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Complex characters of plants such as starch and sugar content of seeds, fruits, tubers and roots are controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Understanding their molecular basis will facilitate diagnosis and combination of superior alleles in crop improvement programs (“precision breeding”). Association genetics based on candidate genes is one approach toward this goal. Tetraploid potato varieties and breeding clones related by descent were evaluated for 2 years for chip quality before and after cold storage, tuberstarch content, yield and starch yield. Chip quality is inversely correlated with tuber sugar content. A total of 36 loci on 11 potato chromosomes were evaluated for natural DNA variation in 243 individuals. These loci included microsatellites and genes coding for enzymes that function in carbohydrate metabolism or transport (candidate loci). The markers were used to analyze population structure and were tested for association with the tuber quality traits. Highly significant and robust associations of markers with 1–4 traits were identified. Most frequent were associations with chip quality and tuberstarch content. Alleles increasing tuberstarch content improved chip quality and vice versa. With two exceptions, the most significant and robust associations (q < 0.01) were observed with DNA variants in genes encoding enzymes that function in starch and sugar metabolism or transport. Comparing linkage and linkage disequilibrium between loci provided evidence for the existence of large haplotype blocks in the breeding materials analyzed. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-008-0746-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Li, Li; Paulo, Maria-Joao; Strahwald, Josef; Lubeck, Jens; Hofferbert, Hans-Reinhard; Tacke, Eckhart; Junghans, Holger; Wunder, Jorg; Draffehn, Astrid; van Eeuwijk, Fred
The in vivo phosphorylation of starch was studied in Solanum tuberosum cv Dianella and Posmo. Small starch granules contain 25% more ester-bound phosphate per glucose residue than large starch granules. The degree of phosphorylation was found to be almost constant during tuber development. Isolated tuber discs synthesize starch from externally supplied glucose at a significant rate. Tuber discs supplied with glucose and [32P]orthophosphate incorporate radiolabeled phosphorus into the starch. The level of 32P incorporation is proportional to the amount of starch synthesized. The incorporation of 32P from orthophosphate is correlated to de novo synthesis of starch, since the incorporation of 32P is diminished upon inhibition of starch synthesis by fluoride. Based on the amount of [14C]glucose phosphate isolated after hydrolysis of purified starch from tuber discs incubated in the presence of [U-14C]glucose, approximately 0.5% of the glucose residues of the de novo-synthesized starch are phosphorylated. This value is in general agreement with the observed levels of phosphorus in starch accumulated during tuber development. Thus, the enzyme system responsible for starch phosphorylation is fully active in the isolated tuber discs, and the starch phosphorylation proceeds as an integrated part of de novo starch synthesis.
Nielsen, T. H.; Wischmann, B.; Enevoldsen, K.; Moller, B. L.
Potato explants (leaf, small stem section, and axillary bud), flown on STS-73, developed tubers of 1.5 cm diameter and 1.7 g mass during the 16 day period of spaceflight. The experiment was undertaken in the ASTROCULTURE(Trademark) experiment package under controlled temperature, humidity, lighting, and carbon dioxide concentrations. The tubers formed in the explant system under microgravity had the same gross morphology, the same anatomical configuration of cells and tissues, and the same sizes, shapes, and surface character of starch granules as tubers formed in a 1 g environment. The total accumulation of starch and other energy containing compounds was singular in space flight and ground control tubers. Enzyme activity of starch synthase, starch phosphorylase, and total hydrolase was similar in spaceflight and ground controls but activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was reduced in the spaceflight tuber tissue. This experiment documented that potatoes will metabolize and accumulate starch as effectively in spaceflight as on the ground and thus this data provides the potential for effective utilization of potatoes in life support systems of space bases.
Tibbitts,Theodore W.; Croxdale, Judith C.; Brown, Christopher S.
Potato explants (leaf, small stem section, and axillary bud) flown on STS-73 developed tubers of 1.5 cm diameter and 1.7 g mass during the 16-day period of space flight. The experiment was undertaken in the ASTROCULTURE(TM) experiment package under controlled temperature, humidity, lighting, and carbon dioxide concentrations. The tubers that formed in the explant system under microgravity had the same gross morphology, the same anatomical configuration of cells and tissues, and the same sizes, shapes, and surface character of starch granules as tubers formed in a 1 g environment. The total accumulation of starch and other energy containing compounds was similar in space flight and ground control tubers. Enzyme activity of starch synthase, starch phosphorylase, and total hydrolase was similar in space flight and ground controls, but activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was reduced in the space flight tuber tissue. This experiment documented that potatoes will metabolize and accumulate starch as effectively in space flight as on the ground. Thus, this data provides the potential for effective utilization of potatoes in life support systems of space bases.
Tibbitts, Theodore W.; Brown, Christopher S.; Croxdale, Judith G.; Wheeler, Raymond M.
From measurements of viability after exposure of tubers to natural overwintering in the soil and 6 weeks exposure at 2 C, species cold tolerance of the tubers was ranked in decreasing order: yellow nutsedge `I' (Cyperus esculentus L.), an ecotype originating in Illinois; yellow nutsedge `G', an ecotype originating in Georgia; and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.). The ratios of unsaturated-saturated fatty acids in tuber triglycerides, tuber polar lipids, and leaf polar lipids followed the same order as the cold tolerance rankings, with the most cold-hardy species having the highest ratios. Lipid content was less than 1% of dry weight in purple nutsedge tubers, but was from 5 to 7% in both yellow nutsedge tubers. Starch, sugar, and lipid contents increased significantly in the hardy yellow nutsedge `I' tubers during a 6-week exposure to 2 C, but did not change in the susceptible purple nutsedge tubers; only sugar increased in yellow nutsedge `G' tubers after this treatment. Protein content was not altered by the 2 C treatment in any of the tubers. Apparently, several factors involving starch, sugar, lipids, and fatty acids are related to the differences in tolerance to cold in these species.
From measurements of viability after exposure of tubers to natural overwintering in the soil and 6 weeks exposure at 2 C, species cold tolerance of the tubers was ranked in decreasing order: yellow nutsedge ;I' (Cyperus esculentus L.), an ecotype originating in Illinois; yellow nutsedge ;G', an ecotype originating in Georgia; and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.). The ratios of unsaturated-saturated fatty acids in tuber triglycerides, tuber polar lipids, and leaf polar lipids followed the same order as the cold tolerance rankings, with the most cold-hardy species having the highest ratios. Lipid content was less than 1% of dry weight in purple nutsedge tubers, but was from 5 to 7% in both yellow nutsedge tubers. Starch, sugar, and lipid contents increased significantly in the hardy yellow nutsedge ;I' tubers during a 6-week exposure to 2 C, but did not change in the susceptible purple nutsedge tubers; only sugar increased in yellow nutsedge ;G' tubers after this treatment. Protein content was not altered by the 2 C treatment in any of the tubers. Apparently, several factors involving starch, sugar, lipids, and fatty acids are related to the differences in tolerance to cold in these species. PMID:16659181
Cereal Chem. 84(1):30-37 Functional properties of some underexploited tuber and root starches (true yam, gourd yam, taro, lotus, and sweet potato) were investigated before and after hydroxypropylation, cross-linking, and hydroxypropylation and cross-linking using potato starch as the reference. Low swelling ability, poor viscosity development but high shear stability, gel hardness, and resistance to enzyme hydrolysis was observed in starches from
Summary Data from two Swedish and one Finnish open-top chamber experiments were combined to investigate effects of ozone exposure\\u000a on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber content of starch, sucrose, fructose, glucose, malic, citric and ascorbic acids. The\\u000a glucose, fructose and malic acid concentrations showed strong negative correlations with ozone exposure, while citric acid,\\u000a consistently increased with ozone exposure. No ozone effects
Background Even though the process of potato tuberstarch biosynthesis is well understood, mechanisms regulating biosynthesis are still unclear. Transcriptome analysis provides valuable information as to how genes are regulated. Therefore, this work aimed at investigating transcriptional regulation of starch biosynthetic genes in leaves and tubers of potato plants under various conditions. More specifically we looked at gene expression diurnally in leaves and tubers, during tuber induction and in tubers growing at different velocities. To determine velocity of potato tuber growth a new method based on X-ray Computed Tomography (X-ray CT) was established. Results Comparative transcriptome analysis between leaves and tubers revealed striking similarities with the same genes being differentially expressed in both tissues. In tubers, oscillation of granule bound starch synthase (GBSS) expression) was observed which could be linked to sucrose supply from source leaves. X-ray CT was used to determine time-dependent changes in tuber volume and the growth velocity was calculated. Although there is not a linear correlation between growth velocity and expression of starch biosynthetic genes, there are significant differences between growing and non-growing tubers. Co-expression analysis was used to identify transcription factors positively correlating with starch biosynthetic genes possibly regulating starch biosynthesis. Conclusion Most starch biosynthetic enzymes are encoded by gene families. Co-expression analysis revealed that the same members of these gene families are co-regulated in leaves and tubers. This suggests that regulation of transitory and storage starch biosynthesis in leaves and tubers, respectively, is surprisingly similar. X-ray CT can be used to monitor growth and development of belowground organs and allows to link tuber growth to changes in gene expression. Comparative transcriptome analysis provides a useful tool to identify transcription factors possibly involved in the regulation of starch biosynthesis.
The study examined the efficacy of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an anti-ethylene compound, as a preventative treatment for\\u000a ethylene-induced fry color darkening in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, without reducing the effectiveness of ethylene as a tuber sprouting control agent. The experiment was conducted\\u000a for two years with ‘Shepody’ and ‘Russet Burbank.’ Tubers of each cultivar from four separate growers received one
Robert K. Prange; Barbara J. Daniels-Lake; Jin-Cheol Jeong; Michael Binns I
A chimaeric antisense construct was used to reduce the activities of the two major starch-synthase isoforms in potato tubers simultaneously. A range of reductions in total starch-synthase activities were found in the resulting transgenic plants, up to a maximum of 90% inhibition. The reduction in starch-synthase activity had a profound effect on the starch granules, which became extremely distorted in appearance compared with the control lines. Analysis of the starch indicated that the amounts produced in the tubers, and the amylose content of the starch, were not affected by the reduction in activity. In order to understand why the starch granules were distorted, amylopectin was isolated and the constituent chain lengths analysed. This indicated that the amylopectin was very different to that of the control. It contained more chains of fewer than 15 glucose units in length, and fewer of between 15 and 80 glucose units. In addition, the amylopectin contained more very long chains. Amylopectin from plants repressed in just one of the activities of the two starch-synthase isoforms, which we have reported upon previously, were also analysed. Using a technique different to that used previously we show that both isoforms also affect the amylopectin, but in a way that is different to when both isoforms are repressed together.
Viscosity reduction and the effect of cell-wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) were investigated using Canna edulis Ker. for bioethanol fermentation. The fermentation mash treated with CWDEs was much thinner (2.12 Pas) than the control mash (8.42 Pas), the fermentation efficiency was increased from 90.46% to 96.11%. HPLC analysis revealed that after treated with CWDEs, glucose and total sugar were increased by 28.07% and 7.60%, respectively. Changes in the starch granules were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results suggested that the reduction in viscosity was caused by changes in saccharide composition and physical changes of the starch granules. This present study is of significance that non-starch polysaccharides and starch can be simultaneously utilized for bioethanol production using roots and tubers as feedstock. PMID:23211480
Huang, Yuhong; Jin, Yanling; Fang, Yang; Li, Yuhao; Zhao, Hai
Parenchyma cells from tubers of Solanum tuberosum L. convert several externally supplied sugars to starch but the rates vary largely. Conversion of glucose 1-phosphate to starch is exceptionally efficient. In this communication, tuber slices were incubated with either of four solutions containing equimolar [U-14C]glucose 1-phosphate, [U-14C]sucrose, [U-14C]glucose 1-phosphate plus unlabelled equimolar sucrose or [U-14C]sucrose plus unlabelled equimolar glucose 1-phosphate. 14C-incorporation into starch was monitored. In slices from freshly harvested tubers each unlabelled compound strongly enhanced 14C incorporation into starch indicating closely interacting paths of starch biosynthesis. However, enhancement disappeared when the tubers were stored. The two paths (and, consequently, the mutual enhancement effect) differ in temperature dependence. At lower temperatures, the glucose 1-phosphate-dependent path is functional, reaching maximal activity at approximately 20 °C but the flux of the sucrose-dependent route strongly increases above 20 °C. Results are confirmed by in vitro experiments using [U-14C]glucose 1-phosphate or adenosine-[U-14C]glucose and by quantitative zymograms of starch synthase or phosphorylase activity. In mutants almost completely lacking the plastidial phosphorylase isozyme(s), the glucose 1-phosphate-dependent path is largely impeded. Irrespective of the size of the granules, glucose 1-phosphate-dependent incorporation per granule surface area is essentially equal. Furthermore, within the granules no preference of distinct glucosyl acceptor sites was detectable. Thus, the path is integrated into the entire granule biosynthesis. In vitro 14C-incorporation into starch granules mediated by the recombinant plastidial phosphorylase isozyme clearly differed from the in situ results. Taken together, the data clearly demonstrate that two closely but flexibly interacting general paths of starch biosynthesis are functional in potato tuber cells.
Fettke, Joerg; Leifels, Lydia; Brust, Henrike; Herbst, Karoline; Steup, Martin
In order to evaluate effects of starches (corn starch, potato starch, and tapioca starch) on the characteristics of surimi-beef gels with microbial transglutaminase, the cooking loss, gel strength, color and rheological properties of samples were investigated. Results demonstrated that starches gave negative effects on the cooking loss of surimi-beef gels. The gel with corn starch had the highest cooking loss while that with tapioca starch showed the lowest value. The gel with potato starch obtained the highest gel strength. During the sol-gel transitions, surimi-beef complexes with 3% corn starch exhibited the highest storage modulus value, while that with 3% tapioca starch had the lowest one. The addition of starch caused the increase of L* values of surimi-beef gels. Results showed that the excessive amount of starch resulted in the decrease in gel strength of surimi-beef gels. PMID:23273461
The aim of this study was to characterize chayotextle starch films reinforced with cellulose (C) and cellulose nanoparticle (CN) (at concentrations of 0.3%, 0.5%, 0.8% and 1.2%), using thermal, mechanical, physicochemical, permeability, and water solubility tests. C was acid-treated to obtain CN. The films were prepared by casting; potato starch and C were used as the control. The solubility of the starch films decreased with the addition of C and CN compared with its respective film without C and CN. No statistical difference (?=0.05) was found in the films added with different concentrations of C and CN. In general, the mechanical properties were improved with the addition of C and CN, and higher values of tensile strength and elastic modulus were determined in the films reinforced with CN. The melting temperature and enthalpy increased with the addition of C and CN, and the values of both thermal parameters were higher in the films with CN than with C; the enthalpy value of the film decreased when the concentration of C or CN increased in the composite. Low concentration of C and CN is better distributed in the matrix film. The addition of C and CN in the starch films improved some mechanical, barrier, and functional properties. PMID:23987322
Aila-Suárez, Selene; Palma-Rodríguez, Heidi M; Rodríguez-Hernández, Adriana I; Hernández-Uribe, Juan P; Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Vargas-Torres, Apolonio
. Overexpression of inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) from Escherichia coli in the cytosol of plants (ppa1 plants) leads to a decrease of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi; U. Sonnewald, 1992, Plant J 2:\\u000a 571–581). The consequences for sucrose-starch interconversions have now been studied in growing potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desirée) tubers. Sucrose is degraded via sucrose synthase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in growing
Peter Geigenberger; Mohammad Hajirezaei; Michael Geiger; Uta Deiting; Uwe Sonnewald; Mark Stitt
Potatoes grown for processing in irrigated regions of the Pacific North-west sometimes develop undesirably high concentrations\\u000a of reducing sugars in tuber stem ends due to hot weather and water stress during tuber development. Such tubers usually produce\\u000a french fries with dark stem ends or sugar ends. In order to better quantify the relationship between water stress and stem-end\\u000a sugar levels
E. P. Eldredge; Z. A. Holmes; A. R. Mosley; C. C. Shock; T. D. Stieber
Callus was initiated from explants of tubers of the Norchip cultivar of Solanum tuberosum L. and grown on medium with a single carbon source and without addition of coconut milk, protein hydrolysate, or amino acid. Callus samples were harvested at intervals and compared to mature tubers for which there was good biochemical knowledge. The amino acid spectrum, the glycoalkaloid content, and the properties of the isolated invertase and sucrose synthetase were similar in callus and in tuber. Significantly the level of sucrose synthetase varied with the age of the developing callus just as it did with the age of the developing tuber. Of greater significance, levels of reducing sugars and invertase varied with the age of developing callus and also with time and temperature of storage after the callus has ceased growth. Similar changes occur in intact tubers. Callus and tuber biochemistry differed in the amount of deposited starch and in the absence of potato invertase inhibitor.
Shaw, Roy; Varns, Jerry L.; Miller, Karon A.; Talley, Eugene A.
NINDS Tuberous Sclerosis Information Page Condensed from Tuberous Sclerosis Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Tuberous Sclerosis? Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is a rare genetic disease ...
Functional characteristics of starches from cereal, tuber, and root were studied in the presence of ?-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl ?-cyclodextrin. Both cyclodextrin compounds significantly increased swelling factor, amylose leaching, and solubility of cereal starches while tuber and root starches were less affected. Gelatinization enthalpy in cereal starches was slightly decreased in the presence of ?-CD and HP?-CD but in tuber and
Processing potatoes, both sprout inhibited and untreated, were evaluated for respiration rate and chip color during storage\\u000a under commercial conditions (12 C, approximately 95% relative humidity, in darkness) following three growing seasons. While\\u000a absolute respiration rates varied depending upon growing season and treatment, all cultivars and treatments studied during\\u000a the 1995, 1996, and 1997 storage seasons showed similar respiration profiles.
L. J. Copp; R. W. Blenkinsop; R. Y. Yada; A. G. Marangoni
Enlargement rates of starch-storage parenchyma cells during growth of Kennebec and Russet Burbank potato cultivars were determined\\u000a for cortical, perimedullary, and pith tissuues of bud ends, midsections, and stem ends of tubers. Average volumetric size\\u000a of parenchyma cells increased 7 to 18x during growth of Russet Burbank tubers, with the greatest increases occurring in cortical\\u000a and perimedullary cells of bud
The aim of this research was to increase understanding of tuber sensory traits such as tubercolor and flavor. For tubercolor\\u000a the focus was on tuber carotenoid content. Using metabolic engineering approaches it was discovered that it was possible to\\u000a enhance considerably the amount and types of carotenoid that could accumulate in potato tubers. Transgenic lines based on\\u000a three
Wayne L. Morris; Laurence J. M. Ducreux; Glenn J. Bryan; Mark A. Taylor
Tuberous sclerosis is a rare genetic disease that causes benign tumors to grow in the brain and other ... disabilities Kidney problems Some people have signs of tuberous sclerosis at birth. In others it can take time ...
Tuberous sclerosis is a group of two genetic disorders that affect the skin, brain/nervous system, kidneys, and ... Tuberous sclerosis is inherited. Changes (mutations) in two genes, TSC1 and TSC2, are responsible for most cases of ...
Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the fourth largest crop worldwide in yield, and cv. Kuras is the major starch potato of northern Europe. Storage starch is packed densely in tuber amyloplasts, which become starch granules. Amyloplasts of soil-grown mini-tubers and agar-grown micro-tubers of cv. Kuras were purified. The mini-tuber amyloplast preparation was enriched 10-20-fold and the micro-tuber amyloplast approximately fivefold over comparative total protein extracts. Proteins separated by SDS-PAGE were digested with trypsin, analysed by mass spectrometry and identified by mascot software searches against an in-house potato protein database and the NCBI non-redundant plant database. The differential growth conditions for mini- and micro-tubers gave rise to rather different protein profiles, but the major starch granule-bound proteins were identical for both and dominated by granule-bound starch synthase I, starch synthase II and alpha-glucan water dikinase. Soluble proteins were dominated by starch phosphorylase L-1, other large proteins of the classes 'starch and sucrose metabolism', 'pentose phosphate pathway', 'glycolysis', 'amino acid metabolism', and other proteins such as plastid chaperonins. The majority of the identified proteins had a predicted plastid transit peptide, supporting their presence in the amyloplast. However, several highly expressed proteins had no transit peptide, such as starch phosphorylase H, or had a predicted mitochondrial location. Intriguingly, all polyphenol oxidases, a family of enolases, one transketolase, sulfite reductase, deoxynucleoside kinase-like and dihydroxy-acid dehydrase had twin-arginine translocation motifs, and a homologue to dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase had a Sec (secretory) motif; these motifs usually target thylakoid-like structures. PMID:18331355
Transgenic potato plants were created in which the expression of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) was inhibited by introducing a chimeric gene containing the coding region of one of the subunits of the AGPase linked in an antisense orientation to the CaMV 35S promoter. Partial inhibition of the AGPase enzyme was achieved in leaves and almost complete inhibition in tubers. This resulted in the abolition of starch formation in tubers, thus proving that AGPase has a unique role in starch biosynthesis in plants. Instead up to 30% of the dry weight of the transgenic potato tubers was represented by sucrose and up to 8% by glucose. The process of tuber formation also changed, resulting in significantly more tubers both per plant and per stolon. The accumulation of soluble sugars in tubers of antisense plants resulted in a significant increase of the total tuber fresh weight, but a decrease in dry weight of tubers. There was no significant change in the RNA levels of several other starch biosynthetic enzymes, but there was a great increase in the RNA level of the major sucrose synthesizing enzyme sucrose phosphate synthase. In addition, the inhibition of starch biosynthesis was accompanied by a massive reduction in the expression of the major storage protein species of potato tubers, supporting the idea that the expression of storage protein genes is in some way connected to carbohydrate formation in sink storage tissues. Images
The effects of swine manure extract (SME) as foliar fertilizer (FSME), soil fertilizer (SSME), and both soil and foliar fertilizer (FNSSME) on leaf nitrogen (N) concentration, chlorophyll content, total potassium (K) in plant parts and starch content in the fresh roots, compared to a conventional, chemical fertilizer (CF) were studied in cassava cultivar ‘Hauybong 60’. The results showed that plants
One of the greatest challenges faced by Neotropical archaeobotanists is to document the origins and history of crops like manioc (Manihot esculentaCrantz), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), which were grown for their starch-rich underground organs. The records left by early Europeans make it clear that such plants provided a staple food source for numerous indigenous populations in
Patatin and the 22-kilodalton protein complex make up more than 50% of the soluble protein present in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and these two proteins are coordinately regulated during tuber development. Although genomic sequences related to these tuber genes exist in the genome of potato species that do not bear tubers, they cannot be induced into expression under the tested conditions. These genes are not expressed during substantial starch accumulation in petioles from a model petiole-leaf cutting system in nontuber-bearing plants, indicating that starch accumulation and synthesis of the major tuber proteins occur independently. Tuber protein gene expression also has been examined in hybrid potato plants that contain genomes from both tuberizing and nontuberizing species. One such triploid hybrid produced only stolons, whereas a pentaploid hybrid with an increased number of tuber genomes produced tubers. It was shown, using immunoblotting and Northern blot hybridization, that these two hybrids actively expressed both patatin and the 22-kilodalton tuber protein in induced petioles from the leaf-cutting system. The induced accumulation of patatin transcripts was consistent in all genotypes containing some tuberizing genome. The induced accumulation of the 22-kilodalton protein transcripts, however, was lower in genotypes containing some nontuberizing genome. Sucrose induction of these genes in leaves corroborates the induction patterns in petioles. A correlation exists between 22-kilodalton protein gene expression and a potato plant's ability to produce stolons or tubers. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6
Using this project will expose you to concepts of color, color wheels, color combinations, and techniques of using color. Use the following links, follow the directions to define color terms, create color schemes and explore the use of color in creating designs. Color Scheme Generator 2 This site identifiesbasic terms related to color, using acolor wheeland making color schemes. Color Theory This site explains terminology of color. Color Theory Tutorial This site gives excellent examples and information about ...
Effects of starch and thermal-processing conditions on texture, microstructure, and color of surimi–starch gels were investigated by measuring shear stress, shear strain and color values, as well as microstructure. The influences of starch on texture of surimi–starch gels depended on the concentration and modification of starch as well as the ratio of amylose and amylopectin. Starch increased the gel strength
... tumors. Specific medications may be prescribed for behavior problems. Intervention programs including special schooling and occupational therapy may benefit individuals with special needs and developmental issues. Surgery may be needed in case of complications connected to tubers, SEN or SEGA, as ...
... Net Editorial Board , 11/2013 Overview What is tuberous sclerosis complex? Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a hereditary ... to Expect When Meeting With a Genetic Counselor Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance www.tsalliance.org National Cancer Institute www. ...
In this activity (on pages 10-15), learners investigate starch in human diets and how plants make starch (carbohydrates) to use as their food source. Testing with a dropper of iodine in Part One, learners discover that starch content differs from food to food. In Part Two, learners taste chewed and unchewed food and compare the starch content.
Museum, University O.; Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development
Glucan, water dikinase (GWD) is a key enzyme of starch metabolism but the physico-chemical properties of starches isolated from GWD-deficient plants and their implications for starch metabolism have so far not been described. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants with reduced or no GWD activity were used to investigate the properties of starch granules. In addition, using various in vitro assays, the action of recombinant GWD, ?-amylase, isoamylase and starch synthase 1 on the surface of native starch granules was analysed. The internal structure of granules isolated from GWD mutant plants is unaffected, as thermal stability, allomorph, chain length distribution and density of starch granules were similar to wild-type. However, short glucan chain residues located at the granule surface dominate in starches of transgenic plants and impede GWD activity. A similarly reduced rate of phosphorylation by GWD was also observed in potato tuberstarch fractions that differ in the proportion of accessible glucan chain residues at the granule surface. A model is proposed to explain the characteristic morphology of starch granules observed in GWD transgenic plants. The model postulates that the occupancy rate of single glucan chains at the granule surface limits accessibility to starch-related enzymes. PMID:24697163
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic multisystem disorder characterized by widespread hamartomas in several organs, including the brain, heart, skin, eyes, kidney, lung, and liver. The affected genes are TSC1 and TSC2, encoding hamartin and tuberin respectively. The hamartin-tuberin complex inhibits the mammalian-target-of-Rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, which controls cell growth and proliferation. Variations in the distribution, number, size, and location of lesions cause the clinical syndrome to vary even between relatives. About 85% of children and adolescents with TSC have CNS complications, including epilepsy, cognitive impairment, challenging behavioral problems, and autism-like symptoms. Epilepsy generally begins during the first year of life, with focal seizures and spasms. The discovery of the mTOR pathway upregulation in TSC-associated lesions presents new possibilities for treatment strategy. Increasing understanding of the molecular abnormalities caused by TSC may enable improved management of the disease. PMID:23622183
In this project, students will learn about primary, secondary, and complementary colors. After exploring a few sites and participating in a few deep questions as a class, they will create an optical illusion using complimentary colors. Younger students who are learning this unit will need to do this activity with a parent or as a class with a teacher or aide. INTRODUCTION: Questions to discuss with the students: 1. What colors do you see in this room? 2. What are some jobs that use colors? An Artist? Decorator? ...
Background Tuberization in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) represents a morphogenetic transition of stolon growth to tuber formation, which is under complex environmental and endogenous regulation. In the present work, we studied the regulatory mechanisms and the role of different morphogenetic factors in a newly isolated potato mutant, which exhibited spontaneous tuberization (ST). The ST mutant was characterized in detail at morphological, physiological and biochemical levels. Results Tuberization of the ST mutant grown in the soil was photoperiod-insensitive; predominantly sessile tubers formed directly from axillary buds even under continuous light. Single-node cuttings of the ST mutant cultured in vitro frequently formed tubers or basal tuber-like swellings instead of normal shoots under conditions routinely used for shoot propagation. The tuberization response of ST cuttings under light was dependent on sucrose, the concentration of which had to exceed certain threshold that inversely correlated with irradiance. Gibberellic acid prevented tuberization of ST cuttings, but failed to restore normal shoot phenotype and caused severe malformations. Carbohydrate analysis showed increased levels of both soluble sugars and starch in ST plants, with altered carbohydrate partitioning and metabolism. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed only a few differences between ST- and wild-type plants, primary amongst which seemed to be the absence of an isoform of manganese-stabilizing protein, a key subunit of photosystem II. Conclusion ST mutant exhibits complex developmental and phenotypic modifications, with features that are typical for plants strongly induced to tuberize. These changes are likely to be related to altered regulation of photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism rather than impaired transduction of inhibitory gibberellin or photoperiod-based signals. The effect of gibberellins on tuberization of ST mutant suggests that gibberellins inhibit tuberization downstream of the inductive effects of sucrose and other positive factors.
In this challenge, learners have to figure out in what order to combine five solutions to change the color from clear, to yellow, to blue, and back to clear. The five chemicals are potassium iodide, sodium thiosulfate, sodium hypochlorite (Clorox bleach), soluble starch (Niagara spray starch), and water. The color changes indicate chemical reactions, and the lesson includes some background information about the reactions that create different colors. Suggestions are given for guiding learners through systematic approaches to making the different combinations and observing the results, and for explaining to different age groups what happens when the solutions are combined.
This case report is designed to familiarize military physicians with findings common in tuberous sclerosis patients with epilepsy. Tuberous sclerosis is an inherited multi-system disorder that typically causes benign hamartomas to develop in vital organs....
... you to help us Step Forward to Cure Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. Follow some very special people on the ... The Tipping Point in the Battle Against TSC Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance Overview La Esclerosis Tuberosa (Spanish Intro to ...
Flour and starch isolated from the tubers of Scirpus grossus were investigated for their physicochemical properties and starch digestibility. The flour was extracted using two different processes namely peeled and unpeeled processes. Proximate analysis revealed that the flours from both processes contain considerably high total starch, more than 80%, which indicate their potential use as starchy foods. The amylose content of the flours and starches ranged from 29 to 32%. Starch granules of S. grossus were oval in shape with smooth surface and small diameters ranging from 6 to 15 ?m. All samples exhibited high swelling pasting behaviors with pasting temperatures ranging from 78 to 79 °C, indicating the strong bonding forces within the granule interiors. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results suggested that the samples gelatinized at temperatures ranging from 71 to 81 °C. In vitro starch digestion assay found that all samples provided the estimated glycaemic index (GI) values of approximately 55 or less. PMID:23911474
Lerdluksamee, Chutima; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Tutusaus, Josep Anton Mir; Diéguez, Juan García
Starches used in food industry are extracted from roots, tubers and cereals. Seeds of jackfruit are abundant and contain high amounts of starch. They are discarded during the fruit processing or consumption and can be an alternative source of starch. The starch was extract from the jackfruit seeds and characterised to chemical, morphological and functional properties. Soft and hard jackfruit seeds showed starch content of 92.8% and 94.5%, respectively. Starch granules showed round and bell shape and some irregular cuts on their surface with type-A crystallinity pattern, similar to cereals starches. The swelling power and solubility of jackfruit starch increased with increasing temperature, showing opaque pastes. The soft seeds starch showed initial and final gelatinisation temperature of 36°C and 56°C, respectively; while hard seeds starch presented initial gelatinisation at 40°C and final at 61°C. These results suggest that the Brazilian jackfruit seeds starches could be used in food products. PMID:24054264
Madruga, Marta Suely; de Albuquerque, Fabíola Samara Medeiros; Silva, Izis Rafaela Alves; do Amaral, Deborah Silva; Magnani, Marciane; Queiroga Neto, Vicente
Potato tuberization is a complicated biochemical process, which is dependent on external environmental factors. Tuber development in potato consists of a series of biochemical and morphological processes at the stolon tip. Signal transduction proteins are involved in the source-sink transition during potato tuberization. In the present study, we examined protein profiles under in vitro tuber-inducing conditions using a shotgun proteomic approach involving denaturing gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 251 proteins were identified and classified into 9 groups according to distinctive expression patterns during the tuberization stage. Stolon stage-specific proteins were primarily involved in the photosynthetic machinery. Proteins specific to the initial tuber stage included patatin. Proteins specific to the developing tuber stage included 6-fructokinase, phytoalexin-deficient 4-1, metallothionein II-like protein, and malate dehydrogenase. Novel stage-specific proteins identified during in vitro tuberization were ferredoxin-NADP reductase, 34 kDa porin, aquaporin, calmodulin, ripening-regulated protein, and starch synthase. Superoxide dismutase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and catalase I were most abundantly expressed in the stolon; however, the enzyme activities of these proteins were most activated at the initial tuber. The present shotgun proteomic study provides insights into the proteins that show altered expression during in vitro potato tuberization. PMID:22920994
Yu, Jae Woong; Choi, Jong-Soon; Upadhyaya, Chandrama Prakash; Kwon, Sang Oh; Gururani, Mayank Anand; Nookaraju, Akula; Nam, Ju-Hyun; Choi, Chi-Won; Kim, Seung Il; Ajappala, Hemavathi; Kim, Hyun Soon; Jeon, Jae Heung; Park, Se Won
The hypothesis that sweet potato genotypes containing different starch yields in their tuberous roots can affect the bacterial communities present in the rhizosphere (soil adhering to tubers) was tested in this study. Tuberous roots of field-grown sweet potato of genotypes IPB-149 (commercial genotype), IPB-052, and IPB-137 were sampled three and six months after planting and analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes PCR-amplified from total community DNA. The statistical analysis of the DGGE fingerprints showed that both plant age and genotypes influenced the bacterial community structure in the tuber rhizosphere. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that the IPB-149 and IPB-052 (both with high starch content) displayed similar bacterial composition in the tuber rhizosphere, while IPB-137 with the lowest starch content was distinct. In comparison with bulk soil, higher 16S rRNA gene copy numbers (qPCR) and numerous genera with significantly increased abundance in the tuber rhizosphere of IPB-137 (Sphingobium, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Chryseobacterium) indicated a stronger rhizosphere effect. The genus Bacillus was strongly enriched in the tuber rhizosphere samples of all sweet potato genotypes studied, while other genera showed a plant genotype-dependent abundance. This is the first report on the molecular identification of bacteria being associated with the tuber rhizosphere of different sweet potato genotypes. PMID:24597529
Marques, Joana M; da Silva, Thais F; Vollu, Renata E; Blank, Arie F; Ding, Guo-Chun; Seldin, Lucy; Smalla, Kornelia
There is an increasing interest in starch manufactured from edible tubers for controlled delivery of drug. Starches of different cultivars of Colocasia from Jharkhand, North Eastern State of India, were isolated and their morphological, physicochemical, structural properties were studied. The yield of starches was estimated in the range of 6.46-13.75%. All the isolated starches revealed their irregular shape with a diameter of 5-10 ?m. There was considerable variation in amylose content, swelling and solubility power, water hydration capacity. FTIR spectra confirmed their carbohydrate nature. Powder studies revealed that these starches possess potential for pharmaceutical industries. In vitro release data revealed the delayed release of all tablets made by using Colocasia starches at pH 6.8 and 7.4 when compared with maize starch. Delayed release of all starches showed there is a great potential to be used these starches as pharmaceutical excipient in sustained release dosage form with minimum modification. PMID:23688478
Learners mix liquid water with solid cornstarch. They investigate the slime produced, which has properties of both a solid and a liquid. When they press hard on the starch slime with their fingers, the slime acts like a solid. Starch in water is a suspension of solid particles in water. When learners leave the starch slime alone, it flows like a liquid. A great opportunity to discuss states of matter. This activity is currently used in the Nature of Matter Unit in OMSI's Chemistry Lab. Cost estimates are per 100 learners.
Plants possess two alternative biochemical pathways for sucrose (Suc) degradation. One involves hydrolysis by invertase followed by phosphorylation via hexokinase and fructokinase, and the other route-which is unique to plants-involves a UDP-dependent cleavage of Suc that is catalyzed by Suc synthase (SuSy). In the present work, we tested directly whether a bypass of the endogenous SuSy route by ectopic overexpression of invertase or Suc phosphorylase affects internal oxygen levels in growing tubers and whether this is responsible for their decreased starch content. (a) Oxygen tensions were lower within transgenic tubers than in wild-type tubers. Oxygen tensions decreased within the first 10 mm of tuber tissue, and this gradient was steeper in transgenic tubers. (b) Invertase-overexpressing tubers had higher activities of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alcohol dehydrogenase, and (c) higher levels of lactate. (d) Expression of a low-oxygen-sensitive Adh1-beta-glucuronidase reporter gene construct was more strongly induced in the invertase-overexpressing background compared with wild-type background. (e) Intact transgenic tubers had lower ATP to ADP ratios than the wild type. ATP to ADP ratio was restored to wild type, when discs of transgenic tubers were incubated at 21% (v/v) oxygen. (f) Starch decreased from the periphery to the center of the tuber. This decrease was much steeper in the transgenic lines, leading to lower starch content especially near the center of the tuber. (g) Metabolic fluxes (based on redistribution of (14)C-glucose) and ATP to ADP ratios were analyzed in more detail, comparing discs incubated at various external oxygen tensions (0%, 1%, 4%, 8%, 12%, and 21% [v/v]) with intact tubers. Discs of Suc phosphorylase-expressing lines had similar ATP to ADP ratios and made starch as fast as wild type in high oxygen but had lower ATP to ADP ratios and lower rates of starch synthesis than wild type at low-oxygen tensions typical to those found inside an intact tuber. (h) In discs of wild-type tubers, subambient oxygen concentrations led to a selective increase in the mRNA levels of specific SuSy genes, whereas the mRNA levels of genes encoding vacuolar and apoplastic invertases decreased. (i) These results imply that repression of invertase and mobilization of Suc via the energetically less costly route provided by SuSy is important in growing tubers because it conserves oxygen and allows higher internal oxygen tensions to be maintained than would otherwise be possible. PMID:12913161
Bologa, Karin L; Fernie, Alisdair R; Leisse, Andrea; Loureiro, Marcello Ehlers; Geigenberger, Peter
A new starch hydrolysis detection method which does not rely on iodine staining or the use of color-complexed starch is described. A linear relationship was obtained with agar-starch plates when net clearing zones around colonies of yeasts were plotted against enzyme levels (semilogarithm scale) produced by the same yeast strains in liquid medium. A similar relationship between starch clearing zones and alpha-amylase levels from three different sources was observed. These observations suggest that the method is useful in mutant isolations, strain improvement programs, and the prediction of alpha-amylase activities in culture filtrates or column effluents. (Refs. 18).
