Science.gov

Sample records for color difference formulas

  1. Objective evaluation of visibility in virtual chromoendoscopy for esophageal squamous carcinoma using a color difference formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Masahito; Miyake, Yoichi; Odaka, Takeo; Sato, Toru; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Sakama, Atsunori; Zenbutsu, Satoki; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2010-09-01

    Computed virtual chromoendoscopy with flexible spectral imaging color enhancement (FICE) is a new dyeless imaging technique that enhances mucosal and vascular patterns. However, a method for selecting a suitable wavelength for a particular condition has not been established. The aim of this study is to evaluate the color difference method for quality assessment of FICE images of the intrapapillary capillary loop in magnifying endoscopy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The color difference between 60 microvessels and background mucosa observed using the magnifying endoscope was 8.31+/-2.84 SD under white light and 12.26+/-3.14 (p=0.0031), 11.70+/-4.49 (p=0.0106), and 17.49+/-5.40 (p<0.0001) in FICE modes A, B, and C, respectively. The visibility scores for microvessels observed by medical students were 6.00+/-1.12 points under white light and 11.1+/-2.25 (p<0.0001), 8.65+/-2.06 (p=0.0001), and 12.55+/-2.56 (p<0.0001) in FICE modes A, B, and C, respectively. Furthermore, the measurement of color difference was correlated with the visibility score assigned by medical students (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.583, p<0.0001) In conclusion, the color difference method corresponds to human vision and is an appropriate method for evaluation of endoscopic images.

  2. Evaluation of threshold color differences using printed samples.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min; Liu, Haoxue; Cui, Guihua; Luo, M Ronnier; Melgosa, Manuel

    2012-06-01

    The performances of uniform color spaces and color-difference formulae for predicting threshold color differences were investigated based on visual assessments of 893 pairs of printed color patches under a D65 source. The average ΔE(ab,10)* of the pairs was 1.1 units. A threshold psychophysical experiment was repeated three times by a panel of 16 observers with normal color vision. The experimental data were used to evaluate nine color-difference formulae and uniform color spaces using the standardized residual sum of squares (STRESS) measure. The results indicated that all formulae and spaces performed very similarly to each other, and outperformed CIELAB for threshold color differences. The chromaticity-discrimination ellipses were used to compare with previous results from small color differences [Color Res. Appl. (2011), doi:10.1002/col.20689], and they agreed with each other, except for the purple color center. PMID:22673417

  3. On the formulae for the colored HOMFLY polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawagoe, Kenichi

    2016-08-01

    We provide methods to compute the colored HOMFLY polynomials of knots and links with symmetric representations based on the linear skein theory. By using diagrammatic calculations, several formulae for the colored HOMFLY polynomials are obtained. As an application, we calculate some examples for hyperbolic knots and links, and we study a generalization of the volume conjecture by means of numerical calculations. In these examples, we observe that asymptotic behaviors of invariants seem to have relations to the volume conjecture.

  4. How Color Coding Formulaic Writing Enhances Organization: A Qualitative Approach for Measuring Student Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geigle, Bryce A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate and present the status of student synthesis with color coded formula writing for grade level six through twelve, and to make recommendations for educators to teach writing structure through a color coded formula system in order to increase classroom engagement and lower students' affect. The thesis…

  5. Measuring color differences in gonioapparent materials used in the automotive industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melgosa, M.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Cui, G.; Li, C.; Perales, E.; Martínez-Verdú, F. M.; Dauser, T.

    2015-04-01

    This paper illustrates how to design a visual experiment to measure color differences in gonioapparent materials and how to assess the merits of different advanced color-difference formulas trying to predict the results of such experiment. Successful color-difference formulas are necessary for industrial quality control and artificial color-vision applications. A color- difference formula must be accurate under a wide variety of experimental conditions including the use of challenging materials like, for example, gonioapparent samples. Improving the experimental design in a previous paper [Melgosaet al., Optics Express 22, 3458-3467 (2014)], we have tested 11 advanced color-difference formulas from visual assessments performed by a panel of 11 observers with normal colorvision using a set of 56 nearly achromatic colorpairs of automotive gonioapparent samples. Best predictions of our experimental results were found for the AUDI2000 color-difference formula, followed by color-difference formulas based on the color appearance model CIECAM02. Parameters in the original weighting function for lightness in the AUDI2000 formula were optimized obtaining small improvements. However, a power function from results provided by the AUDI2000 formula considerably improved results, producing values close to the inter-observer variability in our visual experiment. Additional research is required to obtain a modified AUDI2000 color-difference formula significantly better than the current one.

  6. The Processing on Different Types of English Formulaic Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Li

    2015-01-01

    Formulaic sequences are found to be processed faster than their matched novel phrases in previous studies. Given the variety of formulaic types, few studies have compared processing on different types of formulaic sequences. The present study explored the processing among idioms, speech formulae and written formulae. It has been found that in…

  7. Measurement of the relationship between perceived and computed color differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Pedro A.; Huertas, Rafael; Melgosa, Manuel; Cui, Guihua

    2007-07-01

    Using simulated data sets, we have analyzed some mathematical properties of different statistical measurements that have been employed in previous literature to test the performance of different color-difference formulas. Specifically, the properties of the combined index PF/3 (performance factor obtained as average of three terms), widely employed in current literature, have been considered. A new index named standardized residual sum of squares (STRESS), employed in multidimensional scaling techniques, is recommended. The main difference between PF/3 and STRESS is that the latter is simpler and allows inferences on the statistical significance of two color-difference formulas with respect to a given set of visual data.

  8. The Luscher Color Test: sex differences in color preference.

    PubMed

    Seefeldt, F M

    1979-06-01

    Sex differences in color preference on the Luscher Color Test were investigated for the green and the yellow chips. 50 male and 79 female majors in education rated and ranked each color on the popular form of the test. Females ranked and rated yellow significantly higher than did the males. Implications regarding test validity for females are discussed. PMID:482042

  9. Human eye color difference threshold measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lin; Zhou, Taogeng

    2013-12-01

    The human eye has the ability to distinguish millions of colors, with this feature we can identify very subtle color differences, and the measurement of human eye color difference threshold can provide a visual function diagnosis for testee. In recent years, people begin to focus on studies on visual threshold diagnostic equipment. This paper proposes a human eye color difference threshold measurement system which is based on dual integrating sphere. The system includes two pairs of dual integrating sphere and color control module. Dual integrating sphere uses to mix and produce color, and palette unit which produces primary colors (red (R), green (G), blue (B)) is embedded in dual integrating sphere. At the same time, the embedded palette unit which produces cyan (C), magenta (M), and yellow (Y) expands color area that the system can generate. One optical path based on dual integrating sphere generates standard color, the other path produces the matching color which is similar to a standard color. In the high-precision closed-loop color control module, photoelectric switch records stepper motor's origin position and limits move displacement. Precision stepper motor pushes the light-blocking panel of the palette unit to a predetermined position, while real-time monitoring the position of the light-blocking panel and mixing the ideal controllable color. Two colors that the system generates are projected onto the same target area. Subjects make a judgment on color difference threshold by observing the target eventually.

  10. Carotenoid pixels characterization under color space tests and RGB formulas for mesocarp of mango's fruits cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammad, Ahmed Yahya; Kassim, Farid Saad Eid Saad

    2010-01-01

    This study experimented the pulp (mesocarp) of fourteen cultivars were healthy ripe of Mango fruits (Mangifera indica L.) selected after picking from Mango Spp. namely Taimour [Ta], Dabsha [Da], Aromanis [Ar], Zebda [Ze], Fagri Kelan [Fa], Alphonse [Al], Bulbek heart [Bu], Hindi- Sinnara [Hi], Compania [Co], Langra [La], Mestikawi [Me], Ewais [Ew], Montakhab El Kanater [Mo] and Mabroka [Ma] . Under seven color space tests included (RGB: Red, Green and Blue), (CMY: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow), (CMY: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow), (HSL: Hue, Saturation and Lightness), (CMYK%: Cyan%, Magenta%, Yellow% and Black%), (HSV: Hue, Saturation and Value), (HºSB%: Hueº, Saturation% and Brightness%) and (Lab). (CMY: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow), (HSL: Hue, Saturation and Lightness), (CMYK%: Cyan%, Magenta%, Yellow% and Black%), (HSV: Hue, Saturation and Value), (HºSB%: Hueº, Saturation% and Brightness%) and (Lab). Addition, nine formula of color space tests included (sRGB 0÷1, CMY, CMYK, XYZ, CIE-L*ab, CIE-L*CH, CIE-L*uv, Yxy and Hunter-Lab) and (RGB 0÷FF/hex triplet) and Carotenoid Pixels Scale. Utilizing digital color photographs as tool for obtainment the natural color information for each cultivar then the result expounded with chemical pigment estimations. Our location study in the visual yellow to orange color degrees from the visible color of electromagnetic spectrum in wavelength between (~570 to 620) nm and frequency between (~480 to 530) THz. The results found carotene very strong influence in band Red while chlorophyll (a & b) was very lower subsequently, the values in band Green was depressed. Meanwhile, the general ratios percentage for carotenoid pixels in bands Red, Green and Blue were 50%, 39% and 11% as orderliness opposite the ratios percentage for carotene, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b which were 63%, 22% and 16% approximately. According to that the pigments influence in all color space tests and RGB formulas. Band Yellow% in color test (CMYK%) as signature

  11. Colorful solar selective absorber integrated with different colored units.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feiliang; Wang, Shao-Wei; Liu, Xingxing; Ji, Ruonan; Li, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yuwei; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-25

    Solar selective absorbers are the core part for solar thermal technologies such as solar water heaters, concentrated solar power, solar thermoelectric generators and solar thermophotovoltaics. Colorful solar selective absorber can provide new freedom and flexibility beyond energy performance, which will lead to wider utilization of solar technologies. In this work, we present a monolithic integration of colored solar absorber array with different colors on a single substrate based on a multilayered structure of Cu/TiN(x)O(y)/TiO(2)/Si(3)N(4)/SiO(2). A colored solar absorber array with 16 color units is demonstrated experimentally by using combinatorial deposition technique via changing the thickness of SiO(2) layer. The solar absorptivity and thermal emissivity of all the color units is higher than 92% and lower than 5.5%, respectively. The colored solar selective absorber array can have colorful appearance and designable patterns while keeping high energy performance at the same time. It is a new candidate for a number of solar applications, especially for architecture integration and military camouflage. PMID:26832602

  12. Glossiness representation using binocular color difference.

    PubMed

    Jung, Woo-Soon; Moon, Young-Gyu; Park, Jae-Hyun; Song, Jang-Kun

    2013-07-15

    We demonstrate that a binocular color difference can be used to express the surface glossiness of an object on 3D display devices without being accompanied by a specular reflection pattern. A simple image with a binocular color difference provides a similar surface appearance impression to a real object that has the same binocular color difference. It is found that human binocular perception is likely to interpret binocular color difference as spectral reflectance rather than as transparency. Binocular glossiness is caused not only by a binocular lightness difference but also by a chromatic or hue difference. PMID:23939119

  13. Hemispherical color differences on Pluto and Charon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binzel, Richard P.

    1988-01-01

    Time-resolved multicolor photometric observations of Pluto-Charon mutual events have been used to derive individual colors for these two bodies and to investigate the degree of color differences between their synchronous facing and opposite hemispheres. Pluto is significantly redder than Charon, where direct measurements of the anti-Charon hemisphere of Pluto and the Pluto-facing hemisphere of Charon yield B-V magnitudes of 0.867 + or - 0.008 and 0.700 + or - 0.010, respectively. Both Pluto and Charon are found to have relatively uniform longitudinal color distributions with 1-sigma upper limits of 2 percent and 5 percent, respectively, for any large-scale hemispherical color asymmetries. Thus, a previous suspicion of a significant color asymmetry on Charon is not confirmed. Instead the data may be attributed to a direct detection of polar caps on Pluto.

  14. Beyond Color Difference: Residual Interpolation for Color Image Demosaicking.

    PubMed

    Kiku, Daisuke; Monno, Yusuke; Tanaka, Masayuki; Okutomi, Masatoshi

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose residual interpolation (RI) as an alternative to color difference interpolation, which is a widely accepted technique for color image demosaicking. Our proposed RI performs the interpolation in a residual domain, where the residuals are differences between observed and tentatively estimated pixel values. Our hypothesis for the RI is that if image interpolation is performed in a domain with a smaller Laplacian energy, its accuracy is improved. Based on the hypothesis, we estimate the tentative pixel values to minimize the Laplacian energy of the residuals. We incorporate the RI into the gradient-based threshold free algorithm, which is one of the state-of-the-art Bayer demosaicking algorithms. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed demosaicking algorithm using the RI surpasses the state-of-the-art algorithms for the Kodak, the IMAX, and the beyond Kodak data sets. PMID:26780794

  15. Comparison of some different formulae for ground shock prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollvik, Svein; Sjoel, Henrik

    1991-05-01

    In connection with a minor revision of the Norwegian Fortification handbook some different formulae for ground shock predictions are compared. The formulae predict very different values for the strength of the ground shock. The difference can partly be explained by a more detailed consideration of the two different propagation modes of the ground shock. The pulse propagates as a Rayleigh wave close to the surface and as an ordinary compression and shear wave at time distance from the surface. The Rayleigh wave extends deeper into the ground in rock than it does in soil. For that reason it is recommended to use different formulae for ground shock in rock and in soil. The remaining uncertainty in the predicted ground shock strength is mainly caused by the natural variation in geological conditions at different sites. The great uncertainty in the ground shock formulae has generally led to an overprediction of the shock strength and to unnecessarily expensive requirements for ground shock protection. More realistic and less expensive ground shock protection requirements were obtained as a result of this study.

  16. New formula for proton-neutron mass difference

    SciTech Connect

    Kimel, I.

    1983-05-01

    A new formula is presented, allowing the computation of the proton-neutron mass difference without the knowledge of the subtraction function in the dispersion integral. The Born terms contribute with the correct sign. The integral over the deep-inelastic region is finite whenever the Weinberg--'t Hooft mechanism is operative, and gives a small value. The net result is in very good agreement with the experimental value.

  17. Testing the AUDI2000 colour-difference formula for solid colours using some visual datasets with usefulness to automotive industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-García, Juan; Melgosa, Manuel; Gómez-Robledo, Luis; Li, Changjun; Huang, Min; Liu, Haoxue; Cui, Guihua; Luo, M. Ronnier; Dauser, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Colour-difference formulas are tools employed in colour industries for objective pass/fail decisions of manufactured products. These objective decisions are based on instrumental colour measurements which must reliably predict the subjective colour-difference evaluations performed by observers' panels. In a previous paper we have tested the performance of different colour-difference formulas using the datasets employed at the development of the last CIErecommended colour-difference formula CIEDE2000, and we found that the AUDI2000 colour-difference formula for solid (homogeneous) colours performed reasonably well, despite the colour pairs in these datasets were not similar to those typically employed in the automotive industry (CIE Publication x038:2013, 465-469). Here we have tested again AUDI2000 together with 11 advanced colour-difference formulas (CIELUV, CIELAB, CMC, BFD, CIE94, CIEDE2000, CAM02-UCS, CAM02-SCD, DIN99d, DIN99b, OSA-GP-Euclidean) for three visual datasets we may consider particularly useful to the automotive industry because of different reasons: 1) 828 metallic colour pairs used to develop the highly reliable RIT-DuPont dataset (Color Res. Appl. 35, 274-283, 2010); 2) printed samples conforming 893 colour pairs with threshold colour differences (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 883-891, 2012); 3) 150 colour pairs in a tolerance dataset proposed by AUDI. To measure the relative merits of the different tested colour-difference formulas, we employed the STRESS index (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1823-1829, 2007), assuming a 95% confidence level. For datasets 1) and 2), AUDI2000 was in the group of the best colour-difference formulas with no significant differences with respect to CIE94, CIEDE2000, CAM02-UCS, DIN99b and DIN99d formulas. For dataset 3) AUDI2000 provided the best results, being statistically significantly better than all other tested colour-difference formulas.

  18. Matching image color from different cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, Mark D.; Wyble, David R.; Johnson, Garrett M.

    2008-01-01

    Can images from professional digital SLR cameras be made equivalent in color using simple colorimetric characterization? Two cameras were characterized, these characterizations were implemented on a variety of images, and the results were evaluated both colorimetrically and psychophysically. A Nikon D2x and a Canon 5D were used. The colorimetric analyses indicated that accurate reproductions were obtained. The median CIELAB color differences between the measured ColorChecker SG and the reproduced image were 4.0 and 6.1 for the Canon (chart and spectral respectively) and 5.9 and 6.9 for the Nikon. The median differences between cameras were 2.8 and 3.4 for the chart and spectral characterizations, near the expected threshold for reliable image difference perception. Eight scenes were evaluated psychophysically in three forced-choice experiments in which a reference image from one of the cameras was shown to observers in comparison with a pair of images, one from each camera. The three experiments were (1) a comparison of the two cameras with the chart-based characterizations, (2) a comparison with the spectral characterizations, and (3) a comparison of chart vs. spectral characterization within and across cameras. The results for the three experiments are 64%, 64%, and 55% correct respectively. Careful and simple colorimetric characterization of digital SLR cameras can result in visually equivalent color reproduction.

  19. Color analysis of different ceramic systems.

    PubMed

    Aladag, Akin; Gungor, Mehmet Ali; Artunc, Celal

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the color properties of three different ceramic systems. Three groups of 10 specimens each were prepared: Dental porcelain alloy was used as a framework for conventional and ProBOND metal-ceramic systems, while glass-ceramic ingots were used as a framework for 10 samples using an all-ceramic system. For the former, dentin porcelain was applied and a ceramic veneering material was applied to the ingot frameworks. Using a dental spectrophotometer, the pre- and post-glaze color compatibility between disc specimens and A3 shade was evaluated. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare color differences among groups in this study, while the Mann-Whitney U test was used to make bilateral comparisons among the three different ceramic systems. The values obtained during the dentin stage revealed a significant difference in the all-ceramic group (p < 0.05). After glazing, there was no significant difference between ProBOND samples and all-ceramic samples (p > 0.05). These results suggest that ProBOND can yield esthetically superior results in clinical applications compared to conventional ceramic systems. PMID:20478787

  20. Color-difference evaluation for digital images using a categorical judgment method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haoxue; Huang, Min; Cui, Guihua; Luo, M Ronnier; Melgosa, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    The CIELAB lightness and chroma values of pixels in five of the eight ISO SCID natural images were modified to produce sample images. Pairs of images were displayed on a calibrated monitor and assessed by a panel of 12 observers with normal color vision using a categorical judgment method. The experimental results showed that assuming the lightness parametric factor k(L)=1 to predict color differences in images, CIELAB performed better than CIEDE2000, CIE94, or CMC, which is a different result to the one found in color-difference literature for homogeneous color pairs. However, observers perceived CIELAB lightness and chroma differences in images in different ways. To fit current experimental data, a specific methodology is proposed to optimize k(L) in the color-difference formulas CIELAB, CIEDE2000, CIE94, and CMC. From the standardized residual sum of squares (STRESS) index, it was found that the optimized formulas, CIEDE2000(2.3:1), CIE94(3.0:1), and CMC(3.4:1), performed significantly better than their corresponding original forms with lightness parametric factor k(L)=1. Specifically, CIEDE2000(2.3:1) performed the best, with a satisfactory average STRESS value of 25.8, which is very similar to the 27.5 value that was found from the CIEDE2000(1:1) formula for the combined weighted dataset of homogeneous color samples employed at the development of this formula [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A25, 1828 (2008), Table 2]. However, fitting our experimental data, none of the four optimized formulas CIELAB(1.5:1), CIEDE2000(2.3:1), CIE94(3.0:1), and CMC(3.4:1) is significantly better than the others. Current results roughly agree with the recent CIE recommendation that color difference in images can be predicted by simply adopting a lightness parametric factor k(L)=2 in CIELAB or CIEDE2000 [CIE Publication 199:2011]. It was also found that the different contents of the five images have considerable influence on the performance of the tested color-difference formulas. PMID:23595320

  1. Bayesian approach to color-difference models based on threshold and constant-stimuli methods.

    PubMed

    Brusola, Fernando; Tortajada, Ignacio; Lengua, Ismael; Jordá, Begoña; Peris, Guillermo

    2015-06-15

    An alternative approach based on statistical Bayesian inference is presented to deal with the development of color-difference models and the precision of parameter estimation. The approach was applied to simulated data and real data, the latter published by selected authors involved with the development of color-difference formulae using traditional methods. Our results show very good agreement between the Bayesian and classical approaches. Among other benefits, our proposed methodology allows one to determine the marginal posterior distribution of each random individual parameter of the color-difference model. In this manner, it is possible to analyze the effect of individual parameters on the statistical significance calculation of a color-difference equation. PMID:26193510

  2. Design of the scanning mode coated glass color difference online detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Weihong; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Dajiang; Zhang, Baojun; Fu, Guangwei

    2008-03-01

    A design of scanning mode coated glass color difference online detection system was introduced. The system consisted of color difference data acquirement part and orbit control part. The function of the color difference data acquirement part was to acquire glass spectral reflectance and then processed them to get the color difference value. Using fiber for light guiding, the reflected light from surface of glass was transmitted into light division part, and the dispersive light was imaged on linear CCD, and then the output signals from the CCD was sampled pixel by pixel, and the spectral reflectance of coated glass was obtained finally. Then, the acquired spectral reflectance signals was sent to industrial personal computer through USB interface, using standard color space and color difference formula nominated by International Commission on Illumination (CIE) in 1976 to process these signals, and the reflected color parameter and color difference of coated glass was gained in the end. The function of the orbit control part was to move the detection probe by way of transverse scanning mode above the glass strip, and control the measuring start-stop time of the color difference data acquirement part at the same time. The color difference data acquirement part of the system was put on the orbit which is after annealing area in coated glass production line, and the protected fiber probe was placed on slide of the orbit. Using single chip microcomputer to control transmission mechanism of the slide, which made the slide move by way of transverse scanning mode on the glass strip, meanwhile, the color difference data acquirement part of the system was also controlled by the single chip microcomputer, and it made the acquirement part measure color difference data when the probe reached the needed working speed and required place on the glass strip. The scanning mode coated glass color difference online detection system can measure color parameter and color difference of

  3. Ecological influences on individual differences in color preference.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Karen B; Hawthorne-Madell, Daniel; Palmer, Stephen E

    2015-11-01

    How can the large, systematic differences that exist between individuals' color preferences be explained? The ecological valence theory (Palmer & Schloss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:8877-8882, 2010) posits that an individual's preference for each particular color is determined largely by his or her preferences for all correspondingly colored objects. Therefore, individuals should differ in their color preferences to the extent that they have different preferences for the same color-associated objects or that they experience different objects. Supporting this prediction, we found that individuals' color preferences were predicted better by their own preferences for correspondingly colored objects than by other peoples' preferences for the same objects. Moreover, the fit between color preferences and affect toward the colored objects was reliably improved when people's own idiosyncratic color-object associations were included in addition to a standard set of color-object associations. These and related results provide evidence that individual differences in color preferences are reliably influenced by people's personal experiences with colored objects in their environment. PMID:26272366

  4. Trace element status and zinc homeostasis differ in breast and formula-fed piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in trace element composition and bioavailability between breast milk and infant formulas may affect metal homeostasis in neonates. In the current study, piglets were fed soy infant formula (Soy), cow's milk formula (Milk), or were allowed to suckle from the sow from PND2 to PND21. Serum ...

  5. Methods of scaling threshold color difference using printed samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Min; Cui, Guihua; Liu, Haoxue; Luo, M. Ronnier

    2012-01-01

    A series of printed samples on substrate of semi-gloss paper and with the magnitude of threshold color difference were prepared for scaling the visual color difference and to evaluate the performance of different method. The probabilities of perceptibly was used to normalized to Z-score and different color differences were scaled to the Z-score. The visual color difference was got, and checked with the STRESS factor. The results indicated that only the scales have been changed but the relative scales between pairs in the data are preserved.

  6. Study on color difference estimation method of medicine biochemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunhong; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Hongxia; Sun, Jiashi; Zhou, Fengkun

    2006-01-01

    The biochemical analysis in medicine is an important inspection and diagnosis method in hospital clinic. The biochemical analysis of urine is one important item. The Urine test paper shows corresponding color with different detection project or different illness degree. The color difference between the standard threshold and the test paper color of urine can be used to judge the illness degree, so that further analysis and diagnosis to urine is gotten. The color is a three-dimensional physical variable concerning psychology, while reflectance is one-dimensional variable; therefore, the estimation method of color difference in urine test can have better precision and facility than the conventional test method with one-dimensional reflectance, it can make an accurate diagnose. The digital camera is easy to take an image of urine test paper and is used to carry out the urine biochemical analysis conveniently. On the experiment, the color image of urine test paper is taken by popular color digital camera and saved in the computer which installs a simple color space conversion (RGB -> XYZ -> L *a *b *)and the calculation software. Test sample is graded according to intelligent detection of quantitative color. The images taken every time were saved in computer, and the whole illness process will be monitored. This method can also use in other medicine biochemical analyses that have relation with color. Experiment result shows that this test method is quick and accurate; it can be used in hospital, calibrating organization and family, so its application prospect is extensive.

  7. Color Difference in Bering Sea Phytoplankton Blooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    There is considerable color variation in the phytoplankton blooms in the Bering Sea -- from the aquamarine west of Nunivak Island to the almost reddish patch west of St. Matthew Island to the green eddy astride the International dateline at 60 North latitude and 178 East longitude. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  8. Color associations for days and letters across different languages

    PubMed Central

    Rouw, Romke; Case, Laura; Gosavi, Radhika; Ramachandran, Vilayanur

    2014-01-01

    While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days). The culture and language specificity of these effects was examined in a large group (457) of Dutch-speaking participants, 92 English-speaking participants, and 49 Hindi-speaking participants. Non-random distributions of color choices were revealed; consistencies were found across the three language groups in color preferences for both days and letters. Interestingly, while the Hindi-speaking participants were presented with letter stimuli matched on phonology, their pattern of letter-to-color preferences still showed similarities with Dutch- and English-speaking participants. Furthermore, we found that that the color preferences corresponded between participants indicating to have conscious color experiences with letters or days (putative synesthetes) and participants who do not (non-synesthetes). We also explored possible mechanisms underlying the color preferences. There were a few specific associations, including red for “A,” red for “Monday,” and white for “Sunday.” We also explored more general mechanisms, such as overall color preferences as shown by Simner et al. (2005). While certainly not all variation can be explained or predicted, the results show that regularities are present in color-to-letter or color-to-day preferences in both putative synesthetes and non-synesthetes across languages. Both letter-to-color and day-to-color preferences were influenced by multiple factors. The findings support a notion of abstract concepts (such as days and letters) that are not represented in isolation, but are connected to perceptual representational systems. Interestingly, at least some of these connections to color representations are shared across different language/cultural groups. PMID

  9. 27 CFR 19.392 - Converting denatured alcohol to a different formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Converting denatured alcohol to a different formula. 19.392 Section 19.392 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... denatured alcohol to a different formula. (a) General. A proprietor may convert specially denatured...

  10. 27 CFR 19.392 - Converting denatured alcohol to a different formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Converting denatured alcohol to a different formula. 19.392 Section 19.392 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... denatured alcohol to a different formula. (a) General. A proprietor may convert specially denatured...

  11. An experiment on the color rendering of different light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumagalli, Simonetta; Bonanomi, Cristian; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2013-02-01

    The color rendering index (CRI) of a light source attempts to measure how much the color appearance of objects is preserved when they are illuminated by the given light source. This problem is of great importance for various industrial and scientific fields, such as lighting architecture, design, ergonomics, etc. Usually a light source is specified through the Correlated Color Temperature or CCT. However two (or more) light sources with the same CCT but different spectral power distribution can exist. Therefore color samples viewed under two light sources with equal CCTs can appear different. Hence, the need for a method to assess the quality of a given illuminant in relation to color. Recently CRI has had a renewed interest because of the new LED-based lighting systems. They usually have a color rendering index rather low, but good preservation of color appearance and a pleasant visual appearance (visual appeal). Various attempts to develop a new color rendering index have been done so far, but still research is working for a better one. This article describes an experiment performed by human observers concerning the appearance preservation of color under some light sources, comparing it with a range of available color rendering indices.

  12. Preferred memory color difference between the deuteranomalous and normal color vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, YeSeul; Kwak, Youngshin; Woo, Sungjoo; Park, Chongwook

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the difference of the preferred hues of familiar objects between the color deficient observer and the normal observer. Thirteen test color images were chosen covering fruit colors, natural scene and human faces. It contained red, yellow, green, blue, purple and skin color. Two color deficient observer (deuteranomal) and two normal observers were participated in this experiment. They controlled the YCC hue of the objects in the images to obtain the most preferred and the most natural image. The selected images were analyzed using CIELAB values of each pixel. Data analysis results showed that in the case of naturalness, both groups selected the similar hues for the most of image, while, in the case of preference, the color deficient observer preferred more reddish or more greenish images. Since the deuteranomalous observer has relatively week perception for red and green region, they may prefer more reddish or greenish color. The color difference between natural hue and preferred hue of deuteranomal observer is bigger than those of normal observer.

  13. [Effect of bagging with different colors on the fruit coloration of 'yunhongli No.2' pear].

    PubMed

    Ma, Ce; Xiao, Chang-Cheng; Hu, Hong-Ju; Huang, Xiao-San; Zhang, Shao-Ling; Wu, Jun

    2014-03-01

    The present study was conducted to reveal the effect of bags with different colors on the fruit coloration of 'Yunhongli No. 2'. The differences in fruit skin color, chlorophyll, flavonoids, total phenol, anthocyanin contents and the activities of related enzymes involved in anthocyanin synthesis among different bagging treatments were evaluated. The results showed that dark treatment at the fruit development stage was beneficial to skin coloration after bag removing. After removing bags, the anthocyanin content in the treatment of natural light was highest and the red coloration of the fruit skin were best, followed by the treatment of white bags. The different bagging treatments significantly affected the contents of chlorophyll, flavonoids, total phenol, anthocyanin in the fruit skin, thereby affected the skin coloration. The activities of related enzymes for anthocyanin synthesis showed significant differences among the different bagging treatments. The correlation analysis suggested that the anthocyanin content was significantly positively related with the activities of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) and UDP-glucose flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransf-erase (UFGT), however, it had no significant correlation with the activity of phenylalanin ammo-nialyase (PAL). PMID:24984501

  14. Effects of prenatal exposure to different colors on offsprings mood

    PubMed Central

    Faryadian, Sara; Khosravi, Afra

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): There is much evidence indicating that depression is influenced by the levels of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, GABA and adrenaline. The current study we designed to investigate the effect of exposure of pregnant rats to different colors on neurotransmitters level, as indicators of mood disorders in off springs. Materials and Methods: Five groups of pregnant female Wistar rats (eight rats in each group) were enrolled in this study. Dopamine, adrenaline and GABA concentration in sera of rats were measured using ELISA. Results: The colors black and red elevated the GABA levels in serum and CSF while the colors green and blue decreased the GABA levels. The colors black and red also decreased the sera and CSF levels of dopamine compared to the control group. The concentration of adrenaline was increased following exposure to the colors black, red and blue but decreased only following color green exposure. These results showed serious changes in neurotransmitter levels due to exposure to different colors which can be translated as mood and behavior changes. Conclusion: It can be concluded that exposure during pregnancy can lead to postpartum behavioral changes even at adulthood and such changes can be made by colors. PMID:26949495

  15. Color Stability of Enamel following Different Acid Etching and Color Exposure Times

    PubMed Central

    Jahanbin, Arezoo; Basafa, Mohammad; Moazzami, Mostafa; Basafa, Behnoush; Eslami, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different etching times on enamel color stability after immediate versus delayed exposure to colored artificial saliva (CAS). Materials and methods. Human first premolars were divided into five groups of twenty. A colorimeter was used according to the CIE system on the mid-buccal and mid-lingual surfaces to evaluate initial tooth color. Samples in group A remained unetched. In groups B to E, buccal and lingual surfaces were initially etched with phosphoric acid for 15 and 60 seconds, respectively. Then, the samples in groups A and C were immersed in colored artificial saliva (cola+saliva). In group B, the teeth were immersed in simple artificial saliva (AS). Samples in groups D and E were immersed in AS for 24 and 72 hours, respectively before being immersed in colored AS. The teeth were immersed for one month in each solution before color measurement. During the test period, the teeth were retrieved from the staining solution and stored in AS for five minutes. This was repeated 60 times. Color changes of buccal and lingual surfaces were calculated. Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical analysis (α ≤0.05). Results. There were no significant differences between the groups in term of ΔE of buccal (P = 0.148) and lingual surfaces (P = 0.73). Conclusion. Extended time of etching did not result in significant enamel color change. Immediate and delayed exposure of etched enamel to staining solutions did not result in clinically detectable tooth color changes. PMID:25093048

  16. Color difference threshold of chromostereopsis induced by flat display emission

    PubMed Central

    Ozolinsh, Maris; Muizniece, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    The study of chromostereopsis has gained attention in the backdrop of the use of computer displays in daily life. In this context, we analyze the illusory depth sense using planar color images presented on a computer screen. We determine the color difference threshold required to induce an illusory sense of depth psychometrically using a constant stimuli paradigm. Isoluminant stimuli are presented on a computer screen, which stimuli are aligned along the blue–red line in the computer display CIE xyY color space. Stereo disparity is generated by increasing the color difference between the central and surrounding areas of the stimuli with both areas consisting of random dots on a black background. The observed altering of illusory depth sense, thus also stereo disparity is validated using the “center-of-gravity” model. The induced illusory sense of the depth effect undergoes color reversal upon varying the binocular lateral eye pupil covering conditions (lateral or medial). Analysis of the retinal image point spread function for the display red and blue pixel radiation validates the altering of chromostereopsis retinal disparity achieved by increasing the color difference, and also the chromostereopsis color reversal caused by varying the eye pupil covering conditions. PMID:25883573

  17. Effects of chromatic image statistics on illumination induced color differences.

    PubMed

    Lucassen, Marcel P; Gevers, Theo; Gijsenij, Arjan; Dekker, Niels

    2013-09-01

    We measure the color fidelity of visual scenes that are rendered under different (simulated) illuminants and shown on a calibrated LCD display. Observers make triad illuminant comparisons involving the renderings from two chromatic test illuminants and one achromatic reference illuminant shown simultaneously. Four chromatic test illuminants are used: two along the daylight locus (yellow and blue), and two perpendicular to it (red and green). The observers select the rendering having the best color fidelity, thereby indirectly judging which of the two test illuminants induces the smallest color differences compared to the reference. Both multicolor test scenes and natural scenes are studied. The multicolor scenes are synthesized and represent ellipsoidal distributions in CIELAB chromaticity space having the same mean chromaticity but different chromatic orientations. We show that, for those distributions, color fidelity is best when the vector of the illuminant change (pointing from neutral to chromatic) is parallel to the major axis of the scene's chromatic distribution. For our selection of natural scenes, which generally have much broader chromatic distributions, we measure a higher color fidelity for the yellow and blue illuminants than for red and green. Scrambled versions of the natural images are also studied to exclude possible semantic effects. We quantitatively predict the average observer response (i.e., the illuminant probability) with four types of models, differing in the extent to which they incorporate information processing by the visual system. Results show different levels of performance for the models, and different levels for the multicolor scenes and the natural scenes. Overall, models based on the scene averaged color difference have the best performance. We discuss how color constancy algorithms may be improved by exploiting knowledge of the chromatic distribution of the visual scene. PMID:24323269

  18. 27 CFR 25.55 - Formulas for fermented products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... substantially change the color, flavor, or character, separation of beer into different components, reverse... required for different products? (1) You must file a separate formula for approval for each different... is my formula approval valid? Your formula approved under this section remains in effect until:...

  19. Surface Tension, Pressure Difference and Laplace Formula for Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koibuchi, Hiroshi; Shobukhov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    The surface tension γ and the pressure difference Δp for spherical membranes are calculated using Monte Carlo simulation technique. We study the so-called tethered and uid surface discrete models that are defined on the fixed-connectivity (tethered) and dynamically triangulated (uid) lattices respectively. Hamiltonians of the models include a self-avoiding potential, which makes the enclosed volume well defined. We find that there is reasonable accuracy in the technique for the calculation of γ using the real area A if the bending rigidity κ or A/N is sufficiently large. We also find that γ becomes constant in the limit of A/N → ∞ both in the tethered and uid surfaces. The property limA/N→∞ γ = const corresponds to certain experimental results in cell biology.

  20. Causes of Different Vivid Colors in Chalcedonies: Kutahya-Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcan Kilic, Cumhur; Kagan Kadıoglu, Yusuf

    2016-04-01

    Chalcedony is a silicate mineral which is a mixture of fibrous quartz (trigonal) and granular moganite (monoclinic) minerals. They are both SiO2 in composition but differs in crystal system. Chalcedony is widely used as semi-precious gemstone in many countries. It has many different kinds due to their various colors and structures. The colour changes in mineral depends on different causes. Most important causes are transition metal impurities in minerals chemical composition and charge transfer between ions. Different chalcedony types have different colors due to their elemental composition. Chalcedony can be show almost every colour strating from white, black, gray, red, blue, green to brown or a combinations of more than one color in case of agates and jasper formations. Although they have same major oxide compositions,chrysopras (green chalcedony) have Ni which gives the green color and carnelian (orange chalcedony) have Fe+3 which gives the orange color. Kutahya, Eskisehir, Ankara, Manisa, Balıkesir, Canakkale and Yozgat represent the most cities which chalcedony can be mostly observed in Turkey. In Kutahya, chalcedony occurs in cavity or vein fillings in pyroclastic rocks such as tuff and formed by precipitation of silica bearing fluids in low temperatures. They can be also formed within the hydrothermal alteration zone of ultramafic rocks. Although chalcedonies in Kutahya form under almost same condition, they have various colors within the same unit. To specify the cause of the different colors, chemical analysis and Confocal Raman studies performed on Kutahya chalcedonies. Firstly, samples are crushed to 2 mm. size. After that, different colors of chalcedonies are separated by hand picking under binocular microscope and grouped into different color sets such as white, blue, dark yellow, light orange, dark orange and claret red. Each color set is measured by PED-XRF method to obtain chemical compositions. Also Raman studies performed to identify the effect

  1. The effect of different standard illumination conditions on color balance failure in offset printed images on glossy coated paper expressed by color difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonov, I.; Shopova, M.; Boeva, R.; Nikolov, M.

    2012-05-01

    One of the biggest problems in color reproduction processes is color shifts occurring when images are viewed under different illuminants. Process ink colors and their combinations that match under one light source will often appear different under another light source. This problem is referred to as color balance failure or color inconstancy. The main goals of the present study are to investigate and determine the color balance failure (color inconstancy) of offset printed images expressed by color difference and color gamut changes depending on three of the most commonly used in practice illuminants, CIE D50, CIE F2 and CIE A. The results obtained are important from a scientific and a practical point of view. For the first time, a methodology is suggested and implemented for the examination and estimation of color shifts by studying a large number of color and gamut changes in various ink combinations for different illuminants.

  2. National Differences in Intelligence, Crime, Income, and Skin Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Templer, Donald I.

    2009-01-01

    National differences in murder, rape, and serious assault were examined in 113 countries in relation to national IQ, income, skin color, birth rate, life expectancy, infant mortality, and HIV/AIDS. Data were collated from the 1993-1996 International Crime Statistics published by INTERPOL. Violent crime was found to be lower in countries with…

  3. Eye Movement Preferences As Individual Differences in Learning From Color and Non-Color Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caban, Juan Pedro

    An experiment compared the effectiveness of color and non-color (black-and-white) pictures in a paired associate learning task. The study also used individual eye movement quantifications as a predictor of preference for color and non-color pictures. Specifically, eye movement fixation patterns were used as indices of preference for color and…

  4. Geometrically derived difference formulae for the numerical integration of trajectory problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, R. J. Y.; Sanz-Serna, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The term 'trajectory problem' is taken to include problems that can arise, for instance, in connection with contour plotting, or in the application of continuation methods, or during phase-plane analysis. Geometrical techniques are used to construct difference methods for these problems to produce in turn explicit and implicit circularly exact formulae. Based on these formulae, a predictor-corrector method is derived which, when compared with a closely related standard method, shows improved performance. It is found that this latter method produces spurious limit cycles, and this behavior is partly analyzed. Finally, a simple variable-step algorithm is constructed and tested.

  5. Origin of the different color of ruby and emerald

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lastra, J. M.; Barriuso, M. T.; Aramburu, J. A.; Moreno, M.

    2005-09-01

    The different color exhibited by ruby and emerald is a fundamental but still unsolved question. According to recent EXAFS measurements, such a difference can hardly be explained on the basis of a different average distance between Cr3+ and the six oxygen ligands. The puzzling difference in color between the two gemstones is shown in this work to arise essentially from the distinct electrostatic potential imposed by the rest of lattice ions upon the active electrons of the CrO69- unit. Main effects are shown to come from the electric field generated in the neighborhood of the Cr3+ site in ruby which is absent in the case of emerald due to symmetry.

  6. 27 CFR 19.392 - Converting denatured alcohol to a different formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Converting denatured alcohol to a different formula. 19.392 Section 19.392 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS...

  7. 27 CFR 19.392 - Converting denatured alcohol to a different formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Converting denatured alcohol to a different formula. 19.392 Section 19.392 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS...

  8. Sex differences in color preferences transcend extreme differences in culture and ecology.

    PubMed

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Witzel, Christoph

    2014-10-01

    At first glance, color preferences might seem to be the most subjective and context-dependent aspects of color cognition. Yet they are not. The present study compares color preferences of women and men from an industrialized and a remote, nonindustrialized culture. In particular, we investigated preferences in observers from Poland and from the Yali in Papua, respectively. Not surprisingly, we found that color preferences clearly differed between the two communities and also between sexes. However, despite the pronounced cultural differences, the way in which men and women differed from each other was almost the same in both cultures. At the same time, this sexual contrast was not specific to biological components of color vision. Our results reveal a pattern of sexual dimorphism that transcends extreme differences in culture and ecology. They point toward strong cross-cultural constraints beyond the biological predispositions of nature and the cultural particularities of nurture. PMID:24570324

  9. Numerical expression of color emotion and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tetsuya; Kajiwara, Kanji; Xin, John H.; Hansuebsai, Aran; Nobbs, Jim

    2002-06-01

    Human emotions induced by colors are various but the emotions are expressed through words and languages. In order to analyze the emotions expressed through words and languages, visual assessment tests against color emotions expressed by twelve kinds of word pairs were carried out in Japan, Thailand, Hong Kong and UK. The numerical expression of each color emotion is being tried as a formula with an ellipsoid-shape resembling that of a color difference formula. In this paper, the numerical expression of 'Soft- Hard' color emotion was mainly discussed. The application of color emotions via the empirical color emotions formulae derived from kansei database (database of sensory assessments) was also briefly reported.

  10. Color alteration in teeth subjected to different bleaching techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briso, A. L. F.; Fonseca, M. S. M.; de Almeida, L. C. A. G.; Mauro, S. J.; Dos Santos, P. H.

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated the color alteration of teeth subjected to the action of different bleaching agents and the influence of light sources commonly used in association with these products, In GI, the specimens remained immersed in artificial saliva. The specimens in GII were bleached with a 10% carbamide peroxide gel 4 hours/day during 3 weeks; the teeth in the other three groups were subjected to three sessions of three 10-min applications of 35% hydrogen peroxide gel at 7-day intervals. In GIII, no light was used, while in GIV and GV the gel was associated with a quartz-tungsten-halogen light and a LED/laser source, respectively. The teeth color was evaluated before and 7 days after the bleaching sessions by reflectance spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Fisher's test (α = 0.05), and showed that a significant color change was obtained in all treated groups. After the first week of treatment and at the end of it, the bleaching protocols showed similar results. The results of the present study indicate that association of a light source is not necessary to obtain the bleaching effect and that optimal bleaching can be achieved with all techniques tested.

  11. Medical color displays and their color calibration: investigations of various calibration methods, tools, and potential improvement in color difference ΔE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehrig, Hans; Hashmi, Syed F.; Dallas, William J.; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Rehm, Kelly; Fan, Jiahua

    2010-08-01

    Our laboratory has investigated the efficacy of a suite of color calibration and monitor profiling packages which employ a variety of color measurement sensors. Each of the methods computes gamma correction tables for the red, green and blue color channels of a monitor that attempt to: a) match a desired luminance range and tone reproduction curve; and b) maintain a target neutral point across the range of grey values. All of the methods examined here produce International Color Consortium (ICC) profiles that describe the color rendering capabilities of the monitor after calibration. Color profiles incorporate a transfer matrix that establishes the relationship between RGB driving levels and the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) XYZ (tristimulus) values of the resulting on-screen color; the matrix is developed by displaying color patches of known RGB values on the monitor and measuring the tristimulus values with a sensor. The number and chromatic distribution of color patches varies across methods and is usually not under user control. In this work we examine the effect of employing differing calibration and profiling methods on rendition of color images. A series of color patches encoded in sRGB color space were presented on the monitor using color-management software that utilized the ICC profile produced by each method. The patches were displayed on the calibrated monitor and measured with a Minolta CS200 colorimeter. Differences in intended and achieved luminance and chromaticity were computed using the CIE DE2000 color-difference metric, in which a value of ΔE = 1 is generally considered to be approximately one just noticeable difference (JND) in color. We observed between one and 17 JND's for individual colors, depending on calibration method and target. As an extension of this fundamental work1, we further improved our calibration method by defining concrete calibration parameters for the display, using the NEC wide gamut puck, and making sure

  12. Reported head injury and sex differences in color naming, color matching, and digit-string matching.

    PubMed

    Majeres, R L; Demovic, A R; Preston, L A

    1992-04-01

    It was hypothesized that the observed sex differences on three speeded tasks could be accounted for in terms of the greater incidence of head injury in men than in women. In two studies of 64 male and 66 female college students significant sex differences were found on digit-string matching and color-matching tasks. When the data from those 39 subjects with reported histories of head injury were eliminated from the analysis or head-injury reports were statistically controlled, significant sex differences remained. Digit-string matching times were significantly correlated with reported head injury in both studies, suggesting that this test is sensitive to residual effects of head injury. PMID:1594412

  13. The Difference between the Two Representative Kampo Formulas for Treating Dysmenorrhea: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Tetsuhiro; Katayama, Kotoe; Horiba, Yuko; Munakata, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Rui; Imoto, Seiya; Miyano, Satoru; Mima, Hideki; Watanabe, Kenji; Mimura, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    In Kampo medicine, two different formulas are effective for treating dysmenorrhea—tokishakuyakusan and keishibukuryogan; however, the criteria by which specialists select the appropriate formula for each patient are not clear. We compared patients treated with tokishakuyakusan and those with keishibukuryogan and proposed a predictive model. The study included 168 primary and secondary dysmenorrhea patients who visited the Kampo Clinic at Keio University Hospital. We collected clinical data from 128 dysmenorrhea patients, compared the two patient groups and selected significantly different factors as potential predictors, and used logistic regression to establish a model. An external validation was performed using 40 dysmenorrhea patients. Lightheadedness, BMI < 18.5, and a weak abdomen were significantly more frequent in the tokishakuyakusan group; tendency to sweat, heat intolerance, leg numbness, a cold sensation in the lower back, a strong abdomen, and paraumbilical tenderness and resistance were more frequent in the keishibukuryogan group. The final model fitted the data well. Internally estimated accuracy was 81.2%, and a leave-one-out cross-validation estimate of accuracy was 80.5%. External validation accuracy was 85.0%. We proposed a model for predicting the use of two Kampo formulas for dysmenorrhea, which should be validated in prospective trials. PMID:27006676

  14. The effect of different drinks on the color stability of different restorative materials after one month

    PubMed Central

    Tuncer, Safa; Demirci, Mustafa; Serim, Merve Efe; Baydemir, Canan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different drinks on the color parameters of four different restorative materials. Materials and Methods Three different composites (Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative, Filtek Ultimate Flowable, and Filtek Silorane, 3M ESPE) and a polyacid-modified composite resin material (Dyract XP, Dentsply DeTrey GmbH) were evaluated. Eighty-four disc-shaped specimens of 8 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness were prepared (n = 21 each). Color coordinates (L*a*b*, ΔL*, Δa*, Δb*, and ΔE*) were measured using a VİTA Easyshade Compact (VİTA Zahnfabrik) after 24 hr of storage (baseline) and after 30 day of storage in three different beverages of black tea, Coca cola, or water (control) (n = 7). In each beverage, the specimens were stored three times a day, one hr each, for 30 day. The color changes (ΔE) were calculated and were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn multiple comparison test. Results The color difference (ΔE*) of the resin materials ranged between 1.31 and 15.28 after 30 day of immersion in the staining solutions. Dyract XP in Coca cola (15.28 ± 2.61) and black tea (12.22 ± 2.73) showed the highest mean ΔE* value after 30 day, followed by Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative (5.99 ± 1.25) and Filtek Ultimate Flowable (4.71 ± 1.40) in black tea (p < 0.05). Conclusions The compomers displayed unacceptable color changes at the end of 30 day in all beverages. Among resin composites, the silorane based composite exhibited relatively good color stability than the others. Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative and Filtek Flowable showed similar color changes in all beverages. PMID:26587410

  15. Colorful Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    Described is an color-making activity where students use food coloring, eyedroppers, and water to make various colored solutions. Included are the needed materials and procedures. Students are asked to write up the formulas for making their favorite color. (KR)

  16. Waking Up to Difference: Teachers, Color-Blindness, and the Effects on Students of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro Atwater, Sheri A.

    2008-01-01

    Color-blindness, the ideology that "race should not matter" in how individuals are treated, is often confused with "race does not matter" (Neville, 2000). The historical, social, and political origins of color-blind racial attitudes are outlined here. Developmental and constructivist theories are used to illustrate how teachers' use of the…

  17. Effect of adding different thickening agents on the viscosity properties and in vitro mineral availability of infant formula.

