Sample records for color tuber starch

  1. Space Experiment on Tuber Development and Starch Accumulation for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts,Theodore W.; Croxdale, Judith C.; Brown, Christopher S.

    1997-01-01

    Potato explants (leaf, small stem section, and axillary bud), flown on STS-73, developed tubers of 1.5 cm diameter and 1.7 g mass during the 16 day period of spaceflight. The experiment was undertaken in the ASTROCULTURE(Trademark) experiment package under controlled temperature, humidity, lighting, and carbon dioxide concentrations. The tubers formed in the explant system under microgravity had the same gross morphology, the same anatomical configuration of cells and tissues, and the same sizes, shapes, and surface character of starch granules as tubers formed in a 1 g environment. The total accumulation of starch and other energy containing compounds was singular in space flight and ground control tubers. Enzyme activity of starch synthase, starch phosphorylase, and total hydrolase was similar in spaceflight and ground controls but activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was reduced in the spaceflight tuber tissue. This experiment documented that potatoes will metabolize and accumulate starch as effectively in spaceflight as on the ground and thus this data provides the potential for effective utilization of potatoes in life support systems of space bases.

  2. Molecular structures of the stem tuber anthocyanins of colored potatoes and their coloring effects on the tubers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chang Ling; Wen, Guo Song; Mao, Zi Chao; Xu, Shao Zhong; Liu, Zheng Jie; Zhao, Ming Fu; Lin, Chun

    2015-03-01

    This paper summarized the important achievements about the general characteristics of the molecular structures of the stem tuber anthocyanins of Colored potatoes and the basic coloring effects of the anthocyanins on the tubers. The various coloration patterns of the skins and/or flesh of Colored potato tubers result from the accumulation of the anthocyanins in the periderms, phelloderms and/or peripheral cortices of the tubers, and the tuber colors are fundamentally determined by the matching profiles of the six naturally occurring anthocyanidins, i.e., cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, peonidin and petunidin. Generally, the tuber anthocyanidins hold an O-glycosidic bond-linked rutinosyl at the C3 site, and either a glucosyl linked by an O-glycosidic bond or no substituent group may exist at the C5 site simultaneously. Furthermore, an E-monoacyl frequently exists at the C3-rutinosyls or at the C5-glucosyls of most tuber anthocyanins, and the phenolic acids acylating the tuber anthocyanins are often p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acids. The popular names of the p- coumaric acid derivatives of the malvidin, pelargonidin, peonidin and petunidin of the tubers are Malvanin, Pelanin, Peonanin and Petanin, respectively. This review provides a reference for the exploration of the mechanism of the tuber coloration and the identification of the molecular structures of the stem tuber anthocyanins of Colored potatoes. PMID:25924530

  3. Physicochemical properties of native and ?-irradiated wild arrowhead (Sagittaria sagittifolia L.) tuber starch.

    PubMed

    Wani, Arif Ali; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Hussain, Peerzada Rashid; Gani, Adil; Wani, Touseef Ahmad; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    Starch isolated from wild arrowhead tuber was treated by ?-irradiation at 0, 5, 10 and 15kGy doses. Arrowhead tubers yielded 40.33% starch and its chemical composition revealed moisture, protein, ash and fat were 8.34±0.09%, 0.26±0.04%, 0.58±0.02% and 0%, respectively. Physicochemical, morphological and pasting properties of native and irradiated tuber starches were investigated. The results showed that peak, trough, final, and setback viscosities were significantly (p?0.05) reduced, whereas the breakdown viscosity increased following irradiation. Physicochemical properties differed significantly and showed strong dose dependent relationship. Solubility, water absorption capacity and transmittance increased, whereas swelling power, bulk density and syneresis decreased upon increase in irradiation of starch. Correlation studies showed that irradiation dose was positively correlated with water absorption capacity and solubility index while it correlated negatively with pasting properties, swelling index, syneresis, and freeze thaw stability. PMID:25797404

  4. Ultrastructure of underutilized tuber starches and its relation to physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xiaohong; Li, Yongfu; Xie, Shichao; Wang, Zhengwu

    2015-12-01

    Starches from five underutilized tubers (canna, potato, Chinese yam, water chestnut, and taro) were extracted to investigate quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) in each starch using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Structural parameters of the tuber starches were determined using the paracrystalline model. Swelling power (SP), water solubility index (WSI), amylose leaching (AML), and thermal properties were also measured. The XRD results indicated that starches from Chinese yam, water chestnut, and taro are C-type starches with relatively high crystallinity (29.23-35.02%). In contrast, canna and potato starches are B-type starches exhibiting lower crystallinity and higher amylose content. The paracrystalline model provided a better fit for the C-type starches than for the B-type starches because the former was highly compressible (indicated by a higher "?" value). B-type starches, on the other hand, tend to be more rigid along the lamellar repeat direction, requiring the layers to bend to accommodate internal stress. The QSPR analysis showed that three structural parameters, "Ø", "?", and "??u", correlate well with the SP and WSI, and thus can be used to predict certain physicochemical properties. PMID:26041241

  5. Physicochemical properties of flours and starches derived from traditional Indonesian tubers and roots.

    PubMed

    Aprianita, Aprianita; Vasiljevic, Todor; Bannikova, Anna; Kasapis, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Flours and starches isolated from traditional tubers and roots grown in Indonesia have physical and chemical properties suitable for certain food applications. Compared to other flour samples, cassava and canna flours contained the highest amount of total starch (TS) (77.4 and 77.1 %, respectively). Taro starch had the lowest amount of TS among other starch samples with 75.4 %. The highest amount of amylose was observed from yam and canna flours (25.2 and 23.2 %, respectively). Among starch samples, canna starch contained the highest amylose content (30.4 %), while taro had the lowest (7.6 %). In terms of protein content, arrowroot flour had the highest amount (7.7 %), in contrast to cassava flour which had the lowest (1.5 %). Compared to other flours, canna and konjac flour were the most slowly digested which indicated by their high amount of resistant starch (RS). Canna starch had the highest swelling power and viscosity than other starches and flours. The clearest paste was observed from cassava flour and starch as opposed to konjac starch which was the most opaque paste. PMID:25477633

  6. Properties of cast films made of chayote (Sechium edule Sw.) tuber starch reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, cellulose (C) and cellulose nanocrystals (CN) were blended with chayote tuber (Sechium edule Sw.) starch (CS) in formulations cast into films. The films were conditioned at different storage temperatures and relative humidity (RH), and analyzed by mechanical tests, X-ray diffraction, ...

  7. Starch phosphorylation in potato tubers is influenced by allelic variation in the genes encoding glucan water dikinase, starch branching enzymes I and II, and starch synthase III

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Margaret A.; Joyce, Nigel I.; Genet, Russell A.; Cooper, Rebecca D.; Murray, Sarah R.; Noble, Alasdair D.; Butler, Ruth C.; Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Starch phosphorylation is an important aspect of plant metabolism due to its role in starch degradation. Moreover, the degree of phosphorylation of starch determines its physicochemical properties and is therefore relevant for industrial uses of starch. Currently, starch is chemically phosphorylated to increase viscosity and paste stability. Potato cultivars with elevated starch phosphorylation would make this process unnecessary, thereby bestowing economic and environmental benefits. Starch phosphorylation is a complex trait which has been previously shown by antisense gene repression to be influenced by a number of genes including those involved in starch synthesis and degradation. We have used an association mapping approach to discover genetic markers associated with the degree of starch phosphorylation. A diverse collection of 193 potato lines was grown in replicated field trials, and the levels of starch phosphorylation at the C6 and C3 positions of the glucosyl residues were determined by mass spectrometry of hydrolyzed starch from tubers. In addition, the potato lines were genotyped by amplicon sequencing and microsatellite analysis, focusing on candidate genes known to be involved in starch synthesis. As potato is an autotetraploid, genotyping included determination of allele dosage. Significant associations (p < 0.001) were found with SNPs in the glucan water dikinase (GWD), starch branching enzyme I (SBEI) and the starch synthase III (SSIII) genes, and with a SSR allele in the SBEII gene. SNPs in the GWD gene were associated with C6 phosphorylation, whereas polymorphisms in the SBEI and SBEII genes were associated with both C6 and C3 phosphorylation and the SNP in the SSIII gene was associated with C3 phosphorylation. These allelic variants have potential as genetic markers for starch phosphorylation in potato. PMID:25806042

  8. SNPs in Genes Functional in Starch-Sugar Interconversion Associate with Natural Variation of Tuber Starch and Sugar Content of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Lena; Nader-Nieto, Anna Camila; Schönhals, Elske Maria; Walkemeier, Birgit; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Starch accumulation and breakdown are vital processes in plant storage organs such as seeds, roots, and tubers. In tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) a small fraction of starch is converted into the reducing sugars glucose and fructose. Reducing sugars accumulate in response to cold temperatures. Even small quantities of reducing sugars affect negatively the quality of processed products such as chips and French fries. Tuber starch and sugar content are inversely correlated complex traits that are controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Based on in silico annotation of the potato genome sequence, 123 loci are involved in starch-sugar interconversion, approximately half of which have been previously cloned and characterized. By means of candidate gene association mapping, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes known to have key functions in starch-sugar interconversion, which were diagnostic for increased tuber starch and/or decreased sugar content and vice versa. Most positive or negative effects of SNPs on tuber-reducing sugar content were reproducible in two different collections of potato cultivars. The diagnostic SNP markers are useful for breeding applications. An allele of the plastidic starch phosphorylase PHO1a associated with increased tuber starch content was cloned as full-length cDNA and characterized. The PHO1a-HA allele has several amino acid changes, one of which is unique among all known starch/glycogen phosphorylases. This mutation might cause reduced enzyme activity due to impaired formation of the active dimers, thereby limiting starch breakdown. PMID:25081979

  9. Large Scale Magnetic Separation of Solanum tuberosum Tuber Lectin from Potato Starch Waste Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarik, Ivo; Horska, Katerina; Martinez, Lluis M.; Safarikova, Mirka

    2010-12-01

    A simple procedure for large scale isolation of Solanum tuberosum tuber lectin from potato starch industry waste water has been developed. The procedure employed magnetic chitosan microparticles as an affinity adsorbent. Magnetic separation was performed in a flow-through magnetic separation system. The adsorbed lectin was eluted with glycine/HCl buffer, pH 2.2. The specific activity of separated lectin increased approximately 27 times during the isolation process.

  10. Allocation of experimental resources to minimize the variance of genotype mean chip color and tuber composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeders select superior genotypes despite the environment affecting phenotypic variance. Minimal variance of genotype means facilitates the statistical identification of superior genotypes. The variance components calculated from three datasets describing tuber composition and fried chip color were...

  11. A minor form of starch branching enzyme in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers has a major effect on starch structure: cloning and characterisation of multiple forms of SBE A.

    PubMed

    Jobling, S A; Schwall, G P; Westcott, R J; Sidebottom, C M; Debet, M; Gidley, M J; Jeffcoat, R; Safford, R

    1999-04-01

    Full length cDNAs encoding a second starch branching enzyme (SBE A) isoform have been isolated from potato tubers. The predicted protein has a molecular mass of 101 kDa including a transit peptide of 48 amino acids. Multiple forms of the SBE A gene exist which differ mainly in the length of a polyglutamic acid repeat at the C-terminus of the protein. Expression of the mature protein in Escherichia coli demonstrates that the gene encodes an active SBE. Northern analysis demonstrates that SBE A mRNA is expressed at very low levels in tubers but is the predominant isoform in leaves. This expression pattern was confirmed by Western analysis using isoform specific polyclonal antibodies raised against E. coli expressed SBE A. SBE A protein is found predominantly in the soluble phase of tuber extracts, indicating a stromal location within the plastid. Transgenic potato plants expressing an antisense SBE A RNA were generated in which almost complete reductions in SBE A were observed. SBE activity in the leaves of these plants was severely reduced, but tuber activity was largely unaffected. Even so, the composition and structure of tuber starch from these plants was greatly altered. The proportion of linear chains was not significantly increased but the average chain length of amylopectin was greater, resulting in an increase in apparent amylose content as judged by iodine binding. In addition, the starch had much higher levels of phosphorous. PMID:10363368

  12. Characterization of films made with chayote tuber and potato starches blending with cellulose nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Aila-Suárez, Selene; Palma-Rodríguez, Heidi M; Rodríguez-Hernández, Adriana I; Hernández-Uribe, Juan P; Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Vargas-Torres, Apolonio

    2013-10-15

    The aim of this study was to characterize chayotextle starch films reinforced with cellulose (C) and cellulose nanoparticle (CN) (at concentrations of 0.3%, 0.5%, 0.8% and 1.2%), using thermal, mechanical, physicochemical, permeability, and water solubility tests. C was acid-treated to obtain CN. The films were prepared by casting; potato starch and C were used as the control. The solubility of the starch films decreased with the addition of C and CN compared with its respective film without C and CN. No statistical difference (?=0.05) was found in the films added with different concentrations of C and CN. In general, the mechanical properties were improved with the addition of C and CN, and higher values of tensile strength and elastic modulus were determined in the films reinforced with CN. The melting temperature and enthalpy increased with the addition of C and CN, and the values of both thermal parameters were higher in the films with CN than with C; the enthalpy value of the film decreased when the concentration of C or CN increased in the composite. Low concentration of C and CN is better distributed in the matrix film. The addition of C and CN in the starch films improved some mechanical, barrier, and functional properties. PMID:23987322

  13. Decreasing the mitochondrial synthesis of malate in potato tubers does not affect plastidial starch synthesis, suggesting that the physiological regulation of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase is context dependent.

    PubMed

    Szecowka, Marek; Osorio, Sonia; Obata, Toshihiro; Araújo, Wagner L; Rohrmann, Johannes; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2012-12-01

    Modulation of the malate content of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit by altering the expression of mitochondrially localized enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle resulted in enhanced transitory starch accumulation and subsequent effects on postharvest fruit physiology. In this study, we assessed whether such a manipulation would similarly affect starch biosynthesis in an organ that displays a linear, as opposed to a transient, kinetic of starch accumulation. For this purpose, we used RNA interference to down-regulate the expression of fumarase in potato (Solanum tuberosum) under the control of the tuber-specific B33 promoter. Despite displaying similar reductions in both fumarase activity and malate content as observed in tomato fruit expressing the same construct, the resultant transformants were neither characterized by an increased flux to, or accumulation of, starch, nor by alteration in yield parameters. Since the effect in tomato was mechanistically linked to derepression of the reaction catalyzed by ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, we evaluated whether the lack of effect on starch biosynthesis was due to differences in enzymatic properties of the enzyme from potato and tomato or rather due to differential subcellular compartmentation of reductant in the different organs. The results are discussed in the context both of current models of metabolic compartmentation and engineering. PMID:23064409

  14. Ethylene in the atmosphere of commercial potato (Solanum tuberosum) storage bins and potential effects on tuber respiration rate and fried chip color

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Careful storage management is required to maintain post-harvest potato tuber quality. The plant growth regulator ethylene has well documented effects on potato tuber respiration rate, fried product color, and sprouting, but data on the amount of ethylene present in ventilated potato storages and how...

  15. Effect of Rol Transgenes, IAA, and Kinetin on Starch Content and the Size of Starch Granules in Tubers of In Vitro Potato Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Gukasyan; S. A. Golyanovskaya; E. V. Grishunina; T. N. Konstantinova; N. P. Aksenova; G. A. Romanov

    2005-01-01

    Stem cuttings were produced from Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Desiree, plants and their transgenic forms harboring rolB and rolC genes from Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Plants were cultured on hormone-free Murashige and Skoog nutrient medium (MS) and on MS supplemented with IAA or kinetin. In microtubers developed on these cuttings, we estimated the content of starch and the number and size of

  16. Starch Granule Variability in Wild Solanum Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because most of the dry matter of potato tubers is starch, an understanding of starch properties is important in potato improvement programs. Starch granule size is considered to influence tuber processing quality parameters such as gelatinization temperature, viscosity, and water holding capacity. ...

  17. Structure of potato tubers formed during spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Croxdale, J; Cook, M; Tibbitts, T W; Brown, C S; Wheeler, R M

    1997-12-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Norland) explants, consisting of a leaf, axillary bud, and small stem segment, were used as a model system to study the influence of spaceflight on the formation of sessile tubers from axillary buds. The explants were flown on the space shuttle Columbia (STS-73, 20 October to 5 November 1995) in the ASTROCULTURE (TM) flight package, which provided a controlled environment for plant growth. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used to compare the precisely ordered tissues of tubers formed on Earth with those formed during spaceflight. The structure of tubers produced during spaceflight was similar to that of tubers produced in a control experiment. The size and shape of tubers, the geometry of tuber tissues, and the distribution of starch grains and proteinaceous crystals were comparable in tubers formed in both environments. The shape, surface texture, and size range of starch grains from both environments were similar, but a greater percentage of smaller starch grains formed in spaceflight than on Earth. Since explant leaves must be of given developmental age before tubers form, instructions regarding the regular shape and ordered tissue geometry of tubers may have been provided in the presence of gravity. Regardless of when the signalling occurred, gravity was not required to produce a tuber of typical structure. PMID:11541084

  18. The effects of storage on starch characteristics and chip quality of Texas Irish potatoes 

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Roy E

    1966-01-01

    to be reconditioned at 70 to 80 F after storage at lower temperatures. The relationship of chip color to starch characteristics would be of interest. For many years it has been known that specific gravity of tubers also influences the oil content of chips made... percent relative humidity. Samples were drawn and analyzed, The tubers were then placed in a second storage for two weeks at 70 F + 2 and a low relative humidity and again sampled for analysis. The same sampling procedure mentioned initially was used...

  19. The Presence of Starch Grains on Prehistoric Stone Tools from the Humid Neotropics: Indications of Early Tuber Use and Agriculture in Panama

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Piperno; I. Holst

    1998-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges faced by Neotropical archaeobotanists is to document the origins and history of crops like manioc (Manihot esculentaCrantz), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), which were grown for their starch-rich underground organs. The records left by early Europeans make it clear that such plants provided a staple food source for numerous indigenous populations in

  20. Potato tuber formation in the spaceflight environment.

    PubMed

    Brown, C S; Tibbitts, T W; Croxdale, J G; Wheeler, R M

    1997-01-01

    Five potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaf cuttings were flown on STS-73 in late October, 1995 as part of the 16-day USML-2 mission. Preflight studies were conducted to study tuber growth, determine carbohydrate concentrations, and examine the developing starch grains within the tuber. In these tests, tubers attained a fresh weight of 1.4 g tuber-1 after 13 days. Tuber fresh mass was significantly correlated to tuber diameter. Greater than 60% of the tuber dry mass was starch and the starch grains varied in size from 2 to 40 micrometers in the long axis. For the flight experiment, cuttings were obtained from 7-week-old Norland potato plants, kept at 5 degrees C for 12 h then planted into arcillite in the ASTROCULTURE(TM) flight hardware. The flight package was loaded on-board the orbiter 22 h prior to launch. During the mission, the flight hardware maintained an environment around the cuttings of 22 +/- 2 degrees C, 81 +/- 7% RH, and a 12-h photoperiod using red and blue light-emitting diodes at a photosynthetic photon flux of 150 micromol m-2 s-1. CO2 concentration exceeded 4000 ppm during the dark period and was controlled during the light period to approximately 400 ppm. Video downlinking of images of the plants and CO2 exchange data during the flight demonstrated plant vitality for the first 12 days of the mission followed by senescence of the leaves. The flight package was received 4 h after landing at the Kennedy Space Center and postflight processing of the samples was completed within 3 h. Four out of the five space-grown cuttings produced tubers that were similar in appearance and dimension to the ground control tubers. This is an important finding if potatoes are to be used as part of a bioregenerative life support system for long-term space exploration. PMID:11540455

  1. Tuberous Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can treat many of the symptoms. For example, medicine can help control seizures and surgery can remove any growths. If your child has developmental problems, occupational therapy can help. Most people who have tuberous ...

  2. Tubers and rhizome fragments as propagules: competence for vegetative reproduction in Equisetum arvense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiaki Sakamaki; Yoshio Ino

    2006-01-01

    Rhizome fragments (referred to as “fragments”) and tubers of Equisetum arvense L. were cultured in order to investigate their competence with respect to vegetative reproduction. The starch concentration of the fragments was lower than that of the tubers, but the initial growth of new individuals from these fragments was superior to that from tubers obtained from the same dry mass.

  3. Effect of infection by Rhizopus oryzae on biochemical composition of stored potato tubers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Amadioha

    1998-01-01

    The carbohydrate fractions, protein and lipid contents of two cultivars of potato namely, Irish Cobbler and Red Pontiac, were altered quantitatively by Rhizopus oryzae during the 10-day incubation period. Glucose content increased during the incubation period for both healthy and inoculated tubers. Starch, maltose, sucrose, protein and lipid contents decreased more rapidly in inoculated tubers than in healthy tubers in

  4. Physicochemical and binder properties of starch obtained from Cyperus esculentus.

    PubMed

    Manek, Rahul V; Builders, Philip F; Kolling, William M; Emeje, Martins; Kunle, Olobayo O

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate starch from the tubers of Cyperus esculentus L. and evaluate its physicochemical and binder properties. Extraction of starch using sodium metabisulfite yielded 37 g of starch per 100 g of the tubers. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that Cyperus starch consists of oval to elliptical particles with a smooth surface. Cyperus starch demonstrates a narrow particle size distribution with a mean of 8.25 ?m. Cyperus starch conforms well to United States Pharmacopeia standards established for widely used starches like maize and potato. The X-ray powder diffraction pattern and moisture sorption profile of Cyperus starch were comparable to that of maize starch. Cyperus starch had lower swelling power than maize and potato starch, indicative of stronger associative forces within the granules. Carr's index and Hausner ratio indicate that Cyperus starch should have comparable flow properties with respect to maize and potato starch. Cyperus starch was employed as binder for the formulation of metronidazole tablets. Formulations containing 5%, 7.5%, and 10% Cyperus starch were compared with those containing 10% potato starch. At 10% binder concentration, the tablets containing Cyperus starch exhibited better hardness and negligible friability as compared with those with potato starch. Although the binder concentration had a significant effect on the disintegration time of the tablets, it did not seem to affect the dissolution profile. These results indicate that Cyperus starch provides excellent binding properties without compromising drug release characteristics and should be explored in pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:22350737

  5. Production of ethyl alcohol from tubers

    SciTech Connect

    Sreekantiah, K.R.; Rao, B.A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Ethanol was produced from starchy tubers by gelatinization in a boiling acidic solution, saccharification with Rhizopus niveus, and fermentation with Saccharomyces ellipsoideus in the presence of the saccharifying fungus. The efficiency of ethanol production from potato, tapioca, and sweet potato starch was 68, 81, and 75% respectively.

