and procedures for qualifying and classifying experimental and numerical benchmark data, (3) Providing readily accessible databases for nuclear energy related experimental
Mounting problems in the early 1980s resulted in a business crisis for the US uranium enrichment enterprise. To address these problems, the US Dept. of Energy (DOE) developed and announced in 1984 a plan for reestablishing its competitive position in the world marketplace. This recovery plan has been very successful. The US DOE is now implementing the third phase of
The Nuclear Energy Computational Fluid Dynamics Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-CAMS) system is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with Bettis Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Utah State University (USU), and other interested parties with the objective of developing and implementing a comprehensive and readily accessible data and information management system for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) verification and validation (V&V) in support of nuclear energy systems design and safety analysis. The two key objectives of the NE-CAMS effort are to identify, collect, assess, store and maintain high resolution and high quality experimental data and related expert knowledge (metadata) for use in CFD V&V assessments specific to the nuclear energy field and to establish a working relationship with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop a CFD V&V database, including benchmark cases, that addresses and supports the associated NRC regulations and policies on the use of CFD analysis. In particular, the NE-CAMS system will support the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Program, which aims to develop and deploy advanced modeling and simulation methods and computational tools for reliable numerical simulation of nuclear reactor systems for design and safety analysis. Primary NE-CAMS Elements There are four primary elements of the NE-CAMS knowledge base designed to support computer modeling and simulation in the nuclear energy arena as listed below. Element 1. The database will contain experimental data that can be used for CFD validation that is relevant to nuclear reactor and plant processes, particularly those important to the nuclear industry and the NRC. Element 2. Qualification standards for data evaluation and classification will be incorporated and applied such that validation data sets will result in well-defined, well-characterized data. Element 3. Standards will be established for the design and operation of experiments for the generation of new validation data sets that are to be submitted to NE-CAMS that addresses the completeness and characterization of the dataset. Element 4. Standards will be developed for performing verification and validation (V&V) to establish confidence levels in CFD analyses of nuclear reactor processes; such processes will be acceptable and recognized by both CFD experts and the NRC.
The effects of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) were studied in irradiated mice to see if a definite myeloproliferative effect could be demonstrated in vivo. The data obtained suggested the following conclusions. PHA treatment of the bone marrow donor only, causes a consistent but slight reduction in transplantable spleen colony-forming unit (CFU) content of the bone marrow 24 hr after the last PHA injection, but no change was found in the proportion of the various colony types. PHA treatment of the irradiated recipient of normal bone marrow causes no change in the number of spleen colonies. However, 8-day colonies are only about half normal size, are much more likely to be of mixed cell types, contain many large undifferentiated blastoid cells, but fewer transplantable CFU. The spleen sinusoids are packed with hemopoietic cells. Spleen colonies developing in hosts receiving daily injections of PHA show, in addition to the usual spectrum of cell types, a high proportion of unusual blastoid cells resembling the PHA transformed peripheral lymphocytes seen in vitro. The function of these cells is not known, but they may represent augmented proliferation and/or transformation of stem cells. PHA administered after irradiation significantly increased the number of endogenous spleen colonies, and, at certain doses of irradiation, improved postirradiation survival. PHA administered before irradiation had no effect on the number of endogenous spleen colonies formed, or on postirradiation survival. On the basis of these and other data, possible modes of action of PHA are discussed.
NE-KAMS knowledge base will assist computational analysts, physics model developers, experimentalists, nuclear reactor designers, and federal regulators by: (1) Establishing accepted standards, requirements and best practices for V&V and UQ of computational models and simulations, (2) Establishing accepted standards and procedures for qualifying and classifying experimental and numerical benchmark data, (3) Providing readily accessible databases for nuclear energy related experimental and numerical benchmark data that can be used in V&V assessments and computational methods development, (4) Providing a searchable knowledge base of information, documents and data on V&V and UQ, and (5) Providing web-enabled applications, tools and utilities for V&V and UQ activities, data assessment and processing, and information and data searches. From its inception, NE-KAMS will directly support nuclear energy research, development and demonstration programs within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), including the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS), the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), the Small Modular Reactors (SMR), and the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant (NGNP) programs. These programs all involve computational modeling and simulation (M&S) of nuclear reactor systems, components and processes, and it is envisioned that NE-KAMS will help to coordinate and facilitate collaboration and sharing of resources and expertise for V&V and UQ across these programs. In addition, from the outset, NE-KAMS will support the use of computational M&S in the nuclear industry by developing guidelines and recommended practices aimed at quantifying the uncertainty and assessing the applicability of existing analysis models and methods. The NE-KAMS effort will initially focus on supporting the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and thermal hydraulics (T/H) analysis for M&S of nuclear reactor systems, components and processes, and will later expand to include materials, fuel system performance and other areas of M&S as time and funding allow.
The Carbon Issues Task Force has the responsibility to evaluate emissions reduction and carbon offset credit options, geologic carbon sequestration and carbon capture, terrestrial carbon sequestration on forest lands, and terrestrial carbon sequestration on agricultural lands. They have worked diligently to identify ways in which Idaho can position itself to benefit from potential carbon-related federal legislation, including identifying opportunities for Idaho to engage in carbon sequestration efforts, barriers to development of these options, and ways in which these barriers can be overcome. These are the experts to which we will turn when faced with federal greenhouse gas-related legislation and how we should best react to protect and provide for Idahos interests. Note that the conclusions and recommended options in this report are not intended to be exhaustive, but rather form a starting point for an informed dialogue regarding the way-forward in developing Idaho energy resources.
A method for evaluating and ranking energy alternatives based on impact upon the natural environment and cultural heritage was developed as part of the first phase of an Icelandic framework plan for the use of hydropower and geothermal energy. The three step procedure involved assessing i) site values and ii) development impacts within a multi-criteria analysis, and iii) ranking the alternatives from worst to best choice from an environmental-cultural heritage point of view. The natural environment was treated as four main classes (landscape + wilderness, geology + hydrology, species, and ecosystem/habitat types + soils), while cultural heritage constituted one class. Values and impacts were assessed within a common matrix with 6 agglomerated attributes: 1) diversity, richness, 2) rarity, 3) size (area), completeness, pristineness, 4) information (epistemological, typological, scientific and educational) and symbolic value, 5) international responsibility, and 6) scenic value. Standardized attribute scores were used to derive total class scores whose weighted sums yielded total site value and total impact. The final output was a one-dimensional ranking obtained by Analytical Hierarchical Process considering total predicted impacts, total site values, risks and uncertainties as well as special site values. The value/impact matrix is compact (31 cell scores) but was considered to be of sufficient resolution and has the advantage of facilitating overview and communication of the methods and results. The classes varied widely in the extent to which value assessments could be based on established scientific procedures and the project highlighted the immense advantage of an internationally accepted frame of reference, first for establishing the theoretical and scientific foundation, second as a tool for evaluation, and third for allowing a global perspective.
Thorhallsdottir, Thora Ellen [Institute of Biology, Department of Biology, Askja Natural Sciences Building, Sturlugata 7, 104 Reykjavik (Iceland)]. E-mail: email@example.com
There is very little argument that the federal government has a role in the funding of basic research. There is also consensus that the federal government should not fund research that the private sector would do on its own volition. In this paper, we examine the role of government in the ``grey`` area between these extremes. This area includes generic, crosscutting, and applied technology development and deployment. We first present some general trends in US R&D investment and make international comparisons. These trends clearly show that the amount the US spends on R&D has fallen precipitously since the 1980s. The R&D expenditure data also reveal striking differences in the shares of government R&D allocated to different social objectives between the US and other major industrialized countries. We then review the linear model--the model that characterizes much of the postwar paradigm for US technology policy-- and evaluate alternatives to it. These alternative models allow for different types of innovation and explicitly account for feedback from the marketplace and linkages to the private sector, universities, national laboratories. Based on the nonlinear model of innovation, we outline a structure for an R&D technology council that would provide guidance to DOE on energy technology R&D. The energy technology R&D council would advise DOE on funding priorities for different types of research. Basic research would be conducted at universities and national laboratories as appropriate. Generic technology development would be conducted by teams consisting of national laboratories, the private sector, and universities. The private sector would participate directly in the generic technology development by supplying information and funding. For those activities requiring the development of applied technology, the private sector would cost share in much the same way as is done in the current system with cooperative research and development agreements (CRADAs).
On hard agar gel, there is insufficient surface hydration for bacteria to swim or swarm. Instead, growth occurs in colonies of close-packed cells, which expand purely due to repulsive interactions: individual bacteria push each other out of the way through the force of their growth. In this way, bacterial colonies represent a new type of ``active'' granular matter. In this study, we investigate the physical, biochemical, and genetic elements that determine the static and dynamic aspects of this mode of bacterial growth for E. coli. We characterize the process of colony expansion empirically, and use discrete and continuum models to examine the extent to which our observations can be explained by the growth characteristics of non-communicating cells, coupled together by physical forces, nutrients, and waste products. Our results challenge the commonly accepted modes of bacterial colony growth and provide insight into sources of growth limitation in crowded bacterial communities.
This paper reviews recent advances in these technologies, with a particular focus on experimental state-of-the-art robot work crew system demonstrations at JPL, that are being conducted now to begin to realize the futuristic robotic colony vision.
Site of the original Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts (42.0N, 70.5), This detailed photo is rich in early American history. Plymouth Rock, the Pilgrims first stepping stone on North America and site of Plymouth Colony is located just behind the natural breakwater on the south shore of Plymouth Bay seen in the middle of the photo. The through canal to the south is part of the Intercoastal Canal system. Cape Cod is just south of the canal.
Coloniality in the phylum Rotifera is defined and reviewed. Only two families of rotifers contain truly colonial forms: Flosculariidae and Conochilidae (order Gnesiotrocha, suborder Flosculariacea). Most species form intraspecific colonies ranging in size from a few to about 200 individuals, but species that produce enormous colonies (> 1000 individuals) are also known. All seven genera of the Flosculariidae contain species
The initial work in support of the strategic defense initiative (SDI) program is focused on three technologies: (1) space nuclear power; (2) flywheel energy storage; and (3) neutral particle beams. The space nuclear program will utilize the capabilities in areas of refractory materials, high-temperature alkali metal systems, shielding, and instrumentation. Space nuclear reactors capable of supplying multimegawatt levels of electrical power on a continuous and long-term basis will be required for a variety of SDI surveillance satellites and spaceborne weapons platforms. The feasibility of an alkali metal Rankine power conversion cycle which provides high power with a very low system mass is studied.
During the first quarter of 1982, the Department of Energy continued to expand the storage capacity for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) and to take advantage of the favorable international oil market for the purchase of oil to fill the Reserve. The ...
Examines a moderately sized Washington school district's efforts to move beyond strategic planning as a segregated activity toward thinking strategically about long-term plans to govern both tactical operations and the district's future. Top management grew to recognize the legitimacy of multiple external and internal constituent claims. (25
The Mission of the NSBRI will be to lead a National effort for accomplishing the integrated, critical path, biomedical research necessary to support the long term human presence, development, and exploration of space and to enhance life on Earth by applying the resultant advances in human knowledge and technology acquired through living and working in space. To carry out this mission, the NSBRI focuses its activities on three Strategic Programs: Strategic Program 1: Countermeasure Research Strategic Program 2: Education, Training and Outreach Strategic Program 3: Cooperative Research and Development. This document contains the detailed Team Strategic Plans for the 11 research teams focused on Strategic Program 1, and the Education and Outreach Team focused on Strategic Program 2. There is overlap and integration among the Programs and Team Strategic Plans, as described in each of the Plans.
This handbook was written for Department of the Navy (DON) commanding officers, TQL coordinators, and strategic planning facilitators in response to questions about the strategic planning process and how it should be conducted within the DON. It is not in...
The 21st Century is a time of increasing complexity and heightened ambiguity. Only effective strategic leadership can lead in these challenging times. This study proposes a competency-based leadership development model for Pakistan, focused on the strateg...
In this activity, learners consider the requirements for human life beyond Earth's protection: air to breathe, plentiful food, shielding from ultraviolet light, power, etc. They then work in teams to design and construct a model of a space colony out of craft materials that would allow humans to survive the harsh environments of the Moon or Mars. Teams present their modules and colonies to one another and create a display for the library. This activity is part of Explore! To the Moon and Beyond! - developed specifically for use in libraries.
The Strategic Asia Program made considerable progress over the course of 2002--the program's first year with support from the Department of Energy--and completed all its tasks on schedule and within budget. Following a planning meeting in Washington in February 2002, a team of leading specialists wrote a series of original assessments regarding the impact of September 11 on the strategic environment in Asia, examining how perceptions and strategies of countries in the region changed following the terrorist attacks. The final products, Strategic Asia 2002-03: Asian Aftershocks and its accompanying executive summary, were published in September 2002. The program's research findings (some of which are summarized) were presented to policymakers in Washington and elsewhere throughout the year, and almost 2,000 copies of the book had been distributed by mid-2003.
The aforementioned strategic decisions and the overarching direction for America's aeronautics and space program are addressed in the Strategic Plan. Our Strategic Plan is critical to our ability to meet the challenges of this new era and deliver a vibrant aeronautics and space program that strengthens and inspires the Nation. The Plan is our top-level strategy.
While a foundation of German scientific methods enabled the rapid growth of North American Astronomy in the nineteenth century, during the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries, the colonial men of science looked only to the English mother country for scientific patronage and guidance. An essay on fundamental astronomy appeared in one of the annual colonial almanacs as early as 1656, telescopic observations were made about 1660 and the first original colonial astronomical work was published by Thomas Danforth on the comet of 1664. By 1671 the Copernican ideas were so espoused at Harvard College that a physics class refused to read a Ptolemaic textbook when it was assigned to them by a senior instructor. At least in the Cambridge-Boston area, contemporary colonialist had access to the most recent scientific publications from the mother country. Observations of the great comet of 1680 by the Almanac maker, John Foster, reached Isaac Newton and were used and gratefully acknowledged in his Principia. During the seventeenth century the colonial interest in astronomy was more intense than it was for other sciences but colonists still occupied a position in the scientific backwater when compared with contemporary European scientists. Nevertheless, the science of astronomy was successfully transplanted from England to North America in the seventeenth century.
NASA s Constellation Program employs a strategic analysis methodology in providing an integrated analysis capability of Lunar exploration scenarios and to support strategic decision-making regarding those scenarios. The strategic analysis methodology integrates the assessment of the major contributors to strategic objective satisfaction performance, affordability, and risk and captures the linkages and feedbacks between all three components. Strategic analysis supports strategic decision making by senior management through comparable analysis of alternative strategies, provision of a consistent set of high level value metrics, and the enabling of cost-benefit analysis. The tools developed to implement the strategic analysis methodology are not element design and sizing tools. Rather, these models evaluate strategic performance using predefined elements, imported into a library from expert-driven design/sizing tools or expert analysis. Specific components of the strategic analysis tool set include scenario definition, requirements generation, mission manifesting, scenario lifecycle costing, crew time analysis, objective satisfaction benefit, risk analysis, and probabilistic evaluation. Results from all components of strategic analysis are evaluated a set of pre-defined figures of merit (FOMs). These FOMs capture the high-level strategic characteristics of all scenarios and facilitate direct comparison of options. The strategic analysis methodology that is described in this paper has previously been applied to the Space Shuttle and International Space Station Programs and is now being used to support the development of the baseline Constellation Program lunar architecture. This paper will present an overview of the strategic analysis methodology and will present sample results from the application of the strategic analysis methodology to the Constellation Program lunar architecture.
Cirillo, William M.; Earle, Kevin D.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Reeves, J. D.; Stromgren, Chel; Andraschko, Mark R.; Merrill, R. Gabe
This essay contributes to interdisciplinary reflection on settler colonialism and decolonization by proposing an analysis of two characteristic traits of the settler colonial situation: isopolitics and deep colonizing. The first section outlines isopolitical relations as an alternative possibility to sustained colonial domination on the one hand, and internationally recognized independence within an international system of formally independent polities on the
Preview the newest installment in public television's hands-on history series, following Frontier House, Manor House, and 1900 House. Set in 1628, Colonial House will be broadcast in May. At the website, there are audio and video diaries in which the twenty-eight colonists from the UK and US give accounts of their experiences learning to live in 1628. Also provided is a map of the village and essays by the experts consulted for the show to insure historical authenticity. One such piece is _A Historian Awakens 1628_, by Emerson "Tad" Baker, a specialist on the early history of Maine, which is where Colonial House was filmed. There's also a Meet the Colonists gallery with photos and 21st and 17th century biographies of the settlers, lesson plans and activities for teachers, and a Resources section, with related Web sites and books.
The history of colonialism is a compelling one, and it can be narrated through first-hand documents such as journals, drawings, or photographs. This particular digital collection from the Harvard College Library contains more than 700 images which offer insight into European perspectives on how popular perceptions of Asia and Africa were created and disseminated. The collection is primarily made up of late-19th and early-20th century trade cards and illustrated European newspapers. Visitors can use the collection to draw contrasts between colonial powers, such as the French, the British and the Dutch. First-time visitors will want to dive right into the collection, and the image viewer offered here allows visitors to zoom in for a closer look. While all of the items here are quite worthy, users shouldn't miss the cards created for the Liebig's Extract of Meat Company or the views of Bangkok.
Microorganisms often form complex multicellular assemblies such as biofilms and colonies. Understanding the interplay between assembly expansion, metabolic yield, and nutrient diffusion within a freely growing colony remains a challenge. Most available data on microorganisms are from planktonic cultures, due to the lack of experimental tools to control the growth of multicellular assemblies. Here, we propose a method to constrain the growth of yeast colonies into simple geometric shapes such as cylinders. To this end, we designed a simple, versatile culture system to control the location of nutrient delivery below a growing colony. Under such culture conditions, yeast colonies grow vertically and only at the locations where nutrients are delivered. Colonies increase in height at a steady growth rate that is inversely proportional to the cylinder radius. We show that the vertical growth rate of cylindrical colonies is not defined by the single-cell division rate, but rather by the colony metabolic yield. This contrasts with cells in liquid culture, in which the single-cell division rate is the only parameter that defines the population growth rate. This method also provides a direct, simple method to estimate the metabolic yield of a colony. Our study further demonstrates the importance of the shape of colonies on setting their expansion. We anticipate that our approach will be a starting point for elaborate studies of the population dynamics, evolution, and ecology of microbial colonies in complex landscapes. PMID:24853750
Colony anaysis is used in a large number of engineerings such as food, dairy, beverages, hygiene, environmental monitoring, water, toxicology, sterility testing. In order to reduce laboring and increase analysis acuracy, many researchers and developers have made efforts for image analysis systems. The main problems in the systems are image acquisition, image segmentation and image analysis. In this paper, to acquire colony images with good quality, an illumination box was constructed. In the box, the distances between lights and dishe, camra lens and lights, and camera lens and dishe are adjusted optimally. In image segmentation, It is based on a genetic approach that allow one to consider the segmentation problem as a global optimization,. After image pre-processing and image segmentation, the colony analyses are perfomed. The colony image analysis consists of (1) basic colony parameter measurements; (2) colony size analysis; (3) colony shape analysis; and (4) colony surface measurements. All the above visual colony parameters can be selected and combined together, used to make a new engineeing parameters. The colony analysis can be applied into different applications.
A microengineered array to sample clonal colonies is described. The cells were cultured on an array of individually releasable elements until the colonies expanded to cover multiple elements. Single elements were released using a laser-based system and collected to sample cells from individual colonies. A greater than an 85% rate in splitting and collecting colonies was achieved using a 3-dimensional cup-like design or "microcup". Surface modification using patterned titanium deposition of the glass substrate improved the stability of microcup adhesion to the glass while enabling minimization of the laser energy for splitting the colonies. Smaller microcup dimensions and slotting the microcup walls reduced the time needed for colonies to expand into multiple microcups. The stem cell colony retained on the array and the collected fraction within released microcups remained undifferentiated and viable. The colony samples were characterized by both reporter gene expression and a destructive assay (PCR) to identify target colonies. The platform is envisioned as a means to rapidly establish cell lines using a destructive assay to identify desired clones. PMID:23099535
Pai, Jeng-Hao; Kluckman, Kimberly; Cowley, Dale O; Bortner, Donna M; Sims, Christopher E; Allbritton, Nancy L
The Secretary of Energy is required to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on developmental activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in accordance with Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975. This report combines the fourth quarter 1985 Quarterly Report and the 1985 Annual Report and is presented in five sections with an Appendix. The introductory section briefly covers the program legislation and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan and its amendments. The current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve is outlined in Section II and the appropriations, budget and finances to date are provided in Section III. Section IV addresses organization, management and contractor support. A discussion of the drawdown system and vulnerability impact are set forth in Section V. The Appendix contains detailed information on the status of each Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site. 9 figs., 8 tabs.
Learn who came over to Jamestown and why they came in the first place! First watch a video about why people came to the Americas: A video that explains why people came to the Americas in the first place Then once they got there, lets find out who was in Jamestown (click on Jamestown on the left hand side): Early American colonization Make sure you read up about the history of Jamestown: History of Jamestown and if thats confusion for you, here's another video: Video about the colony of Jamestown Once ...
Outlines the evolution of facilities design to the point where it is capable of supporting an organisations strategic content. Explains the key principles of strategic facility planning (SFP) and details the key stages of the design process. Outlines seven steps including elements such as determining space requirements and generating macro layouts. Concludes that SFP can provide the process to turn
This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the organizational hierarchy for strategic management and strategic investments at NASA. The presentation also relates these topics to the budgets it submits to Congress, strategies for space exploration research and development, and systems analysis.
The literature suggests that organizations cannot be competitive if their business and information technology strategies are not aligned. Yet achieving strategic alignment continues to be a major concern for business executives. A number of alignment models have been offered in the literature, primary among them the Strategic Alignment model (SAM) and IT Governance (via ITIL). As there is no published
Haleh Bagher Esmaili; Hassan Gardesh; S. S. Sikari
There are several types of planning processes and plans, including strategic, operational, tactical, and contingency. For this document, operational planning includes tactical planning. This chapter examines the strategic planning process and includes an introduction into disaster response plans. "A strategic plan is an outline of steps designed with the goals of the entire organisation as a whole in mind, rather than with the goals of specific divisions or departments". Strategic planning includes all measures taken to provide a broad picture of what must be achieved and in which order, including how to organise a system capable of achieving the overall goals. Strategic planning often is done pre-event, based on previous experience and expertise. The strategic planning for disasters converts needs into a strategic plan of action. Strategic plans detail the goals that must be achieved. The process of converting needs into plans has been deconstructed into its components and includes consideration of: (1) disaster response plans; (2) interventions underway or planned; (3) available resources; (4) current status vs. pre-event status; (5) history and experience of the planners; and (6) access to the affected population. These factors are tempered by the local: (a) geography; (b) climate; (c) culture; (d) safety; and (e) practicality. The planning process consumes resources (costs). All plans must be adapted to the actual conditions--things never happen exactly as planned. PMID:24785808
Strategic leadership is built upon traits and actions that encompass the successful execution of all leadership styles. In a world that is rapidly changing, strategic leadership in schools guides school leader through assuring constant improvement process by anticipating future trends and planning for them and noting that plans must be flexible to
The publication relates to the implementation of sustainable energy systems by strategy. Main themes discussed are the world's shifting energy picture from 1860 to 1992 and the current European energy and natural gas picture including some future projecti...
For counting of both colonies and plaques, there is a large number of applications including food, dairy, beverages, hygiene, environmental monitoring, water, toxicology, sterility testing, AMES testing, pharmaceuticals, paints, sterile fluids and fungal contamination. Recently, many researchers and developers have made efforts for this kind of systems. By investigation, some existing systems have some problems. The main problems are image acquisition and image segmentation. In order to acquire colony images with good quality, an illumination box was constructed as: the box includes front lightning and back lightning, which can be selected by users based on properties of colony dishes. With the illumination box, lightning can be uniform; colony dish can be put in the same place every time, which make image processing easy. The developed colony image segmentation algorithm consists of the sub-algorithms: (1) image classification; (2) image processing; and (3) colony delineation. The colony delineation algorithm main contain: the procedures based on grey level similarity, on boundary tracing, on shape information and colony excluding. In addition, a number of algorithms are developed for colony analysis. The system has been tested and satisfactory.
The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.
American Strategic Minerals is a collection of six papers that were presented in December 1982 at a conference organized by the Center for the Study of Marine Policy at the University of Delaware. According to editor Gerard J. Mangone, director of the center, the papers were commissioned to investigate not only the objective resource situation, but also past United States policy on strategic minerals and future options open to Washington. The authors and their chapter titles are John C. Kraft, University of Delaware: Strategic minerals and world stability V. Anthony Cammarota, Jr., U.S. Bureau of Mines: America's dependence on strategic minerals John D. Morgan, U.S. Bureau of Mines: Future demands of the United States for strategic minerals J. Robert Moore, University of Texas: Alternative sources of strategic minerals from the seabed Allan I. Mendelowitz and John E. Watson, U.S. General Accounting Office: U.S. mining investments in developing countries and James W. Curlin, Nautilus Press: The political dimensions of strategic minerals.