    PubMed

    González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; López-Nicolás, Rubén; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Martínez-Graciá, Carmen

    2014-09-15

    The effect of adding different thickening agents (locust bean gum (LBG), modified corn and rice starches (MCS, MRS)) to an infant formula on both in vitro mineral availability (Ca, Fe and Zn), quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), and formula viscosity, after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, was investigated. LBG was the most effective agent to increase formula thickness. However, it showed a negative effect on Ca, Fe and Zn in vitro solubility and dialysability. MCS and MRS only affected calcium solubility and dialysability when they were used at ⩾50% of the maximum legal limit. No negative effect was observed for Fe and Zn when modified starches were added at the different concentrations assessed. The phytate content in the thickening ingredients was also analysed. Despite finding a considerable amount of phytic acid in the raw ingredients, its final concentration in the infant formula was insufficient to decrease in vitro mineral availability. PMID:24767020

  18. Nitrous or nitric? Same difference. Molecular formulas in the 1840s.

    PubMed

    Alston, Theodore A

    2007-03-01

    The molecular formulas given by James Y. Simpson for nitrous oxide, diethyl ether, and chloroform are difficult to interpret today. The organic formulas are "incorrect" today because Jean Dumas (the influential chemist who was one of the discoverers of chloroform) used John Dalton's presumption of molecular simplicity. That is, water was long presumed to be HO. The nitrous oxide formula was incorrect owing to confusion with Dalton's nitrous gas, now termed nitric oxide. The Simpson formulas illustrate that inhaled anesthesia arrived at the time of a cusp in the history of chemistry. PMID:17379133

  19. False Color Processing to Enhance Differences Around Yogi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this scene showing the rover deployed at rock Yogi, the colors have similarly been enhanced to bring out differences. The same three kinds of rocks are recognized as in the distance. Yogi (red arrow), one of the large rocks with a weathered coating, exhibits a fresh face to the northeast, resulting perhaps from eolian scouring or from fracturing off of pieces to expose a fresher surface. Barnacle Bill and Cradle (blue arrows) are typical of the unweathered smaller rocks. During its traverse to Yogi the rover stirred the soil and exposed material from several cm in depth. During one of the turns to deploy Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (inset and white arrow), the wheels dug particularly deeply and exposed white material. Spectra of this white material show it is virtually identical to Scooby Doo, and such white material may underlie much of the site. The lander's rear ramp, which Sojourner used to descend to the Martian surface, is at lower left.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and managed the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  20. Teaching Formulaic Sequences: The Same as or Different from Teaching Single Words?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alali, Fatima A.; Schmitt, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Formulaic language is an important component of discourse and needs to be addressed in teaching pedagogy. Unfortunately, there has been little research into the most effective ways of teaching formulaic language. In this study, Kuwaiti students were taught words and idioms using the same teaching methodologies, and their learning was measured. The…

  1. Difference between seeing a random color dot picture and reading shapes from the same color dot picture in the Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Nakadomari, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Miyauchi, Satoru; Kitahara, Kenji

    2002-06-01

    When we are viewing colored picture, what is the difference in our brain between a random Color dot picture and a digit figure pattern picture seen through its colored dots? We created 3 patterns that are a functional magnetic resonance imaging version of the Ishihara plate patterns to test multiple color-sensitive areas in human ventral occipitotemporal cortex. The results showed that area V4 is activated by the stimulus of reading shapes from its color dots in the Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates but not by the stimulus of seeing a random color dot picture. We suggest that area V4 is activated not by color processing but by segregation.

  2. Selective Pressures Explain Differences in Flower Color among Gentiana lutea Populations

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Paula; Guitián, Javier A.; Guitián, Pablo; Guitián, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Flower color variation among plant populations might reflect adaptation to local conditions such as the interacting animal community. In the northwest Iberian Peninsula, flower color of Gentiana lutea varies longitudinally among populations, ranging from orange to yellow. We explored whether flower color is locally adapted and the role of pollinators and seed predators as agents of selection by analyzing the influence of flower color on (i) pollinator visitation rate and (ii) escape from seed predation and (iii) by testing whether differences in pollinator communities correlate with flower color variation across populations. Finally, (iv) we investigated whether variation in selective pressures explains flower color variation among 12 G. lutea populations. Flower color influenced pollinator visits and differences in flower color among populations were related to variation in pollinator communities. Selective pressures on flower color vary among populations and explain part of flower color differences among populations of G. lutea. We conclude that flower color in G. lutea is locally adapted and that pollinators play a role in this adaptation. PMID:26172378

  3. Hypergraph coloring complexes.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Felix; Dall, Aaron; Kubitzke, Martina

    2012-08-28

    The aim of this paper is to generalize the notion of the coloring complex of a graph to hypergraphs. We present three different interpretations of those complexes-a purely combinatorial one and two geometric ones. It is shown, that most of the properties, which are known to be true for coloring complexes of graphs, break down in this more general setting, e.g., Cohen-Macaulayness and partitionability. Nevertheless, we are able to provide bounds for the [Formula: see text]- and [Formula: see text]-vectors of those complexes which yield new bounds on chromatic polynomials of hypergraphs. Moreover, though it is proven that the coloring complex of a hypergraph has a wedge decomposition, we provide an example showing that in general this decomposition is not homotopy equivalent to a wedge of spheres. In addition, we can completely characterize those hypergraphs whose coloring complex is connected. PMID:23483700

  4. Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... rose in full bloom. If you have a color vision defect, you may see these colors differently than most people. There are three main kinds of color vision defects. Red-green color vision defects are the most ...

  5. Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... rose in full bloom. If you have a color vision defect, you may see these colors differently than most people. There are three main kinds of color vision defects. Red-green color vision defects are the ...

  6. Color Difference and Memory Recall in Free-Flying Honeybees: Forget the Hard Problem.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Adrian G; Garcia, Jair E

    2014-01-01

    Free-flying honeybees acquire color information differently depending upon whether a target color is learnt in isolation (absolute conditioning), or in relation to a perceptually similar color (differential conditioning). Absolute conditioning allows for rapid learning, but color discrimination is coarse. Differential conditioning requires more learning trials, but enables fine discriminations. Currently it is unknown whether differential conditioning to similar colors in honeybees forms a long-term memory, and the stability of memory in a biologically relevant scenario considering similar or saliently different color stimuli. Individual free-flying honeybees (N = 6) were trained to similar color stimuli separated by 0.06 hexagon units for 60 trials and mean accuracy was 81.7% ± 12.2% s.d. Bees retested on subsequent days showed a reduction in the number of correct choices with increasing time from the initial training, and for four of the bees this reduction was significant from chance expectation considering binomially distributed logistic regression models. In contrast, an independent group of 6 bees trained to saliently different colors (>0.14 hexagon units) did not experience any decay in memory retention with increasing time. This suggests that whilst the bees' visual system can permit fine discriminations, flowers producing saliently different colors are more easily remembered by foraging bees over several days. PMID:26462830

  7. The impact of different sediment concentrations and sediment transport formulas on the simulated floodplain processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjankar, Rohan; Yager, Elowyn M.

    2012-07-01

    SummaryOverbank sedimentation is an important process in river floodplain ecosystems and is a component of the floodplain geomorphologic evolution. The impact of suspended sediment supply on floodplain processes is still unclear because sediment deposition can be influenced by many factors. We quantified the effect of sediment supply (suspended sediment) and transport formulas on simulated floodplain processes using a coupled two-dimensional hydrodynamic and sediment transport model (MIKE21C). Erosion and deposition depths, net sedimentation depth and total volume were quantified based on the last time step of the simulation period. The MIKE21C model was validated by comparing simulated water surface elevations to those from a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model. We compared the sediment transport model simulated suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) to measured concentrations at a gage station. Erosion and deposition processes were simulated using five hydrograph scenarios as a function of high and low SSC and two sediment transport equations, Van Rijn (1984) and Engelund and Hansen (1967). A specific location could be an erosional or depositional zone at different time steps of the simulation. Thus, floodplain deposition is a discontinuous function of river discharge and varies spatially and temporally over the floodplain. Large flows with high SSC were more effective for floodplain deposition than lower discharges, which dominantly caused sediment scour. Coupled hydrodynamic and sediment transport models that account for feedback processes between topography and hydraulics should be given first preference for future floodplain restoration projects. From a restoration perspective, larger flows are required for greater floodplain deposition rates and maintenance of dynamic processes. The Engelund and Hansen (1967) equation simulated higher transport rates than the Van Rijn equation (1984). For future studies, transport equations should be selected based on the

  8. Content based Image Retrieval based on Different Global and Local Color Histogram Methods: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhasini, Pallikonda Sarah; Sri Rama Krishna, K.; Murali Krishna, I. V.

    2016-06-01

    Different global and local color histogram methods for content based image retrieval (CBIR) are investigated in this paper. Color histogram is a widely used descriptor for CBIR. Conventional method of extracting color histogram is global, which misses the spatial content, is less invariant to deformation and viewpoint changes, and results in a very large three dimensional histogram corresponding to the color space used. To address the above deficiencies, different global and local histogram methods are proposed in recent research. Different ways of extracting local histograms to have spatial correspondence, invariant colour histogram to add deformation and viewpoint invariance and fuzzy linking method to reduce the size of the histogram are found in recent papers. The color space and the distance metric used are vital in obtaining color histogram. In this paper the performance of CBIR based on different global and local color histograms in three different color spaces, namely, RGB, HSV, L*a*b* and also with three distance measures Euclidean, Quadratic and Histogram intersection are surveyed, to choose appropriate method for future research.

  9. Funding Formulae where Costs Legitimately Differ: The Case of Higher Education in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnes, Geraint

    2007-01-01

    The institutional framework for the funding of higher education in the United Kingdom is discussed. In England, much of the financial support for teaching and learning, especially of "home and European Union" undergraduates, is channelled through the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE). The HEFCE operates a formula funding…

  10. Infant formulas - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6 months of life, infants need only breast milk or formula to meet all their nutritional needs. ... 12 months old who are not drinking breast milk . While there are some differences, infant formulas sold ...

  11. Infant Formula

    MedlinePlus

    ... it okay to feed my baby formula? Breast milk is the best source of nutrition for your ... will probably recommend a formula made from cow's milk. Some formulas are iron-fortified. This means they ...

  12. Different ranking of avian colors predicted by modeling of retinal function in humans and birds.

    PubMed

    Håstad, Olle; Odeen, Anders

    2008-06-01

    Abstract: Only during the past decade have vision-system-neutral methods become common practice in studies of animal color signals. Consequently, much of the current knowledge on sexual selection is based directly or indirectly on human vision, which may or may not emphasize spectral information in a signal differently from the intended receiver. In an attempt to quantify this discrepancy, we used retinal models to test whether human and bird vision rank plumage colors similarly. Of 67 species, human and bird models disagreed in 26 as to which pair of patches in the plumage provides the strongest color contrast or which male in a random pair is the more colorful. These results were only partly attributable to human UV blindness. Despite confirming a strong correlation between avian and human color discrimination, we conclude that a significant proportion of the information in avian visual signals may be lost in translation. PMID:18429674

  13. Phospholipid Species in Newborn and 4 Month Old Infants after Consumption of Different Formulas or Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, Olaf; Fleddermann, Manja; Hellmuth, Christian; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for neuronal and cognitive development and are ingredients of infant formulae that are recommended but there is no evidence based minimal supplementation level available. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the effect of supplemented AA and DHA on phospholipid metabolism. Methods Plasma samples of a randomized, double-blind infant feeding trial were used for the analyses of phospholipid species by flow-injection mass spectrometry. Healthy term infants consumed isoenergetic formulae (intervention formula with equal amounts of AA and DHA—IF, control formula without additional AA and DHA—CF) from the first month of life until the age of 120 days. A group of breast milk (BM) -fed infants was followed as a reference. Results The plasma profile detected in newborns was different from 4 month old infants, irrespective of study group. Most relevant changes were seen in higher level of LPC16:1, LPC20:4, PC32:1, PC34:1 and PC36:4 and lower level of LPC18:0, LPC18:2, PC32:2, PC36:2 and several ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in newborns. The sum of all AA and DHA species at 4 month old infants in the CF group showed level of 40% (AA) and 51% (DHA) of newborns. The supplemented amount of DHA resulted in phospholipid level comparable to BM infants, but AA phospholipids were lower than in BM infants. Interestingly, relative contribution of DHA was higher in ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in CF fed infants, but IF and BM fed infants showed higher overall ether-linked phosphatidylcholines levels. Conclusion In conclusion, we have shown that infant plasma phospholipid profile changes remarkably from newborn over time and is dependent on the dietary fatty acid composition. A supplementation of an infant formula with AA and DHA resulted in increased related phospholipid species. PMID:27571269

  14. Reasons of different colors in the ignimbrite lithology: micro-XRF and confocal Raman spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Koralay, Tamer; Kadioglu, Yusuf Kagan

    2008-03-01

    Medium to large volume ignimbrites usually show vertical changes in terms of color, mineral components, texture and geochemistry. Determination of vertical changes in single extensive ignimbrite flow unit is difficult and requires careful studies. Color changes in ignimbrite flow units are very important for earth scientists. This may cause to identify the same ignimbrite series with different definition. Incesu ignimbrite has a wide distribution in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (CAVP). It is classified into three levels as lower, middle and upper according to color and welding degree. There is a sharp contact between the lower and middle level. The lower level is dark brown to black in color and the middle level has pinkish red to red color. The present paper focuses on the investigation of color changes between the ignimbrite levels by using micro-XRF and confocal Raman spectrometry. Micro-XRF and Raman spectrometry studies were performed on the polished thin sections of the lower and middle levels with different compositions. These differences were because of the compositional changes of K and slightly Fe elements distribution within the matrix. The dark brown to black color of the lower level was related to the high concentration of the K and Fe relatively to the middle level. Confocal Raman spectrometry investigations exhibited the matrix of the lower level mainly composed of anorthoclase, supporting the results of the micro-XRF. PMID:17689287

  15. Two different sensory mechanisms for the control of pupal protective coloration in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Hiraga, Sota

    2005-09-01

    The butterflies Graphium sarpedon nipponum Fruhstorfer and Papilio xuthus Linné show pupal protective color polymorphism, but the two species appear to have different sensory mechanisms for determining pupal coloration. When light was of sufficient illumination, the larvae of Graphium sarpedon became bright yellowish green pupae on white pupation boards and reddish brown pupae on black pupation boards. The pupal coloration thus strongly depended on the brightness of the pupation site. In addition, larvae became bright yellowish green pupae in complete darkness. From these results, measurement of the illumination suggested that pupal color is determined by the illuminant difference between incidence light from the dorsal direction and ventral light from a paper board; i.e., the sum of the reflected light of the board plus the penetrated light passing through the board. The illuminant difference required for reddish brown coloration was 40 lux or more. The optical signals received through the stemmata during a critical period before formation of the thorax garter (band string) were important for coloration. By contrast, in Papilio xuthus, successive tactile signals from a rough surfaced pupation site during a critical period before and after formation of the garter were important for determining brown pupal coloration. PMID:16061248

  16. Color changes in resin cement polymerized with different curing lights under indirect restorations

    PubMed Central

    Bayindir, Funda; Ilday, Nurcan Ozakar; Bayindir, Yusuf Ziya; Karataş, Ozcan; Gurpinar, Aysel

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of different interface materials and curing units on color changes in a resin cement material. Materials and Methods: Three interface materials and different curing systems, quartz-tungsten-halogen and polywave and monowave light-emitting diode (LED) light curing units, were studied at two-time intervals. Polystyrene strip was used as a control group. All measurements were made on a white background for standard color measurement. According to the CIE L*a*b* color space, the baseline color values of each specimen were measured. Differences between the measurements were calculated as ΔE, ΔL, Δa, and Δb. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's tests (α = 0.05) with SPSS 20.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). ANOVA revealed significance for interface materials and curing units and time for ΔE (P < 0.05). Results: Interaction between polymerizing units, material and time was not significant (P > 0.05). Monowave LED exhibited significantly higher color changes than the other units ([P < 0.05] [ΔE 2.94 ± 0.44]). QTH promoted composite specimens significantly less color change ([P < 0.05] [ΔE 0.87 ± 0.41]). Conclusion: This study concluded that color of resin cement used in the adhesion of indirect restorations was affected by curing device light and indirect restoration material type. PMID:26957793

  17. Exploring Combinations of Different Color and Facial Expression Stimuli for Gaze-Independent BCIs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Long; Jin, Jing; Daly, Ian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some studies have proven that a conventional visual brain computer interface (BCI) based on overt attention cannot be used effectively when eye movement control is not possible. To solve this problem, a novel visual-based BCI system based on covert attention and feature attention has been proposed and was called the gaze-independent BCI. Color and shape difference between stimuli and backgrounds have generally been used in examples of gaze-independent BCIs. Recently, a new paradigm based on facial expression changes has been presented, and obtained high performance. However, some facial expressions were so similar that users couldn't tell them apart, especially when they were presented at the same position in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm. Consequently, the performance of the BCI is reduced. New Method: In this paper, we combined facial expressions and colors to optimize the stimuli presentation in the gaze-independent BCI. This optimized paradigm was called the colored dummy face pattern. It is suggested that different colors and facial expressions could help users to locate the target and evoke larger event-related potentials (ERPs). In order to evaluate the performance of this new paradigm, two other paradigms were presented, called the gray dummy face pattern and the colored ball pattern. Comparison with Existing Method(s): The key point that determined the value of the colored dummy faces stimuli in BCI systems was whether the dummy face stimuli could obtain higher performance than gray faces or colored balls stimuli. Ten healthy participants (seven male, aged 21–26 years, mean 24.5 ± 1.25) participated in our experiment. Online and offline results of four different paradigms were obtained and comparatively analyzed. Results: The results showed that the colored dummy face pattern could evoke higher P300 and N400 ERP amplitudes, compared with the gray dummy face pattern and the colored ball pattern. Online results showed that

  18. Skin color and makeup strategies of women from different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Caisey, L; Grangeat, F; Lemasson, A; Talabot, J; Voirin, A

    2006-12-01

    The development of a world-wide makeup foundation range requires a thorough understanding of skin color features of women around the world. To understand the cosmetic needs of women from different ethnic groups, we measured skin color in five different groups (French and American Caucasian, Japanese, African-American, and Hispanic-American) and compared the data obtained with women's self-perception of skin color, before or after applying their usual foundation product. Skin color was measured using a spectro-radiometer and a spheric lighting device with CCD camera ensuring a highly reliable imaging and data acquisition. The diversity of skin types involved in the study lead to define a large, continuous color space where color spectra from various ethnic groups overlap. Three types of complexion - dark, medium, or light - were distinguished in each group. Only Japanese women did not identify with this lightness scale and considered it makes more sense to classify their skin according to a pink-ocher-beige color scale. The approach however revealed the great variety of skin colors within each ethnic group and the extent of unevenness. A fairly good agreement appeared between women's self-perception and data from color measurements but in Hispanic-American group. Data recorded, after foundation was applied, showed overall consistency with makeup strategy as described by volunteers except for the latter group whose approach looked more uncertain and variable. The findings of the study demonstrate the advantage of combining qualitative and quantitative approach for assessing the cosmetic needs and expectations of women from different ethnic origin and cultural background. PMID:18489287

  19. Anaphylactic sensitivity of guinea-pigs drinking different preparations of cows' milk and infant formulae.

    PubMed

    Anderson, K J; McLaughlan, P; Devey, M E; Coombs, R R

    1979-03-01

    Guinea-pigs have been given various preparations of cows' milk or infant formulae to drink in an investigation of the capacity of these milk preparations to stimulate per os anaphylactic sensitivity. The treatment, presumably heat, used to concentrate the 'Evaporated' whole cows' milks (three brands were tested) almost abolished their sensitizing capacity to beta lactoglobulin. The brand presumed to be most heated as judged by the degree of caramelization had also lost most of its sensitizing capacity to casein. Injected parenterally, the 'Evaporated' milk adequately sensitized to anaphylaxis. An infant formula, which in its spray dried form was only moderately sensitizing to both beta lactoglobulin and casein, lost most of this sensitizing capacity when processed to a liquid concentrate state. The manufacturing process for the liquid concentrate involved greater and more prolonged heating than required for the spray-dried form. The relevance of these findings in the guinea-pig to cows' milk protein intolerance in the infant and possibly also to cot death is discussed. PMID:455784

  20. Assessment of diclofenac permeation with different formulations: anti-inflammatory study of a selected formula.

    PubMed

    Escribano, Elvira; Calpena, Ana Cristina; Queralt, Josep; Obach, Rossend; Doménech, Jose

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the transdermal permeation of sodium diclofenac. Permeation studies were carried out in vitro using human skin (0.4 mm thick) from plastic surgery as a membrane. Four liquid formulations of 1% (w/w) sodium diclofenac were assayed: three ternary solvent systems (M4, M5, M6) and one microemulsion (M3). A 1% (w/w) solution of sodium diclofenac and a commercially available semisolid preparation were tested as reference formulations. The following permeation parameters for diclofenac were assessed: permeability coefficient, flux and drug permeated and retained in the skin at 24 h. The highest values of these parameters were obtained with formula M4, which contains transcutol 59.2%, oleic acid 14.9% and d-limonene 5% (w/w) as permeation enhancers. The anti-inflammatory activity of this formula was compared with that of the semisolid preparation on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. As expected from in vitro results, the M4 diclofenac delivery system showed higher activity than the semisolid preparation, both when applied locally (to the inflammation area) and when applied systemically (to the back). Neither treatment irritated the skin when tested on rabbits in a 72-h trial. These results suggest that topical delivery of sodium diclofenac with an absorption enhancer such as a mixture of oleic acid and d-limonene (M4) may be an effective medication for both dermal and subdermal injuries. PMID:12885384

  1. Differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Veeraganta, Sumanth K.; Savadi, Ravindra C.; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Z.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose was to investigate the differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color among a sample of the local population in Bengaluru, India. Methodology: The study comprised 100 subjects belonging to both gender between the age groups of 16 years to 55 years. Tooth shade values of permanent maxillary left or right central incisors were recorded using the Vitapan 3D-Master shade guide. Skin color was matched using the Radiance compact makeup shades as a guide. Results: Chi-square statistical test demonstrated that younger subjects have lighter tooth shade values. No statistically significant differences were recorded in tooth shade value according to gender or skin color. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that tooth shade value is significantly influenced by age. Gender and skin color appear not to have a significant relation to tooth shade value. PMID:26929500

  2. Cross-cultural differences in color preferences: implication for international film distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung Jae

    2002-06-01

    This paper proposes the necessity of manipulating colors of movie contents to fit diverse audiences around the world. Since films are highly color-dependent messages, it is critical to understand how people in different cultures respond differently to color. In recent years, the international market for filmed entertainment has grown more than the U.S. market. However, a lack of research on audience preferences shows no constant guide for the motion picture industry. The film production stage is often disregarded to deliver the appropriate visual color contents for local audience when U.S. films are distributed to foreign markets. Therefore, it is assumed that it would cause distractions for local audiences and it could result in poor ticket sales. When the U.S. produced films are distributed in Asia, colors of original films are always shown without manipulation. It is common that when a U.S. manufactured car is imported to Japan, a driver seat is installed on the right side and also other parts are modified for local customers. Film development is also significantly dependent on audience behavior, so film content also needs to be localized for the different culture. This paper will only address a hypothesis of the implementation of color marketing methodology present in motion pictures.

  3. The effect of repeated firings on the color change of dental ceramics using different glazing methods

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Kerem; Ozturk, Caner

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Surface color is one of the main criteria to obtain an ideal esthetic. Many factors such as the type of the material, surface specifications, number of firings, firing temperature and thickness of the porcelain are all important to provide an unchanged surface color in dental ceramics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the color changes in dental ceramics according to the material type and glazing methods, during the multiple firings. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three different types of dental ceramics (IPS Classical metal ceramic, Empress Esthetic and Empress 2 ceramics) were used in the study. Porcelains were evaluated under five main groups according to glaze and natural glaze methods. Color changes (ΔE) and changes in color parameters (ΔL, Δa, Δb) were determined using colorimeter during the control, the first, third, fifth, and seventh firings. The statistical analysis of the results was performed using ANOVA and Tukey test. RESULTS The color changes which occurred upon material-method-firing interaction were statistically significant (P<.05). ΔE, ΔL, Δa and Δb values also demonstrated a negative trend. The MC-G group was less affected in terms of color changes compared to other groups. In all-ceramic specimens, the surface color was significantly affected by multiple firings. CONCLUSION Firing detrimentally affected the structure of the porcelain surface and hence caused fading of the color and prominence of yellow and red characters. Compressible all-ceramics were remarkably affected by repeated firings due to their crystalline structure. PMID:25551001

  4. Color blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... have trouble telling the difference between red and green. This is the most common type of color ... color blindness often have problems seeing reds and greens, too. The most severe form of color blindness ...

  5. Spectrophotometric evaluation of the color changes of different feldspathic porcelains after exposure to commonly consumed beverages

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Chandni; Bhargava, Akshay; Gupta, Sharad; Rath, Rishi; Nagpal, Abhishek; Kumar, Prince

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare color stability and surface topography of three different feldspathic porcelains both qualitatively and quantitatively after exposure to routinely consumed beverages over different time periods using a Spectrophotometer, Stereomicroscope and Surface roughness tester, respectively. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 plastic discs were casted to obtain metal dies for three different newer ceramic applications each on thirty samples. The color and surface roughness of these samples were measured using stereomicroscope and surface roughness tester following which they were kept in different test solutions for different durations and revaluated for color changes and surface roughness in the similar manner. Results and Conclusion: Among all the five test solutions, Coffee showed the maximum staining of the ceramic whereas maximum surface roughness was shown by the Duceram Kiss (1.48 μm) by Orange Juice which could be due to its high titratable acidity. PMID:24883022

  6. Anomalous trichromats' judgments of surface color in natural scenes under different daylights

    PubMed Central

    Baraas, Rigmor C.; Foster, David H.; Amano, Kinjiro; Nascimento, Sérgio M. C.

    2007-01-01

    Deuteranomalous trichromacy, which affects medium-wavelength-sensitive cones, is more common than protanomalous trichromacy, which affects long-wavelength-sensitive cones. The aim of the present work was to test the extent to which these two kinds of anomalous trichromacy affect surface-color judgments in the natural world. Simulations of eighteen natural scenes under different daylight illuminants were presented on a high-resolution color monitor to seven deuteranomalous, seven protanomalous, and twelve normal trichromatic observers, who had to discriminate between reflectance and illuminant changes in the images. Observers' ability to judge surface color was quantified by a standard color-constancy index. Deuteranomalous trichromats performed as well as normal trichromats, but protanomalous trichromats performed more poorly than both. The results are considered in relation to the spectral coverage of cones, rod intrusion, and the characterization of anomalous trichromacy by the Rayleigh match. PMID:16962006

  7. Impact of cross-regional differences on color rendition evaluation of white light sources.

    PubMed

    Smet, Kevin A G; Hanselaer, Peter

    2015-11-16

    In a study, involving laboratories from seven geographic regions, the memory colors of eleven familiar objects were investigated. Based on that study, one global and seven regional memory color rendition indices (MCRIs) are created and the impact of cross-regional differences on the evaluation of color rendition was investigated. A first analysis focuses on the impact on MCRI index values by comparing the regional index values, calculated for 401 light sources, with those of the global index. A second analysis examines the impact on predictive performance in terms of the visual appreciation and naturalness of rendered objects colors as evaluated in respectively twenty-one and fifteen experiments published in literature. Both analyses show that, although there are small differences in absolute level of color rendition, the regional metrics are generally comparable in terms of predicting light source rank order and correlation with visual data. Therefore, ànd considering between-region variability to be smaller than or of the same size as the within-region variability, a globally valid memory color rendition metric can be proposed without introducing substantial errors. Finally, Smet's Rm index, obtained using real objects, is suggested as a good approximation to that globally valid metric. PMID:26698502

  8. Change in color of a maxillofacial prosthetic silicone elastomer, following investment in molds of different materials

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Tania; Kheur, Mohit; Coward, Trevor; Patel, Naimesha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In the authors’ experience, the color of silicone elastomer following polymerization in molds made of gypsum products is slightly different from the color that was matched in the presence of the patient, before the silicone is packed. It is hypothesized that the investing materials and separating media have an effect on the color during the polymerization process of the silicone. Materials and Methods: This study compares and evaluates the change in color of silicone elastomer packed in three commonly used investing materials - Dental stone (white color), dental stone (green color), and die stone (orange color); coated with three different separating media – Alginate-based medium, soap solution and a resin-based die hardening material. Pigmented silicone samples of dimensions 1.5 cm × 2 cm × 0.5 cm were made from the elastomer in the above-mentioned mold materials using combinations of the mentioned separating media. These served as test group samples. Control group samples were made by packing a mix of the same pigmented elastomer in stainless steel molds. The L*, a*, b* values of the test and control group samples were determined using a spectrophotometer. The change in color (Delta E) was calculated between the control and test groups. Results: The mean L, a, b values for the control group were, 31.8, 26.2, and 36.3, respectively. Average values of change in color (Delta E) for samples packed utilizing alginate-based medium, die hardener, and soap solution, respectively in white dental stone (2.70, 2.74, and 2.88), green dental stone (2.19, 2.23, 2.42), and orange die stone (3.19, 2.72, 2.80) were tabulated. Conclusion: Among the investing materials studied, die stone showed the most color change (3.19), which was statistically significant. Among the separating media, die hardener showed the least color change (2.23). The best combination of an investing material and separating media as per this investigation is a dental stone (green) and alginate

  9. Comparative color space analysis of difference images from adjacent visible human slices for lossless compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, George R.; Pipkin, Ryan; Mitra, Sunanda

    1997-10-01

    This paper reports the compression ratio performance of the RGB, YIQ, and HSV color plane models for the lossless coding of the National Library of Medicine's Visible Human (VH) color data set. In a previous study the correlation between adjacent VH slices was exploited using the RGB color plane model. The results of that study suggested an investigation into possible improvements using the other two color planes, and alternative differencing methods. YIQ and HSV, also know a HSI, both represent the image by separating the intensity from the color information, and we anticipated higher correlation between the intensity components of adjacent VH slices. However the compression ratio did not improve by the transformation from RGB into the other color plane models, since in order to maintain lossless performance, YIQ and HSV both require more bits to store each pixel. This increase in file size is not offset by the increase in compression due to the higher correlation of the intensity value, the best performance being achieved with the RGB color plane model. This study also explored three methods of differencing: average reference image, alternating reference image, and cascaded difference from single reference. The best method proved to be the first iteration of the cascaded difference from single reference. In this method, a single reference image is chosen, and the difference between it and its neighbor is calculated. Then the difference between the neighbor and its next neighbor is calculated. This method requires that all preceding images up to the reference image be reconstructed before the target image is available. The compression ratios obtained from this method are significantly better than the competing methods.

  10. Effects of a static electric field on two-color photoassociation between different atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Debashree; Deb, Bimalendu

    2014-01-15

    We study non-perturbative effects of a static electric field on two-color photoassociation of different atoms. A static electric field induces anisotropy in scattering between two different atoms and hybridizes field-free rotational states of heteronuclear dimers or polar molecules. In a previous paper [D. Chakraborty et al., J. Phys. B 44, 095201 (2011)], the effects of a static electric field on one-color photoassociation between different atoms has been described through field-modified ground-state scattering states, neglecting electric field effects on heteronuclear diatomic bound states. To study the effects of a static electric field on heteronuclear bound states, and the resulting influence on Raman-type two-color photoassociation between different atoms in the presence of a static electric field, we develop a non-perturbative numerical method to calculate static electric field-dressed heteronuclear bound states. We show that the static electric field induced scattering anisotropy as well as hybridization of rotational states strongly influence two-color photoassociation spectra, leading to significant enhancement in PA rate and large shift. In particular, for static electric field strengths of a few hundred kV/cm, two-color PA rate involving high-lying bound states in electronic ground-state increases by several orders of magnitude even in the weak photoassociative coupling regime.

  11. THE COLOR DIFFERENCES OF KUIPER BELT OBJECTS IN RESONANCE WITH NEPTUNE

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, Scott S.

    2012-12-01

    The optical colors of 58 objects in mean motion resonance with Neptune were obtained. The various Neptune resonant populations were found to have significantly different surface color distributions. The 5:3 and 7:4 resonances have semimajor axes near the middle of the main Kuiper Belt and both are dominated by ultra-red material (spectral gradient: S {approx}> 25). The 5:3 and 7:4 resonances have statistically the same color distribution as the low-inclination 'cold' classical belt. The inner 4:3 and distant 5:2 resonances have objects with mostly moderately red colors (S {approx} 15), similar to the scattered and detached disk populations. The 2:1 resonance, which is near the outer edge of the main Kuiper Belt, has a large range of colors with similar numbers of moderately red and ultra-red objects at all inclinations. The 2:1 resonance was also found to have a very rare neutral colored object showing that the 2:1 resonance is really a mix of all object types. The inner 3:2 resonance, like the outer 2:1, has a large range of objects from neutral to ultra-red. The Neptune Trojans (1:1 resonance) are only slightly red (S {approx} 9), similar to the Jupiter Trojans. The inner 5:4 resonance only has four objects with measured colors but shows equal numbers of ultra-red and moderately red objects. The 9:5, 12:5, 7:3, 3:1, and 11:3 resonances do not have reliable color distribution statistics since few objects have been observed in these resonances, though it appears noteworthy that all three of the measured 3:1 objects have only moderately red colors, similar to the 4:3 and 5:2 resonances. The different color distributions of objects in mean motion resonance with Neptune are likely a result from the disruption of the primordial Kuiper Belt from the scattering and migration of the giant planets. The few low-inclination objects known in the outer 2:1 and 5:2 resonances are mostly only moderately red. This suggests if the 2:1 and 5:2 have a cold low-inclination component

  12. Predator perception and the interrelation between different forms of protective coloration.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Martin

    2007-06-22

    Animals possess a range of defensive markings to reduce the risk of predation, including warning colours, camouflage, eyespots and mimicry. These different strategies are frequently considered independently, and with little regard towards predator vision, even though they may be linked in various ways and can be fully understood only in terms of predator perception. For example, camouflage and warning coloration need not be mutually exclusive, and may frequently exploit similar features of visual perception. This paper outlines how different forms of protective markings can be understood from predator perception and illustrates how this is fundamental in determining the mechanisms underlying, and the interrelation between, different strategies. Suggestions are made for future work, and potential mechanisms discussed in relation to various forms of defensive coloration, including disruptive coloration, eyespots, dazzle markings, motion camouflage, aposematism and mimicry. PMID:17426012

  13. Differences in male coloration are predicted by divergent sexual selection between populations of a cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Selz, O M; Thommen, R; Pierotti, M E R; Anaya-Rojas, J M; Seehausen, O

    2016-05-11

    Female mating preferences can influence both intraspecific sexual selection and interspecific reproductive isolation, and have therefore been proposed to play a central role in speciation. Here, we investigate experimentally in the African cichlid fish Pundamilia nyererei if differences in male coloration between three para-allopatric populations (i.e. island populations with gene flow) of P. nyererei are predicted by differences in sexual selection by female mate choice between populations. Second, we investigate if female mating preferences are based on the same components of male coloration and go in the same direction when females choose among males of their own population, their own and other conspecific populations and a closely related para-allopatric sister-species, P. igneopinnis Mate-choice experiments revealed that females of the three populations mated species-assortatively, that populations varied in their extent of population-assortative mating and that females chose among males of their own population based on different male colours. Females of different populations exerted directional intrapopulation sexual selection on different male colours, and these differences corresponded in two of the populations to the observed differences in male coloration between the populations. Our results suggest that differences in male coloration between populations of P. nyererei can be explained by divergent sexual selection and that population-assortative mating may directly result from intrapopulation sexual selection. PMID:27147097

  14. Differing Perceptions: How Students of Color and White Students Perceive Campus Climate for Underrepresented Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Susan R.; Reason, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    Using a campus climate assessment instrument developed by Rankin (1998), we surveyed students (n = 7,347) from 10 campuses to explore whether students from different racial groups experienced their campus climates differently. Students of color experienced harassment at higher rates than Caucasian students, although female White students reported…

  15. Grapheme-color synesthesia subtypes: Stable individual differences reflected in posterior alpha-band oscillations.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael X; Weidacker, Kathrin; Tankink, Judith; Scholte, H Steven; Rouw, Romke

    2015-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition in which seeing letters and numbers produces sensations of colors (e.g., the letter R may elicit a sky-blue percept). Recent evidence implicates posterior parietal areas, in addition to lower-level sensory processing regions, in the neurobiological mechanisms involved in synesthesia. Furthermore, these mechanisms seem to differ for "projectors" (synesthetes who report seeing the color "out there in the real world") versus "associators" (synesthetes who report the color to be only an internal experience). Relatively little is known about possible electrophysiological characteristics of grapheme-color synesthesia. Here we used EEG to investigate functional oscillatory differences among associators, projectors, and non-synesthetes. Projectors had stronger stimulus-related alpha-band (~10 Hz) power over posterior parietal electrodes, compared to both associators and non-synesthetes. Posterior alpha activity was not statistically significantly different between associators from non-synesthetes. We also performed a test-retest assessment of the projector-associator score and found strong retest reliability, as evidenced by a correlation coefficient of .85. These findings demonstrate that the projector-associator distinction is highly reliable over time and is related to neural oscillations in the alpha band. PMID:25833734

  16. The effect of different drinks on tooth color after home bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Karadas, Muhammet; Seven, Nilgun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the influence of coffee, tea, cola, and red wine staining on the color of teeth after home bleaching. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 samples were obtained from 45 sound maxillary central incisors. The home bleaching procedure was performed using 10% carbamide peroxide gel applied to the sample surface for a period of 6 h each day, for 14 days. After bleaching, baseline color measurements were taken, and the samples were immersed in four staining solutions (coffee, tea, cola, and red wine) or artificial saliva (n = 9). Following 15 min and 6 h of immersion on the first day and next day, respectively, the samples were washed with distilled water for 10 s. After 15 min, 6 h, 1 week, and 1 month immersions, the color values of each sample were remeasured and the color change values (∆E) were calculated. Color change analysis was performed using a spectrophotometer. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference test (P <0.05). Results: Of all the staining solutions, the lowest ∆E values were observed with coffee staining versus artificial saliva (control group), for all time intervals evaluated after whitening. Although no statistically differences were observed between the coffee and control group at all the time points evaluated, there were statistically significant differences between the red wine, cola, and tea solutions. Conclusion: Following tooth whitening, patients should avoid drinks that cause tooth staining, particularly red wine, tea and cola. PMID:24966778

  17. Different temporal structure for form versus surface cortical color systems--evidence from chromatic non-linear VEP.

    PubMed

    Crewther, David P; Crewther, Sheila G

    2010-01-01

    Physiological studies of color processing have typically measured responses to spatially varying chromatic stimuli such as gratings, while psychophysical studies of color include color naming, color and light, as well as spatial and temporal chromatic sensitivities. This raises the question of whether we have one or several cortical color processing systems. Here we show from non-linear analysis of human visual evoked potentials (VEP) the presence of distinct and independent temporal signatures for form and surface color processing. Surface color stimuli produced most power in the second order Wiener kernel, indicative of a slowly recovering neural system, while chromatic form stimulation produced most power in the first order kernel (showing rapid recovery). We find end-spectral saturation-dependent signals, easily separable from achromatic signals for surface color stimuli. However physiological responses to form color stimuli, though varying somewhat with saturation, showed similar waveform components. Lastly, the spectral dependence of surface and form color VEP was different, with the surface color responses almost vanishing with yellow-grey isoluminant stimulation whereas the form color VEP shows robust recordable signals across all hues. Thus, surface and form colored stimuli engage different neural systems within cortex, pointing to the need to establish their relative contributions under the diverse chromatic stimulus conditions used in the literature. PMID:21187960

  18. Characterization of color scanners based on SVR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Zhang, Yi-xin

    2012-01-01

    By researching the principle of colorimetric characterization method and Support Vector Regression (SVR), we analyze the feasibility of nonlinear transformation from scanner RGB color space to CIELAB color space based on SVR and built a new characterization model. Then we use the MATLABR2009a software to make a data simulation experiment to verify the accuracy of this model and figure out the color differences by CIEDE2000 color difference formula. Based on CIEDE2000 color difference formula, the average, the maximum and the minimum color differences of the training set are 1.2376, 2.5593 and 0.2182, the average, the maximum and the minimum color differences of the text set are 1.9318, 4.1421 and 0.4228. From the experimental results, we can make a conclusion that SVR can realize the nonlinear transformation from scanner RGB color space to CIELAB color space and the model satisfies the accuracy of scanner characterization. Therefore, SVR can be used into the color scanner characterization management.

  19. The differing magnitude distributions of the two Jupiter Trojan color populations

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Ian; Brown, Michael E.; Emery, Joshua P.

    2014-12-01

    The Jupiter Trojans are a significant population of minor bodies in the middle solar system that have garnered substantial interest in recent years. Several spectroscopic studies of these objects have revealed notable bimodalities with respect to near-infrared spectra, infrared albedo, and color, which suggest the existence of two distinct groups among the Trojan population. In this paper, we analyze the magnitude distributions of these two groups, which we refer to as the red and less red color populations. By compiling spectral and photometric data from several previous works, we show that the observed bimodalities are self-consistent and categorize 221 of the 842 Trojans with absolute magnitudes in the range H<12.3 into the two color populations. We demonstrate that the magnitude distributions of the two color populations are distinct to a high confidence level (>95%) and fit them individually to a broken power law, with special attention given to evaluating and correcting for incompleteness in the Trojan catalog as well as incompleteness in our categorization of objects. A comparison of the best-fit curves shows that the faint-end power-law slopes are markedly different for the two color populations, which indicates that the red and less red Trojans likely formed in different locations. We propose a few hypotheses for the origin and evolution of the Trojan population based on the analyzed data.

  20. Color dependence with horizontal-viewing angle and colorimetric characterization of two displays using different backlighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, José J.; Pozo, Antonio M.; Rubiño, Manuel

    2013-11-01

    In this work we studied the color dependence with a horizontal-viewing angle and colorimetric characterization of two liquid-crystal displays (LCD) using two different backlighting: Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamps (CCFLs) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The LCDs studied had identical resolution, size, and technology (TFT - thin film transistor). The colorimetric measurements were made with the spectroradiometer SpectraScan PR-650 following the procedure recommended in the European guideline EN 61747-6. For each display, we measured at the centre of the screen the chromaticity coordinates at horizontal viewing angles of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 degrees for the achromatic (A), red (R), green (G) and blue (B) channels. Results showed a greater color-gamut area for the display with LED backlight, compared with the CCFL backlight, showing a greater range of colors perceptible by human vision. This color-gamut area diminished with viewing angle for both displays. Higher differences between trends for viewing angles were observed in the LED-backlight, especially for the R- and G-channels, demonstrating a higher variability of the chromaticity coordinates with viewing angle. The best additivity was reached by the LED-backlight display (a lower error percentage). LED-backlight display provided better color performance of visualization.

  1. An integral formula adapted to different boundary conditions for arbitrarily high-dimensional nonlinear Klein-Gordon equations with its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xinyuan; Liu, Changying

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the initial boundary value problem of arbitrarily high-dimensional Klein-Gordon equations, posed on a bounded domain Ω ⊂ ℝd for d ≥ 1 and equipped with the requirement of boundary conditions. We derive and analyze an integral formula which is proved to be adapted to different boundary conditions for general Klein-Gordon equations in arbitrarily high-dimensional spaces. The formula gives a closed-form solution to arbitrarily high-dimensional homogeneous linear Klein-Gordon equations, which is totally different from the well-known D'Alembert, Poisson, and Kirchhoff formulas. Some applications are included as well.

  2. Color Stability of Resin Used for Caries Infiltration After Exposure to Different Staining Solutions.

    PubMed

    Borges, Ab; Caneppele, Tmf; Luz, M; Pucci, Cr; Torres, Crg

    2013-12-01

    SUMMARY Purpose : The aim of this study was to investigate the staining behavior of demineralized enamel infiltrated by low-viscosity resin. Methods and Materials : Bovine enamel/dentin cylindrical samples (3 × 2 mm) were assigned into four groups (n=45) according to the enamel treatment: sound enamel (control), demineralization + artificial saliva, demineralization + daily application of 0.05% NaF, demineralization + resin infiltration (Icon, DMG). Artificial white spot lesions were produced in groups with demineralization. After the treatments, color was assessed by spectrophotometry, using the CIE L*a*b* system. The specimens (n=15) were then immersed in deionized water, red wine, or coffee for 10 minutes daily for eight days. Color was measured again, and the specimens were repolished with sandpaper discs. The final color was assessed. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests (α=0.05). A paired t-test was used for comparison between staining and repolishing conditions. Results : There were significant differences for surface treatment and dye after staining and repolishing. Immersion in wine and coffee resulted in significantly increased color alteration (ΔE) compared with water (p=0.001). The resin-infiltrated group exhibited the highest staining values (p=0.001). The repolishing procedures resulted in significantly decreased color change. Conclusion : The exposure of specimens to colored solutions resulted in significant color alteration. The demineralized enamel treated with resin infiltration showed significantly higher staining than all other tested groups; however, the repolishing of the specimens minimized the staining effect. PMID:24289803

  3. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Takashi T.; Yokoyama, Jun

    2015-01-01

    When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies), and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant–pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly. PMID:26650121

  4. Perception of dental esthetics: influence of restoration type, symmetry, and color in four different countries.

    PubMed

    Mehl, Christian; Harder, Sönke; Lin, Jun; Vollrath, Oliver; Kern, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the influence of restoration type, symmetry, and color on the perception of dental appearance was evaluated. An esthetic questionnaire was completed by 29 patients before and after esthetic rehabilitation. In addition, 94 dentists from four countries (Germany, the United Kingdom [UK], China, and Switzerland) evaluated the influence of the above factors using before-and-after rehabilitation pictures. The most invasive treatment was recommended by Chinese dentists, while German, Swiss, and UK dentists recommended comparable treatment options. As for restorative symmetry, restoration type, and color, significant differences could be found among and within the dentists of the four countries (P ± .05). PMID:25588175

  5. Possible Selves among Urban Youths of Color: An Exploration of Peer Beliefs and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Justin C.; Vance, Kristen S.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from possible selves theory (H. Markus & P. Nurius, 1986), this study explored the roles of peer beliefs about school and gender differences in the development of academic and occupational visions of the future among 216 urban youths of color. Peer beliefs were not related to career and educational possible selves. No gender-based…

  6. The "Chocolate Experiment"--A Demonstration of Radiation Absorption by Different Colored Surfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    In the typical "cookbook" experiment comparing the radiation absorption rates of different colored surfaces, students' hands are commonly used as a measurement instrument to demonstrate that dull black and silvery surfaces are good and poor absorbers of radiation, respectively. However, college students are often skeptical about using…

  7. Detection of cyanidin in different-colored peanut testae and identification of peanut cyanidin 3-sambubioside.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jung-Chu; Kan, Lou-Sing; Chen, Jhih-Ting; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Lu, Hung-Chih; Lin, Shu-Mei; Wang, Shih-Hao; Yang, Kin-Hsing; Chiou, Robin Y-Y

    2009-10-14

    Peanut testae are potent sources of polyphenols. When the water extracts and acid hydrolysates of five different-colored testae were analyzed by HPLC, chromatograms monitored at 280 nm varied remarkably, whereas two major peaks in the chromatograms monitored at 530 nm were detected only in kernels having completely or partially black color. After acid hydrolysis of the extracts, cyanidin was detected in each of the hydrolysates. By respectively subjecting the black testae of raw and roasted (175 degrees C for 20 min) kernels of a black colored cultivar to water extraction and HPLC analysis, a prominent peak was detected in both extracts. The structure of the substance under those peaks was identified by mass and NMR spectrometry as cyanidin 3-sambubioside in peanut testae for the first time. Subjection of cyanidin 3-sambubioside to antioxidation and anti-inflammation assessments revealed that it was a potent antioxidant and inhibitor of nitric oxide production. PMID:19807153

  8. Instrumental color control for metallic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, W.; Han, Bing; Cui, Guihua; Rigg, Bryan; Luo, Ming R.

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes work investigating a suitable color quality control method for metallic coatings. A set of psychological experiments was carried out based upon 50 pairs of samples. The results were used to test the performance of various color difference formulae. Different techniques were developed by optimising the weights and/or the lightness parametric factors of colour differences calculated from the four measuring angles. The results show that the new techniques give a significant improvement compared to conventional techniques.

  9. Comparison of different approaches to separate analysis of phytoplankton and CDOM contributions to ocean color forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepochkin, I. E.; Salyuk, P. A.; Golik, I. A.; Burov, D. V.; Bukin, O. A.

    2015-11-01

    Methods of empirical retrieval of chlorophyll - a and CDOM concentrations from hyperspectral ocean color data were described. We have considered cases of different relations between concentrations of these water constituents. Research area includes Japan Sea, East-China Sea, Okhotsk Sea, Barents Sea, Bering Sea, East-Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea (water areas of different optical types) during the period from 2009 to 2014. Based on derived field data array, we created the method for building of regional empirical algorithms for concentrations of chlorophyll-a and CDOM retrieval taking into account differences of their contributions into water leaving radiance forming. In a similar manner, we have determined the most suitable spectral channels for the main satellite ocean color scanners. At the same time, we received concentrations of chlorophyll-a and CDOM with a help of tuning the semianalytical model for remote sensing reflectance (Rrs). Afterwards we carried out the quality assurance for the both approaches, comparing to shipboard data.

  10. Dependecy of the reaction time from the overlap of signal lights with different colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, Karsten D.

    2005-02-01

    The rearward signal aspect consists of lights with different colors. With standard technics these signal lights are located at different places. With new technics it is possible to build signal lights with different colors together in one place. The signals overlap. In experiments at the University of Karlsruhe we studied the dependency between reaction time and overlap of signal lights. We can see, that the total overlap from a yellow turn signal and a red brake signal will increase the reaction time. The increase depends of the ratio between the luminance of the turn indicator signal and the luminance of the brake signal. With a ratio from one to one (best case with minimal increase) we found an increase of 300 milli seconds.

  11. Geometrically derived difference formulae for the numerical integration of trajectory problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, R. J. Y.; Sanz-Serna, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    An initial value problem for the autonomous system of ordinary differential equations dy/dt = f(y), where y is a vector, is considered. In a number of practical applications the interest lies in obtaining the curve traced by the solution y. These applications include the computation of trajectories in mechanical problems. The term 'trajectory problem' is employed to refer to these cases. Lambert and McLeod (1979) have introduced a method involving local rotation of the axes in the y-plane for the two-dimensional case. The present investigation continues the study of difference schemes specifically derived for trajectory problems. A simple geometrical way of constructing such methods is presented, and the local accuracy of the schemes is investigated. A circularly exact, fixed-step predictor-corrector algorithm is defined, and a variable-step version of a circularly exact algorithm is presented.