  6. Development and growth of potato tubers in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Cook, M E; Croxdale, J L; Tibbitts, T W; Goins, G; Brown, C S; Wheeler, R M

    1998-01-01

    A potato explant consisting of a leaf, its axillary bud, and a small segment of stem will develop a tuber in 10-14 days when grown on earth. The tubers develop from the axillary buds and accumulate starch derived from sugars produced through photosynthesis and/or mobilized from leaf tissue. Potato explants were harvested and maintained in the Astroculture (TM) unit, a plant growth chamber designed for spaceflight. The unit provides an environment with controlled temperature, humidity, CO2 level, light intensity, and a nutrient delivery system. The hardware was loaded onto the space shuttle Columbia 24 hours prior to the launch of the STS-73 mission. Explant leaf tissue appeared turgid and green for the first 11 days of flight, but then became chlorotic and eventually necrotic by the end of the mission. The same events occurred to ground control explants with approximately the same timing. At the end of the 16-day mission, tubers were present on each explant. The size and shape of the space-grown tubers were similar to the ground-control tubers. The arrangement of cells in the tuber interior and at the exterior in the periderm was similar in both environments. Starch and protein were present in the tubers grown in space and on the ground. The range in starch grain size was similar in tubers from both environments, but the distribution of grains into size classes differed somewhat, with the space-grown tubers having more small grains than the ground control tubers. Proteinaceous crystals were found in tubers formed in each condition. PMID:11541357

  7. Development and growth of potato tubers in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, M. E.; Croxdale, J. L.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Goins, G.; Brown, C. S.; Wheeler, R. M.

    A potato explant consisting of a leaf, its axillary bud, and a small segment of stem will develop a tuber in 10-14 days when grown on earth. The tubers develop from the axillary buds and accumulate starch derived from sugars produced through photosynthesis and/or mobilized from leaf tissue. Potato explants were harvested and maintained in the Astroculture^TM unit, a plant growth chamber designed for spaceflight. The unit provides an environment with controlled temperature, humidity, CO_2 level, light intensity, and a nutrient delivery system. The hardware was loaded onto the space shuttle Columbia 24 hours prior to the launch of the STS-73 mission. Explant leaf tissue appeared turgid and green for the first 11 days of flight, but then became chlorotic and eventually necrotic by the end of the mission. The same events occurred to ground control explants with approximately the same timing. At the end of the 16-day mission, tubers were present on each explant. The size and shape of the space-grown tubers were similar to the ground-control tubers. The arrangement of cells in the tuber interior and at the exterior in the periderm was similar in both environments. Starch and protein were present in the tubers grown in space and on the ground. The range in starch grain size was similar in tubers from both environments, but the distribution of grains into size classes differed somewhat, with the space-grown tubers having more small grains than the ground control tubers. Proteinaceous crystals were found in tubers formed in each condition.

  8. Starch Metabolism in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Streb, Sebastian; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2012-01-01

    Starch is the major non-structural carbohydrate in plants. It serves as an important store of carbon that fuels plant metabolism and growth when they are unable to photosynthesise. This storage can be in leaves and other green tissues, where it is degraded during the night, or in heterotrophic tissues such as roots, seeds and tubers, where it is stored over longer time periods. Arabidopsis accumulates starch in many of its tissues, but mostly in its leaves during the day. It has proven to be a powerful genetic system for discovering how starch is synthesised and degraded, and new proteins and processes have been discovered. Such work has major significance for our starch crops, whose yield and quality could be improved by the application of this knowledge. Research into Arabidopsis starch metabolism has begun to reveal how its daily turnover is integrated into the rest of metabolism and adapted to the environmental conditions. Furthermore, Arabidopsis mutant lines deficient in starch metabolism have been employed as tools to study other biological processes ranging from sugar sensing to gravitropism and flowering time control. This review gives a detailed account of the use of Arabidopsis to study starch metabolism. It describes the major discoveries made and presents an overview of our understanding today, together with some as-yet unresolved questions. PMID:23393426

  9. Development and growth of potato tubers in microgravity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Cook; J. L. Croxdale; T. W. Tibbitts; G. Goins; C. S. Brown; R. M. Wheeler

    1998-01-01

    A potato explant consisting of a leaf, its axillary bud, and a small segment of stem will develop a tuber in 10-14 days when grown on earth. The tubers develop from the axillary buds and accumulate starch derived from sugars produced through photosynthesis and\\/or mobilized from leaf tissue. Potato explants were harvested and maintained in the Astroculture^TM unit, a plant

  10. Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivated as tuber or leafy vegetable supplier as affected by elevated tropospheric ozone.

    PubMed

    Keutgen, Norbert; Keutgen, Anna J; Janssens, Marc J J

    2008-08-13

    Sweet potato cultivars respond differently to elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations of ca. 130 mug m (-3), 8 h a day for 4 weeks, which affects their selection for cultivation. In the first cultivar presented here, an adequate leafy vegetable supplier, the ozone load resulted in a shift of biomass to maintain the canopy at the expense of tuber development. Starch content of leaves was reduced, indicating an impairment of quality, but carotenoid content remained stable. The second cultivar may be grown for tuber production. Although the ratio tuber/plant remained stable under ozone, tuber yield and its starch content were significantly reduced. The lower starch content indicated a worse quality for certain industrial processing, but it is desirable for chip production. Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations also influenced free amino acids and macronutrient contents of tubers, but these modifications were of minor significance for tuber quality in the second cultivar. PMID:18593180

  11. Production of diosgenin from Dioscorea zingiberensis tubers through enzymatic saccharification and microbial transformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Ling Zhu; Wen Huang; Jin-Ren Ni; Wei Liu; Hui Li

    2010-01-01

    In order to develop a clean and effective approach for producing the valuable drug diosgenin from Dioscorea zingiberensis tubers, two successive processes, enzymatic saccharification and microbial transformation, were used. With enzymatic saccharification,\\u000a 98.0% of starch was excluded from the raw herb, releasing saponins from the network structure of starch. Subsequently, the\\u000a treated tubers were fermented with Trichoderma reesei under optimal

  12. Optimization of starch isolation from taro using combination of enzymes and comparison of properties of starches isolated by enzymatic and conventional methods.

    PubMed

    Sit, Nandan; Deka, Sankar Chandra; Misra, Sudip

    2015-07-01

    The optimization of enzymatic starch isolation process from taro tubers using cellulase and xylanase was carried out. The functional properties of starch isolated by optimized enzymatic process were compared with starch isolated by conventional method without the use of enzymes. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) with four numerical factors was employed to design the experiments. The numerical factors were cellulase concentration (0-100 U/100 g tuber), xylanase concentration (0-100 U/100 g tuber), temperature of incubation (30-50 °C) and incubation time (1-5 h). Statistical analysis showed that the main effects of all the factors were significant on starch yield and effect of cellulase was more significant compared to xylanase. The effectiveness of xylanase in increasing the yield of starch from taro tubers confirmed that xylan is an important component of the cell walls of taro tubers. The optimized condition with maximum starch yield (17.22 %) was obtained when cellulase and xylanase concentration were 299.86 and 300 U/100 g tuber, temperature was 35 °C and incubation time was 2 h. The swelling of the starch granules increased whereas solubility decreased for enzymatic method. The clarity of the starch paste isolated by enzymatic method was found to be better compared to the clarity of starch paste isolated by conventional method. The pasting temperature of the starch paste was slightly higher and viscosity was lower for the starch isolated by enzymatic method. Freeze-thaw stability of the starch paste was also found to be better for the enzymatically isolated starch. PMID:26139897

  13. Tubers and rhizome fragments as propagules: competence for vegetative reproduction in Equisetum arvense.

    PubMed

    Sakamaki, Yoshiaki; Ino, Yoshio

    2006-11-01

    Rhizome fragments (referred to as "fragments") and tubers of Equisetum arvense L. were cultured in order to investigate their competence with respect to vegetative reproduction. The starch concentration of the fragments was lower than that of the tubers, but the initial growth of new individuals from these fragments was superior to that from tubers obtained from the same dry mass. This superior growth was due to the large number of buds (grown from nodes) and aerial shoots on the fragments. The competence for vegetative reproduction depended on the relationship between the stored starch and the number of buds. PMID:16937024

  14. Investigating Starch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Nebraska State Museum

    2001-01-01

    In this activity (on pages 10-15), learners investigate starch in human diets and how plants make starch (carbohydrates) to use as their food source. Testing with a dropper of iodine in Part One, learners discover that starch content differs from food to food. In Part Two, learners taste chewed and unchewed food and compare the starch content.

  15. Comparison of carotenoid and anthocyanin profiles of raw and boiled Solanum tuberosum and Solanum phureja tubers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annika Burmeister; Sabine Bondiek; Lena Apel; Claudia Kühne; Silke Hillebrand; Peter Fleischmann

    2011-01-01

    Tubers of the closely related species Solanum tuberosum (potatoes) and Solanum phureja belong to the staff of life for humans. The coloration of the often very colorful tubers is caused by carotenoids (especially xanthophylls) and anthocyanins. The new S. phureja cultivars Mayan Gold and Mayan Twilight, the new S. tuberosum cultivar Red Laura and the traditional S. tuberosum variety Shetland

  16. Chemical, morphological and functional properties of Brazilian jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) seeds starch.

    PubMed

    Madruga, Marta Suely; de Albuquerque, Fabíola Samara Medeiros; Silva, Izis Rafaela Alves; do Amaral, Deborah Silva; Magnani, Marciane; Queiroga Neto, Vicente

    2014-01-15

    Starches used in food industry are extracted from roots, tubers and cereals. Seeds of jackfruit are abundant and contain high amounts of starch. They are discarded during the fruit processing or consumption and can be an alternative source of starch. The starch was extract from the jackfruit seeds and characterised to chemical, morphological and functional properties. Soft and hard jackfruit seeds showed starch content of 92.8% and 94.5%, respectively. Starch granules showed round and bell shape and some irregular cuts on their surface with type-A crystallinity pattern, similar to cereals starches. The swelling power and solubility of jackfruit starch increased with increasing temperature, showing opaque pastes. The soft seeds starch showed initial and final gelatinisation temperature of 36°C and 56°C, respectively; while hard seeds starch presented initial gelatinisation at 40°C and final at 61°C. These results suggest that the Brazilian jackfruit seeds starches could be used in food products. PMID:24054264

  17. Potato tuber dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The date that potato tubers begin to sprout must be carefully managed to maximize crop value. Spouting of fresh, chip and fry processing tubers during storage can decrease crop value, increase water loss and pressure bruising, and may promote pathogen entry. A lack of uniform sprouting in seed potat...

  18. Polysaccharide composition of raw and cooked chayote (Sechium edule Sw.) fruits and tuberous roots.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Tânia M; Peroni-Okita, Fernanda Helena Gonçalves; Carpita, Nicholas C; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2015-10-01

    Chayote is a multipurpose table vegetable widely consumed in Latin America countries. Chayote fruits, leaves and tuberous roots contain complex carbohydrates as dietary fiber and starch, vitamins and minerals. The complex polysaccharides (cell walls and starch) were analyzed in the black and green varieties of chayote fruits as well as in green chayote tuberous root before and after a controlled cooking process to assess changes in their composition and structure. The monosaccharide composition and linkage analysis indicated pectins homogalacturonans and rhamnogalacturonan I backbones constitute about 15-20% of the wall mass, but are heavily substituted with, up to 60% neutral arabinans, galactans, arabinogalactans. The remainder is composed of xyloglucan, glucomannans and galactoglucomannans. Chayote cell-wall polysaccharides are highly stable under normal cooking conditions, as confirmed by the optical microscopy of wall structure. We found also that tuberous roots constitute a valuable additional source of quality starch and fiber. PMID:26076612

  19. Sugar metabolism, chip color, invertase activity, and gene expression during long-term cold storage of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers from wild-type and vacuolar invertase silencing lines of Katahdin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storing potato tubers at low temperatures helps to minimize losses from sprouting and disease but often leads to an accumulation of reducing sugars in a process called cold-induced sweetening. When tubers with increased amounts of reducing sugars are processed at high temperatures, as by frying, the...

  20. Isolation and partial characterization of delayed releasing starches of Colocasia species from Jharkhand, India.

    PubMed

    Deepika, V; Jayaram Kumar, K; Anima, P

    2013-07-01

    There is an increasing interest in starch manufactured from edible tubers for controlled delivery of drug. Starches of different cultivars of Colocasia from Jharkhand, North Eastern State of India, were isolated and their morphological, physicochemical, structural properties were studied. The yield of starches was estimated in the range of 6.46-13.75%. All the isolated starches revealed their irregular shape with a diameter of 5-10 ?m. There was considerable variation in amylose content, swelling and solubility power, water hydration capacity. FTIR spectra confirmed their carbohydrate nature. Powder studies revealed that these starches possess potential for pharmaceutical industries. In vitro release data revealed the delayed release of all tablets made by using Colocasia starches at pH 6.8 and 7.4 when compared with maize starch. Delayed release of all starches showed there is a great potential to be used these starches as pharmaceutical excipient in sustained release dosage form with minimum modification. PMID:23688478

  1. Study of wheat flour–cassava starch composite mix and the function of cassava mucilage in Chinese noodles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Charles; T. C. Huang; P. Y. Lai; C. C. Chen; P. P. Lee; Y. H. Chang

    2007-01-01

    Starch and mucilage extracts of sweet cassava tubers were incorporated into wheat flour–cassava starch (WF–CS) composite mix to make Chinese noodle. CS was extracted from fresh 1- and 2-yr-old sweet cassava tubers and was mixed at an optimized ratio of 70:30 into patent hard red Spring wheat (HRSW) flour. Noodles of proportional substitution of cassava mucilage in WF–CS blends were

  2. Starch Slime

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Oregon Museum of Science and Industry

    1997-01-01

    Learners mix liquid water with solid cornstarch. They investigate the slime produced, which has properties of both a solid and a liquid. When they press hard on the starch slime with their fingers, the slime acts like a solid. Starch in water is a suspension of solid particles in water. When learners leave the starch slime alone, it flows like a liquid. A great opportunity to discuss states of matter. This activity is currently used in the Nature of Matter Unit in OMSI's Chemistry Lab. Cost estimates are per 100 learners.

  3. Tuber-specific cytosolic expression of a bacterial phosphoglucomutase in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) dramatically alters carbon partitioning.

    PubMed

    Lytovchenko, Anna; Schauer, Nicolas; Willmitzer, Lothar; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2005-04-01

    Constitutive antisense inhibition of the cytosolic isoform of phosphoglucomutase in the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) results in restriction of photosynthesis, growth inhibition and modified tuber morphology, and a severe restriction of tuber starch synthesis. Here we describe the consequences of the tuber-specific expression of an Escherichia coli phosphoglucomutase in the cytosol. Analysis of [14C]glucose metabolism by tuber discs isolated from wild type and transformants revealed that the rates of sucrose and starch synthesis were unaltered but that the rate of glycolysis was depressed in the transgenics. The transformant tubers also contained dramatically reduced amino acid content and significantly higher levels of ADP, but were characterized by elevated levels of Krebs cycle intermediates and an unaltered rate of respiration. In addition to these metabolic consequences of the overexpression of the E. coli enzyme, we observed morphological changes in tubers, with the transformants having a smaller number of larger tubers which exhibited delayed rates of sprouting with respect to the wild type. These results are discussed with respect to current models of the regulation of central plant metabolism and tuber dormancy. PMID:15695443

  4. Changes in main nutrients and medicinal composition of Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita) tubers during storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhidan; Gao, Wenyuan; Wang, Renfang; Huang, Luqi

    2014-10-01

    The changes in the main nutrient and medicinal components during the storage of the Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita) tubers were studied. The harvested tubers were stored under ambient conditions (10 °C to 18 °C, 60 % to 80 % Relative Humidity) and cold temperature and packaged conditions (4 °C, 60 % to 65 % Relative Humidity) for 45 day. The allantoin, starch, total alcohol-soluble sugar, reducing sugar, protein, and moisture contents of the samples were evaluated. Their amylase activities were also investigated. Results of ambient conditions indicated that, during storage, moisture decreased by 67.96 % to 56.51 %, and total sugars, reducing sugars, and protein increased by 6.49 % to 9.81 %, 1.7 % to 2.27 %, and 13.02 % to 14.55 %, respectively. Starch and enzyme activities increased during the early days of storage and progressively decreased, and the content of allantoin changed in volatility. The changes were more significant at cold temperatures and packaged conditions than at ambient conditions. This result suggests that after-ripening occurred in the early stages of Chinese yam tubers, which positively affected the nutritional potential of the tubers by a marked increase in nutrients. Low-temperature sweetening greatly affects the nutritional potential of tubers by a series of complicated interactions between starch and sugars at 4 °C. PMID:25328193

  5. Improved method for detection of starch hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ohawale, M.R.; Wilson, J.J.; Khachatourians, G.G.; Ingledew, W.M.

    1982-09-01

    A new starch hydrolysis detection method which does not rely on iodine staining or the use of color-complexed starch is described. A linear relationship was obtained with agar-starch plates when net clearing zones around colonies of yeasts were plotted against enzyme levels (semilogarithm scale) produced by the same yeast strains in liquid medium. A similar relationship between starch clearing zones and alpha-amylase levels from three different sources was observed. These observations suggest that the method is useful in mutant isolations, strain improvement programs, and the prediction of alpha-amylase activities in culture filtrates or column effluents. (Refs. 18).

  6. The future of starch bioengineering: GM microorganisms or GM plants?

    PubMed Central

    Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Sagnelli, Domenico; Blennow, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Plant starches regularly require extensive modification to permit subsequent applications. Such processing is usually done by the use of chemical and/or physical treatments. The use of recombinant enzymes produced by large-scale fermentation of GM microorganisms is increasingly used in starch processing and modification, sometimes as an alternative to chemical or physical treatments. However, as a means to impart the modifications as early as possible in the starch production chain, similar recombinant enzymes may also be expressed in planta in the developing starch storage organ such as in roots, tubers and cereal grains to provide a GM crop as an alternative to the use of enzymes from GM microorganisms. We here discuss these techniques in relation to important structural features and modifications of starches such as: starch phosphorylation, starch hydrolysis, chain transfer/branching and novel concepts of hybrid starch-based polysaccharides. In planta starch bioengineering is generally challenged by yield penalties and inefficient production of the desired product. However, in some situations, GM crops for starch bioengineering without deleterious effects have been achieved. PMID:25954284

  7. Evidence against sink limitation by the sucrose-to-starch route in potato plants expressing fructosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Zuther, Ellen; Hoermiller, Imke I; Heyer, Arnd G

    2011-10-01

    To investigate whether the route from sucrose to starch limits sink strength of potato tubers, we established an additional storage carbohydrate pool and analyzed allocation of imported assimilates to the different pools. Tuber specific expression of the fructan biosynthetic enzymes of globe artichoke resulted in accumulation of fructans to about 5% of the starch level, but did not increase tuber dry weight per plant. While partial repression of starch synthesis caused yield reduction in wild-type plants, it stimulated fructan accumulation, and yield losses were ameliorated in tubers expressing fructosyltransferases. However, a nearly complete block of the starch pathway by inhibition of sucrose synthase could not be compensated by the fructan pathway. Although fructan concentrations rose, yield reduction was even enhanced, probably because of a futile cycle of fructan synthesis and degradation by invertase, which is induced when sucrose synthase is knocked out. The data do not support a limitation of sink strength by enzyme activities of the starch pathway but point to an energy limitation of storage carbohydrate formation in potato tubers. PMID:21679192

  8. Starch: Structure, Properties, Chemistry, and Enzymology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robyt, John F.

    Starch is a very important and widely distributed natural product, occurring in the leaves of green plants, seeds, fruits, stems, roots, and tubers. It serves as the chemical storage form of the energy of the sun and is the primary source of energy for the organisms on the Earth. Starch is composed of two kinds of polysaccharides, amylose and amylopectin, exclusively composed of D-glucose residues with ?-(1?4) linkages in a linear amylose and ?-(1?4) linkages and ˜5% ?-(1?6) branch linkages in amylopectin, both combined in a water-insoluble granule that is partially crystalline and whose size, shape, and morphology are dependent on its biological source. The properties, isolation, fractionation, enzymatic degradation, biosynthesis, chemical modification, and specific methods of analysis of starch are presented.

  9. Studies on the Carbon Dioxide Promotion and Ethylene Inhibition of Tuberization in Potato Explants Cultured in Vitro1

    PubMed Central

    Mingo-Castel, Angel M.; Smith, Orrin E.; Kumamoto, Junji

    1976-01-01

    Ethylene inhibited the tuberization of etiolated potato (Solanum tuberosum L. var. Red La Soda) sprout sections cultured in vitro. Carbon dioxide did not overcome the C2H4 inhibition but it was required for normal tuberization. Ethylene totally prevented root formation and development. It inhibited stolon elongation, and caused thickening and diageotropical growth of the stolon. In addition, C2H4 prevented the accumulation of both starch and red anthocyanin which are always present in a tuber. Ethylene also inhibited the kinetin-increased tuberization of sprout sections. Three to five days of exposure to CO2 were required to obtain promotion of tuberization of stolons cultured in vitro. Bicarbonate ion did not affect starch synthetase activity isolated from potato tubers in vitro. The evidence presented suggests that CO2 gas rather than HCO?3 or CO2?3 ions in equilibrium with dissolved CO2 was probably responsible for the stimulation. Morphological changes elicited by CO2 and C2H4 are described and the mechanism of action of both on tuberization is discussed. Images PMID:16659510

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Tuberous sclerosis complex

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ClinicalTrials.gov Research studies PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Tuberous sclerosis complex On this page: ... tuberous sclerosis complex? Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous noncancerous (benign) ...

  11. Two alternative methods to predict amylose content in rice grain by using tristimulus CIELAB values and developing a specific color board of starch-iodine complex solution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amylose content was predicted by measuring tridimensional L*a*b* values in starch-iodine solutions and building a regression model. The developed regression model showed a highly significant relationship (R2= 0.99) between the L*a*b values and the amylose content. Apparent amylose content was strong...