Cereal Chem. 74(1):79-82 Physicochemical properties of starch of three common ( Fagopyrum esculentum) and three tartary ( F. tataricum) buckwheat varieties from Shanxi Province, China, were compared. Starchcolor, especially b*, differed greatly between tartary (7.99-9.57) and common (1.97-2.42) buckwheat, indicating that removal of yellow pigments from tartary buckwheat flour may be problematic during starch isolation. Starch swelling volume in
Gastrodia tuber has many pharmacological effects. DNA fingerprints of Gastrodia tuber were determined using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, of which the desired DNA segments were selected and recovered. Positive DNA clones were obtained through ligation techniques, transformation, blue\\/white color screenings, cloning and identifying. Novelty of the cloned DNA and its potential importance were confirmed by sequencing DNA and
Jun Tao; Yan Wang; Li Wen; Zhi-cheng Wang; Bi-Jun Tan
Calcium alginate-starch entrapped bitter gourd peroxidase has been employed for the treatment of a textile industrial effluent in batch as well as in continuous reactor. The textile effluent was recalcitrant to decolorization by bitter gourd peroxidase; thus, its decolorization was examined in the presence of a redox mediator, 1.0 mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. Immobilized enzyme exhibited same pH and temperature optima for effluent decolorization as attained by soluble enzyme. Immobilized enzyme could effectively remove more than 70% of effluent color in a stirred batch process after 3 h of incubation. Entrapped bitter gourd peroxidase retained 59% effluent decolorization reusability even after its tenth repeated use. The two-reactor system containing calcium alginate-starch entrapped enzyme retained more than 50% textile effluent decolorization efficiency even after 2 months of its operation. The absorption spectra of the treated effluent exhibited a marked difference in the absorption at various wavelengths as compared to untreated effluent. The use of a two-reactor system containing immobilized enzyme and an adsorbent will be significantly successful for treating industrial effluents at large scale, and it will help in getting water free from aromatic pollutants. PMID:19015823
Manipulation of starch biosynthesis/degradation and formation of novel molecules in storage organs of plants through genetic engineering is an attractive but technically challenging goal. We report here, for the first time, that starch was degraded and glucose and fructose were produced directly when crushed potato tubers expressing a starch degrading bifunctional gene were heated for 45 minutes at 65 degrees C. To achieve this, we have constructed a fusion gene encoding the thermostable enzymes: alpha-amylase (Bacillus stearothermophilus) and glucose isomerase (Thermus thermophilus). The chimeric gene was placed under the control of the granule-bound-starch synthase promoter. This enzymatic complex produced in transgenic tubers was only active at high temperature (65 degrees C). More than 100 independent transgenic potato plants were regenerated. Molecular analyses confirmed the stable integration of the chimeric gene into the potato genome. The biochemical analyses performed on young and old tubers after high-temperature treatment (65 degrees C) revealed an increase in the formation rate of fructose and glucose by a factor of 16.4 and 5. 7, respectively, in the transgenic tubers as compared to untransformed control tubers. No adverse discernible effect on plant development and metabolism including tuber formation and starch accumulation was observed in the transgenic plants before heat treatment. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to replace starch degradation using microbial enzymes via a system where the enzymes are produced directly in the plants, but active only at high temperature, thus offering novel and viable strategies for starch-processing industries. PMID:10940858
Beaujean, A; Ducrocq-Assaf, C; Sangwan, R S; Lilius, G; Bülow, L; Sangwan-Norreel, B S
In this activity related to the famous "Stroop Effect," learners explore how words influence what we see and how the brain handles "mixed messages." Learners read colored words and are asked to say the color of the word, not what the word says. Learners use a data table to keep track of where they have trouble reading the colors. They analyze this data by answering questions and drawing conclusions. Learners can also take this test using the online version.
To investigate whether the route from sucrose to starch limits sink strength of potato tubers, we established an additional storage carbohydrate pool and analyzed allocation of imported assimilates to the different pools. Tuber specific expression of the fructan biosynthetic enzymes of globe artichoke resulted in accumulation of fructans to about 5% of the starch level, but did not increase tuber dry weight per plant. While partial repression of starch synthesis caused yield reduction in wild-type plants, it stimulated fructan accumulation, and yield losses were ameliorated in tubers expressing fructosyltransferases. However, a nearly complete block of the starch pathway by inhibition of sucrose synthase could not be compensated by the fructan pathway. Although fructan concentrations rose, yield reduction was even enhanced, probably because of a futile cycle of fructan synthesis and degradation by invertase, which is induced when sucrose synthase is knocked out. The data do not support a limitation of sink strength by enzyme activities of the starch pathway but point to an energy limitation of storage carbohydrate formation in potato tubers. PMID:21679192
A Consortium was formed in July 2002 by the Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance (TSA) and tuberous sclerosis (TS) clinic personnel nationwide to begin discussions of natural history studies and the development of a comprehensive clinical database (DB) to be used ...
A Consortium was formed in July 2002 by the Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance (TSA) and tuberous sclerosis (TS) clinic personnel nationwide to begin discussions of natural history studies and development of a comprehensive clinical database (DB) to be used for ...
The procedure to produce standard curve for starch concentration measurement by image analysis using a color scanner and computer for data acquisition and color analysis is described. Color analysis is performed by a Visual Basic program that measures red, green, and blue (RGB) color intensities for pixels within the scanner image.
Matthews, Kurt R.; Landmark, James D.; Stickle, Douglas F.
Background Starch is the predominant storage compound in underground plant tissues like roots and tubers. An exception is sugar beet tap-root (Beta vulgaris ssp altissima) which exclusively stores sucrose. The underlying mechanism behind this divergent storage accumulation in sugar beet is currently not fully known. From the general presence of starch in roots and tubers it could be speculated that the lack in sugar beet tap-roots would originate from deficiency in pathways leading to starch. Therefore with emphasis on starch accumulation, we studied tap-roots of sugar beet using parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) as a comparator. Results Metabolic and structural analyses of sugar beet tap-root confirmed sucrose as the exclusive storage component. No starch granules could be detected in tap-roots of sugar beet or the wild ancestor sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima). Analyses of parsnip showed that the main storage component was starch but tap-root tissue was also found to contain significant levels of sugars. Surprisingly, activities of four main starch biosynthetic enzymes, phosphoglucomutase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase and starch branching enzyme, were similar in sugar beet and parsnip tap-roots. Transcriptional analysis confirmed expression of corresponding genes. Additionally, expression of genes involved in starch accumulation such as for plastidial hexose transportation and starch tuning functions could be determined in tap-roots of both plant species. Conclusion Considering underground storage organs, sugar beet tap-root upholds a unique property in exclusively storing sucrose. Lack of starch also in the ancestor sea beet indicates an evolved trait of biological importance. Our findings in this study show that gene expression and enzymatic activity of main starch biosynthetic functions are present in sugar beet tap-root during storage accumulation. In view of this, the complete lack of starch in sugar beet tap-roots is enigmatic.
The sucrose (Suc) H+-cotransporter StSUT1 from potato (Solanum tuberosum), which is essential for long-distance transport of Suc and assumed to play a role in phloem loading in mature leaves, was found to be expressed in sink tubers. To answer the question of whether SUT1 serves a function in phloem unloading in tubers, the promoter was fused to gusA and expression was analyzed in transgenic potato. SUT1 expression was unexpectedly detected not in tuber parenchyma but in the phloem of sink tubers. Immunolocalization demonstrated that StSUT1 protein was present only in sieve elements of sink tubers, cells normally involved in export of Suc from the phloem to supply developing tubers, raising the question of the role of SUT1 in tubers. SUT1 expression was inhibited by antisense in transgenic potato plants using a class I patatin promoter B33, which is primarily expressed in the phloem of developing tubers. Reduced SUT1 expression in tubers did not affect aboveground organs but led to reduced fresh weight accumulation during early stages of tuber development, indicating that in this phase SUT1 plays an important role for sugar transport. Changes in Suc- and starch-modifying enzyme activities and metabolite profiles are consistent with the developmental switch in unloading mechanisms. Altogether, the findings may suggest a role of SUT1 in retrieval of Suc from the apoplasm, thereby regulating the osmotic potential in the extracellular space, or a direct role in phloem unloading acting as a phloem exporter transferring Suc from the sieve elements into the apoplasm.
Kuhn, Christina; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Roessner-Tunali, Ute; Czechowski, Tomasz; Hirner, Brigitte; Frommer, Wolf B.
Starch and sugar content of potato tubers are quantitative traits, which are models for the candidate gene approach for identifying the molecular basis of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in noninbred plants. Starch and sugar content are also important for the quality of processed products such as potato chips and French fries. A high content of the reducing sugars glucose and fructose results in inferior chip quality. Tuberstarch content affects nutritional quality. Functional and genetic models suggest that genes encoding invertases control, among other things, tuber sugar content. The invGE/GF locus on potato chromosome IX consists of duplicated invertase genes invGE and invGF and colocalizes with cold-sweetening QTL Sug9. DNA variation at invGE/GF was analyzed in 188 tetraploid potato cultivars, which have been assessed for chip quality and tuberstarch content. Two closely correlated invertase alleles, invGE-f and invGF-d, were associated with better chip quality in three breeding populations. Allele invGF-b was associated with lower tuberstarch content. The potato invertase gene invGE is orthologous to the tomato invertase gene Lin5, which is causal for the fruit-sugar-yield QTL Brix9-2-5, suggesting that natural variation of sugar yield in tomato fruits and sugar content of potato tubers is controlled by functional variants of orthologous invertase genes.
Starch and sugar content of potato tubers are quantitative traits, which are models for the candidate gene approach for identifying the molecular basis of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in noninbred plants. Starch and sugar content are also important for the quality of processed products such as potato chips and French fries. A high content of the reducing sugars glucose and fructose results in inferior chip quality. Tuberstarch content affects nutritional quality. Functional and genetic models suggest that genes encoding invertases control, among other things, tuber sugar content. The invGE/GF locus on potato chromosome IX consists of duplicated invertase genes invGE and invGF and colocalizes with cold-sweetening QTL Sug9. DNA variation at invGE/GF was analyzed in 188 tetraploid potato cultivars, which have been assessed for chip quality and tuberstarch content. Two closely correlated invertase alleles, invGE-f and invGF-d, were associated with better chip quality in three breeding populations. Allele invGF-b was associated with lower tuberstarch content. The potato invertase gene invGE is orthologous to the tomato invertase gene Lin5, which is causal for the fruit-sugar-yield QTL Brix9-2-5, suggesting that natural variation of sugar yield in tomato fruits and sugar content of potato tubers is controlled by functional variants of orthologous invertase genes. PMID:15802505
Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as a system for the detection of amino acids, organic acids, sugars, sugar alcohols, and fatty acids, we characterised six commercial potato cultivars (Hópehely, Katica, Lorett, Somogyi kifli, Vénusz Gold, and White Lady) with different pedigrees, starch contents, cooking types, and dormancy periods, in five developmental stages from harvest to sprouting. The tubers were stored at 20-22°C in the dark. The metabolite data were subjected to principal component analysis. No correlation between metabolite contents of freshly harvested tubers and starch content or cooking type of the cultivars was detected. The storage decreased the fructose and sucrose and increased the proline concentrations of tubers. Irrespective of the length of dormancy a substantial difference in metabolite composition at each time point upon storage was detected in each cultivar except Somogyi kifli, the only cultivar amongst those tested with a pure Solanum tuberosum origin and A cooking type. PMID:24767057
Comparative studies on acid hydrolysis of jicama and maize starch were carried out using concentrations of hydrochloric acid\\u000a of 1.5%, 3.0%, and 4.5% (w\\/v), for 3 and 6 h, at 40°C. Native maize and jicama starches showed important morphological, thermal, and structural differences\\u000a from those of tubers and cereals which potentially offer diverse industrial applications. Jicama starch showed low amylose\\u000a content
Silvia Lorena Amaya-Llano; Fernando Martínez-Bustos; Ana Laura Martínez Alegría; José de Jesús Zazueta-Morales
Starch is a highly hydrophilic biomaterial with weak mechanical properties rendering it useless for commercial applications. A fully 'green' water based process is presented to crosslink corn (cereal) and potato (tuber) starch to enhance mechanical properties as well as lower hydrophilicity. In addition, malonic acid, a green, plant based water soluble and relatively inexpensive polycarboxylic acid, was used as the crosslinker. The reactivity of potato starch toward esterification and crosslinking was found to be higher than that of corn starch owing to the inherent differences in the granule morphology and internal structure of the two starches. It was observed that potato starch granules had a higher degree of substitution (DS) of 0.19 than corn starch granules (DS=0.1) under similar reaction conditions. Chemical, thermal and mechanical test results confirmed the crosslinking as well as reduced moisture sensitivity. PMID:22944425
Background Starch is stored in higher plants as granules composed of semi-crystalline amylopectin and amorphous amylose. Starch granules provide energy for the plant during dark periods and for germination of seeds and tubers. Dietary starch is also a highly glycemic carbohydrate being degraded to glucose and rapidly absorbed in the small intestine. But a portion of dietary starch, termed “resistant starch” (RS) escapes digestion and reaches the large intestine, where it is fermented by colonic bacteria producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA) which are linked to several health benefits. The RS is preferentially derived from amylose, which can be increased by suppressing amylopectin synthesis by silencing of starch branching enzymes (SBEs). However all the previous works attempting the production of high RS crops resulted in only partly increased amylose-content and/or significant yield loss. Results In this study we invented a new method for silencing of multiple genes. Using a chimeric RNAi hairpin we simultaneously suppressed all genes coding for starch branching enzymes (SBE I, SBE IIa, SBE IIb) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), resulting in production of amylose-only starch granules in the endosperm. This trait was segregating 3:1. Amylose-only starch granules were irregularly shaped and showed peculiar thermal properties and crystallinity. Transgenic lines retained high-yield possibly due to a pleiotropic upregualtion of other starch biosynthetic genes compensating the SBEs loss. For gelatinized starch, a very high content of RS (65 %) was observed, which is 2.2-fold higher than control (29%). The amylose-only grains germinated with same frequency as control grains. However, initial growth was delayed in young plants. Conclusions This is the first time that pure amylose has been generated with high yield in a living organism. This was achieved by a new method of simultaneous suppression of the entire complement of genes encoding starch branching enzymes. We demonstrate that amylopectin is not essential for starch granule crystallinity and integrity. However the slower initial growth of shoots from amylose-only grains may be due to an important physiological role played by amylopectin ordered crystallinity for rapid starch remobilization explaining the broad conservation in the plant kingdom of the amylopectin structure.
In order to obtain a tuberous root-specific promoter to be used in the transformation of cassava, a 1,728 bp sequence containing the cassava granule-bound starch synthase (GBSSI) promoter was isolated. The sequence proved to contain light- and sugar-responsive cis elements. Part of this sequence (1,167 bp) was cloned into binary vectors to drive expression of the firefly luciferase gene. Cassava cultivar Adira 4 was transformed with this construct or a control construct in which the luciferase gene was cloned behind the 35S promoter. Luciferase activity was measured in leaves, stems, roots and tuberous roots. As expected, the 35S promoter induced luciferase activity in all organs at similar levels, whereas the GBSSI promoter showed very low expression in leaves, stems and roots, but very high expression in tuberous roots. These results show that the cassava GBSSI promoter is an excellent candidate to achieve tuberous root-specific expression in cassava. PMID:23132522
Koehorst-van Putten, Herma J J; Wolters, Anne-Marie A; Pereira-Bertram, Isolde M; van den Berg, Hans H J; van der Krol, Alexander R; Visser, Richard G F
A literature review of autism and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) substantiates a significant association between the two. Studies of 14 autistic probands and 13 TSC probands identified 7 TSC subjects with autism, who had more seizures and mental retardation than those without autism. More male TSC probands with autism than female were…
Reviews the research on the relationship of autism and pervasive developmental disorders to tuberous sclerosis (TSC). Notes that, among TSC cases, the frequency of autism is 25% and among autistic populations, the frequency of TSC is 1% to 4%. It is thought that an abnormal TSC gene may directly influence the development of autism. (DB)
Autism is a behavior disorder with genetic influences indicated from twin and family studies and from the cooccurrence of autism with known genetic disorders. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a known genetic disorder with behavioral manifestations including autism. A literature review of these two disorders substantiates a significant association of autism and TSC with 17–58% of TSC subjects manifesting autism
Susan L. Smalley; Peter E. Tanguay; Moyra Smith; Griselda Gutierrez
Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal-dominant genetic disorder characterized by hamartomatous growth in various organs. Patients who have this disorder exhibit a high rate of epilepsy and cognitive problems. We investigated number of tubers, location, seizure types, and cognitive outcome, and we analyzed the relationships among them in our tuberous sclerosis patients in the Comprehensive Epilepsy Program at the University of Alberta. We also examined the seizure outcome after tuber resection. Our study cohort included 24 patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. We obtained seizure history, electroencephalogram, and neuropsychologic parameters. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine tuber numbers and locations. Ten patients underwent surgical removal of tubers responsible for intractable epilepsy. A negative correlation was found between the number of tubers and intelligent quotient score. Epilepsy surgery led to freedom from seizures in this patient group. We demonstrated that the total number and location of cortical tubers play a significant role in the extent of mental retardation in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. In addition, patients with intractable seizures and well-defined epileptic focus had excellent surgical outcome. PMID:21481739
Kassiri, Janani; Snyder, Thomas J; Bhargava, Ravi; Wheatley, B Matt; Sinclair, D Barry
... ClinicalTrials.gov Research studies PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Tuberous sclerosis complex On this page: ... tuberous sclerosis complex? Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous noncancerous (benign) ...
Background Higher plants evolved various strategies to adapt to chilling conditions. Among other transcriptional and metabolic responses to cold temperatures plants accumulate a range of solutes including sugars. The accumulation of the reducing sugars glucose and fructose in mature potato tubers during exposure to cold temperatures is referred to as cold induced sweetening (CIS). The molecular basis of CIS in potato tubers is of interest not only in basic research on plant adaptation to environmental stress but also in applied research, since high amounts of reducing sugars affect negatively the quality of processed food products such as potato chips. CIS-tolerance varies considerably among potato cultivars. Our objective was to identify by an unbiased approach genes and cellular processes influencing natural variation of tuber sugar content before and during cold storage in potato cultivars used in breeding programs. We compared by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis the tuber proteomes of cultivars highly diverse for CIS. DNA polymorphisms in genomic sequences encoding differentially expressed proteins were tested for association with tuberstarch content, starch yield and processing quality. Results Pronounced natural variation of CIS was detected in tubers of a population of 40 tetraploid potato cultivars. Significant differences in protein expression were detected between CIS-tolerant and CIS-sensitive cultivars before the onset as well as during cold storage. Identifiable differential proteins corresponded to protease inhibitors, patatins, heat shock proteins, lipoxygenase, phospholipase A1 and leucine aminopeptidase (Lap). Association mapping based on single nucleotide polymorphisms supported a role of Lap in the natural variation of the quantitative traits tuberstarch and sugar content. Conclusions The combination of comparative proteomics and association genetics led to the discovery of novel candidate genes for influencing the natural variation of quantitative traits in potato tubers. One such gene was a leucine aminopeptidase not considered so far to play a role in starch sugar interconversion. Novel SNP’s diagnostic for increased tuberstarch content, starch yield and chip quality were identified, which are useful for selecting improved potato processing cultivars.
A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits activity as an acylhydrolase and esterase, sporamin from sweet potato is an inhibitor of trypsin, and dioscorin from yam is a carbonic anhydrase. Both sporamin and dioscorin also exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Taro differs from the other three crops in that it contains two major types of storage protein: a trypsin inhibitor related to sporamin and a mannose-binding lectin. These characteristics indicate that tuber storage proteins have evolved independently in different species, which contrasts with the highly conserved families of storage proteins present in seeds. Furthermore, all exhibit biological activities which could contribute to resistance to pests, pathogens or abiotic stresses, indicating that they may have dual roles in the tubers. PMID:12730067
This patent application pertains to starch graft polymer latexes as well as processes for their preparations. The starch graft latexes are water-dispersed grafted starch particles (300-1500 A in size) consisting of either (1) a cationic starch graft polym...
The ability of triadimefon (TDM), a triazolic fungicide, to alter the biochemical constituents and thereby minimizing the days required for sprouting in white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) tubers during storage under (30±2) °C in the dark, was studied. TDM at 20 mg/L was given to tubers by dipping the tubers in treatment solution containing 20 mg/L TDM on 10, 25 and 40 d after storage (DAS). Starch, sugars, protein, amino acid contents as well as protease and ?-amylase activities were estimated on 15, 30 and 45 DAS from two physiological regions viz., apical and basal regions of the tubers. In normal conditions (control) sprouting occurred on 70 to 80 DAS. The starch content decreased, while protein, amino acid, sugar contents and protease and ?-amylase activities were increased due to TDM treatment and led to early sprouting.
This work presents the physicochemical and pasting characterization of isolated mafafa starch and mafafa flour (Xanthosoma robustum). According to SEM images of mafafa starches in the tuber, these starches form Lego-like shaped structures with diameters between 8 and 35 ?m conformed by several starch granules of wedge shape that range from 2 to 7 ?m. The isolated mafafa starch is characterized by its low contents of protein, fat, and ash. The starch content in isolated starch was found to be 88.58% while the amylose content obtained was 35.43%. X-ray diffraction studies confirm that isolated starch is composed mainly by amylopectin. These results were confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and thermo gravimetric analysis. This is the first report of the molecular parameters for mafafa starch: molar mass that ranged between 2×10(8) and 4×10(8) g/mol, size (Rg) value between 279 and 295 nm, and molecular density value between 9.2 and 9.7 g/(mol nm(3)). This study indicates that mafafa starch shows long chains of amylopectin this fact contributes to higher viscosity development and higher gel stability. The obtained gel phase is transparent in the UV-vis region. The viscosity, gel stability and optical properties suggest that there is potential for mafafa starch applications in the food industry. PMID:24463263
Londoño-Restrepo, Sandra M; Rincón-Londoño, Natalia; Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Acosta-Osorio, Andrés A; Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Lucas-Aguirre, Juan C; Quintero, Víctor D; Pineda-Gómez, Posidia; del Real-López, Alicia; Rodríguez-García, Mario E
Previous research has shown that cell membranes of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Russet Burbank) seed-tubers lose integrity between 7 and 26 months of storage (4[deg]C, 95% relative humidity), and this loss coincides with a significant decrease in growth potential. The age-induced decline in membrane integrity is apparently due to increased peroxidative damage of membrane lipids. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and ethane concentrations (sensitive markers of lipid peroxidation and membrane damage) increased in seed-tuber tissues with advancing age. Moreover, in vivo ethane production from discs of cortex tissue from 13- and 25-month-old seed-tubers was 87% greater (on average) than that from discs from 1-month-old tubers. Calcium suppressed ethane production from all ages of tissue discs, and the effect was concentration dependent. Linoleic acid enhanced ethane production from 5- and 17-month-old tubers by 61 and 228%, respectively, suggesting that older tissue may contain a higher free-radical (FR) titer and/or lower free polyunsaturated fatty acid content. In addition, throughout plant establishment, the internal ethane concentration of older seed-tubers was 54% higher than that of younger seed-tubers. MDA concentration of tuber tissue declined by about 65% during the initial 7 months of storage and then increased 267% as tuber age advanced to 30 months. The age-induced trend in tuber reducing sugar concentration was similar to that of MDA, and the two were linearly correlated. The age-dependent increase in reducing sugars may thus reflect peroxidative degeneration of the amyloplast membrane, leading to increased starch hydrolysis. Compared with 5-month-old seed tubers, 17- and 29-month-old seed-tubers had significantly higher levels of lipofuscin-like fluorescent compounds (FCs), which are produced when MDA reacts with free amino acids. Age-dependent increases in MDA, ethane, and FCs were not associated with higher activities of phospholipase and lipoxygenase in tissue from older tubers. In fact, 8-month-old seed-tubers had significantly higher activities of these enzymes than 20-month-old seed-tubers. However, the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase in 20-month-old tubers were substantially higher out of storage, and increased at a faster rate during plant establishment, than in 8-month-old seed-tubers. Collectively, these results suggest that a gradual build-up of FRs leads to peroxidative damage of membrane lipids during aging of potato seed-tubers. PMID:12231802
Previous research has shown that cell membranes of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Russet Burbank) seed-tubers lose integrity between 7 and 26 months of storage (4[deg]C, 95% relative humidity), and this loss coincides with a significant decrease in growth potential. The age-induced decline in membrane integrity is apparently due to increased peroxidative damage of membrane lipids. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and ethane concentrations (sensitive markers of lipid peroxidation and membrane damage) increased in seed-tuber tissues with advancing age. Moreover, in vivo ethane production from discs of cortex tissue from 13- and 25-month-old seed-tubers was 87% greater (on average) than that from discs from 1-month-old tubers. Calcium suppressed ethane production from all ages of tissue discs, and the effect was concentration dependent. Linoleic acid enhanced ethane production from 5- and 17-month-old tubers by 61 and 228%, respectively, suggesting that older tissue may contain a higher free-radical (FR) titer and/or lower free polyunsaturated fatty acid content. In addition, throughout plant establishment, the internal ethane concentration of older seed-tubers was 54% higher than that of younger seed-tubers. MDA concentration of tuber tissue declined by about 65% during the initial 7 months of storage and then increased 267% as tuber age advanced to 30 months. The age-induced trend in tuber reducing sugar concentration was similar to that of MDA, and the two were linearly correlated. The age-dependent increase in reducing sugars may thus reflect peroxidative degeneration of the amyloplast membrane, leading to increased starch hydrolysis. Compared with 5-month-old seed tubers, 17- and 29-month-old seed-tubers had significantly higher levels of lipofuscin-like fluorescent compounds (FCs), which are produced when MDA reacts with free amino acids. Age-dependent increases in MDA, ethane, and FCs were not associated with higher activities of phospholipase and lipoxygenase in tissue from older tubers. In fact, 8-month-old seed-tubers had significantly higher activities of these enzymes than 20-month-old seed-tubers. However, the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase in 20-month-old tubers were substantially higher out of storage, and increased at a faster rate during plant establishment, than in 8-month-old seed-tubers. Collectively, these results suggest that a gradual build-up of FRs leads to peroxidative damage of membrane lipids during aging of potato seed-tubers.
?-Amylase, a starch splitting enzyme, was purified to homogeneity from post-harvest Pachyrhizus erosus L. tuber by successive chromatography on DEAE- and CM-cellulose columns. Purification achieved was 110 fold from the crude extract with a yield of 22.8%. SDS-PAGE showed a molecular weight of 40kDa for the enzyme. The enzyme is of ?-type as it lost total activity in the presence
A. S. M. Noman; M. A. Hoque; P. K. Sen; M. R. Karim
A common recommendation for dietary starch content for lactating dairy cows is between 23 and 26%. However, some of the most productive herds in the U.S. feed diets that contain between 15 and 30% starch. High corn prices have increased interest in feeding lower-starch diets. Corn grain can be replaced with byproduct feeds high in digestible fiber in lactating dairy
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder that results from mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes and is associated with hamartoma formation in multiple organ systems. The neurological manifestations of TSC are particularly challenging and include infantile spasms, intractable epilepsy, cognitive disabilities, and autism. Progress over the past 15 years has demonstrated that the TSC1 or TSC2 encoded proteins modulate cell function via the mTOR signaling cascade and serve as keystones in regulating cell growth and proliferation. The mTOR pathway provides an intersection for an intricate network of protein cascades that respond to cellular nutrition, energy levels, and growth-factor stimulation. In the brain, TSC1 and TSC2 have been implicated in cell body size, dendritic arborization, axonal outgrowth and targeting, neuronal migration, cortical lamination, and spine formation. Antagonism of the mTOR pathway with rapamycin and related compounds may provide new therapeutic options for TSC patients.
We conclude that echocardiographically detected cardiac rhabdomyomata are common in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex, and are more prevalent and prominent in the younger patient. Tumors regress in size or number, or both, in most patients aged
Amiram Nir; A. Jamil Tajik; William K. Freeman; James B. Seward; Kenneth P. Offord; William D. Edwards; Douglas D. Mair
Potato tuber blight caused by Phytophthora infestans accounts for significant losses of tubers in storage. Despite research on infection and management of tuber blight, there is paucity of information on the prediction of the occurrence tuber blight or modelling of tuber infection by P. infestans under field conditions. A tuber blight prediction model was developed in New York in experiments
R. O. Nyankanga; O. M. Olanya; P. S. Ojiambo; H. C. Wien; C. W. Honeycutt; W. W. Kirk
Functional properties of normal and waxy starches from maize, rice, potato, and cassava as well as the modified waxy maize starch COLFLO 67 were compared. The main objective of this study is to position the recently discovered spontaneous mutation for amylose-free cassava starch in relation to the other starches with well-known characteristics. Paste clarity, wavelength of maximum absorption (lambda(max)), pasting properties, swelling power, solubility, and dispersed volume fraction measurements and gel stability (acid and alkaline resistance, shear, refrigeration, and freeze/thaw stability) were evaluated in the different types and sources of starch included in this study. lambda(max) in the waxy cassava starch was reduced considerably in comparison with that of normal cassava starch (535 vs 592 nm). RVA peak viscosity of waxy cassava starch was larger than in normal cassava starch (1119 vs 937 cP) and assumed a position intermediate between the waxy potato and maize starches. Acid, alkaline, and shear stability of waxy cassava starch were similar to normal cassava except for alkaline pH, at which it showed a low effect. Gels from normal root and tuberstarches after refrigeration and freeze/thaw had lower syneresis than cereal starches. Gels from waxy starches (except for potato) did not present any syneresis after 5 weeks of storage at 4 degrees C. Waxy cassava starch was the only one not showing any syneresis after 5 weeks of storage at -20 degrees C. Natural waxy cassava starch is, therefore, a promising ingredient to formulate refrigerated or frozen food. PMID:20356303
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Histologic evidence of cortical tubers is pathognomonic of tuberous sclerosis (TS) disease. Cerebellar tubers, however, are uncommonly found. Our ob- jective was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of cerebellar tubers in a large series of pediatric patients with TS studied with MR imaging. In particular, their relationship with volume loss and age will be analyzed. METHODS:
A method for inhibiting sprouting of tubers is presented, including the step of exposing tubers to aromatic aldehydes or alcohols: benzaldehyde, salicylaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, hydrocinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, thymol, or mixtures thereof.
Objects can be recognized on the basis of their color alone by color indexing, a technique developed by Swain-Ballard (1991) which involves matching color-space histograms. Color indexing fails, however, when the incident illumination varies either spatially or spectrally. Although this limitation might be overcome by preprocessing with a color constancy algorithm, we instead propose histogramming color ratios. Since the ratios
Rosin, an abundant raw material from pine trees, was used as a starting material directly for the synthesis of rosin acid starch. The esterification reaction was catalyzed by lipase (Novozym 435) under mild conditions. Based on single factor experimentation, the optimal esterification conditions were obtained as follows: rosin acid/anhydrous glucose unit in the molar ratio 2?:?1, reaction time 4?h at 45°C, and 15% of lipase dosage. The degree of substitution (DS) reaches 0.098. Product from esterification of cassava starch with rosin acid was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and iodine coloration analysis. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the morphology and crystallinity of the cassava starch were largely destroyed. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that thermal stability of rosin acid starch decreased compared with native starch.
Lin, Rihui; Li, He; Long, Han; Su, Jiating; Huang, Wenqin
Desiree-Magloire Bourneville first reported tuberous sclerosis complex as “tuberous sclerosis of the cerebral convolutions” in 1880. This disorder is characterized by multiple hamartomas in several organs, particularly the brain. Commonly recognized clinical features include hypomelanotic skin macules, facial angiofibromas, periungual fibromas, delayed development, and seizures. Abnormalities on brain imaging include subependymal nodules, cortical tubers, and radial white matter lines. The
This volume with contributions by 17 international experts provides an overview of processes by which starch is converted to a form which makes it more suitable for other applications. Products from starch biochemical conversions include organic acids, alcohol, bipolymers, enzymes, amino acids, antibiotics and hormones. Alcohol produced from starch can be used to reduce dependency on petroleum for energy. Literature references and a subject index are provided.
Heterotrophic carbon metabolism has been demonstrated to be limited by oxygen availability in a variety of plant tissues, which in turn inevitably affects the adenylate status. To study the effect of altering adenylate energy metabolism, without changing the oxygen supply, we expressed a plastidially targeted ATP/ADP hydrolyzing phosphatase (apyrase) in tubers of growing potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants under the control of either inducible or constitutive promoters. Inducible apyrase expression in potato tubers, for a period of 24 h, resulted in a decrease in the ATP-content and the ATP-ADP ratio in the tubers. As revealed by metabolic profiling, this was accompanied by a decrease in the intermediates of sucrose to starch conversion and several plastidially synthesized amino acids, indicating a general depression of tuber metabolism. Constitutive tuber-specific apyrase expression did not lead to a reduction of ATP, but rather a decrease in ADP and an increase in AMP levels. Starch accumulation was strongly inhibited and shifted to the production of amylopectin instead of amylose in these tubers. Furthermore, the levels of almost all amino acids were decreased, although soluble sugars and hexose-Ps were highly abundant. Respiration was elevated in the constitutively expressing lines indicating a compensation for the dramatic increase in ATP hydrolysis. The increase in respiration did not affect the internal oxygen tensions in the tubers. However, the tubers developed a ginger-like phenotype having an elevated surface-volume ratio and a reduced mass per tuber. Decreased posttranslational redox activation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and a shift in the ratio of soluble starch synthase activity to granule-bound starch synthase activity were found to be partially responsible for the alterations in starch structure and abundance. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase was decreased and pyruvate decarboxylase was induced, but this was neither reflected by an increase in fermentation products nor in the cellular redox state, indicating that fermentation was not yet induced in the transgenic lines. When taken together the combined results of these studies allow the identification of both short- and long-term adaptation of plant metabolism and development to direct changes in the adenylate status.
An improved process for the esterification of starches such as high-amylose starches and amylose under conditions of minimum depolymerization of the polysaccharide to obtain high molecular weight starch triacetates soluble in organic solvents for fiber an...
While cellulose-based films have achieved prominence as semipermeable membranes, starch-based films have not been available that would withstand prolonged exposure to water. Starch and cellulose are high polymers composed of D-glucose units. Starch readil...
