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Sample records for color film

  1. Interference Colors in Thin Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Explains interference colors in thin films as being due to the removal, or considerable reduction, of a certain color by destructive inteference that results in the complementary color being seen. (GA)

  2. Digital Color in Cellulose Nanocrystal Films

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) form chiral nematic phases in aqueous suspensions that can be preserved upon evaporation of water. The resulting films show an intense directional coloration determined by their microstructure. Here, microreflection experiments correlated with analysis of the helicoidal nanostructure of the films reveal that the iridescent colors and the ordering of the individual nematic layers are strongly dependent on the polydispersity of the size distribution of the CNCs. We show how this affects the self-assembly process, and hence multidomain color formation in such bioinspired structural films. PMID:25007291

  3. Color film preservation system: Breadboard development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The development of an economically feasible system to prevent and/or substantially reduce the degradation of the color dyes of the retinal reflex images recorded on color slide films is discussed. Three different types of film storage systems were designed, fabricated, and tested. An extruded plastic cylindrical container was pressurized and no observable leakage occurred, indicating that long term storage is possible. An operational breadboard was fabricated. The system offers the capability to determine purging requirements to achieve various levels of oxygen concentration and precise leakage of various container configurations. The system has digitial display of oxygen content of the container, automatic control of the oxygen content as well as of the container to atmosphere pressure differential, and flow rate readout during purging.

  4. Color Imaging management in film processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremeau, Alain; Konik, Hubert; Colantoni, Philippe

    2003-12-01

    The latest research projects in the laboratory LIGIV concerns capture, processing, archiving and display of color images considering the trichromatic nature of the Human Vision System (HSV). Among these projects one addresses digital cinematographic film sequences of high resolution and dynamic range. This project aims to optimize the use of content for the post-production operators and for the end user. The studies presented in this paper address the use of metadata to optimise the consumption of video content on a device of user's choice independent of the nature of the equipment that captured the content. Optimising consumption includes enhancing the quality of image reconstruction on a display. Another part of this project addresses the content-based adaptation of image display. Main focus is on Regions of Interest (ROI) operations, based on the ROI concepts of MPEG-7. The aim of this second part is to characterize and ensure the conditions of display even if display device or display media changes. This requires firstly the definition of a reference color space and the definition of bi-directional color transformations for each peripheral device (camera, display, film recorder, etc.). The complicating factor is that different devices have different color gamuts, depending on the chromaticity of their primaries and the ambient illumination under which they are viewed. To match the displayed image to the aimed appearance, all kind of production metadata (camera specification, camera colour primaries, lighting conditions) should be associated to the film material. Metadata and content build together rich content. The author is assumed to specify conditions as known from digital graphics arts. To control image pre-processing and image post-processing, these specifications should be contained in the film's metadata. The specifications are related to the ICC profiles but need additionally consider mesopic viewing conditions.

  5. Free-Standing Photonic Crystal Films with Gradient Structural Colors.

    PubMed

    Ding, Haibo; Liu, Cihui; Ye, Baofen; Fu, Fanfan; Wang, Huan; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2016-03-23

    Hydrogel colloidal crystal composite materials have a demonstrated value in responsive photonic crystals (PhCs) via controllable stimuli. Although they have been successfully exploited to generate a gradient of color distribution, the soft hydrogels have limitations in terms of stability and storage caused by dependence on environment. Here, we present a practical strategy to fabricate free-standing PhC films with a stable gradient of structural colors using binary polymer networks. A colloidal crystal hydrogel film was prepared for this purpose, with continuously varying photonic band gaps corresponding to the gradient of the press. Then, a second polymer network was used to lock the inside non-close-packed PhC structures and color distribution of the hydrogel film. It was demonstrated that our strategy could bring about a solution to the angle-dependent structural colors of the PhC films by coating the surface with special microstructures. PMID:26962967

  6. Color infrared film as a negative material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pease, Robert W.

    1970-01-01

    Original problems encountered in endeavors to use color infraredfilm as a negative material have been overcome by a simple modification in processing. This makes more feasible the production of infrared color prints for field use and yields an infrared counterpart to Aero-Neg.

  7. Colored thin films for specific metal ion detection.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Caroline L; Chen, Mu-San; Price, Ronald R; Schoen, Paul E; Ligler, Frances S

    2004-08-15

    This paper describes the investigation of chitosan and poly(allylamine) (PAH) for the creation of a multi-film, color-based dipstick for the detection of metal ions in solution. Thin, colored films of chitosan and PAH cross-linked with hexamethylene 1,6-di(aminocarboxysulfonate) (HDACS) are created where color is due to film thickness and optical interference effects. The films are investigated for their ability to selectively detect aqueous metal ions via changes in thickness and/or color. Chitosan-HDACS films were selective for Cr(VI) over all other metal ions tested including Cr(acac)3 and Cr(NO3)3 x 9H2O, and PAH-HDACS films were selective for Cu(II) and Cu(I) salts over all other metal ions tested. The irreversible, selective changes due to metal ion solutions were not caused by varying the pH. Potomac River water was also tested using the two films, with results indicating the presence of Cu(II) in the aqueous sample. PMID:15382871

  8. Deep Reduced PEDOT Films Support Electrochemical Applications: Biomimetic Color Front

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Jose G.; Berrueco, Beatriz; Otero, Toribio F.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the literature accepts, despite many controversial results, that during oxidation/reduction films of conducting polymers (CPs) move from electronic conductors to insulators. Thus, engineers and device’s designers are forced to use metallic supports to reoxidize the material for reversible device work. Electrochromic front experiments appear as main visual support of the claimed insulating nature of reduced CPs. Here, we present a different design of the biomimetic electrochromic front that corroborates the electronic and ionic conducting nature of deep reduced films. The direct contact PEDOT metal/electrolyte and film/electrolyte was prevented from electrolyte contact until 1 cm far from the metal contact with protecting Parafilm®. The deep reduced PEDOT film supports the flow of high currents promoting reaction induced electrochromic color changes beginning 1 cm far from the metal-polymer electrical contact and advancing, through the reduced film, toward the metal contact. Reverse color changes during oxidation/reduction always are initiated at the film/electrolyte contact advancing, under the protecting film, toward the film/metal contact. Both reduced and oxidized states of the film demonstrate electronic and ionic conductivities high enough to be used for electronic applications or, as self-supported electrodes, for electrochemical devices. The electrochemically stimulated conformational relaxation model explains those results. PMID:25717472

  9. Deep Reduced PEDOT Films Support Electrochemical Applications: Biomimetic Color Front.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jose G; Berrueco, Beatriz; Otero, Toribio F

    2015-01-01

    Most of the literature accepts, despite many controversial results, that during oxidation/reduction films of conducting polymers (CPs) move from electronic conductors to insulators. Thus, engineers and device's designers are forced to use metallic supports to reoxidize the material for reversible device work. Electrochromic front experiments appear as main visual support of the claimed insulating nature of reduced CPs. Here, we present a different design of the biomimetic electrochromic front that corroborates the electronic and ionic conducting nature of deep reduced films. The direct contact PEDOT metal/electrolyte and film/electrolyte was prevented from electrolyte contact until 1 cm far from the metal contact with protecting Parafilm(®). The deep reduced PEDOT film supports the flow of high currents promoting reaction induced electrochromic color changes beginning 1 cm far from the metal-polymer electrical contact and advancing, through the reduced film, toward the metal contact. Reverse color changes during oxidation/reduction always are initiated at the film/electrolyte contact advancing, under the protecting film, toward the film/metal contact. Both reduced and oxidized states of the film demonstrate electronic and ionic conductivities high enough to be used for electronic applications or, as self-supported electrodes, for electrochemical devices. The electrochemically stimulated conformational relaxation model explains those results. PMID:25717472

  10. A method of determining spectral dye densities in color films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friederichs, G. A.; Scarpace, F. L.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical analysis technique called characteristic vector analysis, reported by Simonds (1963), is used to determine spectral dye densities in multiemulsion film such as color or color-IR imagery. The technique involves examining a number of sets of multivariate data and determining linear transformations of these data to a smaller number of parameters which contain essentially all of the information contained in the original set of data. The steps involved in the actual procedure are outlined. It is shown that integral spectral density measurements of a large number of different color samples can be accurately reconstructed from the calculated spectral dye densities.

  11. High color-rendering warm-white lamps using quantum-dot color conversion films.

    PubMed

    Lien, Jiun-Yi; Chen, Chih-Jung; Chiang, Ray-Kuang; Wang, Sue-Lein

    2016-07-11

    Colloidal quantum dots are promising next-generation phosphors to enhance the color rendition of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) while minimizing the brightness droop. In order to exploit the beneficial tunability of quantum dots for highly efficient devices, optimization and determination of the performance limit are of crucial importance. In this work, a facile preparation process of red-emission quantum dot films and simulation algorithm for fitting this film with two commercial LED flat lamps to the optimized performance are developed. Based on the algorithm, one lamp improves from cold-white light (8669 K) with poor color rendition (Ra = 72) and luminous efficacy (85 lm/W) to warm-white light (2867 K) with Ra = 90.8 and R9 = 74.9, and the other reaches Ra = 93 ∼ 95. Impressively, the brightness droop is only about 15 ∼ 20% and the luminous efficacy of 68 lm/W is achieved. Furthermore, our device shows reliability over 1000 hours with only PET (polyethylene-terephthalate) films as the barrier, indicating that this auxiliary red-emission film can be easily applied to improve the color rendition of most commercial LED flat lamps. PMID:27410891

  12. High color-rendering warm-white lamps using quantum-dot color conversion films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, Jiun-Yi; Chen, Chih-Jung; Chiang, Ray-Kuang; Wang, Sue-Lein

    2016-07-01

    Colloidal quantum dots are promising next-generation phosphors to enhance the color rendition of light-emitting devices (LEDs) while minimizing the brightness drop. In order to exploit the beneficial tunability of quantum dots for highly efficient devices, optimization and determination of the performance limit are of crucial importance. In this work, a facile preparation process of red-emission quantum dot films and simulation algorithm for fitting this film with two commercial LED flat lamps to the optimized performance are developed. Based on the algorithm, one lamp improves from cold-white light (8669 K) with poor color rendition ($R_{a}=72$) and luminous efficacy (85 lm/W) to warm-white light (2867 K) with $R_{a}=90.8$ and $R_{9}=74.9$, and the other reaches $R_{a}=93\\sim95$. Impressively, the brightness drop is only about $15\\sim20\\%$. Furthermore, our device shows reliability over 1000 hours with only PET (polyethylene-terephthalate) films as the barrier, indicating that this auxiliary red-emission film can be easily applied to improve the color rendition of most commercial LED flat lamps.

  13. Patterns, Instabilities, Colors, and Flows in Vertical Foam Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilixiati, Subinuer; Wojcik, Ewelina; Zhang, Yiran; Pearsall, Collin; Sharma, Vivek

    2015-03-01

    Foams find use in many applications in daily life, industry and biology. Examples include beverages, firefighting foam, cosmetics, foams for oil recovery and foams formed by pollutants. Foams are collection of bubbles separated by thin liquid films that are stabilized against drainage by the presence of surfactant molecules. Drainage kinetics and stability of the foam are strongly influenced by surfactant type, addition of particles, proteins and polymers. In this study, we utilize the thin film interference colors as markers for identifying patterns, instabilities and flows within vertical foam films. We experimentally study the emergence of thickness fluctuations near the borders and within thinning films, and study how buoyancy, capillarity and gravity driven instabilities and flows, are affected by variation in bulk and interfacial physicochemical properties dependent on the choice of constituents.

  14. Influence of colorant and film thickness on thermal aging characteristics of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuterio, Giselle Lou D.; Pajarito, Bryan B.; Domingo, Carla Marie C.; Lim, Anna Patricia G.

    2016-05-01

    Functional, lightweight, strong and cheap plastic bags incorporated with pro-oxidants undergo accelerated degradation under exposure to heat and oxygen. This work investigated the effect of colorant and film thickness on thermal aging characteristics of commercial oxo-biodegradable plastic bag films at 70 °C. Degradation is monitored through changes in infrared absorption, weight, and tensile properties of thermally aged films. The presence of carbonyl band in infrared spectrum after 672 h of thermal aging supports the degradation behavior of exposed films. Results show that incorporation of colorant and increasing thickness exhibit low maximum weight uptake. Titanium dioxide as white colorant in films lowers the susceptibility of films to oxygen uptake but enhances physical degradation. Higher amount of pro-oxidant loading also contributes to faster degradation. Opaque films are characterized by low tensile strength and high elastic modulus. Decreasing the thickness contributes to lower tensile strength of films. Thermally aged films with colorant and low thickness promote enhanced degradation.

  15. Color Centers in Silic On-Doped Diamond Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedov, V. S.; Krivobok, V. S.; Khomich, A. V.; Ralchenko, V. G.; Khomich, A. A.; Martyanov, A. K.; Nikolaev, S. N.; Poklonskaya, O. N.; Konov, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    Silicon-doped microcrystalline diamond films of 1 μm thickness were grown by chemical vapor deposition in microwave plasma from mixtures of methane-hydrogen-silane on substrates of aluminum nitride, tungsten, and silicon. The diamond films were found to contain optically active silicon vacancy (SiV) centers giving rise to the 737-nm band in the photoluminescence spectra. The spectral features of a newly discovered narrow band of comparable intensity at 720-722 nm were studied. It is shown that the band at 720-722 nm occurs in the photoluminescence spectra only in the presence of silica in the diamond, regardless of the substrate material. The temperature dynamics of the photoluminescence spectra in the range of 5-294 K were investigated. The possible nature and mechanisms of formation of the color centers responsible for the 720-722 nm band are discussed.

  16. Automatic recognition of light source from color negative films using sorting classification techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanger, Demas S.; Haneishi, Hideaki; Miyake, Yoichi

    1995-08-01

    This paper proposed a simple and automatic method for recognizing the light sources from various color negative film brands by means of digital image processing. First, we stretched the image obtained from a negative based on the standardized scaling factors, then extracted the dominant color component among red, green, and blue components of the stretched image. The dominant color component became the discriminator for the recognition. The experimental results verified that any one of the three techniques could recognize the light source from negatives of any film brands and all brands greater than 93.2 and 96.6% correct recognitions, respectively. This method is significant for the automation of color quality control in color reproduction from color negative film in mass processing and printing machine.

  17. Cross-cultural differences in color preferences: implication for international film distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung Jae

    2002-06-01

    This paper proposes the necessity of manipulating colors of movie contents to fit diverse audiences around the world. Since films are highly color-dependent messages, it is critical to understand how people in different cultures respond differently to color. In recent years, the international market for filmed entertainment has grown more than the U.S. market. However, a lack of research on audience preferences shows no constant guide for the motion picture industry. The film production stage is often disregarded to deliver the appropriate visual color contents for local audience when U.S. films are distributed to foreign markets. Therefore, it is assumed that it would cause distractions for local audiences and it could result in poor ticket sales. When the U.S. produced films are distributed in Asia, colors of original films are always shown without manipulation. It is common that when a U.S. manufactured car is imported to Japan, a driver seat is installed on the right side and also other parts are modified for local customers. Film development is also significantly dependent on audience behavior, so film content also needs to be localized for the different culture. This paper will only address a hypothesis of the implementation of color marketing methodology present in motion pictures.

  18. Controlled oxide films formation by nanosecond laser pulses for color marking.

    PubMed

    Veiko, Vadim; Odintsova, Galina; Ageev, Eduard; Karlagina, Yulia; Loginov, Anatoliy; Skuratova, Alexandra; Gorbunova, Elena

    2014-10-01

    A technology of laser-induced coloration of metals by surface oxidation is demonstrated. Each color of the oxide film corresponds to a technologic chromacity coefficient, which takes into account the temperature of the sample after exposure by sequence of laser pulses with nanosecond duration and effective time of action. The coefficient can be used for the calculation of laser exposure regimes for the development of a specific color on the metal. A correlation between the composition of the films obtained on the surface of stainless steel AISI 304 and commercial titanium Grade 2 and its color and chromacity coordinates is shown. PMID:25322009

  19. Investigation of PE blend films through CIE L*C*h color scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Yousefi, Ali A.; Ehsani, Morteza

    2010-06-01

    Different ratios of two types of polyethylene (HDPE and LDPE) were blended and then blown films of them were prepared. Color stimuli of the films on CIELCH color scale were investigated. Results on L* values for films indicated that presence more than 50% LDPE in the blend films causes higher L*—indices comparing to other corresponding blend films. Comparing CIE coordinates verified that amongst values of L*, C*, and h°, in this paper hue angle values has significant magnitude, which showed large and clear differences with changing composition in the blend films. Moreover, thermal analysis confirmed miscibility for blend films comprising more than 75% HDPE and immiscibility of other blend films.

  20. The use of Kodak aerochrome infrared color film, type 2443, as a remote sensing tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, G. R.; Bowen, R. L.; Gausman, H. W.

    1972-01-01

    An infrared color film, Kodak Aerochrome, type 2443, has replaced the 8443 film. The 2443 has lower contrast than the 8443 film, and allows deeper probing into areas that appear as solid black shadows on the 8443 film. The cyan layer of 2443 is approximately 1 1/2 stops slower, at a density of 1.4, than the yellow and magenta emulsion layers.

  1. Measurement of Spatial and Temporal Changes in Vegetation from Color-IR Film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. M.

    1971-01-01

    The use of color infrared film to measure spatial and temporal changes in vegetation is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) selection of the sensor, (2) collection of the data, and (3) analysis of the data. The effects of climatology and meteorological parameters on interpretation of the data are analyzed. It is concluded that the color infrared film will enhance the imagery of green plants and will accentuate differences between plants.

  2. Bioinspired Non-iridescent Structural Color from Polymer Blend Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nallapaneni, Asritha; Shawkey, Matthew; Karim, Alamgir

    Colors exhibited in biological species are either due to natural pigments, sub-micron structural variation or both. Structural colors thus exhibited can be iridescent (ID) or non-iridescent (NID) in nature. NID colors originate due to interference and coherent scattering of light with quasi-ordered micro- and nano- structures. Specifically, in Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis) these nanostructures develop as a result of phase separation of β-keratin from cytoplasm present in cells. We replicate these structures via spinodal blend phase separation of PS-PMMA thin films. Colors of films vary from ultraviolet to blue. Scattering of UV-visible light from selectively leeched phase separated blends are studied in terms of varying domain spacing (200nm to 2 μm) of film. We control these parameters by tuning annealing time and temperature. Angle-resolved spectroscopy studies suggest that the films are weakly iridescent and scattering from phase-separated films is more diffused when compared to well-mixed films. This study offers solutions to several color-based application in paints and coatings industry.

  3. Thin film polarizer and color filter based on photo-polymerizable nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadimasoudi, Mohammad; Neyts, Kristiaan; Beeckman, Jeroen

    2015-03-01

    We present a method to fabricate a thin film color filter based on a mixture of photo-polymerizable liquid crystal and chiral dopant. A chiral nematic liquid crystal layer reflects light for a certain wavelength interval Δλ (= Δn.P) with the period and Δn the birefringence of the liquid crystal. The reflection band is determined by the chiral dopant concentration. The bandwidth is limited to 80nm and the reflectance is at most 50% for unpolarized incident light. The thin color filter is interesting for innovative applications like polarizer-free reflective displays, polarization-independent devices, stealth technologies, or smart switchable reflective windows to control solar light and heat. The reflected light has strong color saturation without absorption because of the sharp band edges. A thin film polarizer is developed by using a mixture of photo-polymerizable liquid crystal and color-neutral dye. The fabricated thin film absorbs light that is polarized parallel to the c axis of the LC. The obtained polarization ratio is 80% for a film of only 12 μm. The thin film polarizer and the color filter feature excellent film characteristics without domains and can be detached from the substrate which is useful for e.g. flexible substrates.

  4. Highly conductive and flexible color filter electrode using multilayer film structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jun Hee; Kim, Dong-Young; Kim, Dohong; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a high performance flexible component that serves as a color filter and an electrode simultaneously is suggested. The suggested highly conductive and flexible color filter electrode (CFE) has a multilayer film structure composed of silver (Ag) and tungsten trioxide (WO3). The CFE maintained its color filtering capability even when the films were bent on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. Low sheet resistance of the CFE was obtained using WO3 as a bridge layer that connects two Ag layers electrically. The sheet resistance was less than 2 Ω/sq. and it was negligibly changed after bending the film, confirming the flexibility of the CFE. The CFE can be easily fabricated using a thermal evaporator and is easily patterned by photolithography or a shadow mask. The proposed CFE has enormous potential for applications involving optical devices including large area devices and flexible devices.

  5. Highly conductive and flexible color filter electrode using multilayer film structure

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jun Hee; Kim, Dong-Young; Kim, Dohong; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a high performance flexible component that serves as a color filter and an electrode simultaneously is suggested. The suggested highly conductive and flexible color filter electrode (CFE) has a multilayer film structure composed of silver (Ag) and tungsten trioxide (WO3). The CFE maintained its color filtering capability even when the films were bent on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. Low sheet resistance of the CFE was obtained using WO3 as a bridge layer that connects two Ag layers electrically. The sheet resistance was less than 2 Ω/sq. and it was negligibly changed after bending the film, confirming the flexibility of the CFE. The CFE can be easily fabricated using a thermal evaporator and is easily patterned by photolithography or a shadow mask. The proposed CFE has enormous potential for applications involving optical devices including large area devices and flexible devices. PMID:27373804

  6. Highly conductive and flexible color filter electrode using multilayer film structure.

    PubMed

    Han, Jun Hee; Kim, Dong-Young; Kim, Dohong; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a high performance flexible component that serves as a color filter and an electrode simultaneously is suggested. The suggested highly conductive and flexible color filter electrode (CFE) has a multilayer film structure composed of silver (Ag) and tungsten trioxide (WO3). The CFE maintained its color filtering capability even when the films were bent on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. Low sheet resistance of the CFE was obtained using WO3 as a bridge layer that connects two Ag layers electrically. The sheet resistance was less than 2 Ω/sq. and it was negligibly changed after bending the film, confirming the flexibility of the CFE. The CFE can be easily fabricated using a thermal evaporator and is easily patterned by photolithography or a shadow mask. The proposed CFE has enormous potential for applications involving optical devices including large area devices and flexible devices. PMID:27373804

  7. Storage of color films by means of a single-wavelength laser and SLMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Songcan; Shan, Bin; Wang, Fuping

    1996-09-01

    In this paper, a new storage approach of color films by means of a single-wavelength laser and SLMs is presented. A color film is illuminated with a beam of incoherent white light but filtered into red one. Then a frame on the film is imaged on a CdS liquid crystal SLM. The red coherent light of a He-Ne laser projects on the SLM as a reading light. So the output light of the SLM is also a red coherent light that carries the image information of the red incoherent light. By replacing filters with green and blue ones, three images of red coherent light can be produced step by step. A rainbow holographic recording geometry is arranged to store the three coherent light waves. Therefore, an image frame of the color film is stored in a rainbow hologram which can be preserved forever.