  12. INOCULATION OF HAZELNUT GROVES WITH Tuber brumale & Tuber melanosporum Vitt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The hazelnut tree has a great social an economic value in the NE of Spain, nowadays sunk in economic crisis. 15000 Hectares of these groves lay on potential truffle producing areas. Tuber melanosporum and Tuber brumale fruit in some of them naturally. Our aim is to develop inoculation techniques in mature groves and later to coordinate the truffle and hazelnut

  13. Changes in biochemical constituents and induction of early sprouting by triadimefon treatment in white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) tubers during storage

    PubMed Central

    Jaleel, Cheruth Abdul; Gopi, Ragupathi; Manivannan, Paramasivam; Kishorekumar, Ashok; Gomathinayagam, Muthiah; Panneerselvam, Rajaram

    2007-01-01

    The ability of triadimefon (TDM), a triazolic fungicide, to alter the biochemical constituents and thereby minimizing the days required for sprouting in white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) tubers during storage under (30±2) °C in the dark, was studied. TDM at 20 mg/L was given to tubers by dipping the tubers in treatment solution containing 20 mg/L TDM on 10, 25 and 40 d after storage (DAS). Starch, sugars, protein, amino acid contents as well as protease and ?-amylase activities were estimated on 15, 30 and 45 DAS from two physiological regions viz., apical and basal regions of the tubers. In normal conditions (control) sprouting occurred on 70 to 80 DAS. The starch content decreased, while protein, amino acid, sugar contents and protease and ?-amylase activities were increased due to TDM treatment and led to early sprouting. PMID:17444605

  14. Dynamic transcriptional profiling provides insights into tuberous root development in Rehmannia glutinosa

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peng; Xiao, Xingguo; Duan, Liusheng; Guo, Yuhai; Qi, Jianjun; Liao, Dengqun; Zhao, Chunli; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Lili; Li, Xianen

    2015-01-01

    Rehmannia glutinosa, an herb of the Scrophulariaceae family, is widely cultivated in the Northern part of China. The tuberous root has well-known medicinal properties; however, yield and quality are threatened by abiotic and biotic stresses. Understanding the molecular process of tuberous root development may help identify novel targets for its control. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly strategies to obtain a reference transcriptome that is relevant to tuberous root development. We then conducted RNA-seq quantification analysis to determine gene expression profiles of the adventitious root (AR), thickening adventitious root (TAR), and the developing tuberous root (DTR). Expression profiling identified a total of 6794 differentially expressed unigenes during root development. Bioinformatics analysis and gene expression profiling revealed changes in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, and plant hormone biosynthesis during root development. Moreover, we identified and allocated putative functions to the genes involved in tuberous root development, including genes related to major carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism, and transcription regulation. The present study provides the initial description of gene expression profiles of AR, TAR, and DTR, which facilitates identification of genes of interest. Moreover, our work provides insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying tuberous root development and may assist in the design and development of improved breeding schemes for different R. glutinosa varieties through genetic manipulation. PMID:26113849

  15. Antimicrobial nanostructured starch based films for packaging.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Ana S; Oliveira, M; de Sá, Arsénio; Rodrigues, Rui M; Cerqueira, Miguel A; Vicente, António A; Machado, A V

    2015-09-20

    Montmorillonite modified with a quaternary ammonium salt C30B/starch nanocomposite (C30B/ST-NC), silver nanoparticles/starch nanocomposite (Ag-NPs/ST-NC) and both silver nanoparticles/C30B/starch nanocomposites (Ag-NPs/C30B/ST-NC) films were produced. The nanoclay (C30B) was dispersed in a starch solution using an ultrasonic probe. Different concentrations of Ag-NPs (0.3, 0.5, 0.8 and 1.0mM) were synthesized directly in starch and in clay/starch solutions via chemical reduction method. Dispersion of C30B silicate layers and Ag-NPs in ST films characterized by X-ray and scanning electron microscopy showed that the presence of Ag-NPs enhanced clay dispersion. Color and opacity measurements, barrier properties (water vapor and oxygen permeabilities), dynamic mechanical analysis and contact angle were evaluated and related with the incorporation of C30B and Ag-NPs. Films presented antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans without significant differences between Ag-NPs concentrations. The migration of components from the nanostructured starch films, assessed by food contact tests, was minor and under the legal limits. These results indicated that the starch films incorporated with C30B and Ag-NPs have potential to be used as packaging nanostructured material. PMID:26050897

  16. Physicochemical, morphological, and rheological characterization of Xanthosoma robustum Lego-like starch.

    PubMed

    Londoño-Restrepo, Sandra M; Rincón-Londoño, Natalia; Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Acosta-Osorio, Andrés A; Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Lucas-Aguirre, Juan C; Quintero, Víctor D; Pineda-Gómez, Posidia; del Real-López, Alicia; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2014-04-01

    This work presents the physicochemical and pasting characterization of isolated mafafa starch and mafafa flour (Xanthosoma robustum). According to SEM images of mafafa starches in the tuber, these starches form Lego-like shaped structures with diameters between 8 and 35 ?m conformed by several starch granules of wedge shape that range from 2 to 7 ?m. The isolated mafafa starch is characterized by its low contents of protein, fat, and ash. The starch content in isolated starch was found to be 88.58% while the amylose content obtained was 35.43%. X-ray diffraction studies confirm that isolated starch is composed mainly by amylopectin. These results were confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and thermo gravimetric analysis. This is the first report of the molecular parameters for mafafa starch: molar mass that ranged between 2×10(8) and 4×10(8) g/mol, size (Rg) value between 279 and 295 nm, and molecular density value between 9.2 and 9.7 g/(mol nm(3)). This study indicates that mafafa starch shows long chains of amylopectin this fact contributes to higher viscosity development and higher gel stability. The obtained gel phase is transparent in the UV-vis region. The viscosity, gel stability and optical properties suggest that there is potential for mafafa starch applications in the food industry. PMID:24463263

  17. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Bradley P.; Hulbert, John C.; Bissler, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Although not as common as other genetic renal diseases such as autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, patients with tuberous sclerosis complex frequently have significant renal involvement. Recent revelations in the cell biology of these renal disease manifestations as well as effective therapies for tuberous sclerosis complex-related renal issues have heralded hope of improved renal survival and improved quality of life for the TSC patient. This review specifically addresses some of the major renal manifestations of this disease. PMID:21071977

  18. Influence of incorporated wild Solanum genomes on potato properties in terms of starch nanostructure and glycoalkaloid content.

    PubMed

    Väänänen, Tiina; Ikonen, Teemu; Rokka, Veli-Matti; Kuronen, Pirjo; Serimaa, Ritva; Ollilainen, Velimatti

    2005-06-29

    Interspecific somatic hybrids produced by protoplast fusion between two wild Solanum species (S. acaule, acl; S. brevidens, brd) and cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum (tbr) were analyzed in terms of the starch nanometer-range structure and glycoalkaloid (GA) contents. The crystallinity of starch granules, the average size of starch crystallites, and the lamellar distances were obtained from tuber samples using wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering methods. These measurements showed that incorporation of wild genomes from either nontuberous (brd) or tuberous (acl) Solanum species caused no significant modifications of the nanostructure of potato starch. In contrast, the GA profiles of the hybrids, which were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS in both tuber and foliage samples, differed considerably from those of cultivated potato. Regardless of the low total tuber GA concentrations (approximately 9 mg/100 g of fresh weight), the somatic hybrids contained GAs not detected in the parental species. A high proportion of spirotype GAs consisting of 5,6-dihydrogenated aglycons, for example, alpha-tomatine and tomatidine bound with solatriose, and chacotriose were found in the hybrids. In conclusion, the foliage of interspecific hybrids contained a higher variation in the structures of GAs than did the tubers. PMID:15969512

  19. Colors, Colors?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Susan Songstad

    2009-01-01

    In this activity related to the famous "Stroop Effect," learners explore how words influence what we see and how the brain handles "mixed messages." Learners read colored words and are asked to say the color of the word, not what the word says. Learners use a data table to keep track of where they have trouble reading the colors. They analyze this data by answering questions and drawing conclusions. Learners can also take this test using the online version.

  20. The legwd mutant uncovers the role of starch phosphorylation in pollen development and germination in tomato.

    PubMed

    Nashilevitz, Shai; Melamed-Bessudo, Cathy; Aharoni, Asaph; Kossmann, Jens; Wolf, Shmuel; Levy, Avraham A

    2009-01-01

    Starches extracted from most plant species are phosphorylated. alpha-Glucan water dikinase (GWD) is a key enzyme that controls the phosphate content of starch. In the absence of its activity starch degradation is impaired, leading to a starch excess phenotype in Arabidopsis and in potato leaves, and to reduced cold sweetening in potato tubers. Here, we characterized a transposon insertion (legwd::Ds) in the tomato GWD (LeGWD) gene that caused male gametophytic lethality. The mutant pollen had a starch excess phenotype that was associated with a reduction in pollen germination. SEM and TEM analyses indicated mild shrinking of the pollen grains and the accumulation of large starch granules inside the plastids. The level of soluble sugars was reduced by 1.8-fold in mutant pollen grains. Overall, the transmission of the mutant allele was only 0.4% in the male, whereas it was normal in the female. Additional mutant alleles, obtained through transposon excision, showed the same phenotypes as legwd::Ds. Moreover, pollen germination could be restored, and the starch excess phenotype could be abolished in lines expressing the potato GWD homolog (StGWD) under a pollen-specific promoter. In these lines, where fertility was restored, homozygous plants for legwd::Ds were isolated, and showed the starch excess phenotype in the leaves. Overall, our results demonstrate the importance of starch phosphorylation and breakdown for pollen germination, and open up the prospect for analyzing the role of starch metabolism in leaves and fruits. PMID:18764922

  1. Extruding foams from corn starch acetate and native corn starch.

    PubMed

    Guan, Junjie; Hanna, Milford A

    2004-01-01

    Because of the hydrophilic characteristics of native starch foams and the cost of modifying starch, the uses of starch and modified starch foams are hindered. To decrease hydrophilicity and cost of starch foams, native corn starch was blended with starch acetate and extruded. A twin-screw mixing extruder was used to produce the foams. Native starch content, screw speed, and barrel temperature had significant effects on molecular degradation of starches during extrusion. The melting temperature of extruded starch acetate/native starch foam was higher (216 degrees C) than that for starch acetate (193.4 degrees C). Strong peaks in the X-ray diffractograms of extruded starch acetate/native starch foam suggested new crystalline regions were formed. Optimum conditions for high radial expansion ratio, high compressibility, low specific mechanical energy requirement, and low water absorption index were 46.0% native starch content, 163 rpm screw speed, and 148 degrees C barrel temperature. PMID:15530049

  2. Magnetic resonance images of tuberous sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Inoue; S. Nakajima; T. Fukuda; Y. Nemoto; M. Shakudo; R. Murata; O. Matsuoka; K. Takemoto; Y. Matsumura; Y. Onoyama

    1988-01-01

    The cerebral lesions in tuberous sclerosis are of three kinds: subependymal nodules, cortical tubers, and cluster of heterotopic cells in the white matter. Understanding of these hamartomas is still incomplete even with modern imaging modalities. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of ten patients with tuberous sclerosis were reviewed and compared to computed tomographic (CT) scans and to the clinical severity of

  3. Expression of mung bean pectin acetyl esterase in potato tubers: effect on acetylation of cell wall polymers and tuber mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Orfila, Caroline; Dal Degan, Florence; Jørgensen, Bodil; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Ray, Peter M; Ulvskov, Peter

    2012-07-01

    A mung bean (Vigna radiata) pectin acetyl esterase (CAA67728) was heterologously expressed in tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum) under the control of the granule-bound starch synthase promoter or the patatin promoter in order to probe the significance of O-acetylation on cell wall and tissue properties. The recombinant tubers showed no apparent macroscopic phenotype. The enzyme was recovered from transgenic tubers using a high ionic strength buffer and the extract was active against a range of pectic substrates. Partial in vivo de-acetylation of cell wall polysaccharides occurred in the transformants, as shown by a 39% decrease in the degree of acetylation (DA) of tuber cell wall material (CWM). Treatment of CWM using a combination of endo-polygalacturonase and pectin methyl esterase extracted more pectin polymers from the transformed tissue compared to wild type. The largest effect of the pectin acetyl esterase (68% decrease in DA) was seen in the residue from this extraction, suggesting that the enzyme is preferentially active on acetylated pectin that is tightly bound to the cell wall. The effects of acetylation on tuber mechanical properties were investigated by tests of failure under compression and by determination of viscoelastic relaxation spectra. These tests suggested that de-acetylation resulted in a stiffer tuber tissue and a stronger cell wall matrix, as a result of changes to a rapidly relaxing viscoelastic component. These results are discussed in relation to the role of pectin acetylation in primary cell walls and its implications for industrial uses of potato fibres. PMID:22293853

  4. Tuberous sclerosis with pulmonary involvement.

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, B. A.; Chamberlain, D. W.; Goldstein, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberous sclerosis produced interstitial disease in a woman with normal-sized lungs; numerous hemosiderin-laden macrophages were found in the fluid obtained through bronchoalveolar lavage. The pathological changes seen in the lungs were identical to those of pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis, in which the constellation of clinical signs usually found in tuberous sclerosis is absent. The two conditions are sufficiently similar in clinical presentation, pathological changes and prognosis to be considered variants of the same disease. The recent findings of progestin receptors in lung tissue from patients with pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis will likely direct future management towards hormonal manipulation. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:6692213

  5. Managing epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Elizabeth Anne

    2004-09-01

    Epilepsy is very common in tuberous sclerosis complex and occurs in 80 to 90% of affected individuals during their lifetime. Onset usually occurs during childhood, and up to one third of children with tuberous sclerosis complex will develop infantile spasms. Although not completely understood, the incidence of epilepsy is thought to relate to the neuropathologic features of the disorder, including cortical tubers and other dysgenetic features. Individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex frequently have epileptiform features to their electroencephalograms. Treatment of epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex is similar to epilepsy resulting from other causes and includes anticonvulsant medications, the vagus nerve stimulator, and the ketogenic diet. Vigabatrin has been shown to be particularly effective in treating infantile spasms in the setting of tuberous sclerosis complex. Epilepsy surgery has a very important role in the management of children and adults with pharmacoresistant epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex. PMID:15563014

  6. Synthesis of Rosin Acid Starch Catalyzed by Lipase

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rihui; Li, He; Long, Han; Su, Jiating; Huang, Wenqin

    2014-01-01

    Rosin, an abundant raw material from pine trees, was used as a starting material directly for the synthesis of rosin acid starch. The esterification reaction was catalyzed by lipase (Novozym 435) under mild conditions. Based on single factor experimentation, the optimal esterification conditions were obtained as follows: rosin acid/anhydrous glucose unit in the molar ratio 2?:?1, reaction time 4?h at 45°C, and 15% of lipase dosage. The degree of substitution (DS) reaches 0.098. Product from esterification of cassava starch with rosin acid was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and iodine coloration analysis. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the morphology and crystallinity of the cassava starch were largely destroyed. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that thermal stability of rosin acid starch decreased compared with native starch. PMID:24977156

  7. Surgical Reconstruction of Tuberous Breasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Foustanos; Harris Zavrides

    2006-01-01

    Background:  Tuberous breast deformity is a rare entity affecting young women bilaterally or unilaterally. It requires surgical correction,\\u000a depending on the severity of the clinical expression, because of its aesthetic appearance. Since the presentation of the malformation\\u000a by Rees and Aston in 1976, many surgical procedures have been developed, but the deformity still is one of the most challenging\\u000a congenital breast

  8. In vitro digestibility and some physicochemical properties of starch from wild and cultivated amadumbe corms.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, K; Amonsou, E O; Oyeyinka, S A

    2015-07-10

    Amadumbe, commonly known as taro, is an indigenous underutilised tuber to Southern Africa. In this study, starch functional properties and in vitro starch digestibility of processed products from wild and cultivated amadumbe were determined. Starch extracts from both amadumbe types had similar contents of total starch (approx. 95%). Wild and cultivated amadumbe starch granules were polygonal and very small in size (2.7 ± 0.9 ?m). Amylose content of wild amadumbe (20%) was about double that of cultivated (12%). By DSC, the peak gelatinisation temperatures of wild and cultivated amadumbe starches were 81 and 85°C, respectively. The slowly digestible starch (SDS); 20% and resistant starch (RS); 64% contents of wild amadumbe appeared slightly higher than those of cultivated. Processing amadumbe into boiled and baked products did not substantially affect SDS and RS contents. Estimated glycaemic index of processed products ranged from 40 to 44%. Thus, amadumbe, both wild and cultivated, present some potential in the formulation of products for diabetics and weight management. PMID:25857954

  9. Tuberous legumes: preliminary evaluation of tropical Australian and introduced species as fuel crops

    SciTech Connect

    Saxon, E.C.

    1981-04-01

    The evaluation of native and introduced legumes with starch-storing roots or tubers was undertaken to test whether plants traditionally collected as food by Australian aborigines might have a role in the development of crops for liquid fuel production (by fermentation of carbohydrates to ethanol). Tuberous-rooted legumes from overseas were planted at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, Kimberley Research Station, Western Australia (15/sup 0/39'S, 128/sup 0/42'E) in December 1974, March 1978 and February 1979. Roots from the latter plantings were harvested in June 1979. Native plant material was collected during visits to aboriginal communities in the Kimberleys between April and June 1979. The native and introduced specimens were analyzed for fermentable carbohydrate and protein content. Several native plants appear more promising than introduced species as liquid fuel crops.

  10. The Mode of Sucrose Degradation in Potato Tubers Determines the Fate of Assimilate Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Stephanus J.; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Cytosolic (U-IN-2) or apoplasmic (U-IN-1) targeting of yeast invertase in potato tubers leads to a reduction in sucrose and an increase in glucose content, but specific phenotypical changes are dependent on the subcellular targeting of the enzyme. Cytosolic expression leads to a more severe phenotype with the most striking aspects being reduced starch content and increased respiration. Despite extensive research, the regulatory mechanisms leading to these changes remain obscure. Recent technological advancements regarding potato transcriptional and genomic research presented us with the opportunity to revisit these lines and perform detailed gene expression analysis, in combination with extensive metabolic profiling, to identify regulatory networks underlying the observed changes. Our results indicate that in both genotypes reduced UDP-glucose production is associated with a reduced expression of cell wall biosynthetic genes. In addition, U-IN-1 tubers are characterized by elevated expression of senescence-associated genes, coupled to reduced expression of genes related to photosynthesis and the cytoskeleton. We provide evidence that increased respiration, observed specifically in U-IN-2 tubers, might be due to sugar signaling via released trehalose-6-phosphate inhibition of the SnRK1 complex. In both genotypes, expression of the plastidic glucose-6-phosphate transporter (GPT) is significantly down-regulated. This leads to a shift in the cytosolic to plastidic glucose-6-phosphate ratio and hence might limit starch synthesis but also the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. This might explain the observed changes in several additional plastid localized pathways, most notably reduced expression of fatty acid biosynthetic genes and an accumulation of shikimate. Interestingly, a strict negative correlation between invertase and GPT expression could be observed in a wide range of potato tubers. This reciprocal regulation may be part of a more general switch controlling energy versus storage metabolism, suggesting that the fate of assimilate utilization is coordinated at the level of sucrose degradation. PMID:22639642

  11. Local expression of the ipt gene in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. SR1) axillary buds establishes a role for cytokinins in tuberization and sink formation.

    PubMed

    Guivarc'h, Anne; Rembur, Jacques; Goetz, Marc; Roitsch, Thomas; Noin, Michèle; Schmülling, Thomas; Chriqui, Dominique

    2002-04-01

    The developmental characteristics of a transgenic tobacco line (BIK62) expressing the ipt cytokinin-biosynthetic gene under the control of a tagged promoter were analysed. In situ hybridization and cytokinin immunocytochemistry revealed that the ipt gene was mainly expressed in the axillary buds after the floral transition. The ipt-expressing axillary buds presented morphological alterations such as short and narrow scale-leaflets, and swollen internodes filled with starch grains, giving rise to short and tuberized lateral branches. In addition, the modification of the endogenous cytokinin balance in the axillary meristems resulted in a fast rate of leaf initiation and cytokinins accumulated mostly in the lateral zones of the reactivated axillary meristems, suggesting a role in leaf organogenesis. Cell cycle analysis revealed that the reactivated axillary meristems were characterized by predominant S+G2 nuclei. Terminal internodes displayed low levels of hexose and sucrose concomitant with starch accumulation. Extracellular invertases (EC 3.1.26) were also present in higher amounts in the tuberizing internodes compared to the axillary buds of wild-type tobacco. These results underline the role of cytokinins in cell cycle regulation and in the creation of a sink--source effect. They also provide new information about cytokinin involvement in the process of tuberization and their overproduction in axillary buds giving rise to tuberized lateral branches in a naturally non-tuberizing species. PMID:11886881

  12. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding granule-bound starch synthase in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and its antisense expression in potato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. I. M. Salehuzzaman; E. Jacobsen; R. G. F. Visser

    1993-01-01

    A tuber-specific cDNA library of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) was constructed and a full-length cDNA for granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS, also known as waxy protein), the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of amylose in reserve starch, was cloned. Sequencing of the cloned cDNA showed that it has 74% identity with potato GBSS and 60–72% identity with GBSS from other plant

  13. THE AZIDATION OF STARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch is an inexpensive commodity that has been used for non-food purposes for many years. Some of these uses include cross-linked starches that are synthesized with a variety of multifunctional reagents. One unexplored possibility is the use of azides for cross-linking. To this end, azide deriv...

  14. Hormone Metabolism During Potato Tuber Dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At harvest and for an indeterminate period thereafter potato tubers will not sprout and are physiologically dormant. The length of tuber dormancy is dependent on cultivar and pre- and postharvest environmental conditions. Plant hormones have been shown to be involved in all phases of dormancy prog...

  15. Laser treatment of angiofibromas in tuberous sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pignatti, M; Spaggiari, A; Sala, P; Loschi, P; Fiumana, E; Faggioli, R

    2014-12-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal dominant disorder that can cause nonmalignant hamartomas in any organ. Angiofibromas are the most disturbing marker of the disease because they are conspicuously present on the face. We report the case of a 15-year-old girl affected by tuberous sclerosis, whose facial angiofibromas were satisfactorily treated by a green light vascular laser (532 nm). PMID:25336102

  16. CT of gyriform calcification in tuberous sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Sener; A. Meral; H. Farmaka; N. Kalender

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a patient with typical clinical and CT features of tuberous sclerosis associated with gyriform calcification of the most part of the left frontal lobe. This patient represents the third case of tuberous sclerosis in the literature presenting with gyriform calcification.

  17. Multiplex PCR for the identification of white Tuber species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonella Amicucci; Chiara Guidi; Alessandra Zambonelli; Lucia Potenza; Vilberto Stocchi

    2000-01-01

    Species-specific primers selected from the internal transcribed spacer region sequence were used to set up a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) able to simultaneously identify the white truffle species Tuber magnatum, Tuber borchii, Tuber maculatum and Tuber puberulum. Furthermore, a primer specific for the competitive fungus Sphaerosporella brunnea was designed and added to the multiplex PCR set, allowing the detection

  18. Characterization of starch nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymo?ska, J.; Targosz-Korecka, M.; Krok, F.

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials already attract great interest because of their potential applications in technology, food science and medicine. Biomaterials are biodegradable and quite abundant in nature, so they are favoured over synthetic polymer based materials. Starch as a nontoxic, cheap and renewable raw material is particularly suitable for preparation of nanoparticles. In the paper, the structure and some physicochemical properties of potato and cassava starch particles of the size between 50 to 100 nm, obtained by mechanical treatment of native starch, were presented. We demonstrated, with the aim of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM), that the shape and dimensions of the obtained nanoparticles both potato and cassava starch fit the blocklets - previously proposed as basic structural features of native starch granules. This observation was supported by aqueous solubility and swelling power of the particles as well as their iodine binding capacity similar to those for amylopectin-type short branched polysaccharide species. Obtained results indicated that glycosidic bonds of the branch linkage points in the granule amorphous lamellae might be broken during the applied mechanical treatment. Thus the released amylopectin clusters could escape out of the granules. The starch nanoparticles, for their properties qualitatively different from those of native starch granules, could be utilized in new applications.

  19. Production of Cyclodextrins by CGTase from Bacillus clausii Using Different Starches as Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves-Prado, H. F.; Carneiro, A. A. J.; Pavezzi, F. C.; Gomes, E.; Boscolo, M.; Franco, C. M. L.; da Silva, R.

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligasaccharides composed by d-glucose monomers joined by ?-1,4-d glicosidic linkages. The main types of CDs are ?-, ?- and ?-CDs consisting of cycles of six, seven, and eight glucose monomers, respectively. Their ability to form inclusion complexes is the most important characteristic, allowing their wide industrial application. The physical property of the CD-complexed compound can be altered to improve stability, volatility, solubility, or bio-availability. The cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase, EC 2.4.1.19) is an enzyme capable of converting starch into CD molecules. In this work, the CGTase produced by Bacillus clausii strain E16 was used to produce CD from maltodextrin and different starches (commercial soluble starch, corn, cassava, sweet potato, and waxy corn starches) as substrates. It was observed that the substrate sources influence the kind of CD obtained and that this CGTase displays a ?-CGTase action, presenting a better conversion of soluble starch at 1.0%, of which 80% was converted in CDs. The ratio of total CD produced was 0:0.89:0.11 for ?/?/?. It was also observed that root and tuber starches were more accessible to CGTase action than seed starch under the studied conditions.