The purpose of this document is to present the strategic plan and associated organizational structure that the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) will utilize to achieve the defined mission and objectives provided by NASA. Much of the information regarding the background and establishment of the NSBRI by NASA has been provided in other documentation and will not be repeated in this Strategic Plan. This Strategic Plan is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this volume) begins with an Introduction (Section 2) that provides the Institute's NASA-defined mission and objectives, and the organizational structure adopted to implement these through three Strategic Programs: Countermeasure Research; Education, Training and Outreach; and Cooperative Research and Development. These programs are described in Sections 3 to 5. Each program is presented in a similar way, using four subsections: Goals and Objectives; Current Strategies; Gaps and Modifications; and Resource Requirements. Section 6 provides the administrative infrastructure and total budget required to implement the Strategic Programs and assures that they form a single cohesive plan. This plan will ensure continued success of the Institute for the next five years. Volume II of the Strategic Plan provides an in-depth analysis of the current and future strategic programs of the 12 current NSBRI teams, including their goals, objectives, mutual interactions and schedules.
This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested "colonial" hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and
Colony collapse disorder (CCD) is a condition of honey bees, which has contributed in part to the recent major losses of honey bee colonies in the USA. Here we report the first CCD case from outside of the USA. We suggest that more standardization is needed for the case definition to diagnose CCD and to compare data on a global scale. PMID:23757238
Dainat, Benjamin; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Neumann, Peter
A colony, as introduced by Kelemen and Kelemenová in 1992, is meant to be a grammatical model of systems composed of as simple as possible agents which cooperate in such a way that a complex behaviour emerges at the level of the system. Technically, a colony is a symbol manipulating system consisting of as simple as possible components which behave
The University of Calgary's Strategic Studies Program developed STRATNET to provide a network of research resources germane to the study of international relations, security, and politics. STRATNET includes three main sections: StratChat, an interactive discussion forum; StratLink, a well-organized collection of hundreds of annotated strategic studies pointers; and StratJournal, which contains a multidisciplinary online journal entitled STRATNET. In addition, the site provides information about the fellows and the outreach projects of the Strategic Studies Program at the University of Calgary.
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is explored as an analytical tool in strategic environmental assessment (SEA), illustrated by case where a previously developed SEA process was applied to municipal energy planning in Sweden. The process integrated decision-making tools for scenario planning, public participation and environmental assessment. This article describes the use of LCA for environmental assessment in this context, with focus on methodology and practical experiences. While LCA provides a systematic framework for the environmental assessment and a wider systems perspective than what is required in SEA, LCA cannot address all aspects of environmental impact required, and therefore needs to be complemented by other tools. The integration of LCA with tools for public participation and scenario planning posed certain methodological challenges, but provided an innovative approach to designing the scope of the environmental assessment and defining and assessing alternatives. - Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LCA was explored as analytical tool in an SEA process of municipal energy planning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The process also integrated LCA with scenario planning and public participation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Benefits of using LCA were a systematic framework and wider systems perspective. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integration of tools required some methodological challenges to be solved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This proved an innovative approach to define alternatives and scope of assessment.
The Engineering Technology Division has a leading role, including that of program management, in a major new programmatic thrust of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory that is in support of the national Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). It is appropriate for the Laboratory to become significantly involved in the program because several of the most promising SDI technologies are in areas for which ORNL (together with Y-12 and K-25) have strong capabilities and significant resources. The initial ORNL work in support of the SDI program is focused on three technologies in which ORNL has extensive experience and traditionally strong research and development programs: (1) space nuclear power, (2) flywheel energy storage, and (3) neutral particle beams. The space nuclear program will utilize our capabilities in areas such as refractory materials, high-temperature alkali metal systems, shielding, and instrumentation. Space nuclear reactors capable of supplying multimegawatt levels of electrical power on a continuous and long-term basis are envisioned to be required for a variety of SDI surveillance satellites and space-borne weapons platforms. The feasibility of an alkali metal Rankine power conversion cycle, which has promise of providing high power with a very low system mass, is planned for study.
Strategic communications, as now generally understood within the Department of Defense (DOD), encompass (to use the bureaucratic terms of art) public affairs, 'defense support for public diplomacy,' and military psychological operations (PSYOP). That ther...
Overview: JOCOTAS: technology vision; total life cycle involvement, alliances with industry: Purpose; strategic alliances: what makes a success. Working with the government; shelter systems: direction and future. The technical vision of JOCOTAS is to adva...
American military personnel have been stationed on the island of Okinawa since 1945. This study analyzes Okinawa's strategic value in providing stability in East Asia. It examines US forces assigned to Okinawa, and reviews options for the future deploymen...
...Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Strategic Planning Committee Meeting The Federal Energy Regulatory...meeting of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) Strategic Planning Committee (SPC), as noted below. Their...
Strategic negotiations in digital tabletop displays have not been well understood. There is little reported in the literature\\u000a on how users strategize when group priorities and individual priorities conflict and need to be balanced for a successful\\u000a collaboration. We conducted an observational study on three digital tabletop systems and a real-world setup to investigate\\u000a similarities and differences in real-world and
This book is an unclassified version of the classified report that reviews the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization's program for developing Brilliant Pebbles, the space-based weapon system for the Phase I Strategic Defense System. The report suggests that the Congress consider whether the concurrency in the program is justified by the President's need to make a decision by the summer of 1993 on whether to begin full-scale development and deployment.
Strategically Tuned Absolutely Resilient Structures (STARS) are being designed to store potential energy in the form of elastic deformation that can be released in a controlled fashion as work or kinetic energy. This paper outlines steps being taken to mo...
Honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirically to confer significant adaptive advantages that result in higher colony productivity and survival. Moreover, honey bees are the primary insect pollinators used in modern commercial production agriculture, and their populations have been in decline worldwide. Here, we compare the mating frequencies of queens, and therefore, intracolony genetic diversity, in three commercial beekeeping operations to determine how they correlate with various measures of colony health and productivity, particularly the likelihood of queen supersedure and colony survival in functional, intensively managed beehives. We found the average effective paternity frequency (m e ) of this population of honey bee queens to be 13.6?±?6.76, which was not significantly different between colonies that superseded their queen and those that did not. However, colonies that were less genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e ???7.0) were 2.86 times more likely to die by the end of the study when compared to colonies that were more genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e ?>?7.0). The stark contrast in colony survival based on increased genetic diversity suggests that there are important tangible benefits of increased queen mating number in managed honey bees, although the exact mechanism(s) that govern these benefits have not been fully elucidated. PMID:23728203
Tarpy, David R; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Pettis, Jeffrey S
Strategic planning needs to be done as one of the integral steps in fulfilling our overall Departmental mission. The role of strategic planning is to assure that the longer term destinations, goals, and objectives which the programs and activities of the Department are striving towards are the best we can envision today so that our courses can then be set to move in those directions. Strategic planning will assist the Secretary, Deputy Secretary, and Under Secretary in setting the long-term directions and policies for the Department and in making final decisions on near-term priorities and resource allocations. It will assist program developers and implementors by providing the necessary guidance for multi-year program plans and budgets. It is one of the essential steps in the secretary's Strategic Planning Initiative. The operational planning most of us are so familiar with deals with how to get things done and with the resources needed (people, money, facilities, time) to carry out tasks. Operating plans like budgets, capital line item projects, R D budgets, project proposals, etc., are vital to the mission of the Department. They deal, however, with how to carry out programs to achieve some objective or budget assumption. Strategic planning deals with the prior question of what it is that should be attempted. It deals with what objectives the many programs and activities of the Department of Department should be striving toward. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to those organizations and personnel starting the process for the first time as well as those who have prepared strategic plans in the past and now wish to review and update them. This guideline should not be constructed as a rigid, restrictive or confining rulebook. Each organization is encouraged to develop such enhancements as they think may be useful in their planning. The steps outlined in this document represent a very simplified approach to strategic planning. 9 refs.
The Department of Energy conducts programs relating to energy resources, national nuclear security, environmental quality, and science. In each of these areas, the US is facing significant challenges. Our economic well-being depends on the continuing availability of reliable and affordable supplies of clean energy. Our Nation's security is threatened by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Our environment is under threat from the demands a more populated planet and the legacies of 20th-century activities. Science and the technology derived from it offer the promise to improve the Nation's health and well-being and broadly expand human knowledge. In conducting its programs, the Department of Energy (DOE) employs unique scientific and technical assets, including 30,000 scientists, engineers, and other technical staff, in a complex of outstanding national laboratories that have a capital value of over $45 billion. Through its multidisciplinary research and development activities and its formidable assemblage of scientific and engineering talent, DOE focuses its efforts on four programmatic business lines: (1) Energy Resources--promoting the development and deployment of systems and practices that provide energy that is clean, efficient, reasonably priced, and reliable. (2) National Nuclear Security--enhancing national security through military application of nuclear technology and by reducing global danger from the potential spread of weapons of mass destruction. (3) Environmental Quality--cleaning up the legacy of nuclear weapons and nuclear research activities, safely managing nuclear materials, and disposing of radioactive wastes. (4) Science--advancing science and scientific tools to provide the foundation for DOE's applied missions and to provide remarkable insights into our physical and biological world. In support of the above four business lines, DOE provides management services to ensure that the technical programs can run efficiently. Our Corporate Management area deals with organizational and management challenges that we must address to better serve our customers, and ultimately, U.S. taxpayers, in an effective and efficient manner. Within Corporate Management, we strive for excellence in the Department's environment, safety, and health practices, together with effective management systems and efficient business practices.
Water, energy, and food (WEF) are viewed as main systems forming a nexus, which itself is threatened by defined external factors mainly characterized by growing population, changing economies, governance, climate change, and international trade. Integrative thinking in strategic planning for natural resources comes through recognizing the intimate level of interconnectedness between these systems and the entities that govern them. Providing sustainable solutions to overcome present challenges pose the need to study the existent inter-linkages and tradeoffs between resources. In this context, the present communication is to present the WEF-nexus project, a Tunisian - Jordanian - Qatari - USA project which is funded by the USAID - FABRI PR&D Grants program. WEF-nexus project seeks to explore the inextricable link between water resources and food security in both its geophysical and socio-economic dimensions. The project proposes to design, implement and test integrated resource management tool based on the water-energy-food nexus framework that i) includes the evaluation of the tool over a wide range of climatic and socio-economic zones represented by different countries in the MENA region, and ii) develop scenarios with variations of resources, demands, constraints, and management strategies for the chosen countries, which would be used as a foundation for guiding decision making. The approach is implemented and tested within Tunisia, Jordan, and Qatar. Beyond the obtaining of significant advances in the aforementioned methodological domains, and the understanding of the problems and challenges related to water and food that societies are experiencing or will experience in the future, outcomes are expected to :i) engage decision makers in the process of improving current policies, and strengthening relevant public- private collaboration through the use of the proposed tool, and ii) help in revisiting former recommendations at the levels of resource governance, and in identifying new in support of water and food polices, institutions and management.
Mohtar, Rabi; Daher, Bassel; Mekki, Insaf; Chaibi, Thameur; Zitouna Chebbi, Rim; Salaymeh, Ahmed Al
The NASA Strategic Plan is a living document. It provides far-reaching goals and objectives to create stability for NASA's efforts. The Plan presents NASA's top-level strategy: it articulates what NASA does and for whom; it differentiates between ends and means; it states where NASA is going and what NASA intends to do to get there. This Plan is not a budget document, nor does it present priorities for current or future programs. Rather, it establishes a framework for shaping NASA's activities and developing a balanced set of priorities across the Agency. Such priorities will then be reflected in the NASA budget. The document includes vision, mission, and goals; external environment; conceptual framework; strategic enterprises (Mission to Planet Earth, aeronautics, human exploration and development of space, scientific research, space technology, and synergy); strategic functions (transportation to space, space communications, human resources, and physical resources); values and operating principles; implementing strategy; and senior management team concurrence.
A macrophage cell coating covering a cellulose acetate disk was an effective microenvironment for the production of peroxidase-positive hematopoietic colonies. These developed after intraperitoneal injection of marrow cells with a linear cell relationship of dose to colonies formed. One colony formed for every 2000 nucleated marrow cells injected. Observation of colony formation daily showed a steady increase in number and
A. R. Turner; W. J. Pfrimmer; B. J. Torok-Storb; D. R. Boggs
NASA experience in development and insertion of technology into programs had led to a recognition that a Strategic Plan for Avionics is needed for space. In the fall of 1989 an Avionics Technology Symposium was held in Williamsburg, Virginia. In early 1990, as a followon, a NASA wide Strategic Avionics Technology Working Group was chartered by NASA Headquarters. This paper will describe the objectives of this working group, technology bridging, and approaches to incentivize both the federal and commercial sectors to move toward rapidly developed, simple, and reliable systems with low life cycle cost.
Deeper and more detailed knowledge as to how human operators such as pilots respond, singly and in groups, to demands on their performance which arise from technical systems will support the manipulation of such systems' design in order to accommodate the foibles of human behavior. Efforts to understand how self-autonomy impacts strategic behavior and such related issues as error generation/recognition/correction are still in their infancy. The present treatment offers both general and aviation-specific definitions of strategic behavior as precursors of prospective investigations.
Chief financial officers in today's universities are so busy with the challenges of day-to-day management that strategic thinking often takes a back seat. Planning for strategic change can go a long way toward streamlining the very daily tasks that obscure the "big picture." Learning how to integrate strategic thinking into day-to-day management
We are pleased to present the 2001 Hanford Waste Management Program Strategic Plan. This plan supports the newly developed U. S. Department of Energy Site outcomes strategy. The 2001 Plan reflects current and projected needs for Waste Management Program services in support of Hanford Site cleanup, and updates the objectives and actions using new waste stream oriented logic for the
...Principles of strategic plan. The strategic plan included in the application...following four key principles: (1) Strategic vision for change, which identifies what the community will become and a strategic map for revitalization....
...Principles of strategic plan. The strategic plan included in the application...following four key principles: (1) Strategic vision for change, which identifies what the community will become and a strategic map for revitalization....
For the last forty-five years, Strategic Systems Programs (SSP) has been entrusted with total life cycle responsibility for the United States and the Royal (United Kingdom) Navy's Strategic Submarine (SSBN) launched ballistic missile weapons systems. SSP'...
This monograph focuses on the development of colonial and post-colonial language policies and practices in Zimbabwe, attributing changes to evolving philosophies and politics in colonial and post-colonial Zimbabwe. In colonial Zimbabwe, we argue that the language policies had as one of their key objectives the development of a bilingual white
A companion paper discusses various applications for which strategic defense concepts could be used. The applications form a progression in size and complexity from accidental or unauthorized launches, through third country or subnational threats, to limited or strategic exchanges. This report attempts to quantify the requirements for meeting those applications and to assess the maturity of current strategic defense concepts relative to them, concluding that there are adequate interceptors for all of them, but that sensitivities to uncertainties in discrimination are awkward at all levels and bothersome at the high end. Strategic defenses are applicable to a progression of threats that range from accidental or unauthorized launches, through third country or subnational threats, to limited or strategic exchanges. Technologies exist for long range launches, but launches close to shore are feasible, stressing, and favor the attacker. Space based interceptors are suited to meeting the bulk of the launches; directed energy has significant advantages in reducing the threat to manageable levels. Current interceptor concepts appear adequate, but discrimination is both pivotal and delayed. 38 refs., 10 figs.
Strong financial management is a strategy for strategic planning success in student affairs. It is crucial that student affairs professionals understand the necessity of linking their strategic planning with their financial management processes. An effective strategic planner needs strong financial management skills to implement the plan over
This paper develops a model of strategic outsourcing. With trade liberalization in the intermediate-product market, a domestic firm may choose to purchase a key intermediate good from a more efficient foreign producer, who also competes with the domestic firm for a final good. This has a strategic effect on competition. Unlike the outsourcing motivated by cost saving, the strategic outsourcing
Higher education, like the private sector, is searching for innovative ways to respond to demographic shifts, globalization, greater accountability, and new technologies. New organizational models are needed to meet these challenges. In a rapidly changing world, the development of such models can occur through effective strategic analysis and
The article proposes the concept of technostress and makes a strong recommendation for conducting research based on key researchable hypotheses. A conceptual framework of technostress is suggested to provide some focus to future research. A number of technostress management strategies are put forward, including strategic technological planning, organization culture development, technostress monitoring systems, and technouser self-development programs. The management of
In response to a community reputation that has grown increasingly negative, the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) devised a strategic plan in 1998 to improve its programs and services and assure the educational success of its students. The planning process involved several steps: (1) revisiting the district mission statement; (2)
Los Angeles Community Coll. District, CA. Office of Research and Planning.
Israel has increasingly become a country of strategic importance to the United States. Since its independence, Israel has had a partnership with the United States that has continued to flourish over the years. The values and beliefs shared by the people o...
A. L. Ramos I. Vazquez K. Bolden M. Dennis W. Cammuse
In January 2000, the Knight Collaborative for Higher Education began an intensive 4-month engagement with 4 higher education institutions focusing on the development of strategic community partnerships. The four institutions were: (1) Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pennsylvania; (2) Michigan State University; (3) the State University of
This workbook outlines the Salem Community College's (New Jersey) Strategic Planning Initiative (SPI), which will enable the college to enter the 21st Century as an active agent in the educational advancement of the Salem community. SPI will allow college faculty, staff, students, and the local community to reflect on the vitality of the college
The ultimate goal of our research is to develop techniques for model checking knowledge properties of multi-agent systems. ATEL, an extension of the Alternating-time Temporal Logic of Alur et al, is a logic for specifying epistemic and strategic properties of such systems. We present a technique for reducing the ATEL model checking problem to one of model checking in ATL,
Sieuwert van Otterloo; Wiebe van der Hoek; Michael Wooldridge
The ultimate goal of our research is to develop techniques for model checking knowl- edge properties of multi-agent systems. ATEL, an extension of the Alternating-time Temporal Logic of Alur et al, is a logic for specifying epistemic and strategic proper- ties of such systems. We present a technique for reducing the ATEL model checking problem to one of model checking
Sieuwert van Otterloo; Wiebe van der Hoek; Michael Wooldridge
Designed to inform the marketing efforts of community college presidents, this document describes the importance of marketing, presents a targeted approach, and outlines the specific roles and skills needed by the president to ensure successful efforts and effective institutions. The first chapter, "Developing a Marketing-Strategic Plan," by
The steps for strategic market planning are discussed including: (1) assessing the situation with market conditions, customers, competitors, and your firm; and (2) crafting a strategy to prioritize target markets, develop a core strategy, and create a marketing mix. Examples of agribusiness successes are presented. The booklet concludes with a
The present status of the Soviet program suggests several observations that have a bearing on predicting the future of the Soviet strategic defense program and its implications for the US: 1. The Soviet Union appears to have a continuing interest in ABM defenses, although ASATs seem to be a much lower priority. 2. The Soviet technology fielded to date was
Implementing a complex business intelligence (BI) system at a small school or one with limited resources can seem daunting. For small to midsize schools and community colleges, a strategic BI initiative may still be an elusive goal. This article discusses how schools with limited resources are making the dream a reality.
Presents a case study of the Virtual Retina project (an instructional CD-ROM for ophthalmology students) at the University of Alberta as an example of strategic dissonance in an educational technology unit. Offers methods to analyze the external competitive environment and internal capabilities of educational technology units. (EV)
Following World War II, American scientists and politicians proposed in the Baruch plan a radical solution to the problem of nuclear weapons: to eliminate them forever under the auspices of an international nuclear development authority. The Soviets, who as yet did not possess the bomb, rejected this plan. Another approach suggested by Secretary of War Henry Stimson to negotiate directly with the Soviet Union was not accepted by the American leadership. These initial arms limitation failures both reflected and exacerbated the hostile political relationship of the superpowers in the 1950s and 1960s. Since 1969, the more modest focus of the Soviet-American arms control process has been on limiting the numbers and sizes of both defensive and offensive strategic systems. The format for this effort has been the Strategic Arms Limitatins Talks (Salt) and more recently the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START). Both sides came to these negotiations convinced that nuclear arsenals had grown so large that some for of mutual restraint was needed. Although the SALT/START process has been slow and ponderous, it has produced several concrete the agreements and collateral benefits. The 1972 ABM Treaty restricts the deployment of ballistic missile defense systems, the 1972 Interim Agreement places a quantitative freeze on each side's land based and sea based strategic launchers, and the as yet unratified 1979 SALT II Treaty sets numerical limits on all offensive strategic systems and sublimits on MIRVed systems. Collateral benefits include improved verification procedures, working definitions and counting rules, and permanent bureaucratic apparatus which enhance stability and increase the chances for achieving additional agreements.
This catalog is a summary of the location, size, and species composition of seabird colonies along the California coast. It documents more than 260 nesting areas with a total estimated population of nearly 700,000 birds. Seventeen species of seabirds from...
A. L. Sowls A. R. DeGange J. W. Nelson G. S. Lester
During the Civil War, Roanoke Island, located between the coast of North Carolina and the Outer Banks, became a refuge for escaped slaves, called contrabands or freedmen. This site, created by University of Virginia professor Patricia C. Click presents an account of the history and selected documents and maps of the Roanoke Island Freedmens Colony, as the community was known. Documents include letters from Superintendent of the Colony, Horace James, a minister and abolitionist from Massachusetts, and letters from Freedmen themselves. The documents have been transcribed and are in .pdf format, so users should not expect to see scanned versions of 19th century originals. The projects section includes seven projects for high school and college students, using historical materials at the site, and from other related Web sites. Professor Click has written a book, Time Full of Trial: The Roanoke Island FreedmenÃ¢ÂÂs Colony, 1862-1867, and the Preview section contains the table of contents and Chapter One. Links in the site refer to this book for more information; in the Maps section users are referred to its online ordering instructions for more information on the layout of the colony.
If the adaptive significance of sexual reproduction derives from genetic recombination, then sexual organisms that severely inbreed minimize the benefits of sexuality without fully escaping its costs. Local populations of the eusocial naked mole-rat are extremely genetically uniform, and colonies have the highest inbreeding coefficient known for wild mammals. Because non- breeding workers cooperate to rear the queen's offspring, researchers
It is pointed out that the weather in a space colony proposed by O'Neill is considerably different from that on the earth. Atmospheric circulation is produced by a temperature difference between the land area and the window area, and it is restricted within the thermal boundary layer. On the `window shore', strong `window-wind' blows in a day time.
The Lewis Strategic Plan was updated for 1985 and beyond. Major programs for the space station, the advanced turboprop, the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS), and the Altitude Wind Tunnel were begun or greatly expanded during 1984. In parallel, The Lewis aeropropulsion research and technology program was extensively evaluated and reviewed; a reduced and reoriented program emerged. The thrusts and implementation plans for these programs are described as they pertain to the individual directorates. Other key accomplishments and plans are summarized.
The present status of the Soviet program suggests several observations that have a bearing on predicting the future of the Soviet strategic defense program and its implications for the US: 1. The Soviet Union appears to have a continuing interest in ABM defenses, although ASATs seem to be a much lower priority. 2. The Soviet technology fielded to date was well within the American grasp 10 years ago. Where advanced and as yet undeployed technologies are concerned, the difference seems to be smaller; perhaps as little as five or seven years, with approximate parity in particle-beam research. 3. The Soviet Union, possibly more sensitive to prestige considerations, appears to be much more inclined than the US to demonstrate and deploy a technology before it is actually fully operational, and to undertake field modifications later. They also are much more reluctant to retire aging and obsolete technologies. As a result, they presently possess the world's only deployed ASAT and ABM systems, however, doubtful their actual operational effectiveness might be. 4. Soviet strategic defenses tend to be more fragmentary in design, reflecting their difficulties with the supporting and integrative technologies such as sensing, signal processing, heavy-lift boosters, and computing hardware and software. 5. The Soviets should also be expected to explore alternative avenues of near-term response to SDI, for example by expanding their strategic nuclear arsenal. 28 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.
This article examines the construction of a "population problem" among public health officials in India during the inter-war period. British colonial officials came to focus on India's population through their concern with high Indian infant and maternal mortality rates. They raised the problem of population as one way in which to highlight the importance of dealing with public health at an all-India basis, in a context of constitutional devolution of power to Indians where they feared such matters would be relegated to relative local unimportance. While they failed to significantly shape government policy, their arguments in support of India's 'population problem' nevertheless found a receptive audience in the colonial public sphere among Indian intellectuals, economists, eugenicists, women social reformers and birth controllers. The article contributes to the history of population control by situating its pre-history in British colonial public health and development policy and outside the logic of USA's Cold War strategic planning for Asia. PMID:21961187
Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony with a genetically diverse worker force. The adaptive significance of polyandry by social insect queens remains an evolutionary puzzle. Using the honeybee (Apis mellifera), we tested the hypothesis that polyandry improves a colony's resistance to disease. We established colonies headed by queens that had been artificially inseminated by either one or 10 drones. Later, we inoculated these colonies with spores of Paenibacillus larvae, the bacterium that causes a highly virulent disease of honeybee larvae (American foulbrood). We found that, on average, colonies headed by multiple-drone inseminated queens had markedly lower disease intensity and higher colony strength at the end of the summer relative to colonies headed by single-drone inseminated queens. These findings support the hypothesis that polyandry by social insect queens is an adaptation to counter disease within their colonies.
... We Like? Strategic Research Linkages and Small Firms Strategic Research Alliances and 360 Degree ... Indicators Strategic Research Partnerships in Biotechnology Strategic Research Partnerships: Their ...
...United States Strategic Command Strategic Advisory Group; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Department of Defense...United States Strategic Command Strategic Advisory Group (hereafter referred to as the Group). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim...