  12. Role of lactate dehydrogenase in metmyoglobin reduction and color stability of different bovine muscles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y H; Keeton, J T; Smith, S B; Berghman, L R; Savell, J W

    2009-11-01

    The role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA) and color stability of different bovine muscles was studied in two consecutive experiments. In experiment 1, three different bovine muscles -M. longissimus lumborum (LL), M. semimembranosus (SM), and M. psoas major (PM) - were obtained (n=7, respectively), cut into steaks, PVC packaged, and then displayed for 7days at 1°C. The LL was the most red over display time and had more (P<0.05) LDH-B activity (catalyzing toward NADH generation), LDH1 isoform expression, NADH, and higher (P<0.05) MRA than the other two muscles studied. The PM had the least color stability and lowest MRA. In experiment 2, LL steaks (n=8) were cut in half, one side syringe-injected with oxamate, and the other injected with distilled water. Inclusion of oxamate decreased (P<0.05) LDH-B activity, NADH, and a* values after 10days display at 1°C. These results suggest that variation in color stability of physiologically different muscles is regulated by different replenishment rates of NADH via different LDH isozymes. PMID:20416707

  13. Grouping normal type Ia supernovae by UV to optical color differences

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, Peter A.; Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Bufano, Filomena; Gehrels, Neil

    2013-12-10

    Observations of many Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) for multiple epochs per object with the Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope instrument have revealed that there exists order to the differences in the UV-optical colors of optically normal supernovae (SNe). We examine UV-optical color curves for 23 SNe Ia, dividing the SNe into four groups, and find that roughly one-third of 'NUV-blue' SNe Ia have bluer UV-optical colors than the larger 'NUV-red' group. Two minor groups are recognized, 'MUV-blue' and 'irregular' SNe Ia. While we conclude that the latter group is a subset of the NUV-red group, containing the SNe with the broadest optical peaks, we conclude that the 'MUV-blue' group is a distinct group. Separating into the groups and accounting for the time evolution of the UV-optical colors lowers the scatter in two NUV-optical colors (e.g., u – v and uvw1 – v) to the level of the scatter in b – v. This finding is promising for extending the cosmological utilization of SNe Ia into the NUV. We generate spectrophotometry of 33 SNe Ia and determine the correct grouping for each. We argue that there is a fundamental spectral difference in the 2900-3500 Å wavelength range, a region suggested to be dominated by absorption from iron-peak elements. The NUV-blue SNe Ia feature less absorption than the NUV-red SNe Ia. We show that all NUV-blue SNe Ia in this sample also show evidence of unburned carbon in optical spectra, whereas only one NUV-red SN Ia features that absorption line. Every NUV-blue event also exhibits a low gradient of the Si II λ6355 absorption feature. Many NUV-red events also exhibit a low gradient, perhaps suggestive that NUV-blue events are a subset of the larger low-velocity gradient group.

  14. The mathematical formula of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution of lifelong premature ejaculation differs from the IELT distribution formula of men in the general male population

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Paddy K.C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To find the most accurate mathematical description of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution in the general male population. Materials and Methods We compared the fitness of various well-known mathematical distributions with the IELT distribution of two previously published stopwatch studies of the Caucasian general male population and a stopwatch study of Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). The accuracy of fitness is expressed by the Goodness of Fit (GOF). The smaller the GOF, the more accurate is the fitness. Results The 3 IELT distributions are gamma distributions, but the IELT distribution of lifelong PE is another gamma distribution than the IELT distribution of men in the general male population. The Lognormal distribution of the gamma distributions most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 965 men in the general population, with a GOF of 0.057. The Gumbel Max distribution most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 110 men with lifelong PE with a GOF of 0.179. There are more men with lifelong PE ejaculating within 30 and 60 seconds than can be extrapolated from the probability density curve of the Lognormal IELT distribution of men in the general population. Conclusions Men with lifelong PE have a distinct IELT distribution, e.g., a Gumbel Max IELT distribution, that can only be retrieved from the general male population Lognormal IELT distribution when thousands of men would participate in a IELT stopwatch study. The mathematical formula of the Lognormal IELT distribution is useful for epidemiological research of the IELT. PMID:26981594

  15. Striking individual differences in color perception uncovered by 'the dress' photograph.

    PubMed

    Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Hermann, Katherine L; Conway, Bevil R

    2015-06-29

    'The dress' is a peculiar photograph: by themselves the dress' pixels are brown and blue, colors associated with natural illuminants, but popular accounts (#TheDress) suggest the dress appears either white/gold or blue/black. Could the purported categorical perception arise because the original social-media question was an alternative-forced-choice? In a free-response survey (N = 1401), we found that most people, including those naïve to the image, reported white/gold or blue/black, but some said blue/brown. Reports of white/gold over blue/black were higher among older people and women. On re-test, some subjects reported a switch in perception, showing the image can be multistable. In a language-independent measure of perception, we asked subjects to identify the dress' colors from a complete color gamut. The results showed three peaks corresponding to the main descriptive categories, providing additional evidence that the brain resolves the image into one of three stable percepts. We hypothesize that these reflect different internal priors: some people favor a cool illuminant (blue sky), discount shorter wavelengths, and perceive white/gold; others favor a warm illuminant (incandescent light), discount longer wavelengths, and see blue/black. The remaining subjects may assume a neutral illuminant, and see blue/brown. We show that by introducing overt cues to the illumination, we can flip the dress color. PMID:25981795

  16. Color Measurement of Tea Leaves at Different Drying Periods Using Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chuanqi; Li, Xiaoli; Shao, Yongni; He, Yong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging technique for nondestructive measurement of color components (ΔL*, Δa* and Δb*) and classify tea leaves during different drying periods. Hyperspectral images of tea leaves at five drying periods were acquired in the spectral region of 380–1030 nm. The three color features were measured by the colorimeter. Different preprocessing algorithms were applied to select the best one in accordance with the prediction results of partial least squares regression (PLSR) models. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were used to identify the effective wavelengths, respectively. Different models (least squares-support vector machine [LS-SVM], PLSR, principal components regression [PCR] and multiple linear regression [MLR]) were established to predict the three color components, respectively. SPA-LS-SVM model performed excellently with the correlation coefficient (rp) of 0.929 for ΔL*, 0.849 for Δa*and 0.917 for Δb*, respectively. LS-SVM model was built for the classification of different tea leaves. The correct classification rates (CCRs) ranged from 89.29% to 100% in the calibration set and from 71.43% to 100% in the prediction set, respectively. The total classification results were 96.43% in the calibration set and 85.71% in the prediction set. The result showed that hyperspectral imaging technique could be used as an objective and nondestructive method to determine color features and classify tea leaves at different drying periods. PMID:25546335

  17. Intersexual allometry differences and ontogenetic shifts of coloration patterns in two aquatic turtles, Graptemys oculifera and Graptemys flavimaculata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ennen, Joshua R.; Lindeman, Peter V.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Coloration can play critical roles in a species' biology. The allometry of color patterns may be useful for elucidating the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for shaping the traits. We measured characteristics relating to eight aspects of color patterns from Graptemys oculifera and G. flavimaculata to investigate the allometric differences among male, female, and unsexed juvenile specimens. Additionally, we investigated ontogenetic shifts by incorporating the unsexed juveniles into the male and female datasets. In general, male color traits were isometric (i.e., color scaled with body size), while females and juvenile color traits were hypoallometric, growing in size more slowly than the increase in body size. When we included unsexed juveniles in our male and female datasets, our linear regression analyses found all relationships to be hypoallometric and our model selection analysis found support for nonlinear models describing the relationship between body size and color patterns, suggestive of an ontogenetic shift in coloration traits for both sexes at maturity. Although color is critical for many species' biology and therefore under strong selective pressure in many other species, our results are likely explained by an epiphenomenon related to the different selection pressures on body size and growth rates between juveniles and adults and less attributable to the evolution of color patterns themselves.

  18. Intersexual allometry differences and ontogenetic shifts of coloration patterns in two aquatic turtles, Graptemys oculifera and Graptemys flavimaculata.

    PubMed

    Ennen, Joshua R; Lindeman, Peter V; Lovich, Jeffrey E

    2015-06-01

    Coloration can play critical roles in a species' biology. The allometry of color patterns may be useful for elucidating the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for shaping the traits. We measured characteristics relating to eight aspects of color patterns from Graptemys oculifera and G. flavimaculata to investigate the allometric differences among male, female, and unsexed juvenile specimens. Additionally, we investigated ontogenetic shifts by incorporating the unsexed juveniles into the male and female datasets. In general, male color traits were isometric (i.e., color scaled with body size), while females and juvenile color traits were hypoallometric, growing in size more slowly than the increase in body size. When we included unsexed juveniles in our male and female datasets, our linear regression analyses found all relationships to be hypoallometric and our model selection analysis found support for nonlinear models describing the relationship between body size and color patterns, suggestive of an ontogenetic shift in coloration traits for both sexes at maturity. Although color is critical for many species' biology and therefore under strong selective pressure in many other species, our results are likely explained by an epiphenomenon related to the different selection pressures on body size and growth rates between juveniles and adults and less attributable to the evolution of color patterns themselves. PMID:26078863

  19. Intersexual allometry differences and ontogenetic shifts of coloration patterns in two aquatic turtles, Graptemys oculifera and Graptemys flavimaculata

    PubMed Central

    Ennen, Joshua R; Lindeman, Peter V; Lovich, Jeffrey E

    2015-01-01

    Coloration can play critical roles in a species' biology. The allometry of color patterns may be useful for elucidating the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for shaping the traits. We measured characteristics relating to eight aspects of color patterns from Graptemys oculifera and G. flavimaculata to investigate the allometric differences among male, female, and unsexed juvenile specimens. Additionally, we investigated ontogenetic shifts by incorporating the unsexed juveniles into the male and female datasets. In general, male color traits were isometric (i.e., color scaled with body size), while females and juvenile color traits were hypoallometric, growing in size more slowly than the increase in body size. When we included unsexed juveniles in our male and female datasets, our linear regression analyses found all relationships to be hypoallometric and our model selection analysis found support for nonlinear models describing the relationship between body size and color patterns, suggestive of an ontogenetic shift in coloration traits for both sexes at maturity. Although color is critical for many species' biology and therefore under strong selective pressure in many other species, our results are likely explained by an epiphenomenon related to the different selection pressures on body size and growth rates between juveniles and adults and less attributable to the evolution of color patterns themselves. PMID:26078863

  20. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  1. Formula Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John C.

    1974-01-01

    Presents the mathematical formula devised by George O. Weber on budgeting for physical plants of colleges and universities. Uses four functions of administration, maintenance (operational), housekeeping/custodial, and grounds as a base. (Author/MLF)

  2. Effect of marination on CIE L* and pH values of chicken breast pectoralis major with different color lightness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color lightness (CIE L* values) and pH are widely used as quality indicators for raw poultry breast fillets (pectoralis major). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vacuum-tumbling marination on L* and pH values of raw chicken breast meat with different color lightness. Early ...

  3. Effect of marination on CIE L* and pH values of chicken breast pectoralis major with different color lightness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color lightness (CIE L* values) and pH are widely used as quality indicators for raw poultry breast fillets (pectoralis major). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vacuum-tumbling marination on L* and pH values of raw chicken breast meat with different color lightness. Early d...

  4. Color Space and Its Divisions: Color Order from Antiquity to the Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehni, Rolf G.

    2003-03-01

    It has been postulated that humans can differentiate between millions of gradations in color. Not surprisingly, no completely adequate, detailed catalog of colors has yet been devised, however the quest to understand, record, and depict color is as old as the quest to understand the fundamentals of the physical world and the nature of human consciousness. Rolf Kuehni's Color Space and Its Divisions: Color Order from Antiquity to the Present represents an ambitious and unprecedented history of man's inquiry into color order, focusing on the practical applications of the most contemporary developments in the field. Kuehni devotes much of his study to geometric, three-dimensional arrangements of color experiences, a type of system developed only in the mid-nineteenth century. Color spaces are of particular interest for color quality-control purposes in the manufacturing and graphics industries. The author analyzes three major color order systems in detail: Munsell, OSA-UCS, and NCS. He presents historical and current information on color space developments in color vision, psychology, psychophysics, and color technology. Chapter topics include: A historical account of color order systems Fundamentals of psychophysics and the relationship between stimuli and experience Results of perceptual scaling of colors according to attributes History of the development of mathematical color space and difference formulas Analysis of the agreements and discrepancies in psychophysical data describing color differences An experimental plan for the reliable, replicated perceptual data necessary to make progress in the field Experts in academia and industry, neuroscientists, designers, art historians, and anyone interested in the nature of color will find Color Space and Its Divisions to be the authoritative reference in its field.

  5. Differences in Bacterial Community Structure in Two Color Morphs of the Hawaiian Reef Coral Montipora capitata.

    PubMed

    Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Runyon, Christina M; Ushijima, Blake; Aeby, Greta S; Callahan, Sean M

    2015-10-01

    Corals harbor diverse bacterial associations that contribute to the health of the host. Using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, we compared the bacterial communities of red and orange morphs of the Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata. Although both color morphs shared dominant bacterial genera, weighted and unweighted UniFrac analyses showed distinct bacterial communities. A single operational taxonomic unit (OTU), classified as Vibrio, represented the largest driver of differences between the color morphs. This OTU comprised 35.4% (±5.5%) of the orange morph bacterial community yet comprised 1.1% (±0.6%) of the red morph bacterial community. Cultivable bacteria from the two color morphs were also compared and tested for antibacterial activity. Cultured isolates represented 14 genera (7% of the total genera identified from sequencing data), and all but two cultured isolates had a matching OTU from the sequencing data. Half of the isolates tested (8 out of 16) displayed antibacterial activity against other cultured isolates but not against two known bacterial pathogens of M. capitata. The results from this study demonstrate that the specificity of coral-bacterial associations extends beyond the level of coral species. In addition, culture-dependent methods captured bacterial diversity that was representative of both rare and abundant members of the associated bacterial community, as characterized by culture-independent methods. PMID:26253663

  6. Differences in Bacterial Community Structure in Two Color Morphs of the Hawaiian Reef Coral Montipora capitata

    PubMed Central

    Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Runyon, Christina M.; Ushijima, Blake; Aeby, Greta S.

    2015-01-01

    Corals harbor diverse bacterial associations that contribute to the health of the host. Using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, we compared the bacterial communities of red and orange morphs of the Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata. Although both color morphs shared dominant bacterial genera, weighted and unweighted UniFrac analyses showed distinct bacterial communities. A single operational taxonomic unit (OTU), classified as Vibrio, represented the largest driver of differences between the color morphs. This OTU comprised 35.4% (±5.5%) of the orange morph bacterial community yet comprised 1.1% (±0.6%) of the red morph bacterial community. Cultivable bacteria from the two color morphs were also compared and tested for antibacterial activity. Cultured isolates represented 14 genera (7% of the total genera identified from sequencing data), and all but two cultured isolates had a matching OTU from the sequencing data. Half of the isolates tested (8 out of 16) displayed antibacterial activity against other cultured isolates but not against two known bacterial pathogens of M. capitata. The results from this study demonstrate that the specificity of coral-bacterial associations extends beyond the level of coral species. In addition, culture-dependent methods captured bacterial diversity that was representative of both rare and abundant members of the associated bacterial community, as characterized by culture-independent methods. PMID:26253663

  7. Development of different human skin colors: a review highlighting photobiological and photobiophysical aspects.

    PubMed

    Juzeniene, Asta; Setlow, Richard; Porojnicu, Alina; Steindal, Arnfinn Hykkerud; Moan, Johan

    2009-08-01

    Skin color has changed during human evolution. These changes may result from adaptations to solar ultraviolet radiation (protection of sweat glands, sunburn, skin cancer, vitamin D deficiency, defence against microorganisms, etc.), and/or sexual selection. Migration to areas with high levels of UV is associated with skin darkening, while migration to areas with low levels has led to skin lightening. However, other factors may have played roles. Temperature and food have probably been secondary determinants: heat exchange with the environment is dependent on ambient temperature, and a high intake of food rich in vitamin D allows a dark skin color to persist even at latitudes of low UV levels, as exemplified by Inuit's living at high latitudes. Future studies of human migration will show if skin lightening is a faster process and has a higher evolutionary impact than skin darkening. Maybe due to that some American Indians have kept a relatively light skin although they live under the equator. The following hypotheses for skin darkening are reviewed: shielding of sweat glands and blood vessels in the skin, protection against skin cancer and overproduction of vitamin D, camouflage, adaptation to different ambient temperatures, defense against microorganisms, protection against folate photodestruction. Hypotheses for skin lightening are: sexual selection, adaptation to cold climates, enhancement of vitamin D photoproduction, and changing food habits leading to lower intake of vitamin D. The genetical processes behind some of the changes of skin color will be also briefly reviewed. PMID:19481954

  8. Investigation of effect of different total area coverage values of inks on reflection spectra and color gamut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonov, I.; Shopova, M.; Boeva, R.

    2013-03-01

    The paper presents investigation of the effect of different values of total area coverage of inks (TAC) on reflection spectra and color gamut. Total area coverage is a key factor for achieving of maximal volume of color gamut. The reflection spectra of color surfaces in entire visible spectrum are used for determination the effect of different values of TAC. For study the effect of TAC values on color gamut, we have used special test form that contains many components and test charts with over 1500 color patches. According to measurement of reflectance spectrum of test charts, we have compared the color gamuts with different values of TAC to obtain comprehensive information of all colors, which could be reproduced in the specific conditions. In addition we have converted the reflection spectra data to CIE L*a*b* coordinates, and we have calculated the color difference ΔE* ab to determine the effect of TAC on color reproduction accuracy. The main goal of this study is development of methodology, which gives objective and analytical assessment, for determining the optimal value of total area coverage (TAC). A practical implementation of the correct and optimal value of total area coverage should improve the printability, better ink layers adhesion, biggest number of trapping values and reduce the quantity of process inks. The optimal value of the TAC determined by this new methodology helps to achieve a significant reduction of ink cost and a maximal color gamut volume, i.e. improve the quality of printed image and reduce financial costs.

  9. [Expression levels of Slc7a11 in the skin of Kazakh sheep with different coat colors].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Tao; He, Xin; Zhou, Zhi-Yong; Zhao, Song-Hua; Zhang, Wen-Xiang; Liu, Gang; Zhao, Zong-Sheng; Jia, Bin

    2012-10-01

    Slc7a11 belongs to solute transporter gene family, encoding cystine/glutamate transporter xCT. It regulates switching between eumelanin and pheomelanin synthesis. In the present study, Real-time PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of Slc7a11 in the skin of Kazakh lambs with different coat colors (black, brown and white), and then the prokaryotic expression plasmid PET-32a-sxCT was constructed to induce the expression of fusion protein. The target pro-tein was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatographic separation, and then was used to immunize rabbit in order to produce rabbit anti-sxCT polyclonal antibody. Finally, the expression levels of sxCT were detected in the skin of Kazakh lambs with different hair colors by Western blotting analysis. Results showed that the mRNA expression levels of Slc7a11 differed significantly in the skin of Kazakh lambs with different coat colors, with the highest level in brown coat color, followed by the black, and then the white. The sxCT protein was also detected in the skin of different coat colors by polyclonal antibody, with the highest level in brown coat color, followed by the black, and then the white. It is, therefore, concluded that slc7a11 gene might be associated with the phenotype of coat color in Kazakh sheep. PMID:23099788

  10. Auroral Lyman α and <formula>H2 bands from the giant planets 3. Lyman α spectral profile including charge exchange and radiative transfer effects and <formula>H2 color ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rego, D.; Prangé, R.; Ben Jaffel, L.

    1999-03-01

    In this paper, third of a series of three dealing with a model of auroral H and H2 emission in the giant planets, we focus on the characteristics of the emergent emission, the only one which can be compared with observations. As the Jovian atmosphere is optically thick at 1215.67 Å, modeling of emergent auroral Lyman α line profiles requires the use of a radiative transfer code to model the transport of photons from the auroral source to the top of the atmosphere. Here, radiative transfer effects are modeled using the ``doubling and adding'' method. This radiative transfert code is self-consistently coupled with the energy degradation code used in the first two papers to compute the excitation rate along the path of precipitating particles as a function of wavelength. Input parameters are the identity and the energy of the incoming particles. We find that the auroral Lyman α line profile shows a central reversal due to the atmospheric H overlying the emitting layer. The shape of the emergent line is almost only sensitive to the column of H in the line of sight to the emission, related, via the atmospheric model used, to the the particle penetration depth (i.e. their energy). In addition, in the case of proton precipitation, charge exchange produces fast H atoms (Hf) which precipitate with the protons. Hf can also be excited and radiate Lyman α photons. This produces a second, Doppler shifted, component, of the Lyman α profile. This component may represent as much as 77.4% of the total Lyman α intensity for 10 keV protons, and it decreases with incident proton energy. It also extends over a broad wavelength range (up to 56 Å for 1 MeV proton). Detection of this component would unambiguously identify protons as the particles responsible for the Jovian aurorae. However, for high proton energies, the escaping flux may be too weak to be detected. Finally, following earlier analyses of IUE auroral spectra, we compute the color ratio C between the fluxes escaping

  11. Sensitivity analysis and comparison of various potential evapotranspiration formulae for selected Greek areas with different climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paparrizos, Spyridon; Maris, Fotios; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Potential evapotranspiration (PET) is one of the most critical parameters in the research on agro-ecological systems. The computational methods for the estimation of PET vary in data demands from very simple (empirically based), requiring only information based on air temperatures, to complex ones (more physically based) that require data on radiation, relative humidity, wind speed, etc. The current research is focused on three study areas in Greece that face different climatic conditions due to their location. Twelve PET formulae were used, analyzed and inter-compared in terms of their sensitivity regarding their input coefficients for the Ardas River basin in north-eastern Greece, Sperchios River basin in Central Greece and Geropotamos River basin in South Greece. The aim was to compare all the methods and conclude to which empirical PET method(s) better represent the PET results in each area and thus should be adopted and used each time and which factors influence the results in each case. The results indicated that for the areas that face Mediterranean climatic conditions, the most appropriate method for the estimation of PET was the temperature-based, Hamon's second version (PETHam2). Furthermore, the PETHam2 was able to estimate PET almost similarly to the average results of the 12 equations. For the Ardas River basin, the results indicated that both PETHam2 and PETHam1 can be used to estimate PET satisfactorily. Moreover, the temperature-based equations have proven to produce better results, followed by the radiation-based equations. Finally, PETASCE, which is the most commonly used PET equation, can also be applied occasionally in order to provide satisfactory results.

  12. VNIR Spectral Differences on Natural and Brushed/Wind-abraded Surfaces on Home Plate, Gusev Crater, Mars: Spirit Pancam and HiRISE Color Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Johnson, J. R.; Schmidt, M. E.; Bell, J. F.

    2008-03-01

    Color differences between the eastern and western rims of Home Plate are examined using Spirit Pancam and HiRISE color observations. Differences between near-field and remote observations are considered.

  13. Do Different Colors Absorb Heat Better? Grades PreK-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    In this activity, students test whether the color of a material affects how much heat it absorbs. An ice cube is placed in a box made of colored paper (one box per color; white, yellow, red, and black) which is then placed in the sun. Students predict which color will melt the ice cube first and record the order and time required for the ice cubes…

  14. Fishy Formulas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, William; Sizzo, Jennifer; Curtis, Anita; Klein, Shannon; Micale, Cheryl; Lin, E-Sin

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity presented in sports fishing magazines on developing a formula that predicts the weight in pounds of a game fish given its length in inches by using a TI-83 graphing calculator. Highlights the importance of using real-life problems and mathematical explorations. (ASK)

  15. The Effects of Highlight Color on Immediate Recall on Subjects of Different Cognitive Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, Gary M.; Moore, David M.

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the use of color for enhancing recognition memory focuses on a study of undergraduates that evaluated images as black and white, full color, or highlight color and the effect these characteristics had on recognition memory and recall for learners classified as field-dependent and field-independent in terms of cognitive style. (LRW)

  16. Transcriptome Sequencing and Characterization of Japanese Scallop Patinopecten yessoensis from Different Shell Color Lines

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yaqing; Zhao, Wenming; Du, Zhenlin; Hao, Zhenlin

    2015-01-01

    Shell color is an important trait that is used in breeding the Japanese scallop Patinopecten yessoensis, the most economically important scallop species in China. We constructed four transcriptome libraries from different shell color lines of P. yessoensis: the left and right shell mantles of ordinary strains of P. yessoensis and the left shell mantles of the ‘Ivory’ and ‘Maple’ strains. These four libraries were paired-end sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and contained 54,802,692 sequences, 40,798,962 sequences, 74,019,262 sequences, and 44,466,166 sequences, respectively. A total of 214,087,082 expressed sequence tags were assembled into 73,522 unigenes with an average size of 1,163 bp. When the data were compared against the public Nr and Swiss-Prot databases using BlastX, nearly 30.55% (22,458) of the unigenes were significantly matched to known unique proteins. Gene Ontology annotation and pathway mapping analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes categorized unigenes according to their diverse biological functions and processes and identified candidate genes that were potentially involved in growth, pigmentation, metal transcription, and immunity. Expression profile analysis was performed on all four libraries and many differentially expressed genes were identified. In addition, 5,772 simple sequence repeats were obtained from the P. yessoensis transcriptomes, and 464,197, 395,646, and 310,649 single nucleotide polymorphisms were revealed in the ordinary strains, the ‘Ivory’ strain, and the ‘Maple’ strain, respectively. These results provide valuable information for future genomic studies on P. yessoensis and improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the growth, immunity, shell coloring, and shell biomineralization of this species. These resources also may be used in a variety of applications, such as trait mapping, marker-assisted breeding, studies of population genetics and genomics

  17. Plumage coloration and nutritional condition in the great tit Parus major: the roles of carotenoids and melanins differ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senar, Juan Carlos; Figuerola, Jordi; Domènech, Jordi

    2003-05-01

    The size and coloration of some body characters seem to influence mate choice in many species. Most animal colours are either structural or based on melanin or carotenoid pigments. It has recently been suggested that carotenoid-based or structural coloration may be a condition-dependent trait, whereas melanin-based coloration is not; a difference that may be highly relevant when studying the evolution of multiple mating preferences. We tested this hypothesis in the great tit ( Parus major). The size of the melanin breast band was not correlated to nutritional condition as estimated by the rate of tail growth (ptilochronology), controlling for locality, age, sex, year and season effects. However, the correlation was significant for the hue of yellow breast (carotenoid-based coloration), and the slopes of the regressions of the two pigments to growth bars differed significantly. These results suggest that the expression of the two traits may be regulated by different mechanisms.

  18. Physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages are not influenced by color differences of turkey breast meat.

    PubMed

    Popp, J; Krischek, C; Janisch, S; Wicke, M; Klein, G

    2013-05-01

    It has been suggested that the color of turkey breast meat influences both physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages. In this study, raw fermented sausages were produced with turkey breast meat in 3 different colors (pale, normal, or dark), which were obtained from 2 fast-growing-genetic-line toms at 2 slaughterhouses. Prior to the sausage production, the breast muscles were sorted into color groups according to the lightness values determined at 24 h postmortem. This meat was subsequently processed to raw fermented sausages using 1.5 or 2.5% curing salt (CS). The pale meat had higher lightness, electrical conductivity, and drip loss, whereas the dark meat showed a darker color only. The physico-chemical (pH, water activity), visual (lightness, redness), and microbial (total plate count) properties of the sausages were not influenced by the color of the turkey breast meat. The sausage made with 2.5% CS had lower aw and higher ash and hardness values than the sausages produced with 1.5% CS. In conclusion, processing of differently colored turkey meat to raw fermented sausages does not influence the quality characteristics of the products. Based on these findings, there is no reason for the sausage producer to separate turkey breast muscles by color before producing raw fermented sausages. PMID:23571348

  19. The `Chocolate Experiment' - A Demonstration of Radiation Absorption by Different Colored Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Dennis

    2015-12-01

    In the typical "cookbook" experiment comparing the radiation absorption rates of different colored surfaces, students' hands are commonly used as a measurement instrument to demonstrate that dull black and silvery surfaces are good and poor absorbers of radiation, respectively. However, college students are often skeptical about using their bare hands in this experiment because they learned in early science lessons that skin is not a reliable detector of heat transfer. Moreover, when the experiment is conducted in a school laboratory, it is often difficult for students to perceive the slight differences in heat transfer on the dull black and silvery aluminum leaves attached to their hands. Rather than replacing students' bare hands with such sophisticated apparatus as a data logger and temperature probe, I suggest using a simple (and delicious!) low-cost instrument, i.e., chocolate, which simply melts when it receives radiation.

  20. Encapsulation of the most potent antioxidant betalains in edible matrixes as powders of different colors.

    PubMed

    Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; Cabanes, Juana; Escribano, Josefa; García-Carmona, Francisco; Jiménez-Atiénzar, Mercedes

    2013-05-01

    Betalains are plant pigments with high antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. While basal activity exists in all betalains, the dihydroxylated molecules present the highest TEAC values of the family of compounds. However, their lability limits possible applications. This work reports the encapsulation of the most active pigments, the yellow miraxanthin V and the violet betanidin in edible matrixes of chitosan and maltodextrin. An appropriate spray-drying procedure is described, with an inlet air temperature of 140 °C. The resulting particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and powder color was analyzed by spectrophotometry using an integrating sphere. Stability of the bioactive compounds was followed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and it was highly promoted by encapsulation, with limited pigment loss after six months' storage. Particles retained the antioxidant and antiradical activities of the soluble pigments measured under the FRAP and ABTS radical assays. A combination of miraxanthin V and betanidin in variable proportions provides a bright palette of encapsulated powders of different colors suitable for food applications. PMID:23521423

  1. Effect of immersion into solutions at various pH on the color stability of composite resins with different shades

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Ji-Deok; Seon, Eun-Mi; Son, Sung-Ae; Jung, Kyoung-Hwa; Kwon, Yong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the color changes of a resin composite with different shades upon exposure to water with different pH. Materials and Methods Nanohybrid resin composites (Filtek Z350XT, 3M ESPE) with four different shades (A2, A3, B1, and B2) were immersed in water with three different pH (pH 3, 6, and 9) for 14 day. The CIE L*a*b* color coordinates of the specimens were evaluated before and after immersion in the solutions. The color difference (ΔE*) and the translucency parameter (TP) were calculated using the color coordinates. Results ΔE* ranged from 0.33 to 1.58, and the values were affected significantly by the pH. The specimens immersed in a pH 6 solution showed the highest ΔE* values (0.87 - 1.58). The specimens with a B1 shade showed the lowest ΔE* change compared to the other shades. TP ranged from 7.01 to 9.46 depending on the pH and resin shade. The TP difference between before and after immersion in the pH solutions was less than 1.0. Conclusions The resulting change of color of the tested specimens did not appear to be clinically problematic because the color difference was < 1.6 in the acidic, neutral, and alkaline solutions regardless of the resin shade, i.e., the color change was imperceptible. PMID:26587412

  2. Three-dimensional color Doppler reconstruction of intracardiac blood flow in patients with different heart valve diseases.

    PubMed

    De Simone, R; Glombitza, G; Vahl, C F; Meinzer, H P; Hagl, S

    2000-12-15

    An improved perception of the magnitude and dynamics of intracardiac flow disturbances has been made possible by the advent of 3-dimensional (3-D) color Doppler, a new diagnostic procedure developed at our institution. This study describes the new insights derived from 3-D reconstruction of color Doppler flow patterns in patients with different heart valve diseases. The color Doppler flow data from 153 multiplanar transesophageal or transthoracic echocardiographic examinations has been obtained from 133 patients with heart valve disease; 73 patients had mitral regurgitation, 15 had mitral stenosis, 18 had aortic regurgitation, 26 had aortic stenosis, and 21 patients had tricuspid regurgitation. Four patients had pulmonary regurgitation associated with mitral valve disease. The 3-D reconstructions of color Doppler flow signals were accomplished by means of the "Heidelberg Raytracing model," developed at our institution. The 3-D color Doppler reconstructions were obtained in all patients. The 3-D images revealed for the first time the complex spatial distribution of the blood flow abnormalities in the heart chambers caused by different heart valve diseases. New patterns of intracardiac blood flow disturbances were observed and classified. Three-dimensional color Doppler provides a unique noninvasive method that can be easily applied for studying intracardiac blood flow disturbances in clinical practice. PMID:11113410

  3. Color uniformity and data simulation in high-power RGB LED modules using different LED-chips arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Yan; Jin, Shangzhong; Wang, Yanhua; Dou, Liangliang

    2007-11-01

    The continuing research efforts in white light created by mixing red, green and blue light emitting diodes (RGB LED) will allow their applications in high quality lighting systems in the (near) future. There are still many issues to tackle in this kind of light source, for instance the color uniformity and the change of color-render property owing to the change of LED's temperature. In this paper we simulate the effects on color uniformity of the near-field light distribution due to different LED-chips arrays (at optimum packaging density for uniform irradiance) using High-Power RGB LED-chips. The results showing the color uniformity of near-field which can be achieved with different RGB LED-chips arrays are presented. Several configurations of RGB LED-chips arrays and relevant data for color variation are given respectively. An analysis of luminous efficacy of radiation (LER) and color rendering index (CRI) of this source is performed, which are affected by the peak wavelength, spectral width, and the output peak emission power ratio of LED-chips.

  4. Flavonoid composition related to petal color in different lines of Clitoria ternatea.

    PubMed

    Kazuma, Kohei; Noda, Naonobu; Suzuki, Masahiko

    2003-11-01

    Flavonoids in the petals of several C. ternatea lines with different petal colors were investigated with LC/MS/MS. Delphinidin 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-6"-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside was newly isolated from the petals of a mauve line (wm) together with three known anthocyanins. They were identified structurally using UV, MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Although ternatins, a group of 15 (poly)acylated delphinidin glucosides, were identified in all the blue petal lines (WB, BM-1, 'Double Blue' and 'Albiflora'), WM accumulated delphinidin 3-O-(6"-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside instead. The white petal line (WW) did not contain anthocyanins. Quantitative data showed that the total anthocyanin contents in WB and 'Double Blue' were ca. 8- and 10-fold higher than that in BM-1, a bud mutant of 'Double Blue', respectively. The total anthocyanin content in 'Albiflora' was less than 2 x 10(-3) times those in WB or 'Double Blue'. While all the lines contained the same set of 15 flavonol glycosides in similar relative ratios, the relative ratio of myricetin glycosides in ww and 'Albiflora' was ca. 30-70 times greater than those in the other lines. The change in flower color from blue to mauve was not due to a change in the structure of an anthocyanidin from delphinidin, but to the lack of (polyacylated) glucosyl group substitutions at both the 3'- and 5'-positions of ternatins. This implies that glucosylation at the 3'- and 5'-positions of anthocyanin is a critical step in producing blue petals in C. ternatea. PMID:14568080

  5. Toward a unified color space for perception-based image processing.

    PubMed

    Lissner, Ingmar; Urban, Philipp

    2012-03-01

    Image processing methods that utilize characteristics of the human visual system require color spaces with certain properties to operate effectively. After analyzing different types of perception-based image processing problems, we present a list of properties that a unified color space should have. Due to contradictory perceptual phenomena and geometric issues, a color space cannot incorporate all these properties. We therefore identify the most important properties and focus on creating opponent color spaces without cross contamination between color attributes (i.e., lightness, chroma, and hue) and with maximum perceptual uniformity induced by color-difference formulas. Color lookup tables define simple transformations from an initial color space to the new spaces. We calculate such tables using multigrid optimization considering the Hung and Berns data of constant perceived hue and the CMC, CIE94, and CIEDE2000 color-difference formulas. The resulting color spaces exhibit low cross contamination between color attributes and are only slightly less perceptually uniform than spaces optimized exclusively for perceptual uniformity. We compare the CIEDE2000-based space with commonly used color spaces in two examples of perception-based image processing. In both cases, standard methods show improved results if the new space is used. All color-space transformations and examples are provided as MATLAB codes on our website. PMID:21824846

  6. A Two Colorable Fourth Order Compact Difference Scheme and Parallel Iterative Solution of the 3D Convection Diffusion Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Jun; Ge, Lixin; Kouatchou, Jules

    2000-01-01

    A new fourth order compact difference scheme for the three dimensional convection diffusion equation with variable coefficients is presented. The novelty of this new difference scheme is that it Only requires 15 grid points and that it can be decoupled with two colors. The entire computational grid can be updated in two parallel subsweeps with the Gauss-Seidel type iterative method. This is compared with the known 19 point fourth order compact differenCe scheme which requires four colors to decouple the computational grid. Numerical results, with multigrid methods implemented on a shared memory parallel computer, are presented to compare the 15 point and the 19 point fourth order compact schemes.

  7. Not by the Color of Their Skin; The Impact of Racial Differences on the Child's Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Marjorie

    Contents of this book include: Part I: "The Nursery School and Its Racial Integration"--introduction, establishing physical and psychological integration; staff meetings; observing and working through; Part II: "Theory and Practice"--skin color anxiety: the skin and its importance in personality development; skin color anxiety, the visual impact,…

  8. Color Makes a Difference: Two-Dimensional Object Naming in Literate and Illiterate Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Alexandra; Faisca, Luis; Ingvar, Martin; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2006-01-01

    Previous work has shown that illiterate subjects are better at naming two-dimensional representations of real objects when presented as colored photos as compared to black and white drawings. This raises the question if color or textural details selectively improve object recognition and naming in illiterate compared to literate subjects. In this…

  9. Electroluminescence of different colors from polycation/CdTe nanocrystal self-assembled films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Mingyuan; Lesser, Constanze; Kirstein, Stefan; Möhwald, Helmuth; Rogach, Andrey L.; Weller, Horst

    2000-03-01

    Water soluble thiol capped CdTe nanocrystals are assembled into ultrathin films in combination with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) by the self-assembly method of layer-by-layer adsorption of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. Electroluminescent devices, which produce different color emissions, are fabricated by sandwiching CdTe/PDDA films between indium-tin-oxide (ITO) and aluminum electrodes using CdTe nanocrystals of different sizes. It is shown that the electroluminescence (EL) spectra of the CdTe/polymer films are nearly identical to the photoluminescence spectra of the corresponding CdTe nanocrystals in aqueous solutions. The devices produce room-light visible light output with an external quantum efficiency up to 0.1%. Light emission is observed at current densities of 10 mA/cm2 and at low onset voltages of 2.5-3.5 V, which depends on the thickness of the film indicating field-dependent current injection. A variation of the EL efficiency with the size of the CdTe particles is observed and explained by the size dependent shift of the CdTe energy levels with respect to the work function of the electron injecting Al electrode. This is confirmed by the behavior of two-layer devices prepared from two differently sized CdTe particles being spatially separated, i.e., one size CdTe near ITO and the other size CdTe near Al by using the self-assembly method.

  10. Influence of Different Types of Resin Luting Agents on Color Stability of Ceramic Laminate Veneers Subjected to Accelerated Artificial Aging.

    PubMed

    Silami, Francisca Daniele Jardilino; Tonani, Rafaella; Alandia-Román, Carla Cecilia; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of accelerated aging (AAA) on the color stability of resin cements for bonding ceramic laminate veneers of different thicknesses. The occlusal surfaces of 80 healthy human molars were flattened. Ceramic laminate veneers (IPS e-max Ceram) of two thicknesses (0.5 and 1.0 mm) were bonded with three types of luting agents: light-cured, conventional dual and self-adhesive dual cement. Teeth without restorations and cement samples (0.5 mm) were used as control. After initial color evaluations, the samples were subjected to AAA for 580 h. After this, new color readouts were made, and the color stability (ΔE) and luminosity (ΔL) data were analyzed. The greatest color changes (p<0.05) occurred when 0.5 mm veneers were fixed with light-cured cement and the lowest when 1.0 mm veneers were fixed with conventional dual cement. There was no influence of the restoration thickness when the self-adhesive dual cement was used. When veneers were compared with the control groups, it was verified that the cement samples presented the greatest alterations (p<0.05) in comparison with both substrates and restored teeth. Therefore, it was concluded that the thickness of the restoration influences color and luminosity changes for conventional dual and light-cured cements. The changes in self-adhesive cement do not depend on restoration thickness. PMID:27007354

  11. Effects of different enzyme treatments in extraction of total folate from infant formula, baby foods and other food products prior to microbiological assay and radioassay

    SciTech Connect

    De Souza, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Four different enzyme treatments-conjugase alone, conjugase and alpha-amylase, conjugase and Pronase{reg sign} and a triple enzyme combination of conjugase, Pronase {reg sign} and alpha-amylase were applied in the extraction of total folate from infant formula, baby foods and various other foods by microbiological and radioassay methods. Significant increases (P < 0.05) in measurable folate were obtained using the triple enzyme system in spinach, Camembert cheese, soy-based infant formula and cereal-based, meat-based and fruit-based infant foods over the use of conjugase alone by the microbiological method. Increases were also observed in many of the same foods using Pronase{reg sign} or alpha-amylase in addition to conjugase alone. Increases obtained by microbiological assay were confirmed by radioassay in a number of foods studied.

  12. Betalain profile, phenolic content, and color characterization of different parts and varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Chaalal, Makhlouf; Louaileche, Hayette; Parrado, Juan; Heredia, Francisco J

    2014-08-20

    Three different varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica (R, red; Y, yellow; RY, red-yellow) have been considered in this study. Attention was focused on differential tristimulus colorimetry and on the analysis of individual betalains (HPLC-DAD-ESI-ToF-MS) and phenolic content, scarcely previously reported in these kinds of samples. The importance of this research stems from the elucidation of the parts and varieties of cactus pear more optimal for use as natural colorants and sources of phenolics and betalains. Thus, the RY pulp was appropriate to obtain colorants with high color intensity (C*(ab) = 66.5), whereas the whole Y fruit and R pulp reached powerful and stable yellow and red colors, respectively (C*(ab)/h(ab), 57.1/84.7 and 61.1°/81.8°). This choice was also based on the visually appreciable differences (ΔE*(ab) > 5) among samples, mainly quantitative (%Δ(2)L, %Δ(2)C). In addition, seeds of all Opuntia varieties showed significantly (p < 0.05) similar phenolic content (around 23.3 mg/g) and color characteristics. PMID:25075631

  13. Color rendering indices in global illumination methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler-Moroder, David; Dür, Arne

    2009-02-01

    Human perception of material colors depends heavily on the nature of the light sources used for illumination. One and the same object can cause highly different color impressions when lit by a vapor lamp or by daylight, respectively. Based on state-of-the-art colorimetric methods we present a modern approach for calculating color rendering indices (CRI), which were defined by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) to characterize color reproduction properties of illuminants. We update the standard CIE method in three main points: firstly, we use the CIELAB color space, secondly, we apply a Bradford transformation for chromatic adaptation, and finally, we evaluate color differences using the CIEDE2000 total color difference formula. Moreover, within a real-world scene, light incident on a measurement surface is composed of a direct and an indirect part. Neumann and Schanda1 have shown for the cube model that interreflections can influence the CRI of an illuminant. We analyze how color rendering indices vary in a real-world scene with mixed direct and indirect illumination and recommend the usage of a spectral rendering engine instead of an RGB based renderer for reasons of accuracy of CRI calculations.

  14. Shear bond strength of orthodontic color-change adhesives with different light-curing times

    PubMed Central

    Bayani, Shahin; Ghassemi, Amirreza; Manafi, Safa; Delavarian, Mohadeseh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of light-curing time on the shear bond strength (SBS) of two orthodontic color-change adhesives (CCAs). Materials and Methods: A total of 72 extracted premolars were randomly assigned into 6 groups of 12 teeth each. Subsequent to primer application, a metal bracket was bonded to the buccal surface using an orthodontic adhesive. Two CCAs (Greengloo and Transbond Plus) were tested and one conventional light-cured adhesive (Resilience) served as control. For each adhesive, the specimens were light-cured for two different times of 20 and 40 s. All the specimens underwent mechanical testing using a universal testing machine to measure the SBS. Adhesive remnant index (ARI) was used to assess the remnant adhesive material on the tooth surface. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software. The significance level for all statistical tests was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: The SBSs of the tested groups were in the range of 14.05-31.25 MPa. Greengloo adhesive showed the highest SBS values when light-cured for 40 s, and Transbond Plus adhesive showed the lowest values when light-cured for 20 s. ARI scores of Transbond Plus adhesive were significantly higher than those of controls, while other differences in ARI values were not significant. Conclusion: Within the limitations of his study, decreasing the light-curing time from 40 to 20 s decreased the SBS of the tested adhesives; however, this decline in SBS was statistically significant only in Transbond Plus adhesive PMID:26005468

  15. An Analysis of Nonfirst-Generation Community College Men of Color: Comparing GPA, Noncognitive, and Campus Ethos Differences across Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacios, Angélica M. G.; Alvarez, Rafael D.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing upon the Community College Socio-Ecological Outcomes model, this study is among the first to have addressed the outcomes of nonfirst-generation community college men of color. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences across ethnicities for key factors in two socioecological domains, including noncognitive and campus ethos…

  16. Quality assessment of a formulated Chinese herbal decoction, Kaixinsan, by using rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry: A chemical evaluation of different historical formulae.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kevin Y; Fu, Q; Xie, Heidi Q; Xu, Sherry L; Cheung, Anna W H; Zheng, Ken Y Z; Luk, Wilson K W; Choi, Roy C Y; Lau, David T W; Dong, Tina T X; Jiang, Zhi Y; Chen, Ji J; Tsim, Karl W K

    2010-12-01

    Kaixinsan is an ancient Chinese herbal decoction mainly prescribed for patients suffering from mental depression. This decoction was created by Sun Si-miao of Tang Dynasty (A.D. 600) in ancient China, and was composed of four herbs: Radix and Rhizome Ginseng, Radix Polygalae, Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii and Poria. Historically, this decoction has three different formulations, each recorded at a different point in time. In this study, the chemical compositions of all three Kaixinsan formulae were analyzed. By using rapid resolution LC coupled with a diode-array detector and an ESI triple quadrupole tandem MS (QQQ-MS/MS), the Radix and Rhizome Ginseng-derived ginsenosides including Rb(1), Rd, Re, Rg(1), the Radix Polygalae-derived 3,6'-disinapoyl sucrose, the Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii-derived α- and β-asarone and the Poria-derived pachymic acid were compared among the three different formulations. The results showed variations in the solubility of different chemicals between one formula and the others. This systematic method developed could be used for the quality assessment of this herbal decoction. PMID:21077129

  17. From A Physical Color Stimulus To A Psychological Color Percept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sporea, Dan G.; Tonnquist, Gunnar

    1989-08-01

    The paper discusses the complexity of color vision in humans, considering the main aspects involved: the physical aspect, the psychophysical aspect, the physiological aspect and the psychological aspect. The meanings of the term color associated to each such aspect (asfor example, color stimulus, color valence, neural color signal and color percept) are introduced. Some types of color defective vision, relevant for color display users, are indicated. The methods to generate color stimuli in modern display devices, employing different technologies, are compared.

  18. Enhanced recognition memory in grapheme-color synaesthesia for different categories of visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jamie; Hovard, Peter; Jones, Alicia; Rothen, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Memory has been shown to be enhanced in grapheme-color synaesthesia, and this enhancement extends to certain visual stimuli (that don't induce synaesthesia) as well as stimuli comprised of graphemes (which do). Previous studies have used a variety of testing procedures to assess memory in synaesthesia (e.g., free recall, recognition, associative learning) making it hard to know the extent to which memory benefits are attributable to the stimulus properties themselves, the testing method, participant strategies, or some combination of these factors. In the first experiment, we use the same testing procedure (recognition memory) for a variety of stimuli (written words, non-words, scenes, and fractals) and also check which memorization strategies were used. We demonstrate that grapheme-color synaesthetes show enhanced memory across all these stimuli, but this is not found for a non-visual type of synaesthesia (lexical-gustatory). In the second experiment, the memory advantage for scenes is explored further by manipulating the properties of the old and new images (changing color, orientation, or object presence). Again, grapheme-color synaesthetes show a memory advantage for scenes across all manipulations. Although recognition memory is generally enhanced in this study, the largest effects were found for abstract visual images (fractals) and scenes for which color can be used to discriminate old/new status. PMID:24187542

  19. Color space conversion for linear color grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dah-Jye

    2000-10-01

    Color grading is an important process for various industries such as food processing, fruit and vegetable grading, etc. Quality and price are often determined by the color of product. For example, darker red color for apples means higher price. In color machine vision applications, image is acquired with a color CCD camera that outputs color information in three channels, red, gree, and blue. When grading color, these three primary colors must be processed to determine the color level for separation. A very popular color space conversion technique for color image processing is RGB-to-HSI, where HSI represents hue, saturation, and intensity, respectively. However, the conversion result is still 3D information that makes determining color grades very difficult. A new color space conversion technique that can be implemented for high-speed real-time processing for color grading is introduced in this paper. Depending on the application, different color space conversion equations must be used. The result of this technique is a simple one-dimensional array that represents different color levels. This linear array makes linear color grading adjustment possible.

  20. Polar Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 3 May 2004 This nighttime visible color image was collected on January 1, 2003 during the Northern Summer season near the North Polar Troughs.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79, Longitude 346 East (14 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  1. Color Stability of the Bulk-Fill Composite Resins with Different Thickness in Response to Coffee/Water Immersion

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh-Al-Eslamian, Seyedeh Mahsa; Hasani, Elham; Abrandabadi, Ahmad Najafi

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the color stability of bulk-fill and conventional composite resin with respect to thickness and storage media. Twenty specimens of a conventional composite resin (6 mm diameter and 2 mm thick) and 40 specimens of the bulk-fill Tetric EvoCeram composite resin at two different thicknesses (6 mm diameter and 2 mm thick or 4 mm thick, n = 20) were prepared. The specimens were stored in distilled water during the study period (28 d). Half of the specimens were remained in distilled water and the other half were immersed in coffee solution 20 min/d and kept in distilled water between the cycles. Color changes (ΔE) were measured using the CIE L⁎a⁎b⁎ color space and a digital imaging system at 1, 7, 14, and 28 days of storage. Data were analyzed using Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post hoc test (P < 0.05). Composite resins showed significant increase in color changes by time (bulk-fill > conventional; P < 0.001). Coffee exhibited significantly more staining susceptibility than that of distilled water (P < 0.001). There was greater color changes with increasing the increment thickness, which was significant at 14 (P < 0.001) and 28 d (P < 0.01). Color change of bulk-fill composite resin was greater than that of the conventional one after coffee staining and is also a function of increment thicknesses. PMID:27403163

  2. Color Stability of the Bulk-Fill Composite Resins with Different Thickness in Response to Coffee/Water Immersion.

    PubMed

    Shamszadeh, Sayna; Sheikh-Al-Eslamian, Seyedeh Mahsa; Hasani, Elham; Abrandabadi, Ahmad Najafi; Panahandeh, Narges

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the color stability of bulk-fill and conventional composite resin with respect to thickness and storage media. Twenty specimens of a conventional composite resin (6 mm diameter and 2 mm thick) and 40 specimens of the bulk-fill Tetric EvoCeram composite resin at two different thicknesses (6 mm diameter and 2 mm thick or 4 mm thick, n = 20) were prepared. The specimens were stored in distilled water during the study period (28 d). Half of the specimens were remained in distilled water and the other half were immersed in coffee solution 20 min/d and kept in distilled water between the cycles. Color changes (ΔE) were measured using the CIE L (⁎) a (⁎) b (⁎) color space and a digital imaging system at 1, 7, 14, and 28 days of storage. Data were analyzed using Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post hoc test (P < 0.05). Composite resins showed significant increase in color changes by time (bulk-fill > conventional; P < 0.001). Coffee exhibited significantly more staining susceptibility than that of distilled water (P < 0.001). There was greater color changes with increasing the increment thickness, which was significant at 14 (P < 0.001) and 28 d (P < 0.01). Color change of bulk-fill composite resin was greater than that of the conventional one after coffee staining and is also a function of increment thicknesses. PMID:27403163

  3. Effect of different disinfecting procedures on the hardness and color stability of two maxillofacial elastomers over time

    PubMed Central

    ELENI, Panagiota N.; KROKIDA, Magdalini K.; POLYZOIS, Gregory L.; GETTLEMAN, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Disinfection procedures often cause deterioration in a maxillofacial prosthesis. Color and hardness alterations could lead to a replacement of the prosthesis. Material and Methods: An experimental chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) and a commercial polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) sample were treated with four different disinfection procedures for a period which simulates 1 year of clinical service. The applied disinfection procedures included microwave exposure and immersion in three solutions, sodium hypochlorite, neutral soap and a commercial disinfecting soap. Shore A hardness (ΔΗ) and color differences (ΔΕ) were determined before and after each procedure. All data were analyzed by Two Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc tests at a level of α=0.05. Results: The samples presented significant alterations in color and hardness after the different disinfection treatments. The color differences (ΔΕ) were at least eye detectable in all cases and clinically unacceptable in most of the cases, with values ranging from 1.51 to 4.15 and from 1.54 to 5.92 for the PDMS and CPE material, respectively. Hardness was decreased after all the disinfection procedures in the PDMS, while for the CPE, a decrement was observed after disinfection with sodium hypochlorite and neutral soap and an increment after microwave exposure and the disinfection with a commercial antimicrobial agent. The PDMS samples presented greater alterations in color and hardness after disinfection with sodium hypochlorite solution, while the microwave exposure caused negligible effects. The CPE samples were affected most after disinfection when treated with neutral soap, and more slightly when disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution. Conclusions: The disinfection procedures caused alterations in color and hardness of the examined materials. The most suitable disinfection procedure for the PDMS material is microwave exposure, while disinfection with sodium hypochlorite

  4. Genetic structure and different color morphotypes suggest the occurrence and bathymetric segregation of two incipient species of Sebastes off Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venerus, Leonardo A.; Ciancio, Javier E.; Riva-Rossi, Carla; Gilbert-Horvath, Elizabeth A.; Gosztonyi, Atila E.; Garza, John Carlos

    2013-07-01

    Rockfishes of the genus Sebastes are extensively distributed in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Although the occurrence of two morphologically similar species in the Southern Hemisphere, Sebastes oculatus and Sebastes capensis, is now clearly established, the taxonomic status and phylogeographic patterns for the genus in the region have not yet been completely resolved. In this study, we provide new insights into the taxonomy and evolutionary relationships of rockfishes inhabiting the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of mainland Argentina, by combining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences, microsatellite data, and color pattern analyses. Differences in coloration ("dark" and "light" fish) together with bathymetric segregation between color morphotypes were evident from fish collection and literature review. In addition, the mtDNA phylogenetic analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis using microsatellite data separated the fish into two distinct groups ( F ST = 0.041), most likely representing incipient species. Our results suggest that speciation-by-depth in the absence of physical barriers could be a widespread mechanism of speciation in Sebastes from both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Nevertheless, the degree of genetic differentiation found, added to the large number of individuals displaying high levels of admixture, points to the occurrence of incomplete reproductive barriers between color morphotypes. Beyond the taxonomic and phylogeographic implications of our findings, the occurrence of distinct groups of Sebastes off the coast of Argentina being targeted by different fisheries (angling and trawling) has consequences for the design and implementation of appropriate fishery regulations to avoid overharvest of either group.