  20. Inhibition of the Plastidic ATP/ADP Transporter Protein Primes Potato Tubers for Augmented Elicitation of Defense Responses and Enhances Their Resistance against Erwinia carotovora

    PubMed Central

    Linke, Christoph; Conrath, Uwe; Jeblick, Wolfgang; Betsche, Thomas; Mahn, Andreas; Düring, Klaus; Neuhaus, H. Ekkehard

    2002-01-01

    Tubers of transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants with decreased activity of the plastidic ATP/ADP transporter AATP1 display reduced levels of starch, modified tuber morphology, and altered concentrations of primary metabolites. Here, we demonstrate that the spontaneous production of hydrogen peroxide, the endogenous content of salicylic acid, and the levels of mRNAs of various defense-related genes are similar in tuber discs of wild-type and AATP1(St) antisense plants. However, upon challenging the tissue with fungal elicitors or culture supernatants of the soft rot-causing pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica, the AATP1(St) antisense tubers exhibit highly potentiated activation of defense responses when compared with wild-type tissue. The augmented defense responses comprise enhanced accumulation of transcripts of five defense-related genes (?-1,3-GLUCANASE B2 and A1, CHITINASE B3 and A2, and Phe AMMONIA-LYASE) and enhanced elicitation (up to 21-fold) of the early hydrogen peroxide burst. The potentiated activation of cellular defense responses in AATP1(St) antisense tubers is not accompanied by a precedent increase in endogenous salicylic acid levels, but is associated with a strongly enhanced resistance of the tissue to E. carotovora. From these results, we conclude that inhibition of primary metabolic reactions induces a primed state that sensitizes the potato tubers for improved elicitation of various cellular defense responses, which likely contribute to enhanced E. carotovora resistance. PMID:12177473

  1. Low-fat sodium-reduced sausages: Effect of the interaction between locust bean gum, potato starch and ?-carrageenan by a mixture design approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth García-García; Alfonso Totosaus

    2008-01-01

    A mixture design approach was used to evaluate interactions between potato starch, locust bean gum and ?-carrageenan and their effect on cooking yield, expressible moisture, texture and color in low-fat sodium-reduced sausages formulated with potassium and calcium chloride. Starch had a notable influence on cooking yield and texture, increasing product hardness and resilience as starch proportion increased. The added salt

  2. Multiplex PCR for the identification of white Tuber species.

    PubMed

    Amicucci, A; Guidi, C; Zambonelli, A; Potenza, L; Stocchi, V

    2000-08-15

    Species-specific primers selected from the internal transcribed spacer region sequence were used to set up a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) able to simultaneously identify the white truffle species Tuber magnatum, Tuber borchii, Tuber maculatum and Tuber puberulum. Furthermore, a primer specific for the competitive fungus Sphaerosporella brunnea was designed and added to the multiplex PCR set, allowing the detection of the Tuber species and the contaminant fungus in a one-step reaction. PMID:10930749

  3. Composition and physical properties of starch in microgravity-grown plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, O. A.; Brown, C. S.; Levine, H. G.; Piastuch, W. C.; Sanwo-Lewandowski, M. M.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of spaceflight on starch development in soybean ( Glycine max L., BRIC-03) and potato ( Solanum tuberosum, Astroculture-05) was compared with ground controls by biophysical and biochemical measurements. Starch grains from plants from both flights were on average 20-50% smaller in diameter than ground controls. The ratio ??/?? (?? - difference of magnetic susceptibilities, ?? - difference of densities between starch and water) of starch grains was ca. 15% and 4% higher for space-grown soybean cotyledons and potato tubers, respectively, than in corresponding ground controls. Since the densities of particles were similar for all samples (1.36 to 1.38 g/cm 3), the observed difference in ??/?? was due to different magnetic susceptibilities and indicates modified composition of starch grains. In starch preparations from soybean cotyledons (BRIC-03) subjected to controlled enzymatic degradation with ?-amylase for 24 hours, 77±6% of the starch from the flight cotyledons was degraded compared to 58±12% in ground controls. The amylose content in starch was also higher in space-grown tissues. The good correlation between the amylose content and ??/?? suggests, that the magnetic susceptibility of starch grains is related to their amylose content. Since the seedlings from the BRIC-03 experiment showed elevated post-flight ethylene levels, material from another flight experiment (GENEX) which had normal levels of ethylene was examined and showed no difference to ground controls in size distribution, density, ??/?? and amylose content. Therefore the role of ethylene appears to be more important for changes in starch metabolism than microgravity.

  4. Composition and physical properties of starch in microgravity-grown plants.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, O A; Brown, C S; Levine, H G; Piastuch, W C; Sanwo-Lewandowski, M M; Hasenstein, K H

    2001-01-01

    The effect of spaceflight on starch development in soybean (Glycine max L., BRIC-03) and potato (Solanum tuberosum, Astroculture-05) was compared with ground controls by biophysical and biochemical measurements. Starch grains from plants from both flights were on average 20-50% smaller in diameter than ground controls. The ratio delta X/delta rho (delta X --difference of magnetic susceptibilities, delta rho--difference of densities between starch and water) of starch grains was ca. 15% and 4% higher for space-grown soybean cotyledons and potato tubers, respectively, than in corresponding ground controls. Since the densities of particles were similar for all samples (1.36 to 1.38 g/cm3), the observed difference in delta X/delta rho was due to different magnetic susceptibilities and indicates modified composition of starch grains. In starch preparations from soybean cotyledons (BRIC-03) subjected to controlled enzymatic degradation with alpha-amylase for 24 hours, 77 +/- 6% of the starch from the flight cotyledons was degraded compared to 58 +/- 12% in ground controls. The amylose content in starch was also higher in space-grown tissues. The good correlation between the amylose content and delta X/delta rho suggests, that the magnetic susceptibility of starch grains is related to their amylose content. Since the seedlings from the BRIC-03 experiment showed elevated post-flight ethylene levels, material from another flight experiment (GENEX) which had normal levels of ethylene was examined and showed no difference to ground controls in size distribution, density, delta X/delta rho and amylose content. Therefore the role of ethylene appears to be more important for changes in starch metabolism than microgravity. PMID:11803968

  5. Alpine Russet: A potato cultivar having long tuber dormancy making it suitable for processing from long-term storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpine Russet is a later maturing, oblong-long, lightly russeted potato cultivar, notable for having tuber dormancy comparable to Russet Burbank. Processing quality of Alpine Russet from long-term storage is superior to Russet Burbank, with low percent reducing sugars and uniform fry color due to a...

  6. RECENT RESEARCH PROGRESS ON POTATO TUBER WOUND-HEALING/SUBERIAZTION AND SKIN-SET.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The suberization of tuber wounds and the development of resistance to tuber excoriation (resistance to tuber skinning injury) are important physiological processes that directly impact tuber market quality. However, critical portions of the biochemical processes responsible for suberization and res...

  7. Starch content and yield increase as a result of altering adenylate pools in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Regierer, Babette; Fernie, Alisdair R; Springer, Franziska; Perez-Melis, Alicia; Leisse, Andrea; Koehl, Karin; Willmitzer, Lothar; Geigenberger, Peter; Kossmann, Jens

    2002-12-01

    Starch represents the most important carbohydrate used for food and feed purposes. With the aim of increasing starch content, we decided to modulate the adenylate pool by changing the activity of the plastidial adenylate kinase in transgenic potato plants. As a result, we observed a substantial increase in the level of adenylates and, most importantly, an increase in the level of starch to 60% above that found in wild-type plants. In addition, concentrations of several amino acids were increased by a factor of 2-4. These results are particularly striking because this genetic manipulation also results in an increased tuber yield. The modulation of the plastidial adenylate kinase activity in transgenic plants therefore represents a potentially very useful strategy for increasing formation of major storage compounds in heterotrophic tissues of higher plants. PMID:12426579

  8. Comparative disintegrant activities of breadfruit starch and official corn starch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarafadeen A. Adebayo; Eugenie Brown-Myrie; Oludele A. Itiola

    2008-01-01

    A Comparative evaluation of starch powder extracted from breadfruit (Artocarpus communis, Frost) as tablet disintegrant was made with corn starch BP using a 2×4 factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design. Two factors (type of starch: 2 i.e. breadfruit and corn) at four levels (concentrations of starch disintegrant: 4 i.e. 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%) were studied. One (1)

  9. Starch mutants of Chlamydomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Berry-Lowe, S.L.; Schmidt, G.W. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Wild type Chlamydomonas accumulates starch and triglycerides when grown under nitrogen limiting conditions. Toward elucidation of the mechanisms for control of starch biosynthesis, we isolated mutants impaired int he accumulation of storage carbohydrates. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (strain ya-12) was mutagenized by UV irradiation and colonies were screened by iodine staining after growth in darkness. Mutants, denoted ais for altered in iodine staining, have been characterized by electron microscopy and assays for starch synthease, ADPG-pyrophosphorylase, phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), phosphoglucomutase and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and amylase activities. Transcript analysis of wild type and mutant RNAs with PGI, ADPG-pyrophosphorylase, and waxy probes have also been carried out. No deficiencies of any of these components have been detected. Furthermore, long-term cultures of ya-12 and ais-1d in nitrogen-limited chemostats have been studied; starch also does not accumulate in ais-1d under these conditions. Thus, the lesion affects an essential factor of unknown identity that is required for starch synthesis.

  10. Genetic controls on starch amylose content in wheat and rice grains.

    PubMed

    Fasahat, Parviz; Rahman, Sadequr; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2014-04-01

    Starch accumulates in plants as granules in chloroplasts of source organs such as leaves (transitory starch) or in amyloplasts of sink organs such as seeds, tubers and roots (storage starch). Starch is composed of two types of glucose polymers: the essentially linear polymer amylose and highly branched amylopectin. The amylose content of wheat and rice seeds is an important quality trait, affecting the nutritional and sensory quality of two of the world's most important crops. In this review, we focus on the relationship between amylose biosynthesis and the structure, physical behaviour and functionality of wheat and rice grains. We briefly describe the structure and composition of starch and then in more detail describe what is known about the mechanism of amylose synthesis and how the amount of amylose in starch might be controlled. This more specifically includes analysis of GBSS alleles, the relationship between waxy allelic forms and amylose, and related quantitative trait loci. Finally, different methods for increasing or lowering amylose content are evaluated. PMID:24840849

  11. Novel colored potatoes as a potential source of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds 

    E-print Network

    Reyes Mora, Luis Fernando

    2002-01-01

    Several studies were conducted to assess the potential use of colored-flesh potato cultivars as a novel source of anthocyanins and phenolics. The accumulation of anthocyanins and phenolics during tuber development was dependent on several factors...

  12. Effects of ethylene on tuberization in radish (Raphanus sativus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dick Vreugdenhil; Harro J. Bouwmeester

    1989-01-01

    The effects of ethylene on the elongation of radish hypocotyls and on dry matter partitioning between tubers and shoots were analysed in order to gain insight into the possible role of ethylene in the regulation of tuberization. Treatment of very young seedlings with ethylene results in heavier tubers (Vreugdenhil et al. 1984). Here we report that addition of ethylene or

  13. ROOT ZONE CALCIUM CAN MODULATE GA INDUCED TUBERIZATION SIGNAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among the known hormones, the most convincing case for a critical role in the control of tuberization, has been made for plant hormone gibberellin. High GA level is known to inhibit tuberization, and tuberization is promoted by reducing GA level. Calcium is known to be a second messenger regulating ...

  14. Genetic Improvement of Potato for Tuber Calcium Uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tuber internal quality is a major limiting factor for the U.S. potato industry. Breeders invest time and money in producing advanced selections which, in the end, often fail because of tuber internal defects, tuber bruising, or storage quality issues. In-season fertilization with calcium is known to...

  15. Ocatin. A Novel Tuber Storage Protein from the Andean Tuber Crop Oca with Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresita Flores; Alberto Alape-Giron; Marietta Flores-Diaz; Hector E. Flores

    The most abundant soluble tuber protein from the Andean crop oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.), named ocatin, has been purified and characterized. Ocatin accounts for 40% to 60% of the total soluble oca tuber proteins, has an apparent molecular mass of 18 kD and an isoelectric point of 4.8. This protein appears to be found only in tubers and is accumulated

  16. The three-dimensional distribution of minerals in potato tubers

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Nithya K.; White, Philip J.; Broadley, Martin R.; Ramsay, Gavin

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The three-dimensional distributions of mineral elements in potato tubers provide insight into their mechanisms of transport and deposition. Many of these minerals are essential to a healthy human diet, and characterizing their distribution within the potato tuber will guide the effective utilization of this staple foodstuff. Methods The variation in mineral composition within the tuber was determined in three dimensions, after determining the orientation of the harvested tuber in the soil. The freeze-dried tuber samples were analysed for minerals using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Minerals measured included those of nutritional significance to the plant and to human consumers, such as iron, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium and sulphur. Key Results The concentrations of most minerals were higher in the skin than in the flesh of tubers. The potato skin contained about 17 % of total tuber zinc, 34 % of calcium and 55 % of iron. On a fresh weight basis, most minerals were higher in tuber flesh at the stem end than the bud end of the tuber. Potassium, however, displayed a gradient in the opposite direction. The concentrations of phosphorus, copper and calcium decreased from the periphery towards the centre of the tuber. Conclusions The distribution of minerals varies greatly within the potato tuber. Low concentrations of some minerals relative to those in leaves may be due to their low mobility in phloem, whereas high concentrations in the skin may reflect direct uptake from the soil across the periderm. In tuber flesh, different minerals show distinct patterns of distribution in the tuber, several being consistent with phloem unloading in the tuber and limited onward movement. These findings have implications both for understanding directed transport of minerals in plants to stem-derived storage organs and for the dietary implications of different food preparation methods for potato tubers. PMID:21289026

  17. RHEOLOGY OF STARCH-LIPID COMPOSITES YOGURTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yogurt is traditionally made by fermenting liquid milk. The ability of starches to thicken, gel, and hold water has been exploited in yogurt manufacture. The addition of starch increases the viscosity of yogurt, but some starches impart an undesirable taste and promote phase separation. Starch-li...

  18. The change of amyloplasts structure and composition of storage starch in potato minitubers during imitated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedukha, O. M.; Kordyum, E. L.; Martyn, G. M.; Schnyukova, E. I.

    Potato was designated for food production in the controlled ecological life-support system CELSS because its tubers as it is known contain starch and significant protein content and are edible food after the long-term storage We used the cultivation of potato miniplants under influence of long-term horizontal clinorotation 2 rev min which imitated microgravity as a model for the technology of potato food production in the CELSS The aim of our work was to determine content and composition storage starch as well as amyloplast ultrastructure of storage parenchyma cells in potato minitubers formed under long-term to 6 weeks slow horizontal clinorotation 2 rpm Minitubers developed from axillary buds of potato miniplants growing in the aseptic stationary conditions and under clinorotation Methods of scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used for the study of surface and ultrastructure of amyloplasts the biochemical method by Hovenkamp-Hermelink et al 1988 - for study of starch composition Some differences were observed in amyloplast structure under clinorotation namely increased volume of starch grains in plastid decreased stroma volume changed structure of envelope membranes in comparison with the stationary control Besides an appearance of fraction of gigantic amyloplasts in central layers of parenchyma was observed under clinorotation after 4 weeks of growth The total starch content increased and reached to 219 5 - 4 1 mg g FW at 6 weeks of clinorotation it was 167 5 - 5 6 mg g FW in the control minitubers A ratio of

  19. Engineering starch accumulation by manipulation of phosphate metabolism of starch.

    PubMed

    Weise, Sean E; Aung, Kimberly; Jarou, Zach J; Mehrshahi, Payam; Li, Ziru; Hardy, Anna C; Carr, David J; Sharkey, Thomas D

    2012-06-01

    A new understanding of leaf starch degradation has emerged in the last 10 years. It has been shown that starch phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are critical components of this process. Glucan, water dikinase (GWD) (and phosphoglucan, water dikinase) adds phosphate to starch, and phosphoglucan phosphatase (SEX4) removes these phosphates. To explore the use of this metabolism to manipulate starch accumulation, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants were engineered by introducing RNAi constructs designed to reduce expression of AtGWD and AtSEX4. The timing of starch build-up was altered with ethanol-inducible and senescence-induced gene promoters. Ethanol induction of RNAi lines reduced transcript for AtGWD and AtSEX4 by 50%. The transgenic lines had seven times more starch than wild type at the end of the dark period but similar growth rates and total biomass. Elevated leaf starch content in maize leaves was engineered by making an RNAi construct against a gene in maize that appeared to be homologous to AtGWD. The RNAi construct was expressed using the constitutive ubiquitin promoter. Leaf starch content at the end of a night period in engineered maize plants was 20-fold higher than in untransformed plants with no impact on total plant biomass. We conclude that plants can be engineered to accumulate starch in the leaves with little impact on vegetative biomass. PMID:22321580

  20. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Surveillance and Management: Recommendations of the 2012 International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Conference

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Darcy A.; Northrup, Hope

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder affecting every organ system, but disease manifestations vary significantly among affected individuals. The diverse and varied presentations and progression can be life-threatening with significant impact on cost and quality of life. Current surveillance and management practices are highly variable among region and country, reflective of the fact that last consensus recommendations occurred in 1998 and an updated, comprehensive standard is lacking that incorporates the latest scientific evidence and current best clinical practices. METHODS The 2012 International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Group, comprising 79 specialists from 14 countries, was organized into 12 separate subcommittees, each led by a clinician with advanced expertise in tuberous sclerosis complex and the relevant medical subspecialty. Each subcommittee focused on a specific disease area with important clinical management implications and was charged with formulating key clinical questions to address within its focus area, reviewing relevant literature, evaluating the strength of data, and providing a recommendation accordingly. RESULTS The updated consensus recommendations for clinical surveillance and management in tuberous sclerosis complex are summarized here. The recommendations are relevant to the entire lifespan of the patient, from infancy to adulthood, including both individuals where the diagnosis is newly made as well as individuals where the diagnosis already is established. CONCLUSIONS The 2012 International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Recommendations provide an evidence-based, standardized approach for optimal clinical care provided for individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex. PMID:24053983

  1. Detection of Tuber melanosporum DNA in soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura M. Suz; Carlos Colinas

    2006-01-01

    Our objectives were (i) to develop a molecular method to detect mycelia of Tuber melanosporum (black truffle) in soil and (ii) to test for mycelial distribution around two truffle-bearing Quercus ilex trees in a truffle orchard. Isolation of total DNA from soil was performed, followed by PCR amplification with T. melanospor- um-specific primers and restriction analysis. To address the detection

  2. Treatment of tuberous breasts utilizing tissue expansion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armand D. Versaci; Arlene A. Rozzelle

    1991-01-01

    This article presents the tissue expansion technique for the treatment of the tuberous breast and its variant, the tubular breast. The treatment objectives are different in the two deformities, but, in general, one has to expand the base circumference of the breast, expand the skin of the lower hemisphere of the breast, release the skin tightness at the skin-areola juncture,

  3. Genetic heterogeneity in tuberous sclerosis: phenotypic correlations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I M Winship; J M Connor; P H Beighton

    1990-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for genetic heterogeneity in tuberous sclerosis (TSC) on the basis of linkage analysis in affected kindreds. We have performed a detailed assessment of an affected South African family in which there is no evidence of linkage to chromosome 9 markers. The affected persons have atypical clinical features, namely prominent nuchal skin tags, a confetti pattern of

  4. VARIATION FOR TUBER ACIDITY AMONG POTATO SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While the use of acidity by plants for defense against disease is widespread and well known (e.g., acidic fruits), little appears to be known about the range of variation in tissue acidity in potato or its implications. We collected tuber samples in sealable plastic “sandwich” bags, froze them in a ...

  5. Starch Applications for Delivery Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jason

    2013-03-01

    Starch is one of the most abundant and economical renewable biopolymers in nature. Starch molecules are high molecular weight polymers of D-glucose linked by ?-(1,4) and ?-(1,6) glycosidic bonds, forming linear (amylose) and branched (amylopectin) structures. Octenyl succinic anhydride modified starches (OSA-starch) are designed by carefully choosing a proper starch source, path and degree of modification. This enables emulsion and micro-encapsulation delivery systems for oil based flavors, micronutrients, fragrance, and pharmaceutical actives. A large percentage of flavors are encapsulated by spray drying in today's industry due to its high throughput. However, spray drying encapsulation faces constant challenges with retention of volatile compounds, oxidation of sensitive compound, and manufacturing yield. Specialty OSA-starches were developed suitable for the complex dynamics in spray drying and to provide high encapsulation efficiency and high microcapsule quality. The OSA starch surface activity, low viscosity and film forming capability contribute to high volatile retention and low active oxidation. OSA starches exhibit superior performance, especially in high solids and high oil load encapsulations compared with other hydrocolloids. Starch is one of the most abundant and economical renewable biopolymers in nature. Starch molecules are high molecular weight polymers of D-glucose linked by ?-(1,4) and ?-(1,6) glycosidic bonds, forming linear (amylose) and branched (amylopectin) structures. Octenyl succinic anhydride modified starches (OSA-starch) are designed by carefully choosing a proper starch source, path and degree of modification. This enables emulsion and micro-encapsulation delivery systems for oil based flavors, micronutrients, fragrance, and pharmaceutical actives. A large percentage of flavors are encapsulated by spray drying in today's industry due to its high throughput. However, spray drying encapsulation faces constant challenges with retention of volatile compounds, oxidation of sensitive compound, and manufacturing yield. Specialty OSA-starches were developed suitable for the complex dynamics in spray drying and to provide high encapsulation efficiency and high microcapsule quality. The OSA starch surface activity, low viscosity and film forming capability contribute to high volatile retention and low active oxidation. OSA starches exhibit superior performance, especially in high solids and high oil load encapsulations compared with other hydrocolloids. The submission is based on research and development of Ingredion

  6. Unraveling the activation mechanism of the potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Carlos M; Kuhn, Misty L; Falaschetti, Christine A; Solamen, Ligin; Olsen, Kenneth W; Ballicora, Miguel A; Iglesias, Alberto A

    2013-01-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase regulates the synthesis of glycogen in bacteria and of starch in plants. The enzyme from plants is mainly activated by 3-phosphoglycerate and is a heterotetramer comprising two small and two large subunits. Here, we found that two highly conserved residues are critical for triggering the activation of the potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, as shown by site-directed mutagenesis. Mutations in the small subunit, which bears the catalytic function in this potato tuber form, had a more dramatic effect on disrupting the allosteric activation than those introduced in the large subunit, which is mainly modulatory. Our results strongly agree with a model where the modified residues are located in loops responsible for triggering the allosteric activation signal for this enzyme, and the sensitivity to this activation correlates with the dynamics of these loops. In addition, previous biochemical data indicates that the triggering mechanism is widespread in the enzyme family, even though the activator and the quaternary structure are not conserved. PMID:23826149

  7. Unraveling the Activation Mechanism of the Potato Tuber ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase

    PubMed Central

    Falaschetti, Christine A.; Solamen, Ligin; Olsen, Kenneth W.; Ballicora, Miguel A.; Iglesias, Alberto A.