Mexican pottery, used during the Prehispanic period, showed different improvements in its manufacturing for some centuries before the arrival of Spaniards in Mexico. After this, new fired techniques were used to make ceramics during the Colonial period. Their composition, manufacturing, and fired process have not been fully understood. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS), X-ray, transmission electron microscopy
J. Jiménez-Pérez; A. Brancamontes Cruz; A. Cruz-Orea; J. G. Mendoza-Alvarez; A. Gordillo-Sol; H. Yee-Madeira
\\u000a This paper discusses the application of ACS metaheuristics (based on behaviour of real ants: stigmergy and synergetic effect\\u000a among ants) for Job-Shop Scheduling problem (JSP). This algorithm is improved by introducing the concept of critical events,\\u000a in which two new techniques will be applied. Thus, a more flexible heuristic technique is obtained, which improves the performance\\u000a of ant colony system
The Strategic Petroleum Reserve is intended to reduce the vulnerability of the United States to interruptions in the oil supply from foreign sources. Storage for 248 million barrels of crude oil in salt caverns and mines, with equipment for pumping and distribution, was constructed and operationally tested in a 4-year period. Its present inventory is the largest known crude oil reserve in the world. Facilities for expanding the reserve's capacity by another 290 million barrels are being developed by solution-mining in salt domes. PMID:17847458
NASA's Plan summarizes the Agency's vision, mission, and values. Specific goals are listed for each externally focused Enterprise: Mission to Planet Earth, Aeronautics, Human Exploration and Development of Space, Space Science, and Space Technology. These Enterprises satisfy the needs of customers external to NASA. The Strategic Functions (Space Communications, Human Resources, and Physical Resources) are necessary in order to meet the goals of the Enterprises. The goals of these Functions are also presented. All goals must be met while adhering to the discussed values and operating principles of NASA. A final section outlines the implementing strategy.
The Life Science Division of the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) describes its plans for assuring the health, safety, and productivity of astronauts in space, and its plans for acquiring further fundamental scientific knowledge concerning space life sciences. This strategic implementation plan details OSSA's goals, objectives, and planned initiatives. The following areas of interest are identified: operational medicine; biomedical research; space biology; exobiology; biospheric research; controlled ecological life support; flight programs and advance technology development; the life sciences educational program; and earth benefits from space life sciences.
The compound ascidian Botryllus schlosseri reproduces asexually, and forms colonies to adhere to matrices such as rocks. This species has developed a mechanism to distinguish between self stem cells and invasive parasitizing nonself cells from other individuals of the same species, probably as a defense against parasitism. It is highly likely that such adult colony histocompatibility is controlled differently from its gametic allorecognition during fertilization. Allorecognition in adults is controlled by a single fusion/histocompatibility (FuHC) locus. In 2005, a candidate gene responsible for the phenotype associated with this genetic locus, named cFuHC, was reported; however, this proposal was subsequently refuted, and the actual determinant may exist elsewhere within the FuHC locus. Given that its is unlikely that a single gene could produce the diversity of FuHC alleles needed to determine individual identity and to distinguish self from nonself colonies, it is possible that the FuHC locus consists of a cluster of multiple determinants aligned in tandem. PMID:24004073
The Department of Energy contributes to the future of the Nation by ensuring energy security, maintaining the safety, security and reliability of the nuclear weapons stockpile, cleaning up the environment from the legacy of the Cold War, and developing innovations in science and technology. After 25 years in existence, the Department now operates 24 preeminent research laboratories and facilities and four power marketing administrations, and manages the environmental cleanup from 50 years of nuclear defense activities that impacted two million acres in communities across the country. The Department has an annual budget of about $23 billion and employs about 14,500 Federal and 100,000 contractor employees. The Department of Energy is principally a national security agency and all of its missions flow from this core mission to support national security. That is true not just today, but throughout the history of the agency. The origins of the Department can be traced to the Manhattan Project and the race to develop the atomic bomb during World War II. Following the war, Congress engaged in a vigorous and contentious debate over civilian versus military control of the atom. The Atomic Energy Act of 1946 settled the debate by creating the Atomic Energy Commission, which took over the Manhattan Projects sprawling scientific and industrial complex.
Objective It has been theorized that there may be subtypes of pathological gambling, particularly in relation to the main type of gambling activities undertaken. Whether or not putative pathological gambling subtypes differ in terms of their clinical and cognitive profiles has received little attention. Method Subjects meeting DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling were grouped into two categories of preferred forms of gambling strategic (e.g., cards, dice, sports betting, stock market) and non-strategic (e.g., slots, video poker, pull tabs). Groups were compared on clinical characteristics (gambling severity, and time and money spent gambling), psychiatric comorbidity, and neurocognitive tests assessing motor impulsivity and cognitive flexibility. Results Seventy-seven subjects were included in this sample (45.5% females; mean age: 42.7±14.9) which consisted of the following groups: strategic (n=22; 28.6%) and non-strategic (n=55; 71.4%). Non-strategic gamblers were significantly more likely to be older, female, and divorced. Money spent gambling did not differ significantly between groups although one measure of gambling severity reflected more severe problems for strategic gamblers. Strategic and non-strategic gamblers did not differ in terms of cognitive function; both groups showed impairments in cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control relative to matched healthy volunteers. Conclusion These preliminary results suggest that preferred form of gambling may be associated with specific clinical characteristics but are not associated dissociable in terms of cognitive inflexibility and motor impulsivity.
Grant, Jon E.; Odlaug, Brian L.; Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Schreiber, Liana R.N.
A conceptual framework for analyzing participation in adult education was developed. Adult education participation was considered a specific kind of strategic behavior. The term "strategic" was defined by proceeding from Pierre Bourdieu's concept of "educational strategy," which permits consideration of the structural constraints that the social
Argues in favour of the convenience of using strategic groups analysis (SGA) as a business management tool that is especially useful for strategic marketing planning. To illustrate the great versatility offered by SGA, we take as a reference the results obtained from a study of the Spanish retail grocery sector. By way of this empirical work, we analyse how SGA
As a result of stress due to nutrient limitation or antibiotics, competing individual bacteria within a single colony may lyse sibling cells to release nutrients (cannibalism) or DNA (fratricide). However, we have recently shown that competition is not limited to individuals, but can occur at the colony level [A. Be'er et al., PNAS 106, 428 (2009); A. Be'er et al., PNAS 107, 6258 (2010).] In response to the presence of an encroaching sibling colony, Paenibacillus dendritiformis bacteria secrete a lethal protein, lysing cells at the interface between the colonies. Analysis of the proteins secreted by these competing sibling colonies, combined with a mathematical model, shows how colonies maintain their growth by self-regulating the secretion of two proteins: subtilisin (a well-known growth promoter), and Slf (a previously unknown protein, which is lethal). The results also explain why a single colony is not inhibited by its own secretions.
A macrophage cell coating covering a cellulose acetate disk was an effective microenvironment for the production of peroxidase-positive hematopoietic colonies. These developed after intraperitoneal injection of marrow cells with a linear cell relationship of dose to colonies formed. One colony formed for every 2,000 nucleated marrow cells injected. Observation of colony formation daily showed a steady increase in number and size until seven days after cell inoculation. X-irradiation (400 rads) eliminated intrinsic colony formation in BALB/c mice. Irradiation of the donor of the ip marrow cells resulted in a d0 of 95 rads. Treatment of the marrow donor with cytosine arabinoside had a suppressive effect on colony formation as did treatment of the host animal after receipt of the ip marrow. These results indicate that the precursor of the granulocytic colonies seen in the macrophage layers are more similar to committed granulocytic precursors than to the pluripotential stem cell. PMID:354375
Turner, A R; Pfrimmer, W J; Torok-Storb, B J; Boggs, D R
This report reviews previous attempts to develop strategic defenses, the technologies currently under consideration by the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), their main unknowns, and the likely performance of strategic defense concepts against evolving threats. 47 refs.
Developed at Lansing Community College (LCC) through a charrette process, this strategic master plan provides specific directions for action, while retaining room for human judgment in moving toward the college's goals. The seven sections of the plan focus on strategic planning goals, including charrette recommendations, rationales, and strategies
This chapter provides a framework and recommendations for development of strategic partnerships in a variety of cultural contexts. Additionally, this study elucidates barriers and possibilities in interagency collaborations. Without careful consideration regarding strategic partnerships' approaches, functions, and goals, the ability to
The original edition of the 'Strategic Leadership Primer,' published in 1998, served the U.S. Army War College (USAWC) well as a basic overview of Strategic Leadership. Written by Dr. Rod Magee with the assistance of several other faculty members, it was ...
C. Allen M. Clark R. Meinhart S. J. Gerras T. Keegan
This document contains three papers on strategic human resource (HR) development. "Strategic HR Orientation and Firm Performance in India" (Kuldeep Singh) reports findings from a study of Indian business executives that suggests there is a positive link between HR policies and practices and workforce motivation and loyalty and sustainable
The purpose of strategic planning roadmap is to:Fulfill the strategic planning requirements; Provide a guide to the science community in presenting research requests to NASA; Inform and inspire; Focus investments in technology and research for future missions; and Provide the scientific and technical justification for augmentation requests.
Media content analysts seldom observe the principle that editorial omissions are as telling as what is published or broadcast; hence, the purpose of this paper is to explore, and thus stimulate debate about, editorial omissions or "strategic silence." It is observed that as a concept, strategic silence embraces both tact and strategy--the former
This article builds a conceptual framework to examine how school leaders can move away from a planning framework that emphasizes only short-term target setting and move to an effective strategic approach. It examines early evidence from research on what dimensions are critical in establishing a strategically focused school within a medium-term
Examines the concept of strategic ambiguity in communication, and addresses the ethics of strategic ambiguity from an intrapersonal perspective that considers the congruity of communicators' espoused-ethics, ethics-in-use, and behavior, where ethical judgements are based on the congruity between espoused-ethics and actual behavior. Poses questions
The original edition of the Strategic Leadership Primer served the Army War College well as a basic overview of Strategic Leadership. Written by Dr. Rod Magee with the assistance of several other faculty members, it was intended as an orientation reading ...
The framework necessary for achieving a strategic planning posture in higher education is outlined. The most important benefit of strategic planning for higher education decision makers is that it forces them to undertake a more market-oriented and systematic approach to long- range planning. (Author/MLW)
Applies an established strategic framework of competitive market positioning to political parties, suggesting that political scientists who are currently analysing political marketing without reference to the marketing discipline, could benefit thereby. If the marketing paradigm is to influence another discipline, it must first be tendered in broad, generic terms, and address matters at the strategic level. Presents examples from many
The thinking on "strategic thinking" has evolved significantly over the years. In the previous century, the independent school strategy was to focus on long-range planning, blithely projecting 10 years into the future. For decades this worked well enough, but in the late 20th century, independent schools shifted to "strategic planning," with its
This activity is designed to help students develop appreciation and ownership for the natural world around them with the hope of increasing their interest in exploring and questioning the processes that created land forms. Some familiarity with stone walls and with colonial New England is helpful; the students should learn to understand how human endeavors affect the landscape. After taking a nature walk (hopefully in an area where there are stone walls), they will participate in an activity in which they "build" a model wall using stones buried in a plastic tray.
The Bush Administration argues that the US, as the world's only remaining superpower, must be prepared to intervene militarily in regional conflicts. However, the traditional American way of fighting-relying on ground forces with heavy equipment, supported by naval and air forces--could prove too expensive, both monetarily and in terms of expected American casualties, to garner the support of the American public or Congress. This paper argues that the revolution in conventional weaponry demonstrated in the Persian Gulf War opens up the possibility of a new strategy--called Conventional Strategic Deterrence--that could reduce both financial costs and casualties (if it were necessary to implement the strategy) while still being a strong and credible deterrent to regional conflict.
The Bush Administration argues that the US, as the world`s only remaining superpower, must be prepared to intervene militarily in regional conflicts. However, the traditional American way of fighting-relying on ground forces with heavy equipment, supported by naval and air forces--could prove too expensive, both monetarily and in terms of expected American casualties, to garner the support of the American public or Congress. This paper argues that the revolution in conventional weaponry demonstrated in the Persian Gulf War opens up the possibility of a new strategy--called Conventional Strategic Deterrence--that could reduce both financial costs and casualties (if it were necessary to implement the strategy) while still being a strong and credible deterrent to regional conflict.
On January 14, 2004, President George W. Bush announced A Renewed Spirit of Discovery: The President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration, a new directive for the Nation's space program. The fundamental goal of this directive is "to advance U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests through a robust space exploration program." In issuing it, the President committed the Nation to a journey of exploring the solar system and beyond: returning to the Moon in the next decade, then venturing further into the solar system, ultimately sending humans to Mars and beyond. He challenged NASA to establish new and innovative programs to enhance understanding of the planets, to ask new questions, and to answer questions that are as old as humankind. NASA enthusiastically embraced the challenge of extending a human presence throughout the solar system as the Agency's Vision, and in the NASA Authorization Act of 2005, Congress endorsed the Vision for Space Exploration and provided additional guidance for implementation. NASA is committed to achieving this Vision and to making all changes necessary to ensure success and a smooth transition. These changes will include increasing internal collaboration, leveraging personnel and facilities, developing strong, healthy NASA Centers,a nd fostering a safe environment of respect and open communication for employees at all levels. NASA also will ensure clear accountability and solid program management and reporting practices. Over the next 10 years, NASA will focus on six Strategic Goals to move forward in achieving the Vision for Space Exploration. Each of the six Strategic Goals is clearly defined and supported by multi-year outcomes that will enhance NASA's ability to measure and report Agency accomplishments in this quest.
A systems engineering study is presented for a proposed lunar colony. The lunar colony was to grow from an existent, 12-man, earth-dependent lunar surface base and was to utilize lunar resources, becoming as earth-independent as possible. An in-depth treatment of some of the aspects of the lunar colony was given. We have found that the use of lunar resources is feasible for oxygen production (both for breathing and for space tug fuel), food production, and building materials. A program is outlined for recycling waste materials developed at the colony as well as a full program for growth and research activity of the colony to a level of 180 colonists. Recommendations for the lunar colony are given.
Artist colonies have always fascinated the American public, and whether they have been informally organized or not, they seem to provide great opportunities for a variety of collaborations. One of the oldest of these colonies is the MacDowell Colony in Peterborough, New Hampshire. The colony was started in 1907 by the composer Edward MacDowell and his wife Marian, and over the past century it has been host to the likes of Willa Cather, Leonard Bernstein, Thorntown Wilder, and James Baldwin. This site was created in conjunction with an in situ exhibit at the Thomas Jefferson Building at the Library of Congress, and visitors to the site will be able to learn about the history of the colony through first-hand accounts, video clips featuring the curators of the exhibit, and objects that have been part of the colony's history. Some of these digitized objects include photographs, manuscripts, and musical scores.
The complementary DNAs and genes encoding the four major human myeloid growth factors--granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-3--have all been molecularly cloned. These DNA clones have proved valuable for studying the molecular biology of these important regulatory molecules as well as for the large-scale production of the recombinant growth factor proteins. These advances have led
IN 1984, Congress assigned the cleanup of the National Lead (NL) Industries site in Colonie, New York, to the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a decontamination research and development project under the 1984 Energy and Water Appropriations Act. DOE then included the site in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), an existing DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain for the early years of the nation's atomic energy program. DOE instituted an environmental monitoring program at the site in 1984. Results are presented annually in reports such as this. Under FUSRAP, the first environmental monitoring report for this site presented data for calendar year 1984. This report presents the findings of the environmental monitoring program conducted during calendar year 1989. 16 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs.
The Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) is an integrated set of computer programs and associated data bases used to project and analyze national and regional environmental trends. The two major users of SEAS are the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These agencies use SEAS to project the likely emissions of key pollutants given specific assumptions concerning environmental regulations, future levels of energy supply, and economic activity. This introduction to SEAS discusses how the model has been used in specific applications, the general model structure, the data base, and the available documentation.
Narkus-Kramer, M.; Rebibo, K.; Borko, B.; Dossani, N.; Hutchison, R.; Smith, B.; Weiss, A.
This paper covers two phases of the history of science, technology and institutional co-operation in Africa - pre-colonial and colonial. It is structured into three sections. Section one looks at pre-colonial science and technology (S&T) and points out that most discussions on the socio- economic analysis of S&T in Africa often neglect the pre-colonial phase, even though indigenous knowledge is
This paper discusses the concept of strategic groups, focusing upon the importance of intra-industry strategic groupings in understanding differences across firms within an industry. The problems involved in identifying strategic groups within industries are examined through a comprehensive review of recent studies. It is demonstrated that much of the research has used surrogates for elements of a firm's strategic direction,
Investigates the concept of strategic alliances in the context of hotel sector small firms. The rapid increase in the number of international strategic alliances is recognized as one of the most significant management trends of the 1990s. In particular, they may affect firms? cost structures, and provide access to important strategic resources. In this respect, strategic alliances are potentially important
The vast cultural artifacts plundered from Africa, Asia, the Pacific region, and the Americas regions in which France once had colonies, have been distributed among various museums in Paris. For the past seven decades, much of these artifacts from the colonies were at various museums including the Musée Permanent des Colonies (whose name has changed several times) until President
...Advisory Committee; U.S. Strategic Command Strategic Advisory Group; Closed Meeting...Defense announces that the U.S. Strategic Command Strategic Advisory Group will meet on...issues to the Commander, U.S. Strategic Command, during the development of the...
Abstract Taking a practice-based perspective on strategy and strategic change, this paper aims at contributing to the current discussion about the interface betweenorganizing and strategizing. Drawing on the concept of strategic episodes, we specifically explore practices and processes conducive,to a ,fruitful interruption and suspension of operational ,routines allowing ,the differentiation of strategizing from organizing. The focus is on strategic initiatives,
The August 15, 1987, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities undertaken with respect to the development of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1987 through June 30, 1987. The program background and major activities of this qua...
The authors present an overview of strategic planning, examine its history and mystique, and conclude that planning, if properly implemented, can have a powerful impact on advancing and transforming colleges and universities. (Contains 1 note.)
Dooris, Michael J.; Kelley, John M.; Trainer, James F.
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) only national laboratory focused on renewable energy and energy efficiency. For more than 35 years, our energy research, development, analysis, commercialization, and deployment work with public and private sector partners around the world has catalyzed the expansion of global clean energy solutions.
\\u000a This chapter introduces a new strategic planning model for projects. The model consists of two complementary tasks; (1) risk\\u000a analysis and (2) risk navigation strategies. The project risk analysis commences with a comprehensive review of the project\\u000a challenge. Threats, in terms of risk factors, are identified to assess the level of operational, strategic and contextual\\u000a risks that constitute the total
Asbjørn Rolstadås; Per Willy Hetland; George Farage Jergeas; Richard E. Westney
We determine and relate the characteristic velocity, length, and time scales for bacterial motion in swarming colonies of Paenibacillus dendritiformis growing on semi-solid agar substrates. The bacteria swim within a thin fluid layer, and they form long-lived jets and vortices. These coherent structures lead to anisotropy in velocity spatial correlations and to a two-step relaxation in velocity temporal correlations. The mean squared displacement of passive tracers exhibits a short-time regime with nearly ballistic transport and a diffusive long-time regime. We find that various definitions of the correlation length all lead to length scales that are, surprisingly, essentially independent of the mean bacterial speed, while the correlation time is linearly proportional to the ratio of the correlation length to the mean speed.
Zhang, H. P.; Be'er, Avraham; Smith, Rachel S.; Florin, E.-L.; Swinney, Harry L.
Heritable cuticular hydrocarbon patterns ofSolenopsis invicta workers are consistent within colonies for a given sampling time but vary sufficiently from colony to colony to distinguish the colonies from each other. In addition, cuticular hydrocarbon patterns change within colonies over time. Nestmate recognition cues found on the individual's cuticle, can be from heritable or environmental sources, and are a subset of
Robert K. vander Meer; David Saliwanchik; Barry Lavine
We present a study of colony transformations during growth of Bacillus subtilis under adverse environmental conditions. It is a continuation of our pilot study of ``Adaptive self-organization during growth of bacterial colonies'' (Physica A 187 (1992) 378). First we identify and describe the transformations pathway, i.e. the excitation of the branching modes from Bacillus subtilis 168 (grown under diffusion limited
Eshel Ben-Jacob; Adam Tenenbaum; Ofer Shochet; Orna Avidan
Bacteria can secrete a wide array of antibacterial compounds when competing with other bacteria for the same resources. Some of these compounds, such as bacteriocins, can affect bacteria of similar or closely related strains. In some cases, these secretions have been found to kill sibling cells that belong to the same colony. Here, we present experimental observations of competition between 2 sibling colonies of Paenibacillus dendritiformis grown on a low-nutrient agar gel. We find that neighboring colonies (growing from droplet inoculation) mutually inhibit growth through secretions that become lethal if the level exceeds a well-defined threshold. In contrast, within a single colony developing from a droplet inoculation, no growth inhibition is observed. However, growth inhibition and cell death are observed if material extracted from the agar between 2 growing colonies is introduced outside a growing single colony. To interpret the observations, we devised a simple mathematical model for the secretion of an antibacterial compound. Simulations of this model illustrate how secretions from neighboring colonies can be deadly, whereas secretions from a single colony growing from a droplet are not.
Be'er, Avraham; Zhang, H. P.; Florin, E.-L.; Payne, Shelley M.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Swinney, Harry L.
This paper seeks to explore a different way of examining the difference of European and colonial governments, showing how the Indian colonial state privileged investments in political, rather than civil, society. The former targeted the population and sought effects through policies that could be co-ordinated from a distance, at low cost. The latter targeted the social realm and necessarily involved
Background: Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to
Dennis vanEngelsdorp; Jay D. Evans; Claude Saegerman; Chris Mullin; Eric Haubruge; Bach Kim Nguyen; Maryann Frazier; Jim Frazier; Diana Cox-Foster; Yanping Chen; Robyn Underwood; David R. Tarpy; Jeffery S. Pettis
BackgroundOver the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better
Dennis Vanengelsdorp; Jay D. Evans; Claude Saegerman; Chris Mullin; Eric Haubruge; Bach Kim Nguyen; Maryann Frazier; Jim Frazier; Diana Cox-Foster; Yanping Chen; Robyn Underwood; David R. Tarpy; Jeffery S. Pettis; Justin Brown
Examines the introduction and growth of state-supported schools in two German colonies in Africa, Kamerun and Deutsch Ostafrika, describes African reaction to and utilization of them, assesses, from the colonial perspective, why such schools were introduced and what they were intended to accomplish, and examines the reasons for their differential
Notions of white supremacy, racism, sexism, and patriarchy constitute the power relationships and hierarchical structures of colonialism. Power is accessed when certain cultural forms are made to prevail over others, thus producing racialized and marginalized identities. The will to control what is different is the main tenet of colonialism.
Environmental monitoring of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) and surrounding area began in 1984. CISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sties where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The routine environmental monitoring program at CISS includes sampling networks for external gamma radiation exposures and for radium-226, throium-232, an total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, the nonradiological parameters volatile and semivolatile organics, pesticides/polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), metals, total organic carbon (TOC), total organic halides (TOX), specific conductivity, and pH are measured in groundwater. 14 refs., 20 figs., 25 tabs.
In this work we introduce the confluent and various sizes image analysis method (COVASIAM), an auto- mated colony count technique that uses digital imaging technology for detection and separation of confluent microbial colonies and colonies of various sizes growing on petri dishes. The proposed method takes advantage of the optical properties of the surfaces of most microbial colonies. Colonies in
G. CORKIDI; R. DIAZ-URIBE; J. L. FOLCH-MALLOL; J. NIETO-SOTELO
In both African and Asian colonies until the late 19th century, colonial medicine operated pragmatically to meet the medical needs first of colonial officers and troops, immigrant settlers, and laborers responsible for economic development, then of indigenous populations when their ill health threatened the well-being of the expatriate population. Since the turn of the century, however, the consequences of colonial expansion and development for indigenous people's health had become increasingly apparent, and disease control and public health programs were expanded in this light. These programs increased government surveillance of populations at both community and household levels. As a consequence, colonial states extended institutional oversight and induced dependency through public health measures. Drawing on my own work on colonial Malaya, I illustrate developments in public health and their links to the moral logic of colonialism and its complementarity to the political economy.
This paper presents a novel colony analysis system including an adjustable image acquisition subsystem and a wavelet-watershed-based image segmentation algorithm. An illumination box was constructed--both front lightning and back lightning illuminations can be chosen by users based on the properties of Petri dishes. In the illumination box, the lightning is uniform, which makes image processing easy. A digital camera at the top of the box is connected to a PC computer; all the camera functions are controlled by the developed computer software in this study. As usual, in the image processing part, the hardest task is image segmentation which is carried out by the four different algorithms: 1. recursive image segmentation on gray similarity; 2. canny edge detection-based segmentation; 3. the combination of 1 and 2, and 4. colony delineation on wavelet and watershed. The first three algorithms can obtain good results for ordinary colony images, and for the images including a lot of small (tiny) colonies and dark colonies and overlapping (or touching) colonies, the algorithm 4 can obtain better results than the others. The algorithms are tested by using a large number of different colony images, and the testing results are satisfactory.
Background The cellular temperatures of microorganisms are considered to be the same as those of their surroundings because the cellular volume is too small to maintain a cellular temperature that is different from the ambient temperature. However, by forming a colony or a biofilm, microorganisms may be able to maintain a cellular temperature that is different from the ambient temperature. In this study, we measured the temperatures of bacterial colonies isolated from soils using an infrared imager and investigated the thermogenesis by a bacterium that increases its colony temperature. Results The temperatures of some colonies were higher or lower than that of the surrounding medium. A bacterial isolate with the highest colony temperature was identified as Pseudomonas putida. This bacterial isolate had an increased colony temperature when it grew at a temperature suboptimal for its growth. Measurements of heat production using a microcalorimeter showed that the temperature of this extraordinary, microcalorimetrically determined thermogenesis corresponded with the thermographically observed increase in bacterial colony temperature. When investigating the effects of the energy source on this thermal behavior, we found that heat production by this bacterium increased without additional biomass production at a temperature suboptimal for its growth. Conclusions We found that heat production by bacteria affected the bacterial colony temperature and that a bacterium identified as Pseudomonas putida could maintain a cellular temperature different from the ambient temperature, particularly at a sub-optimal growth temperature. The bacterial isolate P. putida KT1401 increased its colony temperature by an energy-spilling reaction when the incubation temperature limited its growth.