  5. Growth profile of Chamaedorea cataractarum (Cascade Palm)seedlings with different colored plastic mulch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of colored plastic mulch on the growth of Chamaedorea cataractarum Mart. (Cascade Palm). The seedlings placed in soil were compared with those placed in red and blue mulch. The plant growth was monitored for plant height, thickness at the base ...

  6. Contrast Sensitivity Differences between Proficient and Disabled Readers Using Colored Lenses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spafford, Carol S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined relationships among lens color, visual grating, visual detection task performance, and peripheral retinal brightness thresholds among four adults and four children with reading disabilities and age-matched controls. Subjects with reading disabilities displayed significantly lower contrast sensitivity when tested with sine-wave…

  7. A Comparative Study on Visual Choice Reaction Time for Different Colors in Females

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Grrishma; Uppinakudru, Gurunandan; Girwar Singh, Gaur; Bangera, Shobith; Dutt Raghavendra, Aswini; Thangavel, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Reaction time is one of the important methods to study a person's central information processing speed and coordinated peripheral movement response. Visual choice reaction time is a type of reaction time and is very important for drivers, pilots, security guards, and so forth. Previous studies were mainly on simple reaction time and there are very few studies on visual choice reaction time. The aim of our study was to compare the visual choice reaction time for red, green, and yellow colors of 60 healthy undergraduate female volunteers. After giving adequate practice, visual choice reaction time was recorded for red, green, and yellow colors using reaction time machine (RTM 608, Medicaid, Chandigarh). Repeated measures of ANOVA and Bonferroni multiple comparison were used for analysis and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The results showed that both red and green had significantly less choice visual choice reaction (P values <0.0001 and 0.0002) when compared with yellow. This could be because individual color mental processing time for yellow color is more than red and green. PMID:25580294

  8. Colored Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 7 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on May 30, 2002 during the Southern Fall season in Atlantis Chaos.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.5, Longitude 183.6 East (176.4 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of

  9. Gene expression divergence and nucleotide differentiation between males of different color morphs and mating strategies in the ruff

    PubMed Central

    Ekblom, Robert; Farrell, Lindsay L; Lank, David B; Burke, Terry

    2012-01-01

    By next generation transcriptome sequencing, it is possible to obtain data on both nucleotide sequence variation and gene expression. We have used this approach (RNA-Seq) to investigate the genetic basis for differences in plumage coloration and mating strategies in a non-model bird species, the ruff (Philomachus pugnax). Ruff males show enormous variation in the coloration of ornamental feathers, used for individual recognition. This polymorphism is linked to reproductive strategies, with dark males (Independents) defending territories on leks against other Independents, whereas white morphs (Satellites) co-occupy Independent's courts without agonistic interactions. Previous work found a strong genetic component for mating strategy, but the genes involved were not identified. We present feather transcriptome data of more than 6,000 de-novo sequenced ruff genes (although with limited coverage for many of them). None of the identified genes showed significant expression divergence between males, but many genetic markers showed nucleotide differentiation between different color morphs and mating strategies. These include several feather keratin genes, splicing factors, and the Xg blood-group gene. Many of the genes with significant genetic structure between mating strategies have not yet been annotated and their functions remain to be elucidated. We also conducted in-depth investigations of 28 pre-identified coloration candidate genes. Two of these (EDNRB and TYR) were specifically expressed in black- and rust-colored males, respectively. We have demonstrated the utility of next generation transcriptome sequencing for identifying and genotyping large number of genetic markers in a non-model species without previous genomic resources, and highlight the potential of this approach for addressing the genetic basis of ecologically important variation. PMID:23145334

  10. Determination of total flavonoids content in fresh Ginkgo biloba leaf with different colors using near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ji-yong; Zou, Xiao-bo; Zhao, Jie-wen; Mel, Holmes; Wang, Kai-liang; Wang, Xue; Chen, Hong

    Total flavonoids content is often considered an important quality index of Ginkgo biloba leaf. The feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) spectra at the wavelength range of 10,000-4000 cm-1 for rapid and nondestructive determination of total flavonoids content in G. biloba leaf was investigated. 120 fresh G. biloba leaves in different colors (green, green-yellowish and yellow) were used to spectra acquisition and total flavonoids determination. Partial least squares (PLS), interval partial least squares (iPLS) and synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS) were used to develop calibration models for total flavonoids content in two colors leaves (green-yellowish and yellow) and three colors leaves (green, green-yellowish and yellow), respectively. The level of total flavonoids content for green, green-yellowish and yellow leaves was in an increasing order. Two characteristic wavelength regions (5840-6090 cm-1 and 6620-6880 cm-1), which corresponded to the absorptions of two aromatic rings in basic flavonoid structure, were selected by SiPLS. The optimal SiPLS model for total flavonoids content in the two colors leaves (r2 = 0.82, RMSEP = 2.62 mg g-1) had better performance than PLS and iPLS models. It could be concluded that NIR spectroscopy has significant potential in the nondestructive determination of total flavonoids content in fresh G. biloba leaf.

  11. Red Color Light at Different Intensities Affects the Performance, Behavioral Activities and Welfare of Broilers.

    PubMed

    Senaratna, D; Samarakone, T S; Gunawardena, W W D A

    2016-07-01

    Red light (RL) marked higher weight gain (WG) and preference of broilers compared to other light colors. This study aimed to investigate how different intensities of RL affect the performance, behavior and welfare of broilers. RL treatments were T1 = high intensity (320 lux), T2 = medium intensity (20 lux); T3 = dim intensity (5 lux), T4 = control/white light at (20 lux) provided on 20L:4D schedule and T5 = negative control; 12 hours dark: 12 hours day light. Cobb strain broilers were used in a Complete Randomize Design with 6 replicates. WG, water/feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, behavior and welfare were assessed. At 35 d, significantly (p<0.05) highest body weight (2,147.06 g±99) was recorded by T3. Lowest body weight (1,640.55 g±56) and FCR (1.34) were recorded by T5. Skin weight was the only carcass parameter showed a significant (p<0.05) influence giving the highest (56.2 g) and the lowest (12.6 g) values for T5 and T1 respectively. Reduced welfare status indicated by significantly (p<0.05) higher foot pad lesions, hock burns and breast blisters was found under T3, due to reduced expression of behavior. Highest walking (2.08%±1%) was performed under T1 in the evening during 29 to 35 days. Highest dust bathing (3.01%±2%) was performed in the morning during 22 to 28 days and highest bird interaction (BI) (4.87%±4%) was observed in the evening by T5 during 14 to 21 days. Light intensity×day session×age interaction was significantly (p<0.05) affected walking, dust bathing and BI. Light intensity significantly (p<0.05) affected certain behaviors such as lying, eating, drinking, standing, walking, preening while lying, wing/leg stretching, sleeping, dozing, BI, vocalization, idling. In conclusion, birds essentially required provision of light in the night for better performance. Exposed to 5 lux contributed to higher WG, potentially indicating compromised welfare status. Further researches are suggested to investigate RL intensity based

  12. Red Color Light at Different Intensities Affects the Performance, Behavioral Activities and Welfare of Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Senaratna, D.; Samarakone, T. S.; Gunawardena, W. W. D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Red light (RL) marked higher weight gain (WG) and preference of broilers compared to other light colors. This study aimed to investigate how different intensities of RL affect the performance, behavior and welfare of broilers. RL treatments were T1 = high intensity (320 lux), T2 = medium intensity (20 lux); T3 = dim intensity (5 lux), T4 = control/white light at (20 lux) provided on 20L:4D schedule and T5 = negative control; 12 hours dark: 12 hours day light. Cobb strain broilers were used in a Complete Randomize Design with 6 replicates. WG, water/feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, behavior and welfare were assessed. At 35 d, significantly (p<0.05) highest body weight (2,147.06 g±99) was recorded by T3. Lowest body weight (1,640.55 g±56) and FCR (1.34) were recorded by T5. Skin weight was the only carcass parameter showed a significant (p<0.05) influence giving the highest (56.2 g) and the lowest (12.6 g) values for T5 and T1 respectively. Reduced welfare status indicated by significantly (p<0.05) higher foot pad lesions, hock burns and breast blisters was found under T3, due to reduced expression of behavior. Highest walking (2.08%±1%) was performed under T1 in the evening during 29 to 35 days. Highest dust bathing (3.01%±2%) was performed in the morning during 22 to 28 days and highest bird interaction (BI) (4.87%±4%) was observed in the evening by T5 during 14 to 21 days. Light intensity×day session×age interaction was significantly (p<0.05) affected walking, dust bathing and BI. Light intensity significantly (p<0.05) affected certain behaviors such as lying, eating, drinking, standing, walking, preening while lying, wing/leg stretching, sleeping, dozing, BI, vocalization, idling. In conclusion, birds essentially required provision of light in the night for better performance. Exposed to 5 lux contributed to higher WG, potentially indicating compromised welfare status. Further researches are suggested to investigate RL intensity based

  13. Microscopic origin of the different colors displayed by MgAl2O4:Cr3+ and emerald

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lastra, J. M.; Barriuso, M. T.; Aramburu, J. A.; Moreno, M.

    2008-08-01

    The difference in color between emerald ( Be3Si6Al2O18:Cr3+ , green) and the Cr3+ -doped spinel MgAl2O4 (red) is striking, considering that in both systems color is due to CrO69- complexes with a close local symmetry ( D3 and the D3d , respectively) and that the measured Cr3+-O2- distance is practically the same ( 1.98±0.01 and 1.97±0.01Å , respectively). By means of density-functional calculations it is shown that this surprising difference can reasonably be explained once the electric field, ER , which all lattice ions lying outside the CrO69- complex exert on localized electrons, is taken into consideration. The origin of the different shape of ER in the two host lattices is analyzed in detail. It is shown that ER raises (decreases) the 2p(O) levels for Be3Si6Al2O18:Cr3+ (MgAl2O4:Cr3+) along the trigonal axis thus favoring a decrease (increase) of 10Dq . The present work demonstrates the key role played by ER (not considered in the traditional ligand field theory) for understanding the differences exhibited by the same complex embedded in host lattices which do not have the same crystal structure. Some remarks on the color of Cr2O3 pure compound are also reported.

  14. Antioxidant activity of colored rice bran obtained at different milling yields.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Akiko; Fujitake, Hironori; Kawakami, Koji; Nomura, Masato

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the antioxidant components of three types of colored rice bran--forbidden rice, red rice and green rice--obtained from rice in which the pigment layer had been removed at milling yields of 90%-100% and 80%-90%. An evaluation of the effects of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity revealed that rice bran obtained from forbidden rice at milling yields of 90%-100% and 80%-90% and rice bran obtained from red rice at milling yields of 90%-100% showed favorable antioxidant activity. The antioxidant components were confirmed to be 3,4-dihydroxy methyl benzoate and p-methoxyphenol and they influence the antioxidant activity of the three types of colored rice bran. PMID:20877150

  15. Spectrophotometric evaluation of the influence of different backgrounds on the color of glass-infiltrated ceramic veneers.

    PubMed

    Charisis, Dimitrios; Koutayas, Spiridon-Oumvertos; Kamposiora, Photini; Doukoudakis, Asterios

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this spectrophotometric study was to evaluate the influence of different color backgrounds on Vita In-Ceram (Vident) glass-infiltrated ceramic veneers. A total of 50 color background disks were fabricated from Vitadur Alpha 2M2 (n=30) and 5M1 (n=20) dentin porcelain (Vi-dent). Ceramic veneer disks were fabricated from In-Ceram Spinell (n=20) or In-Ceram Alumina (n=20) glass-infiltrated core veneered using Vitadur Alpha 2M2 dentin porcelain. In addition, 10 ceramic veneer disks were fabricated from feldspathic dentin porcelain Vitadur Alpha 2M2. The ceramic veneer specimens were bonded onto the color background specimens using dual-curing luting composite cement, creating the following groups (each n=10): S2M2 (Spinell/2M2), S5M1 (Spinell/5M1), A2M2 (Alumina/2M2), A5M1 (Alumina/5M1), and control (Vitadur Alpha/2M2). L*a*b* color coordinates were measured five times for each specimen using a Vita Easyshade (Vident) spectrophotometer. Mean color differences (deltaE) between each study group and the control group were: 3.79 for S2M2; 7.24 for S5M1; 5.86 for A2M2, and 7.32 for A5M1. Two-way ANOVA showed statistically significant differences in deltaE between all groups. However, a t test revealed that the statistically significant differences only existed between groups S2M2/S5M1, A2M2/A5M1, and S2M2/A2M2. The results suggest that vacuum infiltration with a translucent glass provides the Spinell and Alumina ceramic veneers with increased semi-translucency, which makes them highly influenced by discolored backgrounds. In-Ceram Spinell glass-infiltrated ceramic veneers could be considered as an alternative to conventional feldspathic veneers for the restoration of nondiscolored teeth. Although Spinell and Alumina ceramic veneers could enhance the final color establishment of discolored teeth, the results would not be clinically acceptable. PMID:19655483

  16. Preliminary observations on the response of Chironex fleckeri (Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida) to different colors of light.

    PubMed

    Gershwin, Lisa-Ann; Dawes, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Cubozoans are well known for their attraction to light and light-colored objects. Two highly venomous types are a public safety concern in Australian waters and elsewhere: Chironex fleckeri, long considered the world's deadliest animal and colloquially called the box jellyfish; and the irukandjis, a group of at least 10 species that cause various degrees of debilitating illness. We were asked by the tourism industry whether there might be a color of light that box jellyfish and irukandjis are not attracted to, such that nighttime diving activities might pose less risk of being stung. Our preliminary trials with Chironex fleckeri indicated a marked positive response to lights of white, red, yellow, green, orange, and blue. All colors elicited a strong and directed attraction to light; however, medusae slowed down their pulsation rate, streamed out their tentacles, and performed a series of figure-eight patterns back and forth through the lighted area when exposed to blue light, which we interpreted as feeding behavior. This compares curiously with a report subsequent to our testing, in which the small, mangrove-inhabiting cubomedusa Tripedalia cystophora and the beach-dwelling Chiropsella bronzie demonstrate a peak sensitivity to blue-green light in the region of 500 nm, and that the former is behaviorally attracted to blue and green light, but ignores red. This leaves open the possibility that Irukandji species, which are more closely related to Tripedalia than to Chironex, may be blind to red. PMID:18723637

  17. Morphological and color differences between island and mainland populations in the Mexican red rump tarantula, Brachypelma vagans.

    PubMed

    Vilchis-Nestor, Claudia A; Machkour-M'rabet, Salima; de Los A Barriga-Sosa, Irene; Winterton, Peter; Hénaut, Yann

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of species into new ecosystems, especially in small and isolated regions such as islands, offers an excellent opportunity to answer questions of the evolutionary processes occurring in natural conditions on a scale that could never be achieved in laboratory conditions. In this study, we examined the Mexican red rump tarantula Brachypelma vagans Ausserer (Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae), a species that was introduced to Cozumel Island, Mexico, 40 years ago. This introduction provides an exceptional model to study effects such as morphological variation between island populations and those on the mainland in open habitats facing the island. Intraspecific variation related to the color polymorphism was compared. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic differences between continental populations of B. vagans and the introduced population on Cozumel Island. Phenotypic difference was evaluated using two approaches: 1) comparison of the morphometric measurements of adult and juvenile individuals at the local scale and between continental and island populations, and 2) comparison of individual color polymorphism between mainland and island populations. Two locations were sampled within the continental part of the Yucatan peninsula and two on the island of Cozumel. The number of samples analyzed at each site was 30 individuals. The morphometric results showed significant differences between continental and island populations, with bigger individuals on the island. In addition, three new variations of the typical color pattern of B. vagans recorded so far were observed. This study opens the door to further investigations to elucidate the origin of the phenotypic variation of the isolated individuals on Cozumel Island. Also, the widest range of color morphs found for a tarantula species is reported. PMID:24224805

  18. Morphological and Color Differences between Island and Mainland Populations in the Mexican Red Rump Tarantula, Brachypelma vagans

    PubMed Central

    Vilchis-Nestor, Claudia A.; Machkour-M'Rabet, Salima; Barriga-Sosa, Irene de los A.; Winterton, Peter; Hénaut, Yann

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of species into new ecosystems, especially in small and isolated regions such as islands, offers an excellent opportunity to answer questions of the evolutionary processes occurring in natural conditions on a scale that could never be achieved in laboratory conditions. In this study, we examined the Mexican red rump tarantula Brachypelma vagans Ausserer (Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae), a species that was introduced to Cozumel Island, Mexico, 40 years ago. This introduction provides an exceptional model to study effects such as morphological variation between island populations and those on the mainland in open habitats facing the island. Intraspecific variation related to the color polymorphism was compared. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic differences between continental populations of B. vagans and the introduced population on Cozumel Island. Phenotypic difference was evaluated using two approaches: 1) comparison of the morphometric measurements of adult and juvenile individuals at the local scale and between continental and island populations, and 2) comparison of individual color polymorphism between mainland and island populations. Two locations were sampled within the continental part of the Yucatan peninsula and two on the island of Cozumel. The number of samples analyzed at each site was 30 individuals. The morphometric results showed significant differences between continental and island populations, with bigger individuals on the island. In addition, three new variations of the typical color pattern of B. vagans recorded so far were observed. This study opens the door to further investigations to elucidate the origin of the phenotypic variation of the isolated individuals on Cozumel Island. Also, the widest range of color morphs found for a tarantula species is reported. PMID:24224805

  19. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  20. Plumage color and feather pecking--behavioral differences associated with PMEL17 genotypes in chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Nätt, Daniel; Kerje, Susanne; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per

    2007-03-01

    An F (5) generation of an advanced inter-cross between red junglefowl (wild-type) and White Leghorn (domesticated) was used to investigate earlier findings suggesting that a mutation in the plumage color gene PMEL17 protects against victimization to feather pecking (FP). F (4) parents were selected according to genotype to produce PMEL17 homozygous offspring (i/i and I/I respectively). Birds were raised and their behavior recorded in groups of either two wild-type i/i (dark colored) and one white I/I, or two I/I and one i/i. In addition each bird was tested for feather preference, reaction to novelty, open-field activity, fear for humans, and tonic-immobility. In the home-pens, i/i birds were more feather pecked and had poorer feather condition than I/I birds. No pecking preference for immobile dark colored feathers was observed. In the open-field test i/i birds vocalized more and earlier than I/I birds, and in the fear-for-human test I/I birds had higher activity at 21 weeks of age. No other behavior differences were observed, but clearly, genotypes of PMEL17 affected some aspects of behavior. Such behavioral differences might be important aspects of the mechanism which predispose i/i individuals for being victims of FP. PMID:17106652

  1. Carotenoid profiling from 27 types of paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) with different colors, shapes, and cultivation methods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Sun; An, Chul Geon; Park, Jong-Suk; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Suna

    2016-06-15

    In this study, we investigated carotenoid profiles and contents from 27 types of paprika with different colors (red, orange, and yellow), shapes (blocky and conical), and cultivation methods (soil and soilless). We simultaneously analyzed 12 kinds of carotenoids using UPLC equipped with an HSS T3 column for 30 min, and we identified six kinds of carotenoids in red paprika and nine types in orange and yellow paprika. Zeaxanthin concentrations in orange paprika were in the range of 85.06±23.37-151.39±5.94 mg/100 g dry weight (dw), which shows that orange paprika is a great source of zeaxanthin. Generally, red paprika is a great source of capsanthin. However, a new cultivar, 'Mini Goggal Red', contained large amounts of zeaxanthin (121.41±30.10 mg/100 g dw) even though its visible color is red. This is very meaningful considering that consumers have a preference for red color and the potent functional value of zeaxanthin. Carotenoid profiles and concentrations in blocky and conical type paprika were not significantly different in red paprika except the 'Mini Goggal Red' cultivar and yellow paprika. Blocky type orange paprika contains plenty of zeaxanthin, unlike conical type orange paprika. Three new cultivars of the conical type were cultivated in both soil culture and soilless culture in the same province, and carotenoid profiles and concentrations were similar, showing that both cultivations methods can be used. PMID:26868549

  2. Simple transmission Raman measurements using a single multivariate model for analysis of pharmaceutical samples contained in capsules of different colors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeojin; Kim, Jaejin; Lee, Sanguk; Woo, Young-Ah; Chung, Hoeil

    2012-01-30

    Direct transmission Raman measurements for analysis of pharmaceuticals in capsules are advantageous since they can be used to determine active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) concentrations in a non-destructive manner and with much less fluorescence background interference from the capsules themselves compared to conventional back-scattering measurements. If a single calibration model such as developed from spectra simply collected in glass vials could be used to determine API concentrations of samples contained in capsules of different colors rather than constructing individual models for each capsule color, the utility of transmission measurements would be further enhanced. To evaluate the feasibility, transmission Raman spectra of binary mixtures of ambroxol and lactose were collected in a glass vial and a partial least squares (PLS) model for the determination of ambroxol concentration was developed. Then, the model was directly applied to determine ambroxol concentrations of samples contained in capsules of 4 different colors (blue, green, white and yellow). Although the prediction performance was slightly degraded when the samples were placed in blue or green capsules, due to the presence of weak fluorescence, accurate determination of ambroxol was generally achieved in all cases. The prediction accuracy was also investigated when the thickness of the capsule was varied. PMID:22284467

  3. Using color management in color document processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehab, Smadar

    1995-04-01

    Color Management Systems have been used for several years in Desktop Publishing (DTP) environments. While this development hasn't matured yet, we are already experiencing the next generation of the color imaging revolution-Device Independent Color for the small office/home office (SOHO) environment. Though there are still open technical issues with device independent color matching, they are not the focal point of this paper. This paper discusses two new and crucial aspects in using color management in color document processing: the management of color objects and their associated color rendering methods; a proposal for a precedence order and handshaking protocol among the various software components involved in color document processing. As color peripherals become affordable to the SOHO market, color management also becomes a prerequisite for common document authoring applications such as word processors. The first color management solutions were oriented towards DTP environments whose requirements were largely different. For example, DTP documents are image-centric, as opposed to SOHO documents that are text and charts centric. To achieve optimal reproduction on low-cost SOHO peripherals, it is critical that different color rendering methods are used for the different document object types. The first challenge in using color management of color document processing is the association of rendering methods with object types. As a result of an evolutionary process, color matching solutions are now available as application software, as driver embedded software and as operating system extensions. Consequently, document processing faces a new challenge, the correct selection of the color matching solution while avoiding duplicate color corrections.

  4. Elemental changes in the hippocampal formation following two different formulas of ketogenic diet: an X-ray fluorescence microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Chwiej, J; Patulska, A; Skoczen, A; Janeczko, K; Ciarach, M; Simon, R; Setkowicz, Z

    2015-12-01

    The main purpose of the following study was the determination of elemental changes occurring within hippocampal formation as a result of high-fat and carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet (KD). To realize it, X-ray fluorescence microscopy was applied for topographic and quantitative analysis of P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in hippocampal formations taken from rats fed with two different KDs and naive controls. The detailed comparisons were done for sectors 1 and 3 of the Ammon's, the dentate gyrus and hilus of dentate gyrus. The results of elemental analysis showed that the KDs induced statistically significant changes in the accumulation of P, K, Ca, Zn and Se in particular areas of hippocampal formation and these alterations strongly depended on the composition of the diets. Much greater influence on the hippocampal areal densities of examined elements was found for the KD which was characterized by a lower content of carbohydrates, higher content of fats and increased proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. The levels of P, K and Zn decreased whilst those of Ca and Se increased as a result of the treatment with the KDs. PMID:26537249

  5. Development of resting cardiovascular activity during the first 2 years of life differs in breastfed and formula-fed boys and girls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate whether early infant diet influences cardiovascular development we recorded resting heart-rate (HR) at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 mo in awake healthy children who were breastfed (BF) or fed milk formula (MF) or soy formula (SF) during infancy (n = 83-146/group/age). HR, and indices of autono...

  6. Color polymorphs of aldose reductase inhibitor epalrestat: configurational, conformational and synthon differences.

    PubMed

    Swapna, Battini; Suresh, Kuthuru; Nangia, Ashwini

    2016-03-01

    We report five crystalline polymorphs and an amorphous phase of epalrestat together with configurational isomerism and color behavior: form I (deep red), form II (deep orange), form III (bright yellow), form IV (yellow), and form V (orange) are in the E,Z configuration of the drug, and a Z,Z isomer (bright yellow). Two pathways are identified for polymorph conversion: direct transformation of the E,Z isomer and another pathway via the Z,Z isomer to the E,Z polymorphs. From a pharmaceutical perspective, the stability of polymorphs was established under grinding, solvent slurry and thermal conditions: form I (thermodynamic) > form II > form V > form III > form IV (least stable). PMID:26889760

  7. Color differences among feral pigeons (Columba livia) are not attributable to sequence variation in the coding region of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (MC1R)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic variation at the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene is correlated with melanin color variation in many birds. Feral pigeons (Columba livia) show two major melanin-based colorations: a red coloration due to pheomelanic pigment and a black coloration due to eumelanic pigment. Furthermore, within each color type, feral pigeons display continuous variation in the amount of melanin pigment present in the feathers, with individuals varying from pure white to a full dark melanic color. Coloration is highly heritable and it has been suggested that it is under natural or sexual selection, or both. Our objective was to investigate whether MC1R allelic variants are associated with plumage color in feral pigeons. Findings We sequenced 888 bp of the coding sequence of MC1R among pigeons varying both in the type, eumelanin or pheomelanin, and the amount of melanin in their feathers. We detected 10 non-synonymous substitutions and 2 synonymous substitution but none of them were associated with a plumage type. It remains possible that non-synonymous substitutions that influence coloration are present in the short MC1R fragment that we did not sequence but this seems unlikely because we analyzed the entire functionally important region of the gene. Conclusions Our results show that color differences among feral pigeons are probably not attributable to amino acid variation at the MC1R locus. Therefore, variation in regulatory regions of MC1R or variation in other genes may be responsible for the color polymorphism of feral pigeons. PMID:23915680

  8. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... breastfeed your baby or bottle feed using infant formula . Health experts agree that breastfeeding is the healthiest ... is hungry. You do not need to make formula before feeding, worry about clean water, or carry ...

  9. Infant formulas - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... meet all their nutritional needs. Infant formulas include powders, concentrated liquids, and ready-to-use forms. ... it. Reflux formulas are pre-thickened with rice starch. They are usually needed only for infants with ...

  10. Improving of red colorants production by a new Penicillium purpurogenum strain in submerged culture and the effect of different parameters in their stability.

    PubMed

    Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria Carvalho; Roberto, Inês Conceição; Simas Teixeira, Maria Francisca; Pessoa, Adalberto

    2013-01-01

    There is a worldwide interest in the development of processes for colorants production from natural sources such as microorganism. The aim of this study was to optimize red colorants production by Penicillium purpurogenum DPUA 1275 and to evaluate the effect of pH, temperature, salts and polymers on the stability of these colorants. Under optimized conditions, a 78% increase in red colorants production was achieved. The best pH and temperature conditions were obtained at pH 8.0 and 70°C, respectively. In the presence of salts NaCl and Na2 SO4 , both at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.5 M in Mcllvaine buffer (pH 8.0), the red colorants showed good stability. In the presence of both polymers polyethylene glycol and sodium polyacrylate, the red colorants kept their color intensity. Thus, this study presents characteristics of red colorants produced by P. purpurogenum that can be applied in different industries after toxicological examination. PMID:23554384

  11. Color reproduction with a smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-10-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition and understand how colors are made on digital displays.

  12. Major Breeding Plumage Color Differences of Male Ruffs (Philomachus pugnax) Are Not Associated With Coding Sequence Variation in the MC1R Gene

    PubMed Central

    Küpper, Clemens; Burke, Terry; Lank, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Sequence variation in the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene explains color morph variation in several species of birds and mammals. Ruffs (Philomachus pugnax) exhibit major dark/light color differences in melanin-based male breeding plumage which is closely associated with alternative reproductive behavior. A previous study identified a microsatellite marker (Ppu020) near the MC1R locus associated with the presence/absence of ornamental plumage. We investigated whether coding sequence variation in the MC1R gene explains major dark/light plumage color variation and/or the presence/absence of ornamental plumage in ruffs. Among 821bp of the MC1R coding region from 44 male ruffs we found 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms, representing 1 nonsynonymous and 2 synonymous amino acid substitutions. None were associated with major dark/light color differences or the presence/absence of ornamental plumage. At all amino acid sites known to be functionally important in other avian species with dark/light plumage color variation, ruffs were either monomorphic or the shared polymorphism did not coincide with color morph. Neither ornamental plumage color differences nor the presence/absence of ornamental plumage in ruffs are likely to be caused entirely by amino acid variation within the coding regions of the MC1R locus. Regulatory elements and structural variation at other loci may be involved in melanin expression and contribute to the extreme plumage polymorphism observed in this species. PMID:25534935

  13. Interactions between SNP alleles at multiple loci contribute to skin color differences between caucasoid and mongoloid subjects.

    PubMed

    Anno, Sumiko; Abe, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takushi

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles at multiple loci associated with racial differences in skin color using SNP genotyping. A total of 122 Caucasians in Toledo, Ohio and 100 Mongoloids in Japan were genotyped for 20 SNPs in 7 candidate genes, encoding the Agouti signaling protein (ASIP), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1), tyrosinase (TYR), melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), and myosin VA (MYO5A). Data were used to analyze associations between the 20 SNP alleles using linkage disequilibrium (LD). Combinations of SNP alleles were jointly tested under LD for associations with racial groups by performing a chi(2) test for independence. Results showed that SNP alleles at multiple loci can be considered the haplotype that contributes to significant differences between the two population groups and suggest a high probability of LD. Confirmation of these findings requires further study with other ethnic groups to analyze the associations between SNP alleles at multiple loci and skin color variation among races. PMID:18392143

  14. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  15. The Texas Formula System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Ralph W.; And Others

    Explained and illustrated is the formula funding system used for colleges and universities in Texas. This system is considerably more complicated than the formulas used in other states. Data for institutions in the state system for fiscal 1978 are presented; actual appropriations are used rather than requests, and formula-produced amounts are…

  16. Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... three color cone cells to determine our color perception. Color blindness can occur when one or more ... Anyone who experiences a significant change in color perception should see an ophthalmologist (Eye M.D.). Next ...

  17. What color is it?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschbach, Reiner; Sharma, Gaurav; Unal, Gozde B.

    2005-01-01

    Color management allows the deterministic handling of color data from input to output. This, of course, assumes that the first digital representation of our data is the "correct" color. It assumes that we did not make any errors in the input definitions, did not use wrong color input profiles, captured the user's intent, or fell prey to a host of other potential problems. After we have made those assumptions, we now can deterministically transfer the color from one place to another. Note that there is a big difference between "reproducing" one color at a different location and "deterministically transferring one set of color data to another location". The deterministic transfer is limited to the small set of physical metrics we decided to call "color". All other components of color are ignored.

  18. What color is it?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschbach, Reiner; Sharma, Gaurav; Unal, Gozde B.

    2004-12-01

    Color management allows the deterministic handling of color data from input to output. This, of course, assumes that the first digital representation of our data is the "correct" color. It assumes that we did not make any errors in the input definitions, did not use wrong color input profiles, captured the user's intent, or fell prey to a host of other potential problems. After we have made those assumptions, we now can deterministically transfer the color from one place to another. Note that there is a big difference between "reproducing" one color at a different location and "deterministically transferring one set of color data to another location". The deterministic transfer is limited to the small set of physical metrics we decided to call "color". All other components of color are ignored.

  19. Applying Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, David

    1984-01-01

    Most schools teach the triadic color system, utilizing red, blue, and yellow as primary colors. Other systems, such as additive and subtractive color systems, Munsell's Color Notation System, and the Hering Opponent Color Theory, can broaden children's concepts and free them to better choose color in their own work. (IS)

  20. Color-rendering indices in global illumination methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler-Moroder, David; Dür, Arne

    2009-10-01

    Human perception of material colors depends heavily on the nature of the light sources that are used for illumination. One and the same object can cause highly different color impressions when lit by a vapor lamp or by daylight, respectively. On the basis of state-of-the-art colorimetric methods, we present a modern approach for the calculation of color-rendering indices (CRI), which were defined by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) to characterize color reproduction properties of illuminants. We update the standard CIE method in three main points: first, we use the CIELAB color space; second, we apply a linearized Bradford transformation for chromatic adaptation; and finally, we evaluate color differences using the CIEDE2000 total color difference formula. Moreover, within a real-world scene, light incident on a measurement surface is composed of a direct and an indirect part. Neumann and Schanda [Proc. CGIV'06 Conf., Leeds, UK, pp. 283-286 (2006)] have shown for the cube model that diffuse interreflections can influence the CRI of a light source. We analyze how color-rendering indices vary in a real-world scene with mixed direct and indirect illumination and recommend the usage of a spectral rendering engine instead of an RGB-based renderer for reasons of accuracy of CRI calculations.

  1. Fish and robot dancing together: bluefin killifish females respond differently to the courtship of a robot with varying color morphs.

    PubMed

    Phamduy, P; Polverino, G; Fuller, R C; Porfiri, M

    2014-09-01

    The experimental integration of bioinspired robots in groups of social animals has become a valuable tool to understand the basis of social behavior and uncover the fundamental determinants of animal communication. In this study, we measured the preference of fertile female bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei) for robotic replicas whose aspect ratio, body size, motion pattern, and color morph were inspired by adult male killifish. The motion of the fish replica was controlled via a robotic platform, which simulated the typical courtship behavior observed in killifish males. The positional preferences of females were measured for three different color morphs (red, yellow, and blue). While variation in preference was high among females, females tend to spend more time in the vicinity of the yellow painted robot replicas. This preference may have emerged because the yellow robot replicas were very bright, particularly in the longer wavelengths (550–700 nm) compared to the red and blue replicas. These findings are in agreement with previous observations in mosquitofish and zebrafish on fish preference for artificially enhanced yellow pigmentation. PMID:25162832

  2. Formulaic Language in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Kelly Ann; Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of productive language in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have focused on formal testing of syntax and semantics but have directed less attention to naturalistic discourse and formulaic language. Clinical observations suggest that individuals with AD retain the ability to produce formulaic language long after other cognitive abilities have deteriorated. Aims This study quantifies production of formulaic expressions in the spontaneous speech of individuals with AD. Persons with early- and late-onset forms of the disease were compared. Methods & Procedures Conversational language samples of individuals with early- (n = 5) and late-onset (n = 6) AD and healthy controls (n = 5) were analyzed to determine whether formulaic language, as measured by the number of words in formulaic expressions, differs between groups. Outcomes & Results Results indicate that individuals with AD, regardless of age of onset, used significantly more formulaic expressions than healthy controls. The early- and late-onset AD groups did not differ on formulaic language measures. Conclusions These findings contribute to a dual process model of cerebral function, which proposes differing processing principles for formulaic and novel expressions. In this model, subcortical areas, which remain intact into late in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, play an important role in the production of formulaic language. Applications to clinical practice include identifying preserved formulaic language and providing informed counseling to patient and family. PMID:24187417

  3. Microbial Composition and In Vitro Fermentation Patterns of Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Prebiotics Differ between Formula-Fed and Sow-Reared Piglets123

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Bauer, Laura L.; Chen, Xin; Wang, Mei; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B.; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S.; Fahey, George C.; Donovan, Sharon M.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial composition and in vitro fermentation characteristics of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), a 2:1 mixture of polydextrose (PDX) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS), and short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) by pooled ascending colonic microbiota from 9- and 17-d-old formula-fed (FF) and sow-reared (SR) piglets were assessed. pH change and gas, SCFA, and lactate production were determined after 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h of incubation. In most donor groups, the pH change was greater for scFOS fermentation and lower for PDX/GOS than for other substrates. LNnT fermentation produced larger amounts of gas, total SCFA, acetate, and butyrate than did the other substrates, whereas HMO and scFOS produced higher amounts of propionate and lactate, respectively. In general, pH change, total SCFA, acetate, and propionate production were greater in pooled inoculum from FF and 9-d-old piglets, whereas SR-derived inoculum produced higher amounts of butyrate and lactate after 4 h fermentation. Gut microbiota were assessed by 16S ribosomal RNA V3 gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and real-time qPCR. Microbial structures differed among the 4 groups before fermentation, with higher counts of Bifidobacterium in SR piglets and higher counts of Clostridium cluster IV, XIVa, and Bacteroides vulgatus in FF piglets. Lactobacillus counts were higher in 9-d-old piglets than in 17-d-old piglets, regardless of diet. Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, and clostridial species increased after 8 and 12 h fermentation on most substrates. In summary, piglet diet and age affect gut microbiota, leading to different fermentation patterns. HMO have potential prebiotic effects due to their effects on SCFA production and microbial modulation. PMID:22399522

  4. Trichromatic opponent color classification.

    PubMed

    Chichilnisky, E J; Wandell, B A

    1999-10-01

    Stimuli varying in intensity and chromaticity, presented on numerous backgrounds, were classified into red/green, blue/yellow and white/black opponent color categories. These measurements revealed the shapes of the boundaries that separate opponent colors in three-dimensional color space. Opponent color classification boundaries were generally not planar, but their shapes could be summarized by a piecewise linear model in which increment and decrement color signals are combined with different weights at two stages to produce opponent color sensations. The effect of background light on classification was largely explained by separate gain changes in increment and decrement cone signals. PMID:10615508

  5. Influences of different gases on the terahertz radiation based on the application of two-color laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi, S.; Ganjovi, A.; Shojaei, F.; Saeed, M.

    2015-10-15

    In this work, using a two-dimensional Particle In Cell-Monte Carlo Collision simulation method, a comparative study is performed on the influences of different types of atomic and molecular gases at various background gas pressures on the generation of broadband and intense Terahertz (THz) radiation via the application of two-color laser pulses. These two modes are focused into Argon (Ar), Xenon (Xe), Nitrogen (N{sub 2}), Oxygen (O{sub 2}), and air as the background gaseous media and the plasma channel is created. It is observed that the THz radiation emission dramatically changes due to the propagation effects. A wider THz pulse is emitted from the formed plasma channel at the higher gas pressures. The significant effects of the propagation features of the emitted THz pulse on its energy at the longer lengths of the plasma channel are observed.

  6. Effect of different colored background lighting on LED discomfort glare perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweater Hickcox, K.; Narendran, N.; Bullough, J. D.; Freyssinier, J. P.

    2012-10-01

    In the past decade, there has been increased interest in energy-efficient lighting as energy resources become higher in demand. Street lighting and outdoor lighting are applications that are rapidly changing from the incumbent high-pressure sodium (HPS) to newer technologies such as light-emitting diode (LED) or induction-type lamps. There is evidence that certain populations believe LED streetlights and area lights to produce more glare than HPS luminaires. A number of differences exist between new and traditional light sources besides efficiency. These include spectral power distribution (SPD), source luminance, beam intensity distribution, and the number of sources needed to achieve intended light levels. Many field studies and laboratory studies have shown a relationship between glare and SPD, with most studies suggesting that sources more weighted in short wavelengths have an increased likelihood of discomfort glare. A study to assess the effect of different SPDs on perception of discomfort glare was conducted. Subjects were shown a white-light LED array against a luminous background with one of three different SPDs (blue, white, or yellow). As well, different intensities of light from the array and from the background were used. For the range of conditions evaluated, the presence of any luminous background significantly reduced the perception of discomfort glare from the LED array. The blue background reduced perception significantly less than the white or the yellow backgrounds. The implications for solid-state lighting systems such as outdoor array lighting are discussed.

  7. Efficient formulas for efficiency correction of cumulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, Masakiyo

    2016-04-01

    Formulas connecting cumulants of particle numbers observed with efficiency losses with the original ones are derived based on the binomial model. These formulas can be applied to quantities given by a linear combination of particle numbers observed with different efficiencies in a compact form. Compared with the presently suggested ones based on factorial moments, these formulas would drastically reduce the numerical cost for the efficiency corrections when the order of the cumulant and the number of different efficiencies are large. The efficiency correction with realistic pT-dependent efficiency would be carried out with the aid of these formulas.

  8. Reasoning about color in Prolog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.; Whelan, Paul F.

    1994-10-01

    The use of color as a basis for segmenting images is attractive for a wide variety of industrial inspection applications, especially in the manufacturing of domestic goods, food, pharmaceuticals, toiletries and electronics. Human beings define colors, not formulae, or computer programs. Moreover, no two people have an identical view of what a color set, such as 'canary yellow' is. The article argues that teaching by showing is more relevant than the accepted methods of Color Science, in the design of factory-floor vision systems. Fast hardware for color recognition has been available for several years but has not yet received universal acceptance. This article explains how this equipment can be used in conjunction with symbolic processing software, based on the Artificial Intelligence language Prolog. Using this hardware-software system, a programmer is able to express ideas about colors in a natural way. The concepts of color set union, intersection, generalization and interpolation are all discussed.

  9. Coloration in different areas of facial skin is a cue to health: The role of cheek redness and periorbital luminance in health perception.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alex L; Porcheron, Aurélie; Sweda, Jennifer R; Morizot, Frederique; Russell, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Looking healthy is a desirable trait, and facial skin color is a predictor of perceived health. However, skin conditions that cause dissatisfaction with appearance are specific to particular facial areas. We investigated whether color variation in facial skin is related to perceived health. Study 1 defined three areas based on color differences between faces perceived as healthy or unhealthy: the forehead, periorbital areas, and the cheeks. Periorbital luminance and cheek redness predicted perceived health, as did global skin yellowness. In Study 2, increased luminance and redness caused faces to be perceived as healthier, but only when the increase was in the periorbital and cheek areas, respectively. Manipulating each area separately in Study 3 revealed cheek redness and periorbital luminance equally increased perceived health, with low periorbital luminance more negatively affecting perceptions. These findings show that color variation in facial skin is a cue for health perception in female faces. PMID:26967010

  10. Comparison of trap types and colors for capturing emerald ash borer adults at different population densities.

    PubMed

    Poland, Therese M; Mccullough, Deborah G

    2014-02-01

    Results of numerous trials to evaluate artificial trap designs and lures for detection of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, the emerald ash borer, have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because of different A. planipennis population densities in the field sites. In 2010 and 2011, we compared 1) green canopy traps, 2) purple canopy traps, 3) green double-decker traps, and 4) purple double-decker traps in sites representing a range of A. planipennis infestation levels. Traps were baited with cis-3-hexenol in both years, plus an 80:20 mixture of Manuka and Phoebe oil (2010) or Manuka oil alone (2011). Condition of trees bearing canopy traps, A. planipennis infestation level of trees in the vicinity of traps, and number of A. planipennis captured per trap differed among sites in both years. Overall in both years, more females, males, and beetles of both sexes were captured on double-decker traps than canopy traps, and more beetles of both sexes (2010) or females (2011) were captured on purple traps than green traps. In 2010, detection rates were higher for purple (100%) and green double-decker traps (100%) than for purple (82%) or green canopy traps (64%) at sites with very low to low A. planipennis infestation levels. Captures of A. planipennis on canopy traps consistently increased with the infestation level of the canopy trap-bearing trees. Differences among trap types were most pronounced at sites with low A. planipennis densities, where more beetles were captured on purple double-decker traps than on green canopy traps in both years. PMID:24398125

  11. Color Discrimination Work Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

    This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's ability to see likenesses or differences in colors or shades, identifying or matching certain colors, and selecting colors that go together. Section 1 describes the assessment and lists related occupations and DOT codes. Instructions to the evaluator are provided in the…

  12. Are there different requirements for trace elements in eumelanin- and pheomelanin-based color production? A case study of two passerine species.

    PubMed

    Zduniak, Piotr; Surmacki, Adrian; Erciyas-Yavuz, Kiraz; Chudzińska, Maria; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2014-09-01

    Melanin is the most common pigment in animal integuments including bird plumage. It has been shown that several trace elements may play roles in the production and signaling function of melanin-colored plumage. We investigated coloration and content of various metal elements in the rectrices of two insectivorous passerines, Common Redstarts (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) and Blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla), which have eumelanin- and pheomelanin-based coloration, respectively. We hypothesized that 1) the two species would differ in concentrations of metals important in melanin synthesis (Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn), 2) differences in metal concentration levels would be related to feather coloration. Our study confirmed the first prediction and provides the first evidence that selected elements may play a greater role in pheomelanin than in eumelanin synthesis. Concentrations of three elements considered as important in melanin synthesis (Ca, Fe, Zn) were 52% to 93% higher in rusty colored Common Redstart feathers compared to the dark gray Blackcap feathers. However, element concentrations were not correlated with feather coloration or sex in either species. Our study suggests that, of the two melanin forms, pheomelanin synthesis may bear higher costs associated with the acquisition of specific elements or limited elements may create trade-offs between ornamentation and other physiological functions. Our findings warrant further investigations designed to better understand the roles of macro- and microelements in the synthesis of both forms of melanin. PMID:24905646

  13. No difference indicated in electroencephalographic power spectral analysis in 3- and 6-month-old infants fed soy- or milk-based formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing concern has been recently raised on the possible effects of soy-derived phytoestrogens on the development of cognitive functions in infants. However, limited studies have been conducted to date, and no data have been made available for determining whether infant soy formula can affect nor...

  14. Image enhancement methods for turbulence mitigation and the influence of different color spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, Claudia S.

    2015-10-01

    In mid- to long-range horizontal imaging applications it is quite often atmospheric turbulence which limits the performance of an electro-optical system rather than the design and quality of the system itself. Even weak or moderate turbulence conditions can suffice to cause significant image degradation, the predominant effects being image dancing and blurring. To mitigate these effects many different methods have been proposed, most of which use either a hardware approach, such as adaptive optics, or a software approach. A great number of these methods are highly specialized with regard to input data, e.g. aiming exclusively at very short exposure images or at infrared data. So far, only a very limited number of these methods are concerned specifically with the restoration of RGB colour video. Beside motion compensation and deblurring, contrast enhancement plays a vital part in many turbulence mitigation schemes. While most contrast enhancement techniques, such as Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) work quite well on monochrome data or single colour frames, they tend to amplify noise in a colour video stream disproportionately, especially in scenes with low contrast. Therefore, in this paper the impact of different colour spaces (RGB, LAB, HSV) on the application of such typical image enhancement techniques is discussed and evaluated with regard to suppressing temporal noise as well as to their suitability for use in software-based turbulence mitigation algorithms.

  15. A load factor formula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Roy G

    1927-01-01

    The ultimate test of a load factor formula is experience. The chief advantages of a semi rational formula over arbitrary factors are that it fairs in between points of experience and it differentiates according to variables within a type. Structural failure of an airplane apparently safe according to the formula would call for a specific change in the formula. The best class of airplanes with which to check a load factor formula seems to be those which have experienced structural failure. Table I comprises a list of the airplanes which have experienced failure in flight traceable to the wing structure. The load factor by formula is observed to be greater than the designed strength in each case, without a single exception. Table II comprises the load factor by formula with the designed strength of a number of well-known service types. The formula indicates that by far the majority of these have ample structural strength. One case considered here in deriving a suitable formula is that of a heavy load carrier of large size and practically no reserve power.

  16. Positive quadrature formulas III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peherstorfer, Franz

    2008-12-01

    First we discuss briefly our former characterization theorem for positive interpolation quadrature formulas (abbreviated qf), provide an equivalent characterization in terms of Jacobi matrices, and give links and applications to other qf, in particular to Gauss-Kronrod quadratures and recent rediscoveries. Then for any polynomial t_n which generates a positive qf, a weight function (depending on n ) is given with respect to which t_n is orthogonal to mathbb{P}_{n-1} . With the help of this result an asymptotic representation of the quadrature weights is derived. In general the asymptotic behaviour is different from that of the Gaussian weights. Only under additional conditions do the quadrature weights satisfy the so-called circle law. Corresponding results are obtained for positive qf of Radau and Lobatto type.