    2013-01-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase regulates the synthesis of glycogen in bacteria and of starch in plants. The enzyme from plants is mainly activated by 3-phosphoglycerate and is a heterotetramer comprising two small and two large subunits. Here, we found that two highly conserved residues are critical for triggering the activation of the potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, as shown by site-directed mutagenesis. Mutations in the small subunit, which bears the catalytic function in this potato tuber form, had a more dramatic effect on disrupting the allosteric activation than those introduced in the large subunit, which is mainly modulatory. Our results strongly agree with a model where the modified residues are located in loops responsible for triggering the allosteric activation signal for this enzyme, and the sensitivity to this activation correlates with the dynamics of these loops. In addition, previous biochemical data indicates that the triggering mechanism is widespread in the enzyme family, even though the activator and the quaternary structure are not conserved. PMID:23826149

  8. Sensory and physicochemical evaluation of low-fat chicken mortadella with added native and modified starches.

    PubMed

    Prestes, R C; Silva, L B; Torri, A M P; Kubota, E H; Rosa, C S; Roman, S S; Kempka, A P; Demiate, I M

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of adding different starches (native and modified) on the physicochemical, sensory, structural and microbiological characteristics of low-fat chicken mortadella. Two formulations containing native cassava and regular corn starch, coded CASS (5.0 % of cassava starch) and CORN (5.0 % of regular corn starch), and one formulation produced with physically treated starch coded as MOD1 (2.5 % of Novation 2300) and chemically modified starch coded as MOD2 (2.5 % of Thermtex) were studied. The following tests were performed: physicochemical characterization (moisture, ash, protein, starch and lipid contents, and water activity); cooling, freezing and reheating losses; texture (texture profile test); color coordinates (L*, a*, b*, C and h); microbiological evaluation; sensory evaluation (multiple comparison and preference test); and histological evaluation (light microscopy). There was no significant difference (p?>?0.05) for ash, protein, cooling loss, cohesiveness or in the preference test for the tested samples. The other evaluated parameters showed significant differences (p?starch resulted in a better performance than the native starch in relation to the evaluated technological parameters, mainly in relation to reheating losses, which demonstrated the good interaction between the modified starch in the structure of the product and the possibility of the application of this type of starch in other types of functional meat products. PMID:26139901

  9. Low-fat sodium-reduced sausages: Effect of the interaction between locust bean gum, potato starch and ?-carrageenan by a mixture design approach.

    PubMed

    García-García, Elizabeth; Totosaus, Alfonso

    2008-04-01

    A mixture design approach was used to evaluate interactions between potato starch, locust bean gum and ?-carrageenan and their effect on cooking yield, expressible moisture, texture and color in low-fat sodium-reduced sausages formulated with potassium and calcium chloride. Starch had a notable influence on cooking yield and texture, increasing product hardness and resilience as starch proportion increased. The added salt did not allow complete starch granule gelatinization and swelling, which negatively affected water retention, cohesiveness and lightness. Locust bean gum and ?-carrageenan improved cooking yield and reduced expressible moisture in formulations containing higher proportions of potato starch. The presence of other ions could have enhanced ?-carrageenan functionality and its synergistic interaction with locust bean gum, improving texture and water retention, with only minor effects on sausage color. At the lower tested proportions starch can be used as an extender in low-fat cooked meat products if ?-carrageenan and locust bean gum are included in similar proportions. PMID:22062459

  10. Brucite nanoplate reinforced starch bionanocomposites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper the mechanical reinforcement in a series of bionanocomposites films based on starch and nano-sized brucite, Mg(OH)2, was investigated. Brucite nanoplates with an aspect ratio of 9.25 were synthesized by wet precipitation and incorporated into starch matrices at different concentrations...

  11. Developing Biodegradable Plastics from starch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olayide O. Fabunmi; Lope G. Tabil Jr; Satyanarayan Panigrahi; Peter R. Chang

    The diversity and ubiquity of plastic products substantially testify to the versatility of the special class of engineering materials known as polymers. However, the non-biodegradability of these petrochemical-based materials has been a source of environmental concerns and hence, the driving force in the search for 'green' alternatives for which starch remains the frontliner. Starch is a natural biopolymer consisting predominantly

  12. Starch — Value Addition by Modification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudrapatnam N. Tharanathan

    2005-01-01

    Starch is one of the most important but flexible food ingredients possessing value added attributes for innumerable industrial applications. Its various chemically modified derivatives offer a great scope of high technological value in both food and non-food industries. Modified starches are designed to overcome one or more of the shortcomings, such as loss of viscosity and thickening power upon cooking

  13. Selection of an Edible Starch Coating for Minimally Processed Strawberry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorena Costa Garcia; Leila Mendes Pereira; Claire I. G. de Luca Sarantópoulos; Miriam Dupas Hubinger

    2010-01-01

    Edible coatings can represent an alternative for extending post-harvest life of perishable fruits, as strawberries. In this\\u000a work, the effect of cassava starch edible coatings, added or not of potassium sorbate, on mechanical properties, surface color,\\u000a sensory acceptance, and respiration rate of strawberries was evaluated in order to choose the best coating conditions to minimally\\u000a processed strawberries. Integrity and water-vapor

  14. Molecular identification of Tuber magnatum ectomycorrhizae in the field.

    PubMed

    Bertini, Luana; Rossi, Ismaela; Zambonelli, Alessandra; Amicucci, Antonella; Sacchi, Achille; Cecchini, Matteo; Gregori, Gianluigi; Stocchi, Vilberto

    2006-01-01

    Tuber ectomycorrhizae in a Tuber magnatum "truffière", located in Central Italy, were studied using molecular methods. Specifically, RFLP-ITS analyses, ITS sequencing and specific probes hybridization were used to identify 335 Tuber-like ectomycorrhizal morphotypes. Molecular identification was possible even when distinct morphological characteristics were lacking. For the first time, T. magnatum ectomycorrhizae and other coexisting Tuber species collected in the field were analysed using molecular tools for unambiguous identification. Although the "truffière" under investigation yields good harvests of T. magnatum fruiting bodies, the percentage of T. magnatum ectomycorrhizae found was very low (less than 4.4% of the 335 root tips analysed), whereas the percentages of Tuber maculatum and Tuber rufum were considerably higher (48.9% and 19.0%, respectively). PMID:16338592

  15. Accumulation of PrLeg, a Perilla legumin protein in potato tuber results in enhanced level of sulphur-containing amino acids.

    PubMed

    Goo, Young-Min; Kim, Tae-Won; Lee, Min-Kyung; Lee, Shin-Woo

    2013-09-01

    Potato is the fourth staple food in the world, following rice, wheat, and maize, whereas tubers contain high quality of starch, relatively high amounts of vitamin C and many other important substances. It also contains relatively good quality of protein (about 3 to 6% of the dried weight) and patatin, and 11S globulin is a major storage protein with high level of lysine. However, tuber protein contains relatively low amounts of sulphur-containing amino acids, which may result in low nutritional value. Recently, we cloned a gene encoding PrLeg polypeptide, a seed storage protein from Perilla, which contains relatively higher levels of sulphur-containing amino acids. We transformed PrLeg cDNA into a potato plant to over-express under the direction of the tuber-specific promoter, patatin. Most of the transgenic lines identified through PCR and RT-PCR analyses were able to accumulate high amount of prLeg transcript in their tuber tissue, while very little or no transcript that were detected in their leaf tissues. The level of methionine content was elevated up to three-fold compared to non-transgenic parental line, without any significant changes in other amino acids, suggesting that further research is required to get a deeper insight into their nutritional value. PMID:24161240

  16. Clinically Relevant Imaging in Tuberous Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Verma, Sadhna

    2011-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis (TS), also known as Bourneville disease or Bourneville–Pringle disease, is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder classically characterized by the presence of hamartomatous growths in multiple organs. TS and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are different terms for the same genetic condition. Both terms describe clinical changes due to mutations involving either of the two genes named TSC1 and TSC2, which regulate cell growth. The diagnosis of TSC is established using diagnostic criteria based on clinical and imaging findings. Routine screening and surveillance of patients with TSC is needed to determine the presence and extent of organ involvement, especially the brain, kidneys, and lungs, and identify the development of associated complications. As the treatment is organ specific, imaging plays a crucial role in the management of patients with TSC. PMID:21966635

  17. Sirolimus for Angiomyolipoma in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex or Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Bissler; Francis X. McCormack; Lisa R. Young; Jean M. Elwing; Gail Chuck; Jennifer M. Leonard; Vincent J. Schmithorst; Tal Laor; Alan S. Brody; Judy Bean; Shelia Salisbury; David N. Franz

    2010-01-01

    Background Angiomyolipomas in patients with the tuberous sclerosis complex or sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis are associated with mutations in tuberous sclerosis genes resulting in constitutive activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The drug sirolimus suppresses mTOR signaling. Methods We conducted a 24-month, nonrandomized, open-label trial to determine whether sirolimus reduces the angiomyolipoma volume in patients with the tuberous scle- rosis

  18. Tuberous sclerosis complex; single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Erol, ?lknur; Sava?, Tülin; ?ekerci, Sevda; Yaz?c?, Nalan; Erbay, Ay?e; Demir, ?enay; Sayg?, Semra; Alkan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was planned with the aim of retrospectively reviewing the clinical and laboratory findings and therapies of our patients diagnosed with tuberous sclerosis and redefining the patients according to the diagnostic criteria revised by the 2012 International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Group and comparing them with the literature. Materials and Method: Twenty patients diagnosed with tuberous sclerosis complex in the Pediatric Neurology Clinic were examined retrospectively in terms of clinical findings and therapies. The diagnoses were compared again according to 1998 and 2012 criteria. Results: It was observed that the complaint at presentation was seizure in 17 of 20 patients and hypopigmented spots on the skin in 3 of 20 patients. On the initial physical examination, findings related with the disease were found in the skin in 17 of the patients, in the eye in 5, in the kidneys in 7 and in the brain with imaging in 17. No cardiac involvement was observed in the patients. Infantile spasm was observed in 7 of the patients who presented because of seizure (n=17), partial seizure was observed in 7 and multiple seizure types were observed in 3. It was found that sirolimus treatment was given to 9 of 20 patients because of different reasons, 7 of these 9 patients had epileptic seizures and sirolimus treatment had no effect on epileptic seizures. According to 2012 diagnostic criteria, no marked change occured in the diagnoses of our patients. Conclusions: It was observed that the signs and symptoms of our patients were compatible with the literature. Molecular genetic examination was planned for the patients who were being followed up because of probable tuberous sclerosis complex. It was observed that sirolimus treatment had no marked effect on the seizure frequency of our patients.

  19. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Aller, Erik E. J. G.; Abete, Itziar; Astrup, Arne; Martinez, J. Alfredo; van Baak, Marleen A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:22254101

  20. Aspects of the Physical Chemistry of Starch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Parker; S. G. Ring

    2001-01-01

    Starch makes an important contribution to food structure and hence quality. Often there is a need to modify the behaviour of starch in food materials. One approach is to use knowledge of the physical chemistry of starch to modify component interactions and hence change behaviour. In this review we examine recent research on the phase behaviour and dynamics of starch

  1. A study of the rate of recycling of triose phosphates in heterotrophic Chenopodium rubrum cells, potato tubers, and maize endosperm.

    PubMed

    Hatzfeld, W D; Stitt, M

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated whether starch accumulation in heterotrophic cell-suspension cultures of Chenopodium rubrum L., developing potato (Solarium tuberosum L.) tubers or maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm involves import of triose phosphates or of hexose units into the plastid, and whether there is a rapid recycling of triose phosphates back to hexose phosphates in the cytosol of these tissues, (i) Cell suspensions, potato tubers or intact maize kernels were supplied with [1-(14)C] glucose or [6-(14)C]glucose. The glucosyl residues from starch were isolated and degraded by an enzymic procedure to determine how much radioactivity had been redistributed into the opposite half of the glucose molecule. Randomisation was incomplete, affecting only 18%-38% of the molecules in Chenopodium, 16%-26% of the molecules in potato, or 30% of the molecules in maize. It is concluded that the major route for starch synthesis involves import of hexose units, (ii) The glucosyl and fructosyl moieties of sucrose were isolated and degraded to determine the extent of recycling in the cytosol. There was significant randomisation, lying between 30%-40% in Chenopodium, 20%-26% in potato, and 8%-12% in maize. It is concluded that there is considerable recycling of triose phosphates in the cytosol. (iii). Sucrose from cells supplied with [1-(14)C]glucose was more randomised than sucrose from cells supplied with [6-(14)C]glucose. This is explained in terms of the oxidative pentose-phosphate pathway (iv). Equations are used to estimate the rate of recycling from triose phosphates to hexose phosphates in the cytosol. The estimated rate of recycling is considerably larger than the net glycolytic flux or the activity of the oxidative pentose-phosphate cycle. PMID:24201945

  2. Hypothalamic papillary tumor in a patient with tuberous sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hasselblatt, Martin; Jozwiak, Jaroslaw; Mayer, Karin; Monoranu, Camelia-Maria; Schweitzer, Tilmann; Gerber, Nicolas U; Krauss, Jürgen; Schropp, Christian; Bleier, Stefan; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Rutkowski, Stefan; Pietsch, Torsten; Sörensen, Niels; Kersting, Christian; Roggendorf, Wolfgang; Paulus, Werner

    2008-10-01

    We here report an unusual tumor of the suprasellar region featuring a papillary growth pattern and cytokeratin expression in a 10-year-old boy with tuberous sclerosis. This hitherto undescribed low-grade hypothalamic tumor extends the spectrum of tumors associated with the tuberous sclerosis complex. PMID:18724241

  3. Reevaluation of the Life Cycle of Tuber magnatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Paolocci; Andrea Rubini; Claudia Riccioni; Sergio Arcioni

    2006-01-01

    Tuber spp. are Ascomycetes fungi that establish an ecto- mycorrhizal symbiosis with trees and shrubs. As a result of this mutualistic symbiosis, ascocarps known as truffles are pro- duced. Some Tuber spp. produce edible truffles that, given their distinctive taste and aroma, are highly valued by gourmets. Research on these fungi has focused on promoting the culti- vation of these

  4. GENETIC MANIPULATION FOR ENHANCING CALCIUM CONTENT IN POTATO TUBER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased calcium (Ca) in potatoes may increase the production rate by enhancing tuber quality and storability. Additionally, increased Ca levels in important agricultural crops may help ameliorate the incidence of osteoporosis. However, the capacity to alter Ca levels in potato tubers through genet...

  5. Observed limit of Solanum jamesii tuber dormancy at 14 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of tuber dormancy is of interest for commercial potato production and for germplasm preservation in the genebank. We previously reported (AJPR 87:226-228) that tubers of greenhouse-grown Solanum jamesii from 1999 sprouted after 8+ years of storage in a continuous 40F (5C) cooler. One populat...

  6. INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM TUBER ROT IN POTATOES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FUSARIUM TUBER ROT OF POTATO IS ONE OF THE MOST ECONOMICALLY IMPORTATNT DISEASES OF STORED POTATOES. THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO DETERMINE THE INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM TUBER ROT. A HIGHLY RESISTANT (B0172-22) AND A HIGHLY SUSCEPTIBLE (B0178-34) POTATO CLONE WERE CROSSED AS FEMA...

  7. Neuroepileptic Correlates of Autistic Symptomatology in Tuberous Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Patrick F.

    2004-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis is a genetic condition that is strongly associated with the development of an autism spectrum disorder. However, there is marked variability in expression, and only a subset of children with tuberous sclerosis develop autism spectrum disorder. Clarification of the mechanisms that underlie the association and variability in…

  8. Preparation of Inulin Powder from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) Tuber.

    PubMed

    Srinameb, Bang-Orn; Nuchadomrong, Suporn; Jogloy, Sanun; Patanothai, Aran; Srijaranai, Supalax

    2015-06-01

    The complete procedure for the production of inulin powder from Jerusalem artichoke tubers (JAT) was investigated. The procedure consists of isolation of inulin from JAT, elimination of color from the inulin extract and solidification. Washed tubers were first sliced, dried in a 60 °C oven for 10 h and then milled and sieved into a powder. Inulin was isolated from the JAT powder by hot water extraction using an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE). The effects of temperature and time for the extraction were investigated. The highest extraction efficiency was obtained at the extraction temperature of 80 °C for 20 min. The color of the extract was eliminated using ion exchange process with diethylaminoethyl cellulose as the sorbent. The inulin powder was subsequently obtained by freeze drying. Inulin content and inulin profiles were monitored to evaluate the efficiencies of the complete procedure. The inulin content was indirectly determined by spectrophotometry from free and total fructose measurements using potassium iodide. The inulin profile was monitored using high performance anion exchange chromatography equipped with integrated pulse amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). The proposed method provided the inulin production yield of 92.5 %. The present procedure is fast, simple and effective for production of inulin powder from JAT. In addition, infrared spectra and some physico-chemical properties of the obtained inulin powder were determined and compared with the standard inulin. PMID:25804251

  9. Color Blindness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... three color cone cells to determine our color perception. Color blindness can occur when one or more ... Anyone who experiences a significant change in color perception should see an ophthalmologist (Eye M.D.). Next ...

  10. Diversity of culturable microorganisms and occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in Tuber aestivum and Tuber melanosporum ascocarps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Susana Rivera; Domingo Blanco; Rosa Oria; María Eugenia Venturini

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the total mesophilic microorganisms, Pseudomonas genus, Enterobacteriaceae family, mold and yeast counts and the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp on Tuber aestivum and Tuber melanosporum ascocarps. The results confirmed that the major percentage of the microorganisms, approximately 9.0 log ufc\\/g, were present in the peridium, the glebas of healthy truffles

  11. Effect of farming systems on the yield, quality parameters and sensory properties of conventionally and organically grown potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    PubMed

    Brazinskiene, V; Asakaviciute, R; Miezeliene, A; Alencikiene, G; Ivanauskas, L; Jakstas, V; Viskelis, P; Razukas, A

    2014-02-15

    The objectives of this two-year research were to study the impact of two different farming types, conventional and organic, on the yield and sensory properties of five Lithuanian varieties of potato tuber. The parameters and properties examined were: phenolic acids; dry matter and starch content; and the spread and intensity of Phytophthora infestans growth. It was determined that potato yield fluctuates with the variety, but for conventional farming it is significantly (p<0.05) higher than that obtained by organic farming. The farming type has no significant effect (p>0.05) on the content of phenolic acids. No significant effect (p>0.05) of farming type on dry matter and starch content, or sensory properties was found. No significant relation (p>0.05) was found between the content of phenolic acids and P. infestans spread. The spread of P. infestans was faster and infection was heavier in organically grown potatoes. PMID:24128562

  12. The relation of starch phosphorylases to starch metabolism in wheat.

    PubMed

    Schupp, Nicole; Ziegler, Paul

    2004-10-01

    Tissues of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., var. Star) exhibit three starch phosphorylase activity forms resolved by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel affinity electrophoresis (P1, P2 and P3). Compartmentation analysis of young leaf tissues showed that P3 is plastidic, whereas P1 and P2 are cytosolic. P1 exhibits a strong binding affinity to immobilized glycogen upon electrophoresis, whereas P2 and the chloroplastic P3 do not. Cytosolic leaf phosphorylase was purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography. The single polypeptide product constituted both the P1 and P2 activity forms. Probes for the detection of phosphorylase transcripts were derived from cDNA sequences of cytosolic and plastidic phosphorylases, and these-together with activity assays and a cytosolic phosphorylase-specific antiserum-were used to monitor phosphorylase expression in leaves and seeds. Mature leaves contained only plastidic phosphorylase, which was also strongly evident in the endosperm of developing seeds at the onset of reserve starch accumulation. Germinating seeds contained only cytosolic phosphorylase, which was restricted to the embryo. Plastidic phosphorylase thus appears to be associated with transitory leaf starch metabolism and with the initiation of seed endosperm reserve starch accumulation, but it plays no role in the degradation of the reserve starch. Cytosolic phosphorylase may be involved in the processing of incoming carbohydrate during rapid tissue growth. PMID:15564531

  13. Molecular cloning and analysis of four potato tuber mRNAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willem J. Stiekema; Freek Heidekamp; Wim G. Dirkse; Joke van Beckum; Peter de Haan; Carolien ten Bosch; Jeanine D. Louwerse

    1988-01-01

    Tuberization in potato is a complex developmental process involving the expression of a specific set of genes leading to the synthesis of tuber proteins. We here report the cloning and analysis of mRNAs encoding tuber proteins. From a potato tuber cDNA library four different recombinants were isolated which hybridized predominantly with tuber mRNAs. Northern blot hybridization experiments showed that three

  14. Starch characteristics and their influences on in vitro and pig prececal starch digestion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Tai; Huang, Yi-Fang; Chiang, Chia-Chun; Chung, Thau-Kiong; Chiou, Peter Wen-Shyg; Yu, Bi

    2011-07-13

    The main objective of this research was to study the characteristics of starch granules and their influences on in vitro and pig prececal starch digestion of corn, dehulled barley, wheat, and potato. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the starch endosperm structure in the parent material as well as in vitro starch digestion. The results showed that corn starch granules were polyhedral, with a diameter ranging from 2 to 10 ?m, whereas those of dehulled barley and wheat were spherical, with a diameter ranging from 5 to 20 ?m. Potato had the largest starch granules among starch sources reported herein, with oval spheres of 10-50 ?m in diameter. In vitro starch hydrolysis showed that starch granules of corn degraded faster than the starch of dehulled barley and wheat, with the potato starch being degraded the slowest. The in vivo digestibility trial using ileal-cannulated pigs confirmed the starch degradation of grains. The in vitro (x, %) and in vivo (y, %) digestibility were highly correlated [y = 6.5304x - 538.48 (R(2) = 0.9924)]. On the basis of the results, in vitro starch hydrolysis might be useful in predicting in vivo prececal starch digestibility. The digestion kinetic characteristics of different starch sources might be employed to evaluate the starch digestive rate at the pig ileum. PMID:21609031

  15. Isolation and partial characterization of banana starches.

    PubMed

    Bello-Pérez, L A; Agama-Acevedo, E; Sánchez-Hernández, L; Paredes-López, O

    1999-03-01

    Two varieties of banana green fruit growing in Guerrero, Mexico, were used for starch isolation. Chemical analysis and physicochemical and functional properties were studied in these starches. The "macho" variety presented higher starch yield than "criollo". In general, chemical compositions in both starches were similar, except in ash content, where the "criollo" variety showed a lower value than "macho". The results of freeze-thaw stability suggested that banana starches cannot be used in frozen products. Both starches presented similar water retention capacity values that increased when temperature increased. Solubility profiles showed that at low temperature "criollo" had lower solubility than "macho", but at higher temperature an inverse behavior was evident; also the solubility increased when temperature increased. Behavior similar to that for solubility was obtained in the swelling test. The banana starch studies indicate the "macho" and "criollo" varieties have different starch structures as evidenced by viscosity. PMID:10552380

  16. Quality of Spelt Wheat and its Starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flours from 5 spelt cultivars grown over 3 years were evaluated as to their bread baking quality and isolated starch properties. The starch properties included amylose contents, gelatinization temperatures (differential scanning calorimetry), granule size distributions and pasting properties. Mill...