Starch is a natural, renewable, and biodegradable polymer produced by many plants as a source of stored energy. It is the second most abundant biomass material in nature. The starch structure has been under research for years, and because of its complexity, an universally accepted model is still lacking (Buleon, A.; et al. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 1998, 23, 85-112). However, the predominant model for starch is a concentric semicrystalline multiscale structure that allows the production of new nanoelements: (i) starch nanocrystals resulting from the disruption of amorphous domains from semicrystalline granules by acid hydrolysis and (ii) starch nanoparticles produced from gelatinized starch. This paper intends to give a clear overview of starch nanoparticle preparation, characterization, properties, and applications. Recent studies have shown that they could be used as fillers to improve mechanical and barrier properties of biocomposites. Their use for industrial packaging, continuously looking for innovative solutions for efficient and sustainable systems, is being investigated. Therefore, recently, starch nanoparticles have been the focus of an exponentially increasing number of works devoted to develop biocomposites by blending starch nanoparticles with different biopolymeric matrices. To our knowledge, this topic has never been reviewed, despite several published strategies and conclusions. PMID:20405913
Following tuber induction, potato tubers undergo a period of dormancy during which visible bud growth is inhibited. The length of the dormancy period is under environmental, physiological and hormonal control. Sucrose availability is one prerequisite for bud break. In the absence of sucrose, no bud break occurs. Thus, sucrose is likely to serve as nutrient and signal molecule at the same time. The mode of sucrose sensing is only vaguely understood, but most likely involves trehalose-6-phosphate and SnRK1 signalling networks. This conclusion is supported by the observation that ectopically manipulation of trehalose-6-phosphate levels influences the length of the dormancy period. Once physiological competence is achieved, sprouting is controlled by the level of phytohormones. Two phytohormones, ABA and ethylene, are supposed to suppress tuber sprouting; however, the exact role of ethylene remains to be elucidated. Cytokinins and gibberellins are required for bud break and sprout growth, respectively. The fifth classical phytohormone, auxin, seems to play a role in vascular development. During the dormancy period, buds are symplastically isolated, which changes during bud break. In parallel to the establishment of symplastic connectivity, vascular tissue develops below the growing bud most likely to support the outgrowing sprout with assimilates mobilised in parenchyma cells. Sprouting leads to major quality losses of stored potato tubers. Therefore, control of tuber sprouting is a major objective in potato breeding. Although comparative transcriptome analysis revealed a large number of genes differentially expressed in growing versus dormant buds, no master-regulator of potato tuber sprouting has been identified so far. PMID:24100410
The frequency and clinical presentation of autism in 28 probands with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by benign tissue growths and a high frequency of seizure disorders and mental retardation, was examined. Eight probands met criteria for autism. Implications for understanding the association of…
Gutierrez, Griselda C.; Smalley, Susan L.; Tanguay, Peter E.
Vigabatrin (VGB) was found to be an effective anti-epileptic drug to reduce infantile spasms in about 50% of patients and it has been found most effective in infantile spasms due to tuberous sclerosis (TSC) in which up to 95% of infants had complete cessation of their spasms. VGB was synthesized to enhance inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) transmission by elevating GABA
Paolo Curatolo; Magda Verdecchia; Roberta Bombardieri
Raw starch and raw cassava tuber powder were directly and efficiently fermented at elevated temperatures to produce ethanol using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus that expresses ?-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae as well as ?-amylase and glucoamylase from Debaryomyces occidentalis. Among the constructed K. marxianus strains, YRL 009 had the highest efficiency in direct starch fermentation. Raw starch from corn, potato, cassava, or wheat can be fermented at temperatures higher than 40°C. At the optimal fermentation temperature 42°C, YRL 009 produced 66.52 g/L ethanol from 200 g/L cassava starch, which was the highest production among the selected raw starches. This production increased to 79.75 g/L ethanol with a 78.3% theoretical yield (with all cassava starch were consumed) from raw cassava starch at higher initial cell densities. Fermentation was also carried out at 45 and 48°C. By using 200 g/L raw cassava starch, 137.11 and 87.71 g/L sugar were consumed with 55.36 and 32.16 g/L ethanol produced, respectively. Furthermore, this strain could directly ferment 200 g/L nonsterile raw cassava tuber powder (containing 178.52 g/L cassava starch) without additional nutritional supplements to produce 69.73 g/L ethanol by consuming 166.07 g/L sugar at 42°C. YRL 009, which has consolidated bioprocessing ability, is the best strain for fermenting starches at elevated temperatures that has been reported to date. PMID:24478139
Nanomaterials already attract great interest because of their potential applications in technology, food science and medicine. Biomaterials are biodegradable and quite abundant in nature, so they are favoured over synthetic polymer based materials. Starch as a nontoxic, cheap and renewable raw material is particularly suitable for preparation of nanoparticles. In the paper, the structure and some physicochemical properties of potato and cassava starch particles of the size between 50 to 100 nm, obtained by mechanical treatment of native starch, were presented. We demonstrated, with the aim of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM), that the shape and dimensions of the obtained nanoparticles both potato and cassava starch fit the blocklets - previously proposed as basic structural features of native starch granules. This observation was supported by aqueous solubility and swelling power of the particles as well as their iodine binding capacity similar to those for amylopectin-type short branched polysaccharide species. Obtained results indicated that glycosidic bonds of the branch linkage points in the granule amorphous lamellae might be broken during the applied mechanical treatment. Thus the released amylopectin clusters could escape out of the granules. The starch nanoparticles, for their properties qualitatively different from those of native starch granules, could be utilized in new applications.
Two commercial varieties of Peruvian carrot ('Amare la de Carandaí' and 'Senador Amaral') were processe d into flour, starch and bagasse and chemically evaluated. The starch was extracted, modified with H 2O2 and characterized by the physicochemical methods. By us ing the methylene blue dyeing, the granules of the modified starches showed intense blue color. The carboxyl co ntent, the
Luciana Shizue Matsuguma; Luiz Gustavo Lacerda; Egon Schnitzler; Marco Aurélio da Silva Carvalho Filho; Célia Maria Landi Franco; Ivo Mottin Demiate
Short microwave heating of granular potato, waxy corn and tapioca starches with such lipids as cis-9-octadecenoic acid (oleic acid), cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (linoleic acid), octadecanoic acid (stearic acid), ethyl cis-9-octadecenoate, ethyl cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoate and methyl octadecanoate provided microcapsules in which encapsulated guest molecules did not interact with starch microcapsules. On the formation of microcapsules, the lipid guest molecules did not react to starches. The encapsulation yield varied between almost 11-94%. PMID:16801245
Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTV) infected foliage and tuber tissues when subjected to repeated freezing and thawing under\\u000a controlled conditions (?18 to ? 20 C and 5 C), lost PSTV more rapidly in tuber tissues than in foliage. Tubers of 17 potato\\u000a cultivars showed similar tendencies, but with some differences. In 7 of the 17 cultivars, PSTV was significantly reduced
A color sensor for generating color information defining colors of an image includes an input section, a color processing section, a color comparison section, a color boundary processing section and a memory processing section. The input section includes ...
The Escherichia coli glycogen branching enzyme (GLGB) was fused to either the C- or N-terminus of a starch-binding domain (SBD) and expressed in two potato genetic backgrounds: the amylose-free mutant (amf) and an amylose-containing line (Kardal). Regardless of background or construct used, a large amount of GLGB/SBD fusion protein was accumulated inside the starch granules, however, without an increase in branching. The presence of GLGB/SBD fusion proteins resulted in altered morphology of the starch granules in both genetic backgrounds. In the amf genetic background, the starch granules showed both amalgamated granules and porous starch granules, whereas in Kardal background, the starch granules showed an irregular rough surface. The altered starch granules in both amf and Kardal backgrounds were visible from the initial stage of potato tuber development. High-throughput transcriptomic analysis showed that expression of GLGB/SBD fusion protein in potato tubers did not affect the expression level of most genes directly involved in the starch biosynthesis except for the up-regulation of a beta-amylase gene in Kardal background. The beta-amylase protein could be responsible for the degradation of the extra branches potentially introduced by GLGB. PMID:23231535
Huang, Xing-Feng; Nazarian-Firouzabadi, Farhad; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Ji, Qin; Suurs, Luc C J M; Visser, Richard G F; Trindade, Luisa M
Applying high concentrations of CO2 to whole potato tubers stimulated a rapid and pronounced respiratory gas exchange, which persisted for a prolonged time. The upsurge in respiration was proportional to the applied CO2 concentrations and was further augmented by high O2 levels. Tests using whole potatoes, or potato tissue slices from tubers previously treated with CO2, indicated that the rapid CO2-induced respiration is sensitive to cyanide during the first 24 hours of CO2 application. The respiratory rise cannot be attributed to the emergence of a cyanide-resistant alternative electron transport pathway, although prolonged applications of CO2, up to 72 hours, led to a gradual development of the pathway. CO2-stimulated respiration was accompanied by a pronounced decline in the content of starch and glucose 6-phosphate, suggesting an active utilization of respiratory substrates. The ATP content in the CO2-treated potatoes increased markedly, resembling similar increases in tissues undergoing respiratory upsurge.
Perez-Trejo, Martin S.; Janes, Harry W.; Frenkel, Chaim
The relationship between the number of cortical tubers observed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the severity of cerebral dysfunction of tuberous sclerosis patients has been examined in a meta-analysis of the published literature. The literature review has identified five independent studies for examining the association. These studies consistently reveal that the cortical tuber count detected on MRI scans is
Michael Goodman; Steven H. Lamm; Arnold Engel; Charles W. Shepherd; O. Wayne Houser; Manuel R. Gomez
Summary Apparent varietal resistance toPhytophthora infestans among tubers of potato varieties differed when the tubers were inoculated through eyes, wounds of different sizes, or on\\u000a freshly cut surfaces. Invasion by the fungus increased with greater concentrations of inoculum. Tubers of certain R1 varieties were infected relatively easily by race 0, especially through wounds; others were infected only rarely. R1 varieties differed
Intracranial tumors are rare in the neonatal period, and generally the most common histological types are astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, choroid plexus papilloma and neuroectodermal tumors. The early diagnosis of these tumors is often very difficult. The authors report a case of a full-term newborn who presented with opisthotonus. A subependymal mass was detected by cerebral ultrasonography, and when the child was 1 month of age depigmentations appeared on the trunk and on the right leg, confirming the suspicion of tuberous sclerosis. At 3 months of age the child suffered infantile spasm with hypsarrhythmia. The developmental delay, the marked progressive neurological deterioration and the daily seizures suggested surgical resection. Histologic studies showed a subependymal giant cell astrocytoma such as typically occurs in tuberous sclerosis. PMID:8674081
Ramenghi, L A; Verrotti, A; Domizio, S; Di Rocco, C; Morgese, G; Sabatino, G
Cytosolic (U-IN-2) or apoplasmic (U-IN-1) targeting of yeast invertase in potato tubers leads to a reduction in sucrose and an increase in glucose content, but specific phenotypical changes are dependent on the subcellular targeting of the enzyme. Cytosolic expression leads to a more severe phenotype with the most striking aspects being reduced starch content and increased respiration. Despite extensive research, the regulatory mechanisms leading to these changes remain obscure. Recent technological advancements regarding potato transcriptional and genomic research presented us with the opportunity to revisit these lines and perform detailed gene expression analysis, in combination with extensive metabolic profiling, to identify regulatory networks underlying the observed changes. Our results indicate that in both genotypes reduced UDP-glucose production is associated with a reduced expression of cell wall biosynthetic genes. In addition, U-IN-1 tubers are characterized by elevated expression of senescence-associated genes, coupled to reduced expression of genes related to photosynthesis and the cytoskeleton. We provide evidence that increased respiration, observed specifically in U-IN-2 tubers, might be due to sugar signaling via released trehalose-6-phosphate inhibition of the SnRK1 complex. In both genotypes, expression of the plastidic glucose-6-phosphate transporter (GPT) is significantly down-regulated. This leads to a shift in the cytosolic to plastidic glucose-6-phosphate ratio and hence might limit starch synthesis but also the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. This might explain the observed changes in several additional plastid localized pathways, most notably reduced expression of fatty acid biosynthetic genes and an accumulation of shikimate. Interestingly, a strict negative correlation between invertase and GPT expression could be observed in a wide range of potato tubers. This reciprocal regulation may be part of a more general switch controlling energy versus storage metabolism, suggesting that the fate of assimilate utilization is coordinated at the level of sucrose degradation.
Cortical tubers are very common in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and widely vary in size, appearance and location. The relationship between tuber features and clinical phenotype is unclear. The aim of the study is to propose a classification of tuber types along a spectrum of severity, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics in 35 patients with TSC and history of epilepsy, and to investigate the relationship between tuber types and genetics, as well as clinical manifestations. Three types of tubers were identified based on the MRI signal intensity of their subcortical white matter component. (1) Tubers Type A are isointense on volumetric T1 images and subtly hyperintense on T2 weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR); (2) Type B are hypointense on volumetric T1 images and homogeneously hyperintense on T2 weighted and FLAIR; (3) Type C are hypointense on volumetric T1 images, hyperintense on T2 weighted, and heterogeneous on FLAIR characterized by a hypointense central region surrounded by a hyperintense rim. Based on the dominant tuber type present, three distinct patient groups were also identified: Patients with Type A tuber dominance have a milder phenotype. Patients with Type C tuber dominance have more MRI abnormalities such as subependymal giant cell tumors, and were more likely to have an autism spectrum disorder, a history of infantile spasms, and a higher frequency of epileptic seizures, compared to patients who have a dominance in Type B tubers, and especially to those with a Type A dominance.
Gallagher, Anne; Grant, Ellen P.; Madan, Neel; Jarrett, Delma Y.; Lyczkowski, David A.
Tuberous sclerosis is a relatively common inherited disease that causes multiple benign tumours in different organs, frequently leading to skin rashes, seizures and mental handicap. The disease can be caused by mutations in either of two genes, TSC2, identified in 1993, and TSC1, only recently identified. Here we review the current state of knowledge of the molecular genetics of tuberous
CNS lesions of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are due to a developmental disorder of neurogenesis and neuronal migration. MRI studies provide excellent in vivo demonstration of the various pathologic lesions. Symptoms of cortical tubers may include seizures, mental retardation, learning disabilities, and abnormal behavior. Seizures have a focal or multifocal origin, this clinical feature depending on the localization of the
Wild type Chlamydomonas accumulates starch and triglycerides when grown under nitrogen limiting conditions. Toward elucidation of the mechanisms for control of starch biosynthesis, we isolated mutants impaired int he accumulation of storage carbohydrates. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (strain ya-12) was mutagenized by UV irradiation and colonies were screened by iodine staining after growth in darkness. Mutants, denoted ais for altered in iodine staining, have been characterized by electron microscopy and assays for starch synthease, ADPG-pyrophosphorylase, phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), phosphoglucomutase and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and amylase activities. Transcript analysis of wild type and mutant RNAs with PGI, ADPG-pyrophosphorylase, and waxy probes have also been carried out. No deficiencies of any of these components have been detected. Furthermore, long-term cultures of ya-12 and ais-1d in nitrogen-limited chemostats have been studied; starch also does not accumulate in ais-1d under these conditions. Thus, the lesion affects an essential factor of unknown identity that is required for starch synthesis.
Berry-Lowe, S.L.; Schmidt, G.W. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA))
Sucrose uptake and partitioning in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber discs were examined under a range of mannitol and ethylene-glycol concentrations. Mannitol caused the same changes in turgor over a wide range of incubation periods (90 min-6 h), indicating that it did not penetrate the tissue. In comparison, ethylene glycol reduced turgor losses but did not eliminate them, even after 6 h. Between 100 mM and 300 mM mannitol, turgor fell by 350 kPa, compared with 35 kPa in ethylene glycol. Uptake experiments in mannitol alone showed that total sucrose uptake was strongly correlated with both osmotic potential and with turgor potential. In subsequent experiments sucrose uptake and partitioning were examined after 3 h equilibration in 100 mM and 300 mM concentrations of mannitol and ethylene glycol. Total sucrose uptake and the conversion of sucrose to starch were enhanced greatly only at 300 mM mannitol, indicating an effect of turgor, rather than osmotic potential on sucrose partitioning. The inhibitors p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid and carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) both reduced sucrose uptake, but in quite different ways. p-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid reduced total sucrose uptake but did not affect the partitioning of sucrose to starch. By contrast, CCCP inhibited total uptake and virtually eliminated the conversion of sucrose to starch. Despite this, sucrose uptake in the presence of CCCP continued to increase as the mannitol concentration increased, indicating an increase in passive transport at higher mannitol concentrations. Increased sucrose uptake above 400 mM mannitol was shown to be the result of uptake into the free space. The data show that starch synthesis is optimised at low but positive turgors and the relation between sucrose partitioning and the changing diurnal water relations of the tuber are discussed. PMID:24221935
Detailed thermal analysis studies have shown that a ‘molten starch’ phase is obtained during controlled heating of starch.\\u000a Before the ‘molten’ stage, depolymerisation of starch produces lower molecular weight compounds like dextrins, oligo, di-\\u000a and monosaccharides, as well as other types of compounds. These compounds should have ideal properties for plasticizing starches\\u000a because of the similarities of the molecules, helping
Peter S. Shuttleworth; Vitaly Budarin; James H. Clark
At the recent tuberous sclerosis complex consensus conference, the clinical diagnostic criteria for tuberous sclerosis complex were simplified and revised to reflect both new clinical information about tuberous sclerosis complex and an improved understanding of the disorder derived from molecular genetic studies. Based on this new information, some clinical signs once regarded as pathognomonic for tuberous sclerosis complex are now
Tuberous sclerosis complex is characterized by hamartomatous lesions involving skin, brain, kidneys, eyes and heart. Pathologically, tuberous sclerosis is a disorder of cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. Cell lineage and cell migration disorders in the developing cortex of tuberous sclerosis complex patients might produce very different neurological phenotypes including epilepsy, cognitive impairment and autism. Cortical tubers constitute the hallmark of
PAOLO CURATOLO; MAGDA VERDECCHIA; ROBERTA BOMBARDIERI
The objectives of this study were to synthesize starch-fatty acid esters via a reactive extrusion process and to determine the effects of level and chain length of the anhydrides used on the physical properties of the extrudates. Starch esters were synthesized by extruding 70% amylose starch with fatty acid anhydrides and sodium hydroxide (catalyst) in a single screw extruder. Acetic,
Starch accumulates in plants as granules in chloroplasts of source organs such as leaves (transitory starch) or in amyloplasts of sink organs such as seeds, tubers and roots (storage starch). Starch is composed of two types of glucose polymers: the essentially linear polymer amylose and highly branched amylopectin. The amylose content of wheat and rice seeds is an important quality trait, affecting the nutritional and sensory quality of two of the world's most important crops. In this review, we focus on the relationship between amylose biosynthesis and the structure, physical behaviour and functionality of wheat and rice grains. We briefly describe the structure and composition of starch and then in more detail describe what is known about the mechanism of amylose synthesis and how the amount of amylose in starch might be controlled. This more specifically includes analysis of GBSS alleles, the relationship between waxy allelic forms and amylose, and related quantitative trait loci. Finally, different methods for increasing or lowering amylose content are evaluated. PMID:24840849
Congenital lymphedema has been described as a possible rare association of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), with only six previous cases reported in the literature. TSC is an autosomal dominant, multisystem disorder connected to aberrant regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. The aim of this study is to review cases of lymphedema in a large cohort of TSC patients. The medical records of 268 patients seen at The Herscot Center for Children and Adults with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex at the Massachusetts General Hospital from 2002 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed for reports of lymphedema or edema of unknown etiology. Genotypic and phenotypic data were collected in accordance with institutional review board (IRB) approval. This cohort presents two new cases of congenital lymphedema in TSC patients and acquired lymphedema was found in eight additional cases. Thus, we report 10 new cases of lymphedema in TSC (4%). The two patients with congenital lymphedema were female, as were the previous six reported cases. The frequency of lymphedema reported here (4%) is higher than the estimated prevalence in the general population (0.133-0.144%), suggesting a higher frequency of lymphedema in TSC. This study shows that patients with TSC and lymphedema are more likely to be females with renal AMLs and suggests that congenital lymphedema is a gender-specific (female) manifestation of TSC. Exploration of the potential role of mTOR antagonists may be important in treatment of lymphedema in TSC patients. PMID:24668795
Geffrey, Alexandra L; Shinnick, Julianna E; Staley, Brigid A; Boronat, Susana; Thiele, Elizabeth A
In this activity, learn how you can make plastic out of corn (corn starch). Use this activity to explore polymers and PLA, polylactic acid, a plastic that is easier to compost. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video. Safety note: Younger learners will require adult supervision.
OBJECTIVE--To assess echocardiography as an investigation for the detection of occult gene carriers in tuberous sclerosis. PATIENTS--Sixty parents of children with tuberous sclerosis who had been extensively investigated for signs of the disease and 60 age and sex matched controls. PROCEDURE--Blind study by two experienced echocardiographers and blind interpretation of video recordings by an adult cardiologist. SETTING--Cardiology department of a district general hospital. RESULTS--Two parents and three controls had bright echodense areas interpreted as possible rhabdomyomas. CONCLUSIONS--In our hands echocardiography of adults is not an investigation with a high specificity for gene detection in tuberous sclerosis. Images
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a genetic multisystem disorder characterized by severe neurological symptoms (e.g. seizures), which are the most significant causes of disability and morbidity. Presently, there are no known cures for TSC and the etiolo...
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a genetic multisystem disorder characterized by severe neurological symptoms (e.g., seizures), which are the most significant causes of disability and morbidity. Presently, there are no known cures for TSC and the etiol...
Idaho University's Information Center of the Postharvest Institute for Perishables (ICPIP) was created in 1980 to globally disseminate up-to-date information on reducing postharvest losses. This bibliography on roots and tubers is the first in a semiannua...
Mitochondria are called the powerhouses of the cell. To better understand the role of mitochondria in maintaining and regulating metabolism in storage tissues, highly purified mitochondria were isolated from dormant potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum 'Folva') and their proteome investigated. Proteins were resolved by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and tryptic peptides were extracted from gel slices and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using an Orbitrap XL. Using four different search programs, a total of 1,060 nonredundant proteins were identified in a quantitative manner using normalized spectral counts including as many as 5-fold more "extreme" proteins (low mass, high isoelectric point, hydrophobic) than previous mitochondrial proteome studies. We estimate that this compendium of proteins represents a high coverage of the potato tuber mitochondrial proteome (possibly as high as 85%). The dynamic range of protein expression spanned 1,800-fold and included nearly all components of the electron transport chain, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and protein import apparatus. Additionally, we identified 71 pentatricopeptide repeat proteins, 29 membrane carriers/transporters, a number of new proteins involved in coenzyme biosynthesis and iron metabolism, the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and a type 2C protein phosphatase that may catalyze the dephosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Systematic analysis of prominent posttranslational modifications revealed that more than 50% of the identified proteins harbor at least one modification. The most prominently observed class of posttranslational modifications was oxidative modifications. This study reveals approximately 500 new or previously unconfirmed plant mitochondrial proteins and outlines a facile strategy for unbiased, near-comprehensive identification of mitochondrial proteins and their modified forms. PMID:24351685
Salvato, Fernanda; Havelund, Jesper F; Chen, Mingjie; Rao, R Shyama Prasad; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole N; Gang, David R; Thelen, Jay J; Møller, Ian Max
Several volatile monoterpenes, which are among the major constituents of several easily obtainable essential oils, were phytotoxic\\u000a in the gaseous phase to emerged potato tuber sprouts. Analyses of the more phytotoxic monoterpenes were conducted using a\\u000a continuous-flow system in which the compounds were released as volatiles into the headspace surrounding the tubers. Several\\u000a of these compounds, which have low mammalian
Potato is an important crop for starch production, but there are limitations regarding the genetic variation of starch quality. In maize, starches with various properties have been available for a long time by mutational breeding. Amylose starch from potatoes differs from cereal amyloses in several functionally important aspects, such as a higher degree of polymerization. Areas of application in which the degree of polymerization is of importance include film forming and the polymeric properties of bioplastics. High-amylose potato lines have been achieved by inhibiting the two known branching enzyme forms of potato. A single inserted gene construct for the inhibition of both forms resulted in structural changes of the starch to levels of branching that were below the commercially available amylose standards of potato. The high-amylose potato lines were tested in multiple year field trials of agronomic performance and were used for the pilot plant production of starch. The introduced trait was confirmed to be stable over multiple years. The consequences of the modification were found to be an increased tuber yield, reduced starch content, smaller granule size and an increase in reducing sugars. PMID:17134392
... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Color Me Safe Color Me Safe is a coloring book designed for ... the pictures and reading about the Safe Family. Color Me Safe can help parents talk with their ...
The use of pigmented maize varieties has increased due to their high anthocyanins content, but very few studies are reported\\u000a about the starch properties of these grains. The aim of this work was to isolate the starch granules from pigmented blue maize\\u000a and carry out the morphological, physicochemical, and biochemical characterization studies. The proximate composition of starch\\u000a granules showed high
Rubi G. Utrilla-Coello; Edith Agama-Acevedo; Ana Paulina Barba de la Rosa; Jose L. Martinez-Salgado; Sandra L. Rodriguez-Ambriz; Luis A. Bello-Perez
A new understanding of leaf starch degradation has emerged in the last 10 years. It has been shown that starch phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are critical components of this process. Glucan, water dikinase (GWD) (and phosphoglucan, water dikinase) adds phosphate to starch, and phosphoglucan phosphatase (SEX4) removes these phosphates. To explore the use of this metabolism to manipulate starch accumulation, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants were engineered by introducing RNAi constructs designed to reduce expression of AtGWD and AtSEX4. The timing of starch build-up was altered with ethanol-inducible and senescence-induced gene promoters. Ethanol induction of RNAi lines reduced transcript for AtGWD and AtSEX4 by 50%. The transgenic lines had seven times more starch than wild type at the end of the dark period but similar growth rates and total biomass. Elevated leaf starch content in maize leaves was engineered by making an RNAi construct against a gene in maize that appeared to be homologous to AtGWD. The RNAi construct was expressed using the constitutive ubiquitin promoter. Leaf starch content at the end of a night period in engineered maize plants was 20-fold higher than in untransformed plants with no impact on total plant biomass. We conclude that plants can be engineered to accumulate starch in the leaves with little impact on vegetative biomass. PMID:22321580
Weise, Sean E; Aung, Kimberly; Jarou, Zach J; Mehrshahi, Payam; Li, Ziru; Hardy, Anna C; Carr, David J; Sharkey, Thomas D
Changes in starch characteristics caused by alkaline-cooking in two corn genotypes (hard and soft) were studied in the present work. Color, pH, pasting properties (Brabender viscoamylograph), water sorption, solubility, swelling power and thermal analysis (Differential scanning calorimetry) were determined in starches previously extracted, from raw and alkaline-cooked hard and soft corns. A reduction in maximum viscosity peak, temperature at the endothermic peak and swelling power at 90 degrees C, and an increase in solubility was observed in starches obtained from both hard and soft corn after alkaline-cooking. Starch from hard corn showed an increment in initial pasting temperature after alkaline-cooking. Alkaline-cooking induced higher modifications in hard than in soft corn starch, probably as a result of its endosperm type and grain hardness, although optimum cooking times were used for each corn genotype. PMID:14528610
The physico-chemical characteristics of various sago starch samples from South East Asia were determined and compared to starches from other sources. X-ray diffraction studies showed that all the sago starches exhibited a C-type diffraction pattern. Scanning electron microscopy showed that they consist of oval granules with an average diameter around 30?m. Proximate composition studies showed that the moisture content in
Fasihuddin B Ahmad; Peter A Williams; Jean-Louis Doublier; Sylvie Durand; Alain Buleon
In this optics activity, learners discover that not all shadows are black. Learners explore human color perception by using colored lights to make additive color mixtures. With three colored lights, learners can make shadows of seven different colors. They can also explore how to make shadows of individual colors, including black. Use this activity demonstrate how receptors in the retina of the eye work to see color.
The role of interleukin 17 (IL-17) to epilepsy-associated cortical tubers of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is unknown. We investigated the expression patterns of the IL-17 and IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) in cortical tubers of TSC compared with normal control cortex (CTX). We found that IL-17 and IL-17R were clearly upregulated in cortical tubers at the protein levels. Immunostaining indicated that IL-17 was specifically distributed in the innate immunity cells (DNs, GCs, astrocytes, and microglia) and adaptive immunity cells (T-lymphocytes) as well as the endothelial cells of blood vessels. The overexpression and distribution patterns of IL-17 may be involved in the epileptogenicity of cortical tubers in TSC. PMID:23906968
ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase catalyzes the first committed and rate-limiting step in starch biosynthesis in plants and glycogen biosynthesis in bacteria. It is the enzymatic site for regulation of storage polysaccharide accumulation in plants and bacteria, being allosterically activated or inhibited by metabolites of energy flux. We report the first atomic resolution structure of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Crystals of potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase ? subunit were grown in high concentrations of sulfate, resulting in the sulfate-bound, allosterically inhibited form of the enzyme. The N-terminal catalytic domain resembles a dinucleotide-binding Rossmann fold and the C-terminal domain adopts a left-handed parallel ? helix that is involved in cooperative allosteric regulation and a unique oligomerization. We also report structures of the enzyme in complex with ATP and ADP-glucose. Communication between the regulator-binding sites and the active site is both subtle and complex and involves several distinct regions of the enzyme including the N-terminus, the glucose-1-phosphate-binding site, and the ATP-binding site. These structures provide insights into the mechanism for catalysis and allosteric regulation of the enzyme.
Jin, Xiangshu; Ballicora, Miguel A; Preiss, Jack; Geiger, James H
Potato was designated for food production in the controlled ecological life-support system CELSS because its tubers as it is known contain starch and significant protein content and are edible food after the long-term storage We used the cultivation of potato miniplants under influence of long-term horizontal clinorotation 2 rev min which imitated microgravity as a model for the technology of potato food production in the CELSS The aim of our work was to determine content and composition storage starch as well as amyloplast ultrastructure of storage parenchyma cells in potato minitubers formed under long-term to 6 weeks slow horizontal clinorotation 2 rpm Minitubers developed from axillary buds of potato miniplants growing in the aseptic stationary conditions and under clinorotation Methods of scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used for the study of surface and ultrastructure of amyloplasts the biochemical method by Hovenkamp-Hermelink et al 1988 - for study of starch composition Some differences were observed in amyloplast structure under clinorotation namely increased volume of starch grains in plastid decreased stroma volume changed structure of envelope membranes in comparison with the stationary control Besides an appearance of fraction of gigantic amyloplasts in central layers of parenchyma was observed under clinorotation after 4 weeks of growth The total starch content increased and reached to 219 5 - 4 1 mg g FW at 6 weeks of clinorotation it was 167 5 - 5 6 mg g FW in the control minitubers A ratio of
Nedukha, O. M.; Kordyum, E. L.; Martyn, G. M.; Schnyukova, E. I.
This story poses a challenge to its readers to solve the mystery of light, color, and how we see color. It also asks the question, "What is color?" After investigating the phenomena of color and color filters, students should realize that light is made up
The production of microtubers, very small potato tubers, in tissue culture is a new technology that may have implications for the physiology of tuber formation, potato variety improvement, and the mass production of quality seed potatoes. Before it become...
Fructose has recently received much attention due to renewed interest in natural sweeteners. In addition, fructose has some advantages to sucrose in sweetness, solubility, viscosity, and dental health characteristics. Fructose is deposited as storage fructans of the inulin (beta-1,2) type in tubers and rhizomes of the Compositae family. The utilization of the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) tuber as a source of fructose syrup is discussed. This plant has the potential to produce more sugar per acre than corn or sugar beets. In addition, the artichoke has higher frost resistance and lower heat unit requirements than corn and is somewhat more tolerant to low moisture conditions than sugar beets. A high quality fructose syrup can be produced from artichoke tubers. The extraction step was found to be particularly important since development of adverse colors and flavors must be prevented. The fructans may be acid or enzyme hydrolyzed but the latter method gave a higher quality syrup. Ion-exchange resins and activated charcoal were effective in removing coloring and flavoring materials, and also reduced other noncarbohydrate constituents. Since the enzymatic hydrolysis of the fructans is an attractive alternative to acid hydrolysis, a process was developed for producing and purifying a special beta-fructofuranosidase (inulase) from Saccharomyces fragilis. Inulase has a much higher specificity for fructans than commerically available beta-fructofuranosidase (invertase). PMID:41685
Background Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), also known as Bourneville disease, is an inherited, progressive neurocutaneous disorder characterized by the potential for hamartoma formation throughout the body. TSC is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder, but more than two-thirds of cases are sporadic. Methods Clinical manifestations and treatment options are discussed. Both surgical and anesthetic perioperative considerations are described in this review. Results Routine monitoring is appropriate for minor surgical procedures for patients with TSC who have mild disease manifestations. More extensive monitoring is indicated for major procedures that have the potential for significant blood loss and for patients with more severe pathology. Postoperatively, TSC patients should be admitted for monitoring and treatment after more extensive procedures or if significant organ dysfunction occurs. Postoperative complications, which may be related to either the surgery or the TSC pathology itself, may have origins in many different organs and may include seizures, severe hypertension, and bradyarrhythmias. Conclusion TSC is a rare disease with a highly variable clinical presentation and provides a multitude of challenges for the patient, the family, and the healthcare team.
Modification of the starch biosynthesis pathway holds an enormous potential for tailoring novel starches in planta . In this thesis, we have explored the possibility of anchoring effector proteins in potato starch granules during starch biosynthesis by using starch-binding domains (SBDs) of starch degrading enzymes. In this way, starches with new or improved functionalities may be generated. <\\/span>For this, a
This work was carried out to characterize starch accumulation and activities of key enzymes during grain filling in two wheat\\u000a cultivars differing in starch content. The results showed that the starch accumulation rate (SAR) and activities of sucrose\\u000a synthase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, soluble starch synthase, granule-bound starch synthase, and starch branching enzyme\\u000a in the cultivar with a high starch content were
Desiree-Magloire Bourneville first reported tuberous sclerosis complex as "tuberous sclerosis of the cerebral convolutions" in 1880. This disorder is characterized by multiple hamartomas in several organs, particularly the brain. Commonly recognized clinical features include hypomelanotic skin macules, facial angiofibromas, periungual fibromas, delayed development, and seizures. Abnormalities on brain imaging include subependymal nodules, cortical tubers, and radial white matter lines. The kidney, heart, and retina are among other commonly affected organs. Although the majority of cases (65%) are sporadic, genetic linkage studies of familial cases led to the discovery of two separate genes linked to tuberous sclerosis complex: TSC1, located at chromosome 9q34, encoding a protein called hamartin; and TSC2, located at chromosome 16p13.3, encoding a protein called tuberin. Tuberin has a region of homology to rap1GAP, a guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein. This observation is consistent with the idea of tuberin functioning in a cellular signaling pathway. Hamartin contains a single potential transmembrane domain; orthologues in yeast, drosophila, and rat have been cloned. Hamartin also binds to ezrin and other ezrin-radixin-moesin proteins, which link the cell membrane to the cytoskeleton. Tuberin and hamartin interact directly with each other, and the complex may function together to regulate specific cellular processes. This study reviews current ideas regarding the function of tuberin and hamartin, and the pathogenesis of tuberous sclerosis complex. PMID:14684235
In this paper, the Ramon starch was isolated and its chemical composition and physical and microscopic characteristics were determined. Corn starch was used as reference. In general, the proximal composition was similar between starches studied. Ramon starch granules were oval-spherical and rounded with sizes between 6.5 and 15 ?m. Starch purity was high (92.57%) with amylose content of 25.36%. The gelatinization temperature was 83.05°C and transition enthalpy was 21.423 J/g. At 90°C, solubility was 20.42%, swelling power 17.64 g water/gstarch and water absorption capacity was 13 gwater/gstarch. The pH, clarity and color (Hue angle) of Ramon starch were higher to those reported for corn starch. The results achieved suggest that Ramon starch has potential for application in food systems requiring high processing temperatures and it is also a promising option for use in the manufacture of biodegradable materials. PMID:24299857
Pérez-Pacheco, E; Moo-Huchin, V M; Estrada-León, R J; Ortiz-Fernández, A; May-Hernández, L H; Ríos-Soberanis, C R; Betancur-Ancona, D
Physicochemical and functional properties of starches isolated from fifteen grain amaranth cultivars (Amaranthus spp.) produced in China were analysed in this study. Amaranth starches had low but diverse amylose contents, ranging from 4.7% to 12.5%. Wide variation was also found in physicochemical properties, such as swelling power, water solubility index, pasting, thermal and textural properties. Amylose content was significantly correlated
Decreased iron absorption was observed in rats fed protein deficient starch and sucrose diets. This was not caused by a direct intraluminal effect of starch or sucrose upon iron absorption. The abnormality was attributed to both a retarded rate of growth ...
Starch is one of the most important but flexible food ingredients possessing value added attributes for innumerable industrial applications. Its various chemically modified derivatives offer a great scope of high technological value in both food and non-food industries. Modified starches are designed to overcome one or more of the shortcomings, such as loss of viscosity and thickening power upon cooking
Starch is one of the most abundant and economical renewable biopolymers in nature. Starch molecules are high molecular weight polymers of D-glucose linked by ?-(1,4) and ?-(1,6) glycosidic bonds, forming linear (amylose) and branched (amylopectin) structures. Octenyl succinic anhydride modified starches (OSA-starch) are designed by carefully choosing a proper starch source, path and degree of modification. This enables emulsion and micro-encapsulation delivery systems for oil based flavors, micronutrients, fragrance, and pharmaceutical actives. A large percentage of flavors are encapsulated by spray drying in today's industry due to its high throughput. However, spray drying encapsulation faces constant challenges with retention of volatile compounds, oxidation of sensitive compound, and manufacturing yield. Specialty OSA-starches were developed suitable for the complex dynamics in spray drying and to provide high encapsulation efficiency and high microcapsule quality. The OSA starch surface activity, low viscosity and film forming capability contribute to high volatile retention and low active oxidation. OSA starches exhibit superior performance, especially in high solids and high oil load encapsulations compared with other hydrocolloids.