Swarming is a widespread phenomenon observed in both biological and non-biological systems. Large mammal herds, fish schools, and bird flocks are among the most spectacular examples. Many theoretical and numerical efforts have been made to unveil the general principles of the phenomenon, but systematic experimental studies have been very limited. We determine the characteristic velocity, length, and time scales for bacterial motion in swarming colonies of Paenibacillus dendritiformis growing on semi-solid agar substrates. The bacteria swim within a thin fluid layer, and they form long-lived jets and vortices. These coherent structures lead to anisotropy in velocity spatial correlations and to a two-step relaxation in velocity temporal correlations. The mean squared displacement of passive tracers exhibits a short-time regime with nearly ballistic transport and a diffusive long-time regime. We find that various definitions of the correlation length all lead to length scales that are, surprisingly, essentially independent of the mean bacterial speed, while the correlation time is linearly proportional to the ratio of the correlation length to the mean speed.
Zhang, Hepeng; Be'Er, Avraham; Smith, Rachel; Florin, E.-L.; Swinney, Harry L.
...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices Â§ 866.2180 Manual colony counter. (a) Identification. A manual colony...
Press Release. Ants are usually regarded as the unwanted guests at a picnic. But a recent study of California seed harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex californicus) examining their metabolic rate in relation to colony size may lead to a better appreciation for the social, six-legged insects, whose colonies researchers say provide a theoretical framework for understanding cellular networks. Mr. Waters presented his paper, Scaling of Metabolism, Growth and Network Organization in Colonies of the Seed Harvester Ant, Pogonomyrmex californicus, at the American Physiological SocietyÃÂs Intersociety Meeting Global Science: Comparative Physiology in a Changing World. The program is located at http://the-aps.org/meetings/aps/comparative/preprogram.htm.
APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)
With the vast experience gained by Aerospace Community in the last five decades, the natural future course of action will be to expand Space Exploration. Our understanding of Moon is relatively better with a number of unmanned satellite missions carried out by the leading Space Agencies and manned missions to Moon by USA. Also a number of unmanned satellite missions
G. Madhavan Nair; K. R. Sridhara Murthi; M. Y. S. Prasad
Strategic Performance Indicators (SPIs) are summary measures derived from parallel, descriptive analyses conducted across educational agencies. The SPIs are designed to inform agency management and efforts to improve student outcomes. We developed the SPIs to reveal patterns common across partner agencies, to highlight exceptions to those
Page, Lindsay C.; Fullerton, Jon; Bacher-Hicks, Andrew; Owens, Antoniya; Cohodes, Sarah R.; West, Martin R.; Glover, Sarah
Colonial Williamsburg has been a popular destination for American history buffs for eight decades, and they continue to impress with their fine website dedicated to providing biographies, essays, and articles on "the everyday life of extraordinary Americans." Visitors can read biographies of people who inhabited colonial-era Williamsburg, listen to their fife and drums corps, and tour the town. One area that is definitely worth a look is the "Gardens" section of the site. Here visitors can learn about the landscape restoration work on the site, the history of the gardens, and read the gardener's blog. Further along, the "Clothing" area includes narrative descriptions of men's clothing, women's clothing, and African American clothing during colonial times. Also, visitors can dress a colonial person from head to toe in the interactive adventure, "Dressing the Part". The site is rounded out by a "Conferences, Forums, and Workshops" area that includes information about their scholarly activities and upcoming forums.
We study the statistical properties of melanoma cell colonies grown in vitro by analyzing the results of crystal violet assays at different concentrations of initial plated cells and for different growth times. The distribution of colony sizes is described well by a continuous time branching process. To characterize the shape fluctuations of the colonies, we compute the distribution of eccentricities. The experimental results are compared with numerical results for models of random division of elastic cells, showing that experimental results are best reproduced by restricting cell division to the outer rim of the colony. Our results serve to illustrate the wealth of information that can be extracted by a standard experimental method such as the crystal violet assay.
Baraldi, Massimiliano Maria; Alemi, Alexander A.; Sethna, James P.; Caracciolo, Sergio; La Porta, Caterina A. M.; Zapperi, Stefano
Histocompatibility is the basis by which multicellular organisms of the same species distinguish self from non-self. Relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying histocompatibility reactions in lower organisms. Botryllus schlosseri is a colonial urochordate, a sister group of vertebrates, that exhibits a genetically determined natural transplantation reaction, whereby self-recognition between colonies leads to formation of parabionts with a common vasculature, whereas rejection occurs between incompatible colonies. Using genetically defined lines, whole-transcriptome sequencing, and genomics, we identified a single gene that encodes self/non-self and determines graft outcomes in this organism. This gene is significantly upregulated in colonies poised to undergo fusion or rejection, is highly expressed in the vasculature, and is functionally linked to histocompatibility outcomes. These findings establish a platform for advancing the science of allorecognition.
Voskoboynik, Ayelet; Newman, Aaron M.; Corey, Daniel M.; Sahoo, Debashis; Pushkarev, Dmitry; Neff, Norma F.; Passarelli, Benedetto; Koh, Winston; Ishizuka, Katherine J.; Palmeri, Karla J.; Dimov, Ivan K.; Keasar, Chen; Fan, H. Christina; Mantalas, Gary L.; Sinha, Rahul; Penland, Lolita; Quake, Stephen R.; Weissman, Irving L.
This paper addresses system aspects of communications for a lunar colony. Human factors are particularly noted. The practical aspects of communications infrastructure are emphasized rather than specific technologies. Communications needs for mission suppo...
Macroscopic examination reveals the presence of large and small Mycobacterium ulcerans colonies after 3 and 5 months of growth at 30ÃÂ°C on Middlebrook 7H10 agar supplemented with 10% oleic acid, albumin, dextrose, and catalase (OADC).
Shelley Haydel (Arizona State University;); Caitlin Otto (Arizona State University;)
Neutral particle beams can play a number of unique, critical roles in strategic defense because of their robust mechanism for discrimination and kill. Their operation, status, and applications are evaluated, showing that their near term roles are complementary to kinetic energy weapons. In addition, particle beams are shown to be the primary candidates for interrogating space objects, discriminating numerous light
Improvements in technology worldwide have amplified the impact strategic lieutenants and strategic corporals have on strategic matters. These Strategic Soldiers and their respective leaders must not only be aware of their potential influence in a war envi...
Strategic planning guides fundamental decisions and actions that shape an organization, its activities, and its purpose. Strategic planning has roots in many different disciplines, particularly military science, community planning, corporate planning, and...
The Army has an integrity problem that is often overlooked. Yet when it surfaces, it has unwanted strategic implications. Various examples of integrity issues that have been dealt with by strategic leaders prove the implications of the problem. Other exam...
The purpose of this research is to review and integrate the literature describing the relationship between the strategic planning process and the management control process. The assumption made is that neither the strategic planning process for the manage...
The purpose of this strategic plan is to focus and guide our actions in the Chemical and Biological Defense Program (CBDP). Our immediate responsibility is to develop, deliver, and support the systems that provide strategic resilience - systems flexible e...
Biomimicry means learning from nature. Well known examples include physical structures such as the Velcro fastener. But natural\\u000a selection has also engineered mechanisms by which the components of adaptive biological systems are organized. For example,\\u000a natural selection has caused the foragers in an ant colony to cooperate and communicate in order to increase the total foraging\\u000a success of the colony.
Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized characteristics of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new or resurgent pathogens. Here we explore the incidence and abundance of currently known honey bee pathogens in colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), otherwise weak colonies, and strong colonies from across the United States. Although pathogen identities differed between the eastern and western United States, there was a greater incidence and abundance of pathogens in CCD colonies. Pathogen loads were highly covariant in CCD but not control hives, suggesting that CCD colonies rapidly become susceptible to a diverse set of pathogens, or that co-infections can act synergistically to produce the rapid depletion of workers that characterizes the disorder. We also tested workers from a CCD-free apiary to confirm that significant positive correlations among pathogen loads can develop at the level of individual bees and not merely as a secondary effect of CCD. This observation and other recent data highlight pathogen interactions as important components of bee disease. Finally, we used deep RNA sequencing to further characterize microbial diversity in CCD and non-CCD hives. We identified novel strains of the recently described Lake Sinai viruses (LSV) and found evidence of a shift in gut bacterial composition that may be a biomarker of CCD. The results are discussed with respect to host-parasite interactions and other environmental stressors of honey bees.
Cornman, R. Scott; Tarpy, David R.; Chen, Yanping; Jeffreys, Lacey; Lopez, Dawn; Pettis, Jeffery S.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D.
Grazer-induced colony formation in the common green alga Scenedesmus acutus may be interpreted as an anti-grazer defense. Costs are to be expected because otherwise the protected colonial morph would be the norm. Analysis of growth rates, light harvesting in terms of photosystem II (PSII) efficiency using Xe-PAM fluorescence measurements and sedimentation rates were compared among unicellular and induced colonial populations.
The colony patterns of Bacillus circulans on agar medium were experimentally investigated to study about the growth mode transition. From the optical microscopic observation, the bacteria distribute inside the medium, that is, the colony grows three-dimensionally (3D) in the soft agar condition (C A<0.9 wt%) . On the other hand, the bacteria distribute on the surface, that is, the colony grows two-dimensionally (2D) in the hard agar condition (C A?0.9 wt%) . It indicates that the mode transition occurs by changing the hardness of the medium. The mode transition is confirmed by the discontinuous change in the pattern diagram and in the colony growth rate, which is defined as the expanding speed of the colony. Under the softer agar condition in the range of the 2D mode (0.9?C A?1.2 wt%) , the induction time exists. Before the induction time, the colony grows in 3D mode. The length of the induction time decreases with increasing the bacterial number density. In addition, bacterial aggregation plays a key role on 2D growth. These results suggest that the increasing bacterial number density causes bacterial aggregation resulting in the mode transition.
Discusses the importance of strategic planning to higher education. Addresses the need for postsecondary institutions to evaluate their environment and develop a strategic plan. Presents the components of strategic planning, i.e., mission statement development; analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats; and strategy
Purpose The primary purpose of this paper is to illustrate a new methodology for gaining actionable, strategic insight into a brand's associations and its competitive uniqueness vis-à-vis key competitors. Design\\/methodology\\/approach The authors integrate free association protocols, response latency, and more conventional scale items to develop a strategic overview of a brand's associations and to depict brands' strategic meaning
This article analyzes reasoning of strategic business decisions selection. In order to accomplish the task the synthesis of two methods is offered scenario and multicriteria evaluation of strategic decisions. The base of multicriteria evaluation of strategic decisions is set onto the tree?level criteria system (primary, partially integrated and complex?integrated criteria). Relatives weights of the primary and partially integrated criteria
The major policy debate touched off by President Reagan's March 1983 speech announcing the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was the reopening of one that had begun 35 years before. Then and now the ultimate question is what kind of strategic posture is most likely to contribute to mutual strategic stability? The answer is central to national
The concept and practice of strategic planning, while entrenched in educational institutions in the West, is just catching on in Kenya. While literature emphasizes the importance of collaborative strategic planning, it does not indicate the challenges presented by collaboratively engaging in strategic planning. This article reports on findings of
Purpose Proposes a model of strategic planning as a basis to overcome the identified shortcomings in the past empirical research. The basic assumption of the proposed model is that an appropriate strategic analysis is necessary in order to ensure appropriate strategic decisions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach Shortcomings related to empirical research in the past were identified with the aim of discussing
This brief document provides an overview of the Strategic National Arts Alumni Project (SNAAP), an annual online survey, data management, and institutional improvement system designed to enhance the impact of arts-school education. SNAAP aims to provide the first national data on how artists develop in this country, help identify the factors
Reviews and defines continuity of care, or long term care, as a potential economic catastrophe which requires strategic planning. Proposes a Medicare revision that provides integrated funding for acute, sub-acute, and long-term care as elements of continuity of care. (Author/ABB)
Describes development and implementation of a four- page strategic plan at Colby-Sawyer College (New Hampshire). Notes initial small group meetings of faculty and staff to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Explains the resulting plan's format which is organized around eight critical areas, three institutional goals, and
Strategic planners concerned with such matters as high-achieving students, high-performing teachers, broad-based community support, and a two-way involvement with the community must analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats existing in the school's internal and external environment. A sample SWOT analysis is included. (MLH)
Rational strategic reasoning is the process whereby an agent reasons about the best strategy to adopt in a given multi-agent scenario, taking into account the likely behaviour of other participants in the scenario, and, in particular, how the agent's choice of strategy will affect the choices of others. We present CATL, a logic that is intended to facilitate such reasoning.
Wiebe van der Hoek; Wojciech Jamroga; Michael Wooldridge
This report presents cycle four of the strategic planning process at the State University and Community College System of Tennessee. The cycle extends for five fiscal years from 2000 to 2005, and is meant to: (1) provide a blueprint of the systems vision; (2) provide guidelines to facilitate setting system policy and priorities; (3) provide
At the workshop, better management through strategic planning of information and consultancy was discussed as one way in which developing and Eastern European countries could tackle the complex information problems they are facing during the transition to a market economy. The sixteen papers in this volume are grouped into three basic categories:
The study aimed to measuring the applying degree of the strategic school planning stages at the Governmental high schools from the educational supervisors and principals perspective in the directorates related to Amman city, the study society was formed of the educational supervisors and principals working at Educational directorates related to
In response to the Vision, NASA commissioned strategic and capability roadmap teams to develop the pathways for turning the Vision into a reality. The strategic roadmaps were derived from the Vision for Space Exploration and the Aldrich Commission Report dated June 2004. NASA identified 12 strategic areas for roadmapping. The Agency added a thirteenth area on nuclear systems because the topic affects the entire program portfolio. To ensure long-term public visibility and engagement, NASA established a committee for each of the 13 areas. These committees - made up of prominent members of the scientific and aerospace industry communities and senior government personnel - worked under the Federal Advisory Committee Act. A committee was formed for each of the following program areas: 1) Robotic and Human Lunar Exploration; 2) Robotic and Human Exploration of Mars; 3) Solar System Exploration; 4) Search for Earth-Like Planets; 5) Exploration Transportation System; 6) International Space Station; 7) Space Shuttle; 8) Universe Exploration; 9) Earth Science and Applications from Space; 10) Sun-Solar System Connection; 11) Aeronautical Technologies; 12) Education; 13) Nuclear Systems. This document contains roadmap summaries for 10 of these 13 program areas; The International Space Station, Space Shuttle, and Education are excluded. The completed roadmaps for the following committees: Robotic and Human Exploration of Mars; Solar System Exploration; Search for Earth-Like Planets; Universe Exploration; Earth Science and Applications from Space; Sun-Solar System Connection are collected in a separate Strategic Roadmaps volume. This document contains memebership rosters and charters for all 13 committees.
This volume, the third in a series of historical case studies of important air power missions, addresses the most controversial air power mission of all: strategic bombardment. The ability of aircraft and missiles to destroy or disrupt an enemy's war...
R. C. Hall R. J. Overy S. L. McFarland W. A. Jacobs W. P. Newton
The purpose of the essay is to determine whether South Korea is a strategic asset or liability to the United States and her importance to the security of the Far East. An appraisal of her geography, history and people in connection with the existing Commu...
To help meet competitive realities operations managers need to know more about the strategic aspects of manufacturing flexibility. This paper takes steps toward meeting that need by critically reviewing the literature and establishing a research agenda for the area. A conceptual model, which places flexibility within a broad context, helps to identify certain assumptions of theoretical studies which need to
The United States must remain strategically engaged in the world. It has an indispensable role to play in reintegrating a former adversary into the international system, maintaining a global balance of power more generally, and preserving a favorable climate for economic growth and the development of liberal constitutionalism. To achieve these ends, the United States must apply its global military
The ability to communicate effectively with multiple constituencies is recognized as an essential characteristic of effective leaders. Listening strategically is a way of showing parents, students, faculty, staff, and others that their ideas and beliefs are of value. The authors' practitioner-friendly book concentrates on the importance of
This article examines the evolution of Swedish strategic culture during the twentieth century and up to the present.Although Sweden is the only Scandinavian country that has stayed out of war since the age of Napoleon, it still has proud military traditions stemming from Sweden's age of empire (15611721) and from the Cold War period, when this nonaligned country became partly
Team building is fundamental to the success of strategic-level military leaders. The success or failure of any military unit is contingent upon its ability to effectively function as a team. Leadership Lessons at Division Command Level - 2004 cited team b...
Strategic Vision is an enduring theme at the U.S. Army War College. Compiled in support of this theme, this selected bibliography reflects books, documents, periodical articles, and a number of web sites. Please note that the majority of references to mil...
Strategic planning can become downright treacherous if one's institution depends heavily on technology, because technology changes course frequently. Technological change is somewhat predictable, and doing nothing is not an option. A number of complex factors hasten technological change. Limits on performance, breakthrough technology, market
This document is the strategic plan for the NNI. It describes the NNI vision and goals and the strategies by which these goals are to be achieved. The plan includes a description of the NNI investment strategy and the program component areas called for by...
The Strategic Plan describes the goals and objectives of the Community Open Source Program for the next seven years. It builds on the half-century-plus heritage of Open Source Information providers and users in the Intelligence Community. The Plan project...
A wide variety of political, military, social, and economic events illustrates the changes in the global strategic situation over the last four years. The Army understands the scope and depth of these changes and their implications for the future of U.S. ...
The Directive reissues DoD Directive 5141.5, February 21, 1986, and establishes, pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of Defense under Title 10, United States Code, and National Security Decision Directive 119, January 6, 1984, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization as an agency of the Department of Defense with responsibilities, functions, relationships, and authorities as prescribed herein.
We describe a variety of perspectives on corporate social responsibility (CSR), which we use to develop a framework for consideration of the strategic implications of CSR. Based on this framework, we propose an agenda for additional theoretical and empirical research on CSR. We then review the papers in this special issue and relate them to the proposed agenda. Copyright Blackwell
Abagail McWilliams; Donald S. Siegel; Patrick M. Wright
Kittiwake chick production was measured at 7 study plots in 3 colonies on the Mainland of Shetland. While the number of young fledged per pair at one colony was comparable to that reported from other British colonies, production at the other 2 colonies wa...
The emphasis on culture in studies of colonialism tends to obscure other forms of colonial power while making it impossible to contextualize the cultural argument and assess its salience. Rather than focusing on texts, systems of signification, and procedures of knowledge generation, as the colonial discourse literature is wont to do, a fuller understanding of colonial powers is achieved by
The dual issues of energy security and climate change mitigation are driving a renewed debate over how to best provide safe, secure, reliable and environmentally responsible electricity to our nation. The combination of growing energy demand and aging electricity generation infrastructure suggests major new capacity additions will be required in the years ahead.
This document is a strategic plan for accomplishing environmental restoration objectives at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). Waste Management (WM) for environmental restoration activities and integration of these activities into the PORTS WM operations is addressed in this document. The document provides detailed information concerning specific assumptions and activities required to meet DOE`s environmental restoration objectives at this site. Environmental contamination at PORTS consists mainly of spent solvents and low level radionuclides. Solvents were used for industrial metal cleaning operations required to maintain the process during operations. Plumes of groundwater contamination resulting from past disposal of these spent solvents in landfills and impoundments extend from several locations within the site. Also, two sludge impoundments associated with a chromate reduction facility were characterized as having soil and groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium.
Relatedness increases the likelihood of cooperation within colonies of social insects. Polygyny, the coexistence of numerous reproductive females (queens) in a colony, is common in mature colonies of the termite Macrotermes michaelseni. In this species, polygyny results from pleometrosis and from several female alates that jointly found a new colony. To explain this phenomenon, it was suggested that only related females cooperate and survive during maturation of colonies. Using multilocus fingerprints as well as microsatellites, we showed that nestmate queens in mature colonies are unrelated. Furthermore, we found that all nestmate queens contributed to the production of steriles. Even in mature colonies, several matrilines of steriles coexist within a colony. Although genetic diversity within colonies may increase the likelihood of conflicts, high genetic diversity may be important for foraging, colony growth, and resistance to disease and parasites. PMID:15813790
Hacker, M; Kaib, M; Bagine, R K N; Epplen, J T; Brandl, R
The Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the development of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) in 1976. Since that time, the Department has been involved in a development program to stockpile crude oil in major storage facilities. The SPR facility deve...
Power requirements are estimated for several candidate missions proposed for the Strategic Defense Initiative. The missions of interest are those requiring large electric power supply and power conditioning systems for space-based directed energy weapons,...
The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Strategic Plan is to provide decision makers, project participants, and the public with a high-level overview of the objectives, issues, and strategiesthat impact a decision on the suitability of WIPP as a permanent, safe disposal facility for transuranic (TRU) waste that has resulted from defense activities. This document is a component of an integrated planning process and is a key management tool that is coordinated and consistent with the Secretary`s Disposal Decision Plan and the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) Five-Year Plan. This documentsupports other US Department of Energy (DOE) planning efforts, including the TRU Waste Program. The WIPP Strategic Plan addresses the WIPP Program Test Phase, Disposal Decision, Disposal Phase, and Decommissioning Phase (decontamination and decommissioning). It describes the actions and activities that the DOE will conduct to ensure that WIPP will comply with applicable, relevant, and appropriate requirements of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), State of New Mexico, and other applicable federal and state regulations. It also includes the key assumptions under which the strategy was developed. A comprehensive discussion of the multitude of activities involved in the WIPP Program cannot be adequately presented in this document. The specific details of these activities are presented in other, more detailed WIPP planningdocuments.
The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Strategic Plan is to provide decision makers, project participants, and the public with a high-level overview of the objectives, issues, and strategiesthat impact a decision on the suitability of WIPP as a permanent, safe disposal facility for transuranic (TRU) waste that has resulted from defense activities. This document is a component of an integrated planning process and is a key management tool that is coordinated and consistent with the Secretary's Disposal Decision Plan and the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) Five-Year Plan. This documentsupports other US Department of Energy (DOE) planning efforts, including the TRU Waste Program. The WIPP Strategic Plan addresses the WIPP Program Test Phase, Disposal Decision, Disposal Phase, and Decommissioning Phase (decontamination and decommissioning). It describes the actions and activities that the DOE will conduct to ensure that WIPP will comply with applicable, relevant, and appropriate requirements of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), State of New Mexico, and other applicable federal and state regulations. It also includes the key assumptions under which the strategy was developed. A comprehensive discussion of the multitude of activities involved in the WIPP Program cannot be adequately presented in this document. The specific details of these activities are presented in other, more detailed WIPP planningdocuments.
This review article considers four recent books published on the social and cultural history of the Cape Colony and Batavia, spanning a chronological period from the mid-seventeenth through to the mid-nineteenth centuries. The books address a wide range of topics and themes, but they all share an interest, to a greater or lesser extent, in the material culture of colonial
This work plan has been prepared to document the scoping and planning process performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to support remedial action activities at the Colonie site. The site is located in eastern New York State in the town of Colonie near the city of Albany. Remedial action of the Colonie site is being planned as part of DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The DOE is responsible for controlling the release of all radioactive and chemical contaminants from the site. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) must be prepared to support the decision-making process for evaluating remedial action alternatives. This work plan contains a summary of information known about the site as of January 1988, presents a conceptual site model that identifies potential routes of human exposure to site containments, identifies data gaps, and summarizes the process and proposed studies that will be used to fill the data gaps. In addition, DOE activities must be conducted in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires consideration of the environmental consequences of a proposed action as part of its decision-making process. This work also describes the approach that will be used to evaluate potential remedial action alternatives and includes a description of the organization, project controls, and task schedules that will be employed to fulfill the requirements of both CERCLA and NEPA. 48 refs., 18 figs., 25 tabs.
Ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous domains is a major research direction for ant colony optimization algorithm. In this paper, we propose a distribution model of ant colony foraging, through analysis of the relationship between the position distribution and food source in the process of ant colony foraging. We design a continuous domain optimization algorithm based on the model and give the form of solution for the algorithm, the distribution model of pheromone, the update rules of ant colony position, and the processing method of constraint condition. Algorithm performance against a set of test trials was unconstrained optimization test functions and a set of optimization test functions, and test results of other algorithms are compared and analyzed to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Multiple mating by social insect queens increases the genetic diversity among colony members, thereby reducing intracolony relatedness and lowering the potential inclusive fitness gains of altruistic workers. Increased genetic diversity may be adaptive, however, by reducing the prevalence of disease within a nest. Honeybees, whose queens have the highest levels of multiple mating among social insects, were investigated to determine whether genetic variation helps to prevent chronic infections. I instrumentally inseminated honeybee queens with semen that was either genetically similar (from one male) or genetically diverse (from multiple males), and then inoculated their colonies with spores of Ascosphaera apis, a fungal pathogen that kills developing brood. I show that genetically diverse colonies had a lower variance in disease prevalence than genetically similar colonies, which suggests that genetic diversity may benefit colonies by preventing severe infections.