  17. The Calcium Solution: Developing Potato Cultivars With Enhanced Tuber Storage and Internal Quality by Genetic Improvement of Tuber Calcium Accumulation Ability Enetic Improvement of Potato for Tuber Calcium Uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tuber internal quality is a major limiting factor for the U.S. potato industry. Breeders invest time and money in producing advanced selections which, in the end, often fail because of tuber internal defects, tuber bruising, or storage quality issues. In-season fertilization with calcium is known to...

  18. Colored Shadows

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-10-31

    In this optics activity, learners discover that not all shadows are black. Learners explore human color perception by using colored lights to make additive color mixtures. With three colored lights, learners can make shadows of seven different colors. They can also explore how to make shadows of individual colors, including black. Use this activity demonstrate how receptors in the retina of the eye work to see color.

  19. Cationic starch: an effective flocculating agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Pal; D. Mal; R. P. Singh

    2005-01-01

    A series of cationic starches (Cat St) have been developed by incorporating a cationic moiety N-(3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride (CHPTAC) onto the backbone of starch in presence of NaOH. The cationic starches are characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy and intrinsic viscosity measurement. The flocculation characteristics of these starches have been evaluated in 0.25wt% silica suspension by jar test. It

  20. Esterification of Starch in Ionic Liquids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We shall discuss the use of various ionic liquids in the preparation of starch esters. Starch was reacted with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (bmim) salts as solvents in an effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution (DS) w...

  1. Rice functionality, starch structure and the genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Through collaborative efforts among USDA scientists at Beaumont, Texas, we have gained in-depth knowledge of how rice functionality, i.e. the texture of the cooked rice, rice processing properties, and starch gelatinization temperature, are associated with starch-synthesis genes and starch structure...

  2. Studies of Amylose Content in Potato Starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato starch is typically low in amylose (~20-25%), but high amylose starch has superior nutritional qualities. The ratio between amylose and amylopectin is the most important property influencing the physical properties of starch. There is a strong case to be made for the development of food crops...

  3. Properties of Starch Blends with Biodegradable Polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiu-Li Wang; Ke-Ke Yang; Yu-Zhong Wang

    2003-01-01

    Starch, one of the most inexpensive and most readily available of all natural polymers, can be processed into thermoplastic materials only in the presence of plasticizers and under the action of heat and shear. Poor water resistance and low strength are limiting factors for the use of materials manufactured only from starch, and hence the modification of starch is often

  4. TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF CHEMICALLY MODIFIED STARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch is one of the most abundantly available plant-based biopolymer. It is a major component of such high volume commodity crops as corn, potato, and rice. Starch is a highly crystalline, high molecular weight poly(glucose) biopolymer. Starch is insoluble in water in its native state. Various ...

  5. Structure of Porous Starch Microcellular Foam Particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A relatively new starch product with various novel applications is a porous microcellular foam. The foam product is made by dehydrating a starch hydrogel in a solvent such as ethanol and then removing the solvent to form a foam product. The process involves heating an aqueous slurry of starch (8% w/...

  6. Improved resolution of major clades within Tuber and taxonomy of species within the Tuber gibbosum complex.

    PubMed

    Bonito, Gregory; Trappe, James M; Rawlinson, Pat; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2010-01-01

    Tuber gibbosum Harkn., described from northern California, originally was thought to be a single, variable species that fruited from autumn through winter to spring. It has become popular as a culinary truffle in northwestern USA, where it is commercially harvested. Morphological studies suggested it might be a complex that includes at least two species. We conducted morphological and phylogenetic studies of the complex to determine how many species it might contain and how they differed morphologically, geographically and seasonally. We also provide the first LSU phylogeny for the genus Tuber. Phylogenetic analyses resolve nine major clades in the genus with high bootstrap support and distinguish the Gibbosum clade from the Aestivum, Excavatum, Macrosporum, Magnatum, Melanosporum, Puberulum, Rufum and Spinoreticulatum clades. Further analyses of ITS and LSU regions revealed four distinct species in the Gibbosum complex. Although morphologically similar the four species differ in spore size and shape and in peridial anatomy. These species share the synapomorphy of having suprapellis hyphae with distinctive, irregular wall swellings at maturity; we have not seen this hyphal type in any other Tuber spp. worldwide. The three new species are named and described as T. bellisporum Bonito & Trappe, T. castellanoi Bonito & Trappe and T. oregonense Trappe, Bonito & Rawlinson. PMID:20943504

  7. Effects of postharvest curing treatment on flesh color and phenolic metabolism in fresh-cut potato products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flesh color and phenolic metabolism in potato tuber during curing and after cut were investigated. Result indicated that postharvest curing not only changed phenolic metabolism during curing, but also improved fresh-cut color for 12 days after fresh cut. Significantly lower PAL and higher phenol...

  8. Detection of Tuber melanosporum DNA in soil.

    PubMed

    Suz, Laura M; Martín, María P; Colinas, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Our objectives were (i) to develop a molecular method to detect mycelia of Tuber melanosporum (black truffle) in soil and (ii) to test for mycelial distribution around two truffle-bearing Quercus ilex trees in a truffle orchard. Isolation of total DNA from soil was performed, followed by PCR amplification with T. melanosporum-specific primers and restriction analysis. To address the detection sensitivity level, soil samples were inoculated with known amounts of gleba of T. melanosporum. The detection limit was >/=11.4 mug of hyphae g(-1) of soil. Mycelium was detected primarily within the area defined by the truffle burn and within the top 35 cm of the soil in all directions from the trees. PMID:16445753

  9. Process for producing vegetative and tuber growth regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary W. (Inventor); Yorio, Neil C. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A process of making a vegetative and tuber growth regulator. The vegetative and tuber growth regulator is made by growing potato plants in a recirculating hydroponic system for a sufficient time to produce the growth regulator. Also, the use of the vegetative and growth regulator on solanaceous plants, tuber forming plants and ornamental seedlings by contacting the roots or shoots of the plant with a sufficient amount of the growth regulator to regulate the growth of the plant and one more of canopy size, plant height, stem length, internode number and presence of tubers in fresh mass. Finally, a method for regulating the growth of potato plants using a recirculating hydroponic system is described.

  10. Management of Renal Angiomyolipomas Associated With Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TORU HARABAYASHI; NOBUO SHINOHARA; HIDENORI KATANO; KATSUYA NONOMURA; TADASHI SHIMIZU; TOMOHIKO KOYANAGI

    2004-01-01

    PurposeIntensive management is generally recommended for angiomyolipomas associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), which are known to have a more aggressive nature than sporadic tumors. In this study we evaluated the management of these tumors.

  11. Vagus nerve stimulation for intractable epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Major; Elizabeth A. Thiele

    2008-01-01

    ObjectivesThe aim of the study described here was to characterize the efficacy and safety of vagus nerve stimulation in a population of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and intractable epilepsy.

  12. Reevaluation of the life cycle of Tuber magnatum.

    PubMed

    Paolocci, Francesco; Rubini, Andrea; Riccioni, Claudia; Arcioni, Sergio

    2006-04-01

    Tuber spp. are ectomycorrhizal ascomycetes that produce ascocarps known as truffles. Basic aspects of Tuber biology have yet to be fully elucidated. In particular, there are conflicting hypotheses concerning the mating system and the ploidy level of the mycorrhizal and truffle hyphae. We used polymorphic microsatellites to compare the allelic configurations of asci with those from the network of the surrounding hyphae in single Tuber magnatum truffles. We then used these truffles to inoculate host plants and evaluated the microsatellite configurations of the resulting mycorrhizal root tips. These analyses provide direct evidence that T. magnatum outcrosses and that its life cycle is predominantly haploid. In addition to its scientific significance, this basic understanding of the T. magnatum life cycle may have practical importance in developing strategies to obtain and select nursery-produced mycorrhizal plants as well as in the management of artificial plantations of this and other Tuber spp. PMID:16597935

  13. Reevaluation of the Life Cycle of Tuber magnatum†

    PubMed Central

    Paolocci, Francesco; Rubini, Andrea; Riccioni, Claudia; Arcioni, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Tuber spp. are ectomycorrhizal ascomycetes that produce ascocarps known as truffles. Basic aspects of Tuber biology have yet to be fully elucidated. In particular, there are conflicting hypotheses concerning the mating system and the ploidy level of the mycorrhizal and truffle hyphae. We used polymorphic microsatellites to compare the allelic configurations of asci with those from the network of the surrounding hyphae in single Tuber magnatum truffles. We then used these truffles to inoculate host plants and evaluated the microsatellite configurations of the resulting mycorrhizal root tips. These analyses provide direct evidence that T. magnatum outcrosses and that its life cycle is predominantly haploid. In addition to its scientific significance, this basic understanding of the T. magnatum life cycle may have practical importance in developing strategies to obtain and select nursery-produced mycorrhizal plants as well as in the management of artificial plantations of this and other Tuber spp. PMID:16597935

  14. A review of research on Chinese Tuber species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis G. García-Montero; Paloma Díaz; Gabriella Di Massimo; Antonio García-Abril

    2010-01-01

    Truffles are abundant in some regions of China. Nevertheless, it was not until the 1980s that Tuber species were discovered by Chinese mycologists. In recent years, international truffle markets have shown an increasing interest\\u000a in the import of Chinese Tuber. These truffles serve as a complement to European truffles due to their lower prices and their greater availability in a

  15. Tuberous sclerosis complex presenting as pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis - a clinicoradiological diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kamini; Goyal, Amit; Saggar, Kavita; Banerjee, Avik

    2015-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) manifests predominantly as a neurocutaneous disorder. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare pulmonary manifestation of TSC. Imaging evaluation plays an important role in the assessment of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. In newly diagnosed patients, it helps not only to confirm the diagnosis of TSC, but also helps in identifying clinically significant complications. We describe the radiological findings in lungs and other organs in a middle aged female with TSC.

  16. Map Coloring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Hadley

    2005-06-18

    Is there any math in coloring maps. Believe it or not there is alot of math involoved in coloring a map. The cool people at MEGA MATH have created activities for you to experiment with map coloring and see just how fun it is. Mega Math Workbook open the activity called The Most Colorful Math of All Some other fun activities can be found at Coloring Penrose Tiles Colorful mathematics Jeff Week&s Geometry Software Games ...

  17. Mechanical, barrier and morphological properties of starch nanocrystals-reinforced pea starch films.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Qiu, Chao; Ji, Na; Sun, Cuixia; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2015-05-01

    To characterize the pea starch films reinforced with waxy maize starch nanocrystals, the mechanical, water vapor barrier and morphological properties of the composite films were investigated. The addition of starch nanocrystals increased the tensile strength of the composite films, and the value of tensile strength of the composite films was highest when starch nanocrystals content was 5% (w/w). The moisture content (%), water vapor permeability, and water-vapor transmission rate of the composite films significantly decreased as starch nanocrystals content increased. When their starch nanocrystals content was 1-5%, the starch nanocrystals dispersed homogeneously in the composite films, resulting in a relatively smooth and compact film surface and better thermal stability. However, when starch nanocrystals content was more than 7%, the starch nanocrystals began to aggregate, which resulted in the surface of the composite films developing a longitudinal fibrous structure. PMID:25659684

  18. Antitranspirant-Induced Increases in Leaf Water Potential Increase Tuber Calcium and Decrease Tuber Necrosis in Water-Stressed Potato Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Win, Kyaw; Berkowitz, Gerald A.; Henninger, Melvin

    1991-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken with field-grown potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants to test the hypothesis that altering leaf:tuber water potential gradients within a plant subjected to low soil moisture will allow greater Ca accumulation in tubers and reverse Ca deficiency-related tuber necrosis. Antitranspirant formulations containing a wax emulsion and a spreader/sticker surfactant increased leaf water potential during a drought episode, significantly reducing the potential gradient that develops between leaf and tuber during a period of stress. Increased leaf water potential in treated plants was associated with decreased leaf Ca and increased tuber Ca. Tuber necrosis was found to be reduced in treated plants, thus increasing tuber quality. PMID:16668139

  19. Impact of Process Conditions on Digestibility of Pea Starch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weirong Yao; Chunguang Liu; Xiaojie Xi; Heya Wang

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how process conditions affect the digestibility of pea starch from pea starch powder (PSP). The factors considered were resistant starch (RS), slow digestible starch (SDS) and rapidly digestible starch (RDS) content. The examined five process factors were: material\\/water ratio, cooking temperature, cooking time, soaking time, and heat dehydration time. Changes in process conditions mainly altered the content

  20. Impact of variety type and particle size distribution on starch enzymatic hydrolysis and functional properties of tef flours.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Workineh; Collar, Concha; Ronda, Felicidad

    2015-01-22

    Tef grain is becoming very attractive in the Western countries since it is a gluten-free grain with appreciated nutritional advantages. However there is little information of its functional properties and starch digestibility and how they are affected by variety type and particle size distribution. This work evaluates the effect of the grain variety and the mill used on tef flour physico-chemical and functional properties, mainly derived from starch behavior. In vitro starch digestibility of the flours by Englyst method was assessed. Two types of mills were used to obtain whole flours of different granulation. Rice and wheat flours were analyzed as references. Protein molecular weight distribution and flour structure by SEM were also analyzed to justify some of the differences found among the cereals studied. Tef cultivar and mill type exhibited important effect on granulation, bulking density and starch damage, affecting the processing performance of the flours and determining the hydration and pasting properties. The color was darker although one of the white varieties had a lightness near the reference flours. Different granulation of tef flour induced different in vitro starch digestibility. The disc attrition mill led to higher starch digestibility rate index and rapidly available glucose, probably as consequence of a higher damaged starch content. The results confirm the adequacy of tef flour as ingredient in the formulation of new cereal based foods and the importance of the variety and the mill on its functional properties. PMID:25439894

  1. REACTIVE EXTRUSION OF STARCH-POLYACRYLAMIDE GRAFT COPOLYMERS USING VARIOUS STARCHES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Graft copolymers of polyacrylamide and various substrates were prepared by reactive extrusion in a twin screw extruder using ammonium persulfate as initiator. Substrates included unmodified starches (corn, waxy maize, wheat, and potato), cationic starches, dextrin, dextran, and polyvinyl alcohol (P...

  2. Subcellular analysis of starch metabolism in developing barley seeds using a non-aqueous fractionation method

    PubMed Central

    Tiessen, Axel; Nerlich, Annika; Faix, Benjamin; Hümmer, Christine; Fox, Simon; Trafford, Kay; Weber, Hans; Weschke, Winfriede; Geigenberger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Compartmentation of metabolism in developing seeds is poorly understood due to the lack of data on metabolite distributions at the subcellular level. In this report, a non-aqueous fractionation method is described that allows subcellular concentrations of metabolites in developing barley endosperm to be calculated. (i) Analysis of subcellular volumes in developing endosperm using micrographs shows that plastids and cytosol occupy 50.5% and 49.9% of the total cell volume, respectively, while vacuoles and mitochondria can be neglected. (ii) By using non-aqueous fractionation, subcellular distribution between the cytosol and plastid of the levels of metabolites involved in sucrose degradation, starch synthesis, and respiration were determined. With the exception of ADP and AMP which were mainly located in the plastid, most other metabolites of carbon and energy metabolism were mainly located outside the plastid in the cytosolic compartment. (iii) In developing barley endosperm, the ultimate precursor of starch, ADPglucose (ADPGlc), was mainly located in the cytosol (80–90%), which was opposite to the situation in growing potato tubers where ADPGlc was almost exclusively located in the plastid (98%). This reflects the different subcellular distribution of ADPGlc pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) in these tissues. (iv) Cytosolic concentrations of ADPGlc were found to be close to the published Km values of AGPase and the ADPGlc/ADP transporter at the plastid envelope. Also the concentrations of the reaction partners glucose-1-phosphate, ATP, and inorganic pyrophosphate were close to the respective Km values of AGPase. (v) Knock-out of cytosolic AGPase in Riso16 mutants led to a strong decrease in ADPGlc level, in both the cytosol and plastid, whereas knock-down of the ADPGlc/ADP transporter led to a large shift in the intracellular distribution of ADPGlc. (v) The thermodynamic structure of the pathway of sucrose to starch was determined by calculating the mass–action ratios of all the steps in the pathway. The data show that AGPase is close to equilibrium, in both the cytosol and plastid, whereas the ADPGlc/ADP transporter is strongly displaced from equilibrium in vivo. This is in contrast to most other tissues, including leaves and potato tubers. (vi) Results indicate transport rather than synthesis of ADPGlc to be the major regulatory site of starch synthesis in barley endosperm. The reversibility of AGPase in the plastid has important implications for the regulation of carbon partitioning between different biosynthetic pathways. PMID:22200665

  3. In planta modification of the potato tuber cell wall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. F. J. Oomen

    2003-01-01

    Apart from its well known uses in the human diet a large amount of the grown potatoes (about one third in the Netherlands) is used for the isolation of starch which is used in several food and non-food applications. The cell wall fibres comprise a large portion of the waste material remaining after the starch isolation process. While cell wall

  4. Flocculation of microalgae using cationic starch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dries Vandamme; Imogen Foubert; Boudewijn Meesschaert; Koenraad Muylaert

    2010-01-01

    Due to their small size and low concentration in the culture medium, cost-efficient harvesting of microalgae is a major challenge.\\u000a We evaluated the potential of cationic starch as a flocculant for harvesting microalgae using jar test experiments. Cationic\\u000a starch was an efficient flocculant for freshwater (Parachlorella, Scenedesmus) but not for marine microalgae (Phaeodactylum, Nannochloropsis). At high cationic starch doses, dispersion

  5. Effects of Maturity on Corn Starch Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Jennings; D. J. Myers; L. A. Johnson; L. M. Pollak

    2002-01-01

    Cereal Chem. 79(5):703-706 The effect of maturity on the quality of starch for two corn hybrids harvested at three different stages of development was measured by differential scanning calorimetry, rapid viscosity analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and image analysis. The onset of gelatinization and peak temperatures were 2-5°C higher for starch from immature grain than starch from mature grain. The gelatinization

  6. 21 CFR 172.892 - Food starch-modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...name of the additive “food starch-modified” in addition to other information required by the Act. Food starch may be modified by treatment prescribed as... (a) Food starch may be acid-modified by treatment...

  7. Starch aerogel beads obtained from inclusion complexes prepared from high amylose starch and sodium palmitate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch aerogels are a class of low density highly porous renewable materials currently prepared from retrograded starch gels and are of interest for their good surface area, porosity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Recently, we have reported on starches containing amylose-fatty acid salt h...

  8. Inducing PLA/starch compatibility through butyl-etherification of waxy and high amylose starch.

    PubMed

    Wokadala, Obiro Cuthbert; Emmambux, Naushad Mohammad; Ray, Suprakas Sinha

    2014-11-01

    In this study, waxy and high amylose starches were modified through butyl-etherification to facilitate compatibility with polylactide (PLA). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and wettability tests showed that hydrophobic butyl-etherified waxy and high amylose starches were obtained with degree of substitution values of 2.0 and 2.1, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry, tensile testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated improved PLA/starch compatibility for both waxy and high amylose starch after butyl-etherification. The PLA/butyl-etherified waxy and high amylose starch composite films had higher tensile strength and elongation at break compared to PLA/non-butyl-etherified composite films. The morphological study using SEM showed that PLA/butyl-etherified waxy starch composites had a more homogenous microstructure compared to PLA/butyl-etherified high amylose starch composites. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that PLA/starch composite thermal stability decreased with starch butyl-etherification for both waxy and high amylose starches. This study mainly demonstrates that PLA/starch compatibility can be improved through starch butyl-etherification. PMID:25129738

  9. Issues of Starch in Sugarcane Processing and Prospects of Breeding for Low Starch Content in Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch is a sugarcane impurity that adversely affects the quantity and quality of sugar processes and products. The increased production of combine and green harvested sugarcane has increased delivery of starch to sugarcane factories. Starch occurs as granules composed of amylose and amylopectin p...

  10. Sucrose-to-Starch Metabolism in Tomato Fruit Undergoing Transient Starch Accumulation.

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, A. A.; Petreikov, M.

    1997-01-01

    Immature green tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits undergo a period of transient starch accumulation characterized by developmental changes in the activities of key enzymes in the sucrose (Suc)-to-starch metabolic pathway. Activities of Suc synthase, fructokinase, ADP-glucose (Glc) pyrophosphorylase, and soluble and insoluble starch synthases decline dramatically in parallel to the decrease in starch levels in the developing fruit. Comparison of "maximal" in vitro activities of the enzymes in the Suc-to-starch pathway suggests that these same enzymes are limiting to the rate of starch accumulation. In contrast, activities of invertase, UDP-Glc pyrophosphorylase, nucleoside diphosphate kinase, phosphoglucoisomerase, and phosphoglucomutase do not exhibit dramatic decreases in activity and appear to be in excess of starch accumulation rates. Starch accumulation is spatially localized in the inner and radial pericarp and columella, whereas the outer pericarp and seed locule contain little starch. The seed locule is characterized by lower activities of Suc synthase, UDP-Glc pyrophosphorylase, phosphoglucomutase, ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase, and soluble and insoluble starch synthases. The outer pericarp exhibits comparatively lower activities of ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase and insoluble starch synthase only. These data are discussed in terms of the developmental and tissue-specific coordinated control of Suc-to-starch metabolism. PMID:12223639

  11. Starch-Soybean Oil Composites with High Oil: Starch Ratios Prepared by Steam Jet Cooking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aqueous mixtures of soybean oil and starch were jet cooked at oil:starch ratios ranging from 0.5:1 to 4:1 to yield dispersions of micron-sized oil droplets that were coated with a thin layer of starch at the oil-water interface. The jet cooked dispersions were then centrifuged at 2060 and 10,800 x ...

  12. Physical modification of food starch functionalities.

    PubMed

    BeMiller, James N; Huber, Kerry C

    2015-01-01

    Because, in general, native starches do not have properties that make them ideally suited for applications in food products, most starch is modified by dervatization to improve its functionality before use in processed food formulations, and because food processors would prefer not to have to use the modified food starch label designation required when chemically modified starches are used, there is considerable interest in providing starches with desired functionalities that have not been chemically modified. One investigated approach is property modification via physical treatments, that is, modifications of starches imparted by physical treatments that do not result in any chemical modification of the starch. Physical treatments are divided into thermal and nonthermal treatments. Thermal treatments include those that produce pregelatinized and granular cold-water-swelling starches, heat-moisture treatments, annealing, microwave heating, so-called osmotic pressure treatment, and heating of dry starch. Nonthermal treatments include ultrahigh-pressure treatments, instantaneous controlled pressure drop, use of high-pressure homogenizers, dynamic pulsed pressure, pulsed electric field, and freezing and thawing. PMID:25884280

  13. Yield and Physical Properties of Potato Tuber as Influenced by Planting Depth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdulla A. Alsadon; Helmy M. Wahdan; M. F. Wahby

    Two potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L, subsp. tuberosum), Ajax and korrigane, were selected to investigate the influence of two planting depths, 12 and 20 cm on yield and physical properties of tubers. Planter was efficient in placing seed tubers, for both cultivars and missing tubers were less than 5%, Deep planting affected plant emergence in spring than in fall season.

  14. Age-Induced Loss of Wound-Healing Ability in Potato Tubers is Regulated by ABA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wounding of potato tubers stimulates the development of a suberized wound periderm that resists desiccation and microbial invasion. Wound-healing ability declines with advancing tuber age (storage period). The mechanism of age-induced loss in healing capacity is not known; however, older tubers ha...