  17. Extragalactic Extinction Laws and Quasar Structure from Color differences Between Images of Lensed Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio

    2011-11-01

    The action of the mean gravitational field of an intervening galaxy sufficiently aligned with a distant quasar can form several images of this object (multiple imaged quasar). Random fluctuations of the gravitational field induced by the highly inhomogeneous granulation of stars or in dark matter clumps of the lens galaxy mass distribution can subdivide the images in scales of microarcsecs (microlensing by stars) or miliarcsecs (mililensing by dark matter clumps). Anomalies induced by microlensing in the flux brightness of the images can be very strong for small sources or be averaged out by sufficiently large sources. Thus, microlensing magnification of the flux of a radially stratified source can be wavelength dependent (chromaticity). On the other hand, in their path through the lens galaxy the photons of the quasar images are also affected by the patchily distributed interstellar medium (dust extinction). Thus, the wavelength dependence of extinction can be obtained from the flux ratios between two images. In this work we review the use of quasar spectra to disentangle microlensing and dust extinction (based in the comparison between the continuum and emission line flux ratios for different images of the quasar) discussing the impact of the intrinsic source variability in this procedure. We will also review some results derived using this technique like the low fraction of mass in MACHOS in the dark halos of lens galaxies, the unexpected large sizes of the accretion disks present in the central region of lensed quasars or the derivation of extinction curves in the extragalactic domain that reveals a variability in dust properties similar to the one found in the Local Group of galaxies.

  18. Phenolic composition and related antioxidant properties in differently colored lettuces: a study by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) kinetics.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Usue; Pinzino, Calogero; Quartacci, Mike Frank; Ranieri, Annamaria; Sgherri, Cristina

    2014-12-10

    Differently colored lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars (green, green/red, and red) were studied to correlate their phenolic composition with their antioxidant kinetic behavior. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was employed to monitor decay kinetics of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)), which allowed the identification of three differently paced antioxidants. The results showed that as long as lettuce had higher red pigmentation, the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity increased together with the contents in free and conjugated phenolic acids, free and conjugated flavonoids, and anthocyanins. EPR allowed the identification of slow-rate antioxidants in green and green/red cultivars, intermediate-rate antioxidants in green, green/red, and red cultivars, and fast-rate antioxidants in green/red and red cultivars. At present, the different kinetic behaviors cannot be attributed to a specific antioxidant, but it is suggested that the flavonoid quercetin accounted for the majority of the intermediate-rate antioxidants, whereas the anthocyanins accounted for the majority of the fast-rate antioxidants. PMID:25389053

  19. Color and Streptomycetes1

    PubMed Central

    Pridham, Thomas G.

    1965-01-01

    A report summarizing the results of an international workshop on determination of color of streptomycetes is presented. The results suggest that the color systems which seem most practically appealing and effective to specialists on actinomycetes are those embracing a limited number of color names and groups. The broad groupings allow placement of isolates into reasonably well-defined categories based on color of aerial mycelium. Attempts to expand such systems (more color groups) lead to difficulties. It is common knowledge that many, if not all, of the individual groups would in these broad systems contain strains that differ in many other respects, e.g., spore-wall ornamentation, color of vegetative (substratal) mycelium, morphology of chains of spores, and numerous physiological criteria. Also, cultures of intermediate color can be found, which makes placement difficult. As it now stands, color as a criterion for characterization of streptomycetes and streptoverticillia is in questionable status. Although much useful color information can be obtained by an individual, the application of this information to that in the literature or its use in communication with other individuals leaves much to be desired. More objective methods of color determination are needed. At present, the most effective method that could be used internationally is the color-wheel system of Tresner and Backus. Furthermore, the significance of color in speciation of these organisms is an open question. Obviously, more critical work on the color problem is needed. PMID:14264847

  20. Color blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... care provider or eye specialist can check your color vision in several ways. Testing for color blindness is ... Adams AJ, Verdon WA, Spivey BE. Color vision. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. ... PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol. 2, chap ...

  1. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Natsuki; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Kamachi, Miyuki G.; Ito, Kei

    2012-01-01

    We report on the results of a study investigating the color perception characteristics of people with red-green color confusion. We believe that this is an important step towards achieving Color Universal Design. In Japan, approximately 5% of men and 0.2% of women have red-green confusion. The percentage for men is higher in Europe and the United States; up to 8% in some countries. Red-green confusion involves a perception of colors different from normal color vision. Colors are used as a means of disseminating clear information to people; however, it may be difficult to convey the correct information to people who have red-green confusion. Consequently, colors should be chosen that minimize accidents and that promote more effective communication. In a previous survey, we investigated color categories common to each color vision type, trichromat (C-type color vision), protan (P-type color vision) and deuteran (D-type color vision). In the present study, first, we conducted experiments in order to verify a previous survey of C-type color vision and P-type color vision. Next, we investigated color difference levels within "CIE 1976 L*a*b*" (the CIELAB uniform color space), where neither C-type nor P-type color vision causes accidents under certain conditions (rain maps/contour line levels and graph color legend levels). As a result, we propose a common chromaticity of colors that the two color vision types are able to categorize by means of color names common to C-type color vision. We also offer a proposal to explain perception characteristics of color differences with normal color vision and red-green confusion using the CIELAB uniform color space. This report is a follow-up to SPIE-IS & T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8 and SPIE-IS & T /vol. 7866 78660J-1-8.

  2. Mathematic modeling the relationship of bacteria number in a dairy product and the color difference measured by a CCD image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhen; Zhao, Zhigang; Chen, Dongkui; Liu, Yuping

    2005-01-01

    Although many methods, such as bacteria plate count, flow cytometry and impedance method have been broadly used in the dairy industry to quantitate bacteria numbers around the world, none of them is a quick, low cost and easy one. In this study, we proposed to apply the color difference theory in this field to establish a mathematic model to quantitate bacteria number in fresh milk. Preliminary testing results not only indicate that the application of the color difference theory to the new system is practical, but also confirm the theoretical relationship between the numbers of bacteria, incubation time and color difference. The proof of the principal study in this article further suggests that the novel method has the potential to replace the traditional methods to determine bacteria numbers for the food industry.

  3. Selected Baking Formulas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdany, Melvin

    This manual is designed to help baking students learn to use formulas in the preparation of baking products. Tested and proven formulas are, for the most part, standard ones with only slight modifications. The recipes are taken mainly from bakery product manufacturers and are presented in quantities suitable for school-shop use. Each recipe…

  4. Color planner for designers based on color emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ka-Man; Xin, John H.; Taylor, Gail

    2002-06-01

    During the color perception process, an associated feeling or emotion is induced in our brains, and this kind of emotion is termed as 'color emotion.' The researchers in the field of color emotions have put many efforts in quantifying color emotions with the standard color specifications and evaluating the influence of hue, lightness and chroma to the color emotions of human beings. In this study, a color planner was derived according to these findings so that the correlation of color emotions and standard color specifications was clearly indicated. Since people of different nationalities usually have different color emotions as different cultural and traditional backgrounds, the subjects in this study were all native Hong Kong Chinese and the color emotion words were all written in Chinese language in the visual assessments. Through the color planner, the designers from different areas, no matter fashion, graphic, interior or web site etc., can select suitable colors for inducing target color emotions to the customers or product-users since different colors convey different meanings to them. In addition, the designers can enhance the functionality and increase the attractiveness of their designed products by selecting suitable colors.

  5. Growth, photosynthetic efficiency, and biochemical composition of Tetraselmis suecica F&M-M33 grown with LEDs of different colors.

    PubMed

    Abiusi, Fabian; Sampietro, Giacomo; Marturano, Giovanni; Biondi, Natascia; Rodolfi, Liliana; D'Ottavio, Massimo; Tredici, Mario R

    2014-05-01

    The effect of light quality on cell size and cell cycle, growth rate, productivity, photosynthetic efficiency and biomass composition of the marine prasinophyte Tetraselmis suecica F&M-M33 grown in 2-L flat panel photobioreactors illuminated with light emitting diodes (LEDs) of different colors was investigated. Biomass productivity and photosynthetic efficiency were comparable between white and red light, while under blue and green light productivity decreased to less than half and photosynthetic efficiency to about one third. Differences in cell size and number correlated with the cell cycle phase. Under red light cells were smaller and more motile. Chlorophyll content was strongly reduced with red and enhanced with blue light, while carotenoids and gross biomass composition were not affected by light quality. The eicosapentaenoic acid content increased under red light. Red light can substitute white light without affecting productivity of T. suecica F&M-M33, leading to smaller and more motile cells and increased eicosapentaenoic acid content. Red LEDs can thus be profitably used for the production of this microalga for aquaculture. PMID:23904253

  6. Colorful surface architectures with three different types of dynamic covalent bonds: integration of anthocyanins, tritylium ions and flavins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kang-Da; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan

    2015-08-28

    Although they combine the best of covalent and non-covalent bonds, dynamic covalent bonds are usually not used together. Building on pioneering examples for functional systems with two orthogonal dynamic covalent bonds, we herein elaborate on multicomponent surface architectures that operate with three different types of dynamic covalent bonds. Disulfide exchange under basic conditions is used to grow single π stacks directly on oxide surfaces, hydrazone exchange under acidic conditions to add a second string or stack, and boronic-ester exchange under neutral conditions to build the third one. In this study, we show that this synthetic approach to complex systems provides access to emergent properties, as exemplified with ordered stacks of anthocyanins, pyrocatchol violet and riboflavins. The integration of anthocyanins, the central component of the pigments of plant flowers, is interesting to protect the blue flavylium cation against deprotonation, deplanarization and degradation. The integration of pyrocatchol violet is of interest to stabilize the blue, disfavored tritylium cation. The red riboflavin stacks are attractive because they generate high photocurrent. These colorful examples hint at the potential of synthetic methods that use three different types of dynamic covalent bonds in concert to build complex systems with emergent properties. PMID:26179486

  7. Proposal of quantitative temperature measurements using two-color technique combined with several infrared radiometers having different detection wavelength bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, Terumi; Ishii, Toshimitsu

    2001-03-01

    Infrared thermography has been widely used to visualize a 2D temperature field for various engineering applications. However, in general, conventional infrared thermography cannot directly be applied to quantitative temperature measurement on glossy metal surfaces under near-ambient conditions, because of the severe influence of the reflected energy incident from the surroundings on the measurement. When it is necessary to measure the temperature quantitatively, an appropriate calibration involving complicated procedures must be performed. In this paper, therefore, a new technique of measuring temperature is proposed for near-ambient conditions, by combining simultaneously several infrared radiometers having different detection wavelength bands to enable a two-color technique, which does not require any temperature calibrations. The sensors concerned have a selective wavelength band of several micrometers in width in the range of 2 to 13 micrometers . The applicability of the method, including a series of proposed equations, has been confirmed by an investigation; the numerical simulation presented merely allows a parametric study of how the result varies for different values of emissivity corresponding to a pair of infrared radiometers. An experimental investigation is also performed to estimate or correct the measurement error pertaining to the present technique. This technique has the feature that a 2D temperature field can be evaluated quantitatively, nondestructively, and simultaneously at each picture element without presuming any emissivity and reflectivity, even though the object has a complicated shape; so that it may be useful in various medical or engineering applications.

  8. How to Save Money on Infant Formula

    MedlinePlus

    ... months. Here are some ways you can save money on infant formula . ... Here are a few ways to save money on infant formula: DO NOT buy just one type of baby bottle at first. Try a few different types to see which kind ...

  9. Formulas for sediment porosity and settling velocity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The formulas of Komura (1963) and Han et al. (1981) for the initial porosity of sediment deposits were tested using data sets collected in different countries and regions. It was found that Komura’s formula slightly underestimates the dry density for sand and gravel deposits and overestimates those ...

  10. Study of factors affecting the appearance of colors under microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakizadeh, Roshanak; Martinez-Garcia, Juan; Raja, Kiran B.; Siakidis, Christos

    2013-11-01

    The variation of colors in microscopy systems can be quite critical for some users. To address this problem, a study is conducted to analyze how different factors such as size of the sample, intensity of the microscope's light source and the characteristics of the material like chroma and saturation can affect the color appearance through the eyepiece of the microscope. To study the changes in colors considering these factors, the spectral reflectance of 24 colors of GretagMacbeth Classic ColorChecker® and Mini ColorChecker® which are placed under a Nikon ECLIPSE MA200 microscope®2 using dark filed and bright field illuminations which result in different intensity levels, is measured using a spectroradiometer®3 which was placed in front of the eyepiece of the microscope. The results are compared with the original data from N. Ohta1. The evaluation is done by observing the shift in colors in the CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram and the CIELAB space, also by applying a wide set of color-difference formulas, namely: CIELAB, CMC, BFD, CIE94, CIEDE2000, DIN99d and DIN99b. Furthermore, to emphasize on the color regions in which the highest difference is observed, the authors have obtained the results from another microscope; Olympus SZX10®4, which in this case the measurement is done by mounting the spectroradiometer to the camera port of the microscope. The experiment leads to some interesting results, among which is the consistency in the highest difference observed considering different factors or how the change in saturation of the samples of the same hue can affect the results.

  11. Watermarking spot colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alattar, Osama M.; Reed, Alastair M.

    2003-06-01

    Watermarking of printed materials has usually focused on process inks of cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK). In packaging, almost three out of four printed materials include spot colors. Spot colors are special premixed inks, which can be produced in a vibrant range of colors, often outside the CMYK color gamut. In embedding a watermark into printed material, a common approach is to modify the luminance value of each pixel in the image. In the case of process color work pieces, the luminance change can be scaled to the C, M, Y and K channels using a weighting function, to produce the desired change in luminance. In the case of spot color art designs, there is only one channel available and the luminance change is applied to this channel. In this paper we develop a weighting function to embed the watermark signal across the range of different spot colors. This weighting function normalizes visibility effect and signal robustness across a wide range of different spot colors. It normalizes the signal robustness level over the range of an individual spot color"s intensity levels. Further, it takes into account the sensitivity of the capturing device to the different spot colors.

  12. Performance evolution of color cone lasing emissions in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals at different fabrication conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Rong; Lin, Jia-De; Mo, Ting-Shan; Horng, Chi-Ting; Sun, Han-Ying; Huang, Shuan-Yu

    2015-04-20

    This work investigates the performance evolution of color cone lasing emissions (CCLEs) based on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (DDCLC) cells at different fabrication conditions. Experimental results show that the energy threshold (E(th)) and relative slope efficiency (η(s)) of the lasing signal emitted at each cone angle (0°-35°) in the CCLE decreases and increases, respectively, when the waiting time in a homogenously rubbed aligned DDCLC cell is increased from 0 hr to 216 hr (9 days). This result occurs because defect lines gradually shrink with the anchoring of the surface alignment when the waiting time is increased. Hence, the scattering loss decreases, and the dwelling time of the fluorescence photons in the resonator increases, which in turn enhances the CCLE performance. With the aligned cell given the pretreatment of a rapid annealing processing (RAP), the waiting time for obtaining an optimum CCLE can markedly be reduced sixfold. The surface alignment of the DDCLC cell also plays a necessary role in generating the CCLE. This work provides an insight into the temporal evolution of the performance for the CCLE laser and offers a method (RAP) of significantly speeding up the formation of a CCLE laser with optimum performance. PMID:25969059

  13. Discretization formulas for unstructured grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    The Galerkin weighted residual technique using linear triangular weight functions is employed to develop finite difference formula in cartesian coordinates for the Laplacian operator, first derivative operators and the function for unstructured triangular grids. The weighted residual coefficients associated with the weak formulation of the Laplacian operator are shown to agree with the Taylor series approach on a global average. In addition, a simple algorithm is presented to determine the Voronoi (finite difference) area of an unstructured grid.

  14. Effect of Monochromic Light-emitting Diode Light with Different Color on the Growth and Reproductive Performances of Breeder Geese.

    PubMed

    Chang, S C; Lin, M J; Zhuang, Z X; Huang, S Y; Lin, T Y; Jea, Y S; Fan, Y K; Lee, T T

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of monochromic light-emitting diode (LED) light with different color on the growth and reproductive performances of white Roman breeder geese. A randomized complete batch design was utilized for the trial, and the replicate was regarded as one batch. Twenty ganders and fifty-five dames were used in batch 1 (started on 2011/6/17 and ended on 2012/1/31), thirty ganders and eighty-four dames were used in batch 2 (started on 2012/3/23 and ended on 2012/10/26), and thirty ganders and seventy-two dames were used in batch 3 (started on 2013/3/12 and ended on 2013/12/20). Two hundred and ninety-one geese were randomly assigned to 6 rooms in an environmentally controlled house. They were randomly allotted into one of three monochromatic light treatments: Blue, red, or white. The results showed that there was no significant difference in body weight among the three lighting groups at any point throughout the experimental period. However, compared to the blue light group, significantly more eggs were produced by the red and white light groups (p<0.05). Furthermore, the laying period of the red light group was significantly longer than that of other two groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, our results suggested that red LED-light has the best effect on reproductive performance (i.e. longer laying period and higher total eggs number) at 30 lux light intensity, and is therefore a better choice for the management of breeding geese than blue or white LED-light. PMID:26954165

  15. Effect of Monochromic Light-emitting Diode Light with Different Color on the Growth and Reproductive Performances of Breeder Geese

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S. C.; Lin, M. J.; Zhuang, Z. X.; Huang, S. Y.; Lin, T. Y.; Jea, Y. S.; Fan, Y. K.; Lee, T. T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of monochromic light-emitting diode (LED) light with different color on the growth and reproductive performances of white Roman breeder geese. A randomized complete batch design was utilized for the trial, and the replicate was regarded as one batch. Twenty ganders and fifty-five dames were used in batch 1 (started on 2011/6/17 and ended on 2012/1/31), thirty ganders and eighty-four dames were used in batch 2 (started on 2012/3/23 and ended on 2012/10/26), and thirty ganders and seventy-two dames were used in batch 3 (started on 2013/3/12 and ended on 2013/12/20). Two hundred and ninety-one geese were randomly assigned to 6 rooms in an environmentally controlled house. They were randomly allotted into one of three monochromatic light treatments: Blue, red, or white. The results showed that there was no significant difference in body weight among the three lighting groups at any point throughout the experimental period. However, compared to the blue light group, significantly more eggs were produced by the red and white light groups (p<0.05). Furthermore, the laying period of the red light group was significantly longer than that of other two groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, our results suggested that red LED-light has the best effect on reproductive performance (i.e. longer laying period and higher total eggs number) at 30 lux light intensity, and is therefore a better choice for the management of breeding geese than blue or white LED-light. PMID:26954165

  16. Cultural similarities and differences between a sample of Black/African and colored women in South Africa: convergence of risk related to substance use, sexual behavior, and violence.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Kyla Marie; Wechsberg, Wendee M; Myers, Bronwyn J

    2006-01-01

    South Africa is one of the six southern African countries where the HIV levels for childbearing women are 20% or higher. We conducted two focus groups aimed at developing an understanding of the intersections of substance abuse, sexual behavior, and violence affecting the lives of women of color in Cape Town, South Africa. Both Colored and Black/African participants reported using cannabis, methaqualone, and alcohol, although they differed on other drugs used. Black/African women also used heroin, and crack cocaine, whereas Colored women used methamphetamines. For participants in both groups, relationships with men affected sexual and substance use risk behaviors. Although the Black/African women did not trust men to use condoms, the Colored women in the study believed that almost all men use condoms. Both groups of women reported high rates of violence, with Colored participants reporting more gang violence and woman-on-woman violence compared with Black/African participants. The paper discusses these issues, as well as the implications for adapting a culturally specific, brief woman-focused HIV prevention intervention for the South African context. PMID:17000612

  17. Effects of different surface finishing procedures on the change in surface roughness and color of a polymer infiltrated ceramic network material

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Merve; Türker, Nurullah; Barutcigil, Kubilay

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Polymer infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) materials, also called hybrid ceramics, are new materials in dental market. The manufacturer of the PICN material VITA Enamic suggests 3 different finishing procedures for this new material. In the present study, surface roughness and color differences caused from different finishing procedures of VITA Enamic were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS 120 specimens were prepared in dimensions 2 × 10 × 12 mm from VITA Enamic hybrid ceramic blocks with 'high translucency' and 'translucency 2M2' shades. The specimens were divided into 8 groups. For each group, different finishing procedures suggested by the manufacturer were performed. Surface roughness values were determined by a tactile portable profilometer. Color changes were evaluated using a clinical spectrophotometer. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc comparison. The significance level was set at α=0.05. RESULTS The roughest surfaces were observed in Glaze Groups. Their surface roughness values were similar to that of the control group. Clinical Kit and Technical Kit groups did not show a statistically significant difference regarding surface roughness (P>.05). The largest color difference regarding ΔE00 was observed in Clinical Kit finishing groups. There were also statistically significant color changes between the groups (P<.05). However, all the groups showed clinically acceptable color change (ΔE00<2.25) except Clinical Kit Groups (ΔE00>2.25). CONCLUSION Within the limitations of the present study, it may be suggested that finishing the VITA Enamic restorations by Technical Kit instead of Glaze and Clinical Kit gives better clinical performance in regard to surface roughness and shade matching. PMID:26949483

  18. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. ... for you and your baby. continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...

  19. Readability Formulas: Pluses and Minuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rygiel, Mary Ann

    1982-01-01

    Examines readability formulas and examples of their misuse. Analyzes an essay by George Orwell which was given a grade 10 readability level by one formula and discusses characteristics of Orwell's style that refute the accuracy of formula rating. (HTH)

  20. Color Memory of University Students: Influence of Color Experience and Color Characteristic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Carlisle; Epps, Helen H.; Kaya, Naz

    2006-01-01

    The ability to select a previously viewed color specimen from an array of specimens that differ in hue, value, or chroma varies among individuals, and may be related to one's basic color discrimination ability or to prior experience with color. This study investigated short-term color memory of 40 college students, 20 of whom were interior design…

  1. Colored Diffraction Catastrophes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, M. V.; Klein, S.

    1996-03-01

    On fine scales, caustics produced with white light show vividly colored diffraction fringes. For caustics described by the elementary catastrophes of singularity theory, the colors are characteristic of the type of singularity. We study the diffraction colors of the fold and cusp catastrophes. The colors can be simulated computationally as the superposition of monochromatic patterns for different wavelengths. Far from the caustic, where the luminosity contrast is negligible, the fringe colors persist; an asymptotic theory explains why. Experiments with caustics produced by refraction through irregular bathroom-window glass show good agreement with theory. Colored fringes near the cusp reveal fine lines that are not present in any of the monochromatic components; these lines are explained in terms of partial decoherence between rays with widely differing path differences.

  2. Colored diffraction catastrophes.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, M V; Klein, S

    1996-01-01

    On fine scales, caustics produced with white light show vividly colored diffraction fringes. For caustics described by the elementary catastrophes of singularity theory, the colors are characteristic of the type of singularity. We study the diffraction colors of the fold and cusp catastrophes. The colors can be simulated computationally as the superposition of monochromatic patterns for different wavelengths. Far from the caustic, where the luminosity contrast is negligible, the fringe colors persist; an asymptotic theory explains why. Experiments with caustics produced by refraction through irregular bathroom-window glass show good agreement with theory. Colored fringes near the cusp reveal fine lines that are not present in any of the monochromatic components; these lines are explained in terms of partial decoherence between rays with widely differing path differences. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:11607642

  3. Effects of neurological damage on production of formulaic language

    PubMed Central

    Sidtis, D.; Canterucci, G.; Katsnelson, D.

    2014-01-01

    Early studies reported preserved formulaic language in left hemisphere damaged subjects and reduced incidence of formulaic expressions in the conversational speech of stroke patients with right hemispheric damage. Clinical observations suggest a possible role also of subcortical nuclei. This study examined formulaic language in the spontaneous speech of stroke patients with left, right, or subcortical damage. Four subjects were interviewed and their speech samples compared to normal speakers. Raters classified formulaic expressions as speech formulae, fillers, sentence stems, and proper nouns. Results demonstrated that brain damage affected novel and formulaic language competence differently, with a significantly smaller proportion of formulaic expressions in subjects with right or subcortical damage compared to left hemisphere damaged or healthy speakers. These findings converge with previous studies that support the proposal of a right hemisphere/subcortical circuit in the management of formulaic expressions, based on a dual-process model of language incorporating novel and formulaic language use. PMID:19382014

  4. Color image segmentation considering human sensitivity for color pattern variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Kuk-Jin; Kweon, In-So

    2001-10-01

    Color image segmentation plays an important role in the computer vision and image processing area. In this paper, we propose a novel color image segmentation algorithm in consideration of human visual sensitivity for color pattern variations by generalizing K-means clustering. Human visual system has different color perception sensitivity according to the spatial color pattern variation. To reflect this effect, we define the CCM (Color Complexity Measure) by calculating the absolute deviation with Gaussian weighting within the local mask and assign weight value to each color vector using the CCM values.

  5. Building bridges across differences to meet social action goals: being and creating allies among People of Color.

    PubMed

    Suyemoto, Karen L; Fox Tree, Claudia A

    2006-06-01

    Although challenges of anti-racist work are most commonly framed in relation to White people and People of Color, there are significant challenges involved in creating allies across minority racial groups. This article describes our experiences within a community organization aimed at training anti-racist culturally sensitive K-12 educators. As Asian American and Native American facilitators within a group of facilitators of color who were predominantly Black, we describe our experiences of relative marginalization and our (mostly failed) attempts to create change within the organization to be more inclusive of the perspectives, experiences, and needs of non-Black people/students of color. We contextualize these experienced conflicts in relation to race hierarchies, the "divide and conquer strategy" and the maintenance of White privilege. We offer reflections for how racial minorities engaged in anti-racist education could be better allies and how organizations might better foster environments that contribute to the creation of these alliances. PMID:16770698

  6. Consistent Numerical Expressions for Precession Formulae.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soma, M.

    The precession formulae by Lieske et al. (1977) have been used since 1984 for calculating apparent positions and reducing astrometric observations of celestial objects. These formulae are based on the IAU (1976) Astronomical Constants, some of which deviate from their recently determined values. They are also derived using the secular variations of the ecliptic pole from Newcomb's theory, which is not consistent with the recent planetary theories. Accordingly Simon et al. (1994) developed new precession formulae using the recently determined astronomical constants and also being based on the new planetary theory VSOP87. There are two differing definitions of the ecliptic: ecliptic in the inertial sense and ecliptic in the rotating sense (Standish 1981). The ecliptic given by the VSOP87 theory is that in the inertial sense, but the value for obliquity Simon et al. used is the obliquity in the rotating sense. Therefore their precession formulae has inconsistency. This paper gives corrections for consistent precession formulae.

  7. Body surface area formulae: an alarming ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Redlarski, Grzegorz; Palkowski, Aleksander; Krawczuk, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Body surface area (BSA) plays a key role in several medical fields, including cancer chemotherapy, transplantology, burn treatment and toxicology. BSA is often a major factor in the determination of the course of treatment and drug dosage. A series of formulae to simplify the process have been developed. Because easy-to-identify, yet general, body coefficient results of those formulae vary considerably, the question arises as to whether the choice of a particular formula is valid and safe for patients. Here we show that discrepancies between most of the known BSA formulae can reach 0.5 m(2) for the standard adult physique. Although many previous studies have demonstrated that certain BSA formulae provide an almost exact fit with the patients examined, all of these studies have been performed on a limited and isolated group of people. Our analysis presents a broader perspective, considering 25 BSA formulae. The analysis revealed that the choice of a particular formula is a difficult task. Differences among calculations made by the formulae are so great that, in certain cases, they may considerably affect patients' mortality, especially for people with an abnormal physique or for children. PMID:27323883

  8. Body surface area formulae: an alarming ambiguity

    PubMed Central

    Redlarski, Grzegorz; Palkowski, Aleksander; Krawczuk, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Body surface area (BSA) plays a key role in several medical fields, including cancer chemotherapy, transplantology, burn treatment and toxicology. BSA is often a major factor in the determination of the course of treatment and drug dosage. A series of formulae to simplify the process have been developed. Because easy-to-identify, yet general, body coefficient results of those formulae vary considerably, the question arises as to whether the choice of a particular formula is valid and safe for patients. Here we show that discrepancies between most of the known BSA formulae can reach 0.5 m2 for the standard adult physique. Although many previous studies have demonstrated that certain BSA formulae provide an almost exact fit with the patients examined, all of these studies have been performed on a limited and isolated group of people. Our analysis presents a broader perspective, considering 25 BSA formulae. The analysis revealed that the choice of a particular formula is a difficult task. Differences among calculations made by the formulae are so great that, in certain cases, they may considerably affect patients’ mortality, especially for people with an abnormal physique or for children. PMID:27323883

  9. Cave microbial community composition in oceanic islands: disentangling the effect of different colored mats in diversity patterns of Azorean lava caves.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Cristina; Rigal, François; Hathaway, Jennifer J M; Northup, Diana E; Spilde, Michael N; Borges, Paulo A V; Gabriel, Rosalina; Amorim, Isabel R; Dapkevicius, Maria de Lurdes N E

    2015-12-01

    Processes determining diversity and composition of bacterial communities in island volcanic caves are still poorly understood. Here, we characterized colored microbial mats in 14 volcanic caves from two oceanic islands of the Azores using 16S rRNA gene sequences. Factors determining community diversity (α) and composition (β) were explored, namely colored mats, caves and islands, as well as environmental and chemical characteristics of caves. Additive partitioning of diversity using OTU occurrence showed a greater influence of β-diversity between islands and caves that may relate to differences in rare OTUs (singletons and doubletons) across scales. In contrast, Shannon diversity partitioning revealed the importance of the lowest hierarchical level (α diversity, colored mat), suggesting a dominance of cosmopolitan OTUs (>1%) in most samples. Cosmopolitan OTUs included members involved in nitrogen cycling, supporting the importance of this process in Azorean caves. Environmental and chemical conditions in caves did not show any significant relationship to OTU diversity and composition. The absence of clear differences between mat colors and across scales may be explained by (1) the geological youth of the cave system (cave communities have not had enough time to diverge) or/and (2) community convergence, as the result of selection pressure in extreme environments. PMID:26564959

  10. Uncalibrated color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroney, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Color calibration or the use of color measurement processes to characterize the color properties of a device or workflow is often expected or assumed for many color reproduction applications. However it is interesting to consider applications or situations in which color calibration is not as critical. In the first case it is possible to imagine an implicit color calibration resulting from a standardization or convergence of the colorant and substrate spectrum. In the second case it is possible to imagine cases where the device color variability is significantly less than the user color thresholds or expectations for color consistency. There are still general requirements for this form of pragmatic color but they are generally lower than for the higher end of digital color reproduction. Finally it is possible to imagine an implicit calibration that leverages in some way the highly accurate memory color for the hue of common objects. This scenario culminates with a challenge to create a natural capture calibration standard that does not require individual calibration, is spectrally diverse, is inexpensive and is environmentally friendly.

  11. How to Save Money on Infant Formula

    MedlinePlus

    ... use a different liner with each feeding, which costs more. If your baby needs special formula because ... see if your insurance will help cover the cost. Not all health plans offer this coverage, but ...

  12. Color realism and color science.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R

    2003-02-01

    The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, radishes, and rubies) are colored, and that colors are physical properties, specifically, types of reflectance. This is probably a minority opinion, at least among color scientists. Textbooks frequently claim that physical objects are not colored, and that the colors are "subjective" or "in the mind." The article has two other purposes: First, to introduce an interdisciplinary audience to some distinctively philosophical tools that are useful in tackling the problem of color realism and, second, to clarify the various positions and central arguments in the debate. The first part explains the problem of color realism and makes some useful distinctions. These distinctions are then used to expose various confusions that often prevent people from seeing that the issues are genuine and difficult, and that the problem of color realism ought to be of interest to anyone working in the field of color science. The second part explains the various leading answers to the problem of color realism, and (briefly) argues that all views other than our own have serious difficulties or are unmotivated. The third part explains and motivates our own view, that colors are types of reflectances and defends it against objections made in the recent literature that are often taken as fatal. PMID:14598439

  13. Effect of finishing steers on different forages or high concentrate diet on rib composition, color, and palatability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-crossbred steers (n = 128) were used to determine the effects of forage species grazed in the last 41 d or high concentrate finishing on rib composition, color, and palatability of beef. Steers grazed mixed pastures (bluegrass/white clover) for 93 d and then grazed alfalfa (AL; n = 36), pearl ...

  14. Marination effects on water states and water-holding capacity of broiler pectoralis major muscle with different color lightness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of four experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of marination on water states and water-holding capacity (WHC) of broiler pectoralis (p.) major muscle selected based on raw muscle color lightness. Boneless, skinless p. major were collected at 6-8 h postmortem from deboning li...

  15. Hydrolyzed Formula for Every Infant?

    PubMed

    Fleischer, David M; Venter, Carina; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Presently, hydrolyzed formulas (HF) are used primarily in infants that cannot be exclusively breastfed, those with cow's milk allergy and for primary prevention of allergic disease, but HFs are increasingly being used worldwide, begging the question if they may be recommended as the optimal choice for all standard-risk, full-term, non-exclusively breastfed infants. Data regarding the nutritional adequacy of modern-day HFs are scarce and lack long-term data suggesting that growth in infants fed HF versus an intact protein formula (IPF) is different. While human breast milk is the optimal source of nutrition for multiple reasons, a 2006 systematic review determined there were no comparable long-term studies regarding prolonged use of HFs versus breastfeeding. Meta-analyses of formula consumption and risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) have found that infants fed partially HF compared to IPF had a lower risk of AD, but there are significant limitations to these studies, making conclusions about the general use of HFs problematic. Costs should be considered in decision-making regarding the choice of the formula, but global comparison of this is difficult given large cost differences in different countries. Despite the issues raised here, the desire to provide concrete recommendations of widespread HF use needs to be balanced carefully in order not to overstate claims of benefit. Long-term studies are needed to investigate the feasibility of HF as a routine feeding option for healthy, standard-risk infants. Because of the paucity of data, routine use of HF as an equivalent option to breastfeeding or IPF cannot be supported at present based on available scientific evidence. PMID:27336594

  16. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Tomohiro; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Kojima, Natsuki; Tanaka, Hisaya; Ito, Kei

    2013-02-01

    This report is af ollow-up to SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8, SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7866 78660J-1-8 and SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 8292 829206-1-8. Colors are used to communicate information in various situations, not just for design and apparel. However, visual information given only by color may be perceived differently by individuals with different color vision types. Human color vision is non-uniform and the variation in most cases is genetically linked to L-cones and M-cones. Therefore, color appearance is not the same for all color vision types. Color Universal Design is an easy-to-understand system that was created to convey color-coded information accurately to most people, taking color vision types into consideration. In the present research, we studied trichromat (C-type), prolan (P-type), and deutan (D-type) forms of color vision. We here report the result of two experiments. The first was the validation of the confusion colors using the color chart on CIELAB uniform color space. We made an experimental color chart (total of color cells is 622, the color difference between color cells is 2.5) for fhis experiment, and subjects have P-type or D-type color vision. From the data we were able to determine "the limits with high probability of confusion" and "the limits with possible confusion" around various basing points. The direction of the former matched with the theoretical confusion locus, but the range did not extend across the entire a* range. The latter formed a belt-like zone above and below the theoretical confusion locus. This way we re-analyzed a part of the theoretical confusion locus suggested by Pitt-Judd. The second was an experiment in color classification of the subjects with C-type, P-type, or D-type color vision. The color caps of fhe 100 Hue Test were classified into seven categories for each color vision type. The common and different points of color sensation were compared for each color vision type, and we were able to find a group of color caps

  17. Seeing Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…

  18. Color preferences revealed by statistical color rendition metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Anqing; Tuzikas, ArÅ«nas; Žukauskas, ArtÅ«ras; Vaicekauskas, Rimantas; Vitta, Pranciškus; Shur, Michael

    2013-09-01

    The color rendition engine based on the statistical metric allows us to uniquely quantify the characteristics of color quality of illumination and assess the color rendition preferences. We now report on using the color rendition engine for revealing individual and cultural differences in color quality preferences of 205 American and Chinese subjects. Our study demonstrated that the majority of individuals preferred the color blend with the same statistical figures of merit on the average but with a much larger spread of blends for Americans. For both groups, the color rendition preferences depended on the object being illuminated. This was demonstrated by illuminating a set of common colored objects and three different paintings. We conclude that the color quality of lighting can be optimized and enhanced using the feedback to change the spectral power distribution of the illuminating source depending on the object being illuminated and on the preferences of an individual observer and a cultural group.

  19. Identification of Phenolic Compounds from Seed Coats of Differently Colored European Varieties of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and Characterization of Their Antioxidant and In Vitro Anticancer Activities.

    PubMed

    Stanisavljević, Nemanja S; Ilić, Marija D; Matić, Ivana Z; Jovanović, Živko S; Čupić, Tihomir; Dabić, Dragana Č; Natić, Maja M; Tešić, Živoslav Lj

    2016-01-01

    To date little has been done on identification of major phenolic compounds responsible for anticancer and antioxidant properties of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seed coat extracts. In the present study, phenolic profile of the seed coat extracts from 10 differently colored European varieties has been determined using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometer technique. Extracts of dark colored varieties with high total phenolic content (up to 46.56 mg GAE/g) exhibited strong antioxidant activities (measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl or DPPH assay, and ferric ion reducing and ferrous ion chelating capacity assays) which could be attributed to presence of gallic acid, epigallocatechin, naringenin, and apigenin. The aqueous extracts of dark colored varieties exert concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects on all tested malignant cell lines (human colon adenocarcinoma LS174, human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-453, human lung carcinoma A594, and myelogenous leukemia K562). Correlation analysis revealed that intensities of cytotoxic activity of the extracts strongly correlated with contents of epigallocatechin and luteolin. Cell cycle analysis on LS174 cells in the presence of caspase-3 inhibitor points out that extracts may activate other cell death modalities besides caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. The study provides evidence that seed coat extracts of dark colored pea varieties might be used as potential cancer-chemopreventive and complementary agents in cancer therapy. PMID:27348025

  20. Multimodal sexual signals in male ocellated lizards Lacerta lepida: vitamin E in scent and green coloration may signal male quality in different sensory channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, José; López, Pilar

    2010-06-01

    The mechanisms that confer honesty to multiple sexual signals of vertebrates remain less known. We suggest that vitamin E in the scent (femoral secretions) and carotenoids in coloration of Lacerta lepida lizards might advertise quality because they are relevant in metabolism as major antioxidants and have a dietary origin. Results showed that there may be similar trade-offs between immunity and both chemical and visual signaling, as males with more vitamin E in secretions and those with more greenish, darker, and saturated carotenoid-dependent colorations had a higher immune response. This suggests that only high-quality males can divert from metabolism and allocate enough vitamin E to secretions and enough carotenoids to coloration. Therefore, information provided by visual and chemical signals is congruent. The use of multiple sensory channels may allow signaling a male quality under different circumstances or reinforce the reliability of the signal when both signals are perceived simultaneously. However, we also found that characteristics of carotenoid-dependent coloration mirror the amounts of vitamin E in secretions. This might support that carotenoids, which are not true antioxidants in the organism, would just reflect and “inform” on the actual contents of metabolic antioxidant vitamin E, which is part of the true system that prevent oxidation. We suggest that the metabolic roles of vitamins might be the actual basis of honesty of many sexual displays, and that carotenoid-based signals might be just the visible part of the whole system.

  1. Comparison of narrow-band reflectance spectroscopy and tristimulus colorimetry for measurements of skin and hair color in persons of different biological ancestry.

    PubMed

    Shriver, M D; Parra, E J

    2000-05-01

    We have used two modern computerized handheld reflectometers, the Photovolt ColorWalk colorimeter (a tristimulus colorimeter; Photovolt, UMM Electronics, Indianapolis, IN) and the DermaSpectrometer (a specialized narrow-band reflectometer; Cortex Technology, Hadsund, Denmark), to compare two methods for the objective determination of skin and hair color. These instruments both determine color by measuring the intensity of reflected light of particular wavelengths. The Photovolt ColorWalk instrument does so by shining a white light and sensing the intensity of the reflected light with a linear photodiode array. The ColorWalk results can then be expressed in terms of several standard color systems, most importantly, the Commission International d'Eclairage (CIE) Lab system, in which any color can be described by three values: L*, the lightness; a*, the amount of green or red; and b*, the amount of yellow or blue. Instead of a white light and photodiodes, the DermaSpectrometer uses two light-emitting diodes (LEDs), one green and one red, to illuminate a surface, and then it records the intensity of the reflected light. The results of these readings are expressed in terms of erythema (E) and melanin (M) indices. We measured the unexposed skin of the inner upper arm, the exposed skin of the forehead, and the hair, of 80 persons using these two instruments. Since it is important for the application of these measures in anthropology that we understand their relationship across a number of different pigmentation levels, we sampled persons from several different groups, namely, European Americans (n = 55), African Americans (n = 9), South Asians (n = 7), and East Asians (n = 9). In these subjects, there is a very high correlation between L* and the M index for the inner arm (R(2) = 0.928, P < 0.001), the forehead (R(2) = 0.822, P < 0.001), and the hair (R(2) = 0.827, P < 0.001). The relationship between a* and the E index is complex and dependent on the pigmentation level

  2. Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 Inactivation, Color, and Bioactive Compounds Enhancement on Raspberries during Frozen Storage after Decontamination Using New Formula Sanitizer Washing or Pulsed Light.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenqing; Chen, Haiqiang; Wu, Changqing

    2016-07-01

    Berries are normally washed before they are frozen. Washing with sanitizer and treatment with pulsed light (PL) were studied for their effectiveness to inactivate foodborne pathogens on raspberries during frozen storage, while maintaining or enhancing major quality parameters. Raspberries were inoculated with Salmonella or Escherichia coli O157:H7 and then underwent a washing treatment with citric acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (CA+SDS) or citric acid plus thymol (CA+THY) or treatment with PL (dry PL, water-assisted [wet] PL, and PL-SDS). Pathogen survival was determined immediately after treatments and during frozen storage at -20°C for 3 months. Washing with CA+SDS or CA+THY significantly reduced Salmonella (by 3.6 and 3.2 log CFU/g, respectively) and E. coli O157:H7 (by 4.1 and 3.7 log CFU/g, respectively). At the end of storage, washing with CA+SDS reduced Salmonella to 0.6 log CFU/g and E. coli O157:H7 to 0.5 log CFU/g; washing with CA+THY reduced Salmonella to 0.9 log CFU/g and E. coli O157:H7 to 0.5 log CFU/g. PL-SDS showed decontamination efficacy on raspberries, with 0.7 log CFU/g Salmonella and 0.9 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 surviving at the end of storage; in comparison, in the control, 1.6 log CFU/g Salmonella and 1.5 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 survived. Pathogen survival in raspberries that had been washed or treated with PL-SDS was significantly lower than in untreated raspberries. Major quality parameters, including color, total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content, total bacterial count, and total yeast and mold counts, were evaluated on raspberries immediately after treatments and during frozen storage. Redness increased in PL-treated raspberries. At the end of storage, PL-treated raspberries had significantly higher total phenolic content and total anthocyanin content compared with control samples. Washing with sanitizers and treatment with PL decreased the total bacterial count and total yeast and mold counts on raspberries and maintained

  3. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  4. Color names, color categories, and color-cued visual search: Sometimes, color perception is not categorical

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Angela M; Lindsey, Delwin T; Guckes, Kevin M

    2011-01-01

    The relation between colors and their names is a classic case-study for investigating the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis that categorical perception is imposed on perception by language. Here, we investigate the Sapir-Whorf prediction that visual search for a green target presented among blue distractors (or vice versa) should be faster than search for a green target presented among distractors of a different color of green (or for a blue target among different blue distractors). Gilbert, Regier, Kay & Ivry (2006) reported that this Sapir-Whorf effect is restricted to the right visual field (RVF), because the major brain language centers are in the left cerebral hemisphere. We found no categorical effect at the Green|Blue color boundary, and no categorical effect restricted to the RVF. Scaling of perceived color differences by Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling (MLDS) also showed no categorical effect, including no effect specific to the RVF. Two models fit the data: a color difference model based on MLDS and a standard opponent-colors model of color discrimination based on the spectral sensitivities of the cones. Neither of these models, nor any of our data, suggested categorical perception of colors at the Green|Blue boundary, in either visual field. PMID:21980188

  5. Visual color image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Guoping; Schaefer, Gerald

    1999-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a color image processing method by combining modern signal processing technique with knowledge about the properties of the human color vision system. Color signals are processed differently according to their visual importance. The emphasis of the technique is on the preservation of total visual quality of the image and simultaneously taking into account computational efficiency. A specific color image enhancement technique, termed Hybrid Vector Median Filtering is presented. Computer simulations have been performed to demonstrate that the new approach is technically sound and results are comparable to or better than traditional methods.

  6. Naming Speed of Adolescents and Young Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Differences in Alphanumeric Versus Color/Object Naming.

    PubMed

    Whipple, Brittany D; Nelson, Jason M

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the performance of adolescents and young adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Reading Disorder (RD), and ADHD/RD on measures of alphanumeric and nonalphanumeric naming speed and the relationship between naming speed and academic achievement. The sample (N = 203) included students aged 17-28 years diagnosed with ADHD (n = 83), RD (n = 71), or ADHD/RD (n = 49). Individuals with ADHD performed significantly faster on measures of alphanumeric naming compared with RD and comorbid groups and, within group, demonstrated significantly quicker naming of letters/digits compared with colors/objects. Both alphanumeric rapid naming scores and processing speed scores variably predicted academic achievement scores across groups, whereas nonalphanumeric rapid naming only predicted reading comprehension scores within the ADHD group. Results support findings that older individuals with ADHD show relative weakness in rapid naming of objects and colors. Implications of these findings in regard to assessment of older individuals for ADHD are discussed. PMID:26471216

  7. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  8. Progress in color night vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toet, Alexander; Hogervorst, Maarten A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused false color images with large color contrast and preserved the identity of the input signals. This method has been successfully deployed in different areas of research. However, since this color mapping did not produce realistic colors, we continued to develop a statistical color-mapping procedure that would transfer the color distribution of a given example image to a multiband nighttime image. This procedure yields a realistic color rendering. However, it is computationally expensive and achieves no color constancy since the mapping depends on the relative amounts of the different materials in the scene. By applying the statistical mapping approach in a color look-up-table framework, we finally achieved both color constancy and computational simplicity. This sample-based color transfer method is specific for different types of materials in a scene and can be easily adapted for the intended operating theatre and the task at hand. The method can be implemented as a look-up-table transform and is highly suitable for real-time implementations.

  9. The Mystical "Quadratic Formula."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    Uses projectile motion to explain the two roots found when using the quadratic formula. An example is provided for finding the time of flight for a projectile which has a negative root implying a negative time of flight. This negative time of flight also has a useful physical meaning. (MVL)

  10. The Formula Essay Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haluska, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Bruce Pirie offers the following criticism about formula essays: "What does a five-paragraph essay teach about writing? It teaches that there are rules, and that those rules take the shape of a preordained form, like a cookie-cutter, into which we can pour ideas and expect them to come out well shaped." He goes on to discredit such essays as being…

  11. Research Timeline: Formulaic language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Creating a timeline for formulaic language is far from simple, because several partially independent lines of research have contributed to the emerging picture. Each exhibits cycles of innovation and consolidation over time: domains take a leading role in developing new knowledge and then fall back, while another area comes to the fore. Thus, some…

  12. Composition formulas of binary eutectics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y. P.; Dong, D. D.; Dong, C.; Luo, L. J.; Wang, Q.; Qiang, J. B.; Wang, Y. M.

    2015-12-01

    The present paper addresses the long-standing composition puzzle of eutectic points by introducing a new structural tool for the description of short-range-order structural unit, the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. In this model, any structure is dissociated into a 1st-neighbor cluster and a few glue atoms between the clusters, expressed by a cluster formula [cluster]gluex. This model is applied here to establish the structural model for eutectic liquids, assuming that a eutectic liquid consist of two subunits issued from the relevant eutectic phases, each being expressed by the cluster formula for ideal metallic glasses, i.e., [cluster](glue atom)1 or 3. A structural unit is then composed of two clusters from the relevant eutectic phases plus 2, 4, or 6 glue atoms. Such a dual cluster formulism is well validated in all boron-containing (except those located by the extreme phase diagram ends) and in some commonly-encountered binary eutectics, within accuracies below 1 at.%. The dual cluster formulas vary extensively and are rarely identical even for eutectics of close compositions. They are generally formed with two distinctly different cluster types, with special cluster matching rules such as cuboctahedron plus capped trigonal prism and rhombidodecahedron plus octahedral antiprism.

  13. Composition formulas of binary eutectics.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y P; Dong, D D; Dong, C; Luo, L J; Wang, Q; Qiang, J B; Wang, Y M

    2015-01-01

    The present paper addresses the long-standing composition puzzle of eutectic points by introducing a new structural tool for the description of short-range-order structural unit, the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. In this model, any structure is dissociated into a 1(st)-neighbor cluster and a few glue atoms between the clusters, expressed by a cluster formula [cluster]gluex. This model is applied here to establish the structural model for eutectic liquids, assuming that a eutectic liquid consist of two subunits issued from the relevant eutectic phases, each being expressed by the cluster formula for ideal metallic glasses, i.e., [cluster](glue atom)(1 or 3). A structural unit is then composed of two clusters from the relevant eutectic phases plus 2, 4, or 6 glue atoms. Such a dual cluster formulism is well validated in all boron-containing (except those located by the extreme phase diagram ends) and in some commonly-encountered binary eutectics, within accuracies below 1 at.%. The dual cluster formulas vary extensively and are rarely identical even for eutectics of close compositions. They are generally formed with two distinctly different cluster types, with special cluster matching rules such as cuboctahedron plus capped trigonal prism and rhombidodecahedron plus octahedral antiprism. PMID:26658618

  14. Composition formulas of binary eutectics

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Y. P.; Dong, D. D.; Dong, C.; Luo, L. J.; Wang, Q.; Qiang, J. B.; Wang, Y. M.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper addresses the long-standing composition puzzle of eutectic points by introducing a new structural tool for the description of short-range-order structural unit, the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. In this model, any structure is dissociated into a 1st-neighbor cluster and a few glue atoms between the clusters, expressed by a cluster formula [cluster]gluex. This model is applied here to establish the structural model for eutectic liquids, assuming that a eutectic liquid consist of two subunits issued from the relevant eutectic phases, each being expressed by the cluster formula for ideal metallic glasses, i.e., [cluster](glue atom)1 or 3. A structural unit is then composed of two clusters from the relevant eutectic phases plus 2, 4, or 6 glue atoms. Such a dual cluster formulism is well validated in all boron-containing (except those located by the extreme phase diagram ends) and in some commonly-encountered binary eutectics, within accuracies below 1 at.%. The dual cluster formulas vary extensively and are rarely identical even for eutectics of close compositions. They are generally formed with two distinctly different cluster types, with special cluster matching rules such as cuboctahedron plus capped trigonal prism and rhombidodecahedron plus octahedral antiprism. PMID:26658618

  15. Color standardization in whole slide imaging using a color calibration slide

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, Pinky A.; Hashimoto, Noriaki; Yagi, Yukako

    2014-01-01

    Background: Color consistency in histology images is still an issue in digital pathology. Different imaging systems reproduced the colors of a histological slide differently. Materials and Methods: Color correction was implemented using the color information of the nine color patches of a color calibration slide. The inherent spectral colors of these patches along with their scanned colors were used to derive a color correction matrix whose coefficients were used to convert the pixels’ colors to their target colors. Results: There was a significant reduction in the CIELAB color difference, between images of the same H & E histological slide produced by two different whole slide scanners by 3.42 units, P < 0.001 at 95% confidence level. Conclusion: Color variations in histological images brought about by whole slide scanning can be effectively normalized with the use of the color calibration slide. PMID:24672739

  16. Comparing distributions of color words: pitfalls and metric choices.

    PubMed

    Vejdemo-Johansson, Mikael; Vejdemo, Susanne; Ek, Carl-Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Computational methods have started playing a significant role in semantic analysis. One particularly accessible area for developing good computational methods for linguistic semantics is in color naming, where perceptual dissimilarity measures provide a geometric setting for the analyses. This setting has been studied first by Berlin & Kay in 1969, and then later on by a large data collection effort: the World Color Survey (WCS). From the WCS, a dataset on color naming by 2 616 speakers of 110 different languages is made available for further research. In the analysis of color naming from WCS, however, the choice of analysis method is an important factor of the analysis. We demonstrate concrete problems with the choice of metrics made in recent analyses of WCS data, and offer approaches for dealing with the problems we can identify. Picking a metric for the space of color naming distributions that ignores perceptual distances between colors assumes a decorrelated system, where strong spatial correlations in fact exist. We can demonstrate that the corresponding issues are significantly improved when using Earth Mover's Distance, or Quadratic [Formula: see text]-square Distance, and we can approximate these solutions with a kernel-based analysis method. PMID:24586580

  17. The reasons for the color green fluorite Mehmandooye cover using UV spectroscopy and XRF results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirzadeh, Sara; Zahiri, Reza

    2016-04-01

    Fluorite mineral or fluorine with chemical formula CaF2 is most important mineralfluor in nature. This mineral crystallization to colors yellow, green, pink, blue, purple, colorless and sometimes black andin cubic system crystallized.assemi transparent and glass with polished.fluoritethe purity include 48/9% fluoreand 51/9% calcium. How the creation colors in minerals different greatly indebted to Kurt Nassau research from Bell Labs, Murray Hill, New Jersey.almostall the mechanisms that cause color in minerals, are the result of the interaction of light waves with the electrons The main factors affecting the color generation include the following: 1)the presence of a constructive element inherent (essential ingredient mineral composition) 2)The presence of a minor impurities (such a element as involved in latticesolid solution) 3) appearancedefects in the crystal structure 4) There are some physical boundaries with distances very small and delicate, like blades out of the solution (which may be the play of colors or Chatvyansy) 5) Mixing mechanical impurities dispersed in a host mineral Based on the results of the analysis, XRF and UV spectrum and also based on the results of ICP, because the color green fluorite examined, the focus color (F_center) and also the presence of some elementsintermediate (such as Y (yttrium). [1] Bill, H., Calas, G. Color centres associated rare earth ions and the origin of coloration in natural fluorites// PhysChem Min, (1978), v 3, pp. 117-131.