Background Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. Methods and Principal Findings Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels), no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor) were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. Conclusions/Significance This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted.
vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D.; Saegerman, Claude; Mullin, Chris; Haubruge, Eric; Nguyen, Bach Kim; Frazier, Maryann; Frazier, Jim; Cox-Foster, Diana; Chen, Yanping; Underwood, Robyn; Tarpy, David R.; Pettis, Jeffery S.
Microorganisms often form multicellular structures such as biofilms and structured colonies that can influence the organisms virulence, drug resistance, and adherence to medical devices. Phenotypic classification of these structures has traditionally relied on qualitative scoring systems that limit detailed phenotypic comparisons between strains. Automated imaging and quantitative analysis have the potential to improve the speed and accuracy of experiments designed to study the genetic and molecular networks underlying different morphological traits. For this reason, we have developed a platform that uses automated image analysis and pattern recognition to quantify phenotypic signatures of yeast colonies. Our strategy enables quantitative analysis of individual colonies, measured at a single time point or over a series of time-lapse images, as well as the classification of distinct colony shapes based on image-derived features. Phenotypic changes in colony morphology can be expressed as changes in feature space trajectories over time, thereby enabling the visualization and quantitative analysis of morphological development. To facilitate data exploration, results are plotted dynamically through an interactive Yeast Image Analysis web application (YIMAA; http://yimaa.cs.tut.fi) that integrates the raw and processed images across all time points, allowing exploration of the image-based features and principal components associated with morphological development.
Summary: As colonies of all monogyne ants grow from a single, colony-founding queen to a mature colony with many workers, they develop the species-typical characteristics of the mature colony. This ontogeny, and these species-typical characteristics and their seasonal changes were studied in the Florida harvester ant by excavating 31 colonies of the full range of sizes, on 4 dates representing
Strategic alliances in product development and marketing are crucial to the biotechnology industry. Many alliances, however, are terminated before the drug reaches the market. In this article we make the case that strategic alliances can fail because of how they are negotiated. Alliance contracts are often inflexible and do not allow for changes in market conditions. We propose a model for contract valuation that can assist biotech and/or pharma deal makers in negotiating alliances that have a higher chance of survival in uncertain market conditions. The model makes use of variable royalties and milestone payments. Because licensing is key to the biotech and/or pharma business model this article will be of interest not only to professionals in licensing, but to all professionals active in the industry. PMID:22484547
The energetic equivalence rule states that population-level metabolic rate is independent of average body size. This rule has been both supported and refuted by allometric studies of abundance and individual metabolic rate, but no study, to my knowledge, has tested the rule with direct measurements of whole-population metabolic rate. Here, I find a positive scaling of whole-colony metabolic rate with body size for eusocial insects. Individual metabolic rates in these colonies scaled with body size more steeply than expected from laboratory studies on insects, while population size was independent of body size. Using consumer-resource models, I suggest that the colony-level metabolic rate scaling observed here may arise from a change in the scaling of individual metabolic rate resulting from a change in the body size dependence of mortality rates.
The role of missionaries in the process of colonization has intrigued historians and others for decades, and this compilation of scholarly works on this subject is quite a find. This set of papers was published by the eScholarship Research Centre at The University of Melbourne in July 2008, and it contains fifteen works that look at "current concepts of gender, race and colonial governance." Drawing on a range of methodological and theoretical approaches, the works are divided into thematic sections such as "Consolidating the Missionary Project" and "A Global Mission". Within these sections, visitors will find papers that include "Imperial Critics: Moravian Missionaries in the British Colonial World" and "Missions, Colonialism and the Politics of Agency". For persons with an interest in these types of historical explorations, this site will prove quite indispensable.
Two-way selection for quantities of stored pollen resulted in the production of high and low pollen hoarding strains of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Strains differed in areas of stored pollen after a single generation of selection and, by the third generation, the high strain colonies stored an average 6 times more pollen than low strain colonies. Colony-level organizational components
Technological advantage in weaponry is well-documented in history. The US is fortunate to combine geographical, historical, and technical circumstances that enable it to exploit space, laser, and nuclear technology. The US could establish a strategic multipolar balance of military power if it takes advantage of its expertise. If it does establish and maintain a power balance, a US dominance and leadership should continue into the next century. (DCK)
This professional development video clip of students engaged in Common Core Practice Standard #5- Use appropriate tools strategically, shows a classroom of kindergarten students exploring properties of addition utilizing dominoes. Through this clip, Mrs. Wright demonstrates how to use dominoes to show addition sentences and begins to lay the framework for the zero property and commutative property. Additional resources include a video transcript and teaching tips.
A concept for development of second generation 10 MWe prototype lunar power plant utilizing a gas cooled fission reactor supplying heated helium working fluid to two parallel 5 MWe closed cycle gas turbines is presented. Such a power system is expected to supply the energy needs for an initial lunar colony with a crew of up to 50 persons engaged in mining and manufacturing activities. System performance and mass details were generated by an author developed code (BRMAPS). The proposed pilot power plant can be a model for future plants of the same capacity that could be tied to an evolutionary lunar power grid.
Recent research results show that very small autotrophic\\/heterotrophic assemblages open to energy but totally isolated from exchanges of matter with external systems persist for years and probably indefinitely. General and specific ecological thermodynamic hypothesis for the behavior of such systems have been proposed and are being tested. Meanwhile, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program aimed
Sandia National Laboratories faces institutional challenges that are unique in its history. Never before have the national laboratories been viewed so critically, and never before has their role been the subject of such study and debate. At the same time, the opporunities to render `exceptional service in the national interest` have never been greater. The business of Sandia today and into the foreseeable future will rely on a strong, integrated technical foundation, represented most fundamentally by its core competencies. While is is impossible to foresee precisely what missions Sandia will pursue many years from now, one thing is clear: Central to its service to the nation will be the application of science-based engineering skills to the stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile. Whether on not the nation ever builds a new nuclear weapon, those that remain in stockpile will require continuous stewardship based on the integration of scientific understanding with experienced systems engineering. Sandia`s steadfast commitment to DOE`s stockpile stewardship mission will also be evident in the production of limited numbers of certain vital weapon components as the weapons production complex is realigned. Complementing this enduring responsibility will be expanded missions in energy, environment, and economic competitiveness. The work for other federal agencies will be jointly sponsored under high-level agreements with DOE. Multi-institutional teams will become a common way of doing business. The multiprogram laboratory model will evolve toward a new model of multi-laboratory programs addressing major national needs. Sandia will be a distinct and important component of an integrated system of national laboratories.
This document is a strategic plan for accomplishing environmental restoration objectives at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). Waste Management (WM) for environmental restoration activities and integration of these activities into the PORTS WM operations is addressed in this document. The document provides detailed information concerning specific assumptions and activities required to meet DOE's environmental restoration objectives at this site. Environmental contamination at PORTS consists mainly of spent solvents and low level radionuclides. Solvents were used for industrial metal cleaning operations required to maintain the process during operations. Plumes of groundwater contamination resulting from past disposal of these spent solvents in landfills and impoundments extend from several locations within the site. Also, two sludge impoundments associated with a chromate reduction facility were characterized as having soil and groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium.
In response to President Reagan's speech related to the objective for putting an end to the threat of nuclear ballistic missiles, an intensive study was conducted by the Dept. of Defense regarding the technologies applicable to ballistic-missile defense. It was concluded that emerging technologies do hold substantial promise for achieving the President's long-term ballistic-missile defense goal. The committee recommended a long-term program to bring the new technologies to a point of readiness where a decision could be made whether to enter full-scale development. Based on the results of the study, DOD has established a new program for the President's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Details regarding the SDI program are discussed. Surveillance, acquisition, tracking, and kill assessment (SATKA) programs will culminate in technical demonstrations. Attention is given to directed energy weapons, battle management, and survivable defenses.
Integration of DNA isolation, amplification, and sequencing can be achieved by the use of polymerase colonies (polonies) and cycles of fluorescent dNTP incorporation. In this paper, we present four advances that bring us closer to sequencing genomes cost-effectively using the polony technology. First, a polymerase trapping technique enables efficient nucleotide extension by DNA polymerase in a polyacrylamide matrix and eliminates
Robi D. Mitra; Jay Shendure; Jerzy Olejnik; George M Church
This paper presents a meta-heuristic of ant colony optimization (ACO) for solving the logistics problem arising in disaster relief activities. The logistics planning involves dispatching commodities to distribution centers in the affected areas and evacuating the wounded people to medical centers. The proposed method decomposes the original emergency logistics problem into two phases of decision making, i.e., the vehicle route
Presents a bibliographic review essay on the topic of colonial Peru organized according to the following topics: Pre-Columbian Peru, 5500 B.C.- 1532; the conquest of Peru, 1532-1572; Peru under the Hapsburgs, 1516-1700; Bourbon Peru, 1700-1808; and the coming of independence, 1808-1821. The essay is based on a bibliography composed largely of
This article examines the infamous Land Rover Himba advertisement (2000) that shocked South Africans because of its racism and sexism. The South African Advertising Standards Authority ruled that the advertisement constituted a violation of human dignity that perpetuated gender and cultural inequality. This article takes the position that the Himba advertisement builds on the colonial notions of adventure, exploration and
Flexible machine layout problems describe the dynamic arrangement of machines to optimise the trade-off between material handling and rearrangement costs under changing and uncertain production environments. A previous study used integer-programming techniques to solve heuristically reduced versions of the problem. As an alternative, this paper introduces an ant colony optimisation (ACO) algorithm to generate good solutions. Experimental results are presented,
Swarm robotics draws inspiration from decentral- ized self-organizing biological systems in general and from the collective behavior of social insects in particular. In social insect colonies, many tasks are performed by higher order group or team entities, whose task-solving capacities transcend those of the individual participants. In this paper, we investigate the emergence of such higher order entities. We report
Shervin Nouyan; Roderich Gross; Michael Bonani; Francesco Mondada; Marco Dorigo
This paper presents the thoughts of the MoonMars Workshop regarding the overall design of Moon and Mars Colonies. This workshop, held in conjunction with the International Astronautical Congress 2003 and the 3rd European Mars Conference (EMC3) in Bremen, was born from a Space Generation Summit* (SGC) with the overall goal of accelerating our pace in space.
Vega Plc; Jeffrey Hendrikse; Tiago S. Hormigo; Alexander Soucek; Gillian Whelan
Responds to the comments of C. J. Divine (1979) on a previous article (P. C. Stern, 1978) on the limits-to-growth controversy. The notion of a space colony is challenged in regard to being able to predict the effects of proposed changes by extrapolation from past experience, the resulting type of freedom, and the impact on the state of the impoverished.
Annual counting of occupied burrows in fixed areas of seven Puffin colonies in Scotland showed that the populations there were either stable or increasing. A drop of even 30% in the number of burrows between one year and the next could not be attributed to a disaster as the numbers increased greatly the next year.
Decreasing the agar concentration of a counting medium from the usual 1.5% resulted in larger colonies with less interference from gas in Clostridium botulinum 115B and C. sporogenes PA 3679. Optimal agar concentration was 0.65% for C. botulinum with 24-h...
This paper explores the effect of 350 years of Dutch colonial rule upon Indonesian educational policies and the resulting regional inequalities in education. It was Dutch policy not to educate most of the children from the poorer social classes, but to use education to maintain and strengthen the existing social structure. Education was also used
Bacterial colonies often exhibit complex spatio-temporal organization. This collective behavior is affected by a multitude of factors ranging from the properties of individual cells (shape, motility, membrane structure) to chemotaxis and other means of cell-cell communication. One of the important but often overlooked mechanisms of spatio-temporal organization is direct mechanical contact among cells in dense colonies such as biofilms. While in natural habitats all these different mechanisms and factors act in concert, one can use laboratory cell cultures to study certain mechanisms in isolation. Recent work demonstrated that growth and ensuing expansion flow of rod-like bacteria Escherichia coli in confined environments leads to orientation of cells along the flow direction and thus to ordering of cells. However, the cell orientational ordering remained imperfect. In this paper we study one mechanism responsible for the persistence of disorder in growing cell populations. We demonstrate experimentally that a growing colony of nematically ordered cells is prone to the buckling instability. Our theoretical analysis and discrete-element simulations suggest that the nature of this instability is related to the anisotropy of the stress tensor in the ordered cell colony. PMID:21358041
Boyer, Denis; Mather, William; Mondragón-Palomino, Octavio; Orozco-Fuentes, Sirio; Danino, Tal; Hasty, Jeff; Tsimring, Lev S
The history of British colonial educational policies, particularly the adaptation concept in Black Africa, is discussed. "Adaptation" refers to an educational scheme, supposedly adapted to the needs of Black people, completely oriented toward family and community life, and based on recommendations by the 1920-21 and 1924 Phelps-Stokes Commission
In this paper we present an extension of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) to continuous domains. We show how ACO, which was initially developed to be a metaheuristic for combinatorial optimization, can be adapted to continuous opti- mization without any major conceptual change to its structure. We present the general idea, implementation, and results obtained. We compare the results with those
Bacterial colonies often exhibit complex spatio-temporal organization. This collective behavior is affected by a multitude of factors ranging from the properties of individual cells (shape, motility, membrane structure) to chemotaxis and other means of cellcell communication. One of the important but often overlooked mechanisms of spatio-temporal organization is direct mechanical contact among cells in dense colonies such as biofilms. While in natural habitats all these different mechanisms and factors act in concert, one can use laboratory cell cultures to study certain mechanisms in isolation. Recent work demonstrated that growth and ensuing expansion flow of rod-like bacteria Escherichia coli in confined environments leads to orientation of cells along the flow direction and thus to ordering of cells. However, the cell orientational ordering remained imperfect. In this paper we study one mechanism responsible for the persistence of disorder in growing cell populations. We demonstrate experimentally that a growing colony of nematically ordered cells is prone to the buckling instability. Our theoretical analysis and discrete-element simulations suggest that the nature of this instability is related to the anisotropy of the stress tensor in the ordered cell colony.
Boyer, Denis; Mather, William; Mondragon-Palomino, Octavio; Orozco-Fuentes, Sirio; Danino, Tal; Hasty, Jeff; Tsimring, Lev S
In this paper an ant colony system (ACS) with communication strategies is devel- oped. The artificial ants are partitioned into several groups. Seven communication methods for updating the pheromone level between groups in ACS are proposed and work on the traveling salesman problem using our system is presented. Experimental results based on three well-known traveling salesman data sets demonstrate the
In the ant Pristomyrmex punctatus Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), all young workers lay a small number of eggs parthenogenetically. Some colonies consist of monoclonal individuals that provide high inclusive fitness, according to the kin selection theory. However, in some populations, a majority of the colonies contain multiple lineages. Intracolonial genetic variation of parthenogenetic ants cannot be explained by the multiple mating of single founderesses or by the foundation of a colony by multiple foundresses, which are the usual causes of genetically diverse colonies in social insects. Here, we hypothesized that the fusion of established colonies might facilitate the formation of multiclonal colonies. Colony fusion decreases indirect benefits because of the reduction in intracolonial relatedness. However, when suitable nesting places for overwintering are scarce, colony fusion provides a strategy for the survival of colonies. Here, ants derived from different colonies were allowed to encounter one another in a container with just one nesting place. Initially, high aggression was observed; however, after several days, no aggression was observed and the ants shared the nest. When the fused colonies were allowed to transfer to two alternative nests, ants from different colonies occupied the same nest. This study highlights the importance of limiting the number of nesting places in order to understand the genetic diversity of parthenogenetic ant colonies.
We have observed the presence of erythropoietic bursts containing eosinophils and their precursors in methylcellulose culture of human peripheral blood and marrow nucleated cells in the presence of erythropoietin and medium conditioned by phytohemagglutinin-stimulated leukocytes (PHA-LCM). It was possible to identify these bursts (colonies) in situ in methylcellulose culture on the basis of their unique red and black colors. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the constituent erythroid and eosinophilic cells lay intermixed with each other, and through close intercellular connections formed compact colonies and bursts consisting of several sub-colonies. Differential counts of individual erythro-eosinophil colonies (EEo colonies) revealed only a small percentage of blast cells in most of the colonies. Replating experiments of single EEo colonies yielded only eosinophilic colonies and clusters and erythroid colonies. The clonal nature of the EEo colonies was documented by analysis of Y-chromatin-positive cells in individual EEo colonies derived from cocultures of male and female peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Comparison of conditioned media indicated that PHA-LCM is the best stimulator for EEo colonies. These studies suggest that the differentiation capabilities of the progenitors for EEo colonies are restricted to erythroid and eosinophilic differentiation. PMID:7059681
Strategic communication is an essential tool for achieving national objectives in peacetime and in war. The military, diplomatic and academic communities continue to struggle to define strategic communication. Four characteristics that differentiate strat...
The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE), through the Coal and Power Systems (C and PS) program, funds research to advance the scientific knowledge needed to provide new and improved energy technologies; to eliminate any detrimental environmental effects of energy production and use; and to maintain US leadership in promoting the effective use of US power technologies on an international scale. Further, the C and PS program facilitates the effective deployment of these technologies to maximize their benefits to the Nation. The following Strategic Plan describes how the C and PS program intends to meet the challenges of the National Energy Strategy to: (1) enhance American's energy security; (2) improve the environmental acceptability of energy production and use; (3) increase the competitiveness and reliability of US energy systems; and (4) ensure a robust US energy future. It is a plan based on the consensus of experts and managers from FE's program offices and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).
This strategic proposal presents NERSC's vision for its activities and new directions over the next five years. NERSC's continuing commitment to providing high-end systems and comprehensive scientific support for its users will be enhanced, and these activities will be augmented by two new strategic thrusts: support for Scientific Challenge Teams and deployment of a Unified Science Environment. The proposal is in two volumes, the Strategic Plan and the Implementation Plan.
Nests of 5 species of wading birds were identified and marked during the breeding season at 6 locations from Massachusetts to North Carolina. At the end of the breeding season 12 characteristics of nest-site location were measured. Nest locations were mapped to examine dispersion and nearest neighbor relationships. Multivariate analyses were used to describe and compare sites and species.....We found that variations in nest-sites between colonies were greater than between species; colonies differed mainly in the variety and size of vegetation; birds preferred to nest in vegetation that offered relatively stable nest-sites; and the dispersion of nests in the colonies was related to vegetative patterns. The interaction of these factors with the number of bird species and the abundance of birds in the colony seemed to determine whether nest-sites were stratified, segregated or randomly distributed.
Nests of 5 spp. of wading birds [Egretta thula, Plegadis falcinellus, Florida caerulea, casmerodius albus and Hydranassa tricolor] were identified and marked during the breeding season at 6 locations from Maccachusetts [USA] to North Carolina [USA]. At the end of the breeding season, 12 characteristics of nest-site location were measured. Nest locations were mapped to examine dispersion and nearest neighbor relationships. Multivariate analysis were used to describe and compare sites and species. Variations in nest-sites between colonies were greater than between species; colonies differed mainly in the variety and size of vegetation. Birds preferred to nest in vegetation that offered relatively stable nest sites, and the dispersion of nests in the colonies was related to vegetative patterns. The interaction of these factors with the number of bird species and the abundance of birds in the colony determined whether nest sites were stratified, segregated or randomly distributed.
In response to the unexplained losses of U.S. honey bee colonies now known as colony collapse disorder (CCD), USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) led a collaborative effort t...
B. McPheron D. Holy K. Hackett M. Purcell-Miramontes R. Meyer R. Rose S. Ramaswamy T. Steeger
Since 2006 the rate of honey bee colony failure has increased significantly. As an aid to testing hypotheses for the causes of colony failure we have developed a compartment model of honey bee colony population dynamics to explore the impact of different death rates of forager bees on colony growth and development. The model predicts a critical threshold forager death rate beneath which colonies regulate a stable population size. If death rates are sustained higher than this threshold rapid population decline is predicted and colony failure is inevitable. The model also predicts that high forager death rates draw hive bees into the foraging population at much younger ages than normal, which acts to accelerate colony failure. The model suggests that colony failure can be understood in terms of observed principles of honey bee population dynamics, and provides a theoretical framework for experimental investigation of the problem.
Khoury, David S.; Myerscough, Mary R.; Barron, Andrew B.
Since 2006 the rate of honey bee colony failure has increased significantly. As an aid to testing hypotheses for the causes of colony failure we have developed a compartment model of honey bee colony population dynamics to explore the impact of different death rates of forager bees on colony growth and development. The model predicts a critical threshold forager death rate beneath which colonies regulate a stable population size. If death rates are sustained higher than this threshold rapid population decline is predicted and colony failure is inevitable. The model also predicts that high forager death rates draw hive bees into the foraging population at much younger ages than normal, which acts to accelerate colony failure. The model suggests that colony failure can be understood in terms of observed principles of honey bee population dynamics, and provides a theoretical framework for experimental investigation of the problem. PMID:21533156
Khoury, David S; Myerscough, Mary R; Barron, Andrew B
Aspergillus oryzae colonies were grown under various glucose concentrations, temperatures, and agar concentrations, and the effects on the pattern were investigated. Patterns of colony were found to vary from uniform to diffusion-limited aggregation type.
This paper presents positivistic, normative\\/theological, and strategic analyses of the application of religion to the practice of strategic leadership in business. It is argued that elements of religion can enrich several components of strategic leadership. Furthermore, it is argued that the question of whether religion ought to be applied involves the more basic question of whether there is a common
The strategic diagnosis analysis aims to assess the potential of small and medium enterprises by evaluating their inner resources and the business environment within which these enterprises perform their activity. As a first stage in the strategic management process, the strategic diagnosis analysis ensures the premises for founding, elaborating and operationalizing a competitive managerial strategy. In this context, the paper
At about age 5?years, colonies of the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus, begin to produce winged, sexual forms (alates) that mate in large annual aggregations. We examined how colony age and neighborhood\\u000a density affect the numbers, body mass, and body fat of alates produced by 172 colonies ranging in age from 4 to 17?years.\\u000a Over one-third (36%) of all colonies produced
Neutral particle beams can play a number of unique, critical roles in strategic defense because of their robust mechanism for discrimination and kill. Their operation, status, and applications are evaluated, showing that their near term roles are complementary to kinetic energy weapons. In addition, particle beams are shown to be the primary candidates for interrogating space objects, discriminating numerous light decoys possible in midcourse, and eliminating reentry vehicles among them.
Examines a Calcutta street child's experiences with vocational education within a broader historical framework of colonial and post-colonial discourses on formal education and the poor. Provides an ethnographic narrative of the child's experiences, exploring how colonialism, by establishing a modern education system and transforming children's
Depending on the environmental conditions bacterial colonies growing on agar surfaces can exhibit complex colony formation and various types of collective motion. Experimental results are presented concerning the hydrodynamics (vortices, migration of bacteria in clusters) and colony formation of a morphotype of Bacillus subtilis. Some of these features are not specific to this morphotype but also have been observed in
András Czirók; Eshel Ben-Jacob; Inon Cohen; Tamás Vicsek
Bacterial colonies have developed sophisticated modes of cooperative behavior which enable them to respond to adverse growth conditions. It has been shown that such behavior can be manifested in the development of complex colonial patterns. Certain bacterial species exhibit formation of branching patterns during colony development. Here we present a generic model to describe such patterning of swimming (tumbling) bacteria
Designed for use at 4th-through-10th-grade level, this short history of the Massachusetts Bay Colony provides a view of colonial life style and culture prior to the American Revolution. The first sections discuss the Puritan migration and early settlement around Boston. Descriptions of colonial housing, furniture, food, clothing, clothing styles,
The colony-forming potential of pen- acute stem cell leukemia gave rise to no pheral white blood cells from patients colonies or only small numbers. Colonies with acute leukemia on normal human formed from WBC of patients with AGL peripheral WBC feeder layers has been appear to go through a process of mor- studied. White blood cells from 12 of 20
BackgroundIn 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to
Jerry J. Bromenshenk; Colin B. Henderson; Charles H. Wick; Michael F. Stanford; Alan W. Zulich; Rabih E. Jabbour; Samir V. Deshpande; Patrick E. McCubbin; Robert A. Seccomb; Phillip M. Welch; Trevor Williams; David R. Firth; Evan Skowronski; Margaret M. Lehmann; Shan L. Bilimoria; Joanna Gress; Kevin W. Wanner; Robert A. Cramer
The cause or causes of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) are uncertain. CCD defines specific characteristics of the nationwide deaths of honey bee colonies in the last decade. Adult bees often disappear from the hive and die, leaving the colony weak and vulnerable to disease. Environmental scientists and agriculturalists have developed many different theories about CCD and its origins. The different
Ant Colonies optimization take inspiration from the behavior of real ant colonies to solve optimization problems. This paper presents a parallel model for ant colonies to solve the quadratic assignment problem (QAP). The cooperation between simulated ants is provided by a pheromone matrix that plays the role of a global memory. The exploration of the search space is guided by
El-ghazali Talbi; Olivier H. Roux; Cyril Fonlupt; Denis Robillard
Presents a post-colonial reading of affirmative action (AA) policies in Fiji, arguing that AA was a deliberate response by various predominantly indigenous Fijian post-colonial governments to counter the effects of a discriminatory colonial history that produced significant educational and employment inequality. Analyzes the mixed outcomes of AA
The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses. Recently in the United States, dramatic honeybee losses (colony collapse disorder) have been reported; however, there remains no clear explanation for these colony losses, with parasitic mites, viruses, bacteria, and fungal diseases all being proposed as possible candidates. Common characteristics that most failing colonies share is a lack of overt disease symptoms and the disappearance of workers from what appears to be normally functioning colonies. In this study, we used quantitative PCR to monitor the presence of three honeybee viruses, deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV), during a 1-year period in 15 asymptomatic, varroa mite-positive honeybee colonies in Southern England, and 3 asymptomatic colonies confirmed to be varroa mite free. All colonies with varroa mites underwent control treatments to ensure that mite populations remained low throughout the study. Despite this, multiple virus infections were detected, yet a significant correlation was observed only between DWV viral load and overwintering colony losses. The long-held view has been that DWV is relatively harmless to the overall health status of honeybee colonies unless it is in association with severe varroa mite infestations. Our findings suggest that DWV can potentially act independently of varroa mites to bring about colony losses. Therefore, DWV may be a major factor in overwintering colony losses. PMID:19783750
Highfield, Andrea C; El Nagar, Aliya; Mackinder, Luke C M; Noël, Laure M-L J; Hall, Matthew J; Martin, Stephen J; Schroeder, Declan C
Launching a new diagnostic imaging center involves very specific requirements and roadmaps, including five major areas of change that have a direct impact on planning: Imaging and communication technology Finances and reimbursement Ownership structure of imaging entities Critical workforce shortages Imaging is moving outside radiology First, planning must focus on the strategic level of any organization, whether it is a multi-national corporation or a six-person radiology group. Think of all organizations as a triangle with three horizontal levels: strategic, managerial and operational. The strategic level of decision-making is at the top of the triangle, and here is where planning must take place. For strategic planning to work, there must be focused time and energy spent on this activity, usually away from the reading room and imaging center. There are five planning strategies, which must have the explicit goal of developing and growing the imaging center. The five strategies are: Clinical and quality issues, Governance and administration, Technology, Relationships, Marketing and business development. The best way to plan and implement these strategies is to create work groups of radiologists, technologists, and administrative and support staff. Once the group agrees on the strategy and tactic, it takes responsibility for implementation. Embarking on the launch of a new outpatient diagnostic imaging center is no small undertaking, and anyone who has struggled with such an endeavor can readily attest to the associated challenges and benefits. Success depends on many things, and one of the most important factors relates to the amount of time and the quality of effort spent on strategic planning at the outset. Neglecting or skimping on this phase may lead to unforeseen obstacles that could potentially derail the project. PMID:12800560
Believes that university departments should use a business model in developing a strategic plan. Describes how to create this type of strategic plan that includes three steps: (1) developing the vision and goals; (2) marketing and evaluating the competition; and (3) using feedback and revising. (CMK)
This paper describes the elements of strategic planning and applies them to educational reform and improvement. The paper also describes how a planning model, Strategic Planning for Educational Reform and Improvement (SPERI), was used by Rural Assistance Councils (RACs) in Pennsylvania and Delaware, with technical assistance from Research for
In its most basic form, strategic planning is a process of anticipating change, identifying new opportunities, and executing strategy. The use of mixed methods, blending quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques and data, in the process of assembling a strategic plan can help to ensure a successful outcome. In this article, the author
This report presents Westchester Community College's Strategic Plan for 1997-2002. Included are the following: a list of the Strategic Planning Committee members; an executive summary; an overview of the planning process; an institutional profile; a demographic and economic outlook for 1998-2008; and a summary of the focus-goals and objectives in
Westchester Community Coll., Valhalla, NY. Office of Institutional Research.