  8. Solubility, tensile, and color properties of modified soy protein isolate films.

    PubMed

    Rhim, J W; Gennadios, A; Handa, A; Weller, C L; Hanna, M A

    2000-10-01

    Protein solubility (PS) values of different soy protein isolate (SPI) films were determined in water, 0.01 N HCl, 0.01 N NaOH, 4 M urea, and 0.2 M 2-mercaptoethanol. Tensile and color (L, a, and b values) properties of films also were determined. Control films were cast from heated (70 degrees C for 20 min), alkaline (pH 10) aqueous solutions of SPI (5 g/100 mL of water) and glycerin (50% w/w of SPI). Additional films were cast after incorporation of dialdehyde starch (DAS) at 10% w/w of SPI or small amounts of formaldehyde in the film-forming solutions. Also, control film samples were subjected to heat curing (90 degrees C for 24 h), UV radiation (51.8 J/m(2)), or adsorption of formaldehyde vapors. PS of control films was highest (P < 0.05) in 2-mercaptoethanol, confirming the importance of disulfide bonds in SPI film formation. All treatments were effective in reducing (P < 0.05) film PS in all solvents. Both DAS and adsorbed formaldehyde rendered the protein in films practically insoluble in all solvents. Adsorption of formaldehyde vapors and heat curing also substantially increased (P < 0.05) film tensile strength from 8.2 to 15.8 or 14.7 MPa, respectively. However, heat curing decreased (P < 0.05) film elongation at break from 30 to 6%. Most treatments had small but significant (P < 0.05) effects on b color values, with DAS-containing films having the greatest (P < 0. 05) mean b value (most yellowish). Also, DAS-containing, heat-cured, and UV-irradiated films were darker, as evidenced by their lower (P < 0.05) L values, than control films. It was demonstrated that PS of SPI films can be notably modified through chemical or physical treatments prior to or after casting. PMID:11052759

  9. High Dynamic Range Image rendering of color in chameleons' camouflage using optical thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prusten, Mark

    2008-08-01

    High Dynamic Range Image (HDRI) rendering and animation of color in the camouflage of chameleons is developed utilizing thin film optics. Chameleons are a lizard species, and have the ability to change their skin color. This change in color is an expression of the physical and physiological conditions of the lizard, and plays a part in communication. The different colors that can be produced depending on the species include pink, blue, red, orange, green, black, brown and yellow. The modeling, simulation, and rendering of the color, which their skin incorporates, thin film optical stacks. The skin of a chameleon has four layers, which together produce various colors. The outside transparent layer has chromatophores cells, of two kinds of color, yellow and red. Next there are two more layers that reflect light: one blue and the other white. The innermost layer contains dark pigment granules or melanophore cells that influences the amount of reflected light. All of these pigment cells can rapidly relocate their pigments, thereby influencing the color of the chameleon. Techniques like subsurface scattering, the simulation of volumetric scattering of light underneath the objects surface, and final gathering are defined in custom shaders and material phenomena for the renderer. The workflow developed to model the chameleon's skin is also applied to simulation and rendering of hair and fur camouflage, which does not exist in nature.

  10. Enhanced electrochromic coloration of poly(3-hexylthiophene) films by electrodeposited Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nah, Yoon-Chae

    2013-05-01

    Au nanoparticles and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) composite films were prepared by electrodeposition of Au nanoparticles using pulse-current electrodeposition followed by the spin coating of P3HT and their enhanced electrochromic coloration was investigated. A relatively uniformed Au nanoparticle was obtained by the controlled electrodeposition on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate and plasmon absorption band of Au nanoparticles were observed. Optical and electrochemical properties of Au/P3HT composite films were compared with the pure P3HT films. The enhanced electrochromic absorption of the composite films was observed due to the surface plasmon resonance of the Au nanoparticles. PMID:23858881

  11. Color-neutral switchable mirrors based on magnesium-titanium thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, S.; Tajima, K.; Yamada, Y.; Okada, M.; Yoshimura, K.

    2007-06-01

    In an investigation of smart-window applications of switchable mirror thin films, Pd-capped magnesium-titanium thin films were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering. Their optical properties, switching durability and crystalline structures have been investigated. We show that Pd/Mg-Ti thin films with specific thicknesses are completely color-neutral in the transparent state and their optical switching properties are suitable for building and automobile window glass applications. The ternary hydrides of Mg(1-x)Tix thin films with Pd overlayers are identified by in situ X-ray diffraction measurements during a hydrogen gas loading of 4%. Pd/Mg(1-x)Tix thin film switchable mirrors show fast hydriding and dehydriding kinetics as compared to a Pd-capped pure Mg thin film due to the catalytic role of doped metallic Ti.

  12. [Effects of white organic light-emitting devices using color conversion films on electroluminescence spectra].

    PubMed

    Hou, Qing-Chuan; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Hua, Yu-Lin; Qi, Qing-Jin; Li, Lan; Yin, Shou-Gen

    2010-06-01

    The authors report a novel white organic light-emitting device (WOLED), which uses a strategy of exciting organic/ inorganic color conversion film with a blue organic light-emitting diode (OLED). The luminescent layer of the blue OLED was prepared by use of CBP host blended with a blue highly fluorescent dye N-BDAVBi. The organic/inorganic color conversion film was prepared by dispersing a mixture of red pigment VQ-D25 and YAG : Ce3+ phosphor in PMMA. The authors have achieved a novel WOLED with the high color stability by optimizing the thickness and fluorescent pigment concentration of the color conversion film. When the driving voltage varied between 6 and 14 V, the color coordinates (CIE) varied slightly from (0.354, 0.304) to (0.357, 0.312) and the maximum current efficiency is about 5.8 cd x A(-1) (4.35 mA x cm(-2)), the maximum brightness is 16 800 cd x m(-2) at the operating voltage of 14 V. PMID:20707129

  13. Aggregation-induced emission molecules in layered matrices for two-color luminescence films.

    PubMed

    Guan, Weijiang; Lu, Jun; Zhou, Wenjuan; Lu, Chao

    2014-10-14

    We fabricated two-color luminescence ultrathin films (UTFs) composed of the layered double hydroxide host-aggregation-induced emission guests by LBL assembly. The fabricated UTFs were simple, tunable, controllable and highly luminescent. Moreover, reversible thermochromic luminescence further exhibited their potential in practical applications. PMID:25154856

  14. Ag/Au bi-metallic film based color surface plasmon resonance biosensor with enhanced sensitivity, color contrast and great linearity.

    PubMed

    Li, Chung-Tien; Lo, Kun-Chi; Chang, Hsin-Yun; Wu, Hsieh-Ting; Ho, Jennifer H; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2012-01-01

    In wavelength surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor, the manipulation of SPR dispersion relation by Ag/Au bi-metallic film was first time implemented. Due to the enhanced resonant wavelength shift and the sharper SPR slope of using Ag/Au bi-metallic film, the illuminated color of reflection shows one order of magnitude greater contrast than conventional SPR biosensors. Such an Ag/Au bi-metallic film based color SPR biosensor (CSPRB) allows the detail bio-interactions, for example 100 nM streptavidin, to be distinguished by directly observing the color change of reflection through naked eyes rather than the analysis of spectrometer. In addition to the enhanced sensitivity and color contrast, this CSPRB also possesses a great linear detection range up to 0.0254 RIU, which leading to the application of point-of-care tests. PMID:22560104

  15. Method for retarding dye fading during archival storage of developed color photographic film. [inert atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, R. B.; Rhodes, C. M. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Dye fading during archival storage of developed color photographic film is retarded by placing the film in a sealed, opaque vault, introducing a dry, pressurized inert gas into the vault while the latter is vented, and sealing the vault after the air within the vault has been purged and replaced by the inert gas. Preferably, the gas is nitrogen; and the vault is stored at a temperature below room temperature to preserve the color photographic emulsions on the film contained within the vault. For short-term storage, sodium thiocyanate pads charged with water are placed within the vault. For long term storage, the interior of the vault is kept at a low relative humidity.

  16. Structurally colored biopolymer thin films for detection of dissolved metal ions in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathell, Matthew David

    Natural polymers, such as the polysaccharides alginate and chitosan, are noted sorbents of heavy metals. Their polymer backbone structures are rich in ligands that can interact with metal ions through chelation, electrostatics, ion exchange and nonspecific mechanisms. These water-soluble biopolymer materials can be processed into hydrogel thin films, creating high surface area interfaces ideal for binding and sequestering metal ions from solution. By virtue of their uniform nanoscale dimensions (with thicknesses smaller than wavelengths of visible light) polymer thin films exhibit structure-based coloration. This phenomenon, frequently observed in nature, causes the transparent and essentially colorless films to reflect light in a wide array of colors. The lamellar film structures act as one-dimensional photonic crystals, allowing selective reflection of certain wavelengths of light while minimizing other wavelengths by out-of-phase interference. The combination of metal-binding and reflective properties make alginate and chitosan thin films attractive candidates for analyte sensing. Interactions with metal ions can induce changes in film thicknesses and refractive indices, thus altering the path of light reflected through the film. Small changes in dimensional or optical properties can lead to shifts in film color that are perceivable by the unaided eye. These thin films offer the potential for optical sensing of toxic dissolved materials without the need for instrumentation, external power or scientific expertise. With the use of a spectroscopic ellipsometer and a fiber optic reflectance spectrometer, the physical and optical characteristics of biopolymer thin films have been characterized in response to 50 ppm metal ion solutions. It has been determined that metal interactions can lead to measurable changes in both film thicknesses and effective refractive indices. The intrinsic response behaviors of alginate and chitosan, as well as the responses of modified

  17. Use of color, color infrared, black and white films, and video systems in detecting health, stress, and disease in vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazquez, Carlos H.

    1991-02-01

    Ground and aerial experiments were conducted with color (NC) color infrared (CIR) and black and white film and video systems to compare the limitations! advantages of each method of image acquisition with photographs of natural vegetation including cypress stands wetlands and cultivated crops such as: tomatoes cucumbers and citrus. Image analysis with a Linear Measuring System (LMS) and a scanning densitometer were used to quantify healthy stressed and diseased foliage!canopy of each crop for comparisons with visual estimates. videography and photography were useful in delineating topographic features and location of vegetation. The NC video systems yielded images that distinctly separated healthy and dying foliage but did not compare with the CIR video or photography in outlining distinct areas of stress and disease. Aerial photography provided a synoptic view of the fields and cypress stands not otherwise possible. CIR images were easier to process with the LMS than NC video or photographic frames. CIR video and photographic systems produced clearer differences between healthy and stressed foliage. Spectral curves produced with the scanning densitometer correlated well with visual grading of health and stress. . 2.

  18. Structured metal thin film as an asymmetric color filter: the forward and reverse plasmonic halos

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fan; Burns, Michael J.; Naughton, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We observe asymmetric color filtering under unpolarized incidence in a structured metallic (Ag) film, where the center of an optically thick circular Ag disk surrounded by a step gap appears dark when observed from one side, and bright from the other. The latter situation corresponds to abnormally high optical transmission through the optically thick film. We explain this by a three-step process: coupling of photons to surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), wave interference of SPPs forming resonant cavity modes, and out-coupling from SPPs to photons. Full wave electromagnetic simulations based on the finite element method support our findings. These results may have potential applications in areas such as optical color filtering and biosensing via dielectric detection within the step gap plasmonic cavity. PMID:25434628

  19. Reclaim System Design of Indium Tin Oxide Thin-Film Removal from Color Filters of Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pa, Pai-Shan

    2008-09-01

    A newly design precision reclaim system using electrochemical machining as an etching process for indium tin oxide (ITO) thin-film removal from the color filter surface of a displays is presented. Through the ultra precise etching of the nanostructure, the semiconductor industry can effectively recycle defective products, thereby reducing production costs. A large gyration diameter of a cathode combined with a small gap width between the cathode and a workpiece takes less time for the same amount of ITO removed. An adequate feed rate of color filters combined with a sufficient electric power produces fast machining. Pulsed direct current and higher rotational speed of the cathode can improve the effects of dregs discharge and are advantageous to be combined with a high feed rate of workpieces. Electrochemical machining only requires a short time to easily and cleanly remove ITO films.

  20. Optical microcavities based on F2 color centers in lithium fluoride films: modification of spontaneous emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfigli, Francesca; Jacquier, Bernard; Montereali, Rosamaria; Moretti, Paul; Nichelatti, Enrico; Piccinini, M.; Rigneault, Herve; Somma, F.

    2003-04-01

    Lithium fluoride (LiF) films irradiated by low energy electrons were employed as active spacers in all-solid, dielectric optical microcavities emitting in the visible spectral range. We present the results of optical characterization of the spontaneous emission from F2 color centers embedded in a LiF layer confined inside a planar microcavity. These structures seem promising for the realization of novel kinds of solid-state miniaturized emitting devices.

  1. Enhanced coloration of a methylene blue film on fused quartz by mechanical brushing and bleaching by solvent vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Mutsuko; Kotani, Masahiro

    2005-05-01

    Broad visible absorption, peaked at ≈596 nm, of a methylene blue (MB) film prepared by dip coating on a quartz plate was found to increase significantly when the film surface was mechanically brushed. This coloration was nearly bleached by exposing the film to ethanol or water vapor. This treatment was reversible for 7-8 times. The enhanced coloration was ascribed to the destruction of the parallel alignment of the MB molecules in the original film by mechanical brushing. Spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the ordered structure was restored by treatment with solvent vapor. Similar phenomena were observed with several thiazine and oxazine dyes.

  2. Brilliant Structurally Colored Films with Invariable Stop-Band and Enhanced Mechanical Robustness Inspired by the Cobbled Road.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Wang, Fen; Wang, Lei; Lin, Ying; Zhu, Jianfeng

    2016-08-31

    Recently, structural colors have attracted great concentrations because the coloration is free from chemical- or photobleaching. However, the color saturation and mechanical robustness are generally competitive properties in the fabrication of PCs (photonic crystals) films. Besides, the structure of PCs and their derivatives are easy to be invaded by liquids and lead to band gap shifts due to the change of refractive index or periodicity. To solve those problems, we infiltrate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) into the intervals between regularly arrayed hollow SiO2 nanospheres, inspired by the cobbled road prepared by embedding stone in the bulk cement matrix. Consequently, the as-prepared PCs films show brilliant colors, invariable stop-bands, and excellent mechanical robustness. Moreover, the water contact angle even reached 166° after a sandpaper abrasion test. The combination of brilliant colors, invariable stop-bands, and excellent robustness is significant for potential application in paint and external decoration of architectures. PMID:27509171

  3. Electrochromic coloration efficiency of a-WO[sub 3[minus]y] thin films as a function of oxygen deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Cheong, H.M.; Tracy, C.E.; Mascarenhas, A.; Czanderna, A.W.; Deb, S.K. )

    1999-09-01

    We report on how electrochromic coloration is affected by oxygen deficient stoichiometries in sputtered amorphous tungsten oxide (a-WO[sub 3[minus]y]) films. The electrochromic coloration efficiency increases with increasing oxygen deficiency in (a-WO[sub 3[minus]y]) films. No coloration is observed in nearly stoichiometric WO[sub 3] films. Raman spectroscopic studies reveal that the number of W[sup 5+] states generated with lithium insertion increases with the oxygen deficiency. Furthermore, there are no Raman peaks resulting from W[sup 5+] states in lithiated a-WO[sub 3[minus]y] films with near perfect stoichiometry, which is consistent with the absence of electrochromic coloration in those films. We conclude that the coloration efficiency of a-WO[sub 3[minus]y] films depends on the number of the W[sup 5+] states generated by lithium insertion and that the oxygen deficiency plays an important role in generating the W[sup 5+] states with lithium insertion. [copyright] [ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  4. Mapping of terrain by computer clustering techniques using multispectral scanner data and using color aerial film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedes, H. W.; Linnerud, H. J.; Woolaver, L. B.; Su, M. Y.; Jayroe, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    Two clustering techniques were used for terrain mapping by computer of test sites in Yellowstone National Park. One test was made with multispectral scanner data using a composite technique which consists of (1) a strictly sequential statistical clustering which is a sequential variance analysis, and (2) a generalized K-means clustering. In this composite technique, the output of (1) is a first approximation of the cluster centers. This is the input to (2) which consists of steps to improve the determination of cluster centers by iterative procedures. Another test was made using the three emulsion layers of color-infrared aerial film as a three-band spectrometer. Relative film densities were analyzed using a simple clustering technique in three-color space. Important advantages of the clustering technique over conventional supervised computer programs are (1) human intervention, preparation time, and manipulation of data are reduced, (2) the computer map, gives unbiased indication of where best to select the reference ground control data, (3) use of easy to obtain inexpensive film, and (4) the geometric distortions can be easily rectified by simple standard photogrammetric techniques.

  5. Women of Color in Film and Using Short Film in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ernece B.

    This paper describes how director Spike Lee changed Hollywood's representations of African Americans in a dramatic way. He returned to traditions of early African American filmakers like Oscar Michaux by casting all-black movies. In his first film, "She's Gotta Have It", he broke with the Hollywood tradition of using a classic beauty type as his…

  6. Electroluminescence of different colors from polycation/CdTe nanocrystal self-assembled films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Mingyuan; Lesser, Constanze; Kirstein, Stefan; Möhwald, Helmuth; Rogach, Andrey L.; Weller, Horst

    2000-03-01

    Water soluble thiol capped CdTe nanocrystals are assembled into ultrathin films in combination with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) by the self-assembly method of layer-by-layer adsorption of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. Electroluminescent devices, which produce different color emissions, are fabricated by sandwiching CdTe/PDDA films between indium-tin-oxide (ITO) and aluminum electrodes using CdTe nanocrystals of different sizes. It is shown that the electroluminescence (EL) spectra of the CdTe/polymer films are nearly identical to the photoluminescence spectra of the corresponding CdTe nanocrystals in aqueous solutions. The devices produce room-light visible light output with an external quantum efficiency up to 0.1%. Light emission is observed at current densities of 10 mA/cm2 and at low onset voltages of 2.5-3.5 V, which depends on the thickness of the film indicating field-dependent current injection. A variation of the EL efficiency with the size of the CdTe particles is observed and explained by the size dependent shift of the CdTe energy levels with respect to the work function of the electron injecting Al electrode. This is confirmed by the behavior of two-layer devices prepared from two differently sized CdTe particles being spatially separated, i.e., one size CdTe near ITO and the other size CdTe near Al by using the self-assembly method.

  7. White and full color upconversion film-on-glass displays driven by a single 978 nm laser.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiumei; Castellano-Hernández, Elena; Hernández-Rueda, Javier; Solís, Javier; Zaldo, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    White and full-color displays based on upconversion (UC) processes in multilayered NaLu₁-x-yYbxTmy(WO₄)₂/NaLu₁-x-zYbxHoz(WO₄)₂ films deposited on 20 × 20 mm² Pyrex glass substrates are demonstrated by scanning with a 978 nm focused beam from a diode laser. Moreover, spatially resolved red, green and blue pixels are selected by focusing the excitation light at different depths on three stacked films with compositions individually optimized for UC emission of each fundamental color. The highest temperature used in synthesis/deposition process was 580 °C allowing the use of glass substrates. PMID:25321986

  8. Effect of various de-anodizing techniques on the surface stability of non-colored and colored nanoporous AAO films in acidic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Ahmed M.; Shehata, Omnia S.; Heakal, Fakiha El-Taib

    2015-12-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) is well known as an important nanostructured material, and a useful template in the fabrication of nanostructures. Nanoporous anodic alumina (PAA) with high open porosity was prepared by adopting three de-anodizing regimes following the first anodizing step and preceding the second one. The de-anodizing methods include electrolytic etching (EE) and chemical etching using either phosphoric acid (PE) or sodium hydroxide (HE) solutions. Three of the obtained AAO samples were black colored by electrodeposition of copper nanoparticles in their pores. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization techniques were used to characterize the electrochemical performance of the two sets of the prepared samples. In general, the data obtained in aggressive aerated 0.5 M HCl solution demonstrated dissimilar behavior for the three prepared samples despite that the second anodizing step was the same for all of them. The data indicated that the resistance and thickness of the inner barrier part of nano-PAA film, are the main controlling factors determining its stability. On the other hand, coloring the film decreased its stability due to the galvanic effect. The difference in the electrochemical behavior of the three colored samples was discussed based on the difference in both the pore size and thickness of the outer porous part of PAA film as supported by SEM, TEM and cross-sectional micrographs. These results can thus contribute for better engineering applications of nanoporous AAO.