  18. Color Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  19. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  20. The correlationship between the metabolizable energy content, chemical composition and color score in different sources of corn DDGS

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to evaluate the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and true metabolizable energy (TME) contents in 30 sources of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in adult roosters, and establish the prediction equations to estimate the AME and TME value based on its chemical composition and color score. Methods Twenty-eight sources of corn DDGS made from several processing plants in 11 provinces of China and others imported from the United States. DDGS were analyzed for their metabolizable energy (ME) contents, measured for color score and chemical composition (crude protein, crude fat, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber), to predict the equation of ME in DDGS. A precision-fed rooster assay was used, each DDGS sample was tube fed (50 g) to adult roosters. The experiment was conducted as a randomized incomplete block design with 3 periods. Ninety-five adult roosters were used in each period, with 90 being fed the DDGS samples and 5 being fasted to estimate basal endogenous energy losses. Results Results showed that the AME ranged from 5.93 to 12.19 MJ/kg, TME ranged from 7.28 to 13.54 MJ/kg. Correlations were found between ME and ash content (-0.64, P < 0.01) and between ME and yellowness score (0.39, P < 0.05) of the DDGS samples. Furthermore, the best-fit regression equation for AME content of DDGS based on chemical composition and color score was AME = 6.57111 + 0.51475 GE - 0.10003 NDF + 0.13380 ADF + 0.07057 fat - 0.57029 ash - 0.02437 L (R2 = 0.70). The best-fit regression equation for TME content of DDGS was TME = 7.92283 + 0.51475 GE - 0.10003 NDF + 0.13380 ADF + 0.07057 fat - 0.57029 ash - 0.02437 L (R2 = 0.70). Conclusions This experiment suggested that measuring the chemical composition and color score of a corn DDGS sample may provide a quality parameter for identifying corn DDGS sources energy digestibility and metabolizable energy content. PMID

  1. COMPARISON OF CHILDREN'S FOLLOW-ON INSTANT POWDERED COW'S MILK FORMULA, BUFFALO MILK FORMULA AND CHICKEN-BASED FORMULA ON ENAMEL MICROHARDNESS OF BOVINE TEETH IN VITRO.

    PubMed

    Vongsavan, Kadkao; Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Surarit, Rudee

    2016-03-01

    Dental caries are a major public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of children's follow-on instant powdered cow's milk formula, buffalo milk formula and a chicken-based formula on microhardness of bovine enamel with artificial caries-like lesions. Forty bovine teeth were each placed in acrylic blocks and the enamel surfaces were polished to create flat 5 x 5 millimeter surfaces. The teeth surfaces were then demineralized using 0.1M lactic acid (pH 4.5) to achieve an enamel microhardness of 35-65 Vickers Hardness Numbers (VHN). All specimens were then randomly allocated into one of 4 groups (n=10/group). For remineralization, each group was soaked in a different kind of milk formula for 2 hours at 37°C except group 1 which was a negative control (artificial saliva) group. Group 2 was soaked in Murrah™ buffalo milk formula (a positive control ), group 3 in S-26-Promil-Gold™ (cow's milk formula) and group 4 in a chicken-based formula (Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University). The microhardness of the specimens was then measured again. Data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and paired t-test with a 95% confidence interval. After exposure to the formula, the mean VHN for each study group was significantly higher (paired t-test, p < 0.05) except for group 1 (p = 0.345). The mean VHN for the the Murrah™ buffalo milk formula, the chicken-based formula and the S-26-Promil-Gold™ formula group were not significantly different from each other (one-way ANOVA, p > 0.05). In conclusion, S-26-Promil-Gold™ follow-on cow milk formula, Murrah™ buffalo milk formula and the chicken-based formula all increased bovine enamel microhardness after soaking for 2 hours. PMID:27244971

  2. Navigation lights color study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Jose G.; Alberg, Matthew T.

    2015-05-01

    The chromaticity of navigation lights are defined by areas on the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) 1931 chromaticity diagram. The corner coordinates for these areas are specified in the International Regulations for Prevention of Collisions at Sea, 1972 (72 COLREGS). The navigation light's color of white, red, green, and yellow are bounded by these areas. The chromaticity values specified by the COLREGS for navigation lights were intended for the human visual system (HVS). The HVS can determine the colors of these lights easily under various conditions. For digital color camera imaging systems the colors of these lights are dependent on the camera's color spectral sensitivity, settings, and color correction. At night the color of these lights are used to quickly determine the relative course of vessels. If these lights are incorrectly identified or there is a delay in identifying them this could be a potential safety of ship concern. Vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for sight, at night, need to detect, identify, and discriminate navigation lights for navigation and collision avoidance. The introduction of light emitting diode (LED) lights and lights with different spectral signatures have the potential to be imaged very differently with an RGB color filter array (CFA) color camera than with the human eye. It has been found that some green navigation lights' images appear blue verse green. This has an impact on vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for navigation. This paper will characterize color cameras ability to properly reproducing navigation lights' color and survey a set of navigation light to determine if they conform to the COLREGS.

  3. [Hair colorants].

    PubMed

    Urbanek-Karłowska, B; Luks, E; Jedra, M; Kiss, E; Malanowska, M

    1997-01-01

    The properties, mode of action and its duration of the preparations used for hair dyeing are described, together with their chemical components, and also preparations of herbal origin. The chemical reactions are described in detail which lead the development of a color polymer occurring during hair dyeing. The studies are presented which are used for toxicological assessment of the raw materials which are the components of the colorants, and the list is included of hair colorants permitted for use in Poland. PMID:9562811

  4. Crater Floor in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 5 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on November 18, 2003 during the Southern Summer season in Terra Cimmeria.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -23.7, Longitude 135.6 East (224.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  5. Evaluating the formulae for integrated lethality in ethylene oxide sterilization using six different endospore forming strains of bacteria, and comparisons of integrated lethality for ethylene oxide and steam systems.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Gregg A; Gillis, John R; Krushefski, Garrett

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial endospores from six different species of bacteria were exposed to a spectrum of ethylene oxide (EtO) sterilizing conditions. Temperature was varied from 40 to 60 degrees C and the ethylene oxide concentration was varied from 300 to 750 mg/L. Relative humidity was maintained at 60+/-10% RH. The fraction negative procedure was used to determine the D value for each of the test conditions. Bacterial species tested included Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC # 9372, Bacillus smithii ATCC # 51232, Bacillus subtilis "5230" ATCC # 35021, Bacillus subtilis, DSM # 4181, Bacillus pumilus ATCC # 27142, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC # 7953. All spore preparations were inoculated on filter paper strips packaged in blue, sterilizable glassine pouches. G. stearothermophilus was the least resistant organism tested. The most resistant organisms tested were B. atrophaeus and B. subtilis "5230". The B. subtilis "5230" strain was slightly more resistant than B. atrophaeus at conditions of 54C and EtO concentrations of 400, 600, and 750 mg/L, as well as at 60C/750mg/L EtO. The other species were between these extremes. This empirical data allowed the application of the recently published formula for converting D values from one set of conditions to another and evaluations of accuracy. The measured D values also allowed the determination of Z values based on temperature variations. These formulae, when applied to process temperatures independent of gas concentration, result in a Z value of approximately 32 degrees C that appears to be similar for all species tested. These data support the application of the previously published formulae 1-6 and allow the same approach to integrated lethality for ethylene oxide processes as is commonly applied to steam sterilization. A review of steam sterilization and related principles was conducted for comparison of integrated lethality for these two methods of sterilization. Errors associated with D values, Z values, extrapolation, and

  6. Quantum Color

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-16

    The idea of electric charges and electricity in general is a familiar one to the science savvy viewer. However, electromagnetism is but one of the four fundamental forces and not the strongest one. The strongest of the fundamental forces is called the strong nuclear force and it has its own associated charge. Physicists call this charge ?color? in analogy with the primary colors, although there is no real connection with actual color. In this video, Fermilab?s Dr. Don Lincoln explains why it is that we live in a colorful world.

  7. The Value Of Different Standards And Measurement Systems To Determine The Optical Properties Of Paper And For Standardized Color Reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotica, Werner

    1990-06-01

    Several terms are used to determine the optical properties of paper and board. Brightness, whiteness, diffuse reflectance factor, diffuse blue reflectance factor, specular gloss, spectral reflectivity and whiteness and yellowness are the used terms. The mainly used term is brightness of paper, an important property in many specifications, but this property has no visual perceptual foundation. Instead it is based on the filter chosen to measure the reflectance of pulp in the region most sensitive to the effects, of bleaching. Therefore an increasing demand for a specification of whiteness can be observed. Belonging to the concept of color, whiteness has to be measured and interpreted in the scope of CIE (Commission Internationale l'Eclairage) based on colorimetri tristimulus data transformed to agree with the perceptual assessment of whiteness. Human observers differentiate between the whiteness of the object being viewed and its brightness. A special index of whiteness is needed. No general agreement was so far reached regarding the best index which could and should be adopted universally among the two recommended by the CIE. Nearly every white sample is a little colored, having bluish, greenish or redish tint. In the post no numerical measure of tint was assigned to any of the whiteness indexes. Further problems arise that fluorescent whiteness agents are added to paper and board to increase their whiteness. This requires not only instrumental design and calibration but also the illuminant to be adopted for such measurements.

  8. Evaluation of a color-coded Landsat 5/6 ratio image for mapping lithologic differences in western South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, Gary L.; Bretz, R.F.; Shurr, George W.

    1979-01-01

    From analysis of a color-coded Landsat 5/6 ratio, image, a map of the vegetation density distribution has been produced by Raines of 25,000 sq km of western South Dakota. This 5/6 ratio image is produced digitally calculating the ratios of the bands 5 and 6 of the Landsat data and then color coding these ratios in an image. Bretz and Shurr compared this vegetation density map with published and unpublished data primarily of the U.S. Geological Survey and the South Dakota Geological Survey; good correspondence is seen between this map and existing geologic maps, especially with the soils map. We believe that this Landsat ratio image can be used as a tool to refine existing maps of surficial geology and bedrock, where bedrock is exposed, and to improve mapping accuracy in areas of poor exposure common in South Dakota. In addition, this type of image could be a useful, additional tool in mapping areas that are unmapped.

  9. Reducing Color/Brightness Interaction in Color Television

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchman, Robert H.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed digitally sampled scan-conversion scheme for color television reduces unwanted interactions between chrominance and luminance signals. New scheme reduces luminance and chrominance bandwidth to increase frequency separation between signals. To avoid proportionally reducing horizontal brightness resolution and horizontal color resolution, horizontal interlace of luminance signal and two color-difference signals used.

  10. Exponential Formulae and Effective Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielnik, Bogdan; Fernandez, David J. C.

    1996-01-01

    One of standard methods to predict the phenomena of squeezing consists in splitting the unitary evolution operator into the product of simpler operations. The technique, while mathematically general, is not so simple in applications and leaves some pragmatic problems open. We report an extended class of exponential formulae, which yield a quicker insight into the laboratory details for a class of squeezing operations, and moreover, can be alternatively used to programme different type of operations, as: (1) the free evolution inversion; and (2) the soft simulations of the sharp kicks (so that all abstract results involving the kicks of the oscillator potential, become realistic laboratory prescriptions).

  11. Reduced Stroop Interference for Opponent Colors May Be Due to Input Factors: Evidence from Individual Differences and a Neural Network Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laeng, Bruno; Torstein, Lag; Brennen, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Sensory or input factors can influence the strength of interference in the classic Stroop color-word task. Specifically, in a single-trial computerized version of the Stroop task, when color-word pairs were incongruent, opponent color pairs (e.g., the word BLUE in yellow) showed reduced Stroop interference compared with nonopponent color pairs…

  12. Color naming: color scientists do it between Munsell sheets of color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beretta, Giordano B.; Moroney, Nathan M.

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of high dynamic range imaging and wide gamut color spaces, gamut mapping algorithms have to nudge image colors much more drastically to constrain them within a rendering device's gamut. Classical colorimetry is concerned with color matching and the developed color difference metrics are for small distances. For larger distances, categorization becomes a more useful concept. In the gamut mapping case, lexical distance induced by color names is a more useful metric, which translates to the condition that a nudged color may not cross a name boundary. The new problem is to find these color name boundaries. We compare the experimental procedures used for color naming by linguists, ethnologists, and color scientists and propose a methodology that leads to robust repeatable experiments.

  13. Color image processing for date quality evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dah Jye; Archibald, James K.

    2010-01-01

    Many agricultural non-contact visual inspection applications use color image processing techniques because color is often a good indicator of product quality. Color evaluation is an essential step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. Most color spaces such as RGB and HSV represent colors with three-dimensional data, which makes using color image processing a challenging task. Since most agricultural applications only require analysis on a predefined set or range of colors, mapping these relevant colors to a small number of indexes allows simple and efficient color image processing for quality evaluation. This paper presents a simple but efficient color mapping and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time quality evaluation of Medjool dates. In contrast with more complex color image processing techniques, the proposed color mapping method makes it easy for a human operator to specify and adjust color-preference settings for different color groups representing distinct quality levels. Using this color mapping technique, the color image is first converted to a color map that has one color index represents a color value for each pixel. Fruit maturity level is evaluated based on these color indices. A skin lamination threshold is then determined based on the fruit surface characteristics. This adaptive threshold is used to detect delaminated fruit skin and hence determine the fruit quality. The performance of this robust color grading technique has been used for real-time Medjool date grading.

  14. Identification of a R2R3-MYB gene regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis and relationships between its variation and flower color difference in lotus (Nelumbo Adans.)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shan-Shan

    2016-01-01

    The lotus (Nelumbonaceae: Nelumbo Adans.) is a highly desired ornamental plant, comprising only two extant species, the sacred lotus (N. nucifera Gaerten.) with red flowers and the American lotus (N. lutea Willd.) with yellow flowers. Flower color is the most obvious difference of two species. To better understand the mechanism of flower color differentiation, the content of anthocyanins and the expression levels of four key structural genes (e.g., DFR, ANS, UFGT and GST) were analyzed in two species. Our results revealed that anthocyanins were detected in red flowers, not yellow flowers. Expression analysis showed that no transcripts of GST gene and low expression level of three UFGT genes were detected in yellow flowers. In addition, three regulatory genes (NnMYB5, NnbHLH1 and NnTTG1) were isolated from red flowers and showed a high similarity to corresponding regulatory genes of other species. Sequence analysis of MYB5, bHLH1 and TTG1 in two species revealed striking differences in coding region and promoter region of MYB5 gene. Population analysis identified three MYB5 variants in Nelumbo: a functional allele existed in red flowers and two inactive forms existed in yellow flowers. This result revealed that there was an association between allelic variation in MYB5 gene and flower color difference. Yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that NnMYB5 interacts with NnbHLH1, NlbHLH1 and NnTTG1, and NnTTG1 also interacts with NnbHLH1 and NlbHLH1. The over-expression of NnMYB5 led to anthocyanin accumulation in immature seeds and flower stalks and up-regulation of expression of TT19 in Arabidopsis. Therefore, NnMYB5 is a transcription activator of anthocyanin synthesis. This study helps to elucidate the function of NnMYB5 and will contribute to clarify the mechanism of flower coloration and genetic engineering of flower color in lotus.

  15. MSc degree in color technology for the automotive sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Verdu, F.; Perales, E.; Chorro, E.; Viqueira, V.; Gilabert, E.

    2014-07-01

    Nowadays, the measurement and management of color quality of the gonio-apparent materials is complex, but highly demanded in many industrial sectors, as automotive, cosmetics, plastics for consumer electronics, printing inks, architectural coatings, etc. It is necessary to control complex instrumentation and to do visual assessments of texture and color differences to get, for instance, a visual harmony in car bodies; and a profound knowledge of physics and chemistry of special-effect pigments for their optical formulation to obtain attractive visual effects in coatings, plastics, etc, combining among them and with solid pigments. From University of Alicante, for the academic year 2013-14, we are organizing the first MSc degree in Color Technology for the Automotive Sector, with a design of contents embracing CIE colorimetry and visual perception, included the AUDI2000 color difference formula, instrumentation and color management software, fundamentals of coatings and plastics in the automotive sector, and, optical formulation of pigments. The MSc syllabus, with 60 ECTS, is designed to be taught in two semesters: from September to February with on classroom theoretical and practical activities, and, from March to June at virtual level, with internships of training in some companies. Therefore, the MSc Thesis would be the performance report during the internship in companies or research institutions. Some multinational companies, both as car makers and coatings and plastics providers, from European and non-European countries have already shown their support and interest in welcoming students for specific training, even some job offers when the first MSc edition finishes.

  16. Introducing Chemical Formulae and Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Chris; Rowell, Jack

    1979-01-01

    Discusses when the writing of chemical formula and equations can be introduced in the school science curriculum. Also presents ways in which formulae and equations learning can be aided and some examples for balancing and interpreting equations. (HM)

  17. Astronomy with the Color Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Donald A.; Melrose, Justyn

    2014-01-01

    The standard method to create dramatic color images in astrophotography is to record multiple black and white images, each with a different color filter in the optical path, and then tint each frame with a color appropriate to the corresponding filter. When combined, the resulting image conveys information about the sources of emission in the…

  18. Color Metric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    This booklet was designed to convey metric information in pictoral form. The use of pictures in the coloring book enables the more mature person to grasp the metric message instantly, whereas the younger person, while coloring the picture, will be exposed to the metric information long enough to make the proper associations. Sheets of the booklet…

  19. Color Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferry, John E.

    1980-01-01

    Elementary students were asked to find 12 colors and 5 sounds in their immediate natural environment and to describe in writing where they saw each color in relationship to themselves. The writings formed a type of poetry which expressed involvement with and observation of the environment. (CM)

  20. Chemistry, Color, and Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orna, Mary Virginia

    2001-01-01

    Describes pigments and artists' colors from a chronological perspective. Explains how chemical analysis can be used to distinguish the differences between artists' palettes, identify the evolution of art, and lead to restoration of an art work. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  1. Effect of oxygen concentration in modified atmosphere packaging on color and texture of beef patties cooked to different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yulong; Puolanne, Eero; Ertbjerg, Per

    2016-11-01

    Patties were made from raw minced beef after storage for 6days in modified atmosphere (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80% oxygen) to study the combined effect of oxygen concentration and cooking temperature on hardness and color. Increased oxygen concentrations generally led to larger (P<0.01) thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, greater (P<0.01) loss of free thiols and more formation of cross-linked myosin heavy chain. Hardness of cooked patties was generally lower (P<0.01) without oxygen. Premature browning of cooked patties was observed already at a relative low oxygen concentration of 20%. The internal redness of cooked patties decreased (P<0.05) with increasing oxygen concentrations and increasing cooking temperatures. Mean particle size (D(3,2)) of homogenized cooked meat generally increased (P<0.05) with increasing cooking temperatures and increasing oxygen concentrations, and particle size was correlated (r=0.80) with hardness of cooked patties. PMID:27341620

  2. Polar Cap Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on June 6, 2003 during the Southern Spring season near the South Polar Cap Edge.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -77.8, Longitude 195 East (165 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  3. Budget Formulas and Model Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Robert G.

    Selected budget formulas currently in use for university operations are described as a background for examining a budgetary model that would provide for the integration of separate formulas. Data on the formulas were collected from states with system-wide coordinating boards that are responsible for budgetary reviews. The most common formula…

  4. Human preference for individual colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  5. Number of discernible object colors is a conundrum.

    PubMed

    Masaoka, Kenichiro; Berns, Roy S; Fairchild, Mark D; Moghareh Abed, Farhad

    2013-02-01

    Widely varying estimates of the number of discernible object colors have been made by using various methods over the past 100 years. To clarify the source of the discrepancies in the previous, inconsistent estimates, the number of discernible object colors is estimated over a wide range of color temperatures and illuminance levels using several chromatic adaptation models, color spaces, and color difference limens. Efficient and accurate models are used to compute optimal-color solids and count the number of discernible colors. A comprehensive simulation reveals limitations in the ability of current color appearance models to estimate the number of discernible colors even if the color solid is smaller than the optimal-color solid. The estimates depend on the color appearance model, color space, and color difference limen used. The fundamental problem lies in the von Kries-type chromatic adaptation transforms, which have an unknown effect on the ranking of the number of discernible colors at different color temperatures. PMID:23456062

  6. Color Naming Universals: The Case of Berinmo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Paul; Regier, Terry

    2007-01-01

    Proponents of a self-identified "relativist" view of cross-language color naming have confounded two questions: (1) Is color naming largely subject to local linguistic convention? and (2) Are cross-language color naming differences reflected in comparable differences in color cognition by their speakers? The "relativist" position holds that the…

  7. Essential Oils from Fruits with Different Colors and Leaves of Neomitranthes obscura (DC.) N. Silveira: An Endemic Species from Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Raquel R.; Fernandes, Caio P.; Caramel, Otávio P.; Tietbohl, Luis A. C.; Santos, Marcelo G.; Carvalho, José C. T.; Rocha, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Neomitranthes obscura (DC.) N. Silveira is an endemic plant of Brazilian Atlantic Forest and widely spread in the sandbanks of “Restinga de Jurubatiba” National Park. It is popularly known by local population as “camboim-de-cachorro” or “cambuí-preto” and recognized by its black ripe fruits. However, specimens with yellow ripe fruits were localized in the “Restinga de Jurubatiba” National Park. The aim of the present study was to evaluate chemical composition of essential oils obtained from leaves and fruits of N. obscura specimens with different fruit color (black and yellow) by GC and GC-MS. Essential oils from leaves of specimens with black and yellow fruits indicated a predominance of sesquiterpenes (81.1% and 84.8%, resp.). Meanwhile, essential oil from black fruits presented a predominance of monoterpenes (50.5%), while essential oil from yellow fruits had sesquiterpenes (39.9%) as major substances. Despite previous studies about this species, including essential oil extraction, to our knowledge this is the first report on N. obscura fruits with different colors. Our results suggest the occurrence of unless two different varieties for this species. PMID:23484148

  8. Illuminant color estimation based on pigmentation separation from human skin color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Satomi; Kakinuma, Akihiro; Kamijo, Naohiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2015-03-01

    Human has the visual system called "color constancy" that maintains the perceptive colors of same object across various light sources. The effective method of color constancy algorithm was proposed to use the human facial color in a digital color image, however, this method has wrong estimation results by the difference of individual facial colors. In this paper, we present the novel color constancy algorithm based on skin color analysis. The skin color analysis is the method to separate the skin color into the components of melanin, hemoglobin and shading. We use the stationary property of Japanese facial color, and this property is calculated from the components of melanin and hemoglobin. As a result, we achieve to propose the method to use subject's facial color in image and not depend on the individual difference among Japanese facial color.

  9. Difference in dynamic properties of photoreceptors in a butterfly, Papilio xuthus: possible segregation of motion and color processing.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Masashi; Kinoshita, Michiyo; Weckström, Matti; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    The eyes of the Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus, contain six spectral classes of photoreceptors, each sensitive either in the ultraviolet, violet, blue, green, red or broadband wavelength regions. The green-sensitive receptors can be divided into two subtypes, distal and proximal. Previous behavioral and anatomical studies have indicated that the distal subtype appears to be involved in motion vision, while the proximal subtype is important for color vision. Here, we studied the dynamic properties of Papilio photoreceptors using light stimulation with randomly modulated intensity and light pulses. Frequency response (gain) of all photoreceptor classes shared a general profile-a broad peak around 10 Hz with a declining slope towards higher frequency range. At 100 Hz, the mean relative gain of the distal green receptors was significantly larger than any other receptor classes, indicating that they are the fastest. Photoreceptor activities under dim light were higher in the ultraviolet and violet receptors, suggesting higher transduction sensitivities. Responses to pulse stimuli also distinguished the green receptors from others by their shorter response latencies. We thus concluded that the distal green receptors carry high frequency information in the visual system of Papilio xuthus. PMID:26329322

  10. Changes in White college students' color-blind racial ideology over 4 years: do diversity experiences make a difference?

    PubMed

    Neville, Helen A; Poteat, V Paul; Lewis, Jioni A; Spanierman, Lisa B

    2014-04-01

    In this longitudinal study, we explored how White students' (N = 857) color-blind racial ideology (CBRI; i.e., beliefs that serve to deny, minimize, and/or distort the existence of racism) changed over time and the factors associated with these patterns of change. Specifically, we investigated whether gender, diversity attitudes (i.e., openness to diversity and interest in social issues), and college diversity experiences (i.e., diversity-related courses/activities and close interracial friendships) predicted patterns of CBRI change. Findings indicated that gender and diversity attitudes were related to initial levels of CBRI, such that women and students who were more open to diversity issues at the beginning of college were more likely to report lower levels of CBRI; gender was also related to a greater decrease in CBRI changes over the college experience. Furthermore, college diversity experiences predicted changes in CBRI over time, such that students who completed a greater number of diversity courses and activities and those who had a greater number of close Black friends showed a significantly greater decrease in CBRI over their 4 years in college; interestingly, students who reported having no Latino friends compared with having some close Latino friends showed a significantly greater decrease in CBRI over time. PMID:24635589

  11. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 1000 - Indian Housing Block Grant Formula Mechanics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indian Housing Block Grant Formula... Housing Block Grant Formula Mechanics This appendix shows the different components of the IHBG formula... Housing Block Grant (IHBG) formula is calculated by initially determining the amount a tribe receives...

  12. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 1000 - Indian Housing Block Grant Formula Mechanics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indian Housing Block Grant Formula... Housing Block Grant Formula Mechanics This appendix shows the different components of the IHBG formula... Housing Block Grant (IHBG) formula is calculated by initially determining the amount a tribe receives...

  13. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 1000 - Indian Housing Block Grant Formula Mechanics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian Housing Block Grant Formula... Housing Block Grant Formula Mechanics This appendix shows the different components of the IHBG formula... Housing Block Grant (IHBG) formula is calculated by initially determining the amount a tribe receives...

  14. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 1000 - Indian Housing Block Grant Formula Mechanics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indian Housing Block Grant Formula... Housing Block Grant Formula Mechanics This appendix shows the different components of the IHBG formula... Housing Block Grant (IHBG) formula is calculated by initially determining the amount a tribe receives...

  15. Cottingham formula and nucleon polarisabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasser, J.; Hoferichter, M.; Leutwyler, H.; Rusetsky, A.

    2015-08-01

    The difference between the electromagnetic self-energies of proton and neutron can be calculated with the Cottingham formula, which expresses the self-energies as an integral over the electroproduction cross sections - provided the nucleon matrix elements of the current commutator do not contain a fixed pole. We show that, under the same proviso, the subtraction function occurring in the dispersive representation of the virtual Compton forward scattering amplitude is determined by the cross sections. The representation in particular leads to a parameter-free sum rule for the nucleon polarisabilities. We evaluate the sum rule for the difference between the electric polarisabilities of proton and neutron by means of the available parameterisations of the data and compare the result with experiment.

  16. Juice, pulp and seeds fractionated from dry climate primocane raspberry cultivars (Rubus idaeus) have significantly different antioxidant capacity, anthocyanin content and color.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Shannon M; Low, Richard M; Stocks, Janet C; Eggett, Dennis L; Parker, Tory L

    2012-12-01

    Raspberries contain flavonoid antioxidants whose relative concentrations may vary between the juice, pulp, and seed fractions. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total anthocyanin content, and berry color were determined for six cultivars of primocane raspberries grown in a dry climate (Utah, USA). Significant ORAC differences were found between juice (18.4 ± 0.39 μmol TE/g), pulp (24.45 ± 0.43), and seeds (273.27 ± 11.15) with all Utah cultivars combined. A significantly higher concentration of anthocyanins was present in Utah raspberry juice (20.86 ± 0.35 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside eq./100 g), compared to pulp (13.96 ± 0.35). Anthocyanin content of juice and pulp were significantly positively correlated with dark color (L*). This is the first report of fractional differences in dry climate raspberries, and has implications for the juice and supplement industries. PMID:23132011

  17. Color constancy for an unseen surface.

    PubMed

    Norman, Liam J; Akins, Kathleen; Heywood, Charles A; Kentridge, Robert W

    2014-12-01

    The illumination of a scene strongly affects our perception of objects in that scene, e.g., the pages of a book illuminated by candlelight will appear quite yellow relative to other types of artificial illuminants. Yet at the same time, the reader still judges the pages as white, their surface color unaffected by the interplay of paper and illuminant. It has been shown empirically that we can indeed report two quite different interpretations of "color": one is dependent on the constant surface spectral reflectance of an object (surface color) and the other on the power of light of different wavelengths reflected from that object (reflected color). How then are these two representations related? The common view, dating from Aristotle, is that our experience of surface color is derived from reflected color or, in more familiar terms, that color perception follows from color sensation. By definition, color constancy requires that vision "discounts the illuminant"; thus, it seems reasonable that vision begins with the color of objects as they naively appear and that we infer from their appearances their surface color. Here, we question this classic view. We use metacontrast-masked priming and, by presenting the unseen prime and the visible mask under different illuminants, dissociate two ways in which the prime matched the mask: in surface color or in reflected color. We find that priming of the mask occurs when it matches the prime in surface color, not reflected color. It follows that color perception can arise without prior color sensation. PMID:25456450

  18. Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojanov, Borislav; Petrova, Guergana

    2009-09-01

    We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives.

  19. Bellco Formula Domus Home Care System.

    PubMed

    Trewin, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    There are certain characteristics in a dialysis machine that would be desirable for use in home and limited care environments. These features relate to safety, ease of use, consideration of physical space, and reliability. The Bellco Formula Domus Home Care System was designed to meet all these requirements. Bellco's philosophy of patient treatment centers on global biocompatibility. This is evident in the design of the Formula Domus Home Care System. It has the smallest hydraulic fluid pathway of any dialysis machine on the market. Formula is capable of preparing ultrapure dialysate. The ultrafiltration measurement mechanism, the patented Coriolis flow meter, measures the mass of the dialysate, not the volume. For this reason it is the only dialysis machine that detects actual backfiltration, not just the theoretical possibility of it based on transmembrane pressure. The Coriolis flow meter also ensures that dialysate flow is a true single pass. The operator interface is a single window operating control. It is possible to select up to 14 different languages. There is an online help key to assist patients with troubleshooting. Programmable start-up and shutdown times save time for the patient. Formula is the only dialysis machine to offer a backup battery feature. Formula is capable of communicating with any software available. The focus on global biocompatibility ensures the best quality dialysis treatments for a population of patients who will likely remain on dialysis for a longer period of time than conventional dialysis patients. PMID:15043621

  20. On generalized averaged Gaussian formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalevic, Miodrag M.

    2007-09-01

    We present a simple numerical method for constructing the optimal (generalized) averaged Gaussian quadrature formulas which are the optimal stratified extensions of Gauss quadrature formulas. These extensions exist in many cases in which real positive Kronrod formulas do not exist. For the Jacobi weight functions w(x)equiv w^{(alpha,beta)}(x)D(1-x)^alpha(1+x)^beta ( alpha,beta>-1 ) we give a necessary and sufficient condition on the parameters alpha and beta such that the optimal averaged Gaussian quadrature formulas are internal.

  1. Color vision test

    MedlinePlus

    ... from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... test -- color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Adams AJ, Verdon WA, Spivey BE. ...

  2. Training synesthetic letter-color associations by reading in color.

    PubMed

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M J; Rouw, Romke

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia is a rare condition in which a stimulus from one modality automatically and consistently triggers unusual sensations in the same and/or other modalities. A relatively common and well-studied type is grapheme-color synesthesia, defined as the consistent experience of color when viewing, hearing and thinking about letters, words and numbers. We describe our method for investigating to what extent synesthetic associations between letters and colors can be learned by reading in color in nonsynesthetes. Reading in color is a special method for training associations in the sense that the associations are learned implicitly while the reader reads text as he or she normally would and it does not require explicit computer-directed training methods. In this protocol, participants are given specially prepared books to read in which four high-frequency letters are paired with four high-frequency colors. Participants receive unique sets of letter-color pairs based on their pre-existing preferences for colored letters. A modified Stroop task is administered before and after reading in order to test for learned letter-color associations and changes in brain activation. In addition to objective testing, a reading experience questionnaire is administered that is designed to probe for differences in subjective experience. A subset of questions may predict how well an individual learned the associations from reading in color. Importantly, we are not claiming that this method will cause each individual to develop grapheme-color synesthesia, only that it is possible for certain individuals to form letter-color associations by reading in color and these associations are similar in some aspects to those seen in developmental grapheme-color synesthetes. The method is quite flexible and can be used to investigate different aspects and outcomes of training synesthetic associations, including learning-induced changes in brain function and structure. PMID:24638033

  3. Connection formulas for thermal density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribram-Jones, A.; Burke, K.

    2016-05-01

    The adiabatic connection formula of ground-state density functional theory relates the correlation energy to a coupling-constant integral over a purely potential contribution, and is widely used to understand and improve approximations. The corresponding formula for thermal density functional theory is cast as an integral over temperatures instead, ranging upward from the system's physical temperature. We also show how to relate different correlation components to each other, either in terms of temperature or coupling-constant integrations. We illustrate our results on the uniform electron gas.

  4. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  5. Mass formula for quasi-black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2008-12-15

    A quasi-black hole, either nonextremal or extremal, can be broadly defined as the limiting configuration of a body when its boundary approaches the body's quasihorizon. We consider the mass contributions and the mass formula for a static quasi-black hole. The analysis involves careful scrutiny of the surface stresses when the limiting configuration is reached. It is shown that there exists a strict correspondence between the mass formulas for quasi-black holes and pure black holes. This perfect parallelism exists in spite of the difference in derivation and meaning of the formulas in both cases. For extremal quasi-black holes the finite surface stresses give zero contribution to the total mass. This leads to a very special version of Abraham-Lorentz electron in general relativity in which the total mass has pure electromagnetic origin in spite of the presence of bare stresses.

  6. Task-dependent color discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poirson, Allen B.; Wandell, Brian A.

    1990-01-01

    When color video displays are used in time-critical applications (e.g., head-up displays, video control panels), the observer must discriminate among briefly presented targets seen within a complex spatial scene. Color-discrimination threshold are compared by using two tasks. In one task the observer makes color matches between two halves of a continuously displayed bipartite field. In a second task the observer detects a color target in a set of briefly presented objects. The data from both tasks are well summarized by ellipsoidal isosensitivity contours. The fitted ellipsoids differ both in their size, which indicates an absolute sensitivity difference, and orientation, which indicates a relative sensitivity difference.

  7. Color stabilizes textbook visual processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paeglis, Roberts; Orlovska, Madara; Bluss, Kristaps

    2011-05-01

    We report that pages with color illustrations elicit more homogeneous duration of fixations in 12 elementary school children. For six first graders, we compared the reading of the color cover and a greyscale illustrated text page of an abcbook. For six second grade pupils, we demonstrated a color and a greyscale fairytale book page. The fixations we recorded are concordant with the duration for preschoolers reported elsewhere. Average duration of fixations on a page with color elements are shorter than on greyscale ones, 425 (SE=13.4) and 461 (18.3) ms, respectively. The correlation analysis lends support that a color page is processed differently than its greyscale version. Fixation duration for color and greyscale condition was correlated neither for text (r=.567, p=.241) nor for images (r=.517, p=.294) for the second graders. Our research suggests that color elements on textbook pages encourage emergent readers to perform better in acquisition.

  8. Color superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wilczek, F.

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  9. Recognition of Partially Occluded Objects Based on the Three Different Color Spaces (RGB, YCbCr, HSV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleimanizadeh, Shiva; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Saba, Tanzila; Rehman, Amjad

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to propose an algorithm that can recognize partially occluded objects under different variations by computing three histograms of colour spaces (RGB, HSV, YCbCr). The dataset used in this research are from kitchen apparatuses. It is created by the researcher and include two parts: referenced objects (18 single objects) and tested objects (occluded objects) made from two single objects to represent the occluded object under different variations (scale, rotation, transformation) with varying percentage of occlusion (30-90 %). Three different colour spaces histogram (RGB, HIS, YCbCr) are used for extracting the features. Histogram intersection distance works for matching objects. Computation histograms and matching process are used to each block of image that given by image division process and finally compared the performance of each colour space by evaluating the accuracy. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is robust for identifying occluded objects and it could work at high occlusion.

  10. Accompanying of parameters of color, gloss and hardness on polymeric films coated with pigmented inks cured by different radiation doses of ultraviolet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardi, Marcelo Augusto Gonçalves; Machado, Luci Diva Brocardo

    2012-09-01

    In the search for alternatives to traditional paint systems solvent-based, the curing process of polymer coatings by ultraviolet light (UV) has been widely studied and discussed, especially because of their high content of solids and null emission of VOC. In UV-curing technology, organic solvents are replaced by reactive diluents, such as monomers. This paper aims to investigate variations on color, gloss and hardness of print inks cured by different UV radiation doses. The ratio pigment/clear coating was kept constant. The clear coating presented higher average values for König hardness than pigmented ones, indicating that UV-light absorption has been reduced by the presence of pigments. Besides, they have indicated a slight variation in function of cure degree for the studied radiation doses range. The gloss loss related to UV light exposition allows inferring that some degradation occurred at the surface of print ink films.

  11. Variation of L-DOPA in the leaf and flower tissues of seven faba bean accessions with different flower colors.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) has been selected to adapt to a wide range of environments worldwide and is grown for different end-uses such as food, feed, forage and green manure. Particularly noteworthy in faba bean is the medicinally important component L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-DOPA), the majo...

  12. Variation of L-DOPA in the leaf and flower tissues of seven faba bean accessions with different flower colors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) has been selected to adapt to a wide range of environments worldwide and is grown for different end-uses such as food, feed, forage and green manure. Particularly noteworthy in faba bean is the medicinally important component L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-DOPA), the majo...

  13. Neutron Rich Nuclei in a New Binding Energy Formula and the Astrophysical r-PROCESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, Chirashree; Gangopadhyay, G.

    Neutron rich nuclei has been studied with a new phenomenological mass formula. Predictions of different mass formulas for the location of the neutron drip line are compared with those from the present calculation. The implications of the new mass formula for r-process nucleosynthesis are discussed. It is found that though the neutron drip line obtained from this formula differs substantially from other formulas, the r-process abundance upto mass 200 are unlikely to be significantly different. The errors inherent in the mass formula are found to play an insignificant role beyond mass A = 80.

  14. Physics of structural colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, S.; Yoshioka, S.; Miyazaki, J.

    2008-07-01

    In recent years, structural colors have attracted great attention in a wide variety of research fields. This is because they are originated from complex interaction between light and sophisticated nanostructures generated in the natural world. In addition, their inherent regular structures are one of the most conspicuous examples of non-equilibrium order formation. Structural colors are deeply connected with recent rapidly growing fields of photonics and have been extensively studied to clarify their peculiar optical phenomena. Their mechanisms are, in principle, of a purely physical origin, which differs considerably from the ordinary coloration mechanisms such as in pigments, dyes and metals, where the colors are produced by virtue of the energy consumption of light. It is generally recognized that structural colors are mainly based on several elementary optical processes including thin-layer interference, diffraction grating, light scattering, photonic crystals and so on. However, in nature, these processes are somehow mixed together to produce complex optical phenomena. In many cases, they are combined with the irregularity of the structure to produce the diffusive nature of the reflected light, while in some cases they are accompanied by large-scale structures to generate the macroscopic effect on the coloration. Further, it is well known that structural colors cooperate with pigmentary colors to enhance or to reduce the brilliancy and to produce special effects. Thus, structure-based optical phenomena in nature appear to be quite multi-functional, the variety of which is far beyond our understanding. In this article, we overview these phenomena appearing particularly in the diversity of the animal world, to shed light on this rapidly developing research field.

  15. Color Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

  16. Colorful television

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    What are the challenges and rewards for American men and women of color who chose to become scientists? The Public Broadcasting Service intends to show us through an upcoming 6-hour documentary series entitled “Breakthrough: The Changing Face of Science in America.”

  17. Colorful Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrick, C. Shane

    2006-01-01

    As instructors of accounting, we should take an abstract topic (at least to most students) and connect it to content known by students to help increase the effectiveness of our instruction. In a recent semester, ordinary items such as colors, a basketball, and baseball were used to relate the subject of accounting. The accounting topics of account…

  18. Color measurements based on a color camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marszalec, Elzbieta A.; Pietikaeinen, Matti

    1997-08-01

    The domain of color camera applications is increasing all time due to recent progress in color machine vision research. Colorimetric measurement tasks are quite complex as the purpose of color measurement is to provide a quantitative evaluation of the phenomenon of colors as perceived by human vision. A proper colorimetric calibration of the color camera system is needed in order to make color a practical tool in machine vision. This paper discuses two approaches to color measurements based on a color camera and includes an overview of practical approaches to color camera calibration under unstable illumination conditions.

  19. But Can They Read It? A Look at Readability Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricker, Kenneth S.

    1978-01-01

    Examines six science books in reference to their reading levels as determined by the Fry, SMOG, and Fog formulas. A disparity in calculated values is noted and explained to be the result of the use of different comprehension levels by the formulas. Suggestions concerning the selection of science reading materials for the classroom are provided.…

  20. Ultraviolet colors of W Ursae Majoris - Gravity darkening, temperature differences, and the cause of W-type light curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, J. A.; Wu, C.-C.; Rucinski, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents photometry of the prototype W UMa binary system in three ultraviolet bands with the ANS satellite. It was found that W UMa has low-gravity darkening beta of 0.03; that temperature differences between the components not established by gravity darkening are insignificant; and that the bolometric albedo is not very large. It was also found that W UMa is limb-darkened in the ultraviolet region, and that the inner hemisphere of the less massive component is hotter than that predicted by gravity darkening and the reflection effect. It was concluded that about 20% of the surface area of the component responsible for large gravity darkening is covered by dark spots distributed uniformly in the longitudinal direction. An observational value of the convective darkening exponent of 0.054 plus or minus 0.02 is proposed.

  1. Ultrasonographic patterns of reproductive organs in infants fed soy formula: Comparisons to infants fed breast milk and milk formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine if differences exist in hormone sensitive organ size between infants fed soy formula (SF), milk formula (MF), or breast milk (BF). Breast buds, uterus, ovaries, prostate, and testicular volumes were assessed by ultrasonography in 40 BF, 41 MF, and 39 SF infants at age ...

  2. A note on generalized averaged Gaussian formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalevic, Miodrag

    2007-11-01

    We have recently proposed a very simple numerical method for constructing the averaged Gaussian quadrature formulas. These formulas exist in many more cases than the real positive Gauss?Kronrod formulas. In this note we try to answer whether the averaged Gaussian formulas are an adequate alternative to the corresponding Gauss?Kronrod quadrature formulas, to estimate the remainder term of a Gaussian rule.

  3. Color correction optimization with hue regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Heng; Liu, Huaping; Quan, Shuxue

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that observers are capable of judging the quality of an image without any knowledge of the original scene. When no reference is available, observers can extract the apparent objects in an image and compare them with the typical colors of similar objects recalled from their memories. Some generally agreed upon research results indicate that although perfect colorimetric rendering is not conspicuous and color errors can be well tolerated, the appropriate rendition of certain memory colors such as skin, grass, and sky is an important factor in the overall perceived image quality. These colors are appreciated in a fairly consistent manner and are memorized with slightly different hues and higher color saturation. The aim of color correction for a digital color pipeline is to transform the image data from a device dependent color space to a target color space, usually through a color correction matrix which in its most basic form is optimized through linear regressions between the two sets of data in two color spaces in the sense of minimized Euclidean color error. Unfortunately, this method could result in objectionable distortions if the color error biased certain colors undesirably. In this paper, we propose a color correction optimization method with preferred color reproduction in mind through hue regularization and present some experimental results.

  4. Vascular basis of mucosal color

    PubMed Central

    Kleinheinz, Johannes; Büchter, André; Fillies, Thomas; Joos, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Background Besides the color of the teeth the color of the alveolar gingiva plays a crucial role in esthetic rehabilitation in dento-alveolar treatment. Whereas nowadays the color of the teeth can be determined exactly and individually, the specific influence of the red color of the gingiva on treatment has not been assessed yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the vascularization as the basis for gingival esthetics. Methods Standardized photographs of defined areas of the alveolar gingiva in operated and non-operated patients were taken and assigned to groups with same characteristics after color comparisons. In addition, histologic and immunohistologic analyses of gingival specimens were performed for qualitative and quantitative assessment of vessels and vascularization. Finally, colors and number of vessels were correlated. Results Our results demonstrated three different constellations of colors of the alveolar gingiva in healthy patients. The operated patients could not be grouped because of disparate depiction. There was a clear correlation between color and vessel number in the alveolar gingiva. Conclusion Our investigations revealed the connections between vascularization and gingival color. Recommendations for specific change or even selection of colors based on the results cannot be given, but the importance of vascularly based incision lines was demonstrated. PMID:16270929

  5. Colorful drying.

    PubMed

    Lakio, Satu; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2010-03-01

    Drying is one of the standard unit operations in the pharmaceutical industry and it is important to become aware of the circumstances that dominate during the process. The purpose of this study was to test microcapsulated thermochromic pigments as heat indicators in a fluid bed drying process. The indicator powders were manually granulated with alpha-lactose monohydrate resulting in three particle-size groups. Also, pellets were coated with the indicator powders. The granules and pellets were fluidized in fluid bed dryer to observe the progress of the heat flow in the material and to study the heat indicator properties of the indicator materials. A tristimulus colorimeter was used to measure CIELAB color values. Color indicator for heat detection can be utilized to test if the heat-sensitive API would go through physical changes during the pharmaceutical drying process. Both the prepared granules and pellets can be used as heat indicator in fluid bed drying process. The colored heat indicators give an opportunity to learn new aspects of the process at real time and could be exploded, for example, for scaling-up studies. PMID:20039220

  6. Color strategies for object identification

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Qasim; Bostic, Marques

    2010-01-01

    We measured accuracy of object identification across illuminations on the basis of color cues. Four similarly shaped real objects, three of the same reflectance, were separated into pairs under distinct colored real lights. Observers were asked to pick the odd object. Correct and incorrect identifications formed systematic patterns that could not be explained by color-constancy, contrast-constancy, inverse-optics or neural-signal matching algorithms. The pattern of results were simulated by an algorithm that purposely made the incorrect assumption that color constancy holds, and used similarity between perceived object colors, along the difference vector between illuminant colors, to identify objects of the same reflectance across illuminants. The visual system may use this suboptimal strategy because the computational costs of an optimal strategy outweigh the benefits of more accurate performance. PMID:18657567

  7. Contrasting coloration in terrestrial mammals

    PubMed Central

    Caro, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Here I survey, collate and synthesize contrasting coloration in 5000 species of terrestrial mammals focusing on black and white pelage. After briefly reviewing alternative functional hypotheses for coloration in mammals, I examine nine colour patterns and combinations on different areas of the body and for each mammalian taxon to try to identify the most likely evolutionary drivers of contrasting coloration. Aposematism and perhaps conspecific signalling are the most consistent explanations for black and white pelage in mammals; background matching may explain white pelage. Evidence for contrasting coloration is being involved in crypsis through pattern blending, disruptive coloration or serving other functions, such as signalling dominance, lures, reducing eye glare or in temperature regulation has barely moved beyond anecdotal stages of investigation. Sexual dichromatism is limited in this taxon and its basis is unclear. Astonishingly, the functional significance of pelage coloration in most large charismatic black and white mammals that were new to science 150 years ago still remains a mystery. PMID:18990666

  8. Natural colorants from filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Torres, Fábio Aurélio Esteves; Zaccarim, Bruna Regina; de Lencastre Novaes, Letícia Celia; Jozala, Angela Faustino; Dos Santos, Carolina Alves; Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas; Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria Carvalho

    2016-03-01

    In the last years, there is a trend towards the replacement of synthetic colorants by natural ones, mainly due to the increase of consumer demand for natural products. The natural colorants are used to enhance the appearance of pharmaceutical products, food, and different materials, making them preferable or attractive. This review intends to provide and describe a comprehensive overview of the history of colorants, from prehistory to modern time, of their market and their applications, as well as of the most important aspects of the fermentation process to obtain natural colorants. Focus is given to colorants produced by filamentous fungal species, aiming to demonstrate the importance of these microorganisms and biocompounds, highlighting the production performance to get high yields and the aspects of conclusion that should be taken into consideration in future studies about natural colorants. PMID:26780357

  9. Color and the worldwide web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinlock, Raymond S.

    2002-06-01

    Guidelines to publishing and transmitting color via the Internet. An introduction to how individuals can cope with color issues using off the shelf package solutions and a glimpse to what there is on the development frontier. Topics to be discussed include: (1) Optimizing your files for transfer via the net with an off the shelf software package. (2) Embedded color management packages in some off the shelf packages. (3) Mac and Window differences. (4) A look at compression pros and cons. (5) An introduction to some of the high end color calibration systems and equipment.