  15. Determination of physiological age of potato tubers with using sucrose, citric and malic acid as indicators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Reust; J. Aerny

    1985-01-01

    The use of endogenous compounds as indicators of physiological age was studied in seed tubers of cv. Bintje produced at two locations. Dormancy and the incubation period of seed tubers were measured and sucrose, citric and malic acid analysed. Sucrose content in tubers was lowest at the beginning of sprouting, 0.1 to 0.2% of fresh weight (FW), and increased with

  16. Segregation of progeny of Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigena for foliar and tuber resistance to late blight.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding solely for foliar resistance to late blight without emphasis on tuber resistance has the potential to exacerbate tuber infection. Wild potato species are valuable sources of foliar and tuber blight resistance. However, most species are difficult to sexually hybridize with cultivated potat...

  17. Effects of supplemental irrigation and soil management: effects on potato tuber diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Supplemental irrigation and soil management can improve potato growth and tuber yield in deficit rainfall, but may also impact potato tuber diseases. The comparative effects of irrigation, soil amendment and crop rotation on tuber disease incidence were quantified in long-term potato cropping system...

  18. Ocatin. A novel tuber storage protein from the andean tuber crop oca with antibacterial and antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Flores, Teresita; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Flores, Hector E

    2002-04-01

    The most abundant soluble tuber protein from the Andean crop oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.), named ocatin, has been purified and characterized. Ocatin accounts for 40% to 60% of the total soluble oca tuber proteins, has an apparent molecular mass of 18 kD and an isoelectric point of 4.8. This protein appears to be found only in tubers and is accumulated only within the cells of the pith and peridermis layers (peel) of the tuber as it develops. Ocatin inhibits the growth of several phytopathogenic bacteria (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Agrobacterium radiobacter, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aureofaciens) and fungi (Phytophthora cinnamomi, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Nectria hematococcus). Ocatin displays substantial amino acid sequence similarity with a widely distributed group of intracellular pathogenesis-related proteins with a hitherto unknown biological function. Our results showed that ocatin serves as a storage protein, has antimicrobial properties, and belongs to the Betv 1/PR-10/MLP protein family. Our findings suggest that an ancient scaffolding protein was recruited in the oca tuber to serve a storage function and that proteins from the Betv 1/PR-10/MLP family might play a role in natural resistance to pathogens. PMID:11950978

  19. Renal Hamartoma (Angiomyolipoma) and the Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    PubMed Central

    Pacis, Andresito B.; Norman, Calvin H.

    1979-01-01

    Renal hamartoma is found in 40 to 80 percent of patients with tuberous sclerosis. Microscopic demonstration of fat in the tissues of the mass is felt to be the most reliable diagnostic criterion of hamartoma. Characteristically, the angiographic appearance demonstrates a large, dilated feeding vessel passing through the mass with multiple, multisacculated aneurysmal dilatations appearing like bunches of grapes. There is a delicate neovascularity without A-V shunting and an onion-peel or whorl-like appearance in the venous phase. This case is presented to point out the close association of renal hamartoma and tuberous sclerosis and the need to search for renal hamartoma when the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis is made. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:423276

  20. Renal cell carcinoma in tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Cornejo, Kristine M; Sadow, Peter M; Cheng, Liang; Wang, Mingsheng; Xiao, Yu; Jiang, Zhong; Oliva, Esther; Jozwiak, Sergiusz; Nussbaum, Robert L; Feldman, Adam S; Paul, Elahna; Thiele, Elizabeth A; Yu, Jane J; Henske, Elizabeth P; Kwiatkowski, David J; Young, Robert H; Wu, Chin-Lee

    2014-07-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) occurs in 2% to 4% of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Previous reports have noted a variety of histologic appearances in these cancers, but the full spectrum of morphologic and molecular features has not been fully elucidated. We encountered 46 renal epithelial neoplasms from 19 TSC patients and analyzed their clinical, pathologic, and molecular features, enabling separation of these 46 tumors into 3 groups. The largest subset of tumors (n=24) had a distinct morphologic, immunologic, and molecular profile, including prominent papillary architecture and uniformly deficient succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) expression prompting the novel term "TSC-associated papillary RCC (PRCC)." The second group (n=15) were morphologically similar to a hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumor (HOCT), whereas the last 7 renal epithelial neoplasms of group 3 remained unclassifiable. The TSC-associated PRCCs had prominent papillary architecture lined by clear cells with delicate eosinophilic cytoplasmic thread-like strands that occasionally appeared more prominent and aggregated to form eosinophilic globules. All 24 (100%) of these tumors were International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) nucleolar grade 2 or 3 with mostly basally located nuclei. Tumor cells from 17 of 24 TSC-associated PRCCs showed strong, diffuse labeling for carbonic anhydrase IX (100%), CK7 (94%), vimentin (88%), and CD10 (83%) and were uniformly negative for SDHB, TFE3, and AMACR. Gains of chromosomes 7 and 17 were found in 2 tumors, whereas chromosome 3p deletion and TFE3 translocations were not detected. In this study, we reported a sizable cohort of renal tumors seen in TSC and were able to identify them as different morphotypes, which may help to expand the morphologic spectrum of TSC-associated RCC. PMID:24832166

  1. Color notations

    E-print Network

    Gardner, Nancy

    1981-01-01

    This study presents research regarding the language of colors and of computers. The focus was color: translated through personal imagery, transferred and changed through media, and programmed through the computer. The ...

  2. Phasic temperature change patterns affect growth and tuberization in potatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T.W. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Horticulture)

    1994-07-01

    This study determined the response of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Norland) plants to various patterns of air temperature changes over different growth periods. In each of two experiments under controlled environments, eight treatments of temperature changes were carried out in two growth rooms maintained at 17 and 22 C and a constant vapor pressure deficit of 0.60 kPa and 14-hour photoperiod. Plants were grown for 63 days after transplanting of tissue culture plantlets in 20-liter pots containing peat-vermiculite mix. Temperature changes were imposed on days 21 and 42, which were essentially at the beginning of tuber initiation and tuber enlargement, respectively, for this cultivar. Plants were moved between two temperature rooms to obtain eight temperature change patterns: 17-17-17, 17-17-22, 17-22-17, 22-17-17, 17-22-22, 22-17-22, 22-22-17, and 22-22-22C over three 21-day growth periods. At harvest on day 63, total plant dry weight was higher for the treatments beginning with 22 C than for those beginning with 17C, with highest biomass obtained at 22-22-17 and 22-17-17C. Shoot dry weight increased with temperature increased from 17-17-17 to 22-22-22C during the three growth periods. Tuber dry weight was highest with 22-17-17C, and lowest with 17-17-22 and 17-22-22C. With 22-17-17C, both dry weights of stolons and roots were lowest. Total tuber number and number of small tubers were highest with 17-17-17 and 17-17-22C, and lowest with 17-22-22 and 22-22-22C, whereas number of medium tubers was highest with 22-17-22C, and number of large tubers was highest with 22-17-17C. This study indicates that tuber development of potatoes is optimized with a phasic pattern of high temperature during early growth and low temperature during later growth.

  3. Manga colorization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingge Qu; Tien-tsin Wong; Pheng-ann Heng

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel colorization technique that propagates color over regions exhibiting pattern-continuity as well as intensity- continuity. The proposed method works effectively on colorizing black-and-white manga which contains intensive amount of strokes, hatching, halftoning and screening. Such ne details and discon- tinuities in intensity introduce many difculties to intensity-based colorization methods. Once the user scribbles on the drawing,

  4. Seeing Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…

  5. Development of Tuber Blight (Phytophthora infestans) on Potato Cultivars Based on In-Vitro Assays and Field Evaluations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tuber blight may result from infection of wounded or unwounded potato tubers, exposed to sporangia from foliar blight, soil, or blighted tubers. However, there is limited data on the prediction of tuber blight in field or storage environments based on in-vitro assays. To assess this relationship, po...

  6. Starch-Branching Enzymes Preferentially Associated with A-Type Starch Granules in Wheat Endosperm1

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Mingsheng; Gao, Ming; Båga, Monica; Hucl, Pierre; Chibbar, Ravindra N.

    2000-01-01

    Two starch granule-bound proteins (SGP), SGP-140 and SGP-145, were preferentially associated with A-type starch granules (>10 ?m) in developing and mature wheat (Triticum aestivum) kernels. Immunoblotting and N-terminal sequencing suggested that the two proteins were different variants of SBEIc, a 152-kD isoform of wheat starch-branching enzyme. Both SGP-140 and SGP-145 were localized to the endosperm starch granules but were not found in the endosperm soluble fraction or pericarp starch granules younger than 15 d post anthesis (DPA). Small-size starch granules (<10 ?m) initiated before 15 DPA incorporated SGP-140 and SGP-145 throughout endosperm development and grew into full-size A-type starch granules (>10 ?m). In contrast, small-size starch granules harvested after 15 DPA contained only low amounts of SGP-140 and SGP-145 and developed mainly into B-type starch granules (<10 ?m). Polypeptides of similar mass and immunologically related to SGP-140 and/or SGP-145 were also preferentially incorporated into A-type starch granules of barley (Hordeum vulgare), rye (Secale cereale), and triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack) endosperm, which like wheat endosperm have a bimodal starch granule size distribution. PMID:10982441

  7. Acetylation and characterization of banana (Musa paradisiaca) starch.

    PubMed

    Bello-Pérez, L A; Contreras-Ramos, S M; Jìmenez-Aparicio, A; Paredes-López, O

    2000-01-01

    Banana native starch was acetylated and some of its functional properties were evaluated and compared to corn starch. In general, acetylated banana starch presented higher values in ash, protein and fat than corn acetylated starch. The modified starches had minor tendency to retrogradation assessed as % transmittance of starch pastes. At high temperature acetylated starches presented a water retention capacity similar to their native counterpart. The acetylation considerably increased the solubility of starches, and a similar behavior was found for swelling power. When freeze-thaw stability was studied, acetyl banana starch drained approximately 60% of water in the first and second cycles, but in the third and fourth cycles the percentage of separated water was low. However, acetyl corn starch showed lower freeze-thaw stability than the untreated sample. The modification increased the viscosity of banana starch pastes. PMID:11265448

  8. Production of PLA-Starch Fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composites of polylactic acid (PLA) with starch have been prepared previously in an effort to reduce cost as well as to modify other properties such as biodegradation rate. However, strength and elongation both decrease on addition of starch due to poor adhesion and stress concentration at the inte...

  9. Starch characterization and ethanol production of sorghum.

    PubMed

    Ai, Yongfeng; Medic, Jelena; Jiang, Hongxin; Wang, Donghai; Jane, Jay-Lin

    2011-07-13

    This study aimed to characterize and compare the chemical structures, physical properties, and enzymatic hydrolysis rates of five sorghum starches (6B73, 6C21, 6C69, 7R34, and X789) with that of corn starch (B73). Sorghum kernels consisted of 68.7-70.6% starch, more than the B73 corn (67.4%). Sorghum starches displayed higher gelatinization temperatures (66.6-67.4 °C), greater gelatinization enthalpy changes (13.0-14.0 J/g), and greater percentages of retrogradation (60.7-69.1%), but slower enzymatic hydrolysis rates (83.8-87.8% at 48 h) than the B73 corn starch (61.7 °C, 10.1 J/g, 51.5%, and 88.5%, respectively). These differences could result from the sorghum amylopectins consisting of fewer short branch chains (DP 6-12) (12.8-14.0%) than the corn amylopectin (15.0%). The sorghum starches showed greater peak and breakdown viscosities but lower setback viscosities than the B73 corn starch, resulting from the lower amylose content of the sorghum starches. After 96 h of fermentation, most ground sorghums exhibited lower ethanol yields (30.5-31.8%) than the ground B73 corn (31.8%). PMID:21604720

  10. POLYBLENDS CONTAINING STARCH AND VINYL POLYMERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The viscosity and gel formation in the tricomponent system, starch/poly(acrylic acid)/poly(vinyl pyrrolidone-iodine), are studied in this work. Starch and poly(acrylic acid) at 5% aqueous solution form a synergistic mixture at 60/40 ratio. The addition of a small amount of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)-...

  11. ONE-POT SELECTIVE DERIVATIZATION OF STARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch is an inexpensive commodity that has been used for non-food purposes for many years. Some of these uses include cross-linked starches that are synthesized with a variety of multifunctional reagents. One unexplored possibility is the use of azides for cross-linking. To this end, azide deriv...

  12. Paint removal using wheat starch blast media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry Foster; John Oestreich

    1993-01-01

    A review of the Wheat Starch Blasting technology is presented. Laboratory evaluations covering Almen Arc testing on bare 2024-T3 aluminum and magnesium, as well as crack detection on 7075-T6 bare aluminum, are discussed. Comparisons with Type V plastic media show lower residual stresses are achieved on aluminum and magnesium with wheat starch media. Dry blasting effects on the detection of

  13. Getting the Starch Out of Your Food

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-11-01

    In this activity, learners examine the amount of starch in different foods. Learners use iodine to perform a simple test on food samples like apples and potatoes to see which foods contain starch and how much. Adult supervision is recommended. This activity page features an animation of this experiment (shockwave required).

  14. Understanding starch gelatinization: The phase diagram approach.

    PubMed

    Carlstedt, Jonas; Wojtasz, Joanna; Fyhr, Peter; Kocherbitov, Vitaly

    2015-09-20

    By constructing a detailed phase diagram for the potato starch-water system based on data from optical microscopy, synchrotron X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry, we show that gelatinization can be interpreted in analogy with a eutectic transition. The phase rule explains why the temperature of the gelatinization transition (G) is independent on water content. Furthermore, the melting (M1) endotherm observed in DSC represents a liquidus line; the temperature for this event increases with increasing starch concentration. Both the lamellar spacing and the inter-helix distance were observed to decrease with increasing starch content for starch concentrations between approximately 65wt% and 75wt%, while the inter-helix distance continued decreasing upon further dehydration. Understanding starch gelatinization has been a longstanding challenge. The novel approach presented here shows interpretation of this phenomenon from a phase equilibria perspective. PMID:26050889

  15. Interaction of tannins and other sorghum phenolic compounds with starch and effects on in vitro starch digestibility.

    PubMed

    Barros, Frederico; Awika, Joseph M; Rooney, Lloyd W

    2012-11-21

    This study investigated interactions of sorghum proanthocyanidins (PAs) with starch molecules and the effect on in vitro starch digestibility. High tannin (predominant in PA), black (monomeric polyphenols), and white (low in polyphenols) sorghum phenolic extracts were mixed and cooked with starches varying in amylose content. Starch pasting properties, polyphenol profile, and resistant starch (RS) were determined. PAs decreased setback of normal starch and were least extractable after cooking with all starches. Pure amylose interacted more strongly with oligomeric and polymeric PA compared to amylopectin. The PA extract increased the net RS in normal starch by about 2 times more than the monomeric polyphenol extract; debranching amylopectin increased the difference by 4.3 times. Only treatments with PA increased RS in high amylose starch (52% higher than the control). Sorghum PAs interact strongly with starch, decreasing starch digestibility. The interactions appear to be specific to amylose and linear fragments of amylopectin, suggesting hydrophobic interactions are involved. PMID:23126482

  16. Development of a certified reference material for genetically modified potato with altered starch composition.

    PubMed

    Broothaerts, Wim; Corbisier, Philippe; Emons, Hendrik; Emteborg, Håkan; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Trapmann, Stefanie

    2007-06-13

    The presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed products is subject to regulation in the European Union (EU) and elsewhere. As part of the EU authorization procedure for GMOs intended for food and feed use, reference materials must be produced for the quality control of measurements to quantify the GMOs. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are available for a range of herbicide- and insect-resistant genetically modified crops such as corn, soybean, and cotton. Here the development of the first CRM for a GMO that differs from its non-GMO counterpart in a major compositional constituent, that is, starch, is described. It is shown that the modification of the starch composition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, together with other characteristics of the delivered materials, have important consequences for the certification strategy. Moreover, the processing and characterization of the EH92-527-1 potato material required both new and modified procedures, different from those used routinely for CRMs produced from genetically modified seeds. PMID:17508757

  17. Potato spindle tuber viroid: the simplicity paradox resolved?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Taxonomy: Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) is the type species of the genus Posipiviroid, family Pospiviroidae. An absence of hammerhead ribozymes and the presence of a 'central conserved region' distinguish PSTVd and related viroids from members of a second viroid family, the Avsunviroidae. ...

  18. An Overview of Microbial Control of the Potato Tuber Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over reliance on broad spectrum insecticides has resulted in the development of resistance in potato tuber moth populations, safety risks to farm workers, the food supply, and the environment. An integrated pest management (IPM) strategy, in which natural enemies of pest arthropods and other alterna...

  19. EFFECT OF FUMIGATION ON VOLUNTEER POTATO (SOLANUM TUBERSOUM) TUBER VIABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of volunteer potato requires an integrated approach and soil fumigation is one tactic known to reduce population densities of certain weeds. The effect of 1,3-D and metham sodium on potato tuber viability were tested in sealed glass jars at various doses, incubation temperatures, and tim...

  20. MICROBIAL CONTROL OF THE POTATO TUBER MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tuber moth (PTM) is a serious pest of stored potato in most countries where potatoes are grown. Pathogens that are specific to insects offer promise as alternatives to broad spectrum insecticides for management of this pest. A diverse spectrum of microscopic and multicellular organisms (bact...

  1. Gene Expression Associated with Tuber Wound-Healing/Suberization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wounding of potatoes during harvest and handling operations results in tuber shrinkage, market quality defects and infection. Suberization and other wound-healing processes that mitigate these losses are of great agricultural importance. Previously, we determined that suberin poly(phenolics) and s...

  2. Halosulfuron reduced purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) tuber production and viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weeds persist and cause economic losses in agricultural systems because they exploit an underutilized portion of that system. Reducing the impact of weeds on agroecosystems begins with minimizing the number of propagules (e.g, seeds and tubers) that are produced and returned to the soil. Purple nu...

  3. Autism and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Prevalence and Clinical Features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peggy Baker; Joseph Piven; Yutaka Sato

    1998-01-01

    This study employed a hierarchical assessment to detect the prevalence of autism in a clinic sample of individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). After screening subjects with the Autism Behavior Checklist, subsequent evaluations with the Autism Diagnostic Interview, and direct clinical observation, the prevalence of autistic disorder in this sample of 20 subjects was conservatively estimated at 20%. Data suggest

  4. Root zone calcium can modulate GA induced tuberization signal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the possible relationship between root zone calcium and GA3 concentration in tuberization signal. For this purpose, we developed a system utilizing in vitro propagated potato plantlets and pure silica sand that allows precise control of root zone chemic...

  5. Epilepsy in Tuberous Sclerosis: Phenotypes, Mechanisms, and Treatments.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Anurag; Sampson, Julian R

    2015-06-01

    Epilepsy affects 75% to 90% of people with tuberous sclerosis, a multisystem genetic disorder. Although seizures can occur for the first time at any age, onset in infancy or childhood is usual. Around 30% of patients present with infantile spasms that often respond well to treatment with vigabatrin. Later seizures may occur as specific patterns, such as in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, or with combinations of seizures including focal and multifocal seizures, and drop attacks. Most patients have two or more seizure types. Seizure control using current antiepileptic drugs is often unsatisfactory, leading to frequent polypharmacy. Epilepsy surgery has a place in the management of some patients. Mutations in the TSC1 and TSC2 genes that cause tuberous sclerosis lead to hyperactivation of signaling via the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Inhibitors of mTORC1 have recently been shown to be effective treatments for some manifestations of tuberous sclerosis; they are now being assessed as potential novel antiepileptic drugs in tuberous sclerosis and related disorders. PMID:26060906

  6. Cover crops can improve potato tuber yield and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is the need to develop sustainable systems with higher yields and crop quality. We conducted studies with cover crops grown under limited irrigation (< 200 mm) to assess the effects of certain types of cover crops on tuber yield and quality. On a commercial farm operation prior to the 2006 and...

  7. INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM TUBER ROT IN TETRAPLOID POTATOES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium tuber rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most economically important diseases of stored potatoes. Dry rot is caused by several species of Fusaria, particularly Fusarium sambucinum in North America. The objective of this study was to determine the inheritance of resistance...

  8. Effect of sorghum flour addition on in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability of durum wheat pasta.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran; Yousif, Adel M; Johnson, Stuart K; Gamlath, Shirani

    2014-08-01

    Whole grain sorghum is a valuable source of resistant starch and polyphenolic antioxidants and its addition into staple food like pasta may reduce the starch digestibility. However, incorporating nondurum wheat materials into pasta provides a challenge in terms of maintaining cooking quality and consumer acceptability. Pasta was prepared from 100% durum wheat semolina (DWS) as control or by replacing DWS with either wholegrain red sorghum flour (RSF) or white sorghum flour (WSF) each at 20%, 30%, and 40% incorporation levels, following a laboratory-scale procedure. Pasta samples were evaluated for proximate composition, in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability. The addition of both RSF and WSF lowered the extent of in vitro starch digestion at all substitution levels compared to the control pasta. The rapidly digestible starch was lowered in all the sorghum-containing pastas compared to the control pasta. Neither RSF or WSF addition affected the pasta quality attributes (water absorption, swelling index, dry matter, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and springiness), except color and hardness which were negatively affected. Consumer sensory results indicated that pasta samples containing 20% and 30% RSF or WSF had acceptable palatability based on meeting one or both of the preset acceptability criteria. It is concluded that the addition of wholegrain sorghum flour to pasta at 30% incorporation level is possible to reduce starch digestibility, while maintaining adequate cooking quality and consumer acceptability. PMID:25047068

  9. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Mößeler, Anne; Vagt, Sandra; Beyerbach, Martin; Kamphues, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n = 3) or without (n = 3) pancreatic duct ligation (PL) were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD) of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea) were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C), there was an almost complete pcD (>92%) except for potato starch (61.5%) which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%). Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions. PMID:26064101

  10. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mößeler, Anne; Vagt, Sandra; Beyerbach, Martin; Kamphues, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n = 3) or without (n = 3) pancreatic duct ligation (PL) were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD) of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea) were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C), there was an almost complete pcD (>92%) except for potato starch (61.5%) which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%). Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions.

  11. Color Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  12. Adsorption of Polyethylene from Solution onto Starch Film Surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since starch adsorbs onto polyethylene (PE) surfaces from cooled solutions of jet cooked starch, this study was carried out to determine whether adsorption of PE onto hydrophilic starch film surfaces would also take place if starch films were placed in hot solutions of PE in organic solvents, and th...