Microstructural characteristics of starch-based natural foods such as parenchyma or cotyledon cell shape, cell size and composition, and cell wall composition play a key role in influencing the starch digestibility during gastrointestinal digestion. The stability of cell wall components and the arrangement of starch granules in the cells may affect the free access of amylolytic enzymes during digestion. Commonly used food processing techniques such as thermal processing, extrusion cooking, and post-cooking refrigerated storage alter the physical state of starch (gelatinization, retrogradation, etc.) and its digestibility. Rheological characteristics (viscosity) of food affect the water availability during starch hydrolysis and, consequently, the absorption of digested carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract. The nonstarch ingredients and other constituents present in food matrix, such as proteins and lipids interact with starch during processing, which leads to an alteration in the overall starch digestibility and physicochemical characteristics of digesta. Starch digestibility can be controlled by critically manipulating the food microstructure, processing techniques, and food composition. PMID:23722096
The diversity and ubiquity of plastic products substantially testify to the versatility of the special class of engineering materials known as polymers. However, the non-biodegradability of these petrochemical-based materials has been a source of environmental concerns and hence, the driving force in the search for 'green' alternatives for which starch remains the frontliner. Starch is a natural biopolymer consisting predominantly
Olayide O. Fabunmi; Lope G. Tabil Jr; Satyanarayan Panigrahi; Peter R. Chang
Summary In vitro tuberization on shoot cultures of early, mid-season, late and very late potatoes was compared. Shoots were grown at 12, 16, or 20 h photoperiods; tuberization was then induced at 0, 8 or 16 h light. In the dark, shoots from early plants initially grown at 16 h consistently set tubers earlier than the other types, whereas the very
A study examined the relationship between neuroimaging findings and the behavioral characteristics of 29 patients with tuberous sclerosis. Findings indicate a positive linear relationship between a patient's total number of tubers and degree of intellectual impairment. The number of tubers in the cerebellum was associated with more autistic…
Weber, Anna M.; Egelhoff, John C.; McKellop, J. Mark; Franz, David Neal
Tuberous xanthomas are papulonodular skin lesions present in lipoprotein metabolism disorders. A patient presented with multiple large swellings (up to 20 cm in size) all over the body, which on excision were found to be tuberous xanthomas. Investigations revealed the diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia. This case is reported to document the unusual presentation of giant tuberous xanthomas.
Is there any math in coloring maps. Believe it or not there is alot of math involoved in coloring a map. The cool people at MEGA MATH have created activities for you to experiment with map coloring and see just how fun it is. Mega Math Workbook open the activity called The Most Colorful Math of All Some other fun activities can be found at Coloring Penrose Tiles Colorful mathematics Jeff Week&s Geometry Software Games ...
Fifty-two polysaccharides were isolated from the fermentation systems of Tuber melanosporum, Tuber indicum, Tuber sinense, Tuber aestivum and the fruiting bodies of Tuber indicum, Tuber himalayense, Tuber sinense by elution with an activated carbon column. Polysaccharides from Tuber fermentation system exhibited relatively higher in vitro antitumor activity against HepG2, A549, HCT-116, SK-BR-3, and HL-60 cells than those from Tuber fruiting bodies. All polysaccharides were mainly composed of D-mannose, D-glucose, and D-galactose, which suggested that the polysaccharides from Tuber fruiting bodies and fermentation system have identical chemical compositions. The results of antitumor activity and structural identification indicated that the polysaccharide fractions could promote antitumor activity. Tuber polysaccharides from Tuber fermentation system exhibited relatively higher than that from Tuber fruiting bodies. These results confirm the potential of Tuber fermentation mycelia for use as an alternative resource for its fruiting bodies. PMID:24272369
The most abundant soluble tuber protein from the Andean crop oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.), named ocatin, has been purified and characterized. Ocatin accounts for 40% to 60% of the total soluble oca tuber proteins, has an apparent molecular mass of 18 kD and an isoelectric point of 4.8. This protein appears to be found only in tubers and is accumulated
Teresita Flores; Alberto Alape-Giron; Marietta Flores-Diaz; Hector E. Flores
Conditions for the preparation of carboxymethyl derivatives of corn and amaranth starch were compared. The two starches differed considerably with respect to the optimum conditions such as temperature, pH, time, concentration of sodium monochloroacetate, and starch:liquor ratio. In both cases, isopropyl alcohol was the solvent of choice. Multistage carboxylation was also carried out. Amaranth starch differs from corn starch in
Debasis Bhattacharyya; Rekha S. Singhal; Pushpa R. Kulkarni
Baked starch foams were characterized by several physical methods in order to better understand the relationship between process parameters and starch foam structure. In this process, a thin-walled object such as a plate is formed by heating a starch batter inside a closed mould. Normal corn and potato starches are gelatinized by this treatment but some swollen granules remain. The
R. L Shogren; J. W Lawton; W. M Doane; K. F Tiefenbacher
Resistant starch (RS) is defined as the sum of starch and products of starch degradation not absorbed in the small intestine of healthy individuals. Thus, RS enters the colon where it may be fermented. In this respect, RS resembles some types of dietary fibre. Three types of RS are being discerned: RS 1<\\/sub> , physically entrapped starch; RS 2<\\/sub> ,
Starch, which is a natural carbohydrate biopolymer, has been the subject of academic and industrial studies for many decades, basically due to its low cost, biodegradability and versatility of use. Chemical modification of starch by grafting various monomers onto it imparts increased hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity or polyelectrolyte nature to starch depending on the reagent and conditions used. The starch graft copolymers
This is an online activity where learners can virtually mix different colors of light or paint (you can switch between them) and see how the colors combine. It demonstrates how millions of colors are created on computer monitors and TVs, and in art and printing. Learners can try to match a given target color ("Mix to Match"), or simply play around with mixtures ("Mix for Fun"). Background information explains how light is additive (more colors tends towards white), whereas paint absorbs color and is subtractive (more colors tends towards black). There's also information about how the human eye works.
Tubers of Cassava (Manihot esculenta), yams (Dioscorea esculenta), aroids (Amorphophallus campanulatus, Colocasia esculenta, Xanthosoma sagittfolium) and Coleus (Solenostemon rotundifolius) were screened for inhibitory activities against amylase, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Coleus tuber possessed the highest anti-amylase activity, whereas Colocasia tuber was the most potent source of anti-tryptic and anti-chymotryptic activity. Xanthosoma tubers exhibited amylase inhibitory activity and Amorphophallus tubers antiprotease activity. Dioscorea esculenta had low levels of amylase and chymotrypsin inhibitors, while Cassava tubers were totally free of inhibitors. When tubers were processed by pressure cooking, there was significant reduction/complete elimination in inhibitory activity. Partial retention of inhibition was observed in the case of amylase inhibitor in Dioscorea, chymotrypsin inhibitor in Colocasia and trypsin inhibitor in Colocasia, Coleus and Amorphophallus. In vitro experiments on heat stability of the different inhibitors revealed almost similar pattern of inactivation. PMID:8833431
For the first time, a fed-batch fermentation process of Tuber melanosporum was developed for the efficient production of bioactive mycelia and Tuber polysaccharides. Each 1.67g\\/L of peptone and 8.33g\\/L of yeast extract were added on day 3, 6, and 9, respectively, and sucrose was fed to maintain its concentration around 35–5g\\/L when its residual level decreased to 10–5g\\/L. Then, the
Objective Genetic loss of TSC1/TSC2 function in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) results in overactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway, leading to cellular dysplasia. We hypothesized that the dysplastic cells in TSC tubers are heterogeneous, including separable classes on a neuronal-glial spectrum, and that these dysplastic cells express glutamate receptor (GluR) patterns consistent with increased cortical network excitability. Methods Surgically resected human cortical tubers and nondysplastic epileptic cortical samples were analyzed by double-label immunocytochemistry for coexpression of neuronal and glial markers, the TSC1/TSC2 pathway downstream molecule phospho-S6 (pS6) and GluR subunits, and compared with control cortical tissue. Western blotting was used to quantify changes in GluR subunit expression in tubers versus controls. Results We demonstrate that cortical tubers contain a broad spectrum of cell types including disoriented pyramidal cells, dysplastic neurons, giant neuroglial cells, dysplastic astroglia, and reactive astrocytes. Dysplastic neurons, giant cells, and dysplastic astroglia express high levels of pS6 and demonstrate altered GluR subunit composition, resembling those of normal immature neurons and glia. In contrast, nondysplastic neurons in TSC and non-TSC epileptic lesions express lower pS6 levels and display changes in GluR subunit expression that are distinct from the patterns seen in tuber dysplastic cells. Interpretation This work significantly expands the spectrum of abnormal cells recognized in tubers beyond the classic tuber giant cell and demonstrates cell-specific abnormalities in GluR expression that may contribute to seizure pathogenesis in TSC. Furthermore, these results suggest that subunit-specific antagonists may be of potential use in the treatment of epilepsy in TSC.
Talos, Delia M.; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Cordero, Kathia; Black, Peter M.; Jensen, Frances E.
Tubers are the most common brain lesions in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), and typically remain stable in size and appearance. We present the case of a young male with global developmental impairment and autistic features as well as multiple and mixed daily seizures. The patient had a prominent right frontal cortical tuber characterized by a calcified component, which changed on consecutive magnetic resonance imaging between the age of 4 and 11 years, at which time the patient underwent a lesionectomy. A poor long-term outcome is reported since the patient presents an intractable mixed seizure disorder status post-epilepsy surgery and no significant neuropsychological improvements. Histopathology findings show typical characteristics of tubers in TSC as well as numerous calcifications within the resected nodular lesion. This case supports the notion that tubers with calcified components are not necessarily static lesions and can change with time. Investigation of the relationship between the presence of calcification in tubers and epileptogenecity in a large group of patients would provide insights into the pathogenesis of the seizures and cognitive impairment and hopefully, eventually provide better treatment options for patients with TSC.
GALLAGHER, ANNE; MADAN, NEEL; STEMMER-RACHAMIMOV, ANAT; THIELE, ELIZABETH A
The paper presents the results of the research of the size and shape of parenchyma tissue cells in potato tubers depending on the direction and site of sampling in tubers. An optical confocal microscope was used to observe samples in their natural state. The investigation was carried out for 1 mm thick samples cut from cylindrical samples (10x10 mm)taken in two mutually perpendicular directions of the inner and outer core of each variety. The analysis was done ten times.The methods developed for the composition and image analysis ensure obtaining a sufficient number of cells to determine tissue structure parameters (surface, shape, elongation and number of cells per 1 mm2) and decays of these parameters were obtained. Statistical analysis was performed using the ?-Kolmogorov-Smirnov compliance test.Arelationship between the direction of sampling and the size and shape of the inner core of cells was found. Greater surface area and elongation of the inner core cells for the longitudinal direction in the tuber (stolon - top) was demonstrated. There was no such a correlation for the outer core in the tubers of the cultivars examined.
Over the past decade, there has been considerable progress in understanding the molecular genetics of tuberous sclerosis, a disorder characterised by hamartomatous growths in numerous organs. We review this progress, from cloning and characterising TSC1 and TSC2, the genes responsible for the disorder, through to gaining insights into the functions of their protein products hamartin and tuberin, and the identification
Jeremy P. Cheadle; Mary Pat Reeve; Julian R. Sampson; David J. Kwiatkowski
The high incidence of infantile spasms (IS) and hypsarrhythmia in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) has long been emphasized but it is now clear that infants with TSC show clinical and EEG differences from those with classical West syndrome. Seizures at onset are mainly characterized by partial motor seizures and IS. Subtle partial seizures may be present in the early neonatal
Paolo Curatolo; Stefano Seri; Magda Verdecchia; Roberta Bombardieri
Ethylene effectively inhibits sprouting of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) during storage, but it often darkens fry color. The objective of the work described here was to determine if altering\\u000a the concentration of ethylene applied would reduce the darkening while retaining adequate sprout inhibition. Trials were conducted\\u000a over three consecutive years (1991–1992, 1992–1993, and 1993–1994). Tubers of cv Russet Burbank (ca
Barbara J. Daniels-Lake; Robert K. Prange; Jerzy Nowak; Samuel K. Asiedu; John R. Walsh
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic neurocutaneous disorder that commonly affects the CNS. The most commonly associated brain tumors include cortical tubers, subependymal nodules, and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs). The authors report an unusual case of recurrent meningitis due to a tuber-containing encephalocele via the posterior wall of the frontal sinus. An 11-year-old girl presented with a history of TSC and previous SEGA resection via interhemispheric approach. She presented twice within 4 months with classic bacterial meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid cultures revealed Streptococcus pneumoniae. Computed tomography and MR imaging of the brain showed a right frontal sinus encephalocele via a posterior frontal sinus wall defect. Both episodes of meningitis were treated successfully with standard regimens of intravenous antibiotics. The neurosurgical service was consulted to discuss surgical options. Via a bicoronal incision, a right basal frontal craniotomy was performed. A large frontal encephalocele was encountered in the frontal sinus. The encephalocele was herniating through a bony defect of the posterior sinus wall. The encephalocele was ligated and resected followed by removing frontal sinus mucosa and complete cranialization of frontal sinus. Repair of the sinus floor was conducted with fat and pericranial grafts followed by CSF diversion via lumbar drain. Histopathology of the resected encephalocele showed a TSC tuber covered with respiratory (frontal sinus) mucosa. Tuber cells were diffusely positive for GFAP. The patient underwent follow-up for 2 years without evidence of recurrent meningitis or CSF rhinorrhea. This report demonstrates that frontal tubers of TSC can protrude into the frontal sinus as acquired encephaloceles and present with recurrent meningitis. To the authors' knowledge, recurrent meningitis is not known to coincide with TSC. Careful clinical and radiographic follow-up for frontal tubers in patients with TSC is recommended. PMID:21721896
Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…
...Administration [TA-W-62,282] National Starch and Chemical Company Specialty Starches Division Including On-Site Leased Workers...13, 2007, applicable to workers of National Starch and Chemical Company, Specialty Starches...
Tuberous sclerosis is a neurocutaneous disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance. It is characterized by the triad of seizures, mental retardation, angiofibromas of the face though the triad is not always complete. We incidentally encountered a case of tuberous sclerosis in a case of hanging. He was an epileptic. Autopsy findings included unusual findings of myocardial and renal lipomata. He also had cortical thickening of bones, cortical tubers of brain, polycystic kidney disease. PMID:19573851
Several naturally-occurring aromatic aldehydes and an aromatic alcohol inhibited potato tuber sprouting when applied as volatiles\\u000a or directly as emulsions. Exposure to volatiles was for 1 or 10 days prior to placement into fresh air. Salicylaldehyde inhibited\\u000a sprouting of tubers exposed for 1 or more days; benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde and thymol suppressed sprouting\\u000a of tubers exposed for 10 days. Direct
Tuberous sclerosis (TS), also known as Bourneville disease or Bourneville–Pringle disease, is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder classically characterized by the presence of hamartomatous growths in multiple organs. TS and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are different terms for the same genetic condition. Both terms describe clinical changes due to mutations involving either of the two genes named TSC1 and TSC2, which regulate cell growth. The diagnosis of TSC is established using diagnostic criteria based on clinical and imaging findings. Routine screening and surveillance of patients with TSC is needed to determine the presence and extent of organ involvement, especially the brain, kidneys, and lungs, and identify the development of associated complications. As the treatment is organ specific, imaging plays a crucial role in the management of patients with TSC.
New information from a survey of truffles carried out in southern part of Poland in September 2007 is presented. The fruit bodies of Tuber aestivum, T. excavatum, T. rufum and one unidentified Tuber sp. were found. The soil chemistry of the five T. aestivum sites was analysed. Our inventory showed that T. aestivum prefers the mixed forest with host-trees such as: Quercus robur, Corylus avellana, Carpinus betulus, Fagus silvaticus and Tilia cordata. Selection of local inocula of T. aestivum for the propagation of truffles production could be an alternative to the Mediterranean truffles orchards in times when demand for the fungi will be increasing. Fruit bodies of truffles are conserved in the collection of biological material in the Forest Research Institute in Sekocin Stary. PMID:18414906
Hilszcza?ska, Dorota; Sierota, Zbigniew; Palenzona, Mario
A patient with tuberous sclerosis diagnosed at the age of 5 years developed an intractable seizure disorder characterized by complex partial seizures numbering 10-20/day. Interictal electroencephalograms (EEG) showed a right frontal epileptogenic focus. A computerized tomography scan demonstrated calcification in the right frontal region at two sites, periventricular calcification and multiple low density lesions. Neuropsychological assessment showed a verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) of 69 and a performance IQ of 88. Telemetry and video monitoring recorded 10 seizures during which the EEG showed flattening of ongoing sharp wave activity in the right frontal region. Electrocorticography further identified and localized epileptogenic tissue in the right frontal cortex and surgical removal of involved tissue and the adjacent two tubers was carried out. Twelve months after surgery the patient has had only two brief seizures. PMID:2511830
Bye, A M; Matheson, J M; Tobias, V H; Mackenzie, R A
The symbiosis between Armillaria species and an achlorophylous orchid Gastrodia elata BLUME has been reported. The main species described as a symbiont is Armillaria mellea (VAHL: FR.) KUMMER, known widely as a primary root rot pathogen. Samples collected from the rhizomorphs attached to the tuber of G. elata were separated and analyzed. Molecular analysis based on sequencing of the intergenic spacer 1 (IGS-1) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed, coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the IGS-1 region. Cultural morphology and features of basidiomata were also used to characterize the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis and morphological data strongly suggested that the fungus present in the tubers of G. elata is Armillaria nabsnona. This is the first report of occurrence of this Armillaria species in association with G. elata. PMID:18591784
Starch is the major glycemic carbohydrate in foods, and its nutritional property is related to its rate and extent of digestion and absorption in the small intestine. A classification of starch into rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS), and resistant starch (RS) based on the in vitro Englyst test is used to specify the nutritional quality of starch.
In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…
In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O’Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction are taken up in the current commentary, especially with
The question of genetic heterogeneity in tuberous sclerosis (TSC) was addressed by genetic linkage studies in eight affected families using nine polymorphic markers (EFD126.3, MCT136, ABO, ABL, AK1, and MCOA12 from distal 9q, and PBGD, MCT128.1, and 1CJ52.208M from distal 11q). The data as a whole supported a TSC locus on distal 9q, the peak lod score on multipoint analysis
J R Sampson; J R Yates; L A Pirrit; P Fleury; I Winship; P Beighton; J M Connor
We have previously described in tuberous sclerosis (TSC) hamartomas the phenomenon of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for DNA markers in the region of both the TSC2 gene on chromosome 16p13.3 and the TSC1 gene on 9q34. We now describe the spectrum of LOH in 51 TSC hamartomas from 34 cases of TSC. DNA was extracted from leucocytes or normal paraffin
The calcium present in the potato tuber is partially extractable by water and by dilute HCl. Either of these procedures may\\u000a show higher calcium content than dry-ashing. A degree of fractionation of calcium can be obtained by extraction by 1N HCl,\\u000a first at room temperature and then at 70 C. Wet-ashing yielded consistently higher results for calcium than dry ashing.
Rice starch is composed of amylose and amylopectin. Amylose content, an important determinant of rice starch quality, is primarily controlled by the waxy gene, encoding granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS). The starch branching enzyme (SBE) and soluble starch synthase (SSS) play major roles in the synthesis of amylopectin. Microsatellite polymorphisms in the three genes, the wx gene encoding granule-bound starch synthase
The study compares selected rheological properties of starch isolated from two cultivars of grass pea with those of wheat and corn starch. The phase transition temperatures on pasting (TO, TP, TE) of both grass pea starches were lower in comparison to normal corn starch, but higher when compared to wheat starch. Pasting temperature of the starch slurries were significantly lower
Starches from AC Stewart (Avena sativa L.) and NO 753-2 (Avena nuda L.) oat grains were isolated and some of the characteristics determined. The total starch lipids extracted by acid hydrolysis were 1.64% in both starches. The free lipid content (extracted by chloroform-methanol 2:1 vv at 25°C) was 21.3% and 18.0%, respectively, in NO 753-2 and AC Stewart starches. The
Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.
We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses.
Abstract Context: Starch obtained from different botanical sources exhibit different characteristics due to variation in amylase-amylopectin ratio, which results in different binder substrate interactions. Objective: The present study characterized Echinochloa colona (L.) Link (Poaceae) starch and evaluated its compressional characteristics for use as tablet excipient against commonly used maize, sorghum, and cassava starch. Materials and methods: Three experimental design studies were performed to determine the effects of the maize starch and povidone on physical properties of paracetamol (250?mg) tablets. The effect of superdisintegrants sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium on the optimized composition obtained in the preceding experiments was evaluated in two factorial experimental studies. The maize starch in the optimum formulations was replaced with difra, sorghum, and cassava starch, and tablets prepared from these starches were compared for their compressional characteristics, lubrication sensitivity, moisture uptake, and drug release. Results: Tablets prepared from maize starch and povidone (30:9, w/w) blend which was previously mixed for 8?min disintegrated (DT) in 10?min. Superdisintegrants decreased DT of tablets significantly (p?0.05) to 2.2?min. The Hausner ratios of co-processed mixtures containing sorghum, maize, and difra starch were 1.19, 1.21, and 1.26, respectively, with equilibrium moisture content of 8-9%. The DT of sorghum and difra starch formulations which related directly to their higher hydration capacity (difra?>?sorghum?>?maize starch) and swelling property was 1.5?min and 2.5?min, respectively, with a friability of 0.32%. The effect of lubrication on the DT and friability of tablets containing maize and difra starch was significant (p?0.05). However, more than 90% drug was released in vitro dissolution studies. Conclusion: Difra starch can replace maize and sorghum starch as tablet excipient. PMID:24552302
Dietary starches are important sources of energy for many human societies and it is clear that they can also make quite specific contributions to health. Resistant starch has received much attention for both its potential health benefits (similar to soluble fibre) and functional properties. Resistant starch positively influences the functioning of the digestive tract, microbial flora, the blood cholesterol level,
E. Fuentes-Zaragoza; M. J. Riquelme-Navarrete; E. Sánchez-Zapata; J. A. Pérez-Álvarez
The gelatinisation, pasting and retrogradation properties of three rye starches isolated using a proteinase-based procedure were investigated and compared to those of wheat starch isolated in a comparable way. On an average, the rye starch granules were larger than those of wheat starch. The former had very comparable gelatinisation temperatures and enthalpies, but slightly lower gelatinisation temperatures than wheat starch. Under standardised conditions, they retrograded to a lesser extent than wheat starch. The lower gelatinisation temperatures and tendencies of the rye starches to retrograde originated probably from their higher levels of short amylopectin (AP) chains [degree of polymerisation (DP) 6-12] and their lower levels of longer chains (DP 13-24) than observed for wheat starch. The rapid visco analysis differences in peak and end viscosities between the rye starches as well as between rye and wheat starches were at least partly attributable to differences in the levels of AP short chains and in average amylose molecular weight. The AP average chain lengths and exterior chain lengths were slightly lower for rye starches, while the interior chain lengths were slightly higher than those for wheat starch. PMID:22055821
Gomand, S V; Verwimp, T; Goesaert, H; Delcour, J A
The reactions of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) with three physical forms of starch—insoluble granular waxy maize starch, granular microporous starch, and soluble maltodextrin—were investigated and compared. Effects of OSA level (3%, 9%, 15%, and 50% based on the weight of starch) on reaction efficiency (RE) also were examined. As OSA concentration increased, degree of substitution (DS) of all OSA-modified starches
Carboxymethyl potato starch (CMPS) was synthesized with a simple dry and multi-step method as a product of the reaction of native potato starch and monochloroacetic acid in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The influence of the molar ratio of sodium hydroxide to anhydroglucose unit, the volume of 95% (v/v) ethanol, the rotation rate of motor driven stirrer and the reaction time for degree of substitution (DS) were evaluated. The product was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). FTIR spectrometry showed new bonds at 1618 and 1424 cm?¹ when native starch underwent carboxymethylation. SEM pictures showed that the smooth surface of native starch particles was mostly ruptured. XRD revealed that starch crystallinity was reduced after carboxymethylation. The viscosity of the mixture paste of carboxymethyl starch and sodium alginate (SA) was measured using a rotational viscometer. In addition, the applied effect of mixed paste in reactive dye printing was examined by assessing the fabric stiffness, color yield and sharp edge to the printed image in comparison with SA. And the results indicated that the mixed paste could partially replace SA as thickener in reactive dye printing. The study also showed that the method was low cost and eco-friendly and the product would have an extensive application in reactive dye printing. PMID:22782070
The objectives of this two-year research were to study the impact of two different farming types, conventional and organic, on the yield and sensory properties of five Lithuanian varieties of potato tuber. The parameters and properties examined were: phenolic acids; dry matter and starch content; and the spread and intensity of Phytophthora infestans growth. It was determined that potato yield fluctuates with the variety, but for conventional farming it is significantly (p<0.05) higher than that obtained by organic farming. The farming type has no significant effect (p>0.05) on the content of phenolic acids. No significant effect (p>0.05) of farming type on dry matter and starch content, or sensory properties was found. No significant relation (p>0.05) was found between the content of phenolic acids and P. infestans spread. The spread of P. infestans was faster and infection was heavier in organically grown potatoes. PMID:24128562
Tuberous sclerosis is a genetic condition that is strongly associated with the development of an autism spectrum disorder. However, there is marked variability in expression, and only a subset of children with tuberous sclerosis develop autism spectrum disorder. Clarification of the mechanisms that underlie the association and variability in…
Prevalence of autism in tuberous sclerosis was estimated by interviewing parents of 21 children (ages 3-11). The estimated prevalence of autism was found to be one in four children in general, and one in two of those with mental retardation. Tuberous sclerosis could be a significant cause of autism and pervasive developmental disorders,…
PurposeRenal lesions, including angiomyolipoma, renal cysts (simple and polycystic kidney disease) and renal cell carcinoma, develop in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. While there is limited information that these lesions may grow in adults with tuberous sclerosis complex, the incidence, characterization and growth rate in children have not been reported. Also, the age at which these lesions first appear, thus
DAVID H. EWALT; EUGENE SHEFFIELD; STEVEN P. SPARAGANA; MAURICIO R. DELGADO; E. STEVE ROACH
A search for children presenting with signs or symptoms of cardiac rhabdomyomas was made through members of the paediatric section of the British Cardiac Society in order to establish their birth incidence, presenting features, clinical course, and the frequency of a concurrent diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis. Fifteen children were identified and 12 had tuberous sclerosis (80%). Heart failure was the
Tuberous sclerosis is a known phakomatosis and the associated finding of a subependymal giant cell astrocytoma is common with this disorder. A case of tuberous sclerosis with a finding not previously reported, i.e. that of a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, is presented here.
The cardiac manifestation usually associated with Tuberous Sclerosis is rhabdomyoma. The authors present a clinical case of Tuberous Sclerosis with the particular coexistence of congenital heart disease (mitral anomaly and pulmonary stenosis) and a single intracardiac rhabdomyoma that appeared at the age of four years. PMID:10418263
Rocha, G; Figueiredo, S; Alvares, S; Lima, M R; Barbot, C
The neurobiological basis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in tuberous sclerosis complex is still largely unknown. Cortical tubers may disrupt several brain networks that control different types of attention. Frontal lobe dysfunction due to seizures or epileptiform electroencephalographic discharges may perturb the development of brain systems that underpin attentional and hyperactive functions during a critical early stage of brain maturation.
Elisa DAgati; Romina Moavero; Caterina Cerminara; Paolo Curatolo
Tuberous sclerosis complex is a multi-system disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance, which can affect the brain, heart, skin, kidneys, lungs, and retina. We hereby report therapeutic challenges faced in a case of an adolescent male suffering from tuberous sclerosis.
BACKGROUND: Potato is a major staple food, and modification of its provitamin content is a possible means for alleviating nutritional deficiencies. beta-carotene is the main dietary precursor of vitamin A. Potato tubers contain low levels of carotenoids, composed mainly of the xanthophylls lutein, antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, and of xanthophyll esters. None of these carotenoids have provitamin A activity. RESULTS: We silenced
Gianfranco Diretto; Raffaela Tavazza; Ralf Welsch; Daniele Pizzichini; Fabienne Mourgues; Velia Papacchioli; Peter Beyer; Giovanni Giuliano
Ongoing research to develop digestion-resistant starch for human health promotion integrates the disciplines of starch chemistry, agronomy, analytical chemistry, food science, nutrition, pathology, and microbiology. The objectives of this research include identifying components of starch structure that confer digestion resistance, developing novel plants and starches, and modifying foods to incorporate these starches. Furthermore, recent and ongoing studies address the impact of digestion-resistant starches on the prevention and control of chronic human diseases, including diabetes, colon cancer, and obesity. This review provides a transdisciplinary overview of this field, including a description of types of resistant starches; factors in plants that affect digestion resistance; methods for starch analysis; challenges in developing food products with resistant starches; mammalian intestinal and gut bacterial metabolism; potential effects on gut microbiota; and impacts and mechanisms for the prevention and control of colon cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Although this has been an active area of research and considerable progress has been made, many questions regarding how to best use digestion-resistant starches in human diets for disease prevention must be answered before the full potential of resistant starches can be realized. PMID:24228189
Birt, Diane F; Boylston, Terri; Hendrich, Suzanne; Jane, Jay-Lin; Hollis, James; Li, Li; McClelland, John; Moore, Samuel; Phillips, Gregory J; Rowling, Matthew; Schalinske, Kevin; Scott, M Paul; Whitley, Elizabeth M
This booklet was designed to convey metric information in pictoral form. The use of pictures in the coloring book enables the more mature person to grasp the metric message instantly, whereas the younger person, while coloring the picture, will be exposed to the metric information long enough to make the proper associations. Sheets of the booklet…
Teaching about color and value scales emphasizes a systematic approach to the effects of color and may reinforce assumptions rooted in racism. Describes how an 8th grade art class challenged the symbolism of black as evil and white as good. By showing that this is a culturally constructed meaning, art teachers model that such meaning can also be…
This study explored the influences of envelope integrity of cooked starch granules on physicochemical and thermophysical properties of mungbean and cassava starches. Alkali treatment was used to selectively leach amylose from the amorphous region of both starches and partially fragmented starch molecules into lower-molecular-weight polymers. It was found that despite the loss of 40% of the original content of amylose, both mungbean and cassava starches retained similar crystallinities, gelatinization temperature ranges, and pasting profiles compared to the native starches. However, the loss of granule-bound starch synthases during alkali treatment and subsequent alkali cooking in excess water played significant roles in determining granular disintegration. The alterations in envelope integrity due to the negative charge repulsion among polymers within the envelope of swollen granules, and the fragmentation of starch molecules, were responsible for the alterations in thermophysical properties of mungbean and cassava starches cooked under alkaline conditions. PMID:24708949
Israkarn, Kamolwan; Na Nakornpanom, Nantarat; Hongsprabhas, Parichat
Background Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominantly inherited syndrome. Renal disease is the main cause of death.\\u000a Brain disorders are the origin of more frequent and severe problems, such as tumors, epilepsy, and mental retardation. Participation\\u000a of neurosurgeons in the study and especially in the treatment of TSC patients is often required.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods Two types of pathological conditions
Elevated Cd concentrations have been observed in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers from commercial crops in certain regions of southern Australia. Reasons for enhanced Cd uptake by tubers were investigated by a survey of commercial crops and associated soils. Eighty-nine sites were selected and paired tuber and soil samples taken. Concentration of Cd in tubers was compared to potato variety,
M. J. McLaughlin; K. G. Tiller; T. A. Beech; M. K. Smart
Long-term aging of potato (Solanum tuberosum) seed-tubers resulted in a loss of patatin (40 kD) and a cysteine-proteinase inhibitor, potato multicystatin (PMC), as well as an increase in the activities of 84-, 95-, and 125-kD proteinases. Highly active, additional proteinases (75, 90, and 100 kD) appeared in the oldest tubers. Over 90% of the total proteolytic activity in aged tubers was sensitive to trans-epoxysuccinyl-l-leucylamido (4-guanidino) butane or leupeptin, whereas pepstatin was the most effective inhibitor of proteinases in young tubers. Proteinases in aged tubers were also inhibited by crude extracts or purified PMC from young tubers, suggesting that the loss of PMC was responsible for the age-induced increase in proteinase activity. Nonenzymatic oxidation, glycation, and deamidation of proteins were enhanced by aging. Aged tubers developed “daughter” tubers that contained 3-fold more protein than “mother” tubers, with a polypeptide profile consistent with that of young tubers. Although PMC and patatin were absent from the older mother tubers, both proteins were expressed in the daughter tubers, indicating that aging did not compromise the efficacy of genes encoding PMC and patatin. Unlike the mother tubers, proteinase activity in daughter tubers was undetectable. Our results indicate that tuber aging nonenzymatically modifies proteins, which enhances their susceptibility to breakdown; we also identify a role for PMC in regulating protein turnover in potato tubers.
Kumar, G.N. Mohan; Houtz, Robert L.; Knowles, N. Richard
Pasting and morphology properties of starch blends composed of waxy (waxy rice and waxy corn) and non-waxy (normal corn, tapioca and potato) starches at various ratios were investigated for elucidating effect of granular characteristics on pasting of blends. Pasting profiles of blends were between those of the component starches alone, while the changes varied with starch source. Results reveal obvious water competition during pasting for blends composed of waxy starch and highly swelling non-waxy (tapioca or potato) starch. On the contrary, starch blends composed of waxy starch and non-waxy (normal corn) starch with restricted swelling showed less water competition during pasting, and the pasting attributes could be estimated from those of the component starches following the mixing ratio. Results indicate that the pasting properties of starch blends composed of waxy and non-waxy starches depend on not only the mixing ratio, but also the granular characteristics of component starch. PMID:24053839
This Web site, developed by the Exploratories Project at Brown University, provides a series of applets to help users understand the various concepts in Color Theory. In the combined Color Mixing applet, undergraduate and high school students can discover how lights, paints, and filters interact. Users can learn about the properties of incoming light, frequency, and reflectance. The site also provides activities for metamers, Triple Cell Response, and much more. Anyone seeking help with color concepts will benefit from this educational, interactive Web site.
Antibodies were used to probe the degree of association of starch biosynthetic enzymes with starch granules isolated from maize (Zea mays) endosperm. Graded washings of the starch granule, followed by release of polypeptides by gelatinization in 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate, enables distinction between strongly and loosely adherent proteins. Mild aqueous washing of granules resulted in near-complete solubilization of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, indicating that little, if any, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is granule associated. In contrast, all of the waxy protein plus significant levels of starch synthase I and starch branching enzyme II (BEII) remained granule associated. Stringent washings using protease and detergent demonstrated that the waxy protein, more than 85% total endosperm starch synthase I protein, and more than 45% of BEII protein were strongly associated with starch granules. Rates of polypeptide accumulation within starch granules remained constant during endosperm development. Soluble and granule-derived forms of BEII yielded identical peptide maps and overlapping tryptic fragments closely aligned with deduced amino acid sequences from BEII cDNA clones. These observations provide direct evidence that BEII exits as both soluble and granule-associated entities. We conclude that each of the known starch biosynthetic enzymes in maize endosperm exhibits a differential propensity to associate with, or to become irreversibly entrapped within, the starch granule. PMID:8754683
Mu-Forster, C; Huang, R; Powers, J R; Harriman, R W; Knight, M; Singletary, G W; Keeling, P L; Wasserman, B P
In this study, we investigated which enzymes are involved in debranching amylopectin during transient starch degradation. Previous studies identified two debranching enzymes, isoamylase 3 (ISA3) and limit dextrinase (LDA), involved in this process. However, plants lacking both enzymes still degrade substantial amounts of starch. Thus, other enzymes/mechanisms must contribute to starch breakdown. We show that the chloroplastic ?-amylase 3 (AMY3) also participates in starch degradation and provide evidence that all three enzymes can act directly at the starch granule surface. The isa3 mutant has a starch excess phenotype, reflecting impaired starch breakdown. In contrast, removal of AMY3, LDA, or both enzymes together has no impact on starch degradation. However, removal of AMY3 or LDA in addition to ISA3 enhances the starch excess phenotype. In plants lacking all three enzymes, starch breakdown is effectively blocked, and starch accumulates to the highest levels observed so far. This provides indirect evidence that the heteromultimeric debranching enzyme ISA1-ISA2 is not involved in starch breakdown. However, we illustrate that ISA1-ISA2 can hydrolyze small soluble branched glucans that accumulate when ISA3 and LDA are missing, albeit at a slow rate. Starch accumulation in the mutants correlates inversely with plant growth.
Streb, Sebastian; Eicke, Simona; Zeeman, Samuel C.