Strategic thinking is an organized, analytical process by which college leaders can assess: (1) existing and potential competitors; (2) sources of competitive advantage; and (3) college capabilities and competitive position. Three outcomes of strategic thinking are: (1) clear institutional strategy and direction; (2) improved institutional
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe an approach to information technology (IT) strategic planning for libraries and institutions of higher education. Design\\/methodology\\/approach The why, what, and how of IT strategic planning for libraries is explained, to show the efficacy and value of long-term IT planning and budgeting. The organization, design, processes, templates, and methodologies of
Strategic planning is critical to ensuring that institutions of higher education thoughtfully and systematically position themselves to accomplish their mission, vision, and strategic goals, particularly when these institutions face a myriad of risks that can negatively impact their continued financial viability and compromise their ability to
Examines criticisms of strategic therapy (that it adheres to "black box" philosophy and that interventions appear instrumental, manipulative, and based on therapist power) in light of rise of eclecticism and resurgence of primacy of therapeutic relationship. Argues that, to remain feasible, strategic therapy must include contributions of other
Civilian and military leaders throughout the Department of Defense (DoD) acknowledge the importance of strategic communication for operational forces today. Although strategic communication has been defined in the DoD, much still needs to be done to devel...
Contents include -- Foundations of Deterrence; A Model for Stability; Analysis of SDI/Stability; Related Issues; Treatment of Implementation Factors; Historical Evolution and Trends; The Strategic Choices and Flexible Response; The Planners' Perspective; The Impact of Strategic Defense on a Strategy of Flexible Response; Synthesis.
This paper assesses the responses made by food companies to changes in food safety legislation. Such responses are assessed in three ways. Firstly, an assessment is made as to why strategic responses to such legislation might be different to general strategic behaviour. Secondly a conceptual framework is presented and an examination of supply chain organisational response is made. Finally, the
Access price regulation is used in telecommunications to prevent a vertically integrated firm, which controls an essential input, from raising the rivals costs. When the authorities remove the access price as a strategic tool, it becomes optimal for the regulated firm to use the transfer price as an alternative strategic device. Ironically, the tools authorities use to implement access price
"Strategic planning results in plans, not strategies." This admission by Gary Hamel, one of the foremost business thinkers of the times, sums up the dilemma of many institutions of higher education. While they each have a mission supported by a strategic plan, many don't seem to have a demonstrable strategy. An institution's strategy is not
Many leading firms in the USA have adopted an integrated strategic approach to purchasing and logistics management known as supply chain management. As the twenty-first century begins, supply chain management has become a significant strategic tool for firms striving to improve quality, customer service and competitive success. This article surveyed senior managers in various industries to study the prevalent supply
This article reviews emergent global trends in intellectual property protection and identifies patenting as a strategic initiative. Recent developments in software and method-of-doing-business patenting are fast transforming the e-business landscape. The article discusses the emergent global regulatory framework concerning intellectual property rights and the strategic value of patenting. Important features of a corporate patenting portfolio are described.
Infrastructures are analysed subject to defence by a strategic defender and attack by multiple strategic attackers. A framework is developed where each agent determines how much to invest in defending versus attacking each of multiple targets. A target can have economic, human and symbolic values, which generally vary across agents. Investment expenditure functions for each agent can be linear in
This conceptual article focuses on the management of strategic business networks. Networks are seen to offer firms collective benefits beyond those of a single firm or market transaction. We aim to contribute to the development of the emerging theory of network management by integrating notions from the Industrial Network Approach, strategic management, and the Dynamic Capabilities View. Our starting premise
High tech marketing is characterized by high levels of technical, market and financial uncertainties, rapidly declining prices, collapsing markets and shortening product life cycles. Conventional strategic analysis tools are inadequate for effective analysis in developing high tech marketing strategy. This paper reviews a portfolio of contemporary strategic analysis tools that have been used effectively in developing high tech marketing strategies
On June 15-16, 2010, California State Librarian Stacey A. Aldrich, initiated a strategic planning summit in Sacramento, California. The purpose of the summit was to build the future pathways for the California State Library (CSL)--one of California's oldest cultural institutions. This was accomplished by developing a CSL strategic plan (values,
Strategic cost reduction requires cost transparency. When unilateral cost revelation is feasible, strategic cost reduction indeed arises as equilibrium. If it is not feasible, however, credible revelation has to be organized, possibly by a trade association. Then, firms face a prisoners' dilemma: in Cournot duopoly, cost revelation arises as an equilibrium, but hurts firms; in Bertrand duopoly, cost concealing is
This paper is a biographical sketch of Dr. Murray during the years 1860 to 1873 when he lived in Victoria, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands. It records details of his career from his residency at the Melbourne Hospital followed by his exemplary conduct in the Howitt expedition to recover the remains of Burke and Wills. It traces his progress of degradation unhampered by constituted authority and concludes with his magnum opus--the greatest massacre of South Sea Islanders in the annals of the South Sea slave trade. He departed from the colonies still registered to practise medicine and without penalty or probation. This paper concludes with a brief summary of his personal qualities and asserts that it was these qualities, together perhaps with the discordance between the colonies, which allowed this knave to escape the penalty which he appeared amply to deserve. PMID:380544
\\u000a A challenging problem in molecular biology is the identification of the specific binding sites of transcription factors in\\u000a the promoter regions of genes referred to as motifs. This paper presents an Ant Colony Optimization approach that can be used\\u000a to provide the motif finding problem with promising solutions. The proposed approach incorporates a modified form of the Gibbs\\u000a sampling technique
Salim Bouamama; Abdellah Boukerram; Amer F. Al-Badarneh
The Colony Project is developing operating system and runtime system technology to enable efficient general purpose environments on tens of thousands of processors. To accomplish this, we are investigating memory management techniques, fault management strategies, and parallel resource management schemes. Recent results show promising findings for scalable strategies based on processor virtualization, in-memory checkpointing, and parallel aware modifications to full featured operating systems.
A diffusion-reaction model for the growth of bacterial colonies is presented.\\u000aThe often observed cooperative behavior developed by bacteria which increases\\u000atheir motility in adverse growth conditions is here introduced as a nonlinear\\u000adiffusion term. The presence of this mechanism depends on a response which can\\u000apresent hysteresis. By changing only the concentrations of agar and initial\\u000anutrient, numerical integration
A. M. Lacasta; I. R. Cantalapiedra; C. E. Auguet; A. Penaranda; L. Ramirez-Piscina
The existence of feudal or totalitarian interplanetary empires has been a favourite theme in Science Fiction. Although the vast distances between the stars make the emergence of an interstellar empire impossible without the creation of a faster than light drive, this is not necessarily true for the other worlds within our solar system. Environmental constraints on the off-world colonies themselves, and repressive, hierarchical and feudalistic social and commercial institutions and customs inherited from the parent cultures on Earth and a tradition of military rule descending from the foundation of these colonies may all work to bring about a new feudal or totalitarian social order on humanity's extraterrestrial colonies. There are encouraging signs that this may not be the case, however. Already the debate over the projected colonisation of Mars is a factor influencing present controversies over repressive institutions and customs. Nevertheless, those wishing for a free, democratic, and politically, socially and technologically innovative and vigorous human society spreading throughout the solar system should not become complacent.
Colony counting in many colony experiments is detected by manual method at present, therefore it is difficult for man to execute the method quickly and accurately .A new automatic colony counting system was developed. Making use of image-processing technology, a study was made on the feasibility of distinguishing objectively white bacterial colonies from clear plates according to the RGB color theory. An optimal chromatic value was obtained based upon a lot of experiments on the distribution of the chromatic value. It has been proved that the method greatly improves the accuracy and efficiency of the colony counting and the counting result is not affected by using inoculation, shape or size of the colony. It is revealed that automatic detection of colony quantity using image-processing technology could be an effective way.
Bacterial colonies are spatially complex structures whose physiology is profoundly dependent on interactions between cells and with the underlying semi-solid substratum. Here, we use bacterial colonies as a model of a microbial community to evaluate the potential of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to delineate elemental distributions within colonies with minimal pre-treatment. To reduce water content of the colony and limit undesirable absorption of laser energy, we compared methods of preparing 24h-old colonies of Escherichia coli TG1 on agar for laser ablation. Colonies on excised agar segments dried on chromatography paper were superior to colonies dried in a dessicator or by prolonged incubation, with respect to signal magnitude, signal:noise ratio and background signal. Having optimised laser scan speed (10 microm s(-1)) and laser beam diameter (100 microm), further improvements were achieved by growing colonies on nylon membranes over agar, which were then transferred to the ablation chamber without further treatment. Repeated line rasters across individual membrane-supported colonies yielded three-dimensional elemental maps of colonies, revealing a convex morphology consistent with visual inspection. By normalising isotope counts for P, Mn, Zn, Fe and Ca against Mg, the most abundant cellular divalent cation, we sought elemental heterogeneity within the colony. The normalised concentration of Mn in the perimeter was higher than in the colony interior, whereas the converse was true for Ca. LA-ICP-MS is a novel and powerful method for probing elemental composition and organisation within microbial communities and should find numerous applications in, for example, biofilm studies. PMID:19835915
Latimer, Joe; Stokes, Sarah L; Graham, Alison I; Bunch, Josephine; Jackson, Rachel J; McLeod, Cameron W; Poole, Robert K
This document describes the environmental monitoring program at the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) and surrounding area, implementation of the program, and monitoring results for 1991. Environmental monitoring at CISS began in 1984 when Congress added the site to the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. CISS property and surrounding areas were radioactively contaminated by operations conducted by National Lead Industries, which manufactured various components from uranium and thorium from 1958 to 1984. The environmental monitoring program at CISS includes sampling networks for external gamma radiation exposure and for radium-226, thorium-232, and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in groundwater. In 1992 the program will also include sampling networks for radioactive and chemical contaminants in stormwater to meet permit application requirements under the Clean Water Act. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other requirements in DOE.orders. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment. Results of environmental monitoring during 1991 indicate that average concentrations of radioactive contaminants of concern were well below applicable standards and DCGS. Concentrations of some chemical contaminants in groundwater were above-the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (Class GA) and EPA guidelines for drinking water. The potential annual radiation exposure (excluding background) calculated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual is 0.23 mrem (milliroentgen equivalent man), which is less than an individual would receive while traveling in an airplane at 12,000 meters (39,000 feet) for one hour.
This report briefly covers the program legislation and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan and its amendments. The current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve is outlined in Section II and the appropriations, budget and finances to date are provided in Section III. Section IV addresses organization, management, and contractor support. A discussion of the drawdown system and vulnerability impact are set forth in Section V. The Appendix contains detailed information on the status of each Strategic Petroleum Reserve site and crude oil specificcations. 8 figs., 8 tabs.
Strategic behaviors of organizations can be classified along two dimensions--growth orientations, or patterns of evolution over time, and action orientations, or strategic aggressiveness in undertaking a particular growth orientation. We create measures of growth and action orientations for small multihospital systems and test the validity of the growth and action orientation typologies, using data from a sample of small multihospital systems. Growth and action orientations do appear to exist independently of each other, and they are related to the ownership status of the systems. Not-for-profit and church-other systems exhibit similar strategic orientations, unlike those of Catholic and investor-owned systems.
Autoverification is rapidly expanding with increased functionality provided by middleware tools. It is imperative that autoverification of laboratory test results be viewed as a process evolving into a broader, more sophisticated form of decision support, which will require strategic planning to form a foundational tool set for the laboratory. One must strategically plan to expand autoverification in the future to include a vision of instrument-generated order interfaces, reflexive testing, and interoperability with other information systems. It is hoped that the observations, examples, and opinions expressed in this article will stimulate such short-term and long-term strategic planning. PMID:23331736
The suitability of wading birds (herons and their allies) as biological indicators in the coastal environment were studied in 1975 by 8 teams of investigators which located and censused 198 colonies along the Atlantic coast from Maine to Florida [USA]. Over 1/4 million breeding birds [Ardea herodias, Butorides virescens, Florida caerulea, Bubulcus ibis, Dichromanassa rufescens, Casmerodius albus, Egretta thula, Hydranassa tricolor, Nycticorax nycticorax, Nyctanassa violacea, Mycteria americana, Plegadis falcinellus, Eudocimus albus and Ajaia ajaja] were censused. The number of species in colonies ranged from 1-11. The number of 1- and 2-spp. colonies increased from Florida to Maine. Colony size decreased from Florida to Maine. Wading bird colony sites are generally active each year and the number of colonies may have recently increased in some areas of the coast. Species composition and total population of colonies fluctuate from year to year. The breeding population of wading birds was correlated with the area of coastal wetlands by state. Five teams of investigators studied the reproductive biology of 9 spp. in 13 colonies. Mean clutch size, the percentage of nests in which 1 or more eggs hatched and the overall percentage of eggs that hatched differed among colonies for some species, but no latitudinal gradient was found in any of these characteristics for any species. The use of wading birds to their full potential as biological indicators requires further exploration: survey and reproductive success methods need to be tested, the survey of colonies repeated, available historical information assembled and habitat requirements measured.
An epidemic of acute respiratory disease in a colony of CFE rats is described, the main laboratory findings are recorded and its aetiology discussed. The epidemic showed that severe respiratory disease varying from peracute to chronic was associated with infection of the lungs with a mycoplasma but that mycoplasmas could be present in rats, even in the lungs, without signs of disease, thus suggesting that one or more other factors were involved. It is also evident that there are strain differences in the susceptibility of rats to this disease.
Lane-Petter, W.; Olds, R. J.; Hacking, M. R.; Lane-Petter, M. E.
(This report was originally submmited by the lead PI (Terry Jones, ORNL) on October 22, 2013 to the program manager, Lucy Nowell. It is being submitted from University of Illinois in accordance with instructions). HPC Colony II seeks to provide portable performance for leadership class machines. Our strategy is based on adaptive system software that aims to make the intelligent decisions necessary to allow domain scientists to safely focus on their task at hand and allow the system software stack to adapt their application to the underlying architecture. This report describes the research undertaken towards these objectives and the results obtained over the performance period of the project.
Kale, Laxmikant [University of Illinois] [University of Illinois; Jones, Terry [Oak Ridge National Laboratory] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Moreira, Jose [IBM Corp.] [IBM Corp.
This report summarizes progress in the second year of this project. The objective is to develop methods and software to predict the spatial configuration, properties and temporal evolution of microbial colonies in the subsurface. To accomplish this, we integrate models of intracellular processes, cell-host medium exchange and reaction-transport dynamics on the colony scale. At the conclusion of the project, we aim to have the foundations of a predictive mathematical model and software that captures the three scales of these systems the intracellular, pore, and colony wide spatial scales. In the second year of the project, we refined our transcriptional regulatory network discovery (TRND) approach that utilizes gene expression data along with phylogenic similarity and gene ontology analyses and applied it successfully to E.coli, human B cells, and Geobacter sulfurreducens. We have developed a new Web interface, GeoGen, which is tailored to the reconstruction of microbial TRNs and solely focuses on Geobacter as one of DOEs high priority microbes. Our developments are designed such that the frameworks for the TRND and GeoGen can readily be used for other microbes of interest to the DOE. In the context of modeling a single bacterium, we are actively pursuing both steady-state and kinetic approaches. The steady-state approach is based on a flux balance that uses maximizing biomass growth rate as its objective, subjected to various biochemical constraints, for the optimal values of reaction rates and uptake/release of metabolites. For the kinetic approach, we use Karyote, a rigorous cell model developed by us for an earlier DOE grant and the DARPA BioSPICE Project. We are also investigating the interplay between bacterial colonies and environment at both pore and macroscopic scales. The pore scale models use detailed representations for realistic porous media accounting for the distribution of grain size whereas the macroscopic models employ the Darcy-type flow equations and up-scaled advective-diffusive transport equations for chemical species. We are rigorously testing the relationship between these two scales by evaluating macroscopic parameters using the volume averaging methodology applied to pore scale model results.
Strategic planning is a way to evaluate a present situation and set a course for the future. While there is no dearth of literature on Strategic Planning, there appears to be reluctance on the part of K-12 educators to engage in strategic planning. Besides the cynicism about change, another roadblock to strategic planning is the time it takes.
In 2002 President Martin Jischke initiated a new era in strategic planning at Purdue. Under his leadership, strategic planning became a centralized activity with unit plans aligned to the university plan. Strategic goals were designed to have maximum impact, which would be measurable through metrics. Strategic planning at Purdue would be an
Cunningham, Robin; Eddy, Michael; Pagano, Mark; Ncube, Lisa
The extent to which a college has been engaged in strategic planning was studied with a sample of 96 institutions which had been identified as using strategic planning in a 1985 study. Survey questions consisted of a mixture of: (1) activities proper and essential to strategic planning; and (2) approaches and views of strategic planning that have
In 1948, a small colony of emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri was discovered breeding on Emperor Island (67° 51' 52? S, 68° 42' 20? W), in the Dion Islands, close to the West Antarctic Peninsula (Stonehouse 1952). When discovered, the colony comprised approximately 150 breeding pairs; these numbers were maintained until 1970, after which time the colony showed a continuous decline. By 1999 there were fewer than 20 pairs, and in 2009 high-resolution aerial photography revealed no remaining trace of the colony. Here we relate the decline and loss of the Emperor Island colony to a well-documented rise in local mean annual air temperature and coincident decline in seasonal sea ice duration. The loss of this colony provides empirical support for recent studies (Barbraud & Weimerskirch 2001; Jenouvrier et al 2005, 2009; Ainley et al 2010; Barber-Meyer et al 2005) that have highlighted the vulnerability of emperor penguins to changes in sea ice duration and distribution. These studies suggest that continued climate change is likely to impact upon future breeding success and colony viability for this species. Furthermore, a recent circumpolar study by Fretwell & Trathan (2009) highlighted those Antarctic coastal regions where colonies appear most vulnerable to such changes. Here we examine which other colonies might be at risk, discussing various ecological factors, some previously unexplored, that may also contribute to future declines. The implications of this are important for future modelling work and for understanding which colonies actually are most vulnerable. PMID:21386883
Trathan, Philip N; Fretwell, Peter T; Stonehouse, Bernard
In this work we introduce the confluent and various sizes image analysis method (COVASIAM), an automated colony count technique that uses digital imaging technology for detection and separation of confluent microbial colonies and colonies of various sizes growing on petri dishes. The proposed method takes advantage of the optical properties of the surfaces of most microbial colonies. Colonies in the petri dish are epi-illuminated in order to direct the reflection of concentrated light coming from a halogen lamp towards an image-sensing device. In conjunction, a multilevel threshold algorithm is proposed for colony separation and counting. These procedures improved the quantification of colonies showing confluence or differences in size. We tested COVASIAM with a sample set of microorganisms that form colonies with contrasting physical properties: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus nidulans, Escherichia coli, Azotobacter vinelandii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Rhizobium etli. These physical properties range from smooth to hairy, from bright to opaque, and from high to low convexities. COVASIAM estimated an average of 95.47% (? = 8.55%) of the manually counted colonies, while an automated method based on a single-threshold segmentation procedure estimated an average of 76% (? = 16.27) of the manually counted colonies. This method can be easily transposed to almost every image-processing analyzer since the procedures to compile it are generically standard.
Corkidi, G.; Diaz-Uribe, R.; Folch-Mallol, J. L.; Nieto-Sotelo, J.
The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste-Management in the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of this nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. Although embodied in the Federal repository program that began with studies in the late 1950s, this mission was explicitly established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and reaffirmed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. To fulfill our mission, we are developing a waste management system consisting of a geologic repository for permanent disposal deep beneath the surface of the earth, a facility for monitored retrievable storage, and a system for transporting the waste. This discussion draft was developed to help involve parties affected by or interested in the waste-management program in the formulation of the basic principles on which the program will be based. It reviews existing objectives, policies, and strategic principles under which the system is currently being developed. Then discussed are issues of strategic importance for which additional strategic principles may be needed. For these issues in particular, views from affected and interested parties is solicited, but comments regarding alternative approaches to the issues presented as well as suggestions for additional issues will also be welcome. Finally, background information on the waste-management program pertinent to the issues discussion is presented.
This sixteenth periodic semiannual report of Inventory Differences (ID) covers the last six months of fiscal year 1984 (April 1, 1984, through September 30, 1984), for the Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor facilities possessing significant quantities of strategic special nuclear material (SSNM). Inventory Differences are simply the differences between the amount of material shown in the accounting records and the amount of material reported in the physical inventory. These differences are generally due to errors in estimating material in unmeasurable form at the time of an inventory, unmeasurable holdup in equipment, measurement imprecisions, inaccuracies in initial determinations of SSNM produced or used in nuclear reactors, and inventory or bookkeeping errors. Both DOE and contractors operating DOE facilities carefully maintain, analyze, and investigate ID data. Inventory Differences are expected in nuclear material processing and are not, in and of themselves, evidence of lost or stolen material. On the other hand, ID analysis provides valuable information on the effectiveness of the safeguards system's physical protection and material control measures as well as a check on the process controls and material management procedures. If necessary, an operation may be shut down until an ID is resolved.
On August 9, 1985, the Secretary of Energy requested that the Chairman of the Energy Research Advisory Board establish an ad-hoc Panel to review a draft ''Strategic National Plan for Civilian Nuclear Reactor Development.'' The resulting report, approved b...
Considering Poland's history and threats to its national security, Poland cannot guarantee its security alone. Polish national security depends upon ties to existing security organizations and other powerful nation-states. Because of its geo-strategic pos...
This strategic plan emphasizes USCIS progress from its original role as a new component of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to our present standing as a progressive and respected contributor to a coordinated homeland security effort. The United S...
This report details a research project investigating the acquisition and transfer of strategic stimulus processing skills. Previous research suggests that humans initially acquire processing strategies that reduce the number of redundant comparisons requi...
This Execution Roadmap provides guidance for implementing Strategic Communication direction from the 2006 Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR). It includes a plan of action and milestones (POA&M) which assigns objectives, tasks, and milestones, with associate...
The objective of this research is to measure the effectiveness of strategic planning models in public transit agencies. It seeks to support two principal areas. The first is an identification of organizational contextual, design, process, and top manageme...
The authors present an overview of strategic planning, examine its history and mystique, and conclude that planning, if properly implemented, can have a powerful impact on advancing and transforming colleges and universities. (Contains 3 figures.)
Strategic planning is a management tool used to analyze fundamental issues and changes and to aid managers in effecting organizational response to change. It differs from other forms of long-range planning because of its emphasis on environmental change, ...