  10. A Formula for Writing Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Peter O.

    1983-01-01

    Presents the formula for writing poetry as containing three elements: the content of the poet's mind; the poetic medium--language; and the creative spark that fuses experience and language, or content and medium, into poetry. (MM)

  11. A Salary Formula for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Michael B.

    1975-01-01

    When each administrative salary contract is negotiated individually, inequities creep in, many administrators feel. This article suggests a formula for determining principals' salaries based on education and experience, days of work, and responsibilities. (Editor)

  12. Formulas for Image Factor Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakstian, A. Ralph

    1973-01-01

    Formulas are presented in this paper for computing scores associated with factors of G, the image covariance matrix, under three conditions. The subject of the paper is restricted to "pure" image analysis. (Author/NE)

  13. Heron's Remarkable Triangle Area Formula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Bernard M.

    1993-01-01

    Presents Heron's original geometric proof to his formula to calculate the area of a triangle. Attempts to improve on this proof by supplying a chain of reasoning that leads quickly from premises to the conclusion. (MDH)

  14. Summation formulae on trigonometric functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Zheng, De-Yin

    2007-11-01

    Trigonometric sums over the angles equally distributed on the upper half plane are investigated systematically. Their generating functions and explicit formulae are established through the combination of the formal power series method and partial fraction decompositions.

  15. An energy loss straggling formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novković, D.; Subotić, K.; Milošević, Z.; Manić, S.; Stojanović, M.

    1994-12-01

    The analytical formulae for straggling widths were obtained solving Symon's equations for the second and third order central moments of the straggling distributions in non-relativistic approximation, enabling prediction of peak widths and asymmetry parameters of charged particle energy loss distributions for thick targets. The respective calculations based on these formulae were found to be in good agreement with experimental values for particle energy losses of light ions up to 70% of the nominal projectile energy value.

  16. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the ... using infant formula . Buying, Preparing, and Storing Infant Formula The following tips can help you buy, prepare, ...

  17. Evaluation and prediction of color-tunable organic light-emitting diodes based on carrier/exciton adjusting interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengqiang; Li, Jie; Du, Chunlei; Yu, Junsheng

    2015-07-01

    A color tuning index (ICT) parameter for evaluating the color change capability of color-tunable organic light-emitting diodes (CT-OLEDs) was proposed and formulated. And a series of CT-OLEDs, consisting of five different carrier/exciton adjusting interlayers (C/EALs) inserted between two complementary emitting layers, were fabricated and applied to disclose the relationship between ICT and C/EALs. The result showed that the trend of electroluminescence spectra behavior in CT-OLEDs has good accordance with ICT values, indicating that the ICT parameter is feasible for the evaluation of color variation. Meanwhile, by changing energy level and C/EAL thickness, the optimized device with the widest color tuning range was based on N,N'-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene C/EAL, exhibiting the highest ICT value of 41.2%. Based on carrier quadratic hopping theory and exciton transfer model, two fitting ICT formulas derived from the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level and triplet energy level were simulated. Finally, a color tuning prediction (CTP) model was developed to deduce the ICT via C/EAL HOMO and triplet energy levels, and verified by the fabricated OLEDs with five different C/EALs. We believe that the CTP model assisted with ICT parameter will be helpful for fabricating high performance CT-OLEDs with a broad range of color tuning.

  18. Mosquito fauna of the Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, collected under the influence of different color CDC light traps.

    PubMed

    Silva, Júlia dos Santos; Souto Couri, Márcia; de Leão Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce; Alencar, Jeronimo

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify mosquito fauna and to evaluate whether different light bulb colors influence the attraction of light traps in the Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve. Samples were obtained monthly during the period of February, 2012 to January, 2013. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps with incandescent light bulbs and LED (ultraviolet, blue, green, and red) bulbs were utilized. In total, 8,170 specimens were captured, including 59 species. The presence of Anopheles nimbus (Theobald 1902) and Orthopodomyia fascipes Coquillet 1906 were recorded for the first time in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The green LED trap attracted the highest number of specimens and presented the highest diversity and mosquito average. The blue and green LED traps attracted the highest number of species. However, the differences between lights were not significant. The most common species were Coquillettidia juxtamansonia (Chagas 1907), Culex declarator Dyar and Knab 1906, and Culex ribeirensis Forattini and Sallum 1985. PMID:25424268

  19. Modeling, Measuring, and Compensating Color Weak Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2016-06-01

    We use methods from Riemann geometry to investigate transformations between the color spaces of color-normal and color weak observers. The two main applications are the simulation of the perception of a color weak observer for a color normal observer and the compensation of color images in a way that a color weak observer has approximately the same perception as a color normal observer. The metrics in the color spaces of interest are characterized with the help of ellipsoids defined by the just-noticable-differences between color which are measured with the help of color-matching experiments. The constructed mappings are isometries of Riemann spaces that preserve the perceived color-differences for both observers. Among the two approaches to build such an isometry, we introduce normal coordinates in Riemann spaces as a tool to construct a global color-weak compensation map. Compared to previously used methods this method is free from approximation errors due to local linearizations and it avoids the problem of shifting locations of the origin of the local coordinate system. We analyse the variations of the Riemann metrics for different observers obtained from new color matching experiments and describe three variations of the basic method. The performance of the methods is evaluated with the help of semantic differential (SD) tests.

  20. Color Us American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Virginia; Hodges, Ethel

    A coloring book containing drawings and information on eight different countries is designed to help children obtain cultural understanding of themselves and other persons as individuals and as members of groups within our society. The countries presented are Poland/Germany, the Navajo Nation (Native American), China, Nigeria (Africa), Mexico,…

  1. The Chemistry of Color Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guida, Wayne C.; Raber, Douglas J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents several topics in color photography which can serve as an introduction of scientific concepts into the classroom, such as: photochemistry (energy transport), organic chemistry (dye formation), physics (nature of light), psychology (color perception), and engineering (isolation of different chemical processes within layers of the film).…

  2. Memnonia Fossae (Enhanced Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Tharsis-centered volcanic and tectonic activity resulted in the formation of radial grabens of Memnonia Fossae, which cut materials of the ancient cratered highlands and the relatively young, highland-embaying lava flows from the Tharsis volcanoes. Center of picture is at latitude 16 degrees S., longitude 142 degrees W. The enhanced color version (following decorrelation stretch) reveals a diversity of subtle color variations; many of the color variations may be due to different lava flow units and variable amounts of weathering, possible alteration by water, and eolian redistributions. Viking Orbiter Picture Numbers 41B52 (green) 41B54 (red), and 41B56 (blue) at 198 m/pixel resolution. Picture width is 206 km. North is 119 degrees counter-clockwise from top.

  3. Color Discriminability for Partially Seeing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, William A.

    1971-01-01

    Investigated was whether partially seeing children see the Snellen E, printed in selected colored inks on various colored backgrounds, at different distances in terms of initial recognition and best focus. (Author)

  4. Preclinical assessment of infant formula.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome. PMID:22699767

  5. Spectral sharpening of color sensors: diagonal color constancy and beyond.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Corral, Javier; Bertalmío, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    It has now been 20 years since the seminal work by Finlayson et al. on the use of spectral sharpening of sensors to achieve diagonal color constancy. Spectral sharpening is still used today by numerous researchers for different goals unrelated to the original goal of diagonal color constancy e.g., multispectral processing, shadow removal, location of unique hues. This paper reviews the idea of spectral sharpening through the lens of what is known today in color constancy, describes the different methods used for obtaining a set of sharpening sensors and presents an overview of the many different uses that have been found for spectral sharpening over the years. PMID:24577523

  6. Spectral Sharpening of Color Sensors: Diagonal Color Constancy and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Corral, Javier; Bertalmío, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    It has now been 20 years since the seminal work by Finlayson et al. on the use of spectral sharpening of sensors to achieve diagonal color constancy. Spectral sharpening is still used today by numerous researchers for different goals unrelated to the original goal of diagonal color constancy e.g., multispectral processing, shadow removal, location of unique hues. This paper reviews the idea of spectral sharpening through the lens of what is known today in color constancy, describes the different methods used for obtaining a set of sharpening sensors and presents an overview of the many different uses that have been found for spectral sharpening over the years. PMID:24577523

  7. The Colors of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVogel, Kayla; Chanover, Nancy; Thelen, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Very little is known about the coloring agents, or chromophores, that color the clouds of Saturn’s belts and zones. Although the clouds of Saturn are more muted in their coloration and do not exhibit the more striking variations seen among Jupiter’s belts, zones, and cyclonic storm features, the physical processes that render Saturn’s clouds a yellowish hue are likely similar to those at work on Jupiter. Thus, a comprehensive color study that includes both Jupiter and Saturn is warranted to advance our understanding of chromophores in the giant planet atmospheres. Here we report on our efforts to characterize the colors of Saturn’s clouds.This study involves the analysis of two imaging data sets: those from Cassini’s Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS), and Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST data were acquired in 1994, 1998, 2002 and 2004 using eleven different filters spanning 255-973 nm. After the images were photometrically and geometrically calibrated, we used them to create low resolution spectra for six different latitude regions: the Equatorial Zone, the Equatorial Belt, the South Equatorial Belt, the South Temperate Zone, the South Temperate Belt and the South South Temperate Belt. The Cassini ISS images were acquired in 2004 and 2011 using twelve different filters spanning 258-938 nm, and corresponding low resolution spectra of the same latitude regions were generated using the ISS images. We compare these low resolution spectra to Saturn’s full-disk spectrum (Karkoschka, E., 1994, Icarus 111, 174) to examine colors of discrete latitudes versus the full-disk spectrum of Saturn. The extensive temporal coverage afforded by the combination of the HST and ISS images will enable us to explore possible seasonal variations in Saturn’s cloud colors. Finally, we examine the color evolution of the major 2011 storm on Saturn using the ISS data.This work was supported by the Discovery Scholars Program in

  8. Host-sensitized luminescence in LaNbO4:Ln(3+) (Ln(3+) = Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)) with different emission colors.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Zhang, Yang; Li, Xuejiao; Shang, Mengmeng; Lian, Hongzhou; Lin, Jun

    2015-02-14

    In this work, a series of Eu(3+), Tb(3+), and Dy(3+) singly-doped and co-doped LaNbO4 (LNO) phosphors have been synthesized by a high-temperature solid-state reaction route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) along with Rietveld refinement, diffuse reflection spectra, photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) properties, decay lifetimes, and PL quantum yields (QYs) were exploited to characterize the phosphors. Under UV excitation, energy transfer process from the host to the activators exists in the singly-doped samples, which leads to tunable emission color from blue to red for LNO:Eu(3+), green for LNO:Tb(3+), and yellow including white for LNO:Dy(3+). In Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) co-doped phosphors, LNO:Eu(3+), Tb(3+), the energy transfers from the host to the activators and Tb(3+) to Eu(3+) ions have also been deduced from the PL spectra, resulting in tunable emission color from green to red by adjusting the concentration ratio of Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) ions. The decay times monitored at host emission and Tb(3+) emission confirm the existence of energy transfer in the as-prepared samples. The best quantum efficiency can reach 43.2% for LNO:0.01Tb(3+) among all the as-prepared phosphors. In addition, the CL spectra of LNO:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+) are a little different from their PL spectra because another emission envelope around 530 nm appears in the samples, which is attributed to the bombardment of higher energy excitation source of low-voltage electron beam. However, the characteristic emissions similar to PL spectra were reserved. Moreover, the CL spectrum of LNO:0.02Tb(3+) has stronger emission intensity than that of ZnO:Zn commercial product. These results from the PL and CL properties of LNO:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+) suggest their potential in solid-state lighting and display fields. PMID:25573075

  9. Three Fresh Exposures, Enhanced Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This enhanced-color panoramic camera image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity features three holes created by the rock abrasion tool between sols 143 and 148 (June 18 and June 23, 2004) inside 'Endurance Crater.' The enhanced image makes the red colors a little redder and blue colors a little bluer, allowing viewers to see differences too subtle to be seen without the exaggeration. When compared with an approximately true color image, the tailings from the rock abrasion tool and the interior of the abraded holes are more prominent in this view. Being able to discriminate color variations helps scientists determine rocks' compositional differences and texture variations. This image was created using the 753-, 535- and 432-nanometer filters.

  10. Color as a language in architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedal, Grete

    2002-06-01

    This paper takes into consideration the role of color as a non-verbal language between human beings and the environment. The communication is based on the function of the color vision to separate and identify. A language about color can be based on the same. The concept behind the Natural Color System is color differentiation and color identification, which I find very useful both in color education of design students and in environmental color design work. A commission to plan the exterior use of color for a whole mining town on 78 degree(s) North in Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen, will illustrate my ideas. This will serve as an example of how these different 'languages' can work together. After a twenty years ongoing process this work is now almost fulfilled and the result will be shown in the presentation.

  11. Transfer color to night vision images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shaoyuan; Jing, Zhongliang; Liu, Gang; Li, Zhenhua

    2005-08-01

    Natural color appearance is the key problem of color night vision field. In this paper, the color mood of daytime color image is transferred to the monochromic night vision image. This method gives the night image a natural color appearance. For each pixel in the night vision image, the best matching pixel in the color image is found based on texture similarity measure. Entropy, energy, contrast, homogeneity, and correlation features based on co-occurrence matrix are combined as texture similarity measure to find the corresponding pixels between the two images. We use a genetic algorithm (GA) to find the optimistic weighting factors assigned to the five different features. GA is also employed in searching the matching pixels to make the color transfer algorithm faster. When the best matching pixel in the color image is found, the chromaticity values are transferred to the corresponding pixel of the night vision image. The experiment results demonstrate the efficiency of this natural color transfer technique.

  12. A color-ratio map of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hapke, B.; Christman, C.; Rava, B.; Mosher, J.

    1980-01-01

    Orange and UV frames are used to construct a color-ratio map of the portion of Mercury imaged by Mariner 10, with at least two independent color-ratio images being used for each region in order to prevent spurious, blemish-induced color. Color differences appear to be smaller than those of the moon, and many apparently fresh craters and their ray systems tend to be bluer than their surroundings. Regions of interesting color contrast are noted, and it is concluded that there is little evident correlation of color with either geology or topography.

  13. Colored Crater in Vastitas Borealis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 30 April 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 69.3, Longitude 40.9 East ( 319.1 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  14. Cognitive aspects of color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  15. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  16. Color Channels, Not Color Appearance or Color Categories, Guide Visual Search for Desaturated Color Targets

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Delwin T.; Brown, Angela M.; Reijnen, Ester; Rich, Anina N.; Kuzmova, Yoana I.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report that in visual search, desaturated reddish targets are much easier to find than other desaturated targets, even when perceptual differences between targets and distractors are carefully equated. Observers searched for desaturated targets among mixtures of white and saturated distractors. Reaction times were hundreds of milliseconds faster for the most effective (reddish) targets than for the least effective (purplish) targets. The advantage for desaturated reds did not reflect an advantage for the lexical category “pink,” because reaction times did not follow named color categories. Many pink stimuli were not found quickly, and many quickly found stimuli were not labeled “pink.” Other possible explanations (e.g., linear-separability effects) also failed. Instead, we propose that guidance of visual search for desaturated colors is based on a combination of low-level color-opponent signals that is different from the combinations that produce perceived color. We speculate that this guidance might reflect a specialization for human skin. PMID:20713637

  17. Recent experiments investigating the harmony interval based color space of the coloroid color system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemcsics, Antal

    2002-06-01

    Coloroid Color System has been created for people dealing with colors constructively, first of all architects and artists. Its color space is being based on experiments measuring harmony threshold, being perceptively uniform. This uniformity is the uniformity of big color differences rather than that of small color differences, it is being based on human judgement capability rather than color differentiating capability of human eye. During its elaboration we have investigated aesthetic uniformity of hues along color circles of colors with different saturation and lightness, and - in different hue planes - that of saturation and lightness sequences. During mathematical formulation of the establishment of harmony relations in Coloroid color space it has been necessary to refine aesthetic uniformity of Coloroid color space. In the interest of it we have started a new, large scale series of experiments. Within the framework of experiments we produced aesthetically uniform changing scales between distant points of Coloroid color space, possessing different lightness - partly by painting, partly by selection from a considerable number of color samples. We then investigated, which path those color scales in the color space describe.

  18. Scanner-based macroscopic color variation estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chunghui; Lai, Di; Zeise, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Flatbed scanners have been adopted successfully in the measurement of microscopic image artifacts, such as granularity and mottle, in print samples because of their capability of providing full color, high resolution images. Accurate macroscopic color measurement relies on the use of colorimeters or spectrophotometers to provide a surrogate for human vision. The very different color response characteristics of flatbed scanners from any standard colorimetric response limits the utility of a flatbed scanner as a macroscopic color measuring device. This metamerism constraint can be significantly relaxed if our objective is mainly to quantify the color variations within a printed page or between pages where a small bias in measured colors can be tolerated as long as the color distributions relative to the individual mean values is similar. Two scenarios when converting color from the device RGB color space to a standardized color space such as CIELab are studied in this paper, blind and semi-blind color transformation, depending on the availability of the black channel information. We will show that both approaches offer satisfactory results in quantifying macroscopic color variation across pages while the semi-blind color transformation further provides fairly accurate color prediction capability.

  19. The algorithm to generate color point-cloud with the registration between panoramic image and laser point-cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fanyang; Zhong, Ruofei

    2014-03-01

    Laser point cloud contains only intensity information and it is necessary for visual interpretation to obtain color information from other sensor. Cameras can provide texture, color, and other information of the corresponding object. Points with color information of corresponding pixels in digital images can be used to generate color point-cloud and is conducive to the visualization, classification and modeling of point-cloud. Different types of digital cameras are used in different Mobile Measurement Systems (MMS).the principles and processes for generating color point-cloud in different systems are not the same. The most prominent feature of the panoramic images is the field of 360 degrees view angle in the horizontal direction, to obtain the image information around the camera as much as possible. In this paper, we introduce a method to generate color point-cloud with panoramic image and laser point-cloud, and deduce the equation of the correspondence between points in panoramic images and laser point-clouds. The fusion of panoramic image and laser point-cloud is according to the collinear principle of three points (the center of the omnidirectional multi-camera system, the image point on the sphere, the object point). The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm and formulae in this paper are correct.

  20. Readability Formulas--Fact or Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Arthur V.

    Four readability formulas were analyzed to determine the reading grade equivalence of instructional materials at the middle grades and above: the Dale-Chall formula, the Gunning-Fog Index, the Flesch Reading Ease Formula, and the McLaughlin SMOG Grading. In addition, Spache and Wheeler/Smith formulas were analyzed for evaluating primary grade…

  1. 27 CFR 17.121 - Product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Product formulas. 17.121... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.121 Product formulas. (a) General. Except as provided in §§ 17.132 and 17.182, manufacturers shall file quantitative formulas for all preparations for which they intend...

  2. 27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula information. 25.57... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 25.57 Formula information. (a) Ingredient information. (1) For each formula you must list each separate ingredient and the specific...

  3. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation. (a) Jurisdictions eligible for a formula allocation. HUD...

  4. Color View of Ceres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This is a NASA Hubble Space Telescope color image of Ceres, the largest object in the asteroid belt.

    Astronomers enhanced the sharpness in these Advanced Camera for Surveys images to bring out features on Ceres' surface, including brighter and darker regions that could be asteroid impact features. The observations were made in visible and ultraviolet light between December 2003 and January 2004.

    The colors represent the differences between relatively red and blue regions. These differences may simply be due to variation on the surface among different types of material.

    Ceres' round shape suggests that its interior is layered like those of terrestrial planets such as Earth. Ceres may have a rocky inner core, an icy mantle, and a thin, dusty outer crust inferred from its density and rotation rate of 9 hours. Ceres is approximately 590 miles (950 kilometers) across and was first discovered in 1801.

  5. LED color mixing with diffractive structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonenberger, Theresa; Baumgart, Jörg; Wendel, Simon; Neumann, Cornelius

    2013-03-01

    Lighting solutions with colored LEDs provide many opportunities for illumination. One of these opportunities is to create a color tunable light source. In this way different kinds of white light (color temperature) as well as discrete colors may be realized. This opens the field for applications as mood lighting. But there is always a spatial separation of the distinct LEDs that might get converted into an angular separation by any collimating optics. This angular separation causes such problems like color fringes and colored shadows that cannot be accepted in most applications. Conventional methods to solve these problems include e.g. mixing rods or dichroic filters. A new approach is the use of the dispersive effect of a diffractive structure to compensate the angular separation of the different colors. In this contribution the potential and limitations of diffractive structures in LED color mixing applications are discussed. Ray tracing simulations were performed to analyze such important parameters like efficiency, color performance and the cross section of the color mixing optics. New means for the estimation of color mixing performance were developed. A software tool makes it possible to detect the color distribution within ray trace data and it provides a quality factor to estimate the color mixing performance. It can be shown that the spectral band width has a large influence on the mixing process. Ray tracing simulations are compared with results of an experimental setup such that both measured as well as simulated data is presented.

  6. Memnonia Fossae, Approximately Natural Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Tharsis-centered volcanic and tectonic activity resulted in the formation of radial grabens of Memnonia Fossae, which cut materials of the ancient cratered highlands and the relatively young, highland-embaying lava flows from the Tharsis volcanoes. Center of picture is at latitude 16 degrees S., longitude 142 degrees W. Natural color version shows albedo variations and uniform colors. The enhanced color version (PIA00151, following decorrelation stretch), however, reveals a diversity of subtle color variations; many of the color variations may be due to different lava flow units and variable amounts of weathering, possible alteration by water, and eolian redistributions. Viking Orbiter Picture Numbers 41B52 (green), 41b54 (red), and 41B56 (blue) at 198 m/pixel resolution. Picture width is 206 km. North is 119 degrees counter-clockwise from top.

  7. White Rock in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image shows the wind eroded deposit in Pollack Crater called 'White Rock'. This image was collected during the Southern Fall Season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 25.2 East (334.8 West). 0 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of

  8. False-color Dalmatian Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 10 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on May 18, 2003 during the Southern Spring season in Noachis Terra.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -74, Longitude 351.9 East (8.1 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space

  9. Iani Chaos in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image of a portion of the Iani Chaos region was collected during the Southern Fall season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.6 Longitude 342.4 East (17.6 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The

  10. SATURN, IN NATURAL COLORS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has provided images of Saturn in many colors, from black-and-white, to orange, to blue, green, and red. But in this picture, image processing specialists have worked to provide a crisp, extremely accurate view of Saturn, which highlights the planet's pastel colors. Bands of subtle color - yellows, browns, grays - distinguish differences in the clouds over Saturn, the second largest planet in the solar system. Saturn's high-altitude clouds are made of colorless ammonia ice. Above these clouds is a layer of haze or smog, produced when ultraviolet light from the sun shines on methane gas. The smog contributes to the planet's subtle color variations. One of Saturn's moons, Enceladus, is seen casting a shadow on the giant planet as it passes just above the ring system. The flattened disk swirling around Saturn is the planet's most recognizable feature, and this image displays it in sharp detail. This is the planet's ring system, consisting mostly of chunks of water ice. Although it appears as if the disk is composed of only a few rings, it actually consists of tens of thousands of thin 'ringlets.' This picture also shows the two classic divisions in the ring system. The narrow Encke Gap is nearest to the disk's outer edge; the Cassini division, is the wide gap near the center. Scientists study Saturn and its ring system to gain insight into the birth of our solar system. Credit: Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA)

  11. THE RADIAL AND AZIMUTHAL PROFILES OF Mg II ABSORPTION AROUND 0.5 < z < 0.9 zCOSMOS GALAXIES OF DIFFERENT COLORS, MASSES, AND ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bordoloi, R.; Lilly, S. J.; Knobel, C.; Kampczyk, P.; Carollo, C. M.; Bolzonella, M.; Zucca, E.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Iovino, A.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fevre, O.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Balestra, I.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Cucciati, O.; and others

    2011-12-10

    We map the radial and azimuthal distribution of Mg II gas within {approx} 200 kpc (physical) of {approx} 4000 galaxies at redshifts 0.5 < z < 0.9 using co-added spectra of more than 5000 background galaxies at z > 1. We investigate the variation of Mg II rest-frame equivalent width (EW) as a function of the radial impact parameter for different subsets of foreground galaxies selected in terms of their rest-frame colors and masses. Blue galaxies have a significantly higher average Mg II EW at close galactocentric radii as compared to the red galaxies. Among the blue galaxies, there is a correlation between Mg II EW and galactic stellar mass of the host galaxy. We also find that the distribution of Mg II absorption around group galaxies is more extended than that for non-group galaxies, and that groups as a whole have more extended radial profiles than individual galaxies. Interestingly, these effects can be satisfactorily modeled by a simple superposition of the absorption profiles of individual member galaxies, assuming that these are the same as those of non-group galaxies, suggesting that the group environment may not significantly enhance or diminish the Mg II absorption of individual galaxies. We show that there is a strong azimuthal dependence of the Mg II absorption within 50 kpc of inclined disk-dominated galaxies, indicating the presence of a strongly bipolar outflow aligned along the disk rotation axis. There is no significant dependence of Mg II absorption on the apparent inclination angle of disk-dominated galaxies.

  12. Integrated transducer for color distinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hisao; Kojima, Masahiko; Yoshida, Akira

    1983-06-01

    A method for fabricating the improved version of an integrated transducer for color distinction is proposed. It consists of three SnO2(n)-Si(n) photodiodes on a Si wafer and a trichromatic filter prepared by arranging filters of the three primary colors (Eastman Kodak gelatin filters; Nos. 47B, 58, and 25) on an infrared glass filter (Hoya Glass; B-460). Its photoelectric characteristics and dependence of error of color distinction on the dimension of the transducer are reported. The photodiodes employed in this conversion assembly are produced by the simple spray method and are most suitable for detecting the low illumination. Since this transducer adapts the trichromatic color resolution method, highly accurate color distinction is possible. With this type of transducer, three photodiodes sensitive to the primary colors, red, green, and blue, respectively, are arranged on a plane. An error in color distinction can occur due to the differences in the strength of the light incident upon the respective photodiodes. This problem is reduced by making the transducer more compact. Finally, 11 kinds of colors are discerned in this experiment as an application of the transducer.

  13. Digestate color and light intensity affect nutrient removal and competition phenomena in a microalgal-bacterial ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Marcilhac, Cyril; Sialve, Bruno; Pourcher, Anne-Marie; Ziebal, Christine; Bernet, Nicolas; Béline, Fabrice

    2014-11-01

    During anaerobic digestion, nutrients are mineralized and may require post-treatment for optimum valorization. The cultivation of autotrophic microalgae using the digestate supernatant is a promising solution; however the dark color of the influent poses a serious problem. First, the color of the digestates was studied and the results obtained using three different digestates demonstrated a strong heterogeneity although their color remained rather constant over time. The digestates absorbed light over the whole visible spectrum and remained colored even after a ten-fold dilution. Secondly, the impact of light and of substrate color on the growth of Scenedesmus sp. and on nitrogen removal were assessed. These experiments led to the construction of a model for predicting the impact of influent color and light intensity on N removal. Maximum N removal (8.5 mgN- [Formula: see text]  L(-1) d(-1)) was observed with an initial optical density of 0.221 and 244 μmolE m(-)² s(-1) light and the model allows to determine N removal between 15.9 and 22.7 mgN- [Formula: see text]  L(-1) d(-1) in real conditions according to the dilution level of the influent and related color. Changes in the microalgae community were monitored and revealed the advantage of Chlorella over Scenedesmus under light-limitation. Additionally microalgae outcompeted nitrifying bacteria and experiments showed how microalgae become better competitors for nutrients when phosphorus is limiting. Furthermore, nitrification was limited by microalgae growth, even when P was not limiting. PMID:25078443

  14. Developing the Vertex Formula Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebesniak, Amy L.; Burgoa, A. Aaron

    2015-01-01

    As teachers working with students in entry-level algebra classes, authors Amy Nebesniak and A. Aaron Burgoa realized that their instruction was a major factor in how their students viewed mathematics. They often presented students with abstract formulas that seemed to appear out of thin air. One instance occurred while they were teaching students…

  15. CHY formula and MHV amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yi-Jian; Teng, Fei; Wu, Yong-Shi

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we study the relation between the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula and the maximal-helicity-violating (MHV) amplitudes of Yang-Mills and gravity in four dimensions. We prove that only one special rational solution of the scattering equations found by Weinzierl supports the MHV amplitudes. Namely, localized at this solution, the integrated CHY formula produces the Parke-Taylor formula for MHV Yang-Mills amplitudes as well as the Hodges formula for MHV gravitational amplitudes, with an arbitrary number of external gluons/gravitons. This is achieved by developing techniques, in a manifestly Möbius covariant formalism, to explicitly compute relevant reduced Pfaffians/determinants. We observe and prove two interesting properties (or identities), which facilitate the computations. We also check that all the other ( n - 3)! - 1 solutions to the scattering equations do not support the MHV amplitudes, and prove analytically that this is indeed true for the other special rational solution proposed by Weinzierl, that actually supports the anti-MHV amplitudes. Our results reveal a mysterious feature of the CHY formalism that in Yang-Mills and gravity theory, solutions of scattering equations, involving only external momenta, somehow know about the configuration of external polarizations of the scattering amplitudes.

  16. Stature estimation formulae for Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Didia, Blessing C; Nduka, Ethelbert C; Adele, Okechukwu

    2009-01-01

    In stature estimation, long limbs and the stature formula of Trotter and Gleser easily come to mind. In the recent past, a lot of workers have established formulae specific to their populations using whole length of limbs, fragmented bones, circumference of long bones, and even length of the vertebrae. We have in this work used tibia length, height of subjects, and the regression models to establish formulae specific to Nigerians. We measured height and tibia length of 200 (96 male and 104 female) adult Nigerians. The tibia length was measured from upper limit of the medial condoyle to the tip of medial malleolus using a measuring tape calibrated in meters while the height of individuals were also measured using meter scales. All measurements were made by one person, to avoid interobserver error, and repeatedly until a constant value is obtained. We obtained general formulae for males and females which compares favorably with that of Duyar and Pelin, and can be relied upon. PMID:19018931

  17. Formulas for determining rotational constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guelachvili, G.

    This document is part of Subvolume B `Linear Triatomic Molecules', Part 9, of Volume 20 `Molecular Constants mostly from Infrared Spectroscopy' of Landolt-Börnstein Group II `Molecules and Radicals'. Part of the introduction, it states formulas for determining rotational constants, band center, band origin, and quadrupole coupling. Specific comments relate to BHO (HBO) and COS (OCS).

  18. Financial Formulas for Library Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Phoebe F.

    Formulas for the fiscal support of library networks are discussed against the perspective of present patterns of library funding. Provisions for financing current cooperative library programs are illustrative of the problems which might be encountered in networks. Several proposals for network development have been concerned with and provide some…

  19. Preferred color correction for digital LCD TVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Choon-Woo; Ahn, Ji-Young; Kang, Dong-Woo; Shin, Hyun-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Instead of colorimetirc color reproduction, preferred color correction is applied for digital TVs to improve subjective image quality. First step of the preferred color correction is to survey the preferred color coordinates of memory colors. This can be achieved by the off-line human visual tests. Next step is to extract pixels of memory colors representing skin, grass and sky. For the detected pixels, colors are shifted towards the desired coordinates identified in advance. This correction process may result in undesirable contours on the boundaries between the corrected and un-corrected areas. For digital TV applications, the process of extraction and correction should be applied in every frame of the moving images. This paper presents a preferred color correction method in LCH color space. Values of chroma and hue are corrected independently. Undesirable contours on the boundaries of correction are minimized. The proposed method change the coordinates of memory color pixels towards the target color coordinates. Amount of correction is determined based on the averaged coordinate of the extracted pixels. The proposed method maintains the relative color difference within memory color areas. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated using the paired comparison. Results of experiments indicate that the proposed method can reproduce perceptually pleasing images to viewers.

  20. LED Color Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Color quality is an important consideration when evaluating LED-based products for general illumination. This fact sheet reviews the basics regarding light and color and summarizes the most important color issues related to white-light LED systems.

  1. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. Causes Abnormal urine color may ... red blood cells, or mucus in the urine. Dark brown but clear urine is a sign of ...

  2. Color Blindness Simulations

    MedlinePlus

    ... many disables? The fastest growing segment? Myths of disability The Law The Rules Accessibility Resources Page Updates, additions Contact Us For assistance contact your NOAA Line Office Section 508 Coordinator Color blindness Simulations Normal Color Vision Deuteranopia Color blindness marked ...

  3. Nuclear binding energy using semi empirical mass formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankita, Suthar, B.

    2016-05-01

    In the present communication, semi empirical mass formula using the liquid drop model has been presented. Nuclear binding energies are calculated using semi empirical mass formula with various constants given by different researchers. We also compare these calculated values with experimental data and comparative study for finding suitable constants is added using the error plot. The study is extended to find the more suitable constant to reduce the error.

  4. Electromagnetic currents induced by color fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanji, Naoto

    2015-12-01

    The quark production in classical color fields is investigated with a focus on the induction of an electromagnetic current by produced quarks. We show that the color SU(2) and the SU(3) theories lead significantly different results for the electromagnetic current. In uniform SU(2) color fields, the net electromagnetic current is not generated, while in SU(3) color fields the net current is induced depending on the color direction of background fields. Also the numerical study of the quark production in inhomogeneous color fields is done. Motivated by gauge field configurations provided by the color glass condensate framework, we introduce an ensemble of randomly distributed color electric fluxtubes. The spectrum of photons emitted from the quarks by a classical process is shown.

  5. Colors and emotions: preferences and combinations.

    PubMed

    Terwogt, M M; Hoeksma, J B

    1995-01-01

    Within three age groups (7-year-old children, 11-year-old children, and adults), preferences for colors and emotions were established by means of two distinct paired-comparison tasks. In a subsequent task, participants were asked to link colors to emotions by selecting an appropriate color. It was hypothesized that the number of times that each color was tied to a specific emotion would be predictable from the separate preferences for colors and emotions. Within age groups, participants had consistent preferences for colors and emotions, but preferences differed from one age group to another. Especially in the youngest group, the pattern of combinations between colors and emotions appeared to be meaningfully related to the preference order for colors and emotions. PMID:7714504

  6. Free and bound total phenolics, procyanidin and anthocyanin profiles and their antioxidant capacities in whole grain rice (Oryza sativa L.) of different bran colors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To study the polyphenols in whole grain rice varying in bran color, total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant capacities of the solvent-extractable (Free) and cell-wall bound (Bound) fractions and the profiles of procyanidins and anthocyanins were determined. Red and purple bran rices had signific...

  7. Manipulating Color and Other Visual Information Influences Picture Naming at Different Levels of Processing: Evidence from Alzheimer Subjects and Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zannino, Gian Daniele; Perri, Roberta; Salamone, Giovanna; Di Lorenzo, Concetta; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni A.

    2010-01-01

    There is now a large body of evidence suggesting that color and photographic detail exert an effect on recognition of visually presented familiar objects. However, an unresolved issue is whether these factors act at the visual, the semantic or lexical level of the recognition process. In the present study, we investigated this issue by having…

  8. Pathfinder Landing Site in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 14 May 2004 This image of the Mars Pathfinder Landing site was acquired July 17, 2002, during northern spring.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 19.4, Longitude 326.8 East (33.2 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science

  9. Wetting in Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Ian Bruce

    Colorimetric litmus tests such as pH paper have enjoyed wide commercial success due to their inexpensive production and exceptional ease of use. However, expansion of colorimetry to new sensing paradigms is challenging because macroscopic color changes are seldom coupled to arbitrary differences in the physical/chemical properties of a system. In this thesis I present in detail the development of Wetting in Color Technology, focusing primarily on its application as an inexpensive and highly selective colorimetric indicator for organic liquids. The technology exploits chemically-encoded inverse-opal photonic crystals to control the infiltration of fluids to liquid-specific spatial patterns, projecting minute differences in liquids' wettability to macroscopically distinct, easy-to-visualize structural color patterns. It is shown experimentally and corroborated with theoretical modeling using percolation theory that the high selectivity of wetting, upon-which the sensitivity of the indicator relies, is caused by the highly symmetric structure of our large-area, defect-free SiO2 inverse-opals. The regular structure also produces a bright iridescent color, which disappears when infiltrated with liquid - naturally coupling the optical and fluidic responses. Surface modification protocols are developed, requiring only silanization and selective oxidation, to facilitate the deterministic design of an indicator that differentiates a broad range of liquids. The resulting tunable, built-in horizontal and vertical chemistry gradients allow the wettability threshold to be tailored to specific liquids across a continuous range, and make the readout rely only on countable color differences. As wetting is a generic fluidic phenomenon, Wetting in Color technology could be suitable for applications in authentication or identification of unknown liquids across a broad range of industries. However, the generic nature of the response also ensures chemical non-specificity. It is shown

  10. The ATA-67 Formula for Direct Operating Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faulkner, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    The ATA formulas for direct operating cost were developed for the purpose of comparing different aircraft, existing or not, on the same route or the same aircraft on different routes. Such characteristics of the airline as crew pay, maintenance procedures, and depreciation schedules are kept constant. In air transportation systems analysis the 1967 ATA formula is usually used with appropriate exceptions or modifications, such as: different maintenance labor rate, total maintenance multiplied by a factor, maintenance burden deleted, different depreciation schedule, or different spares percentages.

  11. Incomplete Kochen-Specker coloring

    SciTech Connect

    Granstroem, Helena

    2007-09-15

    A particular incomplete Kochen-Specker coloring, suggested by Appleby [Stud. Hist. Philos. Mod. Phys. 36, 1 (2005)] in dimension three, is generalized to arbitrary dimension. We investigate its effectivity as a function of dimension, using two different measures. A limit is derived for the fraction of the sphere that can be colored using the generalized Appleby construction as the number of dimensions approaches infinity. The second, and physically more relevant measure of effectivity, is to look at the fraction of properly colored ON bases. Using this measure, we derive a ''lower bound for the upper bound'' in three and four real dimensions.

  12. Adaptive Color Constancy Using Faces.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Simone; Schettini, Raimondo

    2014-08-01

    In this work we design an adaptive color constancy algorithm that, exploiting the skin regions found in faces, is able to estimate and correct the scene illumination. The algorithm automatically switches from global to spatially varying color correction on the basis of the illuminant estimations on the different faces detected in the image. An extensive comparison with both global and local color constancy algorithms is carried out to validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in terms of both statistical and perceptual significance on a large heterogeneous data set of RAW images containing faces. PMID:26353334

  13. Color constancy supports cross-illumination color selection

    PubMed Central

    Radonjić, Ana; Cottaris, Nicolas P.; Brainard, David H.

    2015-01-01

    We rely on color to select objects as the targets of our actions (e.g., the freshest fish, the ripest fruit). To be useful for selection, color must provide accurate guidance about object identity across changes in illumination. Although the visual system partially stabilizes object color appearance across illumination changes, how such color constancy supports object selection is not understood. To study how constancy operates in real-life tasks, we developed a novel paradigm in which subjects selected which of two test objects presented under a test illumination appeared closer in color to a target object presented under a standard illumination. From subjects' choices, we inferred a selection-based match for the target via a variant of maximum likelihood difference scaling, and used it to quantify constancy. Selection-based constancy was good when measured using naturalistic stimuli, but was dramatically reduced when the stimuli were simplified, indicating that a naturalistic stimulus context is critical for good constancy. Overall, our results suggest that color supports accurate object selection across illumination changes when both stimuli and task match how color is used in real life. We compared our selection-based constancy results with data obtained using a classic asymmetric matching task and found that the adjustment-based matches predicted selection well for our stimuli and instructions, indicating that the appearance literature provides useful guidance for the emerging study of constancy in natural tasks. PMID:26024460

  14. High capacity color barcodes using dot orientation and color separability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulan, Orhan; Monga, Vishal; Sharma, Gaurav

    2009-02-01

    Barcodes are widely utilized for embedding data in printed format to provide automated identification and tracking capabilities in a number of applications. In these applications, it is desirable to maximize the number of bits embedded per unit print area in order to either reduce the area requirements of the barcodes or to offer an increased payload, which in turn enlarges the class of applications for these barcodes. In this paper, we present a new high capacity color barcode. Our method operates by embedding independent data in two different printer colorant channels via halftone-dot orientation modulation. In the print, the dots of the two colorants occupy the same spatial region. At the detector, however, by using the complementary sensor channels to estimate the colorant channels we can recover the data in each individual colorant channel. The method therefore (approximately) doubles the capacity of encoding methods based on a single colorant channel and provides an embedding rate that is higher than other known barcode alternatives. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is demonstrated by experiments conducted on Xerographic printers. Data embedded at a high density by using the two cyan and yellow colorant channels for halftone dot orientation modulation is successfully recovered by using the red and blue channels for the detection, with an overall symbol error rate that is quite small.

  15. Color constancy supports cross-illumination color selection.

    PubMed

    Radonjić, Ana; Cottaris, Nicolas P; Brainard, David H

    2015-01-01

    We rely on color to select objects as the targets of our actions (e.g., the freshest fish, the ripest fruit). To be useful for selection, color must provide accurate guidance about object identity across changes in illumination. Although the visual system partially stabilizes object color appearance across illumination changes, how such color constancy supports object selection is not understood. To study how constancy operates in real-life tasks, we developed a novel paradigm in which subjects selected which of two test objects presented under a test illumination appeared closer in color to a target object presented under a standard illumination. From subjects' choices, we inferred a selection-based match for the target via a variant of maximum likelihood difference scaling, and used it to quantify constancy. Selection-based constancy was good when measured using naturalistic stimuli, but was dramatically reduced when the stimuli were simplified, indicating that a naturalistic stimulus context is critical for good constancy. Overall, our results suggest that color supports accurate object selection across illumination changes when both stimuli and task match how color is used in real life. We compared our selection-based constancy results with data obtained using a classic asymmetric matching task and found that the adjustment-based matches predicted selection well for our stimuli and instructions, indicating that the appearance literature provides useful guidance for the emerging study of constancy in natural tasks. PMID:26024460

  16. Development of an XYZ Digital Camera with Embedded Color Calibration System for Accurate Color Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretkowski, Maciej; Jablonski, Ryszard; Shimodaira, Yoshifumi

    Acquisition of accurate colors is important in the modern era of widespread exchange of electronic multimedia. The variety of device-dependent color spaces causes troubles with accurate color reproduction. In this paper we present the outlines of accomplished digital camera system with device-independent output formed from tristimulus XYZ values. The outstanding accuracy and fidelity of acquired color is achieved in our system by employing an embedded color calibration system based on emissive device generating reference calibration colors with user-defined spectral distribution and chromaticity coordinates. The system was tested by calibrating the camera using 24 reference colors spectrally reproduced from 24 color patches of the Macbeth Chart. The average color difference (CIEDE2000) has been found to be ΔE =0.83, which is an outstanding result compared to commercially available digital cameras.

  17. Identification of betalains from petioles of differently colored Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. cicla [L.] Alef. Cv. Bright Lights) by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kugler, Florian; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

    2004-05-19

    The betalain pattern of differently colored Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. cicla [L.] Alef. cv. Bright Lights) was investigated for the first time. Nineteen betaxanthins and nine betacyanins were identified by RP-HPLC and positive ion electrospray mass spectrometry, co-injection experiments with semisynthetic reference compounds, and standards derived from authentic plant material, respectively. Histamine-betaxanthin and alanine-betaxanthin were found to be novel betaxanthins, which to the best of our knowledge have not been reported as natural compounds until now. Furthermore, tyramine-betaxanthin (miraxanthin III) and 3-methoxytyramine-betaxanthin, which to date were known only from families other than the Chenopodiaceae, were detected for the first time in colored Swiss chard. The betacyanin pattern of purple petioles was composed of betanin, isobetanin, betanidin, and isobetanidin. Although phyllocactin was present in only trace amounts, further acylated structures such as betanidin-monoferuloyl-5-O-beta-diglucoside and lampranthin II, accompanied by their corresponding C(15)-epimers, were identified. In addition, quantification of betalains and CIE LCh degrees measurements were performed with the colored extracts to correlate the visual appearance with the respective pigment patterns. Besides the novel phytochemical findings, the present study is useful for the evaluation of betalainic Swiss chard as a potential coloring foodstuff. PMID:15137842

  18. Edge diffraction, trace formulae and the cardioid billiard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruus, Henrik; Whelan, Niall D.

    1996-07-01

    We study the effect of edge diffraction on the semiclassical analysis of two-dimensional quantum systems by deriving a trace formula which incorporates paths hitting any number of vertices embedded in an arbitrary potential. This formula is used to study the cardioid billiard, which has a single vertex. The formula works well for most of the short orbits we analysed but fails for a few diffractive orbits due to a breakdown in the formalism for certain geometries. We extend the symbolic dynamics to account for diffractive orbits and use it to show that in the presence of parity symmetry the trace formula decomposes in an elegant manner such that for the cardioid billiard the diffractive orbits have no effect on the odd spectrum. Including diffractive orbits helps resolve peaks in the density of even states but does not appear to affect their positions. An analysis of the level statistics shows no significant difference between spectra with and without diffraction.

  19. An improved bootstrap current formula for edge pedestal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, Robert; Chang, C.-S.

    2014-10-01

    An improved version of a bootstrap current formula based on the results of the neoclassical guiding-center particle-in-cell code XGC0 is presented. The original formula improved the accuracy of the predicted bootstrap current in the edge pedestal, where the ion orbit width can be comparable to the pressure gradient scale length, the passing particle region is narrow, and the ions experience orbit loss. We improved two aspects of this formula. We corrected the asymptotic behavior of the bootstrap current coefficients at higher collisionality from what was inherited from the Sauter formula. We also improved the jumpy aspect-ratio dependence of the transition between an enhanced (NSTX) and reduced (DIII-D) bootstrap current regime found by Koh et al. In addition, we elucidate the physical origins of the improvement and of the difference from a local analysis that includes the importance of finite ion orbit excursion effects on the electron current in the edge pedestal.

  20. Blackhole formula and example relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Philip

    Black hole formula 1) Second dimension (x,y) f(x)=y Energy E=m*c2 2) Third dimension (x,y,z) really x=y=z Black hole formula Root(c2)=c=Root(E/m) As mass go the velocity of light, mass become black hole so there are energy as multiply by mass. Example relativity When E=m*c2 1) Root(c2)=c=Root(E/m) 2) 3*c*Root(c2)=3*c*Root(E/m)=3*c2 From 1) to 2) as an example, As velocity is faster, mass increased. It means when velocity is increased, sec(time) is slower, and m(distance) is increased. The number is good to study physics.

  1. Trace formula for broken symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Creagh, S.C.

    1996-05-01

    We derive a trace formula for systems that exhibit an approximate continuous symmetry. It interpolates between the sum over continuous families of periodic orbits that holds in the case of exact continuous symmetry, and the discrete sum over isolated orbits that holds when the symmetry is completely broken. It is based on a simple perturbation expansion of the classical dynamics, centered around the case of exact symmetry, and gives an approximation to the usual Gutzwiller formula when the perturbation is large. We illustrate the computation with some 2-dimensional examples: the deformation of the circular billiard into an ellipse, and anisotropic and anharmonic perturbations of a harmonic oscillator. Copyright {copyright} 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

  2. 'Fram' in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'Fram' in Color (QTVR)

    This view in approximately true color reveals details in an impact crater informally named 'Fram' in the Meridian Planum region of Mars. The picture is a mosaic of frames taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 88th martian day on Mars, on April 23, 2004. The crater spans about 8 meters (26 feet) in diameter. Opportunity paused beside it while traveling from the rover's landing site toward a larger crater farther east. This view combines images taken using three of the camera's filters for different wavelengths of light: 750 nanometers, 530 nanometers and 430 nanometers.

  3. Hitchhiking women's hair color.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Nicolas; Lamy, Lubomir

    2009-12-01

    To test the effect of women's hair color on the frequency of offering help, male (n = 1,508) and female (n = 892) French motorists were tested in a hitchhiking situation. Five 20- to 22- yr.-old female confederates wore a wig with blonde, brown, or black hair. Each confederate was instructed to stand by the side of a road frequented by hitchhikers and hold out her thumb to catch a ride. Blonde hair, compared with brown hair or black hair, was associated with a small but significantly larger number of male drivers who stopped to offer a ride (18 vs 14%). No difference was found for those with brown and black hair (14 and 13%, respectively). No effect of hair color was found for female drivers who stopped. The greater attractiveness associated with blonde hair for women appears to explain these data. PMID:20178293

  4. New approach to color calibration of high fidelity color digital camera by using unique wide gamut color generator based on LED diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretkowski, M.; Shimodaira, Y.; Jabłoński, R.

    2008-11-01

    Development of a high accuracy color reproduction system requires certain instrumentation and reference for color calibration. Our research led to development of a high fidelity color digital camera with implemented filters that realize the color matching functions. The output signal returns XYZ values which provide absolute description of color. In order to produce XYZ output a mathematical conversion must be applied to CCD output values introducing a conversion matrix. The conversion matrix coefficients are calculated by using a color reference with known XYZ values and corresponding output signals from the CCD sensor under each filter acquisition from a certain amount of color samples. The most important feature of the camera is its ability to acquire colors from the complete theoretically visible color gamut due to implemented filters. However market available color references such as various color checkers are enclosed within HDTV gamut, which is insufficient for calibration in the whole operating color range. This led to development of a unique color reference based on LED diodes called the LED Color Generator (LED CG). It is capable of displaying colors in a wide color gamut estimated by chromaticity coordinates of 12 primary colors. The total amount of colors possible to produce is 25512. The biggest advantage is a possibility of displaying colors with desired spectral distribution (with certain approximations) due to multiple primary colors it consists. The average color difference obtained for test colors was found to be ▵E~0.78 for calibration with LED CG. The result is much better and repetitive in comparison with the Macbeth ColorCheckerTM which typically gives ▵E~1.2 and in the best case ▵E~0.83 with specially developed techniques.

  5. On ratio-based color indexing.

    PubMed

    Adjeroh, D A; Lee, M C

    2001-01-01

    The color ratio approach to indexing has been found to be robust and effective in indexing image and video databases, in different color spaces, and when using transformed color features, such as those from the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT) or the discrete cosine transform (DCT). However, the reason for the superior performance of the color ratio model, especially on different color spaces or with transformed color features has, at best, been speculative. This paper develops a generalized form for the color ratio model, based on which we characterize the general distribution of the color ratios. From the distribution, we present a theory that explains and supports the performance of the color ratio approach in image and video indexing. It is shown that the same theory accounts for its effectiveness in different color spaces and in the transform domain. Some general problems encountered in using the original retinex lightness algorithm, and some other issues specific to ratio-based color indexing are discussed in the light of the theory. Results are presented which show that the proposed theory is supported by empirical evidence. PMID:18249595

  6. A color sensor wavelength meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durfee, Dallin; Jackson, Jarom; Otterstrom, Nils; Jones, Tyler; Archibald, James

    2016-05-01

    We will discuss a laser wavelength meter based on a commercial color sensor chip consisting of an array of photodiodes with different absorptive color filters. By comparing the relative amplitudes of light on the photodiodes, the wavelength of light can be determined with picometer-level precision and with picometer-scale calibration drift over a period longer than a month. This work was supported by NSF Grant Number PHY-1205736.