Starch is the most important glycemic carbohydrate in foods. The relationship between the rate and extent of starch digestion to produce glucose for absorption into the bloodstream and risk factors for diet-related diseases is of considerable nutritional interest. Native starch is attacked slowly by enzymes, but after hydrothermal processing its susceptibility to enzymatic breakdown is greatly increased. Most starch consumed by humans has undergone some form of processing or cooking, which causes native starch granules to gelatinize, followed by retrogradation on cooling. The extent of gelatinization and retrogradation are major determinants of the susceptibility of starch to enzymatic digestion and its functional properties for food processing. The type and extent of changes that occur in starch as a result of gelatinization, pasting and retrogradation are determined by the type of the starch, processing and storage conditions. A mechanistic understanding of the molecular disassembly of starch granules during gelatinization is critical to explaining the effects of processing or cooking on starch digestibility. This review focuses on the molecular disassembly of starch granules during starch gelatinization over a wide range of water levels, and its consequential effect on in vitro starch digestibility and in vivo glycemic index. PMID:24096569
Rice starch is one of the most expensive yet very useful starches due to its unique characteristics. This study aimed to isolate starch from defatted rice bran, an underutilized byproduct of milling and is a relatively inexpensive source of rice starch. Starch was extracted from the bran by first soaking it in water. The mixture was then subjected to blending
Cynthia Fabian; Aning Ayucitra; Suryadi Ismadji; Yi-Hsu Ju
Phenylpropanoid metabolite and transcript expression during different developmental stages were examined in field grown potatoes. Carbohydrate and shikimic acid metabolism was assessed to determine how tuber primary metabolism influences phenylpropanoid metabolism. Phenylpropanoid concentrations were highest in immature tubers, as were some transcript levels and enzyme activities including phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). Phenylpropanoid concentration differences between mature and immature tubers varied by genotype, but in some cases were approximately three-fold. The most abundant phenylpropanoid was chlorogenic acid (5CGA), which decreased during tuber maturation. Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) transcripts were highly expressed relative to other phenylpropanoid genes, but were not well correlated with 5CGA concentrations (r = -0.16), whereas HQT enzyme activity was. In contrast to 5CGA, less abundant chlorogenic isomers increased during development. Concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acid amides were higher in immature tubers, as was expression of arginine- and ornithine decarboxylases. Expression of several genes involved in carbohydrate or shikimate metabolism, including sucrose synthase and DAHP, showed similar developmental patterns to phenylpropanoid pools, as did shikimate dehydrogenase enzyme activity. Sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations were highest in immature tubers. Exogenous treatment of potatoes with sugars stimulated phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, suggesting sugars contribute to the higher phenylpropanoid concentrations in immature tubers. These changes in phenylpropanoid expression suggest the nutritional value of potatoes varies during development. PMID:23434926
Navarre, Duroy A; Payyavula, Raja S; Shakya, Roshani; Knowles, N Richard; Pillai, Syamkumar S
Red pigments extracted from fungus Monascus are used for food coloration in China. Wild-growing Monascus spores are usually enriched in the yeast and mold media in the air, but those media are also favorable for yeast and bacteria. In the paper, Monascus species have grown in retrograded maize starch lain in air outdoors in winter, molds, yeast or bacteria colonies have been absent. Then a medium of the retrograded maize starch for enriching Monascus in the air is explored and its physicochemical properties are determined by ordinary camera photos, NMR, SEM spectra and X-ray diffraction. The lamellar structure of frozen retrograded maize starch, whose interlamellar spacing is about 2?m, provides a favorable condition for Monascus spore to germinate and grow. PMID:24661887
Summary 1.A new, rapid and accurate colorimetric method for the determination of minute quantities of starch is described.2.The procedure involves the well-known starch-iodine reaction.3.Iodine is generated in a neutral or weakly acid solution by the addition of KI and H2O2 so as to bring the starch iodide into a completely dispersed form. The excess of iodine is removed by chloroform
The purpose of this project was to continue the color facsimile work started under a previous task, including the evaluation of the use of default Huffman tables, optimized (Custom) Huffman tables, default quantization tables, and scaled quantization tabl...
In this activity, learners follow step-by-step instructions to build a gel electrophoresis chamber using inexpensive materials from local hardware and electronic stores. Then, learners follow instructions to simulate DNA electrophoresis using food colors from the kitchen pantry.
In this chemistry challenge, learners combine acids and bases in a universal indicator to create five different colors. Using vinegar, washing soda, and Bogen universal indicator, the goal is to find combinations that create red, orange, yellow, green, and blue solutions. Background information explains a little about how acids and bases interact to affect the pH of a solution, and how the indicator changes color based on the pH. Safety notes are included.
This activity demonstrates the additive properties of light. Different-colored lights are shown on the same spot on a screen so that the reflecting light is white. Colored shadows, however, can be made by holding an object between the light sources and the screen. The site provides an explanation for how this occurs along with extension activities and information about the eyeâs retina. Materials needed and assembly instructions are also included. This activity is part of Exploratorium's Science Snacks series.
The role of starch synthase (SS) III (SSIII) in the synthesis of transient starch in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was investigated by characterizing the effects of two insertion mutations at the AtSS3 gene locus. Both mutations, termed Atss3-1 and Atss3-2, condition complete loss of SSIII activity and prevent normal gene expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. The mutations cause a starch excess phenotype in leaves during the light period of the growth cycle due to an apparent increase in the rate of starch synthesis. In addition, both mutations alter the physical structure of leaf starch. Significant increases were noted in the mutants in the frequency of linear chains in amylopectin with a degree of polymerization greater than approximately 60, and relatively small changes were observed in chains of degree of polymerization 4 to 50. Furthermore, starch in the Atss3-1 and Atss3-2 mutants has a higher phosphate content, approximately two times that of wild-type leaf starch. Total SS activity is increased in both Atss3 mutants and a specific SS activity appears to be up-regulated. The data indicate that, in addition to its expected direct role in starch assembly, SSIII also has a negative regulatory function in the biosynthesis of transient starch in Arabidopsis.
The raw starch-digesting alpha amylase of Bacillus sp. IMD 434 was purified to homogeneity and displayed substantial hydrolysis of raw starch but did not adsorb onto the insoluble substrates, corn, rice, wheat or potato starch, at any of the pH values examined. The degree of hydrolysis ranged from 10% hydrolysis of potato starch to 32% hydrolysis of corn starch after
Lynn M. Hamilton; Catherine T. Kelly; William M. Fogarty
New solid polymeric electrolytes were obtained from amylopectin rich starch plasticized with glycerol and containing lithium perchlorate salt. The transparent film samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis (DSC). The ionic conductivity measurements were obtained by impedance complex spectroscopy as a function of temperature three different salt contents. The conductivity of 5.05·10 ?5 S\\/cm at room temperature were
Tuberous angioma of the orbit is the most frequent benign tumor of the orbit in children. Angiomatous tumors in general, and more particularly tuberous angioma tumors, are classed among the primary tumors of the orbit. They are by far the most frequent. The author reports the clinical observation of a giant tuberous angioma the entire left lower eyelid radiating throughout the left cheek of a 2-month-old infant. This case underscores the benefit of clinical symptomatology in the diagnostic procedure and the problems encountered in therapeutic management of these tumors located in the so-called noble zones, which sometimes affect infants in the first months of life. PMID:16208215
Cortical tubers in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex are associated with disabling neurological manifestations, including intractable epilepsy. While these malformations are believed to result from the effects of TSC1 or TSC2 gene mutations, the molecular mechanisms leading to tuber formation, as well as the onset of seizures remain largely unknown. We used the Affymetrix Gene Chip platform to provide the first genome wide investigation of gene expression in surgically resected tubers, compared with histological normal perituberal tissue from the same patients or autopsy control tissue. We identified 2501 differentially expressed genes in cortical tubers compared with autopsy controls. Expression of genes associated with cell adhesion e.g., VCAM1, integrins and CD44, or with the inflammatory response, including complement factors, serpinA3, CCL2 and several cytokines, was increased in cortical tubers, whereas genes related to synaptic transmission e.g., the glial glutamate transporter GLT-1, and voltage-gated channel activity, exhibited lower expression. Gene expression in perituberal cortex was distinct from autopsy control cortex suggesting that even in the absence of tissue pathology the transcriptome is altered in TSC. Changes in gene expression yield insights into new candidate genes that may contribute to tuber formation or seizure onset, representing new targets for potential therapeutic development.
Boer, Karin; Crino, Peter B.; Gorter, Jan A.; Nellist, Mark; Jansen, Floor E.; Spliet, Wim G.M.; van Rijen, Peter C.; Wittink, Floyd R.A.; Breit, Timo M.; Troost, Dirk; Wadman, Wytse J.; Aronica, Eleonora
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), percent elongations at break (%E), tear resistance, and impact strength were investigated for starch-poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) cast films. Films contained 41% starch, 41% PVA, 15% glycerol and 3% poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) (EAA). Films were made with each of the following starch types: normal cornstarch, waxy cornstarch, high amylose cornstarch (50% amylose and 70% amylose), wheat starch, potato
The unique physicochemical and functional characteristics of starches isolated from different botanical sources such as corn,\\u000a potato, rice and wheat make them useful for a wide variety of biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Starch properties\\u000a such as swelling power, solubility, gelatinization, rheological characteristics, mechanical behaviour and enzymatic digestibility\\u000a are of utmost importance while selecting starch source for distinctive applications such as
Background Development of an environmentally benign process for the synthesis of silver nanomaterials is an important aspect of current nanotechnology research. Among the 600 species of the genus Dioscorea, Dioscorea bulbifera has profound therapeutic applications due to its unique phytochemistry. In this paper, we report on the rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles by reduction of aqueous Ag+ ions using D. bulbifera tuber extract. Methods and results Phytochemical analysis revealed that D. bulbifera tuber extract is rich in flavonoid, phenolics, reducing sugars, starch, diosgenin, ascorbic acid, and citric acid. The biosynthesis process was quite fast, and silver nanoparticles were formed within 5 hours. Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction confirmed reduction of the Ag+ ions. Varied morphology of the bioreduced silver nanoparticles included spheres, triangles, and hexagons. Optimization studies revealed that the maximum rate of synthesis could be achieved with 0.7 mM AgNO3 solution at 50°C in 5 hours. The resulting silver nanoparticles were found to possess potent antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Beta-lactam (piperacillin) and macrolide (eryth-romycin) antibiotics showed a 3.6-fold and 3-fold increase, respectively, in combination with silver nanoparticles selectively against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Notable synergy was seen between silver nanoparticles and chloramphenicol or vancomycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and was supported by a 4.9-fold and 4.2-fold increase in zone diameter, respectively. Similarly, we found a maximum 11.8-fold increase in zone diameter of streptomycin when combined with silver nanoparticles against E. coli, providing strong evidence for the synergistic action of a combination of antibiotics and silver nanoparticles. Conclusion This is the first report on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using D. bulbifera tuber extract followed by an estimation of its synergistic potential for enhancement of the antibacterial activity of broad spectrum antimicrobial agents.
Harvestable, starch-storing organs of plants, such as fleshy taproots and tubers, are important agronomic products that are also suitable target organs for use in the molecular farming of recombinant proteins due to their strong sink strength. To exploit a promoter directing strong expression restricted to these storage organs, we isolated the promoter region (3.0 kb) of SRD1 from sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas cv. 'White Star') and characterized its activity in transgenic Arabidopsis, carrot, and potato using the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (uidA) as a reporter gene. The SRD1 promoter conferred root-specific expression in transgenic Arabidopsis, with SRD1 promoter activity increasing in response to exogenous IAA. A time-course study of the effect of IAA (50 ?M) revealed a maximum increase in SRD1 promoter activity at 24 h post-treatment initiation. A serial 5' deletion analysis of the SRD1 promoter identified regions related to IAA-inducible expression as well as regions containing positive and negative elements, respectively, controlling the expression level. In transgenic carrot, the SRD1 promoter mediated strong taproot-specific expression, as evidenced by GUS staining being strong in almost the entire taproot, including secondary phloem, secondary xylem and vascular cambium. The activity of the SRD1 promoter gradually increased with increasing diameter of the taproot in the transgenic carrot and was 10.71-fold higher than that of the CaMV35S promoter. The SRD1 promoter also directed strong tuber-specific expression in transgenic potato. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the SRD1 promoter directs strong expression restricted to the underground storage organs, such as fleshy taproots and tubers, as well as fibrous root tissues. PMID:21660481
Tuber gibbosum Harkn., described from northern California, originally was thought to be a single, variable species that fruited from autumn through winter to spring. It has become popular as a culinary truffle in northwestern USA, where it is commercially harvested. Morphological studies suggested it might be a complex that includes at least two species. We conducted morphological and phylogenetic studies of the complex to determine how many species it might contain and how they differed morphologically, geographically and seasonally. We also provide the first LSU phylogeny for the genus Tuber. Phylogenetic analyses resolve nine major clades in the genus with high bootstrap support and distinguish the Gibbosum clade from the Aestivum, Excavatum, Macrosporum, Magnatum, Melanosporum, Puberulum, Rufum and Spinoreticulatum clades. Further analyses of ITS and LSU regions revealed four distinct species in the Gibbosum complex. Although morphologically similar the four species differ in spore size and shape and in peridial anatomy. These species share the synapomorphy of having suprapellis hyphae with distinctive, irregular wall swellings at maturity; we have not seen this hyphal type in any other Tuber spp. worldwide. The three new species are named and described as T. bellisporum Bonito & Trappe, T. castellanoi Bonito & Trappe and T. oregonense Trappe, Bonito & Rawlinson. PMID:20943504
Bonito, Gregory; Trappe, James M; Rawlinson, Pat; Vilgalys, Rytas
The objectives of this study were to understand how intrinsic and extrinsic factors of o2 and QPM starches affected the enzyme digestibility of their starches, to develop novel and economical technologies to produce RS for health benefits. Enzyme digestibilities of starch present in opaque-2 maize (o2) and quality protein maize (QPM) were analyzed to evaluate the uses of the two
Starch noodles, produced from purified starch of various plant sources, are a major category of Asian noodles. This review summarizes the current knowledge on: (1) Definition, naming, history and categories of starch noodles. (2) The morphological, physico-chemical, thermal, rheological characteristics and molecular structure of materials including mung bean starch, pea starch, sweet potato starch, potato starch and corn starch. (3)
The starch separated from 19 different indica rice cultivars was evaluated for physicochemical, morphological, thermal and rheological properties. The relationships between the different properties of starches were determined using Pearson correlation analysis. The amylose content of starches from different rice cultivars differed significantly. PR-103 starch showed the lowest amylose content (4.1%), whereas PR-113 starch showed the highest (16.4%). The starch
There is increasing evidence for genetic heterogeneity in tuberous sclerosis (TSC) on the basis of linkage analysis in affected kindreds. We have performed a detailed assessment of an affected South African family in which there is no evidence of linkage to chromosome 9 markers. The affected persons have atypical clinical features, namely prominent nuchal skin tags, a confetti pattern of hypopigmentation of the skin of the lower legs, and absence of ungual fibromata. Further investigation of these unusual phenotypic features is warranted in order to determine whether these lesions are consistently present in families in whom the gene for TSC is not on 9q34. We conclude that confetti depigmentation and nuchal skin tags may be clinical pointers to an alternative locus for TSC. Images
Our objectives were (i) to develop a molecular method to detect mycelia of Tuber melanosporum (black truffle) in soil and (ii) to test for mycelial distribution around two truffle-bearing Quercus ilex trees in a truffle orchard. Isolation of total DNA from soil was performed, followed by PCR amplification with T. melanosporum-specific primers and restriction analysis. To address the detection sensitivity level, soil samples were inoculated with known amounts of gleba of T. melanosporum. The detection limit was >/=11.4 mug of hyphae g(-1) of soil. Mycelium was detected primarily within the area defined by the truffle burn and within the top 35 cm of the soil in all directions from the trees. PMID:16445753
Intellectual impairments/learning disabilities are among the most frequent clinical manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). In this proposal, we explored Drosophila models for TSC related learning defects. Both tsc1 and tsc2 genes are conserve...
ObjectivesThe aim of the study described here was to characterize the efficacy and safety of vagus nerve stimulation in a population of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and intractable epilepsy.
A process of making a vegetative and tuber growth regulator. The vegetative and tuber growth regulator is made by growing potato plants in a recirculating hydroponic system for a sufficient time to produce the growth regulator. Also, the use of the vegetative and growth regulator on solanaceous plants, tuber forming plants and ornamental seedlings by contacting the roots or shoots of the plant with a sufficient amount of the growth regulator to regulate the growth of the plant and one more of canopy size, plant height, stem length, internode number and presence of tubers in fresh mass. Finally, a method for regulating the growth of potato plants using a recirculating hydroponic system is described.
Stutte, Gary W. (Inventor); Yorio, Neil C. (Inventor)
A process for making a substance that regulates the growth of potatoes and some other economically important plants has been developed. The process also yields an economically important by-product: potatoes. The particular growth-regulating substance, denoted tuber-inducing factor (TIF), is made naturally by, and acts naturally on, potato plants. The primary effects of TIF on potato plants are reducing the lengths of the main shoots, reducing the numbers of nodes on the main stems, reducing the total biomass, accelerating the initiation of potatoes, and increasing the edible fraction (potatoes) of the overall biomass. To some extent, these effects of TIF can override environmental effects that typically inhibit the formation of tubers. TIF can be used in the potato industry to reduce growth time and increase harvest efficiency. Other plants that have been observed to be affected by TIF include tomatoes, peppers, radishes, eggplants, marigolds, and morning glories. In the present process, potatoes are grown with their roots and stolons immersed in a nutrient solution in a recirculating hydroponic system. From time to time, a nutrient replenishment solution is added to the recirculating nutrient solution to maintain the required nutrient concentration, water is added to replace water lost from the recirculating solution through transpiration, and an acid or base is added, as needed, to maintain the recirculating solution at a desired pH level. The growing potato plants secrete TIF into the recirculating solution. The concentration of TIF in the solution gradually increases to a range in which the TIF regulates the growth of the plants.
You're probably really upset that all you have so far is a simple little ray model of light. When do we get to the good stuff, you say? How about now? As a bonus, you get to look at lots of pretty colors. This chapter addresses how light can be modeled as a series of waves. These waves consist of changing electric and magnetic fields that can travel through empty space, as well as through other mediums. Different frequencies of light waves correspond to different colors of light. White light is composed of all the colors of visible light. Visible light is just a small portion of the entire spectrum of electromagnetic waves.
Short-term treatment of potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum L.) discs with CdCl2 changed glutathione reductase (GR) activity depending on cadmium ions concentrations, kind of tuber and time of incubation.\\u000a The increase of GR activity at 10 and 100 µmol·dcm?3 of CdCl2 solutions was marked in less resistant tissues of cv. Bintje after 24 hrs, and was slight in more resistant tissues
Andrzej Stroi?ski; Jan Kubi?; Ma?gorzata Zielezi?ska
Complete ascertainment of tuberous sclerosis was attempted in the west of Scotland (population 2,763,000). A total of 101 patients was identified, giving an overall minimum prevalence of 1 in 27,000, but for children under 10 years of age the minimum prevalence was 1 in 12,000. Both parents of 84 of the ascertained cases were assessed for signs of tuberous sclerosis.
J R Sampson; S J Scahill; J B Stephenson; L Mann; J M Connor
The patent describes the preparation of a wide variety of starch graft polymers from water-soluble ethylenically unsaturated monomers in admixture with selected amounts of starch and water by adding to a hot, water-immiscible solvent. Suitable monomers mu...
The importance of starch in the sizing of cotton warps depends very largely on the tenacity with which it binds the hairs in the yarn together. Since it is very difficult to find a material to which starch paste does not adhere very firmly on drying, it is presumed that its value in sizing is mainly determined by the mechanical
In this activity, learners examine the amount of starch in different foods. Learners use iodine to perform a simple test on food samples like apples and potatoes to see which foods contain starch and how much. Adult supervision is recommended. This activity page features an animation of this experiment (shockwave required).
?-Amylase of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), which constitutes about 5% of the total soluble protein of the tuberous root, is absent or is present in only small amounts in organs other than the tuberous roots of the normal, field-grown plants. However, when leaf-petiole cuttings from such plants were supplied with a solution that contained sucrose, the accumulation of ?-amylase was induced in both leaf and petiole portions of the explants. The sucrose-induced accumulation of ?-amylase in leaf-petiole cuttings occurred concomitant with the accumulation of starch and of sporamin, the most abundant storage protein of the tuberous root. The accumulation of ?-amylase, of sporamin and of starch in the petioles showed similar dependence on the concentration of sucrose, and a 6% solution of sucrose gave the highest levels of induction when assayed after 7 days of treatment. The induction of mRNAs for ?-amylase and sporamin in the petiole could be detected after 6 hours of treatment with sucrose, and the accumulation of ?-amylase and sporamin polypeptides, as well as that of starch, continued for a further 3 weeks. In addition to sucrose, glucose or fructose, but not mannitol or sorbitol, also induced the accumulation of ?-amylase and sporamin, suggesting that metabolic effects of sucrose are important in the mechanism of this induction. Treatment of leaf-petiole cuttings with water under continuous light, but not in darkness, also caused the accumulation of small amounts of these components in the petioles, probably as a result of the endogenous supply of sucrose by photosynthesis. These results suggest that the expression of the gene for ?-amylase is under metabolic control which is coupled with the expression of sink function of cells in the sweet potato. ImagesFigure 1Figure 4Figure 6Figure 7
Tuberization in potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) is a developmental process that serves a double function, as a storage organ and as a vegetative propagation system. It is a multistep, complex process and the underlying mechanisms governing these overlapping steps are not fully understood. To understand the molecular basis of tuberization in potato, a comparative proteomic approach has been applied to monitor differentially expressed proteins at different development stages using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The differentially displayed proteomes revealed 219 protein spots that change their intensities more than 2.5-fold. The LC-ES-MS/MS analyses led to the identification of 97 differentially regulated proteins that include predicted and novel tuber-specific proteins. Nonhierarchical clustering revealed coexpression patterns of functionally similar proteins. The expression of reactive oxygen species catabolizing enzymes, viz., superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase, were induced by more than 2-fold indicating their possible role during the developmental transition from stolons into tubers. We demonstrate that nearly 100 proteins, some presumably associated with tuber cell differentiation, regulate diverse functions like protein biogenesis and storage, bioenergy and metabolism, and cell defense and rescue impinge on the complexity of tuber development in potato. PMID:18672926
A method of measuring the water potential of stored potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) was needed to investigate the relationship of bacterial soft rot in tubers to water potential. Pressure chamber measurements, while useful for tubers with functional stolons, cannot be made on stored tubers. Measurements could be made on excised tissue pieces in a hygrometer chamber and with hygrometers implanted into tubers. We report here our evaluation of these hygrometric methods using a comparison with the pressure chamber on tubers harvested with stolons intact. In tubers of high water potential, measurements on excised tissue were as much as 0.5 megapascals lower than the pressure chamber, probably due to turgor-driven expansion of the sample when freed from constraints imposed by surrounding tissue. Good agreement (±0.05 megapascals) was found between the implanted hygrometer and the pressure chamber at potentials higher than ?0.5 megapascals. At lower water potentials, both hygrometer measurements were higher than the pressure chamber. Respirational heating of the tissue contributed to the increase in the excised tissue samples, but not with the implanted hygrometers because of the hygrometer design. The osmotic pressure balanced the pressure chamber measurement of potential at ?0.7 megapascals, but was too small to do so at lower potentials. At most, 25% of this discrepancy can be accounted for by dilution by apoplastic water. We believe that the pressure chamber measurement is too low at low water potentials and that the error is associated with air bubbles in the xylem. At low potentials air emerged from xylem vessels along with sap, and fewer xylem emitted sap as potentials decreased.
The content in soluble sugars, ascorbic acid and phenolic acids of potato tubers preserved by irradiation and IPC, during a storage period of five months are studied. In the irradiated tubers, soluble sugars increased immediately after the irradiation, in...
Cereal Chem. 79(6):850-856 The contribution of starch to dough rheological properties has been largely overshadowed by the role of gluten, receiving much less attention in comparison. The influence of starch granule surface properties on durum wheat dough linear viscoelasticity was investigated, and surface interactions between starch granules and gluten were assessed using a model system. Proportions of starch were substituted
Commercial starch pearls manufactured from sago, tapioca, sweet potato or other starches from Hong Kong, the Philippines and Singapore were characterized. Samples were milled and pasting properties were evaluated. There were marked differences in pasting characteristics which were attributed to the pH of the starch pearls. The milled alkaline starch pearls showed high cold paste viscosities and setback ratios while
A chemical\\/spectrophotometric procedure has been developed that allows the determination of starch and some modified starches (as glucosyl residues) in polyethylene films and pellets. The method uses samples containing up to 60 mg polyethylene and determines the anhydrous starch content of samples possessing starch loads in the range typically encountered with degradable plastics (5–40%). The method consists of dissolution of
Alfred R. Fratzke; Wei Sung; Roque L. Evangelista; Žkivko L. Nikolov
We investigated the relationship between the macroscopic viscosity lpar;?N ), determined by creep measurement, and the microscopic viscosity, estimated by rotational correlation time (?c) of spin label determined by ESR method, for wheat and potato starch gels. Both ?Nand ?c. Of wheat starch gel increased linearly with an increase of starch concentration. Both ?N and ?c of potato starch gel
Modification of starch led to new product with new desirable properties. Oat starch was subjected to different chemical modifications (acetylation, oxidation and phosphorylation). These processes greatly influenced physico-chemical properties of starch. There were observed shifts in molecular mass, as well as in amylose, lipid and phosphorus content. Also some changes were observed in gelatinization characteristics of starches, the most visible
W. Berski; A. Ptaszek; P. Ptaszek; R. Ziobro; G. Kowalski; M. Grzesik; B. Achremowicz
The presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed products is subject to regulation in the European Union (EU) and elsewhere. As part of the EU authorization procedure for GMOs intended for food and feed use, reference materials must be produced for the quality control of measurements to quantify the GMOs. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are available for a range of herbicide- and insect-resistant genetically modified crops such as corn, soybean, and cotton. Here the development of the first CRM for a GMO that differs from its non-GMO counterpart in a major compositional constituent, that is, starch, is described. It is shown that the modification of the starch composition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, together with other characteristics of the delivered materials, have important consequences for the certification strategy. Moreover, the processing and characterization of the EH92-527-1 potato material required both new and modified procedures, different from those used routinely for CRMs produced from genetically modified seeds. PMID:17508757
Broothaerts, Wim; Corbisier, Philippe; Emons, Hendrik; Emteborg, Håkan; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Trapmann, Stefanie
The tuberous breast deformity is a rare entity affecting young women bilaterally or unilaterally. The deformity is characterized by a constricting ring at the base of the breast, which leads to deficient horizontal and vertical development of the breast with or without herniation of the breast parenchyma toward the nipple-areola complex and areola enlargement. Several methods have been put forward to correct the deformity, but most of these fail to address the issue of the constricting ring and subsequently yield results that are not aesthetically satisfactory. A new approach to the treatment of the deformity is presented, which consists of a periareolar approach and rearrangement of the inferior part of the breast parenchyma by division of the constricting ring, thus creating two breast pillars. These pillars are allowed to redrape, and in cases of volume deficiency, a silicone breast implant is placed in a subglandular pocket. The procedure is completed by a donut-type excision to address the size of the nipple-areola complex. The technique has used on 11 patients (21 breasts) with excellent aesthetic results. PMID:12973230
The pathology associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) shows diverse phenotypes that suggest abnormal signaling of multiple pathways. Besides the negative regulatory role of the TSC1/TSC2 proteins on mTOR, we have reported an effect on ?-catenin signaling at the level of the degradation complex in vitro. The TSC1/TSC2 complex associates with GSK3 and Axin and promotes ?-catenin degradation to inhibit Wnt-stimulated TCF/LEF-dependent transcription. Here, we show that ?-catenin and its effectors, cyclin D1 and connexin 43, were up-regulated in TSC-related angiomyolipomas and lymphangioleiomyomatosis. This was supported by the failure of three disease-causing TSC2 missense mutants to inhibit Wnt signaling. Further, the interaction between TSC1/TSC2 and components of the ?-catenin degradation complex was dependent on Wnt stimulation such that binding of tuberin to GSK3 and Axin was reduced in the presence of Wnt whereas the tuberin-Dishevelled interaction was increased. GSK3 activity played a role in regulating the assembly/stability of the degradation complex. Inhibition of GSK3 by lithium chloride reduced its association with TSC1 whereas disruption of GSK3-phosphorylation sites in TSC1 reduced interaction between TSC2 and TSC1. Collectively, our data provide further evidence that ?-catenin signaling plays a role in TSC pathogenesis in vivo and suggest a novel role of GSK3 in modulating the TSC1/TSC2 complex through TSC1 phosphorylation.
Mak, Baldwin C.; Kenerson, Heidi L.; Aicher, Lauri D.; Barnes, Elizabeth A.; Yeung, Raymond S.
Purpose of review Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multiorgan genetic disease caused by mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. TSC has been recognized for many years as an important cause of severe neurological disease with patients suffering from epilepsy, developmental delay, autism, and psychiatric problems. During the last year there has been enormous advances in basic and translational research pertaining to TSC. Recent findings In this review, I discuss the basic science findings that position the TSC1 and TSC2 genes as critical regulators of the mTOR kinase within mTORC1. In addition, I will discuss the development of new animal models, translational data, and recent clinical trials using mTORC1 inhibitors such as rapamycin. Summary The past few years have seen spectacular advances that have energized TSC related research and challenged existing symptomatic treatments. While it remains to be seen whether use of mTORC1 inhibitors will revolutionize the care of patients with TSC, the application of basic and translational research towards a specific clinical disorder emphasizes the potential and promise of molecular medicine.
Several aspects of wound healing in tuber tissue of potato (Solanum tuberosum var. Kennebec), known to require protein synthesis, are inhibited by 2,4-dichlorobenzyltributylphosphonium chloride (Phosphon D). Cell division was completely blocked by 60 ?m Phosphon and markedly reduced by concentrations as low as 3 ?m. When applied at the time of wounding, 0.25mm Phosphon completely prevented the wound-induced respiratory increase. Application at 15 hours after wounding arrested respiration at the rate present at that time. The same concentrations of Phosphon inhibited auxin-induced cell expansion of the tissue, protein synthesis as measured by the incorporation of leucine-14C into the trichloroacetic acid-insoluble fraction of tissue disks, and the appearance of wound-induced peroxidase isozymes. None of these inhibitory effects of Phosphon could be prevented or reversed by the application of gibberellic acid. All wound-induced processes inhibited by Phosphon are also inhibited by cycloheximide. It is suggested that inhibitory effects of Phosphon on wound healing in potato and on other developmental processes in excised plant tissues which cannot be reversed by gibberellin are due to interference with protein synthesis.
The high lights of the history of color measurement and of color photography are reviewed. Following this introduction, the principles of modern 3-color colorimetry are developed from a hypothetical experiment in color matching. The conventional theory of \\
Summary Using the fluorescent lipid stain fluorol yellow 088 to detect suberin in tubers, the numbers of layers and the thickness\\u000a of the suberized cells in the periderm and within the lenticels showed changes after the early stage of tuber formation. These\\u000a changes as tubers matured were affected by cultivar and soil moisture conditions. Penetration of the surface tissues of tubers
D. N. Tyner; M. J. Hocart; J. H. Lennard; D. C. Graham
For the first time, a fed-batch fermentation process of Tuber melanosporum was developed for the efficient production of bioactive mycelia and Tuber polysaccharides. Each 1.67 g/L of peptone and 8.33 g/L of yeast extract were added on day 3, 6, and 9, respectively, and sucrose was fed to maintain its concentration around 35-5 g/L when its residual level decreased to 10-5 g/L. Then, the maximal biomass, the production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) reached 53.72+/-2.57 g DW/L, 7.09+/-0.62 and 4.43+/-0.21 g/L, respectively. Compared with the batch culture conducted in the enriched medium, the biomass, the production of EPS and IPS were enhanced by 55.8%, 222.3% and 103.2%, respectively. Not only the cell density but also the production of EPS and IPS were the highest ever reported in truffle fermentation, and the biomass was also the highest as ever reported in mushroom fermentation. PMID:19303769
This study examined Wiking-cultivar table potato tubers in a field experiment conducted between 2002 and 2004 using a rye complex soil. The experimental factors included (a) two methods of tillage, including traditional and simplified, as well as (b) seven methods of cultivation with the use of herbicides as follows: 1, control without herbicides; 2, Plateen 41.5 WG; 3, Plateen 41.5 WG + Fusilade Forte 150 EC; 4, Plateen 41.5 WG + Fusilade Forte 150 EC + adjuvant Atpolan 80 EC; 5, Barox 460 SL; 6, Barox 460 SL + Fusilade Forte 150 EC; and 7, Barox 460 SL + Fusilade Forte 150 EC + adjuvant Atpolan 80 EC. Determination of residues was performed using high-performance liquid and gas chromatography. Only trace quantities of bentazone (Barox 460 SL) were found in potato tubers, amounts that fell below the maximum residue limit (MRL). The nitrate content of potato tubers was determined using a nitrate ion-selective electrode and silver chloride reference electrode. The nitrate content in fresh matter of unpeeled and peeled tubers depended significantly only on weather conditions in the years of study. In contrast, agrotechnical procedures such as methods of tillage and cultivation did not significantly affect potato tuber nitrate content. PMID:20706950
Normal-appearing white matter has been shown via diffusion tensor imaging to be affected in tuberous sclerosis complex. Under the hypothesis that some systems might be differentially affected, including the visual pathways and systems of social cognition, diffusion properties of various regions of white matter were compared. For 10 patients and 6 age-matched control subjects, 3 T magnetic resonance imaging was assessed using diffusion tensor imaging obtained in 35 directions. Three-dimensional volumes corresponding to the geniculocalcarine tracts were extracted via tractography, and two-dimensional regions of interest were used to sample other regions. Regression analysis indicated lower fractional anisotropy in the splenium of corpus callosum and geniculocalcarine tracts in tuberous sclerosis complex group, as well as lower axial diffusivity in the internal capsule, superior temporal gyrus, and geniculocalcarine tracts. Mean and radial diffusivity of the splenium of corpus callosum were higher in the tuberous sclerosis complex group. The differences in diffusion properties of white matter between tuberous sclerosis complex patients and control subjects suggest disorganized and structurally compromised axons with poor myelination. The visual and social cognition systems appear to be differentially involved, which might in part explain the behavioral and cognitive characteristics of the tuberous sclerosis complex population.
Krishnan, Michelle L.; Commowick, Olivier; Jeste, Shafali S.; Weisenfeld, Neil; Hans, Arne; Gregas, Matthew C.; Sahin, Mustafa; Warfield, Simon K.