Guided by clear planning principles, and under the custodial care of a governance council, the model strategic planning process at Carroll Community College is evidence-driven, connected to budget decisions, and continuously refreshed.
Since the end of World War II, the United States has faced moral and strategic issues in its management of force that are unique in the history of international politics. At the heart of these issues is the heavy reliance of the United States and its allies on the deterrent effect of nuclear weapons and the fact that their use would very likely lead to self-defeating destruction and ecological catastrophe. This dilemma affects every major military decision and strategic debate, and the history of U.S. strategic thought can be viewed as an attempt to cope by rejecting, abolishing, or weakening the nuclear specter. In this review, the author explores the evolution of postwar strategic thought in the United States, examining the moral and practical implications of the nuclear dilemma.
The Strategic Target System program (STARS) uses a three-stage solid propellant guided missile. The missile integrates selected parts of the Navy retired Polaris A3 fleet ballistic missile with a substantial number of newly developed subsystems. STARS wil...
The goal of this Strategic Initiative LDRD project was to establish at LLNL a new core capability in computational biology, combining laboratory strengths in high performance computing, molecular biology, and computational chemistry and physics. As descri...
The move to a power projection force places increased responsibility on transportation movements control to manage the timely flow of units and supplies across the strategic, operational and tactical spectrum of war. A review of the current movement struc...
The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) program experiments generate significant quantities of science and engineering data. To protect the large investment made in collecting the resulting test and measurement data SDIO has established data ...
New techniques in portfolio management can be used to integrate the management of long-term investments into implementation of the strategic plan. This integration requires cash-flow planning, portfolio restructuring, and continuous monitoring. PMID:2190949
Strategic leadership is an elusive and complex, multi-dimensional process that involves establishing a vision, making decisions and establishing policies that have long-term impacts, recognizing frames of reference and time horizons, and effectively emplo...
Discusses six fundamental information resources management (IRM) practices in successful organizations that can improve government service delivery performance. Highlights include directing changes, integrating IRM decision making into a strategic management process, performance management, maintaining an investment philosophy, using business
In nature, bacterial colonies must often cope with hostile environmental conditions. To do so they have developed sophisticated cooperative behaviour and intricate communication capabilities, such as direct cell- cell physical interactions via extra-membrane polymers, collective production of extracellular 'wetting' fluid for movement on hard surfaces, longrange chemical signalling such as quorum sensing and chemotactic (bias of movement according to gradient
The author's fundamental contention is this: Canadian society remains driven by the logic of imperialism and engages in concerted colonial action against Indigenous peoples whose claims to land and self-determination continue to undermine the legitimacy of Canadian authority and hegemony. The imperial ambitions of the Canadian state and its
Previous accounts of "europhone" status (anglophone, francophone, etc.) have inadequately addressed spoken-written differences as well as different post-colonial developments taken by Southeast Asia, South Asia, North Africa, and East Africa vis-a-vis those of West, Central, and Southern Africa. This article investigates the extent to which the
The Jackson Laboratory Colony Management System (JCMS) is a software application for managing data and information related to research mouse colonies, associated biospecimens, and experimental protocols. JCMS runs directly on computers that run one of the PC Windows operating systems, but can be accessed via web browser interfaces from any computer running a Windows, Macintosh, or Linux operating system. JCMS can be configured for a single user or multiple users in small- to medium-size work groups. The target audience for JCMS includes laboratory technicians, animal colony managers, and principal investigators. The application provides operational support for colony management and experimental workflows, sample and data tracking through transaction-based data entry forms, and date-driven work reports. Flexible query forms allow researchers to retrieve database records based on user-defined criteria. Recent advances in handheld computers with integrated barcode readers, middleware technologies, web browsers, and wireless networks add to the utility of JCMS by allowing real-time access to the database from any networked computer. PMID:20140675
This essay works to bridge conversations in philosophy of education with decolonial theory. The author considers Margonis' (1999, 2011a, b) use of Rousseau (1979) and Heidegger (1962) in developing an ontological attitude that counters social hierarchies and promotes anti-colonial relations. While affirming this effort, the essay outlines a
A cell line (H-1) derived from the adherent layer of a 14-wk-old Dexter bone marrow culture has been maintained as cloned and uncloned lines through 21 passages at the time of these studies. These cell lines develop many fat droplets as they age and become confluent. The uncloned line produces increasing amounts of colony-stimulating activity as the cells become confluent. Feeder-layers or supernatants from the nonconfluent or confluent fat-laden cells stimulate the formation of greater numbers of colonies derived from cultures of colony-forming units (CFU) than does medium from L cell culture containing colony-stimulating factor (CSF). Antibody to the CSF-containing medium from L cell culture neutralizes the colony-stimulating activity, thus showing immunologic similarity to a known molecular species that stimulates colony production in a CFU culture that produces granulocyte or macrophage populations, or both.
Harigaya, K. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY); Cronkite, E.P.; Miller, M.E.; Shadduck, R.K.
Over the last three decades the Life Sciences Program has significantly contributed to NASA's manned and unmanned exploration of space, while acquiring new knowledge in the fields of space biology and medicine. The national and international events which have led to the development and revision of NASA strategy will significantly affect the future of life sciences programs both in scope and pace. This document serves as the basis for synthesizing the options to be pursued during the next decade, based on the decisions, evolution, and guiding principles of the National Space Policy. The strategies detailed in this document are fully supportive of the Life Sciences Advisory Subcommittee's 'A Rationale for the Life Sciences,' and the recent Aerospace Medicine Advisory Committee report entitled 'Strategic Considerations for Support of Humans in Space and Moon/Mars Exploration Missions.' Information contained within this document is intended for internal NASA planning and is subject to policy decisions and direction, and to budgets allocated to NASA's Life Sciences Program.
This work chronicles the phases of early childhood development in Ghana. This West African country experienced a change in\\u000a education after the inception of colonialism. Education of the very young became a part, though limited, of the missionary-based\\u000a education system under colonialism. The country moved from colonialism to a republic form of government in 1957. The republic\\u000a was determined and
In the wake of the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the apparent ending of the Cold War, there have been renewed calls for radical cuts in US strategic forces to levels far below the 10,000 or so warheads allowed each side under the current START proposal. Since it now appears that NATO for the first time will have the capability to defeat a Soviet conventional attack without the necessity of threatening to resort to nuclear weapons, this should pave the way for the rethinking of US strategy and the reduction of US strategic weapons requirements. In this new environment, it seems plausible that, with a modification of the Flexible Response doctrine to forego attempts to disarm the Soviet Union, deterrence could be maintained with 1500 or so survivable strategic weapons. With a new strategy that confined US strategic weapons to the role of deterring the use of nuclear weapons by other countries, a survivable force of about 500 weapons would seem sufficient. With this premise, the implications for the US strategic force structure are examined for two cases: a treaty that allows each side 3000 warheads and one that allows each side 1000 warheads. In Part 1 of this paper, the weapons requirements for deterrence are examined in light of recent changes in the geopolitical environment. In Part 2, it is assumed that the President and Congress have decided that deep cuts in strategic forces are acceptable. 128 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs. (JF)
Varroa mites and viruses are the currently the high-profile suspects in collapsing bee colonies. Therefore, seasonal variation in varroa load and viruses (Acute-Kashmir-Israeli complex (AKI) and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV)) were monitored in a year-long study. We investigated the viral titres in honey bees and varroa mites from 23 colonies (15 apiaries) under three treatment conditions: Organic acids (11 colonies), pyrethroid (9 colonies) and untreated (3 colonies). Approximately 200 bees were sampled every month from April 2011 to October 2011, and April 2012. The 200 bees were split to 10 subsamples of 20 bees and analysed separately, which allows us to determine the prevalence of virus-infected bees. The treatment efficacy was often low for both treatments. In colonies where varroa treatment reduced the mite load, colonies overwintered successfully, allowing the mites and viruses to be carried over with the bees into the next season. In general, AKI and DWV titres did not show any notable response to the treatment and steadily increased over the season from April to October. In the untreated control group, titres increased most dramatically. Viral copies were correlated to number of varroa mites. Most colonies that collapsed over the winter had significantly higher AKI and DWV titres in October compared to survivors. Only treated colonies survived the winter. We discuss our results in relation to the varroa-virus model developed by Stephen Martin.
Workers of the ant Temnothorax nylanderi form dominance orders in orphaned colonies in which only one or a few top-ranking workers begin to produce males from unfertilized eggs. Between one and 11 individuals initiated 80% of all aggression in 14 queenless colonies. As predicted from inclusive fitness models (Molet M, van Baalen M, Monnin T, Insectes Soc 52:247 256, 2005), hierarchy length was found to first increase with colony size and then to level off at larger worker numbers. The frequency and skew of aggression decreased with increasing size, indicating that rank orders are less pronounced in larger colonies.
Polymorphism has fascinated evolutionary biologists since the time of Darwin. Biologists have observed discrete alternative mating strategies in many different species. In this study, we demonstrate that polymorphic mating strategies can emerge in a colony of hermaphrodite robots. We used a survival and reproduction task where the robots maintained their energy levels by capturing energy sources and physically exchanged genotypes for the reproduction of offspring. The reproductive success was dependent on the individuals' energy levels, which created a natural trade-off between the time invested in maintaining a high energy level and the time invested in attracting mating partners. We performed experiments in environments with different density of energy sources and observed a variety in the mating behavior when a robot could see both an energy source and a potential mating partner. The individuals could be classified into two phenotypes: 1) forager, who always chooses to capture energy sources, and 2) tracker, who keeps track of potential mating partners if its energy level is above a threshold. In four out of the seven highest fitness populations in different environments, we found subpopulations with distinct differences in genotype and in behavioral phenotype. We analyzed the fitnesses of the foragers and the trackers by sampling them from each subpopulation and mixing with different ratios in a population. The fitness curves for the two subpopulations crossed at about 25% of foragers in the population, showing the evolutionary stability of the polymorphism. In one of those polymorphic populations, the trackers were further split into two subpopulations: (strong trackers) and (weak trackers). Our analyses show that the population consisting of three phenotypes also constituted several stable polymorphic evolutionarily stable states. To our knowledge, our study is the first to demonstrate the emergence of polymorphic evolutionarily stable strategies within a robot evolution framework. PMID:24717898
The determinants of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. Viruses including the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) were associated with CCD. We found an apiary with colonies showing typical CCD characteristics that bore high loads of IAPV, recovered some colonies from collapse and tested the hypothesis if IAPV was actively replicating in them and infectious to healthy bees. We found that IAPV was the dominant pathogen and it replicated actively in the colonies: viral titers decreased from April to September and increased from September to December. IAPV extracted from infected bees was highly infectious to healthy pupae: they showed several-fold amplification of the viral genome and synthesis of the virion protein VP3. The health of recovered colonies was seriously compromised. Interestingly, a rise of IAPV genomic copies in two colonies coincided with their subsequent collapse. Our results do not imply IAPV as the cause of CCD but indicate that once acquired and induced to replication it acts as an infectious factor that affects the health of the colonies and may determine their survival. This is the first follow up outside the US of CCD-colonies bearing IAPV under natural conditions.
Hou, Chunsheng; Rivkin, Hadassah; Slabezki, Yossi; Chejanovsky, Nor
The determinants of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. Viruses including the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) were associated with CCD. We found an apiary with colonies showing typical CCD characteristics that bore high loads of IAPV, recovered some colonies from collapse and tested the hypothesis if IAPV was actively replicating in them and infectious to healthy bees. We found that IAPV was the dominant pathogen and it replicated actively in the colonies: viral titers decreased from April to September and increased from September to December. IAPV extracted from infected bees was highly infectious to healthy pupae: they showed several-fold amplification of the viral genome and synthesis of the virion protein VP3. The health of recovered colonies was seriously compromised. Interestingly, a rise of IAPV genomic copies in two colonies coincided with their subsequent collapse. Our results do not imply IAPV as the cause of CCD but indicate that once acquired and induced to replication it acts as an infectious factor that affects the health of the colonies and may determine their survival. This is the first follow up outside the US of CCD-colonies bearing IAPV under natural conditions. PMID:24800677
Hou, Chunsheng; Rivkin, Hadassah; Slabezki, Yossi; Chejanovsky, Nor
Penguins are major consumers in the southern oceans although quantification of this has been problematic. One suggestion proposes the use of points of inflection in diving profiles (wiggles) for this, a method that has been validated for the estimation of prey consumption by Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) by Simeone and Wilson (2003). Following them, we used wiggles from 31 depth logger-equipped Magellanic penguins foraging from four Patagonian colonies; Punta Norte (PN), Bahía Bustamente (BB), Puerto Deseado (PD) and Puerto San Julián (PSJ), all located in Argentina between 4249° S, to estimate the prey captured and calculate the catch per unit time (CPUT) for birds foraging during the early chick-rearing period. Numbers of prey caught and CPUT were significantly different between colonies. Birds from PD caught the highest number of prey per foraging trip, with CPUT values of 68±19 prey per hour underwater (almost two times greater than for the three remaining colonies). We modeled consumption from these data and calculate that the world Magellanic penguin population consumes about 2 million tons of prey per year. Possible errors in this calculation are discussed. Despite this, the analysis of wiggles seems a powerful and simple tool to begin to quantify prey consumption by Magellanic penguins, allowing comparison between different breeding sites. The total number of wiggles and/or CPUT do not reflect, by themselves, the availability of food for each colony, as the number of prey consumed by foraging trip is strongly associated with the energy content and wet mass of each colony-specific prey type. Individuals consuming more profitable prey could be optimizing the time spent underwater, thereby optimizing the energy expenditure associated with the dives.
The purpose of this report is to define the technology program required to meet the transportation technology needs for current and future civil space missions. It is a part of an integrated plan, prepared by NASA in part in response to the Augustine Committee recommendations, to describe and advocate expanded and more aggressive efforts in the development of advanced space technologies. This expanded program will provide a technology basis for future space missions to which the U.S. aspires, and will help to regain technology leadership for the U.S. on a broader front. The six aspects of this integrated program/plan deal with focused technologies to support space sciences, exploration, transportation, platforms, and operations as well as provide a Research and Technology Base Program. This volume describes the technologies needed to support transportation systems, e.g., technologies needed for upgrades to current transportation systems and to provide reliable and efficient transportation for future space missions. The Office of Aeronautics, Exploration, and Technology (OAET) solicited technology needs from the major agency technology users and the aerospace industry community and formed a transportation technology team (appendix A) to develop a technology program to respond to those needs related to transportation technologies. This report addresses the results of that team activity. It is a strategic plan intended for use as a planning document rather than as a project management tool. It is anticipated that this document will be primarily utilized by research & technology (R&T) management at the various NASA Centers as well as by officials at NASA Headquarters and by industry in planning their corporate Independent Research and Development (IR&D) investments.
Business\\/IT strategic alignment has been discussed as a key subject for managers for a long time. This is while IT governance is also amongst the most important organizational subjects. Indeed, since IT has become an important resource for organizations, the governance of this resource is an essential subject that the organizations must go through. Combination of IT strategic alignment with
S. Hosseinbeig; D. Karimzadgan Moghadam; D. Vahdat; R. Askari Moghadam
Since the last submission of the Strategic Plan in 1997, the Commission's strategic goals have not changed; during this time, there were no changes to the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA). Accordingly, the Commission's mission continues to be to foster the ec...
This study cluster analyzed U.S. business schools along strategic dimensions related to program offerings, student body diversity, and administrative approach. The resultant strategic groups and significant movements among them between 1988 and 1993 were evaluated in light of the critical transitions that have taken place in the business school environment.
While nonprofit and public sector managers have adopted and adapted many traditional business approaches to strategic planning, this sector's differences in understanding, experience, and academic background suggest that additional support material may be needed. Traditional for profit approaches to strategic planning have long been presented based solely on the business paradigm's standard terminology and an understood common theory foundation. In
Established in May 6, 1995, the purpose of this International Strategic Planning Group for Microgravity Science and Applications Research is to develop and update, at least on a biennial basis, an International Strategic Plan for Microgravity Science and Applications Research. The member space agencies have agreed to contribute to the development of a Strategic Plan, and seek the implementation of the cooperative programs defined in this Plan. The emphasis of this plan is the coordination of hardware construction and utilization within the various areas of research including biotechnology, combustion science, fluid physics, materials science and other special topics in physical sciences. The Microgravity Science and Applications International Strategic Plan is a joint effort by the present members - ASI, CNES, CSA, DLR, ESA, NASA, and NASDA. It represents the consensus from a series of discussions held within the International Microgravity Strategic Planning Group (IMSPG). In 1996 several space agencies initiated multilateral discussions on how to improve the effectiveness of international microgravity research during the upcoming Space Station era. These discussions led to a recognition of the need for a comprehensive strategic plan for international microgravity research that would provide a framework for cooperation between international agencies. The Strategic Plan is intended to provide a basis for inter-agency coordination and cooperation in microgravity research in the environment of the International Space Station (ISS) era. This will be accomplished through analysis of the interests and goals of each participating agency and identification of mutual interests and program compatibilities. The Plan provides a framework for maximizing the productivity of space-based research for the benefit of our societies.
Despite a rapidly improving fossil record, the reproductive biology of Mesozoic birds remains poorly known: only a handful of undisputed, isolated Cretaceous eggs (some containing embryonic remains) are known. We report here the first fossil evidence for a breeding colony of Mesozoic birds, preserved at the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Oarda de Jos (Od) site in the Sebe? area of Transylvania, Romania. A lens of calcareous mudstone with minimum dimensions of 80 cm length, 50 cm width and 20 cm depth contains thousands of tightly packed, morphologically homogenous eggshell fragments, seven near-complete eggs and neonatal and adult avialan skeletal elements. Eggshell forms 70-80 % of the matrix, and other fossils are entirely absent. The bones exhibit clear characters of the Cretaceous avialan clade Enantiornithes, and the eggshell morphology is also consistent with this identification. Both taphonomy and lithology show that the components of this lens were deposited in a single flood event, and we conclude that it represents the drowned remains of a larger enantiornithine breeding colony, swamped by rising water, washed a short distance and deposited in a shallow, low-energy pond. The same fate often befalls modern bird colonies. Such a large concentration of breeding birds suggests aquatic feeding in this species, augments our understanding of enantiornithine biology and shows that colonial nesting was not unique to crown birds.
Dyke, Gareth; Vremir, Mátyás; Kaiser, Gary; Naish, Darren
One of the most striking examples of bacterial colony patterning occurs in the C-morphotype of Paenibacillus strains. Here, macroscopic chirality results from the interaction of local liquid-crystal ordering of the long bacterial cells with the self-propelled motility driven by the non-reflection-symmetric flagella. This talk will review some of the original experimental data from the Ben-Jacob lab as well as recent insight obtained via genomics. I will then discuss attempts to model and simulate the chiral patterns via solving reaction-diffusion equations on random lattices. At the end, I will introduce the challenges still to be faced in understanding transitions between these patterns and more common branching structures
In this paper, we propose the cAS, a new ACO algorithm, and evaluate the performance using TSP instances available at TSPLIB. The results show that cAS works well on the test instances and has performance that may be one of the most promising ACO algorithms. We also evaluate cAS when it is combined with LK local search heuristic using larger sized TSP instances. The results also show promising performance. cAS introduced two important schemes. One is to use the colony model divided into units, which has a stronger exploitation feature while maintaining a certain degree of diversity among units. The other is to use a scheme, we call cunning, when constructing new solutions, which can prevent premature stagnation by reducing strong positive feedback to the trail density.
The retinal fundus images are used in the treatment and diagnosis of several eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. This paper proposes a new method to detect the optic disc (OD) automatically, due to the fact that the knowledge of the OD location is essential to the automatic analysis of retinal images. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is an optimization algorithm inspired by the foraging behaviour of some ant species that has been applied in image processing for edge detection. Recently, the ACO was used in fundus images to detect edges, and therefore, to segment the OD and other anatomical retinal structures. We present an algorithm for the detection of OD in the retina which takes advantage of the Gabor wavelet transform, entropy and ACO algorithm. Forty images of the retina from DRIVE database were used to evaluate the performance of our method.
The Security Exercise Readiness Program or SERP, is a series of response-oriented exercises designed to evaluate the readiness of the protection force at DOE's Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) developed SERP in 1984 for Wells Fargo Guard Services (WFGS), the SPR protective services contractor. The purpose of this paper is to describe the systems methodology used to develop SERP, the structure of the program, and the computer-based information system that tracks and analyzes the exercise results.
The Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (NEM R&E) Program is dedicated to providing knowledge, technical expertise, and products to US agencies responsible for monitoring nuclear explosions in all environments and is successful in turning scientific breakthroughs into tools for use by operational monitoring agencies. To effectively address the rapidly evolving state of affairs, the NNSA NEM R&E program is structured around three program elements described within this strategic plan: Integration of New Monitoring Assets, Advanced Event Characterization, and Next-Generation Monitoring Systems. How the Program fits into the National effort and historical accomplishments are also addressed.
There have been numerous reports of genetic influences on division of labor in honey bee colonies, but the effects of worker genotypic diversity on colony behavior are unclear. We analyzed the effects of worker genotypic diversity on the phenotypes of honey bee colonies during a critical phase of colony development, the nest initiation phase. Five groups of colonies were studied
Robert E. Page Jr; Gene E. Robinson; M. Kim Fondrk; Medhat E. Nasr
Colony counting error due to indistinguishable colony overlap (i.e., masking) was evaluated theoretically and experimentally. A theoretical model to predict colony masking was used to determine colony counting efficiency by Monte Carlo computer simulation of microorganism collection and development into CFU. The computer simulation was verified experimentally by collecting aerosolized Bacillus subtilis spores and examining micro- and macroscopic colonies. Colony counting efficiency decreased (i) with increasing density of collected culturable microorganisms, (ii) with increasing colony size, and (iii) with decreasing ability of an observation system to distinguish adjacent colonies as separate units. Counting efficiency for 2-mm colonies, at optimal resolution, decreased from 98 to 85% when colony density increased from 1 to 10 microorganisms cm-2, in contrast to an efficiency decrease from 90 to 45% for 5-mm colonies. No statistically significant difference (alpha = 0.05) between experimental and theoretical results was found when colony shape was used to estimate the number of individual colonies in a CFU. Experimental colony counts were 1.2 times simulation estimates when colony shape was not considered, because of nonuniformity of actual colony size and the better discrimination ability of the human eye relative to the model. Colony surface densities associated with high counting accuracy were compared with recommended upper plate count limits and found to depend on colony size and an observation system's ability to identify overlapped colonies. Correction factors were developed to estimate the actual number of collected microorganisms from observed colony counts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Chang, C W; Hwang, Y H; Grinshpun, S A; Macher, J M; Willeke, K
Cultural explanations of economic phenomena have recently enjoyed a renaissance among economists. This article provides further evidence for the salience of culture through an in-depth case study of one of the fastest-growing economies in the world during the last 50 years-Botswana. The unique culture that developed among the Tswana before and during the early days of colonialism, which shared many features with those of western nation-states, appears to have contributed significantly to the factors widely seen as determinants of Botswana's post-colonial economic success: state legitimacy, good governance and democracy, commercial traditions, well-established property rights, and inter-ethnic unity. Neighbouring Southern African cultures typically did not exhibit these traits. PMID:20617585
A review of laws and records of the courts of colonial New England indicates early laws of Massachusetts extended certain rights to idiots: they authorized the transfer of property, exonerated idiots who committed capital crimes, and extended relief to impoverished idiots. The relationship between colonial laws and present legislation is examined.
This paper proposes an ant colony algorithm for permutation flow shop scheduling problem. The objective considered is to minimize makespan. Two priority rules are developed as heuristic information based on Johnson's Rule and total processing times. A local search is used for improving the constructed solutions. The proposed ant colony algorithm is tested on the benchmark problem set of Taillard.
The colony-level sex allocation pattern of eusocial Hymenoptera has attracted much attention in recent studies of evolutionary biology. We conducted a theoretical and empirical study on this subject using the dolichoderine ant Technomyrmex albipes. This ant is unusual in having a dispersal polymorphism in both males and females. New colonies are founded by an alate female after mating with one
Bacterial colonies can develop chiral morphology in which the colony consists of twisted branches, all with the same handedness. Microscopic observations of the chiral growth are presented. We propose that the observed (macroscopic) chirality results from the microscopic chirality of the flagella (via handedness in tumbling) together with orientation interaction between the bacteria. The above assumptions are tested using a
Eshel Ben-Jacob; Inon Cohen; Ofer Shochet; Adam Tenenbaum; András Czirók; Tamás Vicsek
We study the effect of discreteness on various models for patterning in bacterial colonies. In a bacterial colony with branching pattern, there are discrete entities - bacteria - which are only two orders of magnitude smaller than the elements of the macroscopic pattern. We present two types of models. The first is the Communicating Walkers model, a hybrid model composed
Various bacterial strains (e.g., strains belonging to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Serratia, and Salmonella) exhibit colonial branching patterns during growth on poor semisolid substrates. These patterns reflect the bacterial cooperative self-organization. A central part of the cooperation is the collective formation of a lubricant on top of the agar which enables the bacteria to swim. Hence it provides the colony
Methods of s-LASCA and t-LASCA have been adopted to problem of monitoring growth of colonies of bacteria E. coli culture B6. Set-up of LASCA-microscope is developed. Results of experimental investigations of influence of speckled biospeckles on results of monitoring of growth of bacterial colonies have been obtained.