  9. Application of a color scanner for 60Co high dose rate brachytherapy dosimetry with EBT radiochromic film

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Mahdi; Toossi, Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni; Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; Roodi, Shahram Bayani; Meigooni, Ali Soleimani

    2012-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of a color scanner as a radiochromic film reader in two dimensional dosimetry around a high dose rate brachytherapy source. Materials and methods A Microtek ScanMaker 1000XL film scanner was utilized for the measurement of dose distribution around a high dose rate GZP6 60Co brachytherapy source with GafChromic® EBT radiochromic films. In these investigations, the non-uniformity of the film and scanner response, combined, as well as the films sensitivity to scanner’s light source was evaluated using multiple samples of films, prior to the source dosimetry. The results of these measurements were compared with the Monte Carlo simulated data using MCNPX code. In addition, isodose curves acquired by radiochromic films and Monte Carlo simulation were compared with those provided by the GZP6 treatment planning system. Results Scanning of samples of uniformly irradiated films demonstrated approximately 2.85% and 4.97% nonuniformity of the response, respectively in the longitudinal and transverse directions of the film. Our findings have also indicated that the film response is not affected by the exposure to the scanner’s light source, particularly in multiple scanning of film. The results of radiochromic film measurements are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo calculations (4%) and the corresponding dose values presented by the GZP6 treatment planning system (5%). Conclusions The results of these investigations indicate that the Microtek ScanMaker 1000XL color scanner in conjunction with GafChromic EBT film is a reliable system for dosimetric evaluation of a high dose rate brachytherapy source. PMID:23411947

  10. [Improved color purity of green OLED device based on Au thin film].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Fei; Zhao, Su-Ling; Xu, Zheng

    2014-04-01

    Au was used as anode in some kind of organic electroluminescent devices. Sometimes transparent Au electrodes are required, which means that the thickness of Au electrode should be as thin as possible. Therefore, two metals together forming an electrode become a choice. In the present paper, translucent Au/Al layer was inserted to anode side, and OLED device with the structure of ITO/Al (16 nm)/Au (10 nm)/TPD (30 nm)/AlQ (30 nm)/LiF (0.5 nm)/Al was prepared. There is a spectral narrowing phenomenon on the device ITO/TPD (30 nm)/AlQ (30 nm)/LiF (0. 5 nm)/Al, and through analysis and experiment it was found that this phenomenon comes from selective permeability to light of Au thin film rather than the microcavity effect. The device maintains wide viewing angle, without the angular dependence. And the color purity of device with Au thin film is improved. PMID:25007596

  11. Atomic and electronic aspects of the coloration mechanism of gasochromic Pt/Mo-modified V2O5 smart films: an in situ X-ray spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying-Rui; Hsu, Hsin-Hua; Chen, Jeng-Lung; Chang, Han-Wei; Chen, Chi-Liang; Chou, Wu-Ching; Dong, Chung-Li

    2016-02-21

    In this work, gasochromic pristine and Mo-modified V2O5 thin films were prepared by the sol-gel spin coating method. Both films exhibit excellent gasochromic coloration. Synchrotron grazing incidence X-ray diffraction reveals that the Mo-modified V2O5 thin film is more amorphous than the pristine V2O5 thin film. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was utilized to elucidate the modifications of the local electronic and atomic structures that are caused by Mo. In situ soft-XAS and in situ hard-XAS were performed to monitor the effect of the adsorption of dihydrogen on the charge state of vanadium and local atomic rearrangement in the gasochromic thin films. The gasochromic V2O5 film has a significantly pyramid-like oxygen-coordinated environment. However, the Mo-modified film exhibits mixed pyramid- and octahedral-like structures. Analytic results indicate that upon gasochromic coloration, adsorption of hydrogen adds electrons to the V 3d t2g orbital, lowering the charge state of vanadium. The films undergo structural modification before the valence is changed. The Mo-modified V2O5 film exhibits faster coloration because the apical V-O bond differs from that in the pristine V2O5 film. This in situ XAS allows real-time monitoring of changes in the element-specific local atomic structure during the gasochromic reaction and enables the elucidation of the gasochromic mechanism. PMID:26813863

  12. A Color Sound Film to Illustrate the Use of New Materials and Techniques in Teaching Emotionally and/or Neurologically Handicapped Minors. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, Donald; And Others

    A color sound film was developed to illustrate new materials and techniques of working with emotionally and/or neurologically handicapped students in special classes. Designed to stimulate discussion and self study, the film utilized actual students and their teachers, who had been using the new approaches as part of their usual instructional…

  13. Optical efficiency enhancement in white organic light-emitting diode display with high color gamut using patterned quantum dot film and long pass filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyo-Jun; Shin, Min-Ho; Kim, Young-Joo

    2016-08-01

    A new structure for white organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays with a patterned quantum dot (QD) film and a long pass filter (LPF) was proposed and evaluated to realize both a high color gamut and high optical efficiency. Since optical efficiency is a critical parameter in white OLED displays with a high color gamut, a red or green QD film as a color-converting component and an LPF as a light-recycling component are introduced to be adjusted via the characteristics of a color filter (CF). Compared with a conventional white OLED without both a QD film and the LPF, it was confirmed experimentally that the optical powers of red and green light in a new white OLED display were increased by 54.1 and 24.7% using a 30 wt % red QD film and a 20 wt % green QD film with the LPF, respectively. In addition, the white OLED with both a QD film and the LPF resulted in an increase in the color gamut from 98 to 107% (NTSC x,y ratio) due to the narrow emission linewidth of the QDs.

  14. Mechanism of Electrochemical Deposition and Coloration of Electrochromic V2O5 Nano Thin Films: an In Situ X-Ray Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying-Rui; Wu, Tzung-Zing; Chen, Chi-Liang; Wei, Da-Hau; Chen, Jeng-Lung; Chou, Wu-Ching; Dong, Chung-Li

    2015-12-01

    Electrochromic switching devices have elicited considerable attention because these thin films are among the most promising materials for energy-saving applications. The vanadium oxide system is simple and inexpensive because only a single-layer film of this material is sufficient for coloration. Vanadium dioxide thin films are fabricated by electrochemical deposition and cyclic voltammetry. Chronoamperometric analyses have indicated that the thin V2O5 film demonstrates faster intercalation and deintercalation of lithium ions than those of the thick V2O5 film, benefiting the coloration rate. Despite substantial research on the synthesis of vanadium oxides, the monitoring of electronic and atomic structures during growth and coloration of such material has not been thoroughly examined. In the present study, in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is employed to determine the electronic and atomic structures of V2O5 thin films during electrochemical growth and then electrochromic coloration. In situ XAS results demonstrate the growth mechanism of the electrodeposited V2O5 thin film and suggest that its electrochromic performance strongly depends on the local atomic structure. This study improves our understanding of the electronic and atomic properties of the vanadium oxide system grown by electrochemical deposition and enhances the design of electrochromic materials for potential energy-saving applications. PMID:26437657

  15. Electrochemical fabrication and optical properties of porous tin oxide films with structural colors

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Hua; Shu, Shiwei; Lee, Chris; Zeng, Shanshan; Lu, Zhouguang; Lu, Jian E-mail: yangli@cityu.edu.hk; Li, Yang Yang E-mail: yangli@cityu.edu.hk

    2014-10-21

    Photonic crystals with porous features not only provide the capability to control light but also enable structural colors that are environmentally sensitive. Here, we report a novel kind of tin oxide-based photonic crystal featuring periodically arranged air pores fabricated by the periodic anodization of tin foil. The existence of a photonic band gap in the fabricated structure is verified by its vivid color, and its reflective spectra which are responsive to environmental stimuli. Furthermore, the sample colors (i.e., the photonic band gap positions) can be easily adjusted by manipulating the anodization parameters. The theoretical modeling results of these tin oxide photonic crystals agree well with the reported experimental ones.

  16. Colored light-quality selective plastic films affect anthocyanin content, enzyme activities, and the expression of flavonoid genes in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit.

    PubMed

    Miao, Lixiang; Zhang, Yuchao; Yang, Xiaofang; Xiao, Jinping; Zhang, Huiqin; Zhang, Zuofa; Wang, Yuezhi; Jiang, Guihua

    2016-09-15

    The influence of colored light-quality selective plastic films (red, yellow, green, blue, and white) on the content of anthocyanin, the activities of the related enzymes and the transcripts of the flavonoid gene was studied in developing strawberry fruit. The results indicated that colored films had highly significant effects on the total anthocyanin content (TAC) and proportions of individual anthocyanins. Compared with the white control film, the red and yellow films led to the significant increase of TAC, while the green and blue films caused a decrease of TAC. Colored film treatments also significantly affected the related enzyme activity and the expression of structural genes and transcription factor genes, which suggested that the enhancement of TAC by the red and yellow films might have resulted from the activation of related enzymes and transcription factor genes in the flavonoid pathway. Treatment with red and yellow light-quality selective plastic films might be useful as a supplemental cultivation practice for enhancing the anthocyanin content in developing strawberry fruit. PMID:27080884

  17. The fabrication of glucose sensor by nanoporous silicon film and its switching characteristics on visible color light response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jia-Chuan; Hsu, Meng-Kai; Hou, Hsi-Ting; Wu, Jhe-Yuan

    2011-04-01

    An investigation of the visible light glucose sensor by utilized nanoporous (NPS) silicon material as a sensitive layer was proposed. In the experiments, all studied NPS films are prepared by electrochemical anodization technique and the obtained depth are about 3.3 μm. The peak of PL-intensity curve is 610 nm under normal air condition. Based on its high surface to volume ratio (SVR) and unique light emission properties, the studied NPS glucose sensor has a high sensitivity and stability. The visible light response on the film surface switches obviously between distinct colors with/without glucose treatment. As compared with conventional electronic glucose sensor, the highly sensitive and obvious light switching characteristics would be important to related detection. It has a potential application on small-size, low-cost, portable and electric-free sensor systems. After the immersion treatment of 1M glucose solution on the studied NPS samples, an obvious blue-shift behavior of PL-feature (from 610 to 560 nm) is observed at room temperature. The color switching can be read by a naked-eye easily.

  18. Physicochemical properties of soy protein isolate/carboxymethyl cellulose blend films crosslinked by Maillard reactions: color, transparency and heat-sealing ability.

    PubMed

    Su, Jun-Feng; Yuan, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Zhen; Wang, Xin-Yu; Lu, Xu-Zhen; Zhang, Li-Dan; Wang, Sheng-Bao

    2012-01-01

    Soy protein isolate (SPI) films have many potential applications in the biomaterial field as surgical dressings for burns, films for reduction of wound inflammation, and facial masks. The appearance and the sealing ability are important physicochemical properties that greatly influence consumer acceptance of such protein-based films. The aim of the present work was to investigate the chemical structure and the physical properties associated with color, transparency and heat-sealing ability for SPI/carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) blend films prepared by solution casting, with weight proportions 90/10, 80/20, 70/30 and 60/40. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra confirmed that Maillard reactions occurred between SPI and CMC. The Hunter color value (L, a, b) and transparency of films were affected by varying the proportions of SPI and CMC. With increasing degree of crosslinking of SPI and CMC, the yellow color of the films was diluted and transparency was improved. Peel strength and tensile strength measurements showed that the Maillard reactions had the main effect of enhancing the heat-sealing ability above the melting temperature. These results indicated that the structure and properties of SPI-based films could be modified and improved by blending with CMC. PMID:23177770

  19. Photoluminescence of radiation-induced color centers in lithium fluoride thin films for advanced diagnostics of proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Piccinini, M. Ampollini, A.; Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Bonfigli, F.; Libera, S.; Vincenti, M. A.; Montereali, R. M.; Ambrosini, F.; Nichelatti, E.

    2015-06-29

    Systematic irradiation of thermally evaporated 0.8 μm thick polycrystalline lithium fluoride films on glass was performed by proton beams of 3 and 7 MeV energies, produced by a linear accelerator, in a fluence range from 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 15} protons/cm{sup 2}. The visible photoluminescence spectra of radiation-induced F{sub 2} and F{sub 3}{sup +} laser active color centers, which possess almost overlapping absorption bands at about 450 nm, were measured under laser pumping at 458 nm. On the basis of simulations of the linear energy transfer with proton penetration depth in LiF, it was possible to obtain the behavior of the measured integrated photoluminescence intensity of proton irradiated LiF films as a function of the deposited dose. The photoluminescence signal is linearly dependent on the deposited dose in the interval from 10{sup 3} to about 10{sup 6 }Gy, independently from the used proton energies. This behavior is very encouraging for the development of advanced solid state radiation detectors based on optically transparent LiF thin films for proton beam diagnostics and two-dimensional dose mapping.

  20. Method and apparatus for enhanced evanescent fluorescence and color filtering using a high refractive index thin film coating

    DOEpatents

    Kao, Hung Pin; Schoeniger, Joseph; Yang, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    A technique for increasing the excitation and collection of evanescent fluorescence radiation emanating from a fiber optic sensor having a high refractive index (n.sub.r), dielectric thin film coating has been disclosed and described. The invention comprises a clad optical fiber core whose cladding is removed on a distal end, the distal end coated with a thin, non-porous, titanium dioxide sol-gel coating. It has been shown that such a fiber will exhibit increased fluorescence coupling due in part by 1) increasing the intensity of the evanescent field at the fiber core surface by a constructive interference effect on the propagating light, and 2) increasing the depth of penetration of the field in the sample. The interference effect created by the thin film imposes a wavelength dependence on the collection of the fluorescence and also suggests a novel application of thin films for color filtering as well as increasing collected fluorescence in fiber sensors. Collected fluorescence radiation increased by up to 6-fold over that of a bare fused silica fiber having a numerical aperture (N.A.) of O.6.

  1. Consider the Soil First. Narrative Guide for Color Slide Set and Film Strip C-183.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    The importance of soil, its use and suitability for agriculture and building construction, and the need for and value of soil surveys are emphasized in this pamphlet. It serves as the script for a set of color slides and filmstrip produced by the Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Each of the 73 frames is illustrated with…

  2. Electron beam induced coloration and luminescence in layered structure of WO{sub 3} thin films grown by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Karuppasamy, A.; Subrahmanyam, A.

    2007-06-01

    Tungsten oxide thin films have been deposited by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering of tungsten in argon and oxygen atmosphere. The as-deposited WO{sub 3} film is amorphous, highly transparent, and shows a layered structure along the edges. In addition, the optical properties of the as-deposited film show a steplike behavior of extinction coefficient. However, the electron beam irradiation (3.0 keV) of the as-deposited films results in crystallization, coloration (deep blue), and luminescence (intense red emission). The above changes in physical properties are attributed to the extraction of oxygen atoms from the sample and the structural modifications induced by electron bombardment. The present method of coloration and luminescence has a potential for fabricating high-density optical data storage device.

  3. Black Impressions of People-of-Color: A Functionalist Approach to Film Imagery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spigner, Clarence

    1991-01-01

    Popular movie depictions of racial minorities as dysfunctional help maintain the present race-linked social stratification by instilling a sense of social disharmony and justifying continuing racial oppression. The enthnocentric bias of the majority of films reinforces stereotypical perceptions of minorities and legitimizes the status quo of white…

  4. Gel-based coloration technique for the submillimeter-scale imaging of labile phosphorus in sediments and soils with diffusive gradients in thin films.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shiming; Wang, Yan; Xu, Di; Zhu, Chungang; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2013-07-16

    We report a highly promising technique for the high-resolution imaging of labile phosphorus (P) in sediments and soils in combination with the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT). This technique was based on the surface coloration of the Zr-oxide binding gel using the conventional molybdenum blue method following the DGT uptake of P to this gel. The accumulated mass of the P in the gel was then measured according to the grayscale intensity on the gel surface using computer-imaging densitometry. A pretreatment of the gel in hot water (85 °C) for 5 d was required to immobilize the phosphate and the formed blue complex in the gel during the color development. The optimal time required for a complete color development was determined to be 45 min. The appropriate volume of the coloring reagent added was 200 times of that of the gel. A calibration equation was established under the optimized conditions, based on which a quantitative measurement of P was obtained when the concentration of P in solutions ranged from 0.04 mg L(-1) to 4.1 mg L(-1) for a 24 h deployment of typical DGT devices at 25 °C. The suitability of the coloration technique was well demonstrated by the observation of small, discrete spots with elevated P concentrations in a sediment profile. PMID:23763454

  5. High color rendering index of remote-type white LEDs with multi-layered quantum dot-phosphor films and short-wavelength pass dichroic filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hee Chang; Oh, Ji Hye; Do, Young Rag

    2014-09-01

    This paper introduces high color rendering index (CRI) white light-emitting diodes (W-LEDs) coated with red emitting (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphors and yellowish-green emitting AgIn5S8/ZnS (AIS/ZS) quantum dots (QDs) on glass or a short-wavelength pass dichroic filter (SPDF), which transmit blue wavelength regions and reflect yellow wavelength regions. The red emitting (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphor film is coated on glass and a SPDF using a screen printing method, and then the yellowish-green emitting AIS/ZS QDs are coated on the red phosphor (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu film-coated glass and SPDF using the electrospray (e-spray) method.To fabricate the red phosphor film, the optimum amount of phosphor is dispersed in a silicon binder to form a red phosphor paste. The AIS/ZS QDs are mixed with dimethylformamide (DMF), toluene, and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for the e-spray coating. The substrates are spin-coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to fabricate a conductive surface. The CRI of the white LEDs is improved through inserting the red phosphor film between the QD layer and the glass substrate. Furthermore, the light intensities of the multi-layered phosphor films are enhanced through changing the glass substrate to the SPDF. The correlated color temperatures (CCTs) vary as a function of the phosphor concentration in the phosphor paste. The optical properties of the yellowish-green AIS/ZS QDs and red (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphors are characterized using photoluminescence (PL), and the multi-layered QD-phosphor films are measured using electroluminescence (EL) with an InGaN blue LED (λmax = 450 nm) at 60 mA.

  6. Zr oxide-based coloration technique for two-dimensional imaging of labile Cr(VI) using diffusive gradients in thin films.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yu; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang; Miao, Lingzhan; Hou, Jun; Wang, Teng; Liu, Cui

    2016-10-01

    A novel Zr oxide diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT)-based measurement technique for high-resolution imaging of labile Cr (VI) is introduced in this study. The method is based on the diphenylcarbazide coloration technique for Cr (VI) combined with computer-imaging densitometry, which provides a relation between the accumulated mass of Cr (VI) and the grayscale intensity. The Zr oxide gels show good performance in reflecting the accurate measurement of Cr (VI), independent of the effects of pH, ionic strength, and PO4(3-) concentration. Settling of the Zr-oxide gel was identified as a simple and effective method to suppress leaching of the claret-colored compound out of the gel. In addition, the optimal volume of added coloration reagent was 125 times that of the binding gel and 30min was selected as the optimal time for the chromogenic reaction. The relationship between the accumulated Cr (VI) and grayscale intensity was analyzed under the optimized conditions. The Zr oxide DGT technique could also obviously reflect the heterogeneity of sediment. Consequently, Zr oxide DGT-based coloration is certified to be a robust and suitable tool for providing effective and high-resolution information on bioavailable Cr (VI). PMID:27320737

  7. Device to color modulate a stationary light beam gives high intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gantz, W. A.

    1966-01-01

    Signal controlled system color modulates a beam of light while also providing high intensity and a stationary beam, either collimated or focused. The color modulation acquired by the presented system can be compatible with any color film by employing color filters formed to provide a color wedge having a color distribution compatible with the films color sensitivity.

  8. A Color Motion Picture Film to Aid in the Recruitment of Prospective Teachers for Exceptional Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fudell, Stanley E.

    A 28-minute professional recruitment film aimed at teenagers, college freshmen and sophomores, women seeking a second career, teachers, and the lay public was developed to attract more candidates into special education teacher preparation. The film, which shows all types of handicapped children in classroom and camp settings, gives a positive…

  9. Solution-Grown ZnO Films toward Transparent and Smart Dual-Color Light-Emitting Diode.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaohu; Zhang, Li; Wang, Shijie; Chi, Dongzhi; Chua, Soo Jin

    2016-06-22

    An individual light-emitting diode (LED) capable of emitting different colors of light under different bias conditions not only allows for compact device integration but also extends the functionality of the LED beyond traditional illumination and display. Herein, we report a color-switchable LED based on solution-grown n-type ZnO on p-GaN/n-GaN heterojunction. The LED emits red light with a peak centered at ∼692 nm and a full width at half-maximum of ∼90 nm under forward bias, while it emits green light under reverse bias. These two lighting colors can be switched repeatedly by reversing the bias polarity. The bias-polarity-switched dual-color LED enables independent control over the lighting color and brightness of each emission with two-terminal operation. The results offer a promising strategy toward transparent, miniaturized, and smart LEDs, which hold great potential in optoelectronics and optical communication. PMID:27213523

  10. Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... rose in full bloom. If you have a color vision defect, you may see these colors differently than most people. There are three main kinds of color vision defects. Red-green color vision defects are the ...

  11. Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... rose in full bloom. If you have a color vision defect, you may see these colors differently than most people. There are three main kinds of color vision defects. Red-green color vision defects are the most ...

  12. Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... three color cone cells to determine our color perception. Color blindness can occur when one or more ... Anyone who experiences a significant change in color perception should see an ophthalmologist (Eye M.D.). Next ...

  13. Applying Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, David

    1984-01-01

    Most schools teach the triadic color system, utilizing red, blue, and yellow as primary colors. Other systems, such as additive and subtractive color systems, Munsell's Color Notation System, and the Hering Opponent Color Theory, can broaden children's concepts and free them to better choose color in their own work. (IS)

  14. The Technique of Film and Television Make-Up For Color and Black and White. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehoe, Vincent J-R

    This book is a complete guide to make-up for film and television productions. As such, it emphasizes how make-up will look under the lighting systems that filming requires. Beyond that, however, it is useful to those doing make-up in stage productions as well. It begins with discussions of facial anatomy and of the tools in the make-up kit. Then…

  15. Accompanying of parameters of color, gloss and hardness on polymeric films coated with pigmented inks cured by different radiation doses of ultraviolet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardi, Marcelo Augusto Gonçalves; Machado, Luci Diva Brocardo

    2012-09-01

    In the search for alternatives to traditional paint systems solvent-based, the curing process of polymer coatings by ultraviolet light (UV) has been widely studied and discussed, especially because of their high content of solids and null emission of VOC. In UV-curing technology, organic solvents are replaced by reactive diluents, such as monomers. This paper aims to investigate variations on color, gloss and hardness of print inks cured by different UV radiation doses. The ratio pigment/clear coating was kept constant. The clear coating presented higher average values for König hardness than pigmented ones, indicating that UV-light absorption has been reduced by the presence of pigments. Besides, they have indicated a slight variation in function of cure degree for the studied radiation doses range. The gloss loss related to UV light exposition allows inferring that some degradation occurred at the surface of print ink films.