Starch is widely consumed by humans as an inexpensive and stable available carbohydrate and protein source. Recognition of the incomplete digestion and absorption of some starch fractions in the small intestine as a normal phenomenon has created interest in indigestible (or resistant) starch fractions. Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) starches were modified by pyrodextrinization to lower available
E. Campechano-Carrera; A. Corona-Cruz; L. Chel-Guerrero; D. Betancur-Ancona
Acid-modified tapioca starch, native tapioca starch, and maltodextrin were tested for their ability to serve as wall materials for encapsulating ?-carotene. The modified tapioca starch had wider particle size distribution, toward the smaller diameters, as compared to its native starch and maltodextrin. Moisture content and water activity of microcapsules were found to be dependent on type of wall materials. There
The water vapor adsorption isotherms of amaranth starch were determined for the temperature range 25–50°C and water activity 0.04–0.90. Comparison with adsorption isotherms of wheat and corn native starches showed that the three starches have similar adsorption capacities at low aw values. Amaranth starch showed higher sorption capacity than corn and wheat starches at high aw values. Two BET-like isotherm
The properties of blends of polycaprolactone and starch (PCL\\/starch) and maleic anhydride (MAH)-grafted-polycaprolactone and starch (PCL-g-MAH\\/starch) were examined using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and mechanical testing. Mechanical and thermal properties of PCL became noticeably worse when it was blended with starch, due to the poor compatibility between the two
The water-binding properties of wheat starch films were studied through the determination of water vapour adsorption isotherms at 20°C. Starch films were obtained by casting after mixing native starch at 95°C for 15min with different ratios of plasticizer (glycerol).Unplasticized starch film was found to adsorb less water than native starch granules. The effect of glycerol on water vapour adsorption by
L. Godbillot; P. Dole; C. Joly; B. Rogé; M. Mathlouthi
Cereal Chem. 75(4):525-529 Starches were isolated from the endosperm of 12 wheat samples with a wide swelling power range in the wholemeal. Starch amylose content (24.8-34.2%) correlated negatively with the swelling power of isolated starch (18.3-26.9), but starch lipid content showed no such correlation. Higher proportions of long chains (DP ? 35) in amylopectins contributed to increased starch swelling. Native
Various transcriptional networks and plant hormones have been implicated in controlling different aspects of potato tuber formation. Due to its broad impact on many plant developmental processes, a role for auxin in tuber initiation has been suggested but never fully resolved. Here, auxin concentrations were measured throughout the plant prior to and during the process of tuber formation. Auxin levels
E. Roumeliotis; B. A. Kloosterman; M. E. P. Oortwijn; W. Kohlen; H. J. Bouwmeester; R. G. F. Visser; C. W. B. Bachem
Cereal Chem. 69(3):321-325 White pan bread was baked from flour that had been fractionated a higher enthalpy of melting than that of control bread crumb, except and reconstituted using cross-linked waxy barley starch (5.9% amylose at 6 hr after baking. Furthermore, a 50% gel of cross-linked waxy barley content) in place of prime wheat starch (28.3% amylose content). starch in
Surface and interfacial tensions with hexadecane were measured for water soluble maltodextrin and starch ester solutions in order to determine their potential as stabilizers or emulsifiers. The surface tension for an acid hydrolysed starch (maltodextrin) initially declined with concentration and then reached an equilibrium value of 56mN\\/m at 20–40wt.%, suggesting that hydrated starch has this surface energy. Surface and interfacial
Cereal Chem. 79(2):286-293 The physicochemical properties of small- and large-granule wheat starches were investigated to reveal whether gelatinization properties and rheological behavior differ between size classes of wheat starch. All samples contained 60% water (w\\/w, wb). The starch granule size and shape were examined by scanning electron microscopy in the separated A- and B-type granule populations and in the whole
The physico-chemical properties of acetylated starches from different rice cultivars were evaluated. The acetylation of starches from different cultivars showed different acetyl (%) and degrees of substitution (DS). The FT-IR spectral analysis confirmed the introduction of acetyl moiety in the acetylated starches through a band at 1730.8cm?1. The scanning electron microscopy did not show any significant difference between the external
An earlier study explored the possibility of analyzing the distribution of branches directly in native, whole starch without isolating the amylopectin component. The aim of this study was to explore if this approach can be extended to include starch mutants. Whole starches from du1 maize mutants deficient in starch synthase III (SSIII) with amylose content of ?30-40% were characterized and compared with the wild type of the common genetic background W64A. Clusters were produced from whole starch by hydrolysis with ?-amylase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Their compositions of building blocks and chains were analyzed further by complete ?-amylolysis and by debranching, respectively, whereafter the products were subjected to gel permeation and anion exchange chromatography. The size and structure of the clusters were compared with those of their isolated amylopectin component. Whereas the whole starch of the wild type sample had a branched structure similar to that of its amylopectin component, the results showed that the du1 mutation resulted in more singly branched building blocks in the whole starch compared to the isolated amylopectin. This suggested that amylose and/or intermediate materials in whole du1 starches likely contributed to the composition of branches. This study explored an alternative procedure to characterize the composition of branches in the whole starch without fractionating the components. PMID:24684540
The most abundant soluble tuber protein from the Andean crop oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.), named ocatin, has been purified and characterized. Ocatin accounts for 40% to 60% of the total soluble oca tuber proteins, has an apparent molecular mass of 18 kD and an isoelectric point of 4.8. This protein appears to be found only in tubers and is accumulated only within the cells of the pith and peridermis layers (peel) of the tuber as it develops. Ocatin inhibits the growth of several phytopathogenic bacteria (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Agrobacterium radiobacter, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aureofaciens) and fungi (Phytophthora cinnamomi, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Nectria hematococcus). Ocatin displays substantial amino acid sequence similarity with a widely distributed group of intracellular pathogenesis-related proteins with a hitherto unknown biological function. Our results showed that ocatin serves as a storage protein, has antimicrobial properties, and belongs to the Betv 1/PR-10/MLP protein family. Our findings suggest that an ancient scaffolding protein was recruited in the oca tuber to serve a storage function and that proteins from the Betv 1/PR-10/MLP family might play a role in natural resistance to pathogens.
Flores, Teresita; Alape-Giron, Alberto; Flores-Diaz, Marietta; Flores, Hector E.
Lepidium meyenii, known in South America as maca, has received attention worldwide as a powerful energizer that improves physical and mental conditions and increases fertility. Because of these reports, we investigated the secondary metabolites of the tuber of maca. The methanol extract of the tuber of maca contained, in addition to free sugars and amino acids, the following: uridine, malic acid and its benzoyl derivative, and the glucosinolates, glucotropaeolin and m-methoxyglucotropaeolin. Because glucosinolates and their derived products have received increasing attention due to their biological activities, the occurrence of glucosinolate degradation products in the hexane extract was also investigated, and benzylisothiocyanate and its m-methoxy derivative were isolated. The two glucosinolates were semiquantified by HPLC, and benzylisothiocyanate was semiquantified by GC/MS. The methanol extract of maca tuber also contained (1R,3S)-1-methyltetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, a molecule which is reported to exert many activities on the central nervous system. PMID:12236688
Tuberous sclerosis is a rare genetic disease which leads to formation of benign tumours in the brain and other organs of the body. It is a multisystem disease with various clinical manifestations. Renal angiomyolipomas are the most common renal manifestations whereas renal cell carcinoma is the least. Renal cysts are found in around 20% of the patients but polycystic kidney disease is present in less than 2% cases and is relatively rare manifestation of the disease. We present a case of tuberous sclerosis in a 60-year-old man who presented to the medicine outpatient department for routine evaluation of his hypertension. He was diagnosed as tuberous sclerosis. His ultrasound and CT scan of abdomen revealed polycystic kidney disease. His kidney function test and urine analysis were suggestive of chronic kidney disease. PMID:24092520
Described is a method for constructing the color body of the color-photographic process. Constructed are color bodies for six processes on multilayer film and for a hydrotypic process using zonal matrix film. The basis for constructing the color body of t...
The physicochemical, mechanical, optical and structural properties based on different amylose content starch-chitosan films with the addition of hydrophilic glycerol and hydrophobic perilla oil were investigated, and the effects of the starch-chitosan coating on the physicochemical and microbial properties of Mongolian cheese were evaluated. The films were formed by casting method. Results showed that the incorporation of perilla oil resulted in a decrease in moisture content, solubility and mechanical properties and an increase in total color difference (?E*). High water vapor permeability (WVP), good transparency and low solubility were observed with the addition of glycerol. Meanwhile, the film based on mung bean starch-chitosan (MSC) exhibited higher moisture content, WVP values, ?E* and less transparency than that based on water chestnut starch-chitosan (WSC). The morphology of films was also different based on MSC/WSC. The shelf life extension of Mongolian cheese was evaluated at 8 °C. The results showed that the cheese coated by WSC film containing perilla oil presented better treatment performance in terms of microbial growth delay, weight loss and shelf life length. PMID:23500443
A review of the Wheat Starch Blasting technology is presented. Laboratory evaluations covering Almen Arc testing on bare 2024-T3 aluminum and magnesium, as well as crack detection on 7075-T6 bare aluminum, are discussed. Comparisons with Type V plastic media show lower residual stresses are achieved on aluminum and magnesium with wheat starch media. Dry blasting effects on the detection of cracks confirms better crack visibility with wheat starch media versus Type V or Type II plastic media. Testing of wheat starch media in several composite test programs, including fiberglass, Kevlar, and graphite-epoxy composites, showed no fiber damage. Process developments and production experience at the first U.S. aircraft stripping facility are also reviewed. Corporate and regional aircraft are being stripped in this three nozzle dry blast hanger.
The aim of this work is to understand how surface active agents interact with cationic starch (CS), and which parameters are affecting on these interactions. The investigation methods to study these interactions were surface tension measurements, viscosit...
A controlled attempt to reduce the frequency of maintenance hemodialyses was conducted in four stable patients treated with sorbents administered orally. Following a four week control period of thrice weekly hemodialysis, oxidized starch and charcoal were...
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) occurs in 2% to 4% of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Previous reports have noted a variety of histologic appearances in these cancers, but the full spectrum of morphologic and molecular features has not been fully elucidated. We encountered 46 renal epithelial neoplasms from 19 TSC patients and analyzed their clinical, pathologic, and molecular features, enabling separation of these 46 tumors into 3 groups. The largest subset of tumors (n=24) had a distinct morphologic, immunologic, and molecular profile, including prominent papillary architecture and uniformly deficient succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) expression prompting the novel term "TSC-associated papillary RCC (PRCC)." The second group (n=15) were morphologically similar to a hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumor (HOCT), whereas the last 7 renal epithelial neoplasms of group 3 remained unclassifiable. The TSC-associated PRCCs had prominent papillary architecture lined by clear cells with delicate eosinophilic cytoplasmic thread-like strands that occasionally appeared more prominent and aggregated to form eosinophilic globules. All 24 (100%) of these tumors were International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) nucleolar grade 2 or 3 with mostly basally located nuclei. Tumor cells from 17 of 24 TSC-associated PRCCs showed strong, diffuse labeling for carbonic anhydrase IX (100%), CK7 (94%), vimentin (88%), and CD10 (83%) and were uniformly negative for SDHB, TFE3, and AMACR. Gains of chromosomes 7 and 17 were found in 2 tumors, whereas chromosome 3p deletion and TFE3 translocations were not detected. In this study, we reported a sizable cohort of renal tumors seen in TSC and were able to identify them as different morphotypes, which may help to expand the morphologic spectrum of TSC-associated RCC. PMID:24832166
Yang, Ping; Cornejo, Kristine M; Sadow, Peter M; Cheng, Liang; Wang, Mingsheng; Xiao, Yu; Jiang, Zhong; Oliva, Esther; Jozwiak, Sergiusz; Nussbaum, Robert L; Feldman, Adam S; Paul, Elahna; Thiele, Elizabeth A; Yu, Jane J; Henske, Elizabeth P; Kwiatkowski, David J; Young, Robert H; Wu, Chin-Lee
Expanded abstract Citation Perner A, Haase N, Guttormsen AB, Tenhunen J, Klemenzson G, Åneman A, Madsen KR, Møller MH, Elkjær JM, Poulsen LM, Bendtsen A, Winding R, Steensen M, Berezowicz P, Søe-Jensen P, Bestle M, Strand K, Wiis J, White JO, Thornberg KJ, Quist L, Nielsen J, Andersen LH, Holst LB, Thormar K, Kjældgaard AL, Fabritius ML, Mondrup F, Pott FC, Møller TP, Winkel P, Wetterslev J; 6S Trial Group; Scandinavian Critical Care Trials Group: Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42 versus Ringer's acetate in severe sepsis. N Engl J Med 2012, 367:124-34. Background Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is widely used for fluid resuscitation in ICUs, but its safety and efficacy have not been established in patients with severe sepsis. Methods Objective To assess the effects of HES 130/0.4 compared with a balanced crystalloid solution on mortality and end-stage kidney failure in patients with severe sepsis. Design Multicenter, parallel-group, blinded, randomized clinical trial, in patients with severe sepsis. Interventions Patients with severe sepsis admitted to the ICU received fluid resuscitation with either 6% HES 130/0.42 (Tetraspan) or Ringer's acetate at a dose of up to 33 ml per kilogram of ideal body weight per day. Results Of the 804 patients who underwent randomization, 798 were included in the modified intention-to-treat population. The two intervention groups had similar baseline characteristics. At 90 days after randomization, 201 of 398 patients (51%) assigned to HES 130/0.42 had died, as compared with 172 of 400 patients (43%) assigned to Ringer's acetate (relative risk, 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01 to 1.36; P = 0.03); 1 patient in each group had end-stage kidney failure. In the 90-day period, 87 patients (22%) assigned to HES 130/0.42 were treated with renal replacement therapy versus 65 patients (16%) assigned to Ringer's acetate (relative risk, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.80; P = 0.04), and 38 patients (10%) and 25 patients (6%), respectively, had severe bleeding (relative risk, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.94 to 2.48; P = 0.09). The results were supported by multivariate analyses, with adjustment for known risk factors for death or acute kidney injury at baseline. Conclusions Patients with severe sepsis assigned to fluid resuscitation with HES 130/0.42 had an increased risk of death at day 90 and were more likely to require renal replacement therapy compared with those receiving Ringer's acetate.
EXPANDED ABSTRACT: CITATION: Perner A, Haase N, Guttormsen AB, Tenhunen J, Klemenzson G, Åneman A, Madsen KR, Møller MH, Elkjær JM, Poulsen LM, Bendtsen A, Winding R, Steensen M, Berezowicz P, Søe-Jensen P, Bestle M, Strand K, Wiis J, White JO, Thornberg KJ, Quist L, Nielsen J, Andersen LH, Holst LB, Thormar K, Kjældgaard AL, Fabritius ML, Mondrup F, Pott FC, Møller TP, Winkel P, Wetterslev J; 6S Trial Group; Scandinavian Critical Care Trials Group: Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42 versus Ringer's acetate in severe sepsis. N Engl J Med 2012, 367:124-34. BACKGROUND: Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is widely used for fluid resuscitation in ICUs, but its safety and efficacy have not been established in patients with severe sepsis. METHODS: OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of HES 130/0.4 compared with a balanced crystalloid solution on mortality and end-stage kidney failure in patients with severe sepsis. DESIGN: Multicenter, parallel-group, blinded, randomized clinical trial, in patients with severe sepsis. INTERVENTIONS: Patients with severe sepsis admitted to the ICU received fluid resuscitation with either 6% HES 130/0.42 (Tetraspan) or Ringer's acetate at a dose of up to 33 ml per kilogram of ideal body weight per day. RESULTS: Of the 804 patients who underwent randomization, 798 were included in the modified intention-to-treat population. The two intervention groups had similar baseline characteristics. At 90 days after randomization, 201 of 398 patients (51%) assigned to HES 130/0.42 had died, as compared with 172 of 400 patients (43%) assigned to Ringer's acetate (relative risk, 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01 to 1.36; P = 0.03); 1 patient in each group had end-stage kidney failure. In the 90-day period, 87 patients (22%) assigned to HES 130/0.42 were treated with renal replacement therapy versus 65 patients (16%) assigned to Ringer's acetate (relative risk, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.80; P = 0.04), and 38 patients (10%) and 25 patients (6%), respectively, had severe bleeding (relative risk, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.94 to 2.48; P = 0.09). The results were supported by multivariate analyses, with adjustment for known risk factors for death or acute kidney injury at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with severe sepsis assigned to fluid resuscitation with HES 130/0.42 had an increased risk of death at day 90 and were more likely to require renal replacement therapy compared with those receiving Ringer's acetate. PMID:23509901
Gibberellic acid (GA) was applied to potato tubers cultivated from true seed (TPS) either by immersion of intact tubers in aqueous solutions, or by the excision of a small area of the tuber close to the point of detachment from the stolon and immersion of this region only in GA. Corresponding treatments with deionised water were used as controls. Tubers
Alexios A. Alexopoulos; George Aivalakis; Konstantinos A. Akoumianakis; Harold C. Passam
Different compositions of wheat thermoplastic starch (TPS) and polycaprolactone (PCL) are melt blended by extrusion and injected. Different properties are determined: mechanical properties (tensile and impact tests), thermal and thermomechanical properties (DSC and DMTA) and hydrophobicity (contact angle measurement). A large range of blends is analysed with different glycerol (plasticizer):starch contents ratios (0.14:0.54) and various PCL concentrations (up to 40wt.%).
The effects of incorporating various montmorillonite nanoclays into wheat, potato, corn, and waxy corn starch samples were examined by rheology and X-ray diffraction. The nanoclays included the hydrophilic Cloisite Na+ clay as well as the more hydrophobic Cloisite 30B, 10A, and 15A clays. Frequency sweep and creep results for wheat starch–nanoclay samples at room temperature indicated that the Cloisite Na+
Bor-Sen Chiou; Emma Yee; Greg M. Glenn; William J. Orts
As a by-product from the combustion of pulverized coal, fly ash was, respectively, used as the reinforcement for formamide and urea-plasticized thermoplastic starch (FUPTPS) and glycerol-plasticized thermoplastic starch (GPTPS). The introduction of fly ash improved tensile stress from 4.56MPa to 7.78MPa and Youngs modulus increased trebly from 26.8MPa to 84.6MPa for fly ash-reinforced FUPTPS (A-FUPTPS), while tensile stress increased from
Steady state rheology experiments were performed on aqueous suspensions of starch-based particles in dilute and concentrated regimes to quantify the swelling degree of the particles and to determine the zero and infinite shear viscosities, respectively. Results showed that the starch-based particles behaved like microgels (with volumes swelling at least by factor 15), and like polyelectrolytes, since in de-ionised suspensions, the
Y. Dziechciarek; J. J. G. van Soest; A. P. Phillipse
The effects of pregelatinized potato starch concentration (PSC) ranged from 0 to 5wt% on the physical stability, color, rheological, textural, and sensory properties of model salad dressings prepared with 2wt% dried egg yolk (DEY) or sodium caseinate (SC) were explored. All dressings showed shear-thinning behavior with yield stress. Raising PSC increased storage (G') and loss (G?) moduli decreasing loss tangent (tan?) and samples containing ?3wt% starch showed a weak gel-like (tan?<1) response. A generalized Cox-Merz rule was applicable to indicate shear/strain sensitivity of the dressings structures. Rheological characterization based on Bohlin's parameters (A, z) was useful for distinguishing physical stability of dressings made with different formulations. Changes in color were generally very small and mainly PSC-dependent. Correlation analyses revealed that sensory descriptors could be satisfactory modeled with the appropriate instrumental data. Overall, the results proved that pregelatinized potato starch may be suitable ingredient in low-fat dressings applications. PMID:25037397
Summary Seed tubers, cv. Dsire, derived from stocks treated annually with thiabendazole were infected with thiabendazole-resistant\\u000a strains ofHelminthosporium solani andPolyscytalum pustulans. Samples of seed tubers were either untreated or immersed for 5 min in fungicide suspensions of thiabendazole, imazalil or\\u000a thiabendazole plus imazalil and planted on four farms in 1988 and 1989. After harvest, tuber samples from each treatment were\\u000a treated
Here, we describe the development of a platinum redox sensor for the direct potentiometric quantification of starch in solution. The sensor measures the decrease in free triiodide ion after it complexes with starch to form a starch-triiodide complex. This decrease was, therefore, correlated with starch concentration, and the composition and stability of the potassium triiodide solution were optimised. The starch-triiodide complex was characterized potentiometrically at variable starch and triiodide concentrations. We also propose a response mechanism for the platinum redox sensor towards starch and an appropriate theoretical model. The optimised method exhibited satisfactory accuracy and precision and was in good agreement with a standard spectrophotometric method. The sensor was tested over a range of 0.4-9 mg starch, with recoveries ranging from 97.8% to 103.4% and a detection limit of 0.01 mg starch. PMID:23265448
Starch-modifying processes, such as pyrodextrinization, are potential ways to alter the nutritional features of this polysaccharide. A widely used method for pyrodextrinizing maize starch was also applied to lentil, sorghum, cocoyam, sagu, and cassava starches, and the in vitro digestibility of the products was evaluated. Pyrodextrins were produced by heating starch at 140 degrees C for 3 h, with catalytic amounts of HCl. The enzymatically available starch content of all preparations decreased by 55-65% after modification. Thus, pyrodextrinization seems to be an effective way to produce indigestible glucans from different starches. Pyrodextrins obtained were complex mixtures of starch derivatives with a wide range of molecular weight as estimated by gel filtration chromatography. Both their molecular weight profiles and contents of indigestible fractions varied with starch source. Experiments with lentil and cassava starches showed that changing dextrinization conditions also affects the susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis of the product. PMID:12926906
Wheat starch grafted with polystyrene (PS-g-starch) was synthesized via polymerization grafting of styrene on starch by gamma-ray. The effects of starch/styrene weight ratio, and amount of applied doses (5-40 kGy) on the percentage of grafting, G (%), were investigated. The results showed that G (%) increased with increasing starch content. The optimum condition, starch/styrene weight ratio 1/3 and the applied dose 10 kGy, led to 252.9% of grafting. The obtained graft copolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. FTIR spectroscopy as well as the XRD analysis exhibited the changes in chemical and crystalline structure of starch after grafting reaction. TGA demonstrated the changes in thermal stability of PS-g-starch copolymer. SEM micrographs indicated porous patches of PS adhering on the starch.
Morphological features, granule composition, and physicochemical properties of waxy wheat starch were compared with those of normal wheat starch. The morphologies and granule populations were found to be similar for the two starches. However, waxy wheat starch contained a smaller proportion of B-type granules, had a larger average granule diameter, and a higher degree of crystallinity than normal wheat starch, as measured by particle size analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. These differences resulted in a higher gelatinization temperature, transition enthalpy, peak viscosity, breakdown, swelling power, lower peak viscosity temperature and final viscosity in waxy wheat starch. These points suggest that waxy wheat starch should have greater resistance to retrogradation during cooling and higher water-holding capacity under dry conditions. Highlighting the differences in physicochemical properties of waxy and normal wheat starches should help point toward effective applications of waxy wheat starch in the food industry. PMID:24076202
This lesson will introduce students to color theory with a focus on the use of color in digital design. Students will discover the color wheel, and color harmonies. Color is a very powerful tool in design. It can, enhance a message, give an object visual weight and emphasis, and add richness and depth to a design. We can use color to signify data, to draw attention to a particular object, or to set a mood. Color ...
Current textbooks deal only briefly with the chemistry of starch. A short review with 21 references is presented, describing the structure of starch and indicating the double helix structure of A-type and B-type starch. The structure of the starch granule is examined, pointing out the existence of growth rings of alternating crystalline and noncrystalline starch, with growing amylopectin molecules extending from the hilum (point of origin) to the surface of the starch granule. The swelling of starch granules in water, above the gelatinization temperature of about 60 °C, is discussed. The process of gelatinization involves unraveling of the starch helix and a manyfold increase in volume of the starch granule as water is imbibed and bound to the unraveled starch polymer by hydrogen bonding. Baking bread or pastries causes unraveling of the starch helix, and the process by which these products become stale corresponds primarily to the re-forming of the starch helix. The importance of this phenomenon in food science is discussed. The absorption of nonpolar linear molecules such as I2, or linear nonpolar portions of molecules such as n-butanol or fats and phospholipids, by the C-type helix of starch is examined. The way in which starch is structurally modified to retard staling is discussed in relation to food technology.
Most animals are patterned. While some markings may serve as an advertisement, many appear to function in concealment. Because of the principal way in which they seem to function, such markings are often termed disruptive coloration . Although there are a number of characteristics that may influence the effectiveness of markings in disruption; this study will only focus on two aspects: (1) the effectiveness of the position of markings in blurring or enhancing outline, and (2) the degree to which strongly contrasting markings may interfere with or aid recognition. In regard to the former, it must be kept in mind that the profile changes with change in viewing angle. Thus the pattern seen in relation to the profile most commonly presented to predator (or prey) is of most interest to us here.
Ipsen, David; Gillfillan, Gretchen L.; Judy Diamond (Revised New Edition); Judy Scotchmoor (Revised New Edition); Stebbins, Robert
COLORS Magazine was willed into existence in 1991 by photographer Oliviero Toscani and art director Tibor Kalman. Its goal was simple: "to show the world to the world.Ã¢ÂÂ The publication looks at social issues around the world through thoughtful prose and meaningful visuals. Visitors can click on the Stories tab to click through a visual field of photos that lead to such stories as military service in South Korea and cuts to public spending in the United Kingdom. The Notebooks area brings together commentaries from all over the world as part of a collaboration with Reporters sans Frontieres. The Projects area contains links to special issues and projects, such as the News Machine that "churns your tweets through different media filters.Ã¢ÂÂ Interested users can learn about obtaining a print subscription or explore the corresponding blog.
The branched glucans glycogen and starch are the most widespread storage carbohydrates in living organisms. The production of semicrystalline starch granules in plants is more complex than that of small, soluble glycogen particles in microbes and animals. However, the factors determining whether glycogen or starch is formed are not fully understood. The tropical tree Cecropia peltata is a rare example of an organism able to make either polymer type. Electron micrographs and quantitative measurements show that glycogen accumulates to very high levels in specialized myrmecophytic structures (Müllerian bodies), whereas starch accumulates in leaves. Compared with polymers comprising leaf starch, glycogen is more highly branched and has shorter branches--factors that prevent crystallization and explain its solubility. RNA sequencing and quantitative shotgun proteomics reveal that isoforms of all three classes of glucan biosynthetic enzyme (starch/glycogen synthases, branching enzymes, and debranching enzymes) are differentially expressed in Müllerian bodies and leaves, providing a system-wide view of the quantitative programming of storage carbohydrate metabolism. This work will prompt targeted analysis in model organisms and cross-species comparisons. Finally, as starch is the major carbohydrate used for food and industrial applications worldwide, these data provide a basis for manipulating starch biosynthesis in crops to synthesize tailor-made polyglucans. PMID:23632447
Bischof, Sylvain; Umhang, Martin; Eicke, Simona; Streb, Sebastian; Qi, Weihong; Zeeman, Samuel C
The purpose of this study was to assess the properties of resistant starch (RS) III prepared from elephant foot yam starch using pullulanase enzyme. Native and gelatinized starches were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis (pullulanase, 40 U/g per 10h), autoclaved (121°C/30 min), stored under refrigeration (4°C/24h) and then lyophilized. After preparation of resistant starch III, the morphological, physical, chemical and functional properties were assessed. The enzymatic and retrogradation process increased the yield of resistant starch III from starch with a concomitant increase increase in its water absorption capacity and water solubility index. A decrease in swelling power was observed due to the hydrolysis and thermal process. Te reduced pasting properties and hardness of resistant starch III were associated with the disintegration of starch granules due to the thermal process. The viscosity was found to be inversely proportional to the RS content in the sample. The thermal properties of RS increased due to retrogradation and recrystallization (P<0.05). PMID:24594151
Reddy, Chagam Koteswara; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy; Noor Mohamed, A; Suriya, M
Single-use packaging articles made of expanded polystyrene (EPS) are currently used to serve and pack a variety of food and non-food products. Recently, there have been efforts to develop and commercialize materials from renewable resources such as starch to replace EPS. Starch based foams are, however, brittle and sensitive to water, and thus require expensive coating steps when exposure to
Cassava is a poor man's crop which is mainly grown as a subsistence crop in many developing countries. Its commercial use was first as animal feed (also known as tapioca), but has shifted since the late sixties to a source of native starch. The availability of native starches, which on the one hand do not require substantial chemical derivatisation and
Krit Raemakers; Marianne Schreuder; L. C. J. M. Suurs; Heleen Furrer-Verhorst; Jean-Paul Vincken; Nick de Vetten; Evert Jacobsen; Richard G. F. Visser
In this work the influence of gamma irradiation on the thermomechanical properties of the films formed in potato starch–glycerol and potato starch–glycerol–surfactant systems were examined by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, DMA, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry, DSC, and the results were correlated to the amount of the volatile fraction in the films.
The branched glucans glycogen and starch are the most widespread storage carbohydrates in living organisms. The production of semicrystalline starch granules in plants is more complex than that of small, soluble glycogen particles in microbes and animals. However, the factors determining whether glycogen or starch is formed are not fully understood. The tropical tree Cecropia peltata is a rare example of an organism able to make either polymer type. Electron micrographs and quantitative measurements show that glycogen accumulates to very high levels in specialized myrmecophytic structures (Müllerian bodies), whereas starch accumulates in leaves. Compared with polymers comprising leaf starch, glycogen is more highly branched and has shorter branches—factors that prevent crystallization and explain its solubility. RNA sequencing and quantitative shotgun proteomics reveal that isoforms of all three classes of glucan biosynthetic enzyme (starch/glycogen synthases, branching enzymes, and debranching enzymes) are differentially expressed in Müllerian bodies and leaves, providing a system-wide view of the quantitative programming of storage carbohydrate metabolism. This work will prompt targeted analysis in model organisms and cross-species comparisons. Finally, as starch is the major carbohydrate used for food and industrial applications worldwide, these data provide a basis for manipulating starch biosynthesis in crops to synthesize tailor-made polyglucans.
Bischof, Sylvain; Umhang, Martin; Eicke, Simona; Streb, Sebastian; Qi, Weihong; Zeeman, Samuel C.
Environmental stress during the growing season can reduce the quality of stored Solanum tuberosum (potato) tubers. Changes in greenhouse grown Russet Burbank tuber water potential and tuber composition following periods\\u000a of moderate drought, heat, or drought and heat stress were characterized. Decreased leaf and tuber water potentials were observed\\u000a at the end of stress treatments. Decreased tuber water potential caused
Repeatedly frozen and thawed rice starch gel affects quality. This study investigated how incorporating waxy rice flour (WF) and cassava starch (CS) in rice starch gel affects factors used to measure quality. When rice starch gels containing 0-2% WF and CS were subjected to 5 freeze-thaw cycles, both WF and CS reduced the syneresis in first few cycles. However CS was more effective in reducing syneresis than WF. The different composite arrangement of rice starch with WF or CS caused different mechanisms associated with the rice starch gel retardation of retrogradation, reduced the spongy structure and lowered syneresis. Both swollen granules of rice starch and CS caused an increase in the hardness of the unfrozen and freeze-thawed starch gel while highly swollen WF granules caused softer gels. These results suggested that WF and CS were effective in preserving quality in frozen rice starch based products. PMID:22840036
Color Management Systems have been used for several years in Desktop Publishing (DTP) environments. While this development hasn't matured yet, we are already experiencing the next generation of the color imaging revolution-Device Independent Color for the small office/home office (SOHO) environment. Though there are still open technical issues with device independent color matching, they are not the focal point of this paper. This paper discusses two new and crucial aspects in using color management in color document processing: the management of color objects and their associated color rendering methods; a proposal for a precedence order and handshaking protocol among the various software components involved in color document processing. As color peripherals become affordable to the SOHO market, color management also becomes a prerequisite for common document authoring applications such as word processors. The first color management solutions were oriented towards DTP environments whose requirements were largely different. For example, DTP documents are image-centric, as opposed to SOHO documents that are text and charts centric. To achieve optimal reproduction on low-cost SOHO peripherals, it is critical that different color rendering methods are used for the different document object types. The first challenge in using color management of color document processing is the association of rendering methods with object types. As a result of an evolutionary process, color matching solutions are now available as application software, as driver embedded software and as operating system extensions. Consequently, document processing faces a new challenge, the correct selection of the color matching solution while avoiding duplicate color corrections.
Utilization of leaf, stem, root, and latex starch was monitored in Euphorbia esula L. plants. Leaf, stem, and root starch decreased rapidly during a 52 day light starvation period while latex starch did not. Scanning electron and light microscope studies provided additional evidence that no changes in latex starch granules had occurred. Amylase activity (6.6 units per milligram protein) could be isolated from latex. However, latex starch granules were extremely resistant to enzymic hydrolysis by latex amylases, Bacillus subtilis ?-amylase, and by amyloglucosidase from Aspergillus niger. Results indicate that latex starch grains do not function as utilizable carbohydrate in this species under these conditions. Images Fig. 2
The quaternion representation of color is shown here to be effective in the context of segmenting color images into regions of similar color texture. The advantage of using quaternion arithmetic is that a color can be represented and analyzed as a single entity. A low-dimensional basis for the color textures found in a given image is derived via quaternion principal
We describe two new color indexing techniques. The first one is a more robust version of thecommonly used color histogram indexing. In the index we store the cumulative color histograms.The L 1 -, L 2 -, or L1 -distance between two cumulative color histograms can be used to define asimilarity measure of these two color distributions. We show that while
How do you name things by color and shape? Lets learn about shapes and colors! 1. Watch this Color Video 2. Play this Color Game 3. Complete this Color Page 4. Watch this Shape Video 5. Watch this Shape Video2 6. Play this Shape Game 7. ...
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal disorder resulting from mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes that is associated with epilepsy cognitive disability and autism. TSC1/TSC2 gene mutations lead to developmental alterations in brain structure kn...
The overall goal of this project was to generate a mouse model of the smooth muscle-related facets of tuberous sclerosis, specifically in an attempt to model the lung phenotype seen in a subset of TS patients and patients with LAM. We have conditionally t...
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal disorder resulting from mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes that is associated with epilepsy, cognitive disability, and autism. TSC1/TSC2 gene mutations lead to developmental alterations in brain structure ...
Echocardiography was performed in 60 people with tuberous sclerosis to ascertain the prevalence and course of cardiac rhabdomyomata at different ages. Twenty five (58%) of 43 children had tumours, but only three (18%) of 17 adults. The tumours tended to remain the same size through childhood. Only three infants were included but evidence from this and some published case reports
A study investigated the incidence of autism in 20 patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The prevalence of autistic disorder was conservatively estimated at 20%. Data suggest a possible association between both hypsarrythmia and TSC-related cardiac abnormalities with autism in this subgroup of individuals with TSC. (Author/CR)
CT, MRI and neurological features of 27 children with tuberous sclerosis were prospectively compared. Imaging studies were positive in 92.5% of cases. CT was more useful in detecting subependymal nodules, while MRI showed the number and location of cerebral cortical and subcortical lesions more accurately. Cortical lesions in the cerebellar hemispheres were present in 26% of patients. Gadolinium-DTPA used in
F. Menor; L. Martí-Bonmatí; F. Mulas; C. Poyatos; H. Cortina
This report describes a sibling pair (ages 21 and 18), both with tuberous sclerosis. One sibling has atypical autism (but no mental retardation or seizure disorder) and the other has a seizure disorder but no autism or mental retardation. Both siblings had multiple bilateral brain lesions. Clinical findings are discussed in relationship to the…
Renal disease is a frequent manifestation of tuberous sclerosis (TSC) and yet little is known about its true prevalence or natural history. We reviewed the notes of 139 people with TSC, who had presented without renal symptoms, but who had been investigated by renal ultrasound. Information on the frequency, type, and symptomatology of renal involvement was retrieved. The prevalence of
Objective: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder characterized by the formation of hamartomas in multiple organs. Five to 15% of affected individuals display subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, which can lead to substantial neurological and postoperative morbidity due to the production of hydrocephalus, mass effect, and their typical location adjacent to the foramen of Monro. We sought to see
David Neal Franz; Jennifer Leonard; Cynthia Tudor; Gail Chuck; Marguerite Care; Gopalan Sethuraman; Argirios Dinopoulos; George Thomas; Kerry R. Crone
An estimate of the prevalence of autism in tuberous sclerosis (TSC) was made by interviewing the parents of 21 children between ages 3 and 11 ascertained during a previous population study of the condition in the West of Scotland. Five of the children (24%) were rated autistic and a further four (19%), all of whom were girls, has socially impaired
Background: Endometrial adenocarcinoma is very uncommon in women under 40 years of age. Case: A 39-year-old woman with tuberous sclerosis and severe intellectual disability presented with irregular bleeding unresponsive to oral contraceptive therapy. She was subsequently found to have a deeply invasive endometrial adenocarcinoma. Conclusion:…
Three hydroxylasiodiplodins were isolated from the mycelium extracts of Lasiodiplodia theobromae IFO 31059; and their structures were identified as (3R),(4S)-4-hydroxylasiodiplodin, (3R),(6R)-6-hydroxy-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin and (3R),(5R)-5-hydroxy-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin. All showed potato micro-tuber inducing activity. PMID:10939352
Vitamin E (tocopherol) is a powerful antioxidant essential for human health and synthesized only by photosynthetic organisms. The effects of over-expression of tocopherol biosynthetic enzymes have been studied in leaves and seeds, but not in a non-photosynthetic, below-ground plant organ. Genetic and molecular approaches were used to determine if increased levels of tocopherols can be accumulated in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers through metabolic engineering. Two transgenes were constitutively over-expressed in potato: Arabidopsis thaliana p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (At-HPPD) and A. thaliana homogentisate phytyltransferase (At-HPT). alpha-Tocopherol levels in the transgenic plants were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. In potato tubers, over-expression of At-HPPD resulted in a maximum 266% increase in alpha-tocopherol, and over-expression of At-HPT yielded a 106% increase. However, tubers from transgenic plants still accumulated approximately 10- and 100-fold less alpha-tocopherol than leaves or seeds, respectively. The results indicate that physiological and regulatory constraints may be the most limiting factors for tocopherol accumulation in potato tubers. Studying regulation and induction of tocopherol biosynthesis should reveal approaches to more effectively engineer crops with enhanced tocopherol content. PMID:17415670
Crowell, Elizabeth F; McGrath, J Mitchell; Douches, David S
The root tubers of Asphodelus aestivus consist mostly of enlarged fleshy storage tissue. They are bounded by a multiple-layered velamen, responsible for rapid water uptake, water loss reduction, osmotic and mechanical protection. In the cortex area, thin-walled idioblasts contain numerous raphides of calcium oxalate in their large vacuole with a distinctive tonoplast. Wide morphological variations are observed among the raphide
Thomas Sawidis; Sofia Kalyva; Stylianos Delivopoulos
Three hydroxylasiodiplodins were isolated from the mycelium extracts of Lasiodiplodia theobromae IFO 31059; and their structures were identified as (3R),(4S)-4-hydroxylasiodiplodin, (3R),(6R)-6-hydroxy-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin and (3R),(5R)-5-hydroxy-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin. All showed potato micro-tuber inducing activity.