  7. Effective color design for displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Lindsay W.

    2002-06-01

    Visual communication is a key aspect of human-computer interaction, which contributes to the satisfaction of user and application needs. For effective design of presentations on computer displays, color should be used in conjunction with the other visual variables. The general needs of graphic user interfaces are discussed, followed by five specific tasks with differing criteria for display color specification - advertising, text, information, visualization and imaging.

  8. Astronomy with the color blind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Donald A.; Melrose, Justyn

    2014-12-01

    The standard method to create dramatic color images in astrophotography is to record multiple black and white images, each with a different color filter in the optical path, and then tint each frame with a color appropriate to the corresponding filter. When combined, the resulting image conveys information about the sources of emission in the field, although one should be cautious in assuming that such an image shows what the subject would "really look like" if a person could see it without the aid of a telescope. The details of how the eye processes light have a significant impact on how such images should be understood, and the step from perception to interpretation is even more problematic when the viewer is color blind. We report here on an approach to manipulating stacked tricolor images that, while abandoning attempts to portray the color distribution "realistically," do result in enabling those suffering from deuteranomaly (the most common form of color blindness) to perceive color distinctions they would otherwise not be able to see.

  9. Simple and Clear Proofs of Stirling's Formula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niizeki, Shozo; Araki, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our article is to show two simpler and clearer methods of proving Stirling's formula than the traditional and conventional ones. The distinction of our method is to use the simple trapezoidal formula.

  10. Color identification testing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brawner, E. L.; Martin, R.; Pate, W.

    1970-01-01

    Testing device, which determines ability of a technician to identify color-coded electric wires, is superior to standard color blindness tests. It tests speed of wire selection, detects partial color blindness, allows rapid testing, and may be administered by a color blind person.

  11. Improved Jänecke mass formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Z.; Bao, M.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we improve an empirical mass formula constructed by Jänecke and collaborators. This formula is enlightened by the Garvey-Kelson mass relations. The new version of the Jänecke formula reproduces 2275 atomic masses with neutron number N ≥10 and proton number Z ≥6 , at an average accuracy of 128 keV, by employing 576 parameters. The predictive power of our formula is exemplified by comparison with predicted results of other mass models.

  12. Color reproductivity improvement with additional virtual color filters for WRGB image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawada, Shun; Kuroda, Rihito; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2013-02-01

    We have developed a high accuracy color reproduction method based on an estimated spectral reflectance of objects using additional virtual color filters for a wide dynamic range WRGB color filter CMOS image sensor. The four virtual color filters are created by multiplying the spectral sensitivity of White pixel by gauss functions which have different central wave length and standard deviation, and the virtual sensor outputs of those virtual filters are estimated from the four real output signals of the WRGB image sensor. The accuracy of color reproduction was evaluated with a Macbeth Color Checker (MCC), and the averaged value of the color difference ΔEab of 24 colors was 1.88 with our approach.

  13. A Quick Guide to Readability Formulas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Eugene H.

    1978-01-01

    Six of the most widely used readability scales are briefly reviewed and their original source cited: the Dale-Chall Readability Formula, the Flesch "Reading Ease" Formula, the Fog Index, the Fry Readability Graph, the SMOG Grading Plan, and the Spache Readability Formula. (SJL)

  14. 28 CFR 38.2 - Formula grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formula grants. 38.2 Section 38.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EQUAL TREATMENT FOR FAITH-BASED ORGANIZATIONS § 38.2 Formula... cooperative agreement funded by a formula or block grant from the Department. As used in this section,...

  15. 27 CFR 24.196 - Formula required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula required. 24.196... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Special Natural Wine § 24.196 Formula required. Before producing any special natural wine, the proprietor shall receive approval of the formula by which it is...

  16. 27 CFR 20.101 - Drafting formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drafting formulas. 20.101... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process Approval Policies § 20.101 Drafting formulas. (a) In preparing Form 5150.19, the...

  17. 27 CFR 24.201 - Formula required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula required. 24.201... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.201 Formula required. Before producing any agricultural wine, the proprietor shall obtain an approval of the formula and process by...

  18. 15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation formula. 923.110 Section... Grants § 923.110 Allocation formula. (a) As required by subsection 306(a), the Secretary may make grants...) Allocation formula factors and weighting. Each State eligible to receive a financial assistance award...

  19. 7 CFR 251.7 - Formula adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formula adjustments. 251.7 Section 251.7 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.7 Formula adjustments. Formula adjustments. (a) Commodity adjustments. The Department will make annual adjustments...

  20. 10 CFR 455.31 - Allocation formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation formulas. 455.31 Section 455.31 Energy... § 455.31 Allocation formulas. (a) Financial assistance for conducting technical assistance programs for... this section. (c) The allocation factor (K) shall be determined by the formula: EC14NO91.086 where,...

  1. 27 CFR 26.31 - Formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula. 26.31 Section 26... States From Areas Other Than Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands § 26.31 Formula. (a) The amount of excise.... The formula shall be as follows: (1) Multiply the total excise taxes collected on rum brought into...

  2. 25 CFR 273.31 - Distribution formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution formula. 273.31 Section 273.31 Indians... formula. (a) Funds shall be distributed to eligible contractors based upon the number of eligible Indian... formula. (b) The Assistant Secretary may make exceptions to the provisions of paragraph (a) of...

  3. 24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocations. 574.130... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES FOR PERSONS WITH AIDS Formula Entitlements § 574.130 Formula allocations. (a) Data sources. HUD will allocate funds based on the number of cases...

  4. 27 CFR 24.211 - Formula required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula required. 24.211... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.211 Formula required. The proprietor who desires to produce wine other than standard wine shall first obtain approval of the formula...

  5. 27 CFR 19.452 - Formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Denaturation § 19.452 Formulas. Spirits shall be denatured in accordance with formulas as authorized in 27 CFR... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formulas. 19.452 Section 19.452 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT...

  6. 27 CFR 20.91 - Formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula. 20.91 Section 20... TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process § 20.91 Formula. (a) Each article made with specially denatured spirits shall be made in accordance...

  7. 5 CFR 1315.17 - Formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formulas. 1315.17 Section 1315.17 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES PROMPT PAYMENT § 1315.17 Formulas. (a) Rebate formula. (1) Agencies shall determine credit card payment dates based on an analysis of the...

  8. The Funding of Community Colleges: Formulas & Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullin, Christopher M.; Honeyman, David S.

    2008-01-01

    This study identified governing state entities charged with the development of a funding formula for community colleges. Analysis of the data revealed that 40 states utilized a funding formula. Twenty-one states had a "Higher Education" entity with governing control of the formula, 5 states had a "Community College" entity with distinct funding…

  9. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation....

  10. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation....

  11. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation....

  12. Algebraic Formulas for Areas between Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabai, Hyman

    1982-01-01

    Korean secondary school students preparing for college learn about a simple algebraic formula for area bounded by a parabola and line. The approach does not seem well-known among American students. It is noted that, while the formula derivations rely on integration, algebra students could use the formulas without proofs. (MP)

  13. Calculation reduction method for color digital holography and computer-generated hologram using color space conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Nagahama, Yuki; Kakue, Takashi; Takada, Naoki; Okada, Naohisa; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Hiyama, Daisuke; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2014-02-01

    A calculation reduction method for color digital holography (DH) and computer-generated holograms (CGHs) using color space conversion is reported. Color DH and color CGHs are generally calculated on RGB space. We calculate color DH and CGHs in other color spaces for accelerating the calculation (e.g., YCbCr color space). In YCbCr color space, a RGB image or RGB hologram is converted to the luminance component (Y), blue-difference chroma (Cb), and red-difference chroma (Cr) components. In terms of the human eye, although the negligible difference of the luminance component is well recognized, the difference of the other components is not. In this method, the luminance component is normal sampled and the chroma components are down-sampled. The down-sampling allows us to accelerate the calculation of the color DH and CGHs. We compute diffraction calculations from the components, and then we convert the diffracted results in YCbCr color space to RGB color space. The proposed method, which is possible to accelerate the calculations up to a factor of 3 in theory, accelerates the calculation over two times faster than the ones in RGB color space.

  14. So Many Colors, So Many Choices: The Use of Color in Instructional Multimedia Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Randy S.; Bateman, William

    State-of-the-art computers being used today for instructional multimedia products have monitors capable of displaying millions of different colors. Designers are given virtually unlimited control over the factors that govern the display of these colors. This paper examines how color is displayed on computer monitors and interrelationships with how…

  15. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan; Percus, Allon; Muller, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  16. Auditory color constancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluender, Keith R.; Kiefte, Michael

    2003-10-01

    It is both true and efficient that sensorineural systems respond to change and little else. Perceptual systems do not record absolute level be it loudness, pitch, brightness, or color. This fact has been demonstrated in every sensory domain. For example, the visual system is remarkable at maintaining color constancy over widely varying illumination such as sunlight and varieties of artificial light (incandescent, fluorescent, etc.) for which spectra reflected from objects differ dramatically. Results will be reported for a series of experiments demonstrating how auditory systems similarly compensate for reliable characteristics of spectral shape in acoustic signals. Specifically, listeners' perception of vowel sounds, characterized by both local (e.g., formants) and broad (e.g., tilt) spectral composition, changes radically depending upon reliable spectral composition of precursor signals. These experiments have been conducted using a variety of precursor signals consisting of meaningful and time-reversed vocoded sentences, as well as novel nonspeech precursors consisting of multiple filter poles modulating sinusoidally across a source spectrum with specific local and broad spectral characteristics. Constancy across widely varying spectral compositions shares much in common with visual color constancy. However, auditory spectral constancy appears to be more effective than visual constancy in compensating for local spectral fluctuations. [Work supported by NIDCD DC-04072.

  17. [Research on developping the spectral dataset for Dunhuang typical colors based on color constancy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Wan, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Zhen; Li, Chan; Liang, Jin-Xing

    2013-11-01

    The present paper aims at developping a method to reasonably set up the typical spectral color dataset for different kinds of Chinese cultural heritage in color rendering process. The world famous wall paintings dating from more than 1700 years ago in Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes was taken as typical case in this research. In order to maintain the color constancy during the color rendering workflow of Dunhuang culture relics, a chromatic adaptation based method for developping the spectral dataset of typical colors for those wall paintings was proposed from the view point of human vision perception ability. Under the help and guidance of researchers in the art-research institution and protection-research institution of Dunhuang Academy and according to the existing research achievement of Dunhuang Research in the past years, 48 typical known Dunhuang pigments were chosen and 240 representative color samples were made with reflective spectral ranging from 360 to 750 nm was acquired by a spectrometer. In order to find the typical colors of the above mentioned color samples, the original dataset was devided into several subgroups by clustering analysis. The grouping number, together with the most typical samples for each subgroup which made up the firstly built typical color dataset, was determined by wilcoxon signed rank test according to the color inconstancy index comprehensively calculated under 6 typical illuminating conditions. Considering the completeness of gamut of Dunhuang wall paintings, 8 complementary colors was determined and finally the typical spectral color dataset was built up which contains 100 representative spectral colors. The analytical calculating results show that the median color inconstancy index of the built dataset in 99% confidence level by wilcoxon signed rank test was 3.28 and the 100 colors are distributing in the whole gamut uniformly, which ensures that this dataset can provide reasonable reference for choosing the color with highest

  18. Balanced Paths in Colored Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Alessandro; Faella, Marco; Mogavero, Fabio; Murano, Aniello

    We consider finite graphs whose edges are labeled with elements, called colors, taken from a fixed finite alphabet. We study the problem of determining whether there is an infinite path where either (i) all colors occur with the same asymptotic frequency, or (ii) there is a constant which bounds the difference between the occurrences of any two colors for all prefixes of the path. These two notions can be viewed as refinements of the classical notion of fair path, whose simplest form checks whether all colors occur infinitely often. Our notions provide stronger criteria, particularly suitable for scheduling applications based on a coarse-grained model of the jobs involved. We show that both problems are solvable in polynomial time, by reducing them to the feasibility of a linear program.

  19. Chips of many colors

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, M.W.; Dorie, L.A.

    1982-07-01

    A large number of available color display tools generally fall into three categories. Intelligent terminals offer a wide range of color grpahics capability but require extensive software for specific applications. Large turn-key graphics systems, with color display consoles controlled by software, were made for electronic design. In color CAD workstations, color graphics is under hardware control and offers specific features for IC design. The authors look at the various colour graphics systems, and their advantages in VLSI chip design.

  20. Single-fiber multi-color pyrometry

    DOEpatents

    Small, IV, Ward; Celliers, Peter

    2000-01-01

    This invention is a fiber-based multi-color pyrometry set-up for real-time non-contact temperature and emissivity measurement. The system includes a single optical fiber to collect radiation emitted by a target, a reflective rotating chopper to split the collected radiation into two or more paths while modulating the radiation for lock-in amplification (i.e., phase-sensitive detection), at least two detectors possibly of different spectral bandwidths with or without filters to limit the wavelength regions detected and optics to direct and focus the radiation onto the sensitive areas of the detectors. A computer algorithm is used to calculate the true temperature and emissivity of a target based on blackbody calibrations. The system components are enclosed in a light-tight housing, with provision for the fiber to extend outside to collect the radiation. Radiation emitted by the target is transmitted through the fiber to the reflective chopper, which either allows the radiation to pass straight through or reflects the radiation into one or more separate paths. Each path includes a detector with or without filters and corresponding optics to direct and focus the radiation onto the active area of the detector. The signals are recovered using lock-in amplification. Calibration formulas for the signals obtained using a blackbody of known temperature are used to compute the true temperature and emissivity of the target. The temperature range of the pyrometer system is determined by the spectral characteristics of the optical components.

  1. Single-fiber multi-color pyrometry

    DOEpatents

    Small, IV, Ward; Celliers, Peter

    2004-01-27

    This invention is a fiber-based multi-color pyrometry set-up for real-time non-contact temperature and emissivity measurement. The system includes a single optical fiber to collect radiation emitted by a target, a reflective rotating chopper to split the collected radiation into two or more paths while modulating the radiation for lock-in amplification (i.e., phase-sensitive detection), at least two detectors possibly of different spectral bandwidths with or without filters to limit the wavelength regions detected and optics to direct and focus the radiation onto the sensitive areas of the detectors. A computer algorithm is used to calculate the true temperature and emissivity of a target based on blackbody calibrations. The system components are enclosed in a light-tight housing, with provision for the fiber to extend outside to collect the radiation. Radiation emitted by the target is transmitted through the fiber to the reflective chopper, which either allows the radiation to pass straight through or reflects the radiation into one or more separate paths. Each path includes a detector with or without filters and corresponding optics to direct and focus the radiation onto the active area of the detector. The signals are recovered using lock-in amplification. Calibration formulas for the signals obtained using a blackbody of known temperature are used to compute the true temperature and emissivity of the target. The temperature range of the pyrometer system is determined by the spectral characteristics of the optical components.

  2. Bold Colors in a Cryptic Lineage: Do Eastern Indigo Snakes Exhibit Color Dimorphism?

    PubMed Central

    Deitloff, Jennifer; Johnson, Valerie M.; Guyer, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Many species exhibit variation in the color of their scales, feathers, or fur. Various forms of natural selection, such as mimicry, crypsis, and species recognition, as well as sexual selection, can influence the evolution of color. Eastern Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon couperi), a federally threatened species, have coloration on the sides of the head and the chin that can vary from black to red or cream. Despite significant conservations efforts for this species, little is known about its biology in the field. Past researchers have proposed that the color variation on the head and chin is associated with the sex of the individual. Alternatively, color might vary among individuals because it is controlled by genes that are under natural selection or neutral evolution. We tested these alternative hypotheses by examining whether coloration of the sublabial, submaxillary, and ventral scales of this species differed by sex or among clutches. We used color spectrometry to characterize important aspects of color in two ways: by examining overall color differences across the entire color spectrum and by comparing differences within the ultraviolet, yellow, and red colorbands. We found that Eastern Indigo Snakes do not exhibit sexual dichromatism, but their coloration does vary among clutches; therefore, the pattern of sexual selection leading to sexual dichromatism observed in many squamates does not appear to play a role in the evolution and maintenance of color variation in Eastern Indigo Snakes. We suggest that future studies should focus on determining whether color variation in these snakes is determined by maternal effects or genetic components and if color is influenced by natural selection or neutral evolutionary processes. Studying species that exhibit bright colors within lineages that are not known for such coloration will contribute greatly to our understanding of the evolutionary and ecological factors that drive these differences. PMID:23691245

  3. Suitable digital color palette (DPC) for individual human color vision sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    1999-12-01

    In this study, 34 students and teachers form a college of fine arts selected suitable colors for their artistic work on CRT display. From the results, several fundamental colors selected by artists can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. The result of our experiment clearly showed that the 34 subjects could be divided into three groups based on differences in the level of red light or green light in their color palette.

  4. THE COLOR VARIABILITY OF QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Kasper B.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Knecht, Matthias; Hogg, David W.; Shields, Joseph C.; Maoz, Dan; Bovy, Jo

    2012-01-10

    We quantify quasar color variability using an unprecedented variability database-ugriz photometry of 9093 quasars from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82, observed over 8 years at {approx}60 epochs each. We confirm previous reports that quasars become bluer when brightening. We find a redshift dependence of this blueing in a given set of bands (e.g., g and r), but show that it is the result of the flux contribution from less-variable or delayed emission lines in the different SDSS bands at different redshifts. After correcting for this effect, quasar color variability is remarkably uniform, and independent not only of redshift, but also of quasar luminosity and black hole mass. The color variations of individual quasars, as they vary in brightness on year timescales, are much more pronounced than the ranges in color seen in samples of quasars across many orders of magnitude in luminosity. This indicates distinct physical mechanisms behind quasar variability and the observed range of quasar luminosities at a given black hole mass-quasar variations cannot be explained by changes in the mean accretion rate. We do find some dependence of the color variability on the characteristics of the flux variations themselves, with fast, low-amplitude, brightness variations producing more color variability. The observed behavior could arise if quasar variability results from flares or ephemeral hot spots in an accretion disk.

  5. Eleven Colors That Are Almost Never Confused

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boynton, Robert M.

    1989-08-01

    1.1. Three functions of color vision. Setting aside the complex psychological effects of color, related to esthetics, fashion, and mood, three relatively basic functions of color vision, which can be examined scientifically, are discernable. (1) With the eye in a given state of adaptation, color vision allows the perception of signals that otherwise would be below threshold, and therefore lost to perception. Evidence for this comes from a variety of two-color threshold experiments. (2) Visible contours can be maintained by color differences alone, regardless of the relative radiances of the two parts of the field whose junction defines the border. For achromatic vision, contour disappears at the isoluminant point. (3) Color specifies what seems to be an absolute property of a surface, one that enhances its recognizability and allows a clearer separation and classification of non-contiguous elements in the visual field.

  6. A Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mass formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samyn, M.; Goriely, S.; Heenen, P.-H.; Pearson, J. M.; Tondeur, F.

    2002-03-01

    In order to have more reliable predictions of nuclear masses at the neutron drip line, we here go beyond the recent mass formula HFBCS-1 and present a new mass formula, HFB-1, based on the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method. As with the HFBCS-1 mass formula, we use a 10-parameter Skyrme force along with a 4-parameter δ-function pairing force and a 2-parameter phenomenological Wigner term. However, with the original HFBCS-1 Skyrme force (MSk7), the rms error becomes unacceptably large and a new force fit is required. With the isoscalar and isovector effective masses constrained to be equal, the remaining 15 degrees of freedom are fitted to the masses of all the 1754 measured nuclei with A⩾16, | N- Z|>2 given in the 1995 Audi-Wapstra compilation. The rms error with respect to the masses of all the 1888 measured nuclei with Z, N⩾8 is 0.764 MeV. A complete mass table, HFB-1 (available on the Web), has been constructed, giving all nuclei lying between the two drip lines over the range Z, N⩾8 and Z⩽120. A comparison between HFB-1 and HFBCS-1 mass tables shows that the HFBCS model is a very good approximation of the HFB theory, in particular for masses, the extrapolated masses never differing by more than 2 MeV below Z⩽110. We also find that the behaviour of shell gaps far away from the region of beta stability does not depend on whether the HFBCS or HFB methods are used, in particular, no quenching of astrophysical interest arises from replacing the BCS method by the Bogoliubov method.

  7. Infant formula companies battle for breast.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    The infant formula manufacturer Mead Johnson has filed a lawsuit in Ontario courts against its competitor Ross Abbott for false advertising of its new Similac brand of infant formula. Mead Johnson contends that the Ross Abbott advertisement of Similac as providing benefits similar to mother's milk is false and misleading. Breast feeding specialists agree with Mead Johnson's claim. Yet, one year earlier, Mead Johnson claimed that its infant formula is modeled after mother's milk. The Infant Feeding Action Coalition (INFACT) Canada had complained to the Competition Bureau that called for Mead Johnson to cease its claim. Court documents reveal that both companies disregard the World Health Organization (WHO) International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes. This code prohibits manufacturers from advertising directly to pregnant women and mothers. Two Ross Abbott spokespersons have different responses to their advertising practices: increasing emphasis on consumer promotion and support of the principle and objective of the WHO Code. Both companies have sought support of health professionals in Canada. In July 1996 Mead Johnson sent letters to about 7000 clinicians declaring "as someone who cares about infant health and nutrition as much as we do" and "...the most alarming concern is that, although there is no scientific basis for such claims, mothers believe them to be true." Ross Abbott responded to these letters by sending physicians letters declaring "Our business is built on trust, and we assure you that you may trust in Similac Advance and the benefits we have ascribed to it." The two companies will meet again in court on September 30, 1996. PMID:12320465

  8. The impact of the non-linearity of the radiant flux on the thermal load of the color conversion elements in phosphor converted LEDs under different current driving schemes.

    PubMed

    Wenzl, Franz P; Sommer, Christian; Hartmann, Paul; Pachler, Peter; Hoschopf, Hans; Langer, Gregor; Fulmek, Paul; Nicolics, Johann

    2013-05-01

    For a systematic approach to improve the reliability and the white light quality of phosphor converted light-emitting diodes (LEDs) it is imperative to gain a better understanding of the individual parameters that affect color temperature constancy and maintenance. By means of a combined optical and thermal simulation procedure, in this contribution we give a comprehensive discussion on the impact of different current driving schemes on the thermal load of the color conversion elements (CCEs) of phosphor converted LEDs. We show that on the one hand a decreasing duty cycle under pulse width modulation driving conditions may cause a notable temperature variation and on the other hand also effects due to the non-linearity between the blue radiant flux and the current have to be considered for the thermal load of the CCEs. PMID:24104432

  9. Serum chemistry and lipid profiles in neonatal beagle puppies fed homemade milk replacer formulas.

    PubMed

    Chandler, M L; Miller, E; Olson, P N; Ralston, S L

    1993-04-01

    Milk replacer formulas based on cow's milk and egg yolks are frequently recommended for use in neonatal puppies. These formulas are lower in protein, kilocalories, calcium, and phosphorus than bitch's milk. In addition, the cholesterol content is greater than bitch's milk. The effect of feeding these formulas on serum chemistry profiles, lipid profiles, and alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme profiles of 5-week-old beagle puppies was studied. Three groups of beagle puppies were fed bitch's milk (control) (n = 18), a homemade milk-egg-oil formula (Formula 1) (n = 18), or a homemade milk-egg-oil formula supplemented with additional calcium and phosphorous (Formula 2) (n = 18). Concentrations of serum urea nitrogen, albumin, and total CO2 were lower (P < 0.05), and concentrations of serum phosphorus, globulins, sodium, chloride, and cholesterol were higher (P < 0.05) in formula-fed puppies than bitch-fed puppies. Serum potassium concentration was lower in the puppies fed Formula 1 than in the control puppies (P < 0.05), and serum potassium concentration in the puppies fed Formula 2 was not significantly different from that in puppies fed Formula 1 or the control puppies. Total triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein2 cholesterol (HDL2) concentrations were similar in all three groups of puppies but the combined high density lipoprotein1 (HDL1) plus low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol fraction was higher (P < 0.05) in the formula-fed puppies and accounted for the majority of the increase in cholesterol. There were no differences (P < 0.05) in total serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) or bone-derived ALP (BALP) concentrations among the groups, however there was a higher (P < 0.05) serum concentration of liver-derived ALP (LALP) in the Formula 1-fed puppies. Feeding homemade egg and cow's milk-based puppy replacement formulas is not recommended for long term use. PMID:8467696

  10. Adaptive color rendering of maps for users with color vision deficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvitle, Anne Kristin; Green, Phil; Nussbaum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A map is an information design object for which canonical colors for the most common elements are well established. For a CVD observer, it may be difficult to discriminate between such elements - for example, it may be hard to distinguish a red road from a green landscape on the basis of color alone. We address this problem through an adaptive color schema in which the conspicuity of elements in a map to the individual user is maximized. This paper outlines a method to perform adaptive color rendering of map information for users with color vision deficiencies. The palette selection method is based on a pseudo-color palette generation technique which constrains colors to those which lie on the boundary of a reference object color gamut. A user performs a color vision discrimination task, and based on the results of the test, a palette of colors is selected using the pseudo-color palette generation method. This ensures that the perceived difference between palette elements is high but which retains the canonical color of well-known elements as far as possible. We show examples of color palettes computed for a selection of normal and CVD observers, together with maps rendered using these palettes.

  11. On the distributed approximation of edge coloring

    SciTech Connect

    Panconesi, A.

    1994-12-31

    An edge coloring of a graph G is an assignment of colors to the edges such that incident edges always have different colors. The edge coloring problem is to find an edge coloring with the aim of minimizing the number of colors used. The importance of this problem in distributed computing, and computer science generally, stems from the fact that several scheduling and resource allocation problems can be modeled as edge coloring problems. Given that determining an optimal (minimal) coloring is an NP-hard problem this requirement is usually relaxed to consider approximate, hopefully even near-optimal, colorings. In this talk, we discuss a distributed, randomized algorithm for the edge coloring problem that uses (1 + o(1)){Delta} colors and runs in O(log n) time with high probability ({Delta} denotes the maximum degree of the underlying network, and n denotes the number of nodes). The algorithm is based on a beautiful probabilistic strategy called the Rodl nibble. This talk describes joint work with Devdatt Dubhashi of the Max Planck Institute, Saarbrucken, Germany.

  12. Improvement of color reproduction in color digital holography by using spectral estimation technique.

    PubMed

    Xia, Peng; Shimozato, Yuki; Ito, Yasunori; Tahara, Tatsuki; Kakue, Takashi; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Nishio, Kenzo; Ura, Shogo; Kubota, Toshihiro; Matoba, Osamu

    2011-12-01

    We propose a color digital holography by using spectral estimation technique to improve the color reproduction of objects. In conventional color digital holography, there is insufficient spectral information in holograms, and the color of the reconstructed images depend on only reflectances at three discrete wavelengths used in the recording of holograms. Therefore the color-composite image of the three reconstructed images is not accurate in color reproduction. However, in our proposed method, the spectral estimation technique was applied, which has been reported in multispectral imaging. According to the spectral estimation technique, the continuous spectrum of object can be estimated and the color reproduction is improved. The effectiveness of the proposed method was confirmed by a numerical simulation and an experiment, and, in the results, the average color differences are decreased from 35.81 to 7.88 and from 43.60 to 25.28, respectively. PMID:22193005

  13. HPLC-DAD-MS Profiling of Polyphenols Responsible for the Yellow-Orange Color in Apple Juices of Different French Cider Apple Varieties.

    PubMed

    Le Deun, Erell; Van der Werf, Remmelt; Le Bail, Gildas; Le Quéré, Jean-Michel; Guyot, Sylvain

    2015-09-01

    The pigments responsible for the yellow-orange coloration of apple juices have remained largely unknown up to now. Four French cider apple juices were produced in conditions similar to those used in the cider-making industry. The oxidized juices, characterized using the CIE L a b parameters, displayed various colors depending on the apple variety and native phenolic composition. HPLC-DAD-MS revealed contrasting pigment profiles related to oxidized tanning and nontanning molecules. The latter were divided into two groups according to their polarity and their visible spectra. With regard to phenolic classes, flavanol monomers and hydroxycinnamic acids played an essential role in the formation of oxidation products. Interestingly, dihydrochalcones appeared to include precursors of some yellow compounds. Indeed, the yellow pigment phloretin xyloglucoside oxidation product (PXGOPj), derived from phloretin xyloglucoside, was clearly identified in apple juices as a xyloglucose analogue of the yellow pigment phloridzin oxidation product (POPj), previously characterized in a model solution by Le Guernevé et al. (Tetrahedron Lett. 2004, 45 (35), 6673-6677). PMID:25984746

  14. [Infant formulas and soy protein-based formulas: current data].

    PubMed

    Bocquet, A; Bresson, J L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M L; Ghisolfi, J; Goulet, O; Putet, G; Rieu, D; Turck, D; Vidailhet, M

    2001-11-01

    For many years soy bean-based formulas (SBBF) were the only dietary product used for infants with cow's milk intolerance. At the present time, their place in infant nutrition is reduced as a result of the availability of new dietary products without lactose and/or cow's milk proteins and the recognition of soy bean protein allergy. There is no evidence that SBBF have any efficiency in infant colic. SBBF have no indication in the prevention of allergy, nor in premature infants' nutrition. Their main indication is the feeding of infants of vegetarian parents who do not want to use cow's milk products. Studies have shown that SBBF contain large quantities of phytoestrogens, particularly isoflavone. Because of experimental data suggesting a possible deleterious effect of phytoestrogens on the neuroendocrine maturation, the reduction of their content in SBBF must be considered. PMID:11760676

  15. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, Minoru; Watson, E. Bruce; Acocella, John

    1986-01-01

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

  16. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

    1986-11-04

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

  17. Angular momentum and mass formulas for rotating stationary quasiblack holes

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2009-02-15

    We consider the quasiblack hole limit of a stationary body when its boundary approaches its own gravitational radius, i.e., its quasihorizon. It is shown that there exists a perfect correspondence between the different mass contributions and the mass formula for quasiblack and black holes in spite of the difference in derivation and meaning of the formulas in both cases. For extremal quasiblack holes the finite surface stresses give zero contribution to the total mass. Analogous properties are derived for the angular momentum.

  18. Color-Function Categories that Prime Infants to Use Color Information in an Object Individuation Task

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Teresa; Woods, Rebecca; Chapa, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    There is evidence for developmental hierarchies in the type of information to which infants attend when reasoning about objects. Investigators have questioned the origin of these hierarchies and how infants come to identify new sources of information when reasoning about objects. The goal of the present experiments was to shed light on this debate by identifying conditions under which infants’ sensitivity to color information, which is slow to emerge, could be enhanced in an object individuation task. The outcome of Experiment 1 confirmed and extended previous reports that 9.5-month-olds can be primed, through exposure to events in which the color of an object predicts its function, to attend to color differences in a subsequent individuation task. The outcomes of Experiments 2 to 4 revealed age-related changes in the nature of the representations that support color priming. This is exemplified by three main findings. First, the representations that are formed during the color-function events are relatively specific. That is, infants are primed to use the color difference seen in the color-function events to individuate objects in the test events, but not other color differences. Second, 9.5-month-olds can be led to form more abstract event representations, and then generalize to other colors in the test events if they are shown multiple pairs of colors in the color-function events. Third, slightly younger 9-month-olds also can be led to form more inclusive categories with multiple color pairs, but only when they are allowed to directly compare the exemplars in each color pair during the present events. These results shed light on the development of categorization abilities, cognitive mechanisms that support color-function priming, and the kinds of experiences that can increase infants’ sensitivity to color information. PMID:18378222

  19. The design and research of anti-color-noise chaos M-ary communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yongqing; Li, Xingyuan; Li, Yanan; Zhang, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Previously a novel chaos M-ary digital communication method based on spatiotemporal chaos Hamilton oscillator has been proposed. Without chaos synchronization circumstance, it has performance improvement in bandwidth efficiency, transmission efficiency and anti-white-noise performance compared with traditional communication method. In this paper, the channel noise influence on chaotic modulation signals and the construction problem of anti-color-noise chaotic M-ary communication system are studied. The formula of zone partition demodulator's boundary in additive white Gaussian noise is derived, besides, the problem about how to determine the boundary of zone partition demodulator in additive color noise is deeply studied; Then an approach on constructing anti-color-noise chaos M-ary communication system is proposed, in which a pre-distortion filter is added after the chaos baseband modulator in the transmitter and whitening filter is added before zone partition demodulator in the receiver. Finally, the chaos M-ary communication system based on Hamilton oscillator is constructed and simulated in different channel noise. The result shows that the proposed method in this paper can improve the anti-color-noise performance of the whole communication system compared with the former system, and it has better anti-fading and resisting disturbance performance than Quadrature Phase Shift Keying system.

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on lipoxygenases, trypsin inhibitor, raffinose family oligosaccharides and nutritional factors of different seed coat colored soybean (Glycine max L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Dixit, Amit; Kumar, Vineet; Rani, Anita; Manjaya, J. G.; Bhatnagar, Deepak

    2011-04-01

    Three soybean genotypes Kalitur, Hara soya and NRC37 with black, green and yellow seed coat color, respectively, were gamma irradiated at 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0 kGy and tested for antinutritional and nutritional factors. Gamma irradiation at all doses reduced the level of lipoxygenase isomers, trypsin inhibitor (TI) and ascorbic acid in all the 3 soybean genotypes as compared to the unirradiated control. However, irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy increased the sucrose content of the soybean genotypes. No significant change was observed in oil, protein fatty acids and total tocopherol content of the 3 genotypes at any irradiation dose. It is suggested that inhibition of lipoxygenase, reduction in TI and ascorbic acid may be due to the breakage or oxidation of protein structure by the gamma irradiation. Similarly, gamma irradiation at higher doses may break glycosidic linkages in oligosaccharides to produce more sucrose and decrease the content of flatulence causing oligosaccharides.

  1. Structural color and its interaction with other color-producing elements: perspectives from spiders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung, Bor-Kai; Blackledge, Todd A.; Shawkey, Matthew D.

    2014-09-01

    Structural color is produced when nanostructures called schemochromes alter light reflected from a surface through different optic principles, in contrast with other types of colors that are produced when pigments selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light. Research on biogenic photonic nanostructures has focused primarily on bird feathers, butterfly wings and beetle elytra, ignoring other diverse groups such as spiders. We argue that spiders are a good model system to study the functions and evolution of colors in nature for the following reasons. First, these colors clearly function in spiders such as the tarantulas outside of sexual selection, which is likely the dominant driver of the evolution of structural colors in birds and butterflies. Second, within more than 44,000 currently known spider species, colors are used in every possible way based on the same sets of relatively simple materials. Using spiders, we can study how colors evolve to serve different functions under a variety of combinations of driving forces, and how those colors are produced within a relatively simple system. Here, we first review the different color-producing materials and mechanisms (i.e., light absorbing, reflecting and emitting) in birds, butterflies and beetles, the interactions between these different elements, and the functions of colors in different organisms. We then summarize the current state of knowledge of spider colors and compare it with that of birds and insects. We then raise questions including: 1. Could spiders use fluorescence as a mechanism to protect themselves from UV radiation, if they do not have the biosynthetic pathways to produce melanins? 2. What functions could color serve for nearly blind tarantulas? 3. Why are only multilayer nanostructures (thus far) found in spiders, while birds and butterflies use many diverse nanostructures? And, does this limit the diversity of structural colors found in spiders? Answering any of these questions in the future

  2. A note of the simplified formula for atmospheric correction in satellite laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Q.; Tan, D.; Yang, F.

    The paper is a supplement of a previous article in which a simplified formula for atmospheric correction in satellite laser ranging was given. The deductive process of the formula is given in this paper, and in order to compare the accuracy between Marini's formula (1974) and the simplified one, numerical computations for different temperature, air pressure, and latitude have been done. It is shown that the difference between the two formulas is only 2 cm above 20 deg elevation, although the temperature factor has not been included in the equation.

  3. Combined effects of turbulence and different predation regimes on zooplankton in highly colored water-implications for environmental change in lakes.

    PubMed

    Härkönen, Laura; Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep; Hellén, Noora; Ojala, Anne; Horppila, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, predation is affected both by turbulence and visibility, but the combined effects are poorly known. Both factors are changing in lakes in the Northern Hemisphere; the average levels of turbulence are predicted to increase due to increasing wind activities, while water transparency is decreasing, e.g., due to variations in precipitation, and sediment resuspension. We explored experimentally how turbulence influenced the effects of planktivorous fish and invertebrate predators on zooplankton when it was combined with low visibility caused by high levels of water color. The study was conducted as a factorial design in 24 outdoor ponds, using the natural zooplankton community as a prey population. Perch and roach were used as vertebrate predators and Chaoborus flavicans larvae as invertebrate predators. In addition to calm conditions, the turbulent dissipation rate used in the experiments was 10-6 m2 s-3, and the water color was 140 mg Pt L-1. The results demonstrated that in a system dominated by invertebrates, predation pressure on cladocerans increased considerably under intermediate turbulence. Under calm conditions, chaoborids caused only a minor reduction in the crustacean biomass. The effect of fish predation on cladocerans was slightly reduced by turbulence, while predation on cyclopoids was strongly enhanced. Surprisingly, under turbulent conditions fish reduced cyclopoid biomass, whereas in calm water it increased in the presence of fish. We thus concluded that turbulence affects fish selectivity. The results suggested that in dystrophic invertebrate-dominated lakes, turbulence may severely affect the abundance of cladocerans. In fish-dominated dystrophic lakes, on the other hand, turbulence-induced changes in planktivory may considerably affect copepods instead of cladocerans. In lakes inhabited by both invertebrates and fish, the response of top-down regulation to turbulence resembles that in fish-dominated systems, due to intraguild

  4. Combined Effects of Turbulence and Different Predation Regimes on Zooplankton in Highly Colored Water—Implications for Environmental Change in Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Härkönen, Laura; Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep; Hellén, Noora; Ojala, Anne; Horppila, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, predation is affected both by turbulence and visibility, but the combined effects are poorly known. Both factors are changing in lakes in the Northern Hemisphere; the average levels of turbulence are predicted to increase due to increasing wind activities, while water transparency is decreasing, e.g., due to variations in precipitation, and sediment resuspension. We explored experimentally how turbulence influenced the effects of planktivorous fish and invertebrate predators on zooplankton when it was combined with low visibility caused by high levels of water color. The study was conducted as a factorial design in 24 outdoor ponds, using the natural zooplankton community as a prey population. Perch and roach were used as vertebrate predators and Chaoborus flavicans larvae as invertebrate predators. In addition to calm conditions, the turbulent dissipation rate used in the experiments was 10−6 m2 s−3, and the water color was 140 mg Pt L−1. The results demonstrated that in a system dominated by invertebrates, predation pressure on cladocerans increased considerably under intermediate turbulence. Under calm conditions, chaoborids caused only a minor reduction in the crustacean biomass. The effect of fish predation on cladocerans was slightly reduced by turbulence, while predation on cyclopoids was strongly enhanced. Surprisingly, under turbulent conditions fish reduced cyclopoid biomass, whereas in calm water it increased in the presence of fish. We thus concluded that turbulence affects fish selectivity. The results suggested that in dystrophic invertebrate-dominated lakes, turbulence may severely affect the abundance of cladocerans. In fish-dominated dystrophic lakes, on the other hand, turbulence-induced changes in planktivory may considerably affect copepods instead of cladocerans. In lakes inhabited by both invertebrates and fish, the response of top-down regulation to turbulence resembles that in fish-dominated systems, due to

  5. Light, Color, and Mirrors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiburzi, Brian; Tamborino, Laurie; Parker, Gordon A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes an exercise in which students can use flashlights, mirrors, and colored paper to discover scientific principles regarding optics. Addresses the concepts of angles of incidence and reflection, colored vs. white light, and mirror images. (WRM)

  6. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... things can cause tooth discoloration. The change in color may affect the entire tooth, or appear as spots or ... the tooth enamel. Your genes affect your tooth color. Other things ... include: Congenital diseases Environmental factors Infections ...

  7. Coloring with defect

    SciTech Connect

    Cowen, L.J.; Goddard, W.; Jesurum, C.E.

    1997-06-01

    An (ordinary vertex) coloring is a partition of the vertices of a graph into independent sets. The chromatic number is the minimum number of colors needed to produce such a partition. This paper considers a relaxation of coloring in which the color classes partition the vertices into subgraphs of degree at most d. d is called the defect of the coloring. A graph which admits a vertex coloring into k color classes, where each vertex is adjacent to at most d self-colored neighbors is said to be (k, d) colorable. We consider defective coloring on graphs of bounded degree, bounded genus, and bounded chromatic number, presenting complexity results and algorithms. For bounded degree graphs, a classic result of Lovasz yields a (k, [{Delta}/k]) coloring for graphs with E edges of maximum degree {Delta} in O({Delta}E) time. For graphs of bounded genus, (2, d), for d > 0 and (3,1)-coloring are proved NP-Complete, even for planar graphs. Results of easily can be transformed to (3,2) color any planar graph in linear time. We show that any toroidal graph is (3,2)- and (5, 1)-colorable, and quadratic-time algorithms are presented that find the colorings. For higher surfaces, we give a linear time algorithm to (3, {radical}12{gamma} + 6) color a graph of genus {gamma} > 2. It is also shown that any graph of genus {gamma} is ({radical}12{gamma}/(d + 1) + 6, d) colorable, and an O(d{radical}{gamma}E + V) algorithm is presented that finds the coloring. These bounds are within a constant factor of what is required for the maximum clique embeddable in the surface. Reductions from ordinary vertex coloring show that (k, d) coloring is NP-complete, and there exists an c > 0 such that no polynomial time algorithm can n{sup {epsilon}}-approximate the defective chromatic number unless P = NP. Most approximation algorithms to approximately color 3-colorable graphs can be extend to allow defects.

  8. Cosmological parallax-distance formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singal, Ashok K.

    2015-09-01

    The standard cosmological parallax-distance formula, as found in the literature, including text-books and reference books on cosmology, requires a correction. This correction stems from the fact that in the standard text-book derivation it has been ignored that any chosen baseline in a gravitationally bound system does not partake in the cosmological expansion. Though the correction is available in the literature for some time, the text-books still continue to use the older, incorrect formula, and its full implications are not yet fully realized. Apart from providing an alternate correct, closed-form expression that is more suitable and convenient for computations for certain limiting cases of FRW () world models, we also demonstrate how one can compute parallax distance for the currently favored flat-space accelerating-universe (, ) cosmologies. Further, we show that the correction in parallax distance at large redshifts could amount to a factor of three or even more. Moreover, even in an infinite universe the parallax distance does not increase indefinitely with redshift and that even the farthest possible observable point may have a finite parallax angle, a factor that needs to be carefully taken into account when using distant objects as the background field against which the parallax of a foreground object is to be measured. Some other complications that could arise in parallax measurements of a distant source, like that due to the deflection of incoming light by the gravitation field of the Sun and other planetary bodies in the solar system, are pointed out.

  9. Color rendition engine.

    PubMed

    Zukauskas, Artūras; Vaicekauskas, Rimantas; Vitta, Pranciškus; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Petrulis, Andrius; Shur, Michael

    2012-02-27

    A source of white light with continuously tuned color rendition properties, such as color fidelity, as well as color saturating and color dulling ability has been developed. The source, which is composed of red (R), amber (A), green (G), and blue (B) light-emitting diodes, has a spectral power distribution varied as a weighted sum of "white" RGB and AGB blends. At the RGB and AGB end-points, the source has a highest color saturating and color dulling ability, respectively, as follows from the statistical analysis of the color-shift vectors for 1269 Munsell samples. The variation of the weight parameter allows for continuously traversing all possible metameric RAGB blends, including that with the highest color fidelity. The source was used in a psychophysical experiment on the estimation of the color appearance of familiar objects, such as vegetables, fruits, and soft-drink cans of common brands, at correlated color temperatures of 3000 K, 4500 K, and 6500 K. By continuously tuning the weight parameter, each of 100 subjects selected RAGB blends that, to their opinion, matched lighting characterized as "most saturating," "most dulling," "most natural," and "preferential". The end-point RGB and AGB blends have been almost unambiguously attributed to "most saturating" and "most dulling" lighting, respectively. RAGB blends that render a highest number of colors with high fidelity have, on average, been attributed to "most natural" lighting. The "preferential" color quality of lighting has, on average, been matched to RAGB blends that provide color rendition with fidelity somewhat reduced in favor of a higher saturation. Our results infer that tunable "color rendition engines" can validate color rendition metrics and provide lighting meeting specific needs and preferences to color quality. PMID:22418343

  10. Coincident disruptive coloration

    PubMed Central

    Cuthill, Innes C.; Székely, Aron

    2008-01-01

    Even if an animal matches its surroundings perfectly in colour and texture, any mismatch between the spatial phase of its pattern and that of the background, or shadow created by its three-dimensional relief, is potentially revealing. Nevertheless, for camouflage to be fully broken, the shape must be recognizable. Disruptive coloration acts against object recognition by the use of high-contrast internal colour boundaries to break up shape and form. As well as the general outline, characteristic features such as eyes and limbs must also be concealed; this can be achieved by having the colour patterns on different, but adjacent, body parts aligned to match each other (i.e. in phase). Such ‘coincident disruptive coloration’ ensures that there is no phase disjunction where body parts meet, and causes different sections of the body to blend perceptually. We tested this theory using field experiments with predation by wild birds on artificial moth-like targets, whose wings and (edible pastry) bodies had colour patterns that were variously coincident or not. We also carried out an experiment with humans searching for analogous targets on a computer screen. Both experiments show that coincident disruptive coloration is an effective mechanism for concealing an otherwise revealing body form. PMID:18990668

  11. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  12. Soy-based and milk-based formula may have similar effects on EEG development in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether soy-based and milk-based infant formula had different effects on the development of brain physiological functions. Electroencephalographic data were collected from infants during quiet wakefulness (n = 71: 26 soy formula fed, 45 milk formula fed) at 3, ...

  13. Colors in mind: a novel paradigm to investigate pure color imagery.

    PubMed

    Wantz, Andrea L; Borst, Grégoire; Mast, Fred W; Lobmaier, Janek S

    2015-07-01

    Mental color imagery abilities are commonly measured using paradigms that involve naming, judging, or comparing the colors of visual mental images of well-known objects (e.g., "Is a sunflower darker yellow than a lemon"?). Although this approach is widely used in patient studies, differences in the ability to perform such color comparisons might simply reflect participants' general knowledge of object colors rather than their ability to generate accurate visual mental images of the colors of the objects. The aim of the present study was to design a new color imagery paradigm. Participants were asked to visualize a color for 3 s and then to determine a visually presented color by pressing 1 of 6 keys. We reasoned that participants would react faster when the imagined and perceived colors were congruent than when they were incongruent. In Experiment 1, participants were slower in incongruent than congruent trials but only when they were instructed to visualize the colors. The results in Experiment 2 demonstrate that the congruency effect reported in Experiment 1 cannot be attributed to verbalization of the color that had to be visualized. Finally, in Experiment 3, the congruency effect evoked by mental imagery correlated with performance in a perceptual version of the task. We discuss these findings with respect to the mechanisms that underlie mental imagery and patients suffering from color imagery deficits. PMID:25419823

  14. Colorimetric characterization of digital cameras with unrestricted capture settings applicable for different illumination circumstances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jingyu; Xu, Haisong; Wang, Zhehong; Wu, Xiaomin

    2016-05-01

    With colorimetric characterization, digital cameras can be used as image-based tristimulus colorimeters for color communication. In order to overcome the restriction of fixed capture settings adopted in the conventional colorimetric characterization procedures, a novel method was proposed considering capture settings. The method calculating colorimetric value of the measured image contains five main steps, including conversion from RGB values to equivalent ones of training settings through factors based on imaging system model so as to build the bridge between different settings, scaling factors involved in preparation steps for transformation mapping to avoid errors resulted from nonlinearity of polynomial mapping for different ranges of illumination levels. The experiment results indicate that the prediction error of the proposed method, which was measured by CIELAB color difference formula, reaches less than 2 CIELAB units under different illumination levels and different correlated color temperatures. This prediction accuracy for different capture settings remains the same level as the conventional method for particular lighting condition.

  15. Color vision deficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannorren, D.

    1982-04-01

    Congenital and acquired color vision defects are described in the context of physiological data. Light sources, photometry, color systems and test methods are described. A list of medicines is also presented. The practical social consequences of color vision deficiencies are discussed.

  16. Reimagining the Color Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Color wheels are a traditional project for many teachers. The author has used them in art appreciation classes for many years, but one problem she found when her pre-service art education students created colored wheels was that they were boring: simple circles, with pie-shaped pieces, which students either painted or colored in. This article…

  17. Sweetpotato Color Analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color is an important attribute that contributes to the appearance of a sweetpotato genotype. A consumer uses color, along with geometric attributes (e.g., gloss, luster, sheen, texture, opaqueness, shape), to subjectively evaluate the appearance of a sweetpotato root. Color can be quantified by t...

  18. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  19. Variational exemplar-based image colorization.

    PubMed

    Bugeau, Aurélie; Ta, Vinh-Thong; Papadakis, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of recovering a color image from a grayscale one. The input color data comes from a source image considered as a reference image. Reconstructing the missing color of a grayscale pixel is here viewed as the problem of automatically selecting the best color among a set of color candidates while simultaneously ensuring the local spatial coherency of the reconstructed color information. To solve this problem, we propose a variational approach where a specific energy is designed to model the color selection and the spatial constraint problems simultaneously. The contributions of this paper are twofold. First, we introduce a variational formulation modeling the color selection problem under spatial constraints and propose a minimization scheme, which computes a local minima of the defined nonconvex energy. Second, we combine different patch-based features and distances in order to construct a consistent set of possible color candidates. This set is used as input data and our energy minimization automatically selectsthe best color to transfer for each pixel of the grayscale image. Finally, the experiments illustrate the potentiality of our simple methodology and show that our results are very competitive with respect to the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:24235307

  20. Statistical pressure snakes based on color images.

    SciTech Connect

    Schaub, Hanspeter

    2004-05-01

    The traditional mono-color statistical pressure snake was modified to function on a color image with target errors defined in HSV color space. Large variations in target lighting and shading are permitted if the target color is only specified in terms of hue. This method works well with custom targets where the target is surrounded by a color of a very different hue. A significant robustness increase is achieved in the computer vision capability to track a specific target in an unstructured, outdoor environment. By specifying the target color to contain hue, saturation and intensity values, it is possible to establish a reasonably robust method to track general image features of a single color. This method is convenient to allow the operator to select arbitrary targets, or sections of a target, which have a common color. Further, a modification to the standard pixel averaging routine is introduced which allows the target to be specified not only in terms of a single color, but also using a list of colors. These algorithms were tested and verified by using a web camera attached to a personal computer.