  16. Process Techniques of 15-inch Full-Color High-Resolution Liquid Crystal Displays Addressed by a-Si Thin Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Kenichi; Tanaka, Yasuo; Honda, Kouichi; Tsutsu, Hiroshi; Koseki, Hideo; Hotta, Sadayoshi

    1992-12-01

    A 15 inch-diagonal-size full-color liquid crystal display (LCD) with 1152(× 3)× 900 pixels has been fabricated which enables a portable workstation with improved display performances. The process techniques used for this development are described, with special reference to metallization and dry etching. In multilevel metallization, Cr/Al interconnection is metallurgically undesirable. By contrast, the Cr/Ti/Al metal system provides excellent properties of contact resistivity and thermodynamical stability. Dry etching processes are developed for multilayered insulating films and metallization-related bilayers, namely SiO2/TaOx/SiNx/(i/n+)a-Si and a-Si/Ti, respectively. Fine patterning and easier stepcoverage of subsequently deposited layers are achieved.

  17. Complex chemical composition of colored surface films formed from reactions of propanal in sulfuric acid at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosol acidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Wyngarden, A. L.; Pérez-Montaño, S.; Bui, J. V. H.; Li, E. S. W.; Nelson, T. E.; Ha, K. T.; Leong, L.; Iraci, L. T.

    2014-11-01

    Particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40-80 wt %) in water. However, airborne measurements have shown that these particles also contain a significant fraction of organic compounds of unknown chemical composition. Acid-catalyzed reactions of carbonyl species are believed to be responsible for significant transfer of gas phase organic species into tropospheric aerosols and are potentially more important at the high acidities characteristic of UT/LS particles. In this study, experiments combining sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with propanal and with mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal at acidities typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored surface films (and solutions) that may have implications for aerosol properties. In order to identify the chemical processes responsible for the formation of the surface films, Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopies were used to analyze the chemical composition of the films. Films formed from propanal were a complex mixture of aldol condensation products, acetals and propanal itself. The major aldol condensation products were the dimer (2-methyl-2-pentenal) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, which was formed by cyclization of the linear aldol condensation trimer. Additionally, the strong visible absorption of the films indicates that higher order aldol condensation products must also be present as minor species. The major acetal species were 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trioxane and longer-chain linear polyacetals which are likely to separate from the aqueous phase. Films formed on mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal also showed evidence for products of cross-reactions. Since cross-reactions would be more likely than self-reactions under atmospheric conditions, similar reactions of aldehydes like propanal with common aerosol organic species like glyoxal and methylglyoxal

  18. Complex chemical composition of colored surface films formed from reactions of propanal in sulfuric acid at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosol acidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Wyngarden, A. L.; Pérez-Montaño, S.; Bui, J. V. H.; Li, E. S. W.; Nelson, T. E.; Ha, K. T.; Leong, L.; Iraci, L. T.

    2015-04-01

    Particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40-80 wt%) in water. However, airborne measurements have shown that these particles also contain a significant fraction of organic compounds of unknown chemical composition. Acid-catalyzed reactions of carbonyl species are believed to be responsible for significant transfer of gas phase organic species into tropospheric aerosols and are potentially more important at the high acidities characteristic of UT/LS particles. In this study, experiments combining sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with propanal and with mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal at acidities typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored surface films (and solutions) that may have implications for aerosol properties. In order to identify the chemical processes responsible for the formation of the surface films, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies were used to analyze the chemical composition of the films. Films formed from propanal were a complex mixture of aldol condensation products, acetals and propanal itself. The major aldol condensation products were the dimer (2-methyl-2-pentenal) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene that was formed by cyclization of the linear aldol condensation trimer. Additionally, the strong visible absorption of the films indicates that higher-order aldol condensation products must also be present as minor species. The major acetal species were 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trioxane and longer-chain linear polyacetals which are likely to separate from the aqueous phase. Films formed on mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal also showed evidence of products of cross-reactions. Since cross-reactions would be more likely than self-reactions under atmospheric conditions, similar reactions of aldehydes like propanal with common aerosol organic species like glyoxal and

  19. Complex chemical composition of colored surface films formed from reactions of propanal in sulfuric acid at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosol acidities

    PubMed Central

    Van Wyngarden, A. L.; Pérez-Montaño, S.; Bui, J. V. H.; Li, E. S. W.; Nelson, T. E.; Ha, K. T.; Leong, L.; Iraci, L. T.

    2016-01-01

    Particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40–80 wt %) in water. However, airborne measurements have shown that these particles also contain a significant fraction of organic compounds of unknown chemical composition. Acid-catalyzed reactions of carbonyl species are believed to be responsible for significant transfer of gas phase organic species into tropospheric aerosols and are potentially more important at the high acidities characteristic of UT/LS particles. In this study, experiments combining sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with propanal and with mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal at acidities typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored surface films (and solutions) that may have implications for aerosol properties. In order to identify the chemical processes responsible for the formation of the surface films, attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies were used to analyze the chemical composition of the films. Films formed from propanal were a complex mixture of aldol condensation products, acetals and propanal itself. The major aldol condensation products were the dimer (2-methyl-2-pentenal) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene that was formed by cyclization of the linear aldol condensation trimer. Additionally, the strong visible absorption of the films indicates that higher-order aldol condensation products must also be present as minor species. The major acetal species were 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trioxane and longer-chain linear polyacetals which are likely to separate from the aqueous phase. Films formed on mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal also showed evidence of products of cross-reactions. Since cross-reactions would be more likely than self-reactions under atmospheric conditions, similar reactions of aldehydes like propanal with common aerosol organic species like glyoxal and

  20. Kaolin particle film and water deficit influence red winegrape color under high solar radiation in an arid climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Main and interactive effects of a kaolin-based particle film and water deficit severity on vine and berry attributes were evaluated in the warm, semi-arid climate of southwestern Idaho over three growing seasons in the cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec. Berry concentrations of total anthocyan...

  1. Color blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... have trouble telling the difference between red and green. This is the most common type of color ... color blindness often have problems seeing reds and greens, too. The most severe form of color blindness ...

  2. Color blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... care provider or eye specialist can check your color vision in several ways. Testing for color blindness is ... Adams AJ, Verdon WA, Spivey BE. Color vision. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. ... PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol. 2, chap ...

  3. Colorful Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    Described is an color-making activity where students use food coloring, eyedroppers, and water to make various colored solutions. Included are the needed materials and procedures. Students are asked to write up the formulas for making their favorite color. (KR)

  4. The Chemistry of Color Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guida, Wayne C.; Raber, Douglas J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents several topics in color photography which can serve as an introduction of scientific concepts into the classroom, such as: photochemistry (energy transport), organic chemistry (dye formation), physics (nature of light), psychology (color perception), and engineering (isolation of different chemical processes within layers of the film).…

  5. Luminescence properties of Ce3+ and Tb3+ co-doped SiOxNy thin films: Prospects for color tunability in silicon-based hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, J. M.; Ruiz-Caridad, A.; Wojcik, J.; Gutierrez, A. M.; Estradé, S.; Peiró, F.; Sanchís, P.; Mascher, P.; Garrido, B.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the role of the nitrogen content, the annealing temperature, and the sample morphology on the luminescence properties of Ce3+ and Tb3+ co-doped SiOxNy thin films has been investigated. An increasing nitrogen atomic percentage has been incorporated in the host matrix by gradually replacing oxygen with nitrogen during fabrication while maintaining the Si content unaltered, obtaining a sequential variation in the film composition from nearly stoichiometric SiO2 to SiOxNy. The study of rare earth doped single layers has allowed us to identify the parameters that yield an optimum optical performance from Ce3+ and Tb3+ ions. Ce3+ ions proved to be highly sensitive to the annealing temperature and the nitrogen content, showing strong PL emission for relatively low nitrogen contents (from 0 to 20%) and moderate annealing temperatures (800-1000 °C) or under high temperature annealing (1180 °C). Tb3+ ions, on the other hand, displayed a mild dependence on those film parameters. Rare earth co-doping has also been investigated by comparing the luminescence properties of three different approaches: (i) a Ce3+ and Tb3+ co-doped SiOxNy single layer, (ii) a bilayer composed of two SiOxNy single layers doped with either Ce3+ or Tb3+ ions, and (iii) a multilayer composed of a series of either Tb3+ or Ce3+-doped SiOxNy thin films with interleaved SiO2 spacers. Bright green emission and efficient energy transfer from either Ce3+ ions or Ce silicates to Tb3+ ions has been observed in the co-doped single layer as a consequence of the strong ion-ion interaction. On the other hand, independent luminescence from Ce3+ and Tb3+ ions has been observed in the Ce3+ and Tb3+ co-doped bilayer and multilayer, providing a good scenario to develop light emitting devices with wide color tunability by varying the number of deposited films that contain each rare earth dopant. Moreover, the optoelectronic properties of Ce3+- and/or Tb3+-doped thin films have been studied by depositing

  6. Band-tunable color cone lasing emission based on a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chia-Rong; Lin, S.-H.; Yeh, H.-C.; Ji, T.-D.; Liu, J.-H.; Yang, P.-C.; Mo, T.-S.; Huang, S.-Y.; Kuo, C.-T.; Lo, K.-Y.; Fuh, Andy Y.

    2010-02-01

    This investigation reports for the first time a novel phenomenon, called band-tunable color cone lasing emission (CCLE), based on a single-pitched one-dimensional photonic crystal-like dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (DDCLC) cell. The lasing wavelength in the CCLE pattern is distributed continuously at 676.7-595.6 nm as the oblique angle increases continuously from 0° to 50° relative to the helical axis. The variation of the lasing wavelength in the CCLE with the oblique angle is consistent with that of the wavelength at the long-wavelength edge (LWE) of the CLC reflection band (CLCRB) with the oblique angle. Simulation results obtained utilizing Berreman's 4×4 matrix method show that, at each oblique angle, the associated group velocity and density of photonic state (DOS) are near zero and large at the shortwavelength edge (SWE) and LWE of the CLCRB, respectively, and are in good agreement with experimental results. The particularly strong lasing ring emission at a cone angle of ~35° can be explained to be likely due to a special effect that, under the condition of overlap between the LWE of the CLCRB measured at 35° and the SWE of the CLCRB measured at 0°, the LWE and SWE fluorescence propagating along 35° and 0°, respectively, may indirectly enhance each other due to individual enhanced rate of spontaneous emission. Furthermore, the lasing band of the CCLE can be tuned from long-wavelength (deep red~orange) to short-wavelength (orange~green) regions by changing the concentration of the chiral or by the photo-irradiation on a DDCLC cell with a photoisoemerizable chiral dopant.

  7. High-resolution color photographic reproductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, John J.

    1997-04-01

    This paper will describe a fine-art reproduction process that: captures painting information with high-resolution color photographs; scans the information into a 300 megabyte digital file; performs a 3D color calibration in a dedicated hardware color-transform circuit; makes a master positive color transparency and makes a reproduction on polaroid color print film. The master transparency can be used to expose a large number of images. This combines the efficiency of instant photography with the color fidelity of digital color transforms.

  8. Uncalibrated color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroney, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Color calibration or the use of color measurement processes to characterize the color properties of a device or workflow is often expected or assumed for many color reproduction applications. However it is interesting to consider applications or situations in which color calibration is not as critical. In the first case it is possible to imagine an implicit color calibration resulting from a standardization or convergence of the colorant and substrate spectrum. In the second case it is possible to imagine cases where the device color variability is significantly less than the user color thresholds or expectations for color consistency. There are still general requirements for this form of pragmatic color but they are generally lower than for the higher end of digital color reproduction. Finally it is possible to imagine an implicit calibration that leverages in some way the highly accurate memory color for the hue of common objects. This scenario culminates with a challenge to create a natural capture calibration standard that does not require individual calibration, is spectrally diverse, is inexpensive and is environmentally friendly.

  9. Color realism and color science.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R

    2003-02-01

    The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, radishes, and rubies) are colored, and that colors are physical properties, specifically, types of reflectance. This is probably a minority opinion, at least among color scientists. Textbooks frequently claim that physical objects are not colored, and that the colors are "subjective" or "in the mind." The article has two other purposes: First, to introduce an interdisciplinary audience to some distinctively philosophical tools that are useful in tackling the problem of color realism and, second, to clarify the various positions and central arguments in the debate. The first part explains the problem of color realism and makes some useful distinctions. These distinctions are then used to expose various confusions that often prevent people from seeing that the issues are genuine and difficult, and that the problem of color realism ought to be of interest to anyone working in the field of color science. The second part explains the various leading answers to the problem of color realism, and (briefly) argues that all views other than our own have serious difficulties or are unmotivated. The third part explains and motivates our own view, that colors are types of reflectances and defends it against objections made in the recent literature that are often taken as fatal. PMID:14598439

  10. Film: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fell, John L.

    "Understanding Film," the opening section of this book, discusses perceptions of and responses to film and the way in which experiences with and knowledge of other media affect film viewing. The second section, "Film Elements," analyzes the basic elements of film: the use of space and time, the impact of editing, sound and color, and the effects…

  11. Seeing Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…

  12. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  13. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  14. Application of Commercially Available Liquid Crystal Polymer Films for the Improvement of Color and Viewing Angle Performance of Twisted Nematic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatiana A. Sergan,; Marina D. Lavrentovich,; Jack R. Kelly,; Tadayuki Kameyama,

    2010-06-01

    In our work we analyzed the optical performance of liquid crystal polymer films by Nippon Mitsubishi Oil and by Fuji Film. We applied the films for twisted nematic (TN) display compensation and found several non-traditional display configurations. One display configuration employs flipped Nippon Mitsubishi Oil films mounted on polarizers, the second one, a combination of both types of films on one TN side and two crossed uniaxial films on the other. The compensated devices demonstrate greatly improved optical characteristics that surpass all those previously known, utilize the commercially available films, and are experimentally verified.

  15. Color Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  16. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  17. Hybrid 2D photonic crystal-assisted Lu3Al5O12:Ce ceramic-plate phosphor and free-standing red film phosphor for white LEDs with high color-rendering index.

    PubMed

    Park, Hoo Keun; Oh, Ji Hye; Kang, Heejoon; Zhang, Jian; Do, Young Rag

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the combined optical effects of a two-dimensional (2D) SiNx photonic crystal layer (PCL)-assisted Lu3Al5O12:Ce (LuAG:Ce) green ceramic-plate phosphor (CPP) and a free-standing (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu red film phosphor to enhance luminous efficacy, color rendering index (CRI), and special CRI (R9) of LuAG:Ce CPP-capped white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for high-power white LEDs at 350 mA. By introducing the 2D SiNx PCL, the luminous efficacy was improved by a factor of 1.25 and 1.15 compared to that of the conventional flat CPP-capped LED and the thickness-increased CPP-capped LED (with a thickness of 0.15 mm), respectively, while maintaining low color-rendering properties. The combining of the free-standing red film phosphor in the flat CPP-capped, the 2D PCL-assisted CPP-capped, and the thickness-increased CPP-capped LEDs led to enhancement of the CRI and the special CRI (R9); it also led to a decrease of the correlated color temperature (CCT) due to broad wavelength coverage via the addition of red emission. High CRI (94), natural white CCT (4450 K), and acceptable luminous efficacy (71.1 lm/W) were attained from the 2D PCL-assisted LuAG:Ce CPP/free-standing red film phosphor-based LED using a red phosphor concentration of 7.5 wt %. It is expected that the combination of the 2D PCL and the free-standing red film phosphor will be a good candidate for achieving a high-power white CPP-capped LED with excellent CRI. PMID:25675264

  18. [Hair colorants].

    PubMed

    Urbanek-Karłowska, B; Luks, E; Jedra, M; Kiss, E; Malanowska, M

    1997-01-01

    The properties, mode of action and its duration of the preparations used for hair dyeing are described, together with their chemical components, and also preparations of herbal origin. The chemical reactions are described in detail which lead the development of a color polymer occurring during hair dyeing. The studies are presented which are used for toxicological assessment of the raw materials which are the components of the colorants, and the list is included of hair colorants permitted for use in Poland. PMID:9562811

  19. Polar Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 3 May 2004 This nighttime visible color image was collected on January 1, 2003 during the Northern Summer season near the North Polar Troughs.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79, Longitude 346 East (14 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  20. Quantum Color

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-16

    The idea of electric charges and electricity in general is a familiar one to the science savvy viewer. However, electromagnetism is but one of the four fundamental forces and not the strongest one. The strongest of the fundamental forces is called the strong nuclear force and it has its own associated charge. Physicists call this charge ?color? in analogy with the primary colors, although there is no real connection with actual color. In this video, Fermilab?s Dr. Don Lincoln explains why it is that we live in a colorful world.

  1. Structural Colors of Birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Cecilia; Dushkina, Natalia

    2016-03-01

    Structural colors create iridescent colors in bird feathers. The goal is to understand why structural colors act the way they do in certain situations. The research conducted over the course of the fall semester was to understand the optical phenomenon producing colors in individual barbules. Through the use of a polarizing optical microscope, certain hypotheses were built to explain certain phenomenon. Using a dark field illumination involving light acting at wide angles in microscopy, the barbules were not affected by polarization. So it can be suggested that the barbules have certain characteristics, possibly internal, which prevents wide-angle polarization. More recently, it was found that the barbules, when stacked upon one another, create a discoloration at the cross over point. It can be suggested that the barbules act as thin films and create a situation of thin film interference. More data will be taken using the Scanning Electron Microscope as well as getting cross sectional data to help understand the internal characteristics of the barbules. From the support of the Neimeyer-Hodgson Grant, Chris Stull, and Millersville University of Pennsylvania.

  2. Colored Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 7 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on May 30, 2002 during the Southern Fall season in Atlantis Chaos.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.5, Longitude 183.6 East (176.4 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of

  3. Color Metric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    This booklet was designed to convey metric information in pictoral form. The use of pictures in the coloring book enables the more mature person to grasp the metric message instantly, whereas the younger person, while coloring the picture, will be exposed to the metric information long enough to make the proper associations. Sheets of the booklet…

  4. Color Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferry, John E.

    1980-01-01

    Elementary students were asked to find 12 colors and 5 sounds in their immediate natural environment and to describe in writing where they saw each color in relationship to themselves. The writings formed a type of poetry which expressed involvement with and observation of the environment. (CM)

  5. A color prediction model for imagery analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skaley, J. E.; Fisher, J. R.; Hardy, E. E.

    1977-01-01

    A simple model has been devised to selectively construct several points within a scene using multispectral imagery. The model correlates black-and-white density values to color components of diazo film so as to maximize the color contrast of two or three points per composite. The CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) color coordinate system is used as a quantitative reference to locate these points in color space. Superimposed on this quantitative reference is a perceptional framework which functionally contrasts color values in a psychophysical sense. This methodology permits a more quantitative approach to the manual interpretation of multispectral imagery while resulting in improved accuracy and lower costs.

  6. Color vision test

    MedlinePlus

    ... from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... test -- color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Adams AJ, Verdon WA, Spivey BE. ...

  7. Water depth penetration film test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.; Perry, L.; Sauer, G. E.; Lamar, N. T.

    1974-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Resources Program, a comparative and controlled evaluation of nine film-filter combinations was completed to establish the relative effectiveness in recording water subsurface detail if exposed from an aerial platform over a typical water body. The films tested, with one exception, were those which prior was suggested had potential. These included an experimental 2-layer positive color film, a 2-layer (minus blue layer) film, a normal 3-layer color film, a panchromatic black-and-white film, and a black-and-white infrared film. Selective filtration was used with all films.

  8. Biomimetic Isotropic Nanostructures for Structural Coloration

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, Jason D.; Noh, Heeso; Liew, Seng Fatt; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Schreck, Carl F.; Yang, Lin; Park, Jin-Gyu; Prum, Richard O.; Mochrie, Simon G.J.; O'Hern, Corey S.; Cao, Hui; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2010-08-09

    The self-assembly of films that mimic color-producing nanostructures in bird feathers is described. These structures are isotropic and have a characteristic length-scale comparable to the wavelength of visible light. Structural colors are produced when wavelength-independent scattering is suppressed by limiting the optical path length through geometry or absorption.

  9. Color superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wilczek, F.

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  10. Optical techniques for the study of electrochromic phenomena: Application of Raman spectroscopy and optical multichannel analysis (OMA) to the coloration of oxides and polymer films

    SciTech Connect

    Falaras, P.; Hugot Le Goff, A.; Joiret, S.

    1990-12-31

    Electrochromism in order to be well understood, requires an in-situ study during changes of color. The usual analytical techniques, even if they give excellent information, are not generally able to be used during the polarization of a sample in an electrolytic medium. Three techniques will be described here, none of which have been commonly used up to now, but all of which can have a noticeable effect in the field of electrochromism. Raman spectroscopy (RS), unlike Infra-Red spectroscopy (IRS), can be used in a hydrated medium, and brings interesting information both chemical and crystallographic. Changes of environment greater than a simple chemical change, between a bleached and a colored-material state, can be analyzed by this technique. Optical multichannel analysis (OMA) allows one to follow the shift of the entire visible reflectance (or transmittance) spectrum during the change of color. With respect to classical reflectance techniques, which give access to only the final state spectrum, or to the reflectance changes at a given wavelength, the information obtained by OMA is very complete, since one has at the same time the kinetics of the phenomenon and a global optical result. In addition to these two methods, the authors describe a reflectance statistical computation able to give the optical indices of colored and bleached material in a large wavelength range (near UV-near IR). In particular it can be used for interfaces not perfect enough for accurate ellipsometric study.

  11. An Electropolymerized Crystalline Film Incorporating Axially-Bound Metalloporphycenes: Remarkable Reversibility, Reproducibility, and Coloration Efficiency of Ruthenium(II/III)-Based Electrochromism.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masaaki; Futagawa, Hiroki; Ono, Toshikazu; Yamada, Teppei; Kimizuka, Nobuo; Hisaeda, Yoshio

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative electropolymeization of an axially bound, bithiophene-pyridine complex of ruthenium(III)-porphycene [Ru(TPrPc) (btp)2]PF6 (1) gives a submicrometer-thick, polymeric film on an ITO electrode with a crystalline morphology. The polymeric film, the first example of axially linked multimetalloporphycene coordination arrays, exhibits highly stable and reproducible electrochromic response with high electrochromic efficiency upon electrochemical control over the metal-centered electron transfer process (Ru(II)/Ru(III)). PMID:26569481

  12. Colorful television

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    What are the challenges and rewards for American men and women of color who chose to become scientists? The Public Broadcasting Service intends to show us through an upcoming 6-hour documentary series entitled “Breakthrough: The Changing Face of Science in America.”