Ten patients with clinical tuberous sclerosis were examined with CT and MR imaging, before and after IV contrast in order to determine the role of Gd-DTPA. Gd-DTPA enhancement occured in eleven subependymal nodules which did not enhance on CT after IV contrast. As illustrated by previous CT and pathologic observations and related to the histologic similarity of the subependymal nodules
N. Martin; C. Debussche; T. Broucker; D. Mompoint; C. Marsault; H. Nahum
Overnight polysomnography was performed in 10 subjects with tuberous sclerosis (TS) and partial epilepsy in order to investigate the relationships between sleep organization, sleep disorders and epilepsy. Sleep architecture abnormalities were observed in 9 cases. Compared with ten healthy age-matched controls, the TS group showed a shorter total sleep time, a reduced sleep efficiency, a higher number of awakenings and
Oliviero Bruni; Flavia Cortesi; Flavia Giannotti; Paolo Curatolo
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex is a multisystem disorder exhibiting a wide range of manifestations characterized by tumour-like lesions called hamartomas in the brain, skin, eyes, heart, lungs and kidneys. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex is genetically determined with an autosomal dominant inheritance and is caused by inactivating mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. TSC1/2 genes play a fundamental role in the regulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling pathway, inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) through activation of the GTPase activity of Rheb. Mutations in TSC1/2 genes impair the inhibitory function of the hamartin/tuberin complex, leading to phosphorylation of the downstream effectors of mTOR, p70 S6 kinase (S6K), ribosomal protein S6 and the elongation factor binding protein 4E-BP1, resulting in uncontrolled cell growth and tumourigenesis. Despite recent promising genetic, diagnostic, and therapeutic advances in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, continuing research in all aspects of this complex disease will be pivotal to decrease its associated morbidity and mortality. In this review we will discuss and analyse all the important findings in the molecular pathogenesis of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, focusing on genetics and the molecular mechanisms that define this multisystemic disorder.
This is a presentation of a case of tuberous sclerosis with multifocal hamartomas in the retroperitoneum, both kidneys, and the liver. Lymphangiectasia and numerous ectatic lymphatic channels penetrating through the retroperitoneal angiomyolipoma were demonstrated by lymphography and computed tomography. The findings in our study may document the presence of degenerative change in the lymphatic system—not just in elastic vessels—an association
Yun-Chung Cheung; Shu-Hang Ng; Chih-Feng Tan; Ho-Fai Wong; Yung-Liang Wan
We investigated the metabolism of L-lactate in mitochondria isolated from potato tubers grown and saved after harvest in the absence of any chemical agents. Immunologic analysis by western blot using goat polyclonal anti-lactate dehydrogenase showed the existence of a mitochondrial lactate dehydrogenase, the activity of which could be measured photometrically only in mitochondria solubilized with Triton X-100. The addition of L-lactate to potato tuber mitochondria caused: (a) a minor reduction of intramitochondrial pyridine nucleotides, whose measured rate of change increased in the presence of the inhibitor of the alternative oxidase salicyl hydroxamic acid; (b) oxygen consumption not stimulated by ADP, but inhibited by salicyl hydroxamic acid; and (c) activation of the alternative oxidase as polarographically monitored in a manner prevented by oxamate, an L-lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor. Potato tuber mitochondria were shown to swell in isosmotic solutions of ammonium L-lactate in a stereospecific manner, thus showing that L-lactate enters mitochondria by a proton-compensated process. Externally added L-lactate caused the appearance of pyruvate outside mitochondria, thus contributing to the oxidation of extramitochondrial NADH. The rate of pyruvate efflux showed a sigmoidal dependence on L-lactate concentration and was inhibited by phenylsuccinate. Hence, potato tuber mitochondria possess a non-energy-competent L-lactate/pyruvate shuttle. We maintain, therefore, that mitochondrial metabolism of L-lactate plays a previously unsuspected role in the response of potato to hypoxic stress. PMID:17489101
Cardiac tumours were identified on ultrasonography in fetal or early postnatal life in five infants. Tuberous sclerosis was subsequently diagnosed in all five. Only one infant required operation. Regression of the tumour occurred in three. No infant had hypomelanotic macules at birth, and they took up to two years to appear.
Wallace, G; Smith, H C; Watson, G H; Rimmer, S; D'Souza, S W
Starch synthases (SS) are responsible for elongating the alpha-1,4 glucan chains of starch. A doubled haploid population was generated by crossing a line of wheat, which lacks functional ssIIa genes on each genome (abd), and an Australian wheat cultivar, Sunco, with wild type ssIIa alleles on each genome (ABD). Evidence has been presented previously indicating that the SGP-1 (starch granule protein-1) proteins present in the starch granule in wheat are products of the ssIIa genes. Analysis of 100 progeny lines demonstrated co-segregation of the ssIIa alleles from the three genomes with the SGP-1 proteins, providing further evidence that the SGP-1 proteins are the products of the ssIIa genes. From the progeny lines, 40 doubled haploid lines representing the eight possible genotypes for SSIIa (ABD, aBD, AbD, ABd, abD, aBd, Abd, abd) were characterized for their grain weight, protein content, total starch content and starch properties. For some properties (chain length distribution, pasting properties, swelling power, and gelatinization properties), a progressive change was observed across the four classes of genotypes (wild type, single nulls, double nulls and triple nulls). However, for other grain properties (seed weight and protein content) and starch properties (total starch content, granule morphology and crystallinity, granule size distribution, amylose content, amylose-lipid dissociation properties), a statistically significant change only occurred for the triple nulls, indicating that all three genes had to be missing or inactive for a change to occur. These results illustrate the importance of SSIIa in controlling grain and starch properties and the importance of amylopectin fine structure in controlling starch granule properties in wheat. PMID:17721773
Cold-induced sweetening in potato tubers is a costly problem for the food industry. To systematically identify the proteins associated with this process, we employed a comparative proteomics approach using isobaric, stable isotope coded labels to compare the proteomes of potato tubers after 0 and 5 months of storage at 5 °C. We evaluated both high pH reverse phase (hpRP) liquid chromatography (LC) and off-gel electrophoresis (OGE) as first dimension fractionation methods followed by nanoLC-MS/MS, using two high performance mass spectrometry platforms (Q-TOF and Orbitrap). We found that hpRP-LC consistently offered better resolution, reduced expression ratio compression, and a more MS-compatible workflow than OGE and consistently yielded more unique peptide/protein identifications and higher sequence coverage with better quantification. In this study, a total of 4463 potato proteins were identified, of which 46 showed differential expressions during potato tuber cold storage. Several key proteins important in controlling starch-sugar conversion, which leads to cold-induced sweetening, as well as other proteins that are potentially involved in this process, were identified. Our results suggest that the hpRP-RP shotgun approach is a feasible and practical workflow for discovering potential protein candidates in plant proteomic analysis. PMID:21842911
Material properties and compaction characteristics of natural and pregelatinized forms of white trifoliate (T.) yam, yellow trifoliate (T.) yam, rice and official corn starches were studied. Physico-chemical properties and viscosity profiles of the starches were evaluated. Pregelatinized starches exhibited lower viscosity values than natural starches in the viscoamylography. The pregelatinized starches showed more densification than natural starches during compression and
Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. Mottling or mottled skin refers to blood vessel changes in ... in the skin cells that gives skin its color Growth of bacteria or other organisms on the ...
Background: Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is a multi- system disorder with complex genetics. The neurodevelopmental manifestations of TS are responsible for considerable morbidity. The prevalence of epilepsy and intellectual disabilities among individuals with TS have been well described. Ours is the first study that explores the prevalence and pattern…
Raznahan, A.; Joinson, C.; O'Callaghan, F.; Osborne, J. P.; Bolton, P. F.
Of five growth regulators applied to seed tubers in January when sprout growth had just started, only gibberellic acid (GA) materially affected apical dominance or subsequent development. GA increased the number of sprouts by one third and induced the production of many stolon-like branches. After planting, the number of main stems was greater with GA, as was the number of
This activity (located on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into mixing colors with light. Groups of learners will set up colored lights in a darkened room and record the color of shadows cast by each color. They will continue to collect data as they experiment with combinations of multiple colored lights and produce a data table to organize their findings. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Light and Color.
Polysaccharides like starch are poorly soluble in common solvents. However, certain ionic liquids (ILs) have been found to dissolve them, although some depolymerization happens during the dissolution. Dissolution and depolymerization of barley starch in ten ionic liquids have been studied with p-TsOH as a catalyst under controlled microwave heating. Dissolution time and the extent of the depolymerization of starch, determined by using HPLC-ELSD, were specific to each IL. Dialkylimidazolium halide ILs dissolved starch fast and depolymerized it substantially producing 79-100% water-soluble starch oligomers with the average molecular weight of 1000-2000Da. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium phosphate ([EMIM][Me2PO4]) and 2-hydroxyethylammonium formate ([NH3CH2CH2OH][HCOO]) dissolved starch slowly and depolymerized it least among the tested ILs. For the slow depolymerization of starch these ILs can be considered as suitable solvents for starch modifications where its depolymerization should be avoided. PMID:23465905
Chemical biological agents to be encapsulated are blended into an aqueous dispersion of an unmodified starch comprising about 5% to about 25% by weight amylose. The dispersion, having an initial starch solids content of about 20% by weight, is characteriz...
Porous starch is attracting very much attention for its absorption and shielding ability in many food applications. The effect of two different enzymes, fungal ?-amylase (AM) or amyloglucosidase (AMG), on corn starch at sub-gelatinization temperature was studied as an alternative to obtain porous starch. Biochemical features, thermal and structural analyses of treated starches were studied. Microscopic analysis of the granules confirmed the enzymatic modification of the starches obtaining porous structures with more agglomerates in the case of AMG treated starches. Several changes in thermal properties and hydrolysis kinetics were observed in enzymatically modified starches. Hydration properties were significantly affected by enzymatic modification being greater influenced by AMG activity, and the opposite trend was observed in the pasting properties. Overall, results showed that enzymatic modification at sub-gelatinization temperatures really offer an attractive alternative for obtaining porous starch granules to be used in a variety of foods applications. PMID:24299846
The heat capacities of starch and starch-water have been measured using adiabatic calorimetry, and standard differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and are reported from 5 K to 510 K. The amorphous starch containing 10 wt water shows a glass transition around 350 K. The heat capacities of the solid of amorphous, dry starch is linked to an approximate group vibrational spectrum, and the Tarasov equation is used to estimate the heat capacity contribution due to skeletal vibrations ( theta1 = 830 K and theta2 = 85 K theta3 = 85 K, Nskeletal = 17). The calculated and experimental heat capacities agree to better than ±3between 5 and 250 K. The experimental heat capacities of starch-water and dry starch are compared over the whole range of temperatures. Above the glass transition the differences are interpreted as contributions of different conformational heat capacities from interacting chain of carbohydrate with water. The conformational part is evaluated from a fit of the experimental Cp of starch-water, decreased by the vibrational and the external Cp to a one-dimensional Ising model with two discrete states and stiffness, cooperativity, and degeneracy parameters. NSF, Polymers Program, DMR-9703692, and the Div. of Mat. Sci., BES, DOE at ORNL, managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp., DE-AC05-96OR22464.
The Tuber indicum (Chinese truffle) and Tuber melanosporum (Black truffle) species are morphologically very similar but their aromas are very different. The black truffle aroma is much more intense and complex, and it is consequently appreciated more gastronomically. This work tries to determine whether the differences between the aromatic compounds of both species are sufficiently significant so as to apply them to fraud detection. An olfactometric evaluation (GC-O) of T. indicum was carried out for the first time. Eight important odorants were identified. In order of aromatic significance, these were: 1-octen-3-one and 1-octen-3-ol, followed by two ethyl esters (ethyl isobutyrate and ethyl 2-methylbutyrate), 3-methyl-1-butanol, isopropyl acetate, and finally the two sulfides dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) and dimethylsulfide (DMS). A comparison of this aromatic profile with that of T. melanosporum revealed the following differences: T. indicum stood out for the significant aromatic contribution of 1-octen-3-one and 1-octen-3-ol (with modified frequencies (MF%) of 82% and 69%, respectively), while in the case of T. melanosporum both had modified frequencies of less than 30%. Ethyl isobutyrate, ethyl 2-methylbutyrate and isopropyl acetate were also significantly higher, while DMS and DMDS had low MF (30-40%) compared to T. melanosporum (>70%). The volatile profiles of both species were also studied by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME-GC-MS). This showed that the family of C8 compounds (3-octanone, octanal, 1-octen-3-one, 3-octanol and 1-octen-3-ol) is present in T. indicum at much higher levels. The presence of 1-octen-3-ol was higher by a factor of about 100, while 1-octen-3-one was detected in T. indicum only (there was no chromatographic signal in T. melanosporum). As well as showing the greatest chromatographic differences, these two compounds were also the most powerful from the aromatic viewpoint in the T. indicum olfactometry. Therefore, either of the two chromatographic methods (GC-O or HS-SPME-GC-MS), together or separately, could be used as a screening technique to distinguish between T. indicum and T. melanosporum and thus avoid possible fraud. PMID:23768334
Cereal Chem. 78(5):583-589 Starch was isolated from 95 sorghum landraces from Zimbabwe using an alkali steep and wet-milling procedure. The physicochemical proper- ties of sorghum starch were examined for potential use in Southern Africa. All the landraces evaluated had a normal endosperm indicated by the amylose content of the starches. Starch properties were not correlated to most of the physical
Efficiency of the starch hydrolysis in the dry grind corn process is a determining factor for overall conversion of starch\\u000a to ethanol. A model, based on a molecular approach, was developed to simulate structure and hydrolysis of starch. Starch structure\\u000a was modeled based on a cluster model of amylopectin. Enzymatic hydrolysis of amylose and amylopectin was modeled using a Monte
Ganti S. MurthyDavid; David B. Johnston; Kent D. Rausch; M. E. Tumbleson; Vijay Singh
Poly(?-caprolactone)\\/plastisized starch blends varying in starch content were processed by conventional extrusion, injection molding, and film blowing techniques. X-ray diffraction was used to investigate starch destructurization carried out by extrusion. The mechanical energy input was also recorded. The effect of starch content on the blends was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry, mechanical property measurements, and scanning electron microscopy. A finer
P. Matzinos; V. Tserki; A. Kontoyiannis; C. Panayiotou
Starch as an inexpensive and renewable source has been used as a filler for environmentally friendly plastics for about two\\u000a decades. In order to improve the compatibility between hydrophilic starch granules and hydrophobic polypropylene (PP), glycerol\\u000a used as a plasticizer for starch to enhance the dispersion and the interfacial affinity in thermoplastic starch (TPS)\\/PP blend.\\u000a In this study, PP was
An organically modified clay (o-clay) and a pristine clay (p-clay) were used to prepare biodegradable thermoplastic starch (TPS)\\/clay nanocomposites by melt processing. The gelatinization behaviour of starch with glycerol\\/H2O was investigated and the gelatinized temperature (Tgel) was determined using a polarized optical microscopy (POM) equipped with a hot stage. The morphologies of gelatinized starch and extruded starch were revealed by
Potential roles of ultra high pressure (UHP) in starch granule reactivity and properties of acetylated starch were investigated. Corn starch was substituted with acetic anhydride at pressure range of 0.1–400MPa for 15min; also, conventional reaction (30°C, 60min) was conducted as reaction control. Native and acetylated corn starches were assessed with respect to degree of substitution (DS), X-ray diffraction pattern\\/relative crystallinity,
Hyun-Shik Choi; Hyun-Seok Kim; Cheon-Seok Park; Byung-Yong Kim; Moo-Yeol Baik
The goal of this work was the synthesis and characterisation of a starch based thickener, which should be used in surfactant systems of especially non-ionic alkyl polyglucosides (APG; C14–C18). The new starch derivative was applied in an aqueous formulation containing 14w% of APG and 0.5–2w% of different 2-hydroxyalkyl carboxymethyl starches as thickener.The surfactant system containing the starch based thickener should
A. Lehmann; B. Volkert; S. Fischer; A. Schrader; H. Nerenz
Potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), is one of the pests that cause the most damage to potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) in both field crops and storage, especially in regions where summers are hot and dry. Larvae develop in the foliage and tubers of potatoes and cause direct losses of edible product. The use of synthetic pheromones that interfere
Michel Guillon; Julio Kalazich; Fernando Graña; Claudia Vásquez
Three methods of cationic starch titration were used to quantify its retention on cellulose fibres, namely: (i) the complexation of CS with iodine and measurement of the absorbency of the ensuing blue solution by UV-vis spectroscopy; (ii) hydrolysis of the starch macromolecules followed by the conversion of the resulting sugars to furan-based molecules and quantifying the ensuing mixture by measuring their absorbance at a ? of 490 nm, using the same technique as previous one and; finally (iii) hydrolysis of starch macromolecules by trifluoro-acetic acid and quantification of the sugars in the resulting hydrolysates by high performance liquid chromatography. The three methods were found to give similar results within the range of CS addition from 0 to 50 mg per g of cellulose fibres.
Nanocomposite films of thermoplastic corn starch (TPS) with talc particles were obtained by thermo-compression in order to study the effect of filler on structure, optical, and thermal properties. Talc increased the films rigid phase, thus their cross-sections resulted more irregular. Talc preferential orientation within matrix and good compatibility between particles and TPS was observed by SEM. Slight crystalline structure changes in TPS matrix were measured by XRD and DSC, due to talc nucleating effect. Randomly dispersed talc nanoagglomerates and individual platelets were assessed by TEM. Laminar morphology and nano-sized particles allowed that nanocomposite films were optically transparent. TPS-talc films resulted heterogeneous materials, presenting domains rich in glycerol and others rich in starch. Talc incorporation higher than 3%, w/w increased softening resistance of the nanocomposites as stated by DMA. Relaxation temperatures of glycerol-rich phase shifted to higher values since talc reduces the mobility of starch chains. PMID:23648028
Hydroxypropylation of starches is known to impart useful physicochemical properties that are advantageously utilized both in food as well as in non-food applications. The alteration in these properties is not only dependent on the molar substitution, but is species–specific as well. The present work compares the pasting properties of hydroxypropyl derivative prepared from corn starch and waxy Amaranthus paniculatas starch.
Succinylation of corn and amaranth starches altered their swelling power as a function of temperature and degree of substitution (DS). Brabender viscoamylogram showed decrease in gelatinisation temperature with increase in DS from 0.05 to 0.20. While the peak viscosity increased with DS for corn starch (CSS), the reverse was found to be true for amaranth starch (ASS). CSS showed good
Physicochemical, morphological and pasting properties of starches isolated from four rice cultivars grown in India were studied. The amylose content ranged between 4.7 and 30.2% of starch, highest in K332 starch and lowest in SR1 starch. Swelling power, water solubility and water absorption capacity of starches increased with increase in temperature from 50 to 90?°C at 10?°C intervals. Highest swelling and water absorption was found in SR1 and lowest in K332 starches but reverse was observed in case of solubility that was highest for K332 and lowest for SR1 starch. The microstructure of starch granules from different rice cultivars showed the presence of mainly polyhedral granules having average size in the range of 4.0-5.2?µm. K332 showed the presence of smallest granules, whereas SR1 starch showed the presence of largest granules. X-ray diffraction pattern of rice starch from different cultivars showed typical A-type crystallinity. Pasting properties of starches differed significantly. Pasting temperature was highest for K332 and lowest for SR1, while peak viscosity was highest for aromatic rice and lowest for K448 starches. Higher setback was observed in K332 and lowest in SR1. PMID:23291829
Gani, Adil; Wani, S M; Masoodi, F A; Salim, Rehana
The aim of this review is to show the relationships between the structure, the process, and the properties of biodegradable multiphase systems based on plasticized starch (PLS), the so?called “thermoplastic starch.” These mutiphase materials are obtained when associating association between plasticized starches and other biodegradable materials, such as biodegradable polyesters [polycaprolactone (PCL), polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), polylactic acid (PLA), polyesteramide (PEA), aliphatic,
Summary The quality of potato starch, as indicated by paste viscosity, was not affected by storage of the potatoes for periods up\\u000a to nine months at temperatures of 34°, 42°, and 50° F. The composition of the water used in extracting the starch is of considerably\\u000a greater importance in determining starch quality.
The possible role of maltodextrins with a low degree of polymerisation (DP) as agents that retard bread staling was studied by following the staling process on a model system consisting of starch gels by means of textural and calorimetric assays. Maltodextrins of DP 2 to 7 were added at concentrations of 0.5% (starch base) to 15% (w\\/w) starch gels. Textural
Heat sealing capacity of native and acetylated corn starch based films was evaluated to develop biodegradable packages, such as bags. Thermo-mechanical properties were analyzed since they condition their handling and applications. Acetylated starch addition reinforced 80% sealing resistance of starch films. Unplasticized heat-sealed films presented adhesive failures while those containing glycerol showed a rupture near the zip. Unplasticized films exhibited
Olivia V. López; Carlos J. Lecot; Noemí E. Zaritzky; María A. García
Potato starch modified to different degrees by substitution with acetyl groups was the subject of this study undertaken to determine the influence of conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis on the surface-active properties of hydrolysates of acetylated starch. The effect of acetylation of starch preparation on its susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis in the membrane reactor was also considered. All hydrolysates of acetylated
Emilia Konowa?; Gra?yna Lewandowicz; Joanna Le Thanh-Blicharz; Krystyna Prochaska
Background Rhabdomyomas are the most common type of cardiac tumors in children. Anatomically, they can be considered as hamartomas. They are usually randomly diagnosed antenatally or postnatally sometimes presenting in the neonatal period with haemodynamic compromise or severe arrhythmias although most neonatal cases remain asymptomatic. Typically rhabdomyomas are multiple lesions and usually regress spontaneously but are often associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder caused by mutations in either of the two genes, TSC1 or TSC2. Diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis is usually made on clinical grounds and eventually confirmed by a genetic test by searching for TSC genes mutations. Methods We report our experience on 33 cases affected with rhabdomyomas and diagnosed from January 1989 to December 2012, focusing on the cardiac outcome and on association with the signs of tuberous sclerosis complex. We performed echocardiography using initially a Philips Sonos 2500 with a 7,5/5 probe and in the last 4 years a Philips IE33 with a S12-4 probe. We investigated the family history, brain, skin, kidney and retinal lesions, development of seizures, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Results At diagnosis we detected 205 masses, mostly localized in interventricular septum, right ventricle and left ventricle. Only in 4 babies (12%) the presence of a mass caused a significant obstruction. A baby, with an enormous septal rhabdomyoma associated to multiple rhabdomyomas in both right and left ventricular walls died just after birth due to severe heart failure. During follow-up we observed a reduction of rhabdomyomas in terms of both number and size in all 32 surviving patients except in one child. Eight patients (24,2%) had an arrhythmia and in 2 of these cases rhabdomyomas led to Wolf-Parkinson-White Syndrome. For all patients the arrhythmia spontaneously totally disappeared or was reduced gradually. With regarding to association with tuberous sclerosis, we diagnosed tuberous sclerosis clinically in 31 babies (93,9%). Conclusion Rhabdobyomas are tumors with favorable prognosis because they frequently do not cause symptoms and they often regress in numbers and size. Nevertheless, due to frequent association with tuberous sclerosis complex and the resulting neurological impairment, the prognosis can result unfavorable.
Starches from wheat, maize, finger millet, tapioca, green gram, chick pea, and potato were acid modified using 0.5N HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, and H3PO4 at 50°C for 1.5 h. Alkali Fluidity Number (AFN) for native starches was very low (0.3–2.5) and increased upon modification. HCl and HNO3 produced the highest AFN followed by H2SO4 and H3PO4?. For each acid, cereal and
We have used 13C-labeled sugars and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry to study the metabolic pathway of starch biosynthesis in developing wheat grain (Triticum aestivum cv Mardler). Our aim was to examine the extent of redistribution of 13C between carbons atoms 1 and 6 of [1-13C] or [6-13C]glucose (or fructose) incorporated into starch, and hence provide evidence for or against the involvement of triose phosphates in the metabolic pathway. Starch synthesis in the endosperm tissue was studied in two experimental systems. First, the 13C sugars were supplied to isolated endosperm tissue incubated in vitro, and second the 13C sugars were supplied in vivo to the intact plant. The 13C starch produced by the endosperm tissue of the grain was isolated and enzymically degraded to glucose using amyloglucosidase, and the distribution of 13C in all glucosyl carbons was quantified by 13C-NMR spectrometry. In all of the experiments, irrespective of the incubation time or incubation conditions, there was a similar pattern of partial (between 15 and 20%) redistribution of label between carbons 1 and 6 of glucose recovered from starch. There was no detectable increase over background 13C incidence in carbons 2 to 5. Within each experiment, the same pattern of partial redistribution of label was found in the glucosyl and fructosyl moieties of sucrose extracted from the tissue. Since it is unlikely that sucrose is present in the amyloplast, we suggest that the observed redistribution of label occurred in the cytosolic compartment of the endosperm cells and that both sucrose and starch are synthesized from a common pool of intermediates, such as hexose phosphate. We suggest that redistribution of label occurs via a cytosolic pathway cycle involving conversion of hexose phosphate to triose phosphate, interconversion of triose phosphate by triose phosphate isomerase, and resynthesis of hexose phosphate in the cytosol. A further round of triose phosphate interconversion in the amyloplast could not be detected. These data seriously weaken the argument for the selective uptake of triose phosphates by the amyloplast as part of the pathway of starch biosynthesis from sucrose in plant storage tissues. Instead, we suggest that a hexose phosphate such as glucose 1-phosphate, glucose 6-phosphate, or fructose 6-phosphate is the most likely candidate for entry into the amyloplast. A pathway of starch biosynthesis is presented, which is consistent with our data and with the current information on the intracellular distribution of enzymes in plant storage tissues.
Keeling, Peter L.; Wood, John R.; Tyson, R. Huw; Bridges, Ian G.
Resistant starch (RS) was prepared from high-amylose maize starch through two autoclaving–cooling cycles and then acid hydrolysis\\u000a of retrograded starch. Experimental results showed that hydrolysis of retrograded high-amylose maize starch with 0.1 mol L?1 citric acid at room temperature for 12 h would increase RS yield to 39%. At simulated conditions of large intestine (anaerobic\\u000a and 37 °C), the prepared RS product was fermented
Breeders' selections are routinely assessed for resistance to tuber blight at the Scottish Crop Research Institute by inoculating freshly dug tubers with a suspension ofPhytophthora infestans, and observing the percentage of blighted tubers after two weeks.
Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder resulting in epilepsy and mental retardation. Vigabatrin has shown efficacy in the treatment of infantile spasms caused by tuberous sclerosis complex, but its effects on focal seizures caused by tuberous sclerosis complex have not been determined. We compared the efficacy of vigabatrin in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex-induced focal seizures and infantile spasms and assessed the mental outcomes in both groups. We retrospectively evaluated 31 children with tuberous sclerosis complex and epilepsy, who were treated with vigabatrin in single tertiary center in Seoul, Korea. Vigabatrin treatment resulted in spasms cessation in 16 of 18 (88.9%) patients with infantile spasms, whereas 6 of 13 (46.2%) patients with focal seizures became seizure-free. Initial response to vigabatrin had no effect on intellectual disability. Vigabatrin was highly effective in eliminating infantile spasms caused by tuberous sclerosis complex, but was less effective in patients with focal seizures.
The crystallinity of starch in crispy bread crust was quantified using several different techniques. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) demonstrated the presence of granular starch in the crust and remnants of granules when moving towards the crumb. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed an endothermic transition at 70°C associated with the melting of crystalline amylopectin. The relative starch crystallinity, as determined
C. Primo-Martín; N. H. van Nieuwenhuijzen; R. J. Hamer; T. van Vliet
Granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) encoded by the Waxy (Wx) gene determines the synthesis of amylose; while, starch branching enzymes encoded by Sbe genes are involved in the formation of amylopectin. Both amylose and amylopectin form starch in the endosperm of seeds. Here, we report on the effects of the wx gene and the two Sbe genes, Sbe1 and Sbe3, on
Granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) encoded by the Waxy (Wx) gene determines the synthesis of amylose; while, starch branching enzymes encoded by Sbe genes are involved in the formation of amylopectin. Both amylose and amylopectin form starch in the endosperm of seeds. Here, we report on the effects of the wx gene and the two Sbe genes, Sbe1 and Sbe3, on
Although esthetic dentistry techniques have grown more sophisticated, the fabrication and control of color in dentistry can be improved. An organized and precise system is necessary to combine artistic and scientific approaches. For this, a color order system, based on Munsell's notations and spectrophotometric research on the color space of natural teeth, would provide restorations of excellent color. PMID:2447140
Testing device, which determines ability of a technician to identify color-coded electric wires, is superior to standard color blindness tests. It tests speed of wire selection, detects partial color blindness, allows rapid testing, and may be administered by a color blind person.
A coloring of a hypergraph is a mapping of vertices to colors such that no hyperedge is monochromatic. We are interested in the problem of coloring 2-colorable hypergraphs. For the special case of graphs (hypergraphs of dimension 2) this can easily be done in linear time. The problem for general hypergraphs is much more dicult since a result of Lov
The authors develop algorithms for the design of hierarchical tree structured color palettes incorporating performance criteria which reflect subjective evaluations of image quality. Tree structured color palettes greatly reduce the computational requirements of the palette design and pixel mapping tasks, while allowing colors to be properly allocated to densely populated areas of the color space. The algorithms produce higher-quality displayed
Often this means removing a dominant and undesirable color cast, such as the yellow in photos taken under incandescent illumination. This article describes a method for a more general form of color correction that borrows one image's color characteristics from anoth-er. Figure 1 shows an example of this process, where we applied the colors of a sunset photograph to a
Erik Reinhard; Michael Ashikhmin; Bruce Gooch; Peter Shirley
This paper describes the specifications and usage of standard RGB color spaces promoted today by standard bodies and\\/or the imaging industry. As in the past, most of the new standard RGB color spaces were developed for specific imaging workflow and applications. They are used as interchange spaces to communicate color and\\/or as working spaces in imaging applications. Standard color spaces
Describes the "color system" as a way of grouping children into different personality types based on a certain color: orange, blue, green, and gold. Lists stress producers for specific color people. Asserts that, through making groups of different colors, children begin to see the various specialties others can bring to the group and learn to…
This paper contains two principal results. The first proves that any graph G can be given a balanced proper edge coloring by k colors for any k???(G). Here balanced means that the number of vertices incident with any set of d colors is essentially fixed for each d, that is, for two different d-sets of colors the number of vertices
Paul N. Balister; Alexandr V. Kostochka; Hao Li; Richard H. Schelp
Skin color is an important feature of faces. Various ap- plications benefit from robust skin color detection. Skin color may look quite different, depending on camera set- tings, illumination, shadows, people's tans, ethnic groups. That variation is a challenging aspect of skin color classi- fication. In this paper, we present an approach that uses a high level vision module to
The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...
The behavioral responses of the potato tuberworm moth Phthorimaea operculella and the polyphagous predator Orius insidiosus to volatiles emanating from exposed tubers were studied by four-arm olfactometer bioassays. Mated females of P. operculella distinguished volatiles released by intact potato tubers from volatiles damaged mechanically or by conspecific larvae. Volatiles from intact potato tubers were attractive to them. On the other hand, unmated females of P. operculella did not respond to tuber volatiles. Adults of O. insidiosus were attracted to volatiles from tubers damaged by P. operculella larvae, but did not respond to intact or mechanically damaged tubers. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was the only compound identified from the headspace of potato tubers (GC-MS of direct headspace sampling). The amount varied with the type of induction, being 0.001 +/- 0.0003 ng g(-1) in tissues of intact fresh tubers, 0.002 +/- 0.0007 ng g(-1) in mechanically damaged tubers, and showing a six- to tenfold increase in P. operculella damaged tubers (0.090 +/- 0.006 ng g(-1)). Behavioral bioassays with synthetic MeJA confirmed that the response of the insects is dependent on MeJA concentration. Mated females of P. operculella showed the highest response at 0.001 ng g(-1) (concentration released by intact tubers), whereas O. insidiosus showed the highest response, between 0.01 and 0.05 ng g(-1), which is close to the concentration released by P. operculella damaged tubers. Based on these results, we postulate that P. operculella and O. insidiosus have adapted their responses to plant volatiles differently, enabling them to locate suitable hosts or prey. PMID:17885793
Arab, Alberto; Trigo, José Roberto; Lourenção, André Luiz; Peixoto, Aiane Michele; Ramos, Fernanda; Bento, José Mauricio Simões
This is the first report ofin vitro tuberization becoming feasible for agriculture in seed-potato production. The optimum condition forin vitro mass tuberization of virus-free potatoes were: 10 mg\\/1 BA, 8% sucrose. 20°C incubating temperature, and eight hours of 100\\u000a lux incubation photoperiod. An estimated 36,000 dormant, miniature tubers were harvested from the aseptic containers incubated\\u000a on a 10m2 bench area
Iodine-saturated atmosphere was found to inhibit the sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. The iodine concentration in tuber tissues increased as a function of exposure length, and the onset of inhibition of sprouting was found to depend on tubers genotype. During the time-course of the treatment, the transcription of polyphenol oxidases (EC 126.96.36.199 and EC 188.8.131.52) was undetectable in
Francesco Eolini; Alejandro Hochkoeppler; Andrea Credi; Antonio Gonzàlez Vara Y Rodr??guez; ValeriaPoggi
PHYTIC acid is present in the mature potato tuber, as a mixture of dicalcium monomagnesium salts of inositol hexa- and penta-phosphoric acids1,2. The present communication provides information on the effect of maturity and post-harvest storage temperature on the phytic acid content of the potato tuber. Table 1 shows that the phytic acid phosphorus content of freshly harvested tubers increases with
Gamma radiation arises as an advantageous alternative to obtain starch nanoparticles given its low cost, simple methodology and scalability. Starch nanoparticles (SNP) with sizes around 20 and 30 nm were obtained applying a dose of 20 kGy from cassava (CNP-?) and waxy maize (WNP-?) starch, respectively. They showed the same thermal degradation behavior and their maximum mass loss zone was similar to those nanoparticles obtained from acid hydrolysis (WNP-h). Additionally, CNP-? and WNP-? were used as nanofillers in a cassava matrix. Increments of 102% in storage modulus were obtained with the addition of only 2.5 wt.% of WNP-?, showing that gamma radiation is a successful methodology to obtain SNP able to be used as starch reinforcement. PMID:23769521
This report highlights the association between tuberous sclerosis and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Ten patients with concurrent diagnoses of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and tuberous sclerosis were identified. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome presented early in life, nine cases being diagnosed in the first year. Eight of the 10 cases were male. In eight cases, the syndrome was associated with supraventricular tachycardias, and in nine with cardiac rhabdomyomata. One child died from cardiac failure secondary to obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract by a rhabdomyoma. Five of nine survivors showed resolution of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome on follow up. The accessory pathway was localised in nine patients from surface electrocardiograms: six children had left sided pathways and three had right sided pathways.??
The goal of the study was to assess the long-term seizure and neuropsychologic outcomes of patients with tuberous sclerosis and refractory epilepsy who received vagus nerve stimulator implantation. Eleven patients with a follow-up period of at least 12 months were studied retrospectively. The mean age at the time of implantation was 14 years (range, 2-35). Seizure outcome was rated as class I (>80% seizure frequency reduction) in 1 (9%), class II (50-79% reduction) in 7 (63%), and class III (<50% reduction) in 3 (27%). No patient experienced permanent adverse effects after the procedure. A significant increase of adaptive behaviors and quality of life was observed. Patients who had implantation during childhood exhibited a greater improvement in cognitive and neuropsychologic functioning. Vagus nerve stimulation can be considered an effective and safe therapeutic option in patients with tuberous sclerosis and refractory epilepsy who are not candidates for epilepsy surgery. PMID:20682200
Zamponi, Nelia; Petrelli, Cristina; Passamonti, Claudia; Moavero, Romina; Curatolo, Paolo
Morphological delimitation of Asian black truffles, including Tuber himalayense, T. indicum, T. sinense, T. pseudohimalayense, T. formosanum and T. pseudoexcavatum, has remained problematic and even phylogenetic analyses have been controversial. In this study, we combined five years of field investigation in China with morphological study and DNA sequences analyses (ITS, LSU and ?-tubulin) of 131 Tuber specimens to show that T. pseudohimalayense and T. pseudoexcavatum are the same species. T. formosanum is a separate species based on its host plants and geographic distribution, combined with minor morphological difference from T. indicum. T. sinense should be treated as a synonym of T. indicum. Our results demonstrate that the present T. indicum, a single described morphological species, should include at least two separate phylogenetic species. These findings are of high importance for truffle taxonomy and reveal and preserve the richness of truffle diversity.