The evolution of eusociality, especially how selection would favor sterility or subfertility of most individuals within a highly social colony, is an unresolved paradox. Eusociality evolved independently in diverse taxa, including insects (all ants and termites; some bees, wasps, thrips, and beetles), snapping shrimp, and naked mole rats. Termites have received comparatively less focus than the haplodiploid Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps); however, they are the only diploid group with highly complex colonies and an extraordinary diversity of castes. In this study we staged encounters between unrelated colonies of primitive dampwood termites, Zootermopsis nevadensis, mimicking natural meetings that occur under bark. During encounters, kings and/or queens were killed and surviving members merged into one colony. After encounters, members of both unrelated colonies cooperated as a single social unit. We determined the colony of origin of replacement reproductives that emerged after death of kings and/or queens. Here, we document that replacement reproductives developed from workers in either or both original colonies, inherited the merged resources of the colony, and sometimes interbred. Because this species shares many characteristics with ancestral termites, these findings demonstrate how ecological factors could have promoted the evolution of eusociality by accelerating and enhancing direct fitness opportunities of helper offspring, rendering relatedness favoring kin selection less critical. PMID:19805058
Johns, Philip M; Howard, Kenneth J; Breisch, Nancy L; Rivera, Anahi; Thorne, Barbara L
While virtual community research has contributed to the understanding of the virtual community sustainability, a need for a systematic model exists. In this paper, we propose a model of sustainable virtual communities based on the sustainability properties of animal colonies in nature. The premise of our model is that if we manage to replicate the sustainability properties of colonial systems
In this paper, theoretical investigation has been carried out to determine the usefulness of electromagnetic wave for detection and selective destruction of bacteria colony at THz frequencies. To carry out the investigation, a realistic three dimensional electrical model of bacteria colony has been developed and placed between a pair of dipole antennas designed at THz frequencies. The model is simulated
We describe the enlightening path of self-discovery afforded to the teacher of undergraduate mathematics. This is demonstrated as we find and develop background material on an application of optimal control theory to model the evolutionary strategy of an insect colony to produce the maximum number of queen or reproducer insects in the colony at
Summary Emergency queen cell production was examined in honey bee colonies of mixed European races. Thirteen colonies were dequeened and followed on a daily basis until after queen emergence. Observations were made on the number of cells, the temporal sequence of queen cell construction, cell location within the nest, the age of larvæ selected for queen rearing, mortality of immature
A hybrid simplex artificial bee colony algorithm (HSABCA) which combines NelderMead simplex method with artificial bee colony algorithm (ABCA) is proposed for inverse analysis problems. The proposed algorithm is applied to parameter identification of concrete dam-foundation systems. To verify the performance of HSABCA, it is compared with the basic ABCA and a real coded genetic algorithm (RCGA) on two examples:
Some worker honey bees respond to major disturbances of the colony by flying around the assailant and possibly stinging; they are a subset of the bees involved in colony defense. These defenders have an open-ended age distribution similar to that of foragers, but defensive behavior is initiated at a younger age than foraging is. Behavioral and genetic evidence shows that
Michael D. Breed; Gene E. Robinson; Robert E. Page
The relationship between nineteenth century England and colonial India was complex in terms of negotiating the different constituencies that claimed an interest in the economic and moral development of the colonies. After India became subject to the sovereignty of the English Monarchy in 1858, its future became indelibly linked with that of England's, yet India's own unique history and culture
The reef coral Montastraea\\u000a annularis has been used in a wide range of investigations. Recently, it has been recognized as a complex of three species based on field observations of the variation in colony shape. These observations have also been confirmed by molecular methods as well as morphometrics on individual corallites in the colonies. This paper presents a new quantitative
Science education in Papua New Guinea has been influenced by neo-colonial practices that have significantly contributed to the silencing of the Papua New Guinea voice. This silencing has led to the production of science curriculum documents that are irrelevant to the students for whom they are written. To avoid being caught up in neo-colonial
Ant colony optimization is a recently proposed heuristic procedure inspired by the behavior of real ants. This article applies the procedure to model specification searches in structural equation modeling and reports the results. The results demonstrate the capabilities of ant colony optimization algorithms for conducting automated searches.
Crosstalk between cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions plays an essential role in the mechanical function of tissues. The traction forces exerted by cohesive keratinocyte colonies with strong cell-cell adhesions are mostly concentrated at the colony periphery. In contrast, for weak cadherin-based intercellular adhesions, individual cells in a colony interact with their matrix independently, with a disorganized distribution of traction forces extending throughout the colony. In this talk I will present a minimal physical model of the colony as contractile elastic media linked by springs and coupled to an elastic substrate. The model captures the spatial distribution of traction forces seen in experiments. For cell colonies with strong cell-cell adhesions, the total traction force of the colony measured in experiments is found to scale with the colony's geometrical size. This scaling suggests the emergence of an effective surface tension of magnitude comparable to that measured for non-adherent, three-dimensional cell aggregates. The physical model supports the scaling and indicates that the surface tension may be controlled by acto-myosin contractility.
Space Colonies are an artificial habitation built in space, an idea first proposed by Gerard K. O'Neill in 1969. He suggested they be placed at Lagrange points which are points in space that balance out the gravitational attraction of the Earth and Moon. There are three types of space colonies proposed: Bernard, Cylinder, and Stanford Torus. The cylinder type, designed
Colony surface area is a critical descriptor for biological and physical attributes of reef-building (scleractinian, stony) corals. The three-dimensional (3D) size and structure of corals are directly related to many ecosystem values and functions. Most methods to estimate colony...
Indian schooling in colonial America was continuously immersed in the exchange between cultures that involved religion, land ownership, disease, alcohol, and warfare, and was molded by trade in furs and hides, and Indian slaves. In the past two decades American scholars have begun to reinterpret colonial North American Indian history and the
This paper discusses the education in Belize (formerly known as British Honduras) during the colonial era and the lasting impact of the educational foundation of the country. The paper examines the influence the British colonial educational system continues to have in Belize, 20 years after independence. It gives an overview of the history of
Draws comparisons between the Australian education directors, Frank Tate and Jacques Henry Abendanon. Discusses educational reform issues based on racial contexts and social, political, and cultural aspects in the British colony of Victoria and the Dutch colony of Java. Concludes that, though their politcal contexts are different, their views are
In recent years, honeybees (Apis mellifera) have been strangely disappearing from their hives, and strong colonies have suddenly become weak and died. The precise aetiology underlying the disappearance of the bees remains a mystery. However, during the same period, Nosema ceranae, a microsporidium of the Asian bee Apis cerana, seems to have colonized A. mellifera, and it's now frequently detected all over the world in both healthy and weak honeybee colonies. For first time, we show that natural N. ceranae infection can cause the sudden collapse of bee colonies, establishing a direct correlation between N. ceranae infection and the death of honeybee colonies under field conditions. Signs of colony weakness were not evident until the queen could no longer replace the loss of the infected bees. The long asymptomatic incubation period can explain the absence of evident symptoms prior to colony collapse. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that healthy colonies near to an infected one can also become infected, and that N. ceranae infection can be controlled with a specific antibiotic, fumagillin. Moreover, the administration of 120 mg of fumagillin has proven to eliminate the infection, but it cannot avoid reinfection after 6 months. We provide Koch's postulates between N. ceranae infection and a syndrome with a long incubation period involving continuous death of adult bees, non-stop brood rearing by the bees and colony loss in winter or early spring despite the presence of sufficient remaining pollen and honey. PMID:18647336
Higes, Mariano; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Botías, Cristina; Bailón, Encarna Garrido; González-Porto, Amelia V; Barrios, Laura; Del Nozal, M Jesús; Bernal, José L; Jiménez, Juan J; Palencia, Pilar García; Meana, Aránzazu
Although more has been learned since colony collapse disorder (CCD) was first identified in mid-November 2006, the mystery remains. Some possibilitiescontamination with pollen from plants genetically modified to carry an insecticidal gene, radiation from cell phones, and perhaps even stress itselfcan probably be ruled out as contributory causes of CCD, but the cause of the bee colony losses remains unknown.
Traces the evolution of Portuguese national identity, 1926-74, in relation to its African colonies, particularly Mozambique, to demonstrate that colonialism enforces values, identities, and "hierarchies of domination" within the colonizing society as well as between colonizers and colonized peoples. Examines the role of education in shaping and
The Edmund Smith House on Lot 53 in Yorktown was a part of the late colonial and 1781 Yorktown scene, having been standing since 1751. The Federal government acquired it as part of the Blow property in October 1968 and made it a part of Colonial National ...
On solid substrate, growing yeast colonies alternately acidify and alkalinize the medium. Using morphological, cytochemical, genetic, and DNA microarray approaches, we characterized six temporal steps in the acid-to-alkali colony transition. This transition is connected with the production of volatile ammonia acting as starvation signal between colonies. We present evidence that the three membrane proteins Ato1p, Ato2p, and Ato3p, members of the YaaH family, are involved in ammonia production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae colonies. The acid-to-alkali transition is connected with decrease of mitochondrial oxidative catabolism and by peroxisome activation, which in parallel with activation of biosynthetic pathways contribute to decrease the general stress level in colonies. These metabolic features characterize a novel survival strategy used by yeast under starvation conditions prevalent in nature.
Palkova, Zdena; Devaux, Frederic; Ricicova, Marketa; Minarikova, Lucie; Le Crom, Stephane; Jacq, Claude
Background In 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to honey bee losses. Methodology/Principal Findings We used Mass spectrometry-based proteomics (MSP) to identify and quantify thousands of proteins from healthy and collapsing bee colonies. MSP revealed two unreported RNA viruses in North American honey bees, Varroa destructor-1 virus and Kakugo virus, and identified an invertebrate iridescent virus (IIV) (Iridoviridae) associated with CCD colonies. Prevalence of IIV significantly discriminated among strong, failing, and collapsed colonies. In addition, bees in failing colonies contained not only IIV, but also Nosema. Co-occurrence of these microbes consistently marked CCD in (1) bees from commercial apiaries sampled across the U.S. in 20062007, (2) bees sequentially sampled as the disorder progressed in an observation hive colony in 2008, and (3) bees from a recurrence of CCD in Florida in 2009. The pathogen pairing was not observed in samples from colonies with no history of CCD, namely bees from Australia and a large, non-migratory beekeeping business in Montana. Laboratory cage trials with a strain of IIV type 6 and Nosema ceranae confirmed that co-infection with these two pathogens was more lethal to bees than either pathogen alone. Conclusions/Significance These findings implicate co-infection by IIV and Nosema with honey bee colony decline, giving credence to older research pointing to IIV, interacting with Nosema and mites, as probable cause of bee losses in the USA, Europe, and Asia. We next need to characterize the IIV and Nosema that we detected and develop management practices to reduce honey bee losses.
Bromenshenk, Jerry J.; Henderson, Colin B.; Wick, Charles H.; Stanford, Michael F.; Zulich, Alan W.; Jabbour, Rabih E.; Deshpande, Samir V.; McCubbin, Patrick E.; Seccomb, Robert A.; Welch, Phillip M.; Williams, Trevor; Firth, David R.; Skowronski, Evan; Lehmann, Margaret M.; Bilimoria, Shan L.; Gress, Joanna; Wanner, Kevin W.; Cramer, Robert A.
Research efforts to reduce the dependence of the aerospace industry on strategic metals, such as cobalt (Co), columbium (Cb), tantalum (Ta), and chromium (Cr), by providing the materials technology needed to minimize the strategic metal content of critical aerospace components for gas turbine engines are addressed. Thrusts in three technology areas are identified: near term activities in the area of strategic element substitution; intermediate-range activities in the area of materials processing; and long term, high risk activities in the area of 'new classes' of high temprature metallic materials. Specifically, the role of cobalt in nickel-base and cobalt-base superalloys vital to the aerospace industry is examined along with the mechanical and physical properties of intermetallics that will contain a minimum of the stragetic metals.
The goal of moving from an offense-dominated to a defense-dominated international strategic scene is desirable and feasible, and can best be achieved in cooperation with the U.S.S.R. Such a shared goal implies that deploying strategic defenses is clearly subordinate to the more encompassing matter of reducing ballistic missiles to zero or near zero. In addition to seeking Soviet cooperation, the U.S. should continue to discuss the pros and cons of such a direction with its allies, continue to conduct the strategic defense initiative (SDI) technology program aimed at an earth-based defense with passive defense, and continue to adhere to the 1972 ABM treaty.
Hospitals and healthcare systems are facing increased financial difficulties because of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 and managed care. As a result, healthcare executives face the challenge of reducing costs while maintaining quality patient care. One of the strategic tools healthcare executives use to meet this challenge is outsourcing. Even though outsourcing has many benefits, outsourcing will fail if not managed successfully. Senior executives must choose outsourcing managers who have the necessary leadership capabilities. Managing outsourcing requires an understanding of outsourcing strategy, the benefits and risks of outsourcing, the evaluation process, and the methods to managing strategically. With appropriate management, strategic outsourcing should provide healthcare executives with a viable strategy for controlling costs and maintaining quality patient care. PMID:11482242
Over the past 18 months, significant progress has been made toward establishing the basis for a decision to proceed with full-scale development and deployment of a defense against ballistic missiles. Continuing studies of defense architectural options have provided information on specific issue and technology trade-offs that are key to determining the feasibility of strategic defense concepts. Research in advanced signal processors and cryocooler technology needed to support the space operation of infrared sensor systems has progressed to the point where several technology integrated flight experiments are planned. Kinetic energy weapons technology for ground-launched, rocket-powered interceptors has been developed and is ready for validation testing. Directed energy weapons technologies are less mature than those involved in kinetic energy weapons.
This plan revises the Hanford Site Strategic Facilities Plan submitted by Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1988. It separates the Hanford Site facilities into two categories: ''strategically required'' facilities and ''marginal'' facilities. It provides a comparison of future facility requirements against existing capacities and proposed projects to eliminate or consolidate marginal facilities (i.e., those facilities that are not fully utilized or are no longer required to accomplish programmatic missions). The objective is to enhance the operating efficiency of the Hanford Site by maximizing facility use and minimizing unnecessary facility operating and maintenance costs. 11 refs.
The Value Engineering (VE) Methodology is an effective tool for business or project strategic planning. In conjunction with the Balanced Scorecard Approach (Drs. Robert Kaplan, PhD, and David Norton, PhD, from the Balanced Scorecard Collaborative/Palladium Group), function analysis can be used to develop strategy maps and scorecards. The FAST diagram provides an integrated approach to strategy map development by formulating a cause and effect relationship and establishing the how and why behind the strategy map. By utilizing the VE Job Plan, one is able to move from strategic thinking all the way through to execution of the strategy.
Margie Jeffs; Lori Braase; Alison Conner; Darcie Martinson; Jodi Grgich
The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Data Acquisition System is a general purpose, digital data acquisition system designed for field use in the DOE's Strategic Petroleum Reserve testing and monitoring program. The system is computer driven, under the control of an operator. The system is designed to allow the operator to perform pre-test system configuration; test monitoring and control; and post test analysis. This document is a system description and an operator users manual. Topics covered include: configuration and running on-line tests, software documentation, and maintenance programming information.
This report presents data describing a default case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the DOE. Target years are 1985, 2000, and 2025. Residential, commercial, and industrial energy demands and impacts of energy technology implementation and market penetration are forecast using a set of energy technology assumptions.
The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and operate a 40-inch diameter, 46-mile long buried crude oil pipeline from existing facilities of the SPR Seaway Complex located near Freeport, Texas, to an ...
The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) of the US Department of Energy proposes to construct and operate a 42-inch buried crude oil pipeline, between 48 and 53 miles long, to transport crude oil from existing facilities of the SPR Seaway Complex located nea...
This report summarizes a series of three-dimensional simulations for the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The U.S. Department of Energy plans to leach two new caverns and convert one of the existing caverns within the Bayou Choctaw salt dome to ...
Although the environmental and other benefits of using biomass and waste fuel energy to displace fossil fuels are well known, the economic realities are such that these fuels cannot compete effectively in the current market without tax credits, subsidies and other artificial measures. In 1992, EPRI initiated a strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels and power technologies, both to
A broad range of scientific goals and a similarly diverse set of consumers drive the informatics requirements and computing needs of the JGI. The scope of work in this area encompasses not only the informatics and analysis pipelines in support of the PGF sequence production, but also the integration of data from a variety of sources and sophisticated large scale analyses led by investigators within JGI and driven by the user science community. In laying out a forward looking strategy, the full range of these activities need to be examined together to build a comprehensive program that will serve as a catalyst for the DOE research community. The science landscape envisioned in the overall strategic plan calls for significantly increasing the throughput of microbial genomes sequenced to cover their phylogenetic space and building a set of finished reference plant genomes to enable DOE relevant science. Additionally, the established impact of microbial communities on global energy cycles and their potential in remediation endeavors, warrant building upon JGI's established expertise in metagenomic analysis. Not only is each of these program areas relevant and exciting in their own right, but they also can and should be undertaken in a way that allows synthesis across domains (e.g. utilize knowledge from sequence of plants and the soil from which they are grown). Both dramatic increases in the scale of genomic data collection and the synergistic potential of integrating data across domains will demand new strategies in the informatics pipeline within the JGI and in the facility's approach to computational analysis and user access to the data in aggregated form. In addition to a robust and scalable informatics infrastructure, fulfilling the strategic science goals of the JGI will require ongoing investment in usability of the data, to ensure that the data collected will be used to maximal effect. It must be recognized that 'usability' will have a different appearance depending on the specific user base, and the JGI has several distinct classes of users it must enable to be successful. For some, rapid and convenient dissemination of the sequence data will be sufficient to enable their external research. For others, JGI hosted analysis tools and collaborative environments will be required to catalyze individual or team research. Finally, and significantly, there are genomic scientists within the JGI, often working closely with external collaborators, who rely on the ability to devise project-dependent and often very large scale customized analyses that result in publicly available tools. A successful strategy will require effort to satisfy each of these user classes, and careful attention to economies of software reuse and extensibility. There are only a handful of sequencing facilities worldwide that operate at the scale of the JGI's Production Genomics Facility, and these are devoted almost entirely to sequencing driven by biomedical applications. The PGF therefore fulfills a unique and vital role as a resource for genomic studies of DOE relevance. Like the other large-scale facilities, JGI has been carefully following the development of 'next-generation' sequencing technologies, and clearly must continue to refresh its instrumentation as advances are made. Critical to advances in sequencing technology are the computational infrastructure advances that are required to turn raw sequence into quality data. This is one area where JGI can leverage the broader sequencing community's investment in technology development, adopting the best practices and software for sequence processing and assembly. JGI can add unique value by further developing annotation pipelines and tools that serve to build an integrated framework where the Institute's complementary science components can be viewed in a larger 'systems' perspective than is currently possible. As technology, tools, and infrastructure advance, JGI is uniquely positioned in its ability complement core PGF expertise with a diverse set of capabilities provided by partners within the
Bader, D A; Brettin, T S; Cottingham, R W; Folta, P A; Golder, Y; Gregurick, S K; Himmel, M E; Mann, R C; Remington, K A; Slezak, T R
Intent of Research: This paper examines current and future requirements for strategic leadership of the United States Army and identifies Special Operations Forces senior leaders as potential strategic leaders of the Army based upon the alignment their pr...
The $70 M Strategic Defense Facility (SDF) in Albuquerque, New Mexico, will allow Sandia National Laboratories to conduct experimental research on future US strategic defensive weapon systems and the survivability of US systems against future threats. The...
J. P. Furaus D. M. Johnston L. O. Seamons K. W. Hanks C. G. Shirley
...Postal Service to: ATTN: Mr. Harold Hendrick, Strategic Planning and Performance Management Division, Office of...FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Harold Hendrick, Strategic Planning and Performance Management Division, Office...
In May 2007, the United States Government published its U.S. National Strategy for Public Diplomacy and Strategic Communication. The strategy, authored by the Policy Coordinating Committee (PCC) on Public Diplomacy and Strategic Communication, is the firs...
The 1995 Mobility Requirements Study Bottoms Up Review (MRS BURU) validated current mobility strategies that emphasized a strategic mobility triad consisting of strategic airlift, sealift, and prepositioned equipment. The Mobility Requirements Study - 200...
A successful IM department must have clear goals and direction that may be accomplished through the use of a strategic plan. This strategic management plan analyzes the Information Management (IM) department at Naval Hospital Jacksonville Florida. This pl...
The ability of human tumour cells to form colonies in soft agar is enhanced by the presence of autologous phagocytic/adherent cells. We investigated the effect of irradiation on the ability of the adherent cells to support human tumour colony formation. Relatively low doses of irradiation significantly increased the growth enhancing ability of adherent cells in 17/19 cases. The possibility that the enhancement was mediated by inactivation of radiosensitive contaminating lymphocytes was explored. Depletion of T lymphocytes from unirradiated adherent cells by a monoclonal antibody and complement resulted in little overall change in tumour colony growth. However, elimination of only the suppressor subset (OKT8+) of T lymphocytes resulted in increased colony growth relative to control values obtained with unirradiated adherent cells. In contrast, depletion of T lymphocytes from irradiated adherent cells by a pan T monoclonal antibody and complement decreased colony formation. Thus, the ability of irradiated macrophages to enhance tumour colony growth appeared to be mediated by a T lymphocyte. The effect of irradiation on isolated populations of macrophages and T lymphocytes was also examined. The enhanced ability of irradiated adherent cells to support tumor colony growth appeared to have been due to treatment of T lymphocytes alone. The results indicate that both adherent macrophages and lymphocytes may influence the growth of clonogenic human tumour cells.
Colonisation was a masculine adventure which took place in a distorted world full of 'welcoming' native women. The colonial encounter therefore was both racial and gendered: boundaries between European men and Vietnamese women were obvious. On the other hand the intimacy that resulted from this encounter blurred the racial boundaries that were the foundation of the colonial order. These boundaries had to be redrawn or sharpened. Focusing on French colonial northern Vietnam (Tonkin) this paper examines how the whole colonial encounter was embodied in the sexual encounter between European men and native women and how prostitution was an integral part of the colonial order. This analysis of the regulation of prostitution and its ambivalence reveals that the definition of prostitution and its treatment by the French colonial authorities was political, racial and therefore connected to a specific period. The political definition of prostitution in today's Vietnam is different from the colonial one. This shift reveals that prostitution is a pertinent vantage point from which one can study how a society apprehends itself and its own future. PMID:20364443
In a recent feasibility study, ORBITEC conceptualized systems and an evolving architecture for producing and utilizing Mars-based in-situ resources utilization (ISRU) propellant combinations. The propellants will be used to support the propulsion and power systems for ground and flight vehicles that would be part of Mars exploration and colonization. The key aspect of the study was to show the benefits of ISRU, develop an analysis methodology, as well as provide some guidance to future propellant system choices based upon what is known today about Mars. The study time frame included an early unmanned and manned exploration period (now to 2040) and a colonization period that occurs from 2040 to 2090. As part of this feasibility study, ORBITEC developed two different Mars colonization scenarios, namely a low case that ends with a 100-person colony and a high case that ends with a 10.000-person colony. A population growth model, mission traffic model, and infrastructure model was developed for each scenario to better understand the requirements of future Mars colonies. This paper outlines the characteristics of the Mars colonies that ORBITEC envisions under both colonization scenarios. This includes a discussion of the flow of people and materials between the Earth and Mars, the infrastructure requirements of the colonies, potential colony configurations, and the mission requirements of the colonies.
Gustafson, Robert J.; Rice, Eric E.; Gramer, Daniel J.; White, Brant C.
A description of the work of Pedro Tamesis Orata provides an opportunity to investigate the conflicts that can occur when educators seek to reduce poverty while trying to respect indigenous cultures. A native of the Philippines, Orata completed his doctoral studies at the Ohio State University in 1927. During US President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal, he accepted the position of school principal for the US Bureau of Indian Affairs. After World War II, he directed the spread of fundamental education through the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). In his final years, he returned to the Philippines where he began a movement to spread what were called self-help high schools. In these activities, Orata taught people to follow John Dewey's five steps of thinking while working to improve their standards of living. In the 1970s, educators, such as Paulo Freire, complained that problem-solving methods, similar to those Orata favored, reinforced the oppressive aspects of formerly colonial societies. While Freire may have been overly critical, conflicts among cultural orientations appear to be unavoidable. The hope behind this investigation is that the difficulties can be reduced when people understand the different forces that persist.
Evolutionary experiments with microbes are a powerful tool to study mutations and natural selection. These experiments, however, are often limited to the well-mixed environments of a test tube or a chemostat. Since spatial organization can significantly affect evolutionary dynamics, the need is growing for evolutionary experiments in spatially structured environments. The surface of a Petri dish provides such an environment, but a more detailed understanding of microbial growth on Petri dishes is necessary to interpret such experiments. We formulate a simple deterministic reaction-diffusion model, which successfully predicts the spatial patterns created by two competing species during colony expansion. We also derive the shape of these patterns analytically without relying on microscopic details of the model. In particular, we find that the relative fitness of two microbial strains can be estimated from the logarithmic spirals created by selective sweeps. The theory is tested with strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for spatial competitions with different initial conditions and for a range of relative fitnesses. The reaction-diffusion model also connects the microscopic parameters like growth rates and diffusion constants with macroscopic spatial patterns and predicts the relationship between fitness in liquid cultures and on Petri dishes, which we confirmed experimentally. Spatial sector patterns therefore provide an alternative fitness assay to the commonly used liquid culture fitness assays.
Korolev, Kirill S; Muller, Melanie J I; Karahan, Nilay; Murray, Andrew W; Hallatschek, Oskar; Nelson, David R