  13. Color Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

  14. Colorful Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrick, C. Shane

    2006-01-01

    As instructors of accounting, we should take an abstract topic (at least to most students) and connect it to content known by students to help increase the effectiveness of our instruction. In a recent semester, ordinary items such as colors, a basketball, and baseball were used to relate the subject of accounting. The accounting topics of account…

  15. Color measurements based on a color camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marszalec, Elzbieta A.; Pietikaeinen, Matti

    1997-08-01

    The domain of color camera applications is increasing all time due to recent progress in color machine vision research. Colorimetric measurement tasks are quite complex as the purpose of color measurement is to provide a quantitative evaluation of the phenomenon of colors as perceived by human vision. A proper colorimetric calibration of the color camera system is needed in order to make color a practical tool in machine vision. This paper discuses two approaches to color measurements based on a color camera and includes an overview of practical approaches to color camera calibration under unstable illumination conditions.

  16. Marine Science Film Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Frank L.

    Forty-eight motion picture films and filmstrips in the field of marine science are catalogued in this booklet. Following the alphabetical index, one page is devoted to each film indicating its type, producer, recommended grade level, running time, and presence of color and/or sound. A summary of film content, possible uses, and outstanding…

  17. Colorful drying.

    PubMed

    Lakio, Satu; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2010-03-01

    Drying is one of the standard unit operations in the pharmaceutical industry and it is important to become aware of the circumstances that dominate during the process. The purpose of this study was to test microcapsulated thermochromic pigments as heat indicators in a fluid bed drying process. The indicator powders were manually granulated with alpha-lactose monohydrate resulting in three particle-size groups. Also, pellets were coated with the indicator powders. The granules and pellets were fluidized in fluid bed dryer to observe the progress of the heat flow in the material and to study the heat indicator properties of the indicator materials. A tristimulus colorimeter was used to measure CIELAB color values. Color indicator for heat detection can be utilized to test if the heat-sensitive API would go through physical changes during the pharmaceutical drying process. Both the prepared granules and pellets can be used as heat indicator in fluid bed drying process. The colored heat indicators give an opportunity to learn new aspects of the process at real time and could be exploded, for example, for scaling-up studies. PMID:20039220

  18. Fabrication of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode and its application for simultaneous electrochemical determination colorants of sunset yellow and tartrazine.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaoliang; Du, Yongling; Lu, Daban; Wang, Chunming

    2013-05-24

    We proposed a green and facile approach for the synthesis of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film (β-CD-PDDA-Gr) by using L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) as the reducing agent at room temperature. The β-CD-PDDA-Gr composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode (GC-RDE) was then developed for the sensitive simultaneous determination of two synthetic food colorants: sunset yellow (SY) and tartrazine (TT). By cyclic voltammetry (CV), the peak currents of SY and TT increased obviously on the developed electrochemical sensor. The kinetic parameters, such as diffusion coefficient D and standard heterogeneous rate constant kb, were estimated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Under the optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signals of SY and TT on the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE were significantly enhanced. The enhanced anodic peak currents represented the excellent analytical performance of simultaneous detection of SY and TT in the range of 5.0×10(-8) to 2.0×10(-5) mol L(-1), with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.25×10(-8) mol L(-1) for SY and 1.43×10(-8) mol L(-1) for TT (SN(-1)=3). This proposed method displayed outstanding selectivity, good stability and acceptable repeatability and reproducibility, and also has been used to simultaneously determine SY and TT in some commercial soft drinks with satisfactory results. The obtained results were compared to HPLC of analysis for those two colorants and no significant differences were found. By the treatment of the experimental data, the electrochemical reaction mechanisms of SY and TT both involved a one-electron-one-proton-transfer process. PMID:23663668

  19. Color space conversion for linear color grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dah-Jye

    2000-10-01

    Color grading is an important process for various industries such as food processing, fruit and vegetable grading, etc. Quality and price are often determined by the color of product. For example, darker red color for apples means higher price. In color machine vision applications, image is acquired with a color CCD camera that outputs color information in three channels, red, gree, and blue. When grading color, these three primary colors must be processed to determine the color level for separation. A very popular color space conversion technique for color image processing is RGB-to-HSI, where HSI represents hue, saturation, and intensity, respectively. However, the conversion result is still 3D information that makes determining color grades very difficult. A new color space conversion technique that can be implemented for high-speed real-time processing for color grading is introduced in this paper. Depending on the application, different color space conversion equations must be used. The result of this technique is a simple one-dimensional array that represents different color levels. This linear array makes linear color grading adjustment possible.

  20. Wetting in Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Ian Bruce

    Colorimetric litmus tests such as pH paper have enjoyed wide commercial success due to their inexpensive production and exceptional ease of use. However, expansion of colorimetry to new sensing paradigms is challenging because macroscopic color changes are seldom coupled to arbitrary differences in the physical/chemical properties of a system. In this thesis I present in detail the development of Wetting in Color Technology, focusing primarily on its application as an inexpensive and highly selective colorimetric indicator for organic liquids. The technology exploits chemically-encoded inverse-opal photonic crystals to control the infiltration of fluids to liquid-specific spatial patterns, projecting minute differences in liquids' wettability to macroscopically distinct, easy-to-visualize structural color patterns. It is shown experimentally and corroborated with theoretical modeling using percolation theory that the high selectivity of wetting, upon-which the sensitivity of the indicator relies, is caused by the highly symmetric structure of our large-area, defect-free SiO2 inverse-opals. The regular structure also produces a bright iridescent color, which disappears when infiltrated with liquid - naturally coupling the optical and fluidic responses. Surface modification protocols are developed, requiring only silanization and selective oxidation, to facilitate the deterministic design of an indicator that differentiates a broad range of liquids. The resulting tunable, built-in horizontal and vertical chemistry gradients allow the wettability threshold to be tailored to specific liquids across a continuous range, and make the readout rely only on countable color differences. As wetting is a generic fluidic phenomenon, Wetting in Color technology could be suitable for applications in authentication or identification of unknown liquids across a broad range of industries. However, the generic nature of the response also ensures chemical non-specificity. It is shown

  1. Efficient color display using low-absorption in-pixel color filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yu (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A display system having a non-absorbing and reflective color filtering array and a reflector to improve light utilization efficiency. One implementation of the color filtering array uses a surface plasmon filter having two symmetric metal-dielectric interfaces coupled with each other to produce a transmission optical wave at a surface plasmon resonance wavelength at one interface from a p-polarized input beam on the other interface. Another implementation of the color filtering array uses a metal-film interference filter having two dielectric layers and three metallic films.

  2. Cognitive aspects of color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  3. Application of multispectral color photography to flame flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoffers, G.

    1979-01-01

    For flames of short duration and low intensity of radiation a spectroscopical flame diagnostics is difficult. In order to find some other means of extracting information about the flame structure from its radiation, the feasibility of using multispectral color photography was successfully evaluated. Since the flame photographs are close-ups, there is a considerable parallax between the single images, when several cameras are used, and additive color viewing is not possible. Each image must be analyzed individually, it is advisable to use color film in all cameras. One can either use color films of different spectral sensitivities or color films of the same type with different color filters. Sharp cutting filters are recommended.

  4. Using color management in color document processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehab, Smadar

    1995-04-01

    Color Management Systems have been used for several years in Desktop Publishing (DTP) environments. While this development hasn't matured yet, we are already experiencing the next generation of the color imaging revolution-Device Independent Color for the small office/home office (SOHO) environment. Though there are still open technical issues with device independent color matching, they are not the focal point of this paper. This paper discusses two new and crucial aspects in using color management in color document processing: the management of color objects and their associated color rendering methods; a proposal for a precedence order and handshaking protocol among the various software components involved in color document processing. As color peripherals become affordable to the SOHO market, color management also becomes a prerequisite for common document authoring applications such as word processors. The first color management solutions were oriented towards DTP environments whose requirements were largely different. For example, DTP documents are image-centric, as opposed to SOHO documents that are text and charts centric. To achieve optimal reproduction on low-cost SOHO peripherals, it is critical that different color rendering methods are used for the different document object types. The first challenge in using color management of color document processing is the association of rendering methods with object types. As a result of an evolutionary process, color matching solutions are now available as application software, as driver embedded software and as operating system extensions. Consequently, document processing faces a new challenge, the correct selection of the color matching solution while avoiding duplicate color corrections.

  5. Ultrathin Nanostructured Metals for Highly Transmissive Plasmonic Subtractive Color Filters

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Beibei; Gao, Yongkang; Bartoli, Filbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Plasmonic color filters employing a single optically-thick nanostructured metal layer have recently generated considerable interest as an alternative to colorant-based color filtering technologies, due to their reliability, ease of fabrication, and high color tunability. However, their relatively low transmission efficiency (~30%) needs to be significantly improved for practical applications. The present work reports, for the first time, a novel plasmonic subtractive color filtering scheme that exploits the counter-intuitive phenomenon of extraordinary low transmission (ELT) through an ultrathin nanostructured metal film. This approach relies on a fundamentally different color filtering mechanism than that of existing plasmonic additive color filters, and achieves unusually high transmission efficiencies of 60 ~ 70% for simple architectures. Furthermore, owing to short-range interactions of surface plasmon polaritons at ELT resonances, our design offers high spatial resolution color filtering with compact pixel size close to the optical diffraction limit (~λ/2), creating solid applications ranging from imaging sensors to color displays. PMID:24100869

  6. Monolithic color-selective ultraviolet (266-315 nm) photodetector based on a wurtzite MgxZn1-xO film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Y. N.; Mei, Z. X.; Liang, H. L.; Gu, C. Z.; Du, X. L.

    2014-09-01

    A unique ultraviolet photodetector based on a metal-semiconductor-metal structure was fabricated from a wurtzite MgxZn1-xO film with gradually changing Mg content, homoepitaxially grown on a BeO-buffered ZnO substrate. The BeO layer filtered out the substrate photoresponse. The cutoff wavelength of the photodetector under zero bias was 266 nm with a UV/visible light rejection ratio of greater than 2 orders of magnitude in the deep UV region. Applying a bias, the cutoff wavelength exhibited a prominent continuous redshift from 266 (0 V) to 315 nm (3 V), indicating the capability for multi-band UV detection on a monolithic chip. The bias-controlled wavelength-selective UV photoresponse mechanism occurred in the optically active area in a compositionally distributed MgxZn1-xO alloy that was achieved by molecular epitaxial growth.

  7. Hydrothermal-assisted exfoliation of Y/Tb/Eu ternary layered rare-earth hydroxides into tens of micron-sized unilamellar nanosheets for highly oriented and color-tunable nano-phosphor films.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qi; Xu, Zhixin; Li, Ji-Guang; Li, Xiaodong; Qi, Yang; Sun, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    Efficient exfoliation of well-crystallized (Y0.96Tb x Eu0.04-x )2(OH)5NO3 · nH2O (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.04) layered rare-earth hydroxide (LRH) crystals into tens of micron-sized unilamellar nanosheets has been successfully achieved by inserting water insoluble oleate anions (C17H33COO(-)) into the interlayer of the LRH via hydrothermal anion exchange at 120°C, followed by delaminating in toluene. The intercalation of oleate anions led to extremely expanded interlayer distances (up to approximately 5.2 nm) of the LRH crystals and accordingly disordered stacking of the ab planes along the c-axis and also weakened interlayer interactions, without significantly damaging the ab plane. As a consequence, the thickness of the LRH crystals increased from approximately 1 to 10 μm, exhibiting a behavior similar to that observed from the smectite clay in water. Highly [111]-oriented and approximately 100-nm thick oxide films of (Y0.96Tb x Eu0.04-x ) 2O3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.04) have been obtained through spin-coating of the exfoliated colloidal nanosheets on quartz substrate, followed by annealing at 800°C. Upon UV excitation at 266 nm, the oxide transparent films exhibit bright luminescence, with the color-tunable emission from red to orange, yellow, and then green by increasing the Tb(3+) content from x = 0 to 0.04. PMID:25852423

  8. Color Blindness Simulations

    MedlinePlus

    ... many disables? The fastest growing segment? Myths of disability The Law The Rules Accessibility Resources Page Updates, additions Contact Us For assistance contact your NOAA Line Office Section 508 Coordinator Color blindness Simulations Normal Color Vision Deuteranopia Color blindness marked ...

  9. LED Color Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Color quality is an important consideration when evaluating LED-based products for general illumination. This fact sheet reviews the basics regarding light and color and summarizes the most important color issues related to white-light LED systems.

  10. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. Causes Abnormal urine color may ... red blood cells, or mucus in the urine. Dark brown but clear urine is a sign of ...

  11. Full-color OLED on silicon microdisplay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Amalkumar P.

    2002-02-01

    eMagin has developed numerous enhancements to organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology, including a unique, up- emitting structure for OLED-on-silicon microdisplay devices. Recently, eMagin has fabricated full color SVGA+ resolution OLED microdisplays on silicon, with over 1.5 million color elements. The display is based on white light emission from OLED followed by LCD-type red, green and blue color filters. The color filters are patterned directly on OLED devices following suitable thin film encapsulation and the drive circuits are built directly on single crystal silicon. The resultant color OLED technology, with hits high efficiency, high brightness, and low power consumption, is ideally suited for near to the eye applications such as wearable PCS, wireless Internet applications and mobile phone, portable DVD viewers, digital cameras and other emerging applications.

  12. Objective approach for measuring changes in color discrimination caused by transparent colored filter media.

    PubMed

    Walter, Annette; Schuerer, Michael; Eppig, Timo; Langenbucher, Achim; Bruenner, Holger

    2009-10-01

    A novel measurement setup for determining the change in color perception due to laser protection filters is described. The developed system overcomes color space limitations common to thin-film transistor displays by using a LED illumination system, creating a large gamut covering a wide range of human color perception, and allowing adjustment of the respective spectra. An objective color matching method is used that is based on the work of MacAdam [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A32, 247 (1942)] and enhanced by employing discrimination ellipses fitted on color discrimination thresholds on axes in the CIE 1976 USC chromaticity diagram. We present several measured color discrimination ellipses with and without laser protection filters. PMID:19798403

  13. Color Changing Hydrogen Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Williams, Martha; Captain, Janine E.; Mohajeri, Nahid; Raissi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle Program, one of the most hazardous operation that occurred was the loading of liquid hydrogen (LH2) during fueling operations of the spacecraft. Due to hydrogen's low explosive limit, any amount leaked could lead to catastrophic event. Hydrogen's chemical properties make it ideal as a rocket fuel; however, the fuel is deemed unsafe for most commercial use because of the inability to easily detect the gas leaking. The increased use of hydrogen over traditional fossil fuels would reduce greenhouse gases and America's dependency on foreign oil. Therefore a technology that would improve safety at NASA and in the commercial sector while creating a new economic sector would have a huge impact to NASA's mission. The Chemochromic Detector for sensing hydrogen gas leakage is a color-changing detector that is useful in any application where it is important to know not only the presence but also the location of the hydrogen gas leak. This technology utilizes a chemochromicpigment and polymer matrix that can be molded or spun into rigid or pliable shapes useable in variable temperature environments including atmospheres of inert gas, hydrogen gas, or mixtures of gases. A change in color of the detector material indicates where gaseous hydrogen leaks are occurring. The irreversible sensor has a dramatic color change from beige to dark grey and remains dark grey after exposure. A reversible pigment changes from white to blue in the presence of hydrogen and reverts back to white in the presence of oxygen. Both versions of the sensor's pigments were comprised of a mixture of a metal oxide substrate and a hydro-chromic compound (i.e., the compound that changed color in the presence of hydrogen) and immediately notified the operator of the presence of low levels of hydrogen. The detector can be used in a variety of formats including paint, tape, caulking, injection molded parts, textiles and fabrics, composites, and films. This technology brings numerous

  14. Hydrothermally Grown In-doped ZnO Nanorods on p-GaN Films for Color-tunable Heterojunction Light-emitting-diodes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Geun Chul; Hwang, Soo Min; Lee, Seung Muk; Choi, Jun Hyuk; Song, Keun Man; Kim, Hyun You; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Eum, Sung-Jin; Jung, Seung-Boo; Lim, Jun Hyung; Joo, Jinho

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of doping elements in ZnO nanostructures plays an important role in adjusting the optical and electrical properties in optoelectronic devices. In the present study, we fabricated 1-D ZnO nanorods (NRs) doped with different In contents (0% ~ 5%) on p-GaN films using a facile hydrothermal method, and investigated the effect of the In doping on the morphology and electronic structure of the NRs and the electrical and optical performances of the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes (LEDs). As the In content increased, the size (diameter and length) of the NRs increased, and the electrical performance of the LEDs improved. From the electroluminescence (EL) spectra, it was found that the broad green-yellow-orange emission band significantly increased with increasing In content due to the increased defect states (oxygen vacancies) in the ZnO NRs, and consequently, the superposition of the emission bands centered at 415 nm and 570 nm led to the generation of white-light. These results suggest that In doping is an effective way to tailor the morphology and the optical, electronic, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs, as well as the EL emission property of heterojunction LEDs. PMID:25988846

  15. Inkjet Color Printing by Interference Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Yakovlev, Aleksandr V; Milichko, Valentin A; Vinogradov, Vladimir V; Vinogradov, Alexandr V

    2016-03-22

    Color printing technology is developing rapidly; in less than 40 years, it moved from dot matrix printers with an ink-soaked cloth ribbon to 3D printers used to make three-dimensional color objects. Nevertheless, what remained unchanged over this time is the fact that in each case, dye inks (CMYK or RGB color schemes) were exclusively used for coloring, which inevitably limits the technological possibilities and color reproduction. As a next step in printing color images and storing information, we propose the technology of producing optical nanostructures. In this paper, we report use of inkjet technology to create colored interference layers with high accuracy without the need for high-temperature fixing. This was made possible due to using titania-based colloidal ink yielding monolithic coatings with a high refractive index (2.00 ± 0.08 over the entire visible range) when naturally dried. By controlling the film thickness by using inkjet deposition, we produced images based on controlled interference and implementing color printing with one ink. The lack of dyes in the proposed method has good environmental prospects, because applied systems based on a crystalline anatase sol are nontoxic and biologically inert. The paper explains in detail the principle of producing interference images by the classical inkjet method and shows the advantages of this technique in depositing coatings with uniform thickness, which are required for large-scale interference color imaging even on unprepared polymer films. This article demonstrates the possibility of inkjet printing of nanostructures with a precision in thickness of up to 50 nm, we believe that the proposed approach will be the groundwork for developing interference color printing approach and allow to implement new methods of forming optical nano-objects by widely available techniques. PMID:26805775

  16. FAA Film Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Some 75 films from the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation Administration are listed in this catalog. Topics dealt with include aerodynamics, airports, aviation history and careers, flying clubs, navigation and weather. Most of the films are 16mm sound and color productions. Filmstrips requiring a 35mm projector and phonograph or…

  17. Archaeology on Film. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Mary, Ed.; And Others

    This document provides a comprehensive guide to archaeological films and video tapes of archaeological interest. Individual films and film series are listed alphabetically by title. Each entry includes the following information: title, series, date, length, color/black & white, format, purchase and rental prices, distributor/rental source,…

  18. Hair treatment process providing dispersed colors by light diffraction

    DOEpatents

    Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, E. Bruce; Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Song, Shuangqi

    2013-12-17

    Hair was coated with polymer-containing fluid and then hot pressed to form a composite of hair and a polymer film imprinted with a nanopattern. Polychromatic light incident on the nanopattern is diffracted into dispersed colored light.

  19. Hair treatment process providing dispersed colors by light diffraction

    DOEpatents

    Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, E. Bruce; Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Song, Shuangqi

    2014-11-11

    Hair was coated with polymer-containing fluid and then hot pressed to form a composite of hair and a polymer film imprinted with a nanopattern. Polychromatic light incident on the nanopattern is diffracted into dispersed colored light.

  20. Hair treatment device for providing dispersed colors by light diffraction

    DOEpatents

    Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, Bruce E.; Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Song, Shuangqi

    2016-01-26

    Hair was coated with polymer-containing fluid and then hot pressed to form a composite of hair and a polymer film imprinted with a nanopattern. Polychromatic light incident on the nanopattern is diffracted into dispersed colored light.

  1. Hollywood's Conversion to Color: The Technological, Economic and Aesthetic Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindem, Forham A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the film industry's conversion to color cinematography in the period between the 1920s and 1960s. Cites economic considerations, technological modifications, and aesthetic preferences by audiences as factors in this development. (JMF)

  2. Color identification testing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brawner, E. L.; Martin, R.; Pate, W.

    1970-01-01

    Testing device, which determines ability of a technician to identify color-coded electric wires, is superior to standard color blindness tests. It tests speed of wire selection, detects partial color blindness, allows rapid testing, and may be administered by a color blind person.

  3. Chips of many colors

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, M.W.; Dorie, L.A.

    1982-07-01

    A large number of available color display tools generally fall into three categories. Intelligent terminals offer a wide range of color grpahics capability but require extensive software for specific applications. Large turn-key graphics systems, with color display consoles controlled by software, were made for electronic design. In color CAD workstations, color graphics is under hardware control and offers specific features for IC design. The authors look at the various colour graphics systems, and their advantages in VLSI chip design.

  4. Reconstructing color images of astronomical objects using black and white spectroscopic emulsions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, R. I.; Martins, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    A color photograph of the peculiar elliptical galaxy NGC 5128 (Centaurus A) has been reconstructed from three Kodak 103a emulsion type photographs by projecting positives of the three B&W plates through appropriate filters onto a conventional color film. The resulting photograph shows color balance and latitude characteristics superior to color photographs of similar astronomical objects made with commercially available conventional color film. Similar results have been obtained for color reconstructed photographs of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. These and other results suggest that these projection-reconstruction techniques can be used to obtain high-quality color photographs of astronomical objects which overcome many of the problems associated with the use of conventional color film for the long exposures required in astronomy.