The interest in the use of resistant starch (RS) for the development of new bakery products has significantly increased due\\u000a to its ascribed physiological effects with proven health benefits. The objective of the present work was to analyse the effects\\u000a of the wheat flour substitution by modified pea starch with high level of RS (PeaP) on breadmaking performance. The effects
Juan Mario Sanz-Penella; Ma?gorzata Wronkowska; Maria Soral-?mietana; Concha Collar; Monika Haros
Modification of starch biosynthesis pathways holds an enormous potential for tailoring granules or polymers with new functionalities. In this study, we explored the possibility of engineering artificial granule-bound proteins, which can be incorporated in the granule during biosynthesis. The starch-binding domain (SBD)-encoding region of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans was fused to the sequence encoding the transit peptide (amyloplast entry)
Qin Ji; Jean-Paul Vincken; Luc C. J. M. Suurs; Richard G. F. Visser
Growth of potato tuber calli cells (non-green) is inhibited by 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) as a consequence\\u000a of perturbation of membrane integrity. MCPA also depresses ATP content with simultaneous increase of ADP and AMP, i.e., the\\u000a energy charge is severely compromised. Cell redox state is also affected by MCPA, as a function of concentration. Up to 60 ?M,\\u000a MCPA stimulates glutathione reductase
Francisco P. Peixoto; M. Ludovina Lopes; Vítor M. C. Madeira; Joaquim A. F. Vicente
Summary The expression of antioxidant genes has been analyzed in a potato plant and during tuber dormancy. Manganese superoxide dismutase\\u000a (MnSOD), cytosolic copper and zinc superoide dismutase (Cu\\/ZnSOD), catalase class II, cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (APX)\\u000a and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) are expressed at the RNA level in all the contexts analyzed. By contrast, the expression\\u000a of the iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD) and
J. A. Rojas-Beltran; F. Dejaeghere; M. Abd Alla Kotb; P. Du Jardin
Methanolic extract of tubers of Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae) (PTME) has been tested for hepatoxicity in rats. In acute study, PTME (100–400mg\\/100g BW, given orally) showed LD50 at 227.5mg. For sub-chronic study, its repeated doses (5–100mg\\/100g BW, for 30days), significantly increased hepatic enzymes in blood, sinusoidal congestion, disruption of central vein, inflammatory cell infiltration and hepatocellular necrosis in liver in
Nagwani Santosh; Kumar Mohan; Singh Royana; Tripathi B. Yamini
In 2012 an estimated 8.6 million people developed tuberculosis (TB) and 1.3 million died from the disease [including 320?000 deaths among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive people]. There is an urgent need for new anti-TB drugs owing to the following: the fact that current treatments have severe side effects, the increasing emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the negative drug-drug interactions with certain HIV (or other disease) treatments and the ineffectiveness against dormant Mtb. In this context we present here the TuberQ database, a novel resource for all researchers working in the field of drug development in TB. The main feature of TuberQ is to provide a druggability analysis of Mtb proteins in a consistent and effective manner, contributing to a better selection of potential drug targets for screening campaigns and the analysis of targets for structure-based drug design projects. The structural druggability analysis is combined with features related to the characteristics of putative inhibitor binding pockets and with functional and biological data of proteins. The structural analysis is performed on all available unique Mtb structures and high-quality structural homology-based models. This information is shown in an interactive manner, depicting the protein structure, the pockets and the associated characteristics for each protein. TuberQ also provides information about gene essentiality information, as determined from whole cell-based knockout experiments, and expression information obtained from microarray experiments done in different stress-related conditions. We hope that TuberQ will be a powerful tool for researchers working in TB and eventually will lead to the identification of novel putative targets and progresses in therapeutic activities. Database URL: http://tuberq.proteinq.com.ar/ PMID:24816183
Radusky, Leandro; Defelipe, Lucas A; Lanzarotti, Esteban; Luque, Javier; Barril, Xavier; Marti, Marcelo A; Turjanski, Adrián G
Three fractions with invertase activity (?-d-fructofuranoside fructohydrolase, EC 184.108.40.206) were isolated from mature Solanum tuberosum tubers: acid soluble invertase, invertase I and invertase II. The first two invertases were purified until electrophoretic homogeneity. They are made by two subunits with an apparent Mr value of 35?000 and their optimal pH is 4.5. Invertase I was eluted from cell walls with
Mar??a Inés Isla; Marta Amelia Vattuone; Roxana Mabel Ordóñez; Antonio Rodolfo Sampietro
Six families with mosaicism are identified in a series of 62 unrelated\\u000a families with a mutation in one of the two tuberous sclerosis complex\\u000a (TSC) genes, TSC1 or TSC2. In five families, somatic mosaicism was present\\u000a in a mildly affected parent of an index patient. In one family with\\u000a clinically unaffected parents, gonadal mosaicism was detected after TSC\\u000a was found
Senno Verhoef; Lida Bakker; Anita M. P. Tempelaars; Arjenne L. W. Hesseling-Janssen; Tadeusz Mazurczak; Sergiusz Jozwiak; Alberto Fois; Gabriella Bartalini; Bernard A. Zonnenberg; Anthonie J. van Essen; Dick Lindhout; Dicky J. J. Halley; Ans M. W. van den Ouweland
The lipids of the tuberous roots ofMandragora turcomanica Mizger (fam. Solanaceae) have been characterized for the first time. By using CC, TLC, Ag+-TLC, UV and IR spectroscopies and mass spectrometry, 20 classes of lipids and lipophilic substances have been characterized.\\u000a The main components of the acyl-containing lipids that were isolated were found to be triacylglycerols and glycolipids, and\\u000a among the
D. T. Asilbekova; S. D. Gusakova; Yu. M. Murdakhaev; A. I. Glushenkova
In 2012 an estimated 8.6 million people developed tuberculosis (TB) and 1.3 million died from the disease [including 320?000 deaths among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive people]. There is an urgent need for new anti-TB drugs owing to the following: the fact that current treatments have severe side effects, the increasing emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the negative drug–drug interactions with certain HIV (or other disease) treatments and the ineffectiveness against dormant Mtb. In this context we present here the TuberQ database, a novel resource for all researchers working in the field of drug development in TB. The main feature of TuberQ is to provide a druggability analysis of Mtb proteins in a consistent and effective manner, contributing to a better selection of potential drug targets for screening campaigns and the analysis of targets for structure-based drug design projects. The structural druggability analysis is combined with features related to the characteristics of putative inhibitor binding pockets and with functional and biological data of proteins. The structural analysis is performed on all available unique Mtb structures and high-quality structural homology-based models. This information is shown in an interactive manner, depicting the protein structure, the pockets and the associated characteristics for each protein. TuberQ also provides information about gene essentiality information, as determined from whole cell–based knockout experiments, and expression information obtained from microarray experiments done in different stress-related conditions. We hope that TuberQ will be a powerful tool for researchers working in TB and eventually will lead to the identification of novel putative targets and progresses in therapeutic activities. Database URL: http://tuberq.proteinq.com.ar/
Radusky, Leandro; Lanzarotti, Esteban; Luque, Javier; Barril, Xavier; Marti, Marcelo A.; Turjanski, Adrian G.
Retrospective chart review of 15 patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) who initiated the low glycemic index treatment (LGIT) for epilepsy management at Massachusetts General Hospital over a five-year period. Prior to dietary therapy, this cohort (average age: 8.5 years) had tried an average of 5.8 anti-epileptic drugs with incomplete seizure control. At 6 months on the LGIT, 7/15 (47%) patients experienced >50% reduction in seizure frequency. PMID:22119636
Larson, Anna M; Pfeifer, Heidi H; Thiele, Elizabeth A
Summary Working with the sprout inhibitors IPC and CIPC we compared 3 treatment methods: (1) a 10 ppm dosage of powder distributed\\u000a over the tubers, (2) a Swingfog treatment (atomizing a solution in the air duct, dosage up to 20 ppm), (3) a porous cartridge\\u000a containing the inhibitor placed in the air duct. To obtain good sprout inhibition in connection with
Summary Chlorogenic and caffeic acids were identified in extracts from Russet Rural potatoes by a combination of one-and two-dimensional\\u000a paper chromatography, paper electrophoresis, ultraviolet spectrophotometry and spectrophotofluorimetry. The best estimate\\u000a of the content of chlorogenic acid in the Russet Rural tubers was 15 mg. or less\\/100 gm. in the cortex tissue and 3 mg. or\\u000a less\\/100 gm. (fresh weight) in the
Various transcriptional networks and plant hormones have been implicated in controlling different aspects of potato tuber formation. Due to its broad impact on many plant developmental processes, a role for auxin in tuber initiation has been suggested but never fully resolved. Here, auxin concentrations were measured throughout the plant prior to and during the process of tuber formation. Auxin levels increase dramatically in the stolon prior to tuberization and remain relatively high during subsequent tuber growth, suggesting a promoting role for auxin in tuber formation. Furthermore, in vitro tuberization experiments showed higher levels of tuber formation from axillary buds of explants where the auxin source (stolon tip) had been removed. This phenotype could be rescued by application of auxin on the ablated stolon tips. In addition, a synthetic strigolactone analogue applied on the basal part of the stolon resulted in fewer tubers. The experiments indicate that a system for the production and directional transport of auxin exists in stolons and acts synergistically with strigolactones to control the outgrowth of the axillary stolon buds, similar to the control of above-ground shoot branching.
Chlorosis and necrotic spotting develop on the foliage of particular cultivars of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) when grown under constant light. 'Kennebec', a cultivar severely injured by constant light when propagated from tissue-cultured plantlets, also was injured when plants were propagated from small tuber pieces (approximately 1 g). However, plants did not develop injury when propagated from large tuber pieces (approximately 100 g). Plants from large tuber pieces grew more rapidly than plants from small tuber pieces. The role of plant vigor and carbohydrate translocation in controlling injury development is discussed.
Total starch (TS) and resistant starch (RS) contents in pasty edible product of mealy and hard cooking tubers of three yam varieties and four cassava varieties were determined to evaluate their contribution in their cooking quality. TS and RS contents appeared as the main components in determining yam cooking quality. Mealy cooking yam varieties were characterized by a significant higher TS content (75.2 ± 7.7 g/100 g d.m.) and lower RS content (13.8 ± 3.4 g/100 g d.m.) than hard cooking yam varieties, which, in contrast, contained less TS (61.7 ± 12.1 g/100 g d.m.) and particularly high RS (21.8 ± 9.9 g/100 g d.m.), possibly as a consequence of the prevalence of large granules (35-40 ?m) observed by light microscope. Conversely, TS and RS contents appeared not determinant on the cooking quality of cassava. Moreover, higher amylose contents were associated with substantially elevated percentages of RS in yam and cassava, and high RS content in samples modulates their pasting properties by reducing the peak viscosity and the breakdown and requiring higher temperature and longer time to the peak. PMID:23215529
The development of a bioremediation process is designed to minimize most of the waste generated with dry media paint removal. The bioremediation method was developed by DOT Technologies in Canada. When paint is removed with wheat starch media, a dust wast...
While potato starch has been an item of commerce for many years, traditional processing methods have incurred large volumes of high BOD effluents. The research summarized by this report has lead to a modified process which upgrades the soluble components formerly discarded in the...
Starch is the most important long-term reserve in trees, and the analysis of starch is therefore useful source of physiological information. Currently published protocols for wood starch analysis impose several limitations, such as long procedures and a neutralization step. The high-throughput standard protocols for starch analysis in food and feed represent a valuable alternative. However, they have not been optimised or tested with woody samples. These have particular chemical and structural characteristics, including the presence of interfering secondary metabolites, low reactivity of starch, and low starch content. In this study, a standard method for starch analysis used for food and feed (AOAC standard method 996.11) was optimised to improve precision and accuracy for the analysis of starch in wood. Key modifications were introduced in the digestion conditions and in the glucose assay. The optimised protocol was then evaluated through 430 starch analyses of standards at known starch content, matrix polysaccharides, and wood collected from three organs (roots, twigs, mature wood) of four species (coniferous and flowering plants). The optimised protocol proved to be remarkably precise and accurate (3%), suitable for a high throughput routine analysis (35 samples a day) of specimens with a starch content between 40 mg and 21 µg. Samples may include lignified organs of coniferous and flowering plants and non-lignified organs, such as leaves, fruits and rhizomes.
Bellasio, Chandra; Fini, Alessio; Ferrini, Francesco
The Neoechinulin A in Cordate Pinellia Tuber was isolated by column chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A method of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) for the determination of the Neoechinulin A in Cordate Pinellia Tuber was developed. The chromatography was performed on a Diamonsil C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with a mixture of methanol and 0.1% phosphoric acid solution (63:37, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection wavelength was set at 225 nm and the column oven temperature was set at 30 degrees C. The volume of injection was 10 microL. There was a good linear relationship (r = 0.9995) between the mass concentration and the peak area of Neoechinulin A in the range of 2.0 - 40.0 mg/L. The recovery was 98.3% - 101.1%. The method is rapid and simple with good accuracy, reproducibility and suitable for the quality control of Cordate Pinellia Tuber from different sources. PMID:19938514
Talinum cuneifolium (Vahl.) Willd. an erect shrub with subterranian tuber (Portulacaceae) is endowed with wide range of pharmacological activities. The antimicrobial efficacy of the plant is evaluated against three bacteria and two fungal species by disc diffusion method. Preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out among hexane, ethylacetate, methanolic extracts of leaf and roottuber for different potent chemicals. The leaf methanolic extract of T cuneifolium showed maximum effect on the growth of Proteus (25.8 mm) followed by Bacillus (24.62 mm) and E. coli (19.42 mm). The tuberous methanolic extract of T cuneifolium showed maximum effect on growth of Proteus (28.15 mm) followed by Bacillus (26.88 mm) and E. coli (24.51 mm). The Gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus) were more susceptible to the extractions of T cuneifolium as compared to Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumoneia). The antifungal activity of selected plant leaf and root tubers exhibit pronounced activity against Candida albicans rather than Aspergillus niger. These studies showed that the methanolic extracts of T cuneifolium plant parts were certainly much better and powerful. This may be due to the better solubility of the action components in organic solvent. PMID:23360007
Savithramma, N; Ankanna, S; Rao, M Linga; Saradvathi, J
A total of 59 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified from Tuber melanosporum fermentation: 53 from its fermented mycelia and 32 from the fermentation broth. Alcohol-derived compounds were predominant in both the fermentation mycelia and the broth, although long chain fatty acids and isoprenoids were, for the first time, also found in the mycelia. The intense wine bouquet properties of the broth arose from several specific flavor substances, including sulfur compounds, pyrazines, furans and jasmones. Comparing the VOCs identified in this work with those previously reported, our results are more similar to the composition of the Tuber fruiting-body than previous Tuber fermentations. The composition and accumulation of flavor volatiles (e.g., pyrazines, sulfur compounds, and esters) and major constituents (e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethanol) in this fermentation were significantly influenced by the sucrose concentration in the medium. The obtained information could therefore be useful in applications to convert the flavors of truffle mycelia similar to those of the fruiting-body by optimising the fermentation process. PMID:22980851
Medium composition and culture conditions for the bleaching stable alkaline protease production by Aspergillus clavatus ES1 were optimized. Two statistical methods were used. Plackett-Burman design was applied to find the key ingredients and conditions for the best yield. Response surface methodology (RSM) including full factorial design was used to determine the optimal concentrations and conditions. Results indicated that Mirabilis jalapa tubers powder (MJTP), culture temperature, and initial medium pH had significant effects on the production. Under the proposed optimized conditions, the protease experimental yield (770.66 U/ml) closely matched the yield predicted by the statistical model (749.94 U/ml) with R (2)=0.98. The optimum operating conditions obtained from the RSM were MJTP concentration of 10 g/l, pH 8.0, and temperature of 30 degrees C, Sardinella heads and viscera flour (SHVF) and other salts were used at low level. The medium optimization contributed an about 14.0-fold higher yield than that of the unoptimized medium (starch 5 g/l, yeast extract 2 g/l, temperature 30 degrees C, and pH 6.0; 56 U/ml). More interestingly, the optimization was carried out with the by-product sources, which may result in cost-effective production of alkaline protease by the strain. PMID:18481054
Intercellular adhesion in some parenchyma becomes strengthened in response to stress. The present study provides an approach to investigate this phenomenon (usually attributed to pectin methyl esterase and binding of Ca(2+) and/or rhamnogalacturonan-II-borate) through reliable stress simulation by probing organic acid molecules in potato tuber parenchyma. Short-chain monocarboxylic acids induce consistent intercellular adhesion strengthening (3.8-5.3 newton) at pH >or= 3 < pK(a), where pectin methyl esterase activity and Ca(2+) or borate binding are limited, and vice versa at pH > pK(a) with a strength of 1.4-2.0 newton as compared to 0.3-0.4 newton for the nonincubated control. Strengthening of intercellular adhesion is characterized by prominent staining of pectin and protein and immunogold labeling of pectin in the cell wall and the middle lamellar complex, particularly after boiling. Pectin confers strengthening to the primary cell wall, as reflected by: (i) prominent immunogold labeling following boiling; and (ii) puncturing macerated cells by starch gelatinization pressure after enzymatic pectin removal. PMID:17096521
The effects of plant hormones and sucrose (Suc) on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuberization were studied using in vitro cultured single-node cuttings. Tuber-inducing (high Suc) and -noninducing (low Suc or high Suc plus gibberellin [GA]) media were tested. Tuberization frequencies, tuber widths, and stolon lengths were measured during successive stages of development. Endogenous GAs and abscisic acid (ABA) were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Exogenous GA4/7 promoted stolon elongation and inhibited tuber formation, whereas exogenous ABA stimulated tuberization and reduced stolon length. Indoleacetic acid-containing media severely inhibited elongation of stolons and smaller sessile tubers were formed. Exogenous cytokinins did not affect stolon elongation and tuber formation. Endogenous GA1 level was high during stolon elongation and decreased when stolon tips started to swell under inducing conditions, whereas it remained high under noninducing conditions. GA1 levels were negatively correlated with Suc concentration in the medium. We conclude that GA1 is likely to be the active GA during tuber formation. Endogenous ABA levels decreased during stolon and tuber development, and ABA levels were similar under inducing and noninducing conditions. Our results indicate that GA is a dominant regulator in tuber formation: ABA stimulates tuberization by counteracting GA, and Suc regulates tuber formation by influencing GA levels.
Xu, Xin; van Lammeren, Andre A.M.; Vermeer, Evert; Vreugdenhil, Dick
High pressure processing is a promising non-thermal technology for the development of fresh-like, shelf-stable foods. The effect of high pressure on starch has been explored by many researchers using a wide range of techniques. In general, heat and pressure have similar effects: if sufficiently high, they both induce gelatinization of starch in excess water, resulting in a transition of the native granular structure to a starch paste or gel. However, there are significant differences in the structural and rheological properties between heated and pressurized starches. These differences offer benefits with respect to new product development. However, in order to implement high-pressure technology to starch and starch-containing products, a good understanding of the mechanism of pressure-induced gelatinization is necessary. Studies that are published in this area are reviewed, and the similarities and differences between starches gelatinized by pressure and by temperature are summarized. PMID:24188310
Vallons, Katleen J R; Ryan, Liam A M; Arendt, Elke K
The influence of sodium caseinate on the thermal and rheological properties of starch gels at different concentrations and from different botanical sources was evaluated. In sodium caseinate-starch gels, for all starches with the exception of potato starch, the sodium caseinate promoted an increase in the storage modulus and in the viscosity of the composite gel when compared with starch gels. The addition of sodium caseinate resulted in an increase in the onset temperature, the gelatinization temperature, and the end temperature, and there was a significant interaction between starch and sodium caseinate for the onset temperature, the peak temperature, and the end temperature. Microscopy results suggested that sodium caseinate promoted an increase in the homogeneity in the matrix of cereal starch gels. PMID:15769164
Bertolini, Andrea C; Creamer, Lawrence K; Eppink, Mieke; Boland, Mike
Different Andean crops were used to obtain starches not previously reported in literature as raw material for the production of biodegradable polymers. The twelve starches obtained were used to prepare biodegradable films by casting. Water and glycerol were used as plasticizers. The mechanical properties of the starch based films were assessed by means of tensile tests. Compost tests and FTIR tests were carried out to assess biodegradability of films. The results show that the mechanical properties (UTS, Young's modulus and elongation at break) of starch based films strongly depend on the starch source used for their production. We found that all the starch films prepared biodegrade following a three stage process and that the weight loss rate of all the starch based films tested was higher than the weight loss rate of the cellulose film used as control. PMID:21300087
Torres, F G; Troncoso, O P; Torres, C; Díaz, D A; Amaya, E
In order to minimize the evaporative flavor loss and to improve flavor stability, the encapsulation potential of native corn and barley starches [waxy corn starch (CW), regular corn starch (CR), waxy barley starch (BW), regular barley starch (BR)] and their chemically modified counterparts (succinylated starches: CWS; CRS; BWS; BRS and octenyl succinylated starches: CWOS; CROS; BWOS; BROS) were investigated. Four
You-Jin Jeon; Thava Vasanthan; Feral Temelli; Byung-Kwon Song
The aim of this study was a comprehensive investigation on phenolic profile, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of the still insufficiently explored black summer truffles (Tuber aestivum Vittad.) and white (Tuber magnatum Pico) truffles. Methanol and water extracts, obtained by maceration and Soxhlet extraction, were examined. Forty-five phenolics was studied using LC-MS/MS: presence of 14 compounds was confirmed, with the most dominant being p-hydroxybenzoic acid, baicalein and kaempferol (T. aestivum), epicatechin and catechin (T. magnatum). Moderate antioxidant activity of both species was determined through several assays. Only T. magnatum showed anti-inflammatory potential by inhibiting COX-1 and 12-LOX pathway products synthesis. Methanol extracts exerted cytotoxicity against some tumour cell lines (HeLa, MCF7, HT-29), besides the prominent activity of water extracts towards breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7). To conclude, these results support further investigations of phytochemicals and biological activity towards verification of nutraceutical use of both species. PMID:25038699
Beara, Ivana N; Lesjak, Marija M; Cetojevi?-Simin, Dragana D; Marjanovi?, Zaklina S; Risti?, Jelena D; Mrkonji?, Zorica O; Mimica-Duki?, Neda M
and gray abstract shapes. During retrieval, old and new shapes,were,presented,in gray and participants responded ‘old-colored’, ‘old-gray’, or ‘new’. Within color perception regions, color memory related activity was observed in the left fusiform gyrus, adjacent to the collateral sulcus. A retinotopic mapping,analysis,indicated,this activity occurred,within color processing,region,V8. The present,feature specific evidence,provides,compelling support,for a constructive,view of memory.,NeuroReport 00:000–000 ,,2009 Wolters Kluwer Health |
The aim of this study was to design a modified atmosphere packaging suitable for Tuber melanosporum and Tuber aestivum truffles that extend their shelf life and their availability as a fresh product. Their respiration rates were determined by O(2) depletion and CO(2) formation in closed systems performed at different temperatures: 4, 10, and 23 degrees C. The results were fitted by exponential equations and derivatives of these equations were used to obtain the experimental respiration rates. Our results revealed high respiration rates in both species of truffles and respiratory quotients (RQ) higher than 1 in all the cases studied. A linear dependence of respiration rate, both R(O2) and R(CO2), on O(2) concentration was revealed. A mathematical model was used to predict the evolution of the gaseous composition at 4 degrees C in the interior of polypropylene trays (250 mL) heat sealed with 4 microperforated films of different transmission rates. A microperforated film with 2 holes (90 x 50 microm) was selected to produce an internal atmosphere of 15%CO(2)/7%O(2) at 4 degrees C. The predicted atmosphere composition was confirmed by the experimental results. The quality and microbiological characteristics of fresh truffles, packaged in these conditions, revealed that the microbial counts of pseudomonads and Enterobacteriaceae were decreased, the weight loss was reduced, the typical hard texture was maintained, and the development of mycelium growth was delayed, enabling good scores for aroma and flavor, and therefore prolonging the shelf life of T. melanosporum and T. aestivum truffles to 28 and 21 d, respectively. Practical Application: This study describes the benefits of using MAP with microperforated films in the postharvest storage of Tuber melanosporum and Tuber aestivum fresh truffles. The shelf life of T. aestivum is prolonged to 21 d and of T. melanosporum to beyond 28 d increasing the possibilities for a foreign market. PMID:20546403
Rivera, Carmen Susana; Blanco, Domingo; Salvador, María Luisa; Venturini, María Eugenia
In addition to the exclusively granule-bound starch synthase GBSSI, starch granules also bind significant proportions of other starch biosynthetic enzymes, particularly starch synthases (SS) SSI and SSIIa, and starch branching enzyme (BE) BEIIb. Whether this association is a functional aspect of starch biosynthesis, or results from non-specific entrapment during amylopectin crystallization, is not known. This study utilized genetic, immunological, and proteomic approaches to investigate comprehensively the proteome and phosphoproteome of Zea mays endosperm starch granules. SSIII, BEI, BEIIa, and starch phosphorylase were identified as internal granule-associated proteins in maize endosperm, along with the previously identified proteins GBSS, SSI, SSIIa, and BEIIb. Genetic analyses revealed three instances in which granule association of one protein is affected by the absence of another biosynthetic enzyme. First, eliminating SSIIa caused reduced granule association of SSI and BEIIb, without affecting GBSS abundance. Second, eliminating SSIII caused the appearance of two distinct electrophoretic mobility forms of BEIIb, whereas only a single migration form of BEIIb was observed in wild type or any other mutant granules examined. Third, eliminating BEIIb caused significant increases in the abundance of BEI, BEIIa, SSIII, and starch phosphorylase in the granule, without affecting SSI or SSIIa. Analysis of the granule phosphoproteome with a phosphorylation-specific dye indicated that GBSS, BEIIb, and starch phosphorylase are all phosphorylated as they occur in the granule. These results suggest the possibility that starch metabolic enzymes located in granules are regulated by post-translational modification and/or protein–protein interactions.
Grimaud, Florent; Rogniaux, Helene; James, Martha G.; Myers, Alan M.; Planchot, Veronique
The mechanisms underlying starch granule initiation remain unknown. We have recently reported that mutation of soluble starch synthase IV (SSIV) in Arabidopsis thaliana results in restriction of the number of starch granules to a single, large, particle per plastid, thereby defining an important component of the starch priming machinery. In this work, we provide further evidence for the function of SSIV in the priming process of starch granule formation and show that SSIV is necessary and sufficient to establish the correct number of starch granules observed in wild-type chloroplasts. The role of SSIV in granule seeding can be replaced, in part, by the phylogenetically related SSIII. Indeed, the simultaneous elimination of both proteins prevents Arabidopsis from synthesizing starch, thus demonstrating that other starch synthases cannot support starch synthesis despite remaining enzymatically active. Herein, we describe the substrate specificity and kinetic properties of SSIV and its subchloroplastic localization in specific regions associated with the edges of starch granules. The data presented in this work point to a complex mechanism for starch granule formation and to the different abilities of SSIV and SSIII to support this process in Arabidopsis leaves.
Color management allows the deterministic handling of color data from input to output. This, of course, assumes that the first digital representation of our data is the "correct" color. It assumes that we did not make any errors in the input definitions, did not use wrong color input profiles, captured the user's intent, or fell prey to a host of other potential problems. After we have made those assumptions, we now can deterministically transfer the color from one place to another. Note that there is a big difference between "reproducing" one color at a different location and "deterministically transferring one set of color data to another location". The deterministic transfer is limited to the small set of physical metrics we decided to call "color". All other components of color are ignored.
A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.
Tomozawa, Minoru (Troy, NY); Watson, E. Bruce (Troy, NY); Acocella, John (Troy, NY)
Microalgal starch is a potential feedstock for biofuel production. The effects of KNO(3) and MgSO(4) concentrations and light intensity on biomass and starch production by the marine microalga, Tetraselmis subcordiformis, were investigated. Under 200 ?mol m(-2) s(-1) irradiance and sulfur-deprived conditions, a starch productivity of 0.62 g L(-1) d(-1) and a starch content of 62.1% based on dry weight (DW) was achieved. A starch content of 54.3% was achieved under low irradiance and nitrogen starvation, which was 6.5% higher than that under nutrient- and light-sufficient conditions. Photosynthetic activity was indispensable for starch accumulation. It is difficult to reach high starch productivity and starch concentration simultaneously. Proper nutrient concentrations are necessary to achieve high starch productivity or starch concentration based on the target. The high starch productivity and starch content suggest that T. subcordiformis is a promising microalgal starch producer. PMID:22717561
The effect of treatment of potato seed tubers withPseudomonas putida isolate WCS358 on tuber yield was studied in different crop rotations at the Experimental Farm ‘De Schreef’, near Lelystad. With untreated, tuber yield in a 1:3 (short) rotation compared to yield in a 1:6 (long) rotation of potato was decreased by 11% at 86 days (seed tuber harvest) and by
P. A. H. M. Bakker; J. G. Lamers; A. W. Bakker; J. D. Marugg; P. J. Weisbeek; B. Schippers
Summary The relationship between resistance to late blight in foliage and tuber was examined on 50 clones of each of five progenies\\u000a from crosses where one parent was resistant in both foliage and tuber and the other susceptible. Foliage resistance was assessed\\u000a in a field trial and tuber resistance in a laboratory test on glasshouse-grown tubers. The genetical and environmental components
Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and ?-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated for both HP and AO lines as compared with the WT. At late seedling establishment stages, specific sugars were rapidly consumed in the AO line. ?-Amylase activity was distinctly suppressed in both the HP and the AO lines. Pre-germination ?-amylase deposition was low in the AO grains and ?-amylase was generally suppressed in both HP and AO lines throughout germination. As further supported by scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analyses on grain and seedlings, it was concluded that inadequate starch granule deposition in combination with the suppressed hydrolase activity leads to temporal and compensating re-direction of starch, sugar, and protein catabolism important to maintain metabolic dynamics during grain germination and seedling establishment.
A report summarizing the results of an international workshop on determination of color of streptomycetes is presented. The results suggest that the color systems which seem most practically appealing and effective to specialists on actinomycetes are those embracing a limited number of color names and groups. The broad groupings allow placement of isolates into reasonably well-defined categories based on color of aerial mycelium. Attempts to expand such systems (more color groups) lead to difficulties. It is common knowledge that many, if not all, of the individual groups would in these broad systems contain strains that differ in many other respects, e.g., spore-wall ornamentation, color of vegetative (substratal) mycelium, morphology of chains of spores, and numerous physiological criteria. Also, cultures of intermediate color can be found, which makes placement difficult. As it now stands, color as a criterion for characterization of streptomycetes and streptoverticillia is in questionable status. Although much useful color information can be obtained by an individual, the application of this information to that in the literature or its use in communication with other individuals leaves much to be desired. More objective methods of color determination are needed. At present, the most effective method that could be used internationally is the color-wheel system of Tresner and Backus. Furthermore, the significance of color in speciation of these organisms is an open question. Obviously, more critical work on the color problem is needed.
Eight commercial starches, including common corn, waxy corn, wheat, tapioca, potato, Hylon V, Hylon VII, and mung bean starch, were annealed by a multiple-step process, and their gelatinization characteristics were determined. Annealed starches had higher gelatinization temperatures, reduced gelatinization ranges, and increased gelatinization enthalpies than their native starches. The annealed starches with the highest gelatinization enthalpies were subjected to acid
Structure and physicochemical properties of oxidized common and waxy corn starches by different levels of sodium hypochlorite (0.25–3.0% active chlorine based on dry starch weight) were studied. The oxidized common corn starch generally had a higher carboxyl content but a similar carbonyl content compared with the oxidized waxy corn starch. The introduction of carboxyl and carbonyl groups promoted starch hydration
Cereal Chem. 74(1):1-6 The raw starch granules from corn, rice, and wheat were hydrolyzed by practically pure glucoamylase (Rhizopus niveus). The bound lipids remaining in the residual starches were investigated, of which the major components of the lipids, free fatty acids (FFA) in corn starch, FFA and phospholipids (PL) in rice starch, and PL in wheat starch were deter- mined.
The objective of the paper is to review literature concerning the methods used to estimate starch digestibility in different segments of the digestive tract of ruminants and the kinetics of starch digestion. Starch digestibility and site of starch digestion have a profound effect on the amount and profile of substrates absorbed from the digestive tract. The prediction of starch digestibility
BACKGROUND: Cassava starch, the economically important agricultural commodity in Thailand, can readily be cast into films. However, the cassava starch film is brittle and weak, leading to inadequate mechanical properties. The properties of starch film can be improved by adding plasticizers and blending with the other biopolymers. RESULTS: Cassava starch (5%w\\/v) based films plasticized with glycerol (30 g\\/100 g starch)
Microstructural and rheological changes during gelatinisation are important indicators of starch functionality. A combined rheometer and optical microscope system (Rheoscope 1, Thermo Haake) was used to monitor the gelatinisation of different starches (maize starch containing 0%, 24%, 55% and 85% amylose; wheat starch and barley starch) suspended in a 0.1% guar solution (to minimise settling during the initial stages of
Formation of abnormal callose in the sieve tubes is the basis of a practical test for leafroll virus infection in potato tubers. However, as it has often been stated that the test is not consistent enough, the following features were examined, with standardisation in mind: distribution of affected phloem in the tuber, detectability with different stains, the effect of the
Intractable seizures are the most common manifestation in severe cases of tuberous sclerosis. Multidrug resistance type 1 (MDR1) gene expression is directly linked to the resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapy as the major cause of treatment failure, but it has not been reported in tuberous sclerosis cells nor has the relationship between the MDR1 gene and antiepileptic drugs been
Alberto Lazarowski; Gustavo Sevlever; Anal??a Taratuto; Mario Massaro; Adrián Rabinowicz
PURPOSE: To correlate the findings on MR scans of the brain in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex with mental disability and the type and age at onset of the first seizure. METHODS: Patients with tuberous sclerosis complex who had MR brain scans were identified. The diagnosis was confirmed, and the clinical information on each patient was updated. The number, site,
Charles W. Shepherd; O. Wayne Houser; Manuel R. Gomez
Summary Tuberous sclerosis is one of the few established medical causes of autism spectrum disorder and is a unique neurogenetic model for testing theories about the brain basis of the syndrome. We conducted a retrospective case study of the neuro-epileptic risk factors predispos- ing to autism spectrum disorder in individuals with tuberous sclerosis to test current neurobiological theories of autism
Patrick F. Bolton; Rebecca J. Park; J. Nicholas; P. Higgins; Paul D. Griffiths; Andrew Pickles
Theobroxide is a natural compound from the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae and has a significantly inductive effect on potato tuber formation in vitro and in vivo. Considering the similar roles of theobroxide and jasmonic acid (JA) in tuberization, we investigated the influence of theobroxide on endogenous levels of JA and its analogue tuberonic acid (TA), as well as on lipoxygenase (LOX)
Johnson, D. A., Inglis, D. A., and Miller, J. S. 2004. Control of potato tuber rots caused by oo- mycetes with foliar applications of phosphorous acid. Plant Dis. 88:1153-1159. Phosphorous acid for control of tuber rots caused by Phytophthora infestans, P. erythroseptica, and Pythium ultimum was applied to foliage of potato cultivars at various application timings and rates under growing
Dennis A. Johnson; Debra A. Inglis; Jeffrey S. Miller
Tuberous sclerosis complex is a multisystem autosomal dominant genetic disorder resulting from mutations in one of two genes, TSC1 and TSC2. Pathologically, tuberous sclerosis complex is characterized by abnormal cellular differentiation and proliferation, as well as abnormal neuronal migration. Epilepsy occurs in about 90% of patients, with onset frequently in the first year of life. In a sizable proportion of
Paolo Curatolo; Roberta Bombardieri; Magda Verdecchia; Stefano Seri
Asparagine is the predominant free amino acid in potato tubers and the present study aimed to establish whether it is imported from the leaves or synthesised in situ. Free amino acid concentrations are important quality determinants for potato tubers because they react with reducing sugars at high temperatures in the Maillard reaction. This reaction produces melanoidin pigments and a host of aroma and flavour volatiles, but if free asparagine participates in the final stages, it results in the production of acrylamide, an undesirable contaminant. ¹?CO? was supplied to a leaf or leaves of potato plants (cv. Saturna) in the light and radioactivity incorporated into amino acids was determined in the leaves, stems, stolons and tubers. Radioactivity was found in free amino acids, including asparagine, in all tissues, but the amount incorporated in asparagine transported to the tubers and stolons was much less than that in glutamate, glutamine, serine and alanine. The study showed that free asparagine does not play an important role in the transport of nitrogen from leaf to tuber in potato, and that the high concentrations of free asparagine that accumulate in potato tubers arise from synthesis in situ. This indicates that genetic interventions to reduce free asparagine concentration in potato tubers will have to target asparagine metabolism in the tuber. PMID:24126722
Muttucumaru, Nira; Keys, Alfred J; Parry, Martin A J; Powers, Stephen J; Halford, Nigel G
Theobroxide, a novel compound isolated from fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae culture, stimulates potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber formation in vitro and in vivo, and induces flowering of Japanese morning glory (Pharbitis nil) under non-inductive long day conditions. To assess the mode of action of theobroxide in the tuberization process we measured endogenous levels of jasmonic acid and lipoxygenase activity in the