  5. Two-color double exposure photographic recording technique.

    PubMed

    Stricker, J

    1989-05-15

    A two-color double exposure technique is proposed for recording two close states of an object on the same photographic film. The idea is to use a two-color laser for illumination, one color for each state of the object, and a single photographic plate. After being developed, the image of each state may be observed separately. The technique is demonstrated for the deferred moire deflectometry where two closely displaced fringe patterns have to be recorded and resolved. PMID:20548749

  6. Two-color double exposure photographic recording technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stricker, Josef

    1989-01-01

    A two-color double exposure technique is proposed for recording two close states of an object on the same photographic film. The idea is to use a two-color laser for illumination, one color for each state of the object, and a single photographic plate. After being developed, the image of each state may be observed separately. The technique is demonstrated for the deferred moire deflectometry where two closely displaced fringe patterns have to be recorded and resolved.

  7. Color management: printing processes - opportunities and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, Samuel T.

    2002-06-01

    Digital tools have impacted traditional methods employed to reproduce color images during the past decade. The shift from a purely photomechanical process in color reproduction to colorimetric reproduction offers tremendous opportunity in the graphic arts industry. But good things do not necessarily come to all in the same package. Printing processes possess different reproduction attributes: tone reproduction, gray balance and color correction requirements are as different as the ingredient sets selected for color reproduction. This paper will provide insight toward understanding advantages and limitations offered by the new digital technologies in printing, publishing and packaging. For the past five years the Clemson University Graphic Communications Department has conducted numerous color projects using the new digital colorimetric tools during the previous decade. Several approaches have been used including experimental research and typical production workflows. The use of colorimetric data in color reproduction has given an opportunity to realize real gains in color use, predictability and consistency. Meeting an image's separation and reproduction requirements for a specified printing process can involve disruption of the anticipated workflow. Understanding the printing process requirements and the fit within the specifications of a colorimetric workflow are critical to the successful adoption of a color managed workflow. The paper will also provide an insight into the issues and challenges experienced with a color managed workflow. The printing processes used include offset litho, narrow and wide-web flexography (paper, liner board, corrugated and film), screen printing (paper board and polycarbonates), and digital imaging with toner, ink and inkjet systems. A proposal for technology integration will be the focus of the presentation drawn from documented experiences in over 300 applications of color management tools. Discussion will include the structure of

  8. Two-Layer, Full-Color Electroluminescent Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    Full-color, matrix-addressed electroluminescent display uses three different color phosphors located in two separate, superimposed layers to provide higher brightness, better contrast ratio, and higher resolution. Design used for such transparent, flat-panel display media as thin-film electroluminescent phosphors, liquid crystals, or light-emitting diodes.

  9. An electrochromic painter's palette: color mixing via solution co-processing.

    PubMed

    Bulloch, Rayford H; Kerszulis, Justin A; Dyer, Aubrey L; Reynolds, John R

    2015-01-28

    Electrochromic polymers (ECPs) have been shown to be synthetically tunable, producing a full palette of vibrantly colored to highly transmissive polymers. The development of these colored-to-transmissive ECPs employed synthetic design strategies for broad color targeting; however, due to the subtleties of color perception and the intricacies of polymer structure and color relationships, fine color control is difficult. In contrast, color mixing is a well-established practice in the printing industry. We have identified three colored-to-transmissive switching electrochromic polymers, referred to as ECP-Cyan (ECP-C), ECP-Magenta (ECP-M), and ECP-Yellow (ECP-Y), which, via the co-processing of multicomponent ECP mixtures, follow the CMY color mixing model. The presented work qualitatively assesses the thin film characteristics of solution co-processed ECP mixtures. To quantitatively determine the predictability of the color properties of ECP mixtures, we estimated mass extinction coefficients (εmass) from solution spectra of the CMY ECPs and compared the estimated and experimentally observed color values of blends via a calculated color difference (ΔEab). The values of ΔEab range from 8 to 26 across all mixture compositions, with an average value of 15, representing a reasonable degree of agreement between predicted and observed color values. We demonstrate here the ability to co-process ECP mixtures into vibrantly colored, visually continuous films and the ability to estimate the color properties produced in these mixed ECP films. PMID:25580827

  10. What color is it?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschbach, Reiner; Sharma, Gaurav; Unal, Gozde B.

    2005-01-01

    Color management allows the deterministic handling of color data from input to output. This, of course, assumes that the first digital representation of our data is the "correct" color. It assumes that we did not make any errors in the input definitions, did not use wrong color input profiles, captured the user's intent, or fell prey to a host of other potential problems. After we have made those assumptions, we now can deterministically transfer the color from one place to another. Note that there is a big difference between "reproducing" one color at a different location and "deterministically transferring one set of color data to another location". The deterministic transfer is limited to the small set of physical metrics we decided to call "color". All other components of color are ignored.

  11. What color is it?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschbach, Reiner; Sharma, Gaurav; Unal, Gozde B.

    2004-12-01

    Color management allows the deterministic handling of color data from input to output. This, of course, assumes that the first digital representation of our data is the "correct" color. It assumes that we did not make any errors in the input definitions, did not use wrong color input profiles, captured the user's intent, or fell prey to a host of other potential problems. After we have made those assumptions, we now can deterministically transfer the color from one place to another. Note that there is a big difference between "reproducing" one color at a different location and "deterministically transferring one set of color data to another location". The deterministic transfer is limited to the small set of physical metrics we decided to call "color". All other components of color are ignored.

  12. From A Physical Color Stimulus To A Psychological Color Percept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sporea, Dan G.; Tonnquist, Gunnar

    1989-08-01

    The paper discusses the complexity of color vision in humans, considering the main aspects involved: the physical aspect, the psychophysical aspect, the physiological aspect and the psychological aspect. The meanings of the term color associated to each such aspect (asfor example, color stimulus, color valence, neural color signal and color percept) are introduced. Some types of color defective vision, relevant for color display users, are indicated. The methods to generate color stimuli in modern display devices, employing different technologies, are compared.

  13. Color of cyanobacteria: some methodological aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Prieto, Beatriz; Sanmartin, Patricia; Aira, Noelia; Silva, Benita

    2010-04-10

    Although the color of cyanobacteria is a very informative characteristic, no standardized protocol has, so far, been established for defining the color in an objective way, and, therefore, direct comparison of experimental results obtained by different research groups is not possible. In the present study, we used colorimetric measurements and conventional statistical tools to determine the effects on the measurement of the color of cyanobacteria, of the concentration of the microorganisms and their moisture content, as well as of the size of the target area and the minimum number of measurements. It was concluded that the color measurement is affected by every factor studied, but that this can be controlled for by making at least 10 consecutive measurements/9.62 cm{sup 2} at different randomly selected points on the surface of filters completely covered by films of cyanobacteria in which the moisture contents are higher than 50%.

  14. Trichromatic opponent color classification.

    PubMed

    Chichilnisky, E J; Wandell, B A

    1999-10-01

    Stimuli varying in intensity and chromaticity, presented on numerous backgrounds, were classified into red/green, blue/yellow and white/black opponent color categories. These measurements revealed the shapes of the boundaries that separate opponent colors in three-dimensional color space. Opponent color classification boundaries were generally not planar, but their shapes could be summarized by a piecewise linear model in which increment and decrement color signals are combined with different weights at two stages to produce opponent color sensations. The effect of background light on classification was largely explained by separate gain changes in increment and decrement cone signals. PMID:10615508

  15. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, Minoru; Watson, E. Bruce; Acocella, John

    1986-01-01

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

  16. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

    1986-11-04

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

  17. PROCEDURES FOR ACCURATE PRODUCTION OF COLOR IMAGES FROM SATELLITE OR AIRCRAFT MULTISPECTRAL DIGITAL DATA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval, Joseph S.

    1985-01-01

    Because the display and interpretation of satellite and aircraft remote-sensing data make extensive use of color film products, accurate reproduction of the color images is important. To achieve accurate color reproduction, the exposure and chemical processing of the film must be monitored and controlled. By using a combination of sensitometry, densitometry, and transfer functions that control film response curves, all of the different steps in the making of film images can be monitored and controlled. Because a sensitometer produces a calibrated exposure, the resulting step wedge can be used to monitor the chemical processing of the film. Step wedges put on film by image recording machines provide a means of monitoring the film exposure and color balance of the machines.

  18. Color and Streptomycetes1

    PubMed Central

    Pridham, Thomas G.

    1965-01-01

    A report summarizing the results of an international workshop on determination of color of streptomycetes is presented. The results suggest that the color systems which seem most practically appealing and effective to specialists on actinomycetes are those embracing a limited number of color names and groups. The broad groupings allow placement of isolates into reasonably well-defined categories based on color of aerial mycelium. Attempts to expand such systems (more color groups) lead to difficulties. It is common knowledge that many, if not all, of the individual groups would in these broad systems contain strains that differ in many other respects, e.g., spore-wall ornamentation, color of vegetative (substratal) mycelium, morphology of chains of spores, and numerous physiological criteria. Also, cultures of intermediate color can be found, which makes placement difficult. As it now stands, color as a criterion for characterization of streptomycetes and streptoverticillia is in questionable status. Although much useful color information can be obtained by an individual, the application of this information to that in the literature or its use in communication with other individuals leaves much to be desired. More objective methods of color determination are needed. At present, the most effective method that could be used internationally is the color-wheel system of Tresner and Backus. Furthermore, the significance of color in speciation of these organisms is an open question. Obviously, more critical work on the color problem is needed. PMID:14264847

  19. Light, Color, and Mirrors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiburzi, Brian; Tamborino, Laurie; Parker, Gordon A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes an exercise in which students can use flashlights, mirrors, and colored paper to discover scientific principles regarding optics. Addresses the concepts of angles of incidence and reflection, colored vs. white light, and mirror images. (WRM)

  20. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... things can cause tooth discoloration. The change in color may affect the entire tooth, or appear as spots or ... the tooth enamel. Your genes affect your tooth color. Other things ... include: Congenital diseases Environmental factors Infections ...

  1. Coloring with defect

    SciTech Connect

    Cowen, L.J.; Goddard, W.; Jesurum, C.E.

    1997-06-01

    An (ordinary vertex) coloring is a partition of the vertices of a graph into independent sets. The chromatic number is the minimum number of colors needed to produce such a partition. This paper considers a relaxation of coloring in which the color classes partition the vertices into subgraphs of degree at most d. d is called the defect of the coloring. A graph which admits a vertex coloring into k color classes, where each vertex is adjacent to at most d self-colored neighbors is said to be (k, d) colorable. We consider defective coloring on graphs of bounded degree, bounded genus, and bounded chromatic number, presenting complexity results and algorithms. For bounded degree graphs, a classic result of Lovasz yields a (k, [{Delta}/k]) coloring for graphs with E edges of maximum degree {Delta} in O({Delta}E) time. For graphs of bounded genus, (2, d), for d > 0 and (3,1)-coloring are proved NP-Complete, even for planar graphs. Results of easily can be transformed to (3,2) color any planar graph in linear time. We show that any toroidal graph is (3,2)- and (5, 1)-colorable, and quadratic-time algorithms are presented that find the colorings. For higher surfaces, we give a linear time algorithm to (3, {radical}12{gamma} + 6) color a graph of genus {gamma} > 2. It is also shown that any graph of genus {gamma} is ({radical}12{gamma}/(d + 1) + 6, d) colorable, and an O(d{radical}{gamma}E + V) algorithm is presented that finds the coloring. These bounds are within a constant factor of what is required for the maximum clique embeddable in the surface. Reductions from ordinary vertex coloring show that (k, d) coloring is NP-complete, and there exists an c > 0 such that no polynomial time algorithm can n{sup {epsilon}}-approximate the defective chromatic number unless P = NP. Most approximation algorithms to approximately color 3-colorable graphs can be extend to allow defects.

  2. Color rendition engine.

    PubMed

    Zukauskas, Artūras; Vaicekauskas, Rimantas; Vitta, Pranciškus; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Petrulis, Andrius; Shur, Michael

    2012-02-27

    A source of white light with continuously tuned color rendition properties, such as color fidelity, as well as color saturating and color dulling ability has been developed. The source, which is composed of red (R), amber (A), green (G), and blue (B) light-emitting diodes, has a spectral power distribution varied as a weighted sum of "white" RGB and AGB blends. At the RGB and AGB end-points, the source has a highest color saturating and color dulling ability, respectively, as follows from the statistical analysis of the color-shift vectors for 1269 Munsell samples. The variation of the weight parameter allows for continuously traversing all possible metameric RAGB blends, including that with the highest color fidelity. The source was used in a psychophysical experiment on the estimation of the color appearance of familiar objects, such as vegetables, fruits, and soft-drink cans of common brands, at correlated color temperatures of 3000 K, 4500 K, and 6500 K. By continuously tuning the weight parameter, each of 100 subjects selected RAGB blends that, to their opinion, matched lighting characterized as "most saturating," "most dulling," "most natural," and "preferential". The end-point RGB and AGB blends have been almost unambiguously attributed to "most saturating" and "most dulling" lighting, respectively. RAGB blends that render a highest number of colors with high fidelity have, on average, been attributed to "most natural" lighting. The "preferential" color quality of lighting has, on average, been matched to RAGB blends that provide color rendition with fidelity somewhat reduced in favor of a higher saturation. Our results infer that tunable "color rendition engines" can validate color rendition metrics and provide lighting meeting specific needs and preferences to color quality. PMID:22418343

  3. Effects of Color Complexity in Still Photographs on Mental Effort and Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Kathy; Schleuder, Joan

    For each work assignment, photojournalists must decide whether to use black-and-white or color film and how to frame the picture. These decisions are considered crucial, yet little is known about how the presence of color and design complexity affect how people process the information in photographs. A study tested whether color and design…

  4. Color Discrimination Work Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

    This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's ability to see likenesses or differences in colors or shades, identifying or matching certain colors, and selecting colors that go together. Section 1 describes the assessment and lists related occupations and DOT codes. Instructions to the evaluator are provided in the…

  5. Sweetpotato Color Analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color is an important attribute that contributes to the appearance of a sweetpotato genotype. A consumer uses color, along with geometric attributes (e.g., gloss, luster, sheen, texture, opaqueness, shape), to subjectively evaluate the appearance of a sweetpotato root. Color can be quantified by t...

  6. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  7. Color vision deficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannorren, D.

    1982-04-01

    Congenital and acquired color vision defects are described in the context of physiological data. Light sources, photometry, color systems and test methods are described. A list of medicines is also presented. The practical social consequences of color vision deficiencies are discussed.

  8. Reimagining the Color Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Color wheels are a traditional project for many teachers. The author has used them in art appreciation classes for many years, but one problem she found when her pre-service art education students created colored wheels was that they were boring: simple circles, with pie-shaped pieces, which students either painted or colored in. This article…

  9. Guided-mode resonant polarization-controlled tunable color filters.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Mohammad Jalal; Khaleque, Tanzina; Magnusson, Robert

    2014-05-19

    We demonstrate efficient guided-mode resonant polarization-controlled tunable color filters. The devices consist of subwavelength gratings that are partially etched into a thin silicon-nitride film deposited on a glass substrate. Two color filters with grating periods of 300 nm and 370 nm are designed and fabricated. The 300-nm device exhibits green and blue colors and the 370-nm device generates red and yellow colors for TE and TM polarization, respectively. The pixels have a spectral bandwidth of ~12 nm with efficiencies exceeding 90% for TE polarization and 80% for TM polarization. The devices may find application in displays, image sensors, and biomedical imaging technologies. PMID:24921349

  10. Correlation between grain orientation and the shade of color etching

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, Peter J.; Kardos, I.

    2010-08-15

    Color etching is an extremely effective metallographic technique not only for making grains well visible, but also for making them distinguishable for automated image analyzers. During color etching, a thin film is formed on the surface of the specimen. The thickness of this layer is in the order of magnitude of the visible light and since both the metal-film boundary and the film surface reflect light, an interference occurs. A wavelength-component of the white line is eliminated and its complementary color will be seen on the surface. As the thickness changes, the colors also change grain by grain. The thickness of the film is dependent on several factors, mostly on the type of the phase. However, different color shades can be observed on the surfaces of single phase materials, which phenomenon is caused by the different crystallographic orientations of the grains. This paper shows a combined color etching electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) investigation of cast iron. An area of the surface of a gray cast iron specimen was etched. Colors were characterized by their luminescence and their red, green and blue intensity. An EBSD orientation map was taken from the same area and the orientations of the individual grains were determined. Results showed that a strong correlation was found between the luminescence and the R, G, B intensity of the color and the angle between the specimen normal and the < 100> direction, while such correlation was not observed between the color parameters and the < 110 > and < 111> directions, respectively. This indicates that film thickness is sensitive to the < 100> direction of the crystal.

  11. Neutral color semitransparent microstructured perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Eperon, Giles E; Burlakov, Victor M; Goriely, Alain; Snaith, Henry J

    2014-01-28

    Neutral-colored semitransparent solar cells are commercially desired to integrate solar cells into the windows and cladding of buildings and automotive applications. Here, we report the use of morphological control of perovskite thin films to form semitransparent planar heterojunction solar cells with neutral color and comparatively high efficiencies. We take advantage of spontaneous dewetting to create microstructured arrays of perovskite "islands", on a length-scale small enough to appear continuous to the eye yet large enough to enable unattenuated transmission of light between the islands. The islands are thick enough to absorb most visible light, and the combination of completely absorbing and completely transparent regions results in neutral transmission of light. Using these films, we fabricate thin-film solar cells with respectable power conversion efficiencies. Remarkably, we find that such discontinuous films still have good rectification behavior and relatively high open-circuit voltages due to the inherent rectification between the n- and p-type charge collection layers. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ease of "color-tinting" such microstructured perovksite solar cells with no reduction in performance, by incorporation of a dye within the hole transport medium. PMID:24467381

  12. Watermarking spot colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alattar, Osama M.; Reed, Alastair M.

    2003-06-01

    Watermarking of printed materials has usually focused on process inks of cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK). In packaging, almost three out of four printed materials include spot colors. Spot colors are special premixed inks, which can be produced in a vibrant range of colors, often outside the CMYK color gamut. In embedding a watermark into printed material, a common approach is to modify the luminance value of each pixel in the image. In the case of process color work pieces, the luminance change can be scaled to the C, M, Y and K channels using a weighting function, to produce the desired change in luminance. In the case of spot color art designs, there is only one channel available and the luminance change is applied to this channel. In this paper we develop a weighting function to embed the watermark signal across the range of different spot colors. This weighting function normalizes visibility effect and signal robustness across a wide range of different spot colors. It normalizes the signal robustness level over the range of an individual spot color"s intensity levels. Further, it takes into account the sensitivity of the capturing device to the different spot colors.

  13. Industrial Color Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCamy, C. S.

    1986-10-01

    Color is a very important property of many products and an essential feature of some. The commercial value of color is evident in the fact that customers reject product that is satisfactory in every other way, but is not the right color. Color isrumerically specified, measured, and controlled just as length or weight are. It has three dimensions: Hue, Value, and Chroma, and may be represented in a three-dimensional space. Colors of objects depend on the illumination and pairs of colors may match in one light but not in another. Controlled illumination is required for color matching. Illuminants were standardized by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE). As a basis for color measurement, the CIE adopted three spectral sensitivity functions representing a standard observer. Color may be measured by instruments using standard illumination and simulating the standard observer. It is better to measure spectral reflectance or transmittance and compute colorimetric quantities. Color may be inspected on a production line and the data obtained can be used to control the process. When production cannot be controlled as precisely as required, product may be sorted by color.

  14. True Colors Shining Through

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image mosaic illustrates how scientists use the color calibration targets (upper left) located on both Mars Exploration Rovers to fine-tune the rovers' sense of color. In the center, spectra, or light signatures, acquired in the laboratory of the colored chips on the targets are shown as lines. Actual data from Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera is mapped on top of these lines as dots. The plot demonstrates that the observed colors of Mars match the colors of the chips, and thus approximate the red planet's true colors. This finding is further corroborated by the picture taken on Mars of the calibration target, which shows the colored chips as they would appear on Earth.

  15. Relating color working memory and color perception.

    PubMed

    Allred, Sarah R; Flombaum, Jonathan I

    2014-11-01

    Color is the most frequently studied feature in visual working memory (VWM). Oddly, much of this work de-emphasizes perception, instead making simplifying assumptions about the inputs served to memory. We question these assumptions in light of perception research, and we identify important points of contact between perception and working memory in the case of color. Better characterization of its perceptual inputs will be crucial for elucidating the structure and function of VWM. PMID:25038028

  16. Electrically Tunable Soft-Solid Block Copolymer Structural Color.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae Joon; Hwang, Sun Kak; Park, Sungmin; Cho, Sung Hwan; Park, Tae Hyun; Jeong, Beomjin; Kang, Han Sol; Ryu, Du Yeol; Huh, June; Thomas, Edwin L; Park, Cheolmin

    2015-12-22

    One-dimensional photonic crystals based on the periodic stacking of two different dielectric layers have been widely studied, but the fabrication of mechanically flexible polymer structural color (SC) films, with electro-active color switching, remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate free-standing electric field tunable ionic liquid (IL) swollen block copolymer (BCP) films. Placement of a polymer/ionic liquid film-reservoir adjacent to a self-assembled poly(styrene-block-quaternized 2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-QP2VP) copolymer SC film allowed the development of red (R), green (G), and blue (B) full-color SC block copolymer films by swelling of the QP2VP domains by the ionic liquid associated with water molecules. The IL-polymer/BCP SC film is mechanically flexible with excellent color stability over several days at ambient conditions. The selective swelling of the QP2VP domains could be controlled by both the ratio of the IL to a polymer in the gel-like IL reservoir layer and by an applied voltage in the range of -3 to +6 V using a metal/IL reservoir/SC film/IL reservoir/metal capacitor type device. PMID:26505787

  17. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    PubMed Central

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12–14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature. PMID:25120525

  18. Specialized Color Targets for Spectral Reflectance Reconstruction of Magnified Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruschwitz, Jennifer D. T.

    Digital images are used almost exclusively instead of film to capture visual information across many scientific fields. The colorimetric color representation within these digital images can be relayed from the digital counts produced by the camera with the use of a known color target. In image capture of magnified images, there is currently no reliable color target that can be used at multiple magnifications and give the user a solid understanding of the color ground truth within those images. The first part of this dissertation included the design, fabrication, and testing of a color target produced with optical interference coated microlenses for use in an off-axis illumination, compound microscope. An ideal target was designed to increase the color gamut for colorimetric imaging and provide the necessary "Block Dye" spectral reflectance profiles across the visible spectrum to reduce the number of color patches necessary for multiple filter imaging systems that rely on statistical models for spectral reflectance reconstruction. There are other scientific disciplines that can benefit from a specialized color target to determine the color ground truth in their magnified images and perform spectral estimation. Not every discipline has the luxury of having a multi-filter imaging system. The second part of this dissertation developed two unique ways of using an interference coated color mirror target: one that relies on multiple light-source angles, and one that leverages a dynamic color change with time. The source multi-angle technique would be used for the microelectronic discipline where the reconstructed spectral reflectance would be used to determine a dielectric film thickness on a silicon substrate, and the time varying technique would be used for a biomedical example to determine the thickness of human tear film.

  19. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  20. The nature of colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Pos, Osvaldo

    2002-06-01

    Color is a visible aspect of objects and lights, and as such is an objective characteristic of our phenomenal world. Correspondingly also objects and lights are objective, although their subjectivity cannot be disregarded since they belong to our phenomenal world. The distinction between perception and sensation deals with colors seen either in complex displays or in isolation. Reality of colors is apparently challenged by virtual reality, while virtual reality is a good example of what colors are. It seems difficult to combine that aspect of reality colors have in our experience and the concept that colors represent something in the external environment: the distinction between stimulation and perceived object is crucial for understanding the relationships between phenomenal world and physical reality. A modern concept of isomorphism seems useful in interpreting the role of colors. The relationship between the psychological structure of colors and the physical stimulation is enlightened by the analysis of pseudocolors. The perceptual, subjective characteristics of colors go along with the subjectivity of scientific concepts. Colors, emotions, and concepts are all in some people's mind: none of them is independent of the subject mind. Nevertheless they can be communicated from person to person by an appropriate scientific terminology.

  1. Digital images for eternity: color microfilm as archival medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normand, C.; Gschwind, R.; Fornaro, P.

    2007-01-01

    In the archiving and museum communities, the long-term preservation of artworks has traditionally been guaranteed by making duplicates of the original. For photographic reproductions, digital imaging devices have now become standard, providing better quality control and lower costs than film photography. However, due to the very short life cycle of digital data, losses are unavoidable without repetitive data migrations to new file formats and storage media. We present a solution for the long-term archiving of digital images on color microfilm (Ilfochrome® Micrographic). This extremely stable and high-resolution medium, combined with the use of a novel laser film recorder is particularly well suited for this task. Due to intrinsic limitations of the film, colorimetric reproductions of the originals are not always achievable. The microfilm must be first considered as an information carrier and not primarily as an imaging medium. Color transformations taking into account the film characteristics and possible degradations of the medium due to aging are investigated. An approach making use of readily available color management tools is presented which assures the recovery of the original colors after re-digitization. An extension of this project considering the direct recording of digital information as color bit-code on the film is also introduced.

  2. Color image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrae, Kimberley A.; Ruck, Dennis W.; Rogers, Steven K.; Oxley, Mark E.

    1994-03-01

    The most difficult stage of automated target recognition is segmentation. Current segmentation problems include faces and tactical targets; previous efforts to segment these objects have used intensity and motion cues. This paper develops a color preprocessing scheme to be used with the other segmentation techniques. A neural network is trained to identify the color of a desired object, eliminating all but that color from the scene. Gabor correlations and 2D wavelet transformations will be performed on stationary images; and 3D wavelet transforms on multispectral data will incorporate color and motion detection into the machine visual system. The paper will demonstrate that color and motion cues can enhance a computer segmentation system. Results from segmenting faces both from the AFIT data base and from video taped television are presented; results from tactical targets such as tanks and airplanes are also given. Color preprocessing is shown to greatly improve the segmentation in most cases.

  3. Colored Diffraction Catastrophes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, M. V.; Klein, S.

    1996-03-01

    On fine scales, caustics produced with white light show vividly colored diffraction fringes. For caustics described by the elementary catastrophes of singularity theory, the colors are characteristic of the type of singularity. We study the diffraction colors of the fold and cusp catastrophes. The colors can be simulated computationally as the superposition of monochromatic patterns for different wavelengths. Far from the caustic, where the luminosity contrast is negligible, the fringe colors persist; an asymptotic theory explains why. Experiments with caustics produced by refraction through irregular bathroom-window glass show good agreement with theory. Colored fringes near the cusp reveal fine lines that are not present in any of the monochromatic components; these lines are explained in terms of partial decoherence between rays with widely differing path differences.

  4. Color scene analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celenk, Mehmet

    1994-05-01

    This paper describes a color scene analysis method for the object surfaces appearing in the noisy and imperfect images of natural scenes. It is developed based on the spatial and spectral grouping property of the human visual system. The uniformly colored surfaces are recognized by their monomodal 3-D color distributions and extracted in the spatial domain using the lightness and chromaticity network of the Munsell system. The textured image regions are identified by their irregular histogram distributions and isolated in the image plane using the Julesz connectivity detection rules. The method is applied to various color images corrupted by noise and degraded heavily by under-sampling and low color-contrast imperfections. The method was able to detect all the uniformly colored and heavily textured object areas in these images.

  5. Digital color representation

    DOEpatents

    White, James M.; Faber, Vance; Saltzman, Jeffrey S.

    1992-01-01

    An image population having a large number of attributes is processed to form a display population with a predetermined smaller number of attributes which represent the larger number of attributes. In a particular application, the color values in an image are compressed for storage in a discrete lookup table (LUT) where an 8-bit data signal is enabled to form a display of 24-bit color values. The LUT is formed in a sampling and averaging process from the image color values with no requirement to define discrete Voronoi regions for color compression. Image color values are assigned 8-bit pointers to their closest LUT value whereby data processing requires only the 8-bit pointer value to provide 24-bit color values from the LUT.

  6. Colored diffraction catastrophes.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, M V; Klein, S

    1996-01-01

    On fine scales, caustics produced with white light show vividly colored diffraction fringes. For caustics described by the elementary catastrophes of singularity theory, the colors are characteristic of the type of singularity. We study the diffraction colors of the fold and cusp catastrophes. The colors can be simulated computationally as the superposition of monochromatic patterns for different wavelengths. Far from the caustic, where the luminosity contrast is negligible, the fringe colors persist; an asymptotic theory explains why. Experiments with caustics produced by refraction through irregular bathroom-window glass show good agreement with theory. Colored fringes near the cusp reveal fine lines that are not present in any of the monochromatic components; these lines are explained in terms of partial decoherence between rays with widely differing path differences. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:11607642

  7. Uses for Free Film Cans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batoff, Mitchell E.; Harmen, Jerry

    1973-01-01

    Describes multiple uses of empty film cans for equipping an elementary school science classroom. Instructional units in which film cans may be useful include buoyancy, mobiles, growing seeds, peas and particles, rocks and minerals, structures, field studies, sound, balancing, electricity, pedulums, chemical change, and optics, light, color. (PS)

  8. Ghostscript color management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrhel, Michael J.; Johnston, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    This document introduces an updated color architecture that has been designed for Ghostscript. Ghostscript is a well known open source document rendering and conversion engine. Prior to this update, the handling of color in Ghostscript was based primarily upon PostScript color management. The new design results in a flexible ICC-based architecture that works well in Ghostscript's multi-threaded rendering environment.

  9. The Colors of 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image shows visible mineral changes between the materials that make up the rim of the impact crater known as 'Endurance.' The image was taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity using all 13 color filters. The cyan blue color denotes basalts, whereas the dark green color denotes a mixture of iron oxide and basaltic materials. Reds and yellows indicate dusty material containing sulfates. Scientists are very interested in exploring the interior and exterior material around the crater's rim for clues to the processes that formed the crater, as well as the rocks and textures that define the crater.

  10. Crater Floor in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 5 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on November 18, 2003 during the Southern Summer season in Terra Cimmeria.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -23.7, Longitude 135.6 East (224.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  11. Fingers that change color

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditions can cause fingers or toes to change color: Buerger disease Chilblains. Painful inflammation of small blood vessels. Cryoglobulinemia Frostbite Necrotizing vasculitis Peripheral artery disease ...

  12. Polarization encoded color camera.

    PubMed

    Schonbrun, Ethan; Möller, Guðfríður; Di Caprio, Giuseppe

    2014-03-15

    Digital cameras would be colorblind if they did not have pixelated color filters integrated into their image sensors. Integration of conventional fixed filters, however, comes at the expense of an inability to modify the camera's spectral properties. Instead, we demonstrate a micropolarizer-based camera that can reconfigure its spectral response. Color is encoded into a linear polarization state by a chiral dispersive element and then read out in a single exposure. The polarization encoded color camera is capable of capturing three-color images at wavelengths spanning the visible to the near infrared. PMID:24690806

  13. Visual color image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Guoping; Schaefer, Gerald

    1999-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a color image processing method by combining modern signal processing technique with knowledge about the properties of the human color vision system. Color signals are processed differently according to their visual importance. The emphasis of the technique is on the preservation of total visual quality of the image and simultaneously taking into account computational efficiency. A specific color image enhancement technique, termed Hybrid Vector Median Filtering is presented. Computer simulations have been performed to demonstrate that the new approach is technically sound and results are comparable to or better than traditional methods.

  14. Color mixing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Steven J.

    1992-05-01

    In black-and-white printing the page image can be represented within a computer as an array of binary values indicating whether or not pixels should be inked. The Boolean operators of AND, OR, and EXCLUSIVE-OR are often used when adding new objects to the image array. For color printing the page may be represented as an array of continuous tone color values, and the generalization of these logic functions to gray-scale or full-color images is, in general, not defined or understood. When incrementally composing a page image new colors can replace old in an image buffer, or new colors and old can be combined according to some mixing function to form a composite color which is stored. This paper examines the properties of the Boolean operations and suggests full-color mixing functions which preserve the desired properties. These functions can be used to combine colored images, giving various transparency effects. The relationships between the mixing functions and physical models of color mixing are also discussed.

  15. Color reproduction with a smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-10-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition and understand how colors are made on digital displays.

  16. Polar Cap Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on June 6, 2003 during the Southern Spring season near the South Polar Cap Edge.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -77.8, Longitude 195 East (165 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  17. Navigation lights color study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Jose G.; Alberg, Matthew T.

    2015-05-01

    The chromaticity of navigation lights are defined by areas on the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) 1931 chromaticity diagram. The corner coordinates for these areas are specified in the International Regulations for Prevention of Collisions at Sea, 1972 (72 COLREGS). The navigation light's color of white, red, green, and yellow are bounded by these areas. The chromaticity values specified by the COLREGS for navigation lights were intended for the human visual system (HVS). The HVS can determine the colors of these lights easily under various conditions. For digital color camera imaging systems the colors of these lights are dependent on the camera's color spectral sensitivity, settings, and color correction. At night the color of these lights are used to quickly determine the relative course of vessels. If these lights are incorrectly identified or there is a delay in identifying them this could be a potential safety of ship concern. Vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for sight, at night, need to detect, identify, and discriminate navigation lights for navigation and collision avoidance. The introduction of light emitting diode (LED) lights and lights with different spectral signatures have the potential to be imaged very differently with an RGB color filter array (CFA) color camera than with the human eye. It has been found that some green navigation lights' images appear blue verse green. This has an impact on vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for navigation. This paper will characterize color cameras ability to properly reproducing navigation lights' color and survey a set of navigation light to determine if they conform to the COLREGS.

  18. Hand-Held Color Meters Based on Interference Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Caillat, Thierry; Chen, Gang; Yang, Rong Gui

    2004-01-01

    Small, inexpensive, hand-held optoelectronic color-measuring devices based on metal-film/dielectric-film interference filters are undergoing development. These color meters could be suitable for use in a variety of applications in which there are requirements to quantify or match colors for aesthetic purposes but there is no need for the high spectral resolution of scientific-grade spectrometers. Such applications typically occur in the paint, printing, and cosmetic industries, for example. The figure schematically depicts a color meter of this type being used to measure the color of a sample in terms of the spectrum of light reflected from the sample. Light from a white source (for example, a white light-emitting diode) passes through a collimating lens to the sample. Another lens collects some of the light reflected from the sample and focuses the light onto the input end of optical fiber. Light emerging from the output end of the optical fiber illuminates an array of photodetectors covered with metal/dielectric-film interference filters like those described in Metal/Dielectric-film Interference Color Filters (NPO-20217), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 2 (February 1999), page 70. Typically, these are wide-band-pass filters, as shown at the bottom of the figure. The photodetector array need not be of any particular design: it could be something as simple as an assembly containing several photodiodes or something as elaborate as an active-pixel sensor or other imaging device. What is essential is that each of the photodetectors or each of several groups of photodetectors is covered with a metal/dielectric-film filter of a different color. In most applications, it would be desirable to have at least three different filters, each for a spectral band that contains one of the three primary additive red, green, and blue colors. In some applications, it may be necessary to have more than three different color filters in order to characterize subtle differences in color

  19. Comparison of Color Model in Cotton Image Under Conditions of Natural Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. H.; Kong, F. T.; Wu, J. Z.; Wang, S. W.; Liu, J. J.; Zhao, P.

    Although the color images contain a large amount of information reflecting the species characteristics, different color models also get different information. The selection of color models is the key to separating crops from background effectively and rapidly. Taking the cotton images collected under natural light as the object, we convert the color components of RGB color model, HSL color model and YIQ color model respectively. Then, we use subjective evaluation and objective evaluation methods, evaluating the 9 color components of conversion. It is concluded that the Q component of the soil, straw and plastic film region gray values remain the same without larger fluctuation when using subjective evaluation method. In the objective evaluation, we use the variance method, average gradient method, gray prediction objective evaluation error statistics method and information entropy method respectively to find the minimum numerical of Q color component suitable for background segmentation.

  20. Recent developments in space shuttle remote sensing, using hand-held film cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amsbury, David L.; Bremer, Jeffrey M.

    1992-01-01

    The authors report on the advantages and disadvantages of a number of camera systems which are currently employed for space shuttle remote sensing operations. Systems discussed include the modified Hasselbad, the Rolleiflex 6008, the Linkof 5-inch format system, and the Nikon F3/F4 systems. Film/filter combinations (color positive films, color infrared films, color negative films and polarization filters) are presented.

  1. Language and Color Symbolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Earl R.

    1977-01-01

    Suggests discussion and a writing assignment on the ways color terms have changed from Old English and Indo-European roots; urges a study of Black-White polarity that goes beyond racial connotations of those terms. Provides informative materials on many specific color terms. (TJ)

  2. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  3. 3-D Color Wheels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBois, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The blending of information from an academic class with projects from art class can do nothing but strengthen the learning power of the student. Creating three-dimensional color wheels provides the perfect opportunity to combine basic geometry knowledge with color theory. In this article, the author describes how her seventh-grade painting…

  4. Colorful Underwater Sea Creatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project wherein students created colorful underwater sea creatures. This project began with a discussion about underwater sea creatures and how they live. The first step was making the multi-colored tissue paper that would become sea creatures and seaweed. Once students had the shapes of their sea creatures…

  5. Dynamic egg color mimicry.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Daniel; Šulc, Michal; Brennan, Patricia L R; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Honza, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the function of eggshell phenotypes, from solar protection through mimicry, have implicitly assumed that eggshell appearance remains static throughout the laying and incubation periods. However, recent research demonstrates that egg coloration changes over relatively short, biologically relevant timescales. Here, we provide the first evidence that such changes impact brood parasite-host eggshell color mimicry during the incubation stage. First, we use long-term data to establish how rapidly the Acrocephalus arundinaceus Linnaeus (great reed warbler) responded to natural parasitic eggs laid by the Cuculus canorus Linnaeus (common cuckoo). Most hosts rejected parasitic eggs just prior to clutch completion, but the host response period extended well into incubation (~10 days after clutch completion). Using reflectance spectrometry and visual modeling, we demonstrate that eggshell coloration in the great reed warbler and its brood parasite, the common cuckoo, changes rapidly, and the extent of eggshell color mimicry shifts dynamically over the host response period. Specifically, 4 days after being laid, the host should notice achromatic color changes to both cuckoo and warbler eggs, while chromatic color changes would be noticeable after 8 days. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the perceived match between host and cuckoo eggshell color worsened over the incubation period. These findings have important implications for parasite-host coevolution dynamics, because host egg discrimination may be aided by disparate temporal color changes in host and parasite eggs. PMID:27516874

  6. Peripheral Color Demo

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A set of structured demonstrations of the vividness of peripheral color vision is provided by arrays of multicolored disks scaled with eccentricity. These demonstrations are designed to correct the widespread misconception that peripheral color vision is weak or nonexistent. PMID:27551354

  7. Color names, color categories, and color-cued visual search: Sometimes, color perception is not categorical

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Angela M; Lindsey, Delwin T; Guckes, Kevin M

    2011-01-01

    The relation between colors and their names is a classic case-study for investigating the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis that categorical perception is imposed on perception by language. Here, we investigate the Sapir-Whorf prediction that visual search for a green target presented among blue distractors (or vice versa) should be faster than search for a green target presented among distractors of a different color of green (or for a blue target among different blue distractors). Gilbert, Regier, Kay & Ivry (2006) reported that this Sapir-Whorf effect is restricted to the right visual field (RVF), because the major brain language centers are in the left cerebral hemisphere. We found no categorical effect at the Green|Blue color boundary, and no categorical effect restricted to the RVF. Scaling of perceived color differences by Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling (MLDS) also showed no categorical effect, including no effect specific to the RVF. Two models fit the data: a color difference model based on MLDS and a standard opponent-colors model of color discrimination based on the spectral sensitivities of the cones. Neither of these models, nor any of our data, suggested categorical perception of colors at the Green|Blue boundary, in either visual field. PMID:21980188

  8. Color spaces for color-gamut mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, John J.

    1999-10-01

    Before doing extensive color gamut experiments, we wanted to test the uniformity of CIE L*a*b*. This paper shows surprisingly large discrepancies between CIE L*a*b* and isotropic observation-based color spaces, such as Munsell: (1) L*a*b* chroma exaggerate yellows and underestimate blues. (2) The average discrepancy between L*a*b* and ideal is 27%. (3) Chips with identical L*a*b* hue angles are not the same color. L*a*b* introduces errors larger than many gamut mapping corrections. We have isotropic data in the Munsell Book. Computers allow 3D lookup tables to convert instantly any measured L*a*b* to interpolated Munsell Book values. We call this space ML, Ma, and Mb in honor of Munsell. LUTs have been developed for both LabtoMLab and MLabtoLab. With this zero-error, isotropic space we can return our attention to the original problem of color-gamut image processing.

  9. Image color reduction method for color-defective observers using a color palette composed of 20 particular colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a color enhancement method that uses a color palette especially designed for protan and deutan defects, commonly known as red-green color blindness. The proposed color reduction method is based on a simple color mapping. Complicated computation and image processing are not required by using the proposed method, and the method can replace protan and deutan confusion (p/d-confusion) colors with protan and deutan safe (p/d-safe) colors. Color palettes for protan and deutan defects proposed by previous studies are composed of few p/d-safe colors. Thus, the colors contained in these palettes are insufficient for replacing colors in photographs. Recently, Ito et al. proposed a p/dsafe color palette composed of 20 particular colors. The author demonstrated that their p/d-safe color palette could be applied to image color reduction in photographs as a means to replace p/d-confusion colors. This study describes the results of the proposed color reduction in photographs that include typical p/d-confusion colors, which can be replaced. After the reduction process is completed, color-defective observers can distinguish these confusion colors.

  10. High-resolution dyed color-filter-material for use in digital photography applications: cyan, magenta, and yellow color photoresists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gu; Mayo, Jonathan W.; Planje, Curtis; Rieken, Lorie; Brand, Gary

    2002-04-01

    In this study, we have developed a new set of cyan, magenta and yellow (CMY) dyed color filter materials to meet the need of digital photography applications. These new color filter materials consist of a dye, a photo sensitive polymer binder, photo initiators, and acrylic monomers in addition to safe solvents such as propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME) which allow deposition of thin film layers by standard spin-on coating techniques. CMY materials share many desirable properties with standard photoresists, e.g., excellent coating quality, thin film uniformity, and good adhesion to semiconductor substrates. They work as negative resists and are sensitive to i-line UV light with photo speed of 300 mJ/cm2 and below. We have shown, for example, that a 1 micrometers film exposed and developed will exhibit high- resolution feature sizes of 3 micrometers pixels and below. These CMY materials have excellent thermal and light stability and good color characteristics.

  11. Iridescence color of shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan

    2002-06-01

    Some shells from both salt water and fresh water show the phenomenon of iridescence color. Pearls and mother-of-pearls also display this phenomenon. In the past, the cause of the iridescence color was attributed to interference. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the surface structure of the shell of the mollusk Pinctada Margaritifera. There is a groove structure of reflection grating on the surface area in where the iridescence color appears. An optic experiment with a laser obtained a diffraction pattern produced by the reflection grating structure of the shell. The study led to a conclusion that the iridescence color of the shell is caused by diffraction. A SEM image of the shells of an abalone Haliotis Rufescens (red abalone) showed a statistically regularly arranged tile structure that serves as a two-dimensional grating. This grating structure causes the iridescence color of the shell of red abalone. The dominant color of the iridescence of shells is caused by the uneven grating efficiency in the visible wavelength range when a shell functions as a reflection grating. The wavelength of the dominant color should be at or near the wavelength of the maximum efficiency of the grating.

  12. Photographic film image enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horner, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    A series of experiments were undertaken to assess the feasibility of defogging color film by the techniques of optical spatial filtering. A coherent optical processor was built using red, blue, and green laser light input and specially designed Fourier transformation lenses. An array of spatial filters was fabricated on black and white emulsion slides using the coherent optical processor. The technique was first applied to laboratory white light fogged film, and the results were successful. However, when the same technique was applied to some original Apollo X radiation fogged color negatives, the results showed no similar restoration. Examples of each experiment are presented and possible reasons for the lack of restoration in the Apollo films are discussed.

  13. Theoretical aspects of color vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolbarsht, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    The three color receptors of Young-Helmholtz and the opponent colors type of information processing postulated by Hering are both present in the human visual system. This mixture accounts for both the phenomena of color matching or hue discrimination and such perceptual qualities of color as the division of the spectrum into color bands. The functioning of the cells in the visual system, especially within the retina, and the relation of this function to color perception are discussed.

  14. Dual Color Plasmonic Pixels Create a Polarization Controlled Nano Color Palette.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhibo; Clark, Alasdair W; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2016-01-26

    Color filters based upon nanostructured metals have garnered significant interest in recent years, having been positioned as alternatives to the organic dye-based filters which provide color selectivity in image sensors, as nonfading "printing" technologies for producing images with nanometer pixel resolution, and as ultra-high-resolution, small foot-print optical storage and encoding solutions. Here, we demonstrate a plasmonic filter set with polarization-switchable color properties, based upon arrays of asymmetric cross-shaped nanoapertures in an aluminum thin-film. Acting as individual color-emitting nanopixels, the plasmonic cavity-apertures have dual-color selectivity, transmitting one of two visible colors, controlled by the polarization of the white light incident on the rear of the pixel and tuned by varying the critical dimensions of the geometry and periodicity of the array. This structural approach to switchable optical filtering enables a single nanoaperture to encode two information states within the same physical nanoaperture, an attribute we use here to create micro image displays containing duality in their optical information states. PMID:26631346

  15. Coloring random graphs.

    PubMed

    Mulet, R; Pagnani, A; Weigt, M; Zecchina, R

    2002-12-23

    We study the graph coloring problem over random graphs of finite average connectivity c. Given a number q of available colors, we find that graphs with low connectivity admit almost always a proper coloring, whereas graphs with high connectivity are uncolorable. Depending on q, we find the precise value of the critical average connectivity c(q). Moreover, we show that below c(q) there exists a clustering phase c in [c(d),c(q)] in which ground states spontaneously divide into an exponential number of clusters and where the proliferation of metastable states is responsible for the onset of complexity in local search algorithms. PMID:12484862

  16. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects. PMID:25000236

  17. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Natsuki; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Kamachi, Miyuki G.; Ito, Kei

    2012-01-01

    We report on the results of a study investigating the color perception characteristics of people with red-green color confusion. We believe that this is an important step towards achieving Color Universal Design. In Japan, approximately 5% of men and 0.2% of women have red-green confusion. The percentage for men is higher in Europe and the United States; up to 8% in some countries. Red-green confusion involves a perception of colors different from normal color vision. Colors are used as a means of disseminating clear information to people; however, it may be difficult to convey the correct information to people who have red-green confusion. Consequently, colors should be chosen that minimize accidents and that promote more effective communication. In a previous survey, we investigated color categories common to each color vision type, trichromat (C-type color vision), protan (P-type color vision) and deuteran (D-type color vision). In the present study, first, we conducted experiments in order to verify a previous survey of C-type color vision and P-type color vision. Next, we investigated color difference levels within "CIE 1976 L*a*b*" (the CIELAB uniform color space), where neither C-type nor P-type color vision causes accidents under certain conditions (rain maps/contour line levels and graph color legend levels). As a result, we propose a common chromaticity of colors that the two color vision types are able to categorize by means of color names common to C-type color vision. We also offer a proposal to explain perception characteristics of color differences with normal color vision and red-green confusion using the CIELAB uniform color space. This report is a follow-up to SPIE-IS & T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8 and SPIE-IS & T /vol. 7866 78660J-1-8.

  18. Color harmonization for images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhen; Miao, Zhenjiang; Wan, Yanli; Wang, Zhifei

    2011-04-01

    Color harmonization is an artistic technique to adjust a set of colors in order to enhance their visual harmony so that they are aesthetically pleasing in terms of human visual perception. We present a new color harmonization method that treats the harmonization as a function optimization. For a given image, we derive a cost function based on the observation that pixels in a small window that have similar unharmonic hues should be harmonized with similar harmonic hues. By minimizing the cost function, we get a harmonized image in which the spatial coherence is preserved. A new matching function is proposed to select the best matching harmonic schemes, and a new component-based preharmonization strategy is proposed to preserve the hue distribution of the harmonized images. Our approach overcomes several shortcomings of the existing color harmonization methods. We test our algorithm with a variety of images to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  19. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... appear as spots or lines in the tooth enamel. Your genes affect your tooth color. Other things ... Infections Inherited diseases may affect the thickness of enamel or the calcium or protein content of the ...

  20. Color Video Petrography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Frederick

    1981-01-01

    Describes the production and use of color videocassettes with an inexpensive, conventional TV camera and an ordinary petrographic microscope. The videocassettes are used in optical mineralogy and petrology courses. (Author/WB)

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Sep. 26, 2013 It ... she first put in a pair of colored contact lenses, Laura Butler of Parkersburg, W.Va., had " ...

  2. Hypergraph coloring complexes.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Felix; Dall, Aaron; Kubitzke, Martina

    2012-08-28

    The aim of this paper is to generalize the notion of the coloring complex of a graph to hypergraphs. We present three different interpretations of those complexes-a purely combinatorial one and two geometric ones. It is shown, that most of the properties, which are known to be true for coloring complexes of graphs, break down in this more general setting, e.g., Cohen-Macaulayness and partitionability. Nevertheless, we are able to provide bounds for the [Formula: see text]- and [Formula: see text]-vectors of those complexes which yield new bounds on chromatic polynomials of hypergraphs. Moreover, though it is proven that the coloring complex of a hypergraph has a wedge decomposition, we provide an example showing that in general this decomposition is not homotopy equivalent to a wedge of spheres. In addition, we can completely characterize those hypergraphs whose coloring complex is connected. PMID:23483700

  3. Colors of the Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.; Fraser, Alistair B.

    1985-01-01

    Explains the physical principles which result in various colors of the sky. Topics addressed include: blueness, mystical properties of water vapor, ozone, fluctuation theory of scattering, variation of purity and brightness, and red sunsets and sunrises. (DH)

  4. Copying and Coloring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, Herb

    1977-01-01

    Investigates what appeals to students in using coloring books and whether they use them in imaginative ways. The intent was to use the information to develop creative book activities that interest and challenge students. (Author/RK)

  5. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be caused by: Beets, blackberries, or certain food colorings Hemolytic anemia Injury to the kidneys or urinary tract Medicine Porphyria Urinary tract disorders that cause ... or drugs Bilirubin Medicines, including methylene blue Urinary ...

  6. Phoenix Color Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    These images of three Phoenix color targets were taken on sols 1 and 2 by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on board the Phoenix lander. The bottom target was imaged in approximate color (SSI's red, green, and blue filters: 600, 530, and 480 nanometers), while the others were imaged with an infrared filter (750 nanometers). All of them will be imaged many times over the mission to monitor the color calibration of the camera. The two at the top show grains 2 to 3 millimeters in size that were likely lifted to the Phoenix deck during landing. Each of the large color chips on each target contains a strong magnet to protect the interior material from Mars' magnetic dust.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Color Associations of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Deborah A.

    1983-01-01

    Free color associations were collected from a total of 337 children in the fourth through sixth grades to 12 concepts: hope, anger, sadness, honesty, fear, happiness, pain, love, death, strength, school, and life. (Author/RH)

  8. Chemistry, Color, and Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orna, Mary Virginia

    2001-01-01

    Describes pigments and artists' colors from a chronological perspective. Explains how chemical analysis can be used to distinguish the differences between artists' palettes, identify the evolution of art, and lead to restoration of an art work. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  9. Physics of structural colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, S.; Yoshioka, S.; Miyazaki, J.

    2008-07-01

    In recent years, structural colors have attracted great attention in a wide variety of research fields. This is because they are originated from complex interaction between light and sophisticated nanostructures generated in the natural world. In addition, their inherent regular structures are one of the most conspicuous examples of non-equilibrium order formation. Structural colors are deeply connected with recent rapidly growing fields of photonics and have been extensively studied to clarify their peculiar optical phenomena. Their mechanisms are, in principle, of a purely physical origin, which differs considerably from the ordinary coloration mechanisms such as in pigments, dyes and metals, where the colors are produced by virtue of the energy consumption of light. It is generally recognized that structural colors are mainly based on several elementary optical processes including thin-layer interference, diffraction grating, light scattering, photonic crystals and so on. However, in nature, these processes are somehow mixed together to produce complex optical phenomena. In many cases, they are combined with the irregularity of the structure to produce the diffusive nature of the reflected light, while in some cases they are accompanied by large-scale structures to generate the macroscopic effect on the coloration. Further, it is well known that structural colors cooperate with pigmentary colors to enhance or to reduce the brilliancy and to produce special effects. Thus, structure-based optical phenomena in nature appear to be quite multi-functional, the variety of which is far beyond our understanding. In this article, we overview these phenomena appearing particularly in the diversity of the animal world, to shed light on this rapidly developing research field.

  10. Color Doppler flow imaging.

    PubMed

    Foley, W D; Erickson, S J

    1991-01-01

    The performance requirements and operational parameters of a color Doppler system are outlined. The ability of an operator to recognize normal and abnormal variations in physiologic flow and artifacts caused by noise and aliasing is emphasized. The use of color Doppler flow imaging is described for the vessels of the neck and extremities, upper abdomen and abdominal transplants, obstetrics and gynecology, dialysis fistulas, and testicular and penile flow imaging. PMID:1898567

  11. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  12. Color planner for designers based on color emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ka-Man; Xin, John H.; Taylor, Gail

    2002-06-01

    During the color perception process, an associated feeling or emotion is induced in our brains, and this kind of emotion is termed as 'color emotion.' The researchers in the field of color emotions have put many efforts in quantifying color emotions with the standard color specifications and evaluating the influence of hue, lightness and chroma to the color emotions of human beings. In this study, a color planner was derived according to these findings so that the correlation of color emotions and standard color specifications was clearly indicated. Since people of different nationalities usually have different color emotions as different cultural and traditional backgrounds, the subjects in this study were all native Hong Kong Chinese and the color emotion words were all written in Chinese language in the visual assessments. Through the color planner, the designers from different areas, no matter fashion, graphic, interior or web site etc., can select suitable colors for inducing target color emotions to the customers or product-users since different colors convey different meanings to them. In addition, the designers can enhance the functionality and increase the attractiveness of their designed products by selecting suitable colors.

  13. FEASIBILITY of “TRACEABLE” COLOR STANDARDS for COTTON COLOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton color is measured on the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI) for Rd (diffuse reflectance) and +b (yellowness). Rd and +b are cotton-specific color parameters, and they are not as well known as other globally recognized color systems (e.g., L*a*b*). Further, the standards used for HVI color...

  14. Color-Blindness Study: Color Discrimination on the TICCIT System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asay, Calvin S.; Schneider, Edward W.

    The question studied whether the specific seven TICCIT system colors used within color coding schemes can be a source of confusion, or not seen at all, by the color-blind segment of target populations. Subjects were 11 color-blind and three normally sighted students at Brigham Young University. After a preliminary training exercise to acquaint the…

  15. Color image segmentation considering human sensitivity for color pattern variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Kuk-Jin; Kweon, In-So

    2001-10-01

    Color image segmentation plays an important role in the computer vision and image processing area. In this paper, we propose a novel color image segmentation algorithm in consideration of human visual sensitivity for color pattern variations by generalizing K-means clustering. Human visual system has different color perception sensitivity according to the spatial color pattern variation. To reflect this effect, we define the CCM (Color Complexity Measure) by calculating the absolute deviation with Gaussian weighting within the local mask and assign weight value to each color vector using the CCM values.

  16. Bio-Inspired Structural Colors Produced via Self-Assembly of Synthetic Melanin Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ming; Li, Yiwen; Allen, Michael C; Deheyn, Dimitri D; Yue, Xiujun; Zhao, Jiuzhou; Gianneschi, Nathan C; Shawkey, Matthew D; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2015-05-26

    Structural colors arising from interactions of light with submicron scale periodic structures have been found in many species across all taxa, serving multiple biological functions including sexual signaling, camouflage, and aposematism. Directly inspired by the extensive use of self-assembled melanosomes to produce colors in avian feathers, we set out to synthesize and assemble polydopamine-based synthetic melanin nanoparticles in an effort to fabricate colored films. We have quantitatively demonstrated that synthetic melanin nanoparticles have a high refractive index and broad absorption spanning across the UV-visible range, similar to natural melanins. Utilizing a thin-film interference model, we demonstrated the coloration mechanism of deposited films and showed that the unique optical properties of synthetic melanin nanoparticles provide advantages for structural colors over other polymeric nanoparticles (i.e., polystyrene colloidal particles). PMID:25938924

  17. Identification of Colors for Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    A demonstration of how colors may be specified for use by all those trades and professions involved in building science. This is of vital importance in furthering the use of color, not only in structures but in every other aspect of our daily usage. Free enterprise requires a color language in order to expand the use of color, and to allow for…

  18. Color in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.

    2002-05-01

    The vocabulary of astronomy is riddled with color terms. Stars are referred to as red or blue - even brown -- though rarely green. Astronomers say light from a star can be "blueshifted" or that it can be "reddened". Color, however, is not a simple one-dimensional physical parameter equal to wavelength or frequency. It is a complex, psychophysical phenomenon involving at least three degrees of freedom - hue, saturation and brightness -- as well as observational context. Nonetheless, many astronomers treat hue alone or hue plus saturation as the same thing as color. A recent report on "the color of the universe" is a case in point (Baldry and Glazebrook, Bull. Am. As. Soc., 34, No. 1, 571, 2002). Even discounting the authors' initial and (possibly) subsequent errors in arriving at a "color" associated with the composite spectrum derived from the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (first reported as "pale turquoise", then "beige"), the method of viewing the light was left vague, and context is important. For example, consider the question "What color is the Moon?" When viewed from Earth, the Moon appears white against the black sky. Place a piece of "average" lunar material in a lighted room, and it will appear dark gray. To most human observers, the 2000 or so naked eye stars observable from the northern hemisphere all appear white, with the few exceptions which look reddish/orange such as Betelgeuse, Arcturus, Aldeberan, Antares and Pollux. Yet the dimmer double star companion to Alberio can appear bluish when viewed beside its much brighter yellowish/orange neighbor if both are viewed by eye through a small aperture, slightly defocused telescope. This presentation will explore several visual phenomena that can help clarify the concept of color in astronomy. Supported in part by NSF grant # DUE-9950551 for "Project LITE: Light Inquiry Through Experiments".

  19. Color rendering of color camera data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, Brian A.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions under which a computational procedure can be applied to arbitrary camera sensors to permit estimation of the human photoreceptor response are considered. The adopted procedures recover the effective surface reflectance at the time of measurement, and the reflectance estimates depend not only on the surface, but upon the viewing geometry. The present method for color rendering assumes that the observer's state of adaptation at the time of viewing the original and the rendered images is the same. The analysis aids in specifying which classes of surfaces are required to be accurately rendered, and for which surfaces some error can be tolerated.

  20. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  1. 7 CFR 51.1829 - Well colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Well colored. Well colored means that a good yellow or better ground color predominates over the green color on the entire fruit surface with no distinct green color present, and that some portion of...

  2. Flashing anomalous color contrast.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Baingio; Spillmann, Lothar; Werner, John S

    2004-01-01

    A new visual phenomenon that we call flashing anomalous color contrast is described. This phenomenon arises from the interaction between a gray central disk and a chromatic annulus surrounded by black radial lines. In an array of such figures, the central gray disk no longer appears gray, but assumes a color complementary to that of the surrounding annulus. The induced color appears: (1) vivid and saturated; (2) self-luminous, not a surface property; (3) flashing with eye or stimulus movement; (4) floating out of its confines; and (5) stronger in extrafoveal than in foveal vision. The strength of the effect depends on the number, length, width, and luminance contrast of the radial lines. The results suggest that the chromatic ring bounding the inner tips of the black radial lines induces simultaneous color contrast, whereas the radial lines elicit, in conjunction with the gray disk and the ring, the flashing, vividness, and high saturation of the effect. The stimulus properties inducing the illusion suggest that flashing anomalous color contrast may be based on asynchronous interactions among multiple visual pathways. PMID:15518215

  3. Simulating coronas in color.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, Stanley D; Lock, James A

    2003-01-20

    Coronas are simulated in color by use of the Mie scattering theory of light by small droplets through clouds of finite optical thickness embedded in a Rayleigh scattering atmosphere. The primary factors that affect color, visibility, and number of rings of coronas are droplet size, width of the size distribution, and cloud optical thickness. The color sequence of coronas and iridescence varies when the droplet radius is smaller than approximately 6-microm. As radius increases to approximately 3.5 microm, new color bands appear at the center of the corona and fade as they move outward. As the radius continues to increase to approximately 6 microm, successively more inner rings become fixed in the manner described by classical diffraction theory, while outer rings continue their outward migration. Wave clouds or rippled cloud segments produce the brightest and most vivid multiple ringed coronas and iridescence because their integrated dropsize distributions along sunbeams are much narrower than in convective or stratiform clouds. The visibility of coronas and the appearance of the background sky vary with cloud optical depth tau. First the corona becomes visible as a white aureole in a blue sky when tau approximately 0.001. Color purity then rapidly increases to an almost flat maximum in the range 0.05 < or = tau < or = 0.5 and then decreases, so coronas are almost completely washed out by a bright gray background when tau > or = 4. PMID:12570272

  4. Improving analysis of radiochromic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista Neto, A. T.; Meira-Belo, L. C.; Faria, L. O.

    2014-02-01

    An appropriate radiochromic film should respond uniformly throughout its surface after exposure to a uniform radiation field. The evaluation of radiochromic films may be carried out, for example, by measuring color intensities in film-based digitized images. Fluctuations in color intensity may be caused by many different factors such as optical structure of the film's active layer, defects in structure of the film, scratches and external agents, such as dust. The use of high spatial resolution during film scanning should also increase microscopic uniformity. Since the average is strongly influenced by extreme values, the use of other statistical tools, for which this problem becomes inconspicuous, optimizes the application of higher spatial resolution as well as reduces standard deviations. This paper compares the calibration curves of the XR-QA2 Gafchromic® radiochromic film based on three different methods: the average of all color intensity readings, the median of these same readings and the average of readings that fall between the first and third quartiles. Results indicate that a higher spatial resolution may be adopted whenever the calibration curve is based on tools less influenced by extreme values such as those generated by the factors mentioned above.

  5. Precision of Synesthetic Color Matching Resembles That for Recollected Colors Rather than Physical Colors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Derek H.; Wegener, Signy V.; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2012-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but "hearing" the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to compare the…

  6. Color Memory of University Students: Influence of Color Experience and Color Characteristic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Carlisle; Epps, Helen H.; Kaya, Naz

    2006-01-01

    The ability to select a previously viewed color specimen from an array of specimens that differ in hue, value, or chroma varies among individuals, and may be related to one's basic color discrimination ability or to prior experience with color. This study investigated short-term color memory of 40 college students, 20 of whom were interior design…

  7. Arousal and Reminiscence in Learning From Color and Black/White Audio-Visual Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Frank H.; Grant, Alfred D.

    Reminiscence, or an increase in retention scores from a short-to-long-term retention test, has been shown in some previous work to be a significant function of arousal. Previous studies of the effects of color versus black-and-white audiovisual presentations have generally used film or television and have found no facilitating effect of color on…

  8. Color preferences revealed by statistical color rendition metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Anqing; Tuzikas, ArÅ«nas; Žukauskas, ArtÅ«ras; Vaicekauskas, Rimantas; Vitta, Pranciškus; Shur, Michael

    2013-09-01

    The color rendition engine based on the statistical metric allows us to uniquely quantify the characteristics of color quality of illumination and assess the color rendition preferences. We now report on using the color rendition engine for revealing individual and cultural differences in color quality preferences of 205 American and Chinese subjects. Our study demonstrated that the majority of individuals preferred the color blend with the same statistical figures of merit on the average but with a much larger spread of blends for Americans. For both groups, the color rendition preferences depended on the object being illuminated. This was demonstrated by illuminating a set of common colored objects and three different paintings. We conclude that the color quality of lighting can be optimized and enhanced using the feedback to change the spectral power distribution of the illuminating source depending on the object being illuminated and on the preferences of an individual observer and a cultural group.

  9. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Tomohiro; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Kojima, Natsuki; Tanaka, Hisaya; Ito, Kei

    2013-02-01

    This report is af ollow-up to SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8, SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7866 78660J-1-8 and SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 8292 829206-1-8. Colors are used to communicate information in various situations, not just for design and apparel. However, visual information given only by color may be perceived differently by individuals with different color vision types. Human color vision is non-uniform and the variation in most cases is genetically linked to L-cones and M-cones. Therefore, color appearance is not the same for all color vision types. Color Universal Design is an easy-to-understand system that was created to convey color-coded information accurately to most people, taking color vision types into consideration. In the present research, we studied trichromat (C-type), prolan (P-type), and deutan (D-type) forms of color vision. We here report the result of two experiments. The first was the validation of the confusion colors using the color chart on CIELAB uniform color space. We made an experimental color chart (total of color cells is 622, the color difference between color cells is 2.5) for fhis experiment, and subjects have P-type or D-type color vision. From the data we were able to determine "the limits with high probability of confusion" and "the limits with possible confusion" around various basing points. The direction of the former matched with the theoretical confusion locus, but the range did not extend across the entire a* range. The latter formed a belt-like zone above and below the theoretical confusion locus. This way we re-analyzed a part of the theoretical confusion locus suggested by Pitt-Judd. The second was an experiment in color classification of the subjects with C-type, P-type, or D-type color vision. The color caps of fhe 100 Hue Test were classified into seven categories for each color vision type. The common and different points of color sensation were compared for each color vision type, and we were able to find a group of color caps

  10. PROCESS FOR COLORING DIAMONDS

    DOEpatents

    Dugdale, R.A.

    1960-07-19

    A process is given for coloring substantially colorless diamonds in the blue to blue-green range and comprises the steps of irradiating the colorless diamonds with electrons having an energy within the range 0.5 to 2 Mev to obtain an integrated electron flux of between 1 and 2 x 10/sup 18/ thc diamonds may be irradiated 1 hr when they take on a blue color with a slight green tint: After being heated at about 500 deg C for half an hour they become pure blue. Electrons within this energy range contam sufficient energy to displace the diamond atoms from their normal lattice sites into interstitial sites, thereby causing the color changes.