  13. Molecular tools for the identification of Tuber melanosporum in agroindustry.

    PubMed

    Séjalon-Delmas, N; Roux, C; Martins, M; Kulifaj, M; Bécard, G; Dargent, R

    2000-06-01

    Tuber melanosporum Vitt., Tuber magnatum Pico, and Tuber uncinatum Chat. can be differentiated by their morphological characters. Fraud problems have arisen recently with the importation to Europe of truffles from China. T. melanosporum is morphologically very close, but distinct from the Chinese species [Tuber indicum (Cooke and Massee) and T. himalayense BC (Zhang and Winter)]. We have optimized molecular tools to unequivocally identify T. melanosporum. DNA extraction from ascocarps of black truffles is not straightforward. Problems to obtain pure DNA are due to high contents of phenolic compounds, melanine, and various polymers (proteins, polysaccharides, etc). These compounds coprecipitate with the DNA during extraction and strongly inhibit the PCR reaction. We have developed an efficient and reliable protocol for DNA extraction from truffle ascocarps. It was used successfully for DNA extraction from mycorrhizal root tips as well as from canned preparations of T. melanosporum. Several approaches to identify T. melanosporum by PCR were developed. Two specific primers for T. melanosporum were designed after comparison of the ITS region of this species with those of three Chinese fungi. They proved to be efficient to specifically detect the presence of T. melanosporum by PCR. The mycorrhizal status of trees inoculated with T. melanosporum but unable to produce truffles was confirmed in a single-step PCR reaction. A multiplex PCR approach was also developed with three sets of primers (including a specific one for Chinese truffles) to detect, in one PCR reaction, the presence of any other Tuber species mixed with T. melanosporum ascocarps. This optimized protocol, in association with the specific primers we designed, is applicable to quality control in the truffle industry from the production stages to final commercial products. PMID:10888592

  14. Psychopathology in Tuberous Sclerosis: An Overview and Findings in a Population-Based Sample of Adults with Tuberous Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raznahan, A.; Joinson, C.; O'Callaghan, F.; Osborne, J. P.; Bolton, P. F.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is a multi- system disorder with complex genetics. The neurodevelopmental manifestations of TS are responsible for considerable morbidity. The prevalence of epilepsy and intellectual disabilities among individuals with TS have been well described. Ours is the first study that explores the prevalence and pattern…

  15. The Effect of Vine Kill and Harvest Date on Tuber Skin Set, Respiration Rates and Tuber Sugars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russet Burbank potatoes were grown using standard procedures for planting, fertilization, irrigation, and pest management. Vine kill and harvest occurred on three staggered dates that spanned approximately six weeks. Vines were either killed chemically or left untreated and tubers were harvested fro...

  16. Effect of octenylsuccinic anhydride modification on ?-amylolysis of starch.

    PubMed

    Sweedman, Michael C; Hasjim, Jovin; Tizzotti, Morgan J; Schäfer, Christian; Gilbert, Robert G

    2013-08-14

    The effects of octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) modification of waxy maize and sorghum starches on subsequent ?-amylolysis are examined. Hydrolysis with ?-amylase is a method by which OSA starches may be structurally modified for industrial purposes. The hydrolysis of both granular and gelatinised forms of both starches follows first-order kinetics regardless of the OSA used as a percent of starch mass (0-24%). The highest hydrolysis rate coefficients for granular starches are at modification with 6% OSA/starch. The largest molecular sizes of ?-amylase hydrolysed OSA-modified gelatinised starches are found at modification with 24% OSA/starch. The results suggest that octenylsuccinyl groups have an action-blocking effect on ?-amylolysis of gelatinised starch, but the effect of semi-crystalline granular structure is more pronounced than that of OSA modification. Hence ?-amylolysis can be used under appropriate conditions to modify the structure of gelatinised OSA-modified starches. PMID:23769510

  17. Polar Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 3 May 2004 This nighttime visible color image was collected on January 1, 2003 during the Northern Summer season near the North Polar Troughs.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79, Longitude 346 East (14 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Potential aromatic compounds as markers to differentiate between Tuber melanosporum and Tuber indicum truffles.

    PubMed

    Culleré, Laura; Ferreira, Vicente; Venturini, María E; Marco, Pedro; Blanco, Domingo

    2013-11-01

    The Tuber indicum (Chinese truffle) and Tuber melanosporum (Black truffle) species are morphologically very similar but their aromas are very different. The black truffle aroma is much more intense and complex, and it is consequently appreciated more gastronomically. This work tries to determine whether the differences between the aromatic compounds of both species are sufficiently significant so as to apply them to fraud detection. An olfactometric evaluation (GC-O) of T. indicum was carried out for the first time. Eight important odorants were identified. In order of aromatic significance, these were: 1-octen-3-one and 1-octen-3-ol, followed by two ethyl esters (ethyl isobutyrate and ethyl 2-methylbutyrate), 3-methyl-1-butanol, isopropyl acetate, and finally the two sulfides dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) and dimethylsulfide (DMS). A comparison of this aromatic profile with that of T. melanosporum revealed the following differences: T. indicum stood out for the significant aromatic contribution of 1-octen-3-one and 1-octen-3-ol (with modified frequencies (MF%) of 82% and 69%, respectively), while in the case of T. melanosporum both had modified frequencies of less than 30%. Ethyl isobutyrate, ethyl 2-methylbutyrate and isopropyl acetate were also significantly higher, while DMS and DMDS had low MF (30-40%) compared to T. melanosporum (>70%). The volatile profiles of both species were also studied by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME-GC-MS). This showed that the family of C8 compounds (3-octanone, octanal, 1-octen-3-one, 3-octanol and 1-octen-3-ol) is present in T. indicum at much higher levels. The presence of 1-octen-3-ol was higher by a factor of about 100, while 1-octen-3-one was detected in T. indicum only (there was no chromatographic signal in T. melanosporum). As well as showing the greatest chromatographic differences, these two compounds were also the most powerful from the aromatic viewpoint in the T. indicum olfactometry. Therefore, either of the two chromatographic methods (GC-O or HS-SPME-GC-MS), together or separately, could be used as a screening technique to distinguish between T. indicum and T. melanosporum and thus avoid possible fraud. PMID:23768334

  19. Induction of vacuolar invertase inhibitor mRNA in potato tubers contributes to cold-induced sweetening resistance and includes spliced hybrid mRNA variants

    PubMed Central

    Brummell, David A.; Chen, Ronan K. Y.; Harris, John C.; Zhang, Huaibi; Hamiaux, Cyril; Kralicek, Andrew V.; McKenzie, Marian J.

    2011-01-01

    Cold storage of tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) compromises tuber quality in many cultivars by the accumulation of hexose sugars in a process called cold-induced sweetening. This is caused by the breakdown of starch to sucrose, which is cleaved to glucose and fructose by vacuolar acid invertase. During processing of affected tubers, the high temperatures involved in baking and frying cause the Maillard reaction between reducing sugars and free amino acids, resulting in the accumulation of acrylamide. cDNA clones with deduced proteins homologous to known invertase inhibitors were isolated and the two most abundant forms, termed INH1 and INH2, were shown to possess apoplastic and vacuolar localization, respectively. The INH2 gene showed developmentally regulated alternative splicing, so, in addition to the INH2? transcript encoding the full-length protein, two hybrid mRNAs (INH2?*A and INH2?*B) that encoded deduced vacuolar invertase inhibitors with divergent C-termini were detected, the result of mRNA splicing of an upstream region of INH2 to a downstream region of INH1. Hybrid RNAs are common in animals, where they may add to the diversity of the proteome, but are rarely described in plants. During cold storage, INH2? and the hybrid INH2? mRNAs accumulated to higher abundance in cultivars resistant to cold-induced sweetening than in susceptible cultivars. Increased amounts of invertase inhibitor may contribute to the suppression of acid invertase activity and prevent cleavage of sucrose. Evidence for increased RNA splicing activity was detected in several resistant lines, a mechanism that in some circumstances may generate a range of proteins with additional functional capacity to aid adaptability. PMID:21393382

  20. Firming of Bread Crumb with Cross-Linked Waxy Barley Starch Substituted for Wheat Starch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TOSHIKI INAGAKI; PAUL A. SEIB

    1992-01-01

    Cereal Chem. 69(3):321-325 White pan bread was baked from flour that had been fractionated a higher enthalpy of melting than that of control bread crumb, except and reconstituted using cross-linked waxy barley starch (5.9% amylose at 6 hr after baking. Furthermore, a 50% gel of cross-linked waxy barley content) in place of prime wheat starch (28.3% amylose content). starch in

  1. The effect of temperature and duration of exposure of potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in infested tubers to the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence A. Lacey; David R. Horton; Dana C. Jones

    2008-01-01

    The endophytic fungus, Muscodor albus produces several volatile compounds (alcohols, esters, ketones, acids and lipids) that are biocidal for a range of organisms including plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi, nematodes and insects. We studied the effects of these volatiles on 3-day-old potato tuber moth larvae within infested tubers inside sealed chambers. The length of exposure to M. albus significantly affected

  2. Colored Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 7 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on May 30, 2002 during the Southern Fall season in Atlantis Chaos.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.5, Longitude 183.6 East (176.4 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Electron microscopy and composition of raw acorn starch in relation to in vivo starch digestibility.

    PubMed

    Cappai, Maria Grazia; Alesso, Giuseppe Andrea; Nieddu, Giuseppa; Sanna, Marina; Pinna, Walter

    2013-06-01

    The structure and composition of starch play an important role as co-factors affecting raw starch digestibility: such features were investigated in raw acorn starch from the most diffused oak trees in the Mediterranean basin. A total of 620 whole ripe acorns from Holm (Quercus ilex L., n = 198), Downy (Quercus pubescens Willd., n = 207) and Cork (Quercus suber L., n = 215) oaks sampled on the Sardinia Isle (40° 56' 0'' N; 9° 4' 0'' E; 545 m above the mean sea level) in the same geographical area, were analyzed for their chemical composition. The starch contents ranged between 51.2% and 53.5% of dry matter. The starch granules displayed a spheroid/ovoid and cylindrical shape; on scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analyses, a bimodal distribution of starch granule size was observed both for Holm and Cork oak acorns, whereas the starch granules of Downy oak acorns showed diameters between 10.2 and 13.8 ?m. The specific amylose to amylopectin ratio of acorn starch was 25.8%, 19.5% and 34.0% in the Holm, Downy and Cork oaks, respectively. The (13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) signal analysis displayed a pivotal spectrum for the identification of the amylose peaks in raw acorn starch, as a basis for the amylose to amylopectin ratio determination. PMID:23660700

  4. Rhabdomyomas and Tuberous sclerosis complex: our experience in 33 cases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rhabdomyomas are the most common type of cardiac tumors in children. Anatomically, they can be considered as hamartomas. They are usually randomly diagnosed antenatally or postnatally sometimes presenting in the neonatal period with haemodynamic compromise or severe arrhythmias although most neonatal cases remain asymptomatic. Typically rhabdomyomas are multiple lesions and usually regress spontaneously but are often associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder caused by mutations in either of the two genes, TSC1 or TSC2. Diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis is usually made on clinical grounds and eventually confirmed by a genetic test by searching for TSC genes mutations. Methods We report our experience on 33 cases affected with rhabdomyomas and diagnosed from January 1989 to December 2012, focusing on the cardiac outcome and on association with the signs of tuberous sclerosis complex. We performed echocardiography using initially a Philips Sonos 2500 with a 7,5/5 probe and in the last 4 years a Philips IE33 with a S12-4 probe. We investigated the family history, brain, skin, kidney and retinal lesions, development of seizures, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Results At diagnosis we detected 205 masses, mostly localized in interventricular septum, right ventricle and left ventricle. Only in 4 babies (12%) the presence of a mass caused a significant obstruction. A baby, with an enormous septal rhabdomyoma associated to multiple rhabdomyomas in both right and left ventricular walls died just after birth due to severe heart failure. During follow-up we observed a reduction of rhabdomyomas in terms of both number and size in all 32 surviving patients except in one child. Eight patients (24,2%) had an arrhythmia and in 2 of these cases rhabdomyomas led to Wolf-Parkinson-White Syndrome. For all patients the arrhythmia spontaneously totally disappeared or was reduced gradually. With regarding to association with tuberous sclerosis, we diagnosed tuberous sclerosis clinically in 31 babies (93,9%). Conclusion Rhabdobyomas are tumors with favorable prognosis because they frequently do not cause symptoms and they often regress in numbers and size. Nevertheless, due to frequent association with tuberous sclerosis complex and the resulting neurological impairment, the prognosis can result unfavorable. PMID:24884933

  5. Cooking behavior and starch digestibility of NUTRIOSE® (resistant starch) enriched noodles from sweet potato flour and starch.

    PubMed

    Menon, Renjusha; Padmaja, G; Sajeev, M S

    2015-09-01

    The effect of a resistant starch source, NUTRIOSE® FB06 at 10%, 15% and 20% in sweet potato flour (SPF) and 5% and 10% in sweet potato starch (SPS) in reducing the starch digestibility and glycaemic index of noodles was investigated. While NUTRIOSE (10%) significantly reduced the cooking loss in SPF noodles, this was enhanced in SPS noodles and guar gum (GG) supplementation reduced CL of both noodles. In vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) was significantly reduced in test noodles compared to 73.6g glucose/100g starch in control SPF and 65.9 g in SPS noodles. Resistant starch (RS) was 54.96% for NUTRIOSE (15%)+GG (1%) fortified SPF noodles and 53.3% for NUTRIOSE (5%)+GG (0.5%) fortified SPS noodles, as against 33.8% and 40.68%, respectively in SPF and SPS controls. Lowest glycaemic index (54.58) and the highest sensory scores (4.23) were obtained for noodles with 15% NUTRIOSE+1% GG. PMID:25842330

  6. Biotechnological relevance of starch-degrading enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    Traditional enzymes, such as the amylases and the proteases, have been improved, novel applications have been found and new and valuable products have been marketed. The enzymatic hydrolysis of starch is described in some detail. (Refs. 8).

  7. Starch-Poly(Hydroxylalkanoate) Composites and Blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper summarizes research on starch-polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) blends and composites. Efforts to increase compatibility, characterize mechanical and biodegradation properties are described. A range of blend products have been prepared including molded plastics, films and foams. Finally, futu...

  8. Starch nanocrystals with large chain surface modifications.

    PubMed

    Thielemans, Wim; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur; Dufresne, Alain

    2006-05-01

    Nanoscale monocrystalline starch particles were successfully modified using stearic acid chloride and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether. Surface modification was confirmed using FTIR, XPS spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements. X-ray diffraction and DSC analysis confirmed that there was no alteration of the starch crystalline structure due to the surface modification. The grafts at the starch surface were also found to crystallize on the surface. TEM showed the individualization of nanoparticles as a result of the reduction of polar and hydrogen bonding forces. These results show our ability to modify the starch nanocrystal surface with plasticizing chains. Modified nanoparticles can find applications as compatibilized polymer additives, surface-active particles, and co-continuous nanocomposite precursors. PMID:16649799

  9. Paint removal using wheat starch blast media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Terry; Oestreich, John

    1993-03-01

    A review of the Wheat Starch Blasting technology is presented. Laboratory evaluations covering Almen Arc testing on bare 2024-T3 aluminum and magnesium, as well as crack detection on 7075-T6 bare aluminum, are discussed. Comparisons with Type V plastic media show lower residual stresses are achieved on aluminum and magnesium with wheat starch media. Dry blasting effects on the detection of cracks confirms better crack visibility with wheat starch media versus Type V or Type II plastic media. Testing of wheat starch media in several composite test programs, including fiberglass, Kevlar, and graphite-epoxy composites, showed no fiber damage. Process developments and production experience at the first U.S. aircraft stripping facility are also reviewed. Corporate and regional aircraft are being stripped in this three nozzle dry blast hanger.

  10. Characterization of edible starch-chitosan film and its application in the storage of Mongolian cheese.

    PubMed

    Mei, Jun; Yuan, Yilin; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei

    2013-06-01

    The physicochemical, mechanical, optical and structural properties based on different amylose content starch-chitosan films with the addition of hydrophilic glycerol and hydrophobic perilla oil were investigated, and the effects of the starch-chitosan coating on the physicochemical and microbial properties of Mongolian cheese were evaluated. The films were formed by casting method. Results showed that the incorporation of perilla oil resulted in a decrease in moisture content, solubility and mechanical properties and an increase in total color difference (?E*). High water vapor permeability (WVP), good transparency and low solubility were observed with the addition of glycerol. Meanwhile, the film based on mung bean starch-chitosan (MSC) exhibited higher moisture content, WVP values, ?E* and less transparency than that based on water chestnut starch-chitosan (WSC). The morphology of films was also different based on MSC/WSC. The shelf life extension of Mongolian cheese was evaluated at 8 °C. The results showed that the cheese coated by WSC film containing perilla oil presented better treatment performance in terms of microbial growth delay, weight loss and shelf life length. PMID:23500443

  11. Sturge Weber-Like Gyral Calcification Seen in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 1.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sayan; Mukherjee, Sharmila Banerjee; Mendiratta, Vibhu; Aneja, Satinder

    2015-07-01

    A 10-year-old girl presented with poorly controlled epilepsy. On evaluation, she had microcephaly, neuro-cutaneous stigmata of tuberous sclerosis complex, profound mental retardation, and spastic hemiparesis. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a calcified subependymal nodule and extensive left gyral calcification of the temporal, parietal, and occipital regions with unilateral cerebral atrophy, radiologic features usually seen in Sturge Weber syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed absence of tubers, enlarged choroid plexus, or leptomeningeal angiomas, thus excluding type 3 Sturge Weber syndrome. The genotype was a heterozygous mutation in exon 18 of the tuberous sclerosis type 1 gene (c.2293C>T p.Q765X). A comparison of previously reported 7 cases of Sturge Weber syndrome and tuberous sclerosis complex was made. This revealed 4 actual double phakomatoses (clinical, radiologic, or genetic phenotypes) and 3 cases with clinical phenotype of tuberous sclerosis and gyral calcifications within tubers simulating the radiologic picture of Sturge Weber syndrome. PMID:25117416

  12. An international view of hydroxyethyl starches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Treib; J.-F. Baron; M. T. Grauer; R. G. Strauss

    1999-01-01

    Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is one of the most frequently used plasma substitutes. A variety of different HES solutions exist\\u000a worldwide, which differ greatly in their pharmacological properties. HES is classified according to its manufactured or in\\u000a vitro molecular weight (MW) into high MW (450–480 kDa), medium MW (200 kDa), and low MW (70 kDa) starch preparations. However,\\u000a this is not

  13. Morphology of starch in surimi gels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Couso; Cristina Alvarez; M. Teresa Solas; Carlos Barba; M. Tejada

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the changes undergone by starch during heat-induced surimi gel preparation either with\\u000a or without added egg white, and their effects on the structure of gels using light and scanning electron microscopy. Gels\\u000a were made from SA-grade Alaska pollack (Theragra chalcogramma) surimi with: (1) salt (3%, w\\/w); (2) salt and waxy corn starch

  14. Biodegradable starch-based polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvorova, Anna I.; Tyukova, Irina S.; Trufanova, Elena I.

    2000-05-01

    The effects of low-molecular-weight additives, temperature and mechanical action on the structure and properties of starch are discussed. Special attention is given to mixtures of starch with synthetic polymers, e.g., co-polymers of ethylene with vinyl acetate, vinyl alcohol, acrylic acid, cellulose derivatives and other natural polymers. These mixtures can be used in the development of novel environmentally safe materials (films, coatings, packaging materials) and various articles for short-term use. The bibliography includes 105 references.

  15. Starch digestion and utilization in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Orskov, E R

    1986-11-01

    For most grain, except corn and sorghum, 90% or more of starch is normally fermented in the rumen. With corn, up to 30% or more could escape ruminal fermentation; most of the starch escaping fermentation would be digested in the small intestine or fermented in the large intestine. The capacity for digestion of raw starch in the small intestine is limited to 100 to 200 g/d in sheep. Gelled starch could be digested in quantities up to 200 to 300 g/d. The capacity would ultimately be limited by lack of enzymes involved in hydrolysis of short chain di- and oligosaccharides and also by capacity for absorption of glucose. Starch fermented in the cecum leads to an increase of N loss in the feces. In some instances, the high propionic acid proportion arising from fermentation of starch exceeds the capacity of the liver for metabolism. In growing lambs and goats, this creates problems of synthesis of branched-chain fatty acids in adipose tissue and, in dairy cows, problems of low milk yield and milk fat production. The low ruminal pH that often occurs when starchy grain is included in diets for ruminants can cause depression in fiber digestion. Some of these problems can be overcome by reducing extent of cereal processing and other methods that prevent low ruminal pH. It is concluded that due to limited capacity for starch digestion postruminally and high animal variability, deliberate attempts to increase postruminal digestion of starch are unlikely to be beneficial and are likely to create potential digestive problems. PMID:3793653

  16. Antioxidant properties of sterilized yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) tuber flour.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Sérgio; Pinto, Jorge; Rodrigues, César; Gião, Maria; Pereira, Claúdia; Tavaria, Freni; Xavier Malcata, F; Gomes, Ana; Bertoldo Pacheco, M T; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research work was to investigate the antioxidant properties of sterilized yacon tuber flour. The results revealed for the first time the high antioxidant activity of sterilized yacon flour. The best extract obtained by boiling 8.9% (w/v) of yacon flour in deionised water for 10min exhibited a total antioxidant capacity of 222±2mg (ascorbic acid equivalent)/100g DW and a total polyphenol content of 275±3mg (gallic acid equivalent)/100g DW associated to the presence of four main phenolic compounds: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acid and protocatechuic acid, as well as the amino acid tryptophan. The most abundant was chlorogenic acid, followed by caffeic acid. Biological assays revealed that the extract had indeed antioxidant protection, and no pro-oxidant activity. In conclusion, sterilized yacon tuber flour has the potential to be used in the food industry as a food ingredient to produce functional food products. PMID:26041224

  17. Hemimegalencephaly with tuberous sclerosis: a longitudinal imaging study.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Hemant; Patkar, Deepak; Shah, Jeshil; Patankar, Tufail

    2003-12-01

    Hemimegalencephaly is a rare cerebral malformation characterized by asymmetry of the hemispheres and cortical dysplasias. We report clinical and imaging findings in a child with hemimegalencephaly involving the right cerebral hemisphere with associated manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex. Gross abnormal myelination pattern and gyral abnormalities were seen in the enlarged hemisphere. Subsequent scans showed atrophy of the frontoparietal region in the enlarged hemisphere and normal growth of the opposite hemisphere exceeding the size of the abnormal hemisphere in the frontoparietal region. A few white-matter lesions that were seen in the normal hemisphere on neonatal scan were difficult to appreciate on subsequent MR studies. The white-matter lesions were better seen in the neonatal period, whereas cortical tubers were better detected at a later age. PMID:14641199

  18. Physicochemical properties and digestibility of hydrothermally treated waxy rice starch.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Feng; Ma, Fei; Kong, Fansheng; Gao, Qunyu; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-04-01

    Waxy rice starch was subjected to annealing (ANN) and heat-moisture treatment (HMT). These starches were also treated by a combination of ANN and HMT. The impact of single and dual modifications (ANN-HMT and HMT-ANN) on the molecular weight (M(w)), crystalline structure, thermal properties, and the digestibility were investigated. The relative crystallinity and short-range order on the granule surface increased on ANN, whereas decreased on HMT. All treated starches showed lower M(w) than that of the native starch. Gelatinization onset temperature, peak temperature and conclusion temperature increased for both single and dual treatments. Increased slowly digestible starch content was found on HMT and ANN-HMT. However, resistant starch levels decreased in all treated starches as compared with native starch. The results would imply that hydrothermal treatment induced structural changes in waxy rice starch significantly affected its digestibility. PMID:25442528

  19. Phosphoglucan phosphatase function sheds light on starch degradation.

    PubMed

    Silver, Dylan M; Kötting, Oliver; Moorhead, Greg B G

    2014-07-01

    Phosphoglucan phosphatases are novel enzymes that remove phosphates from complex carbohydrates. In plants, these proteins are vital components in the remobilization of leaf starch at night. Breakdown of starch is initiated through reversible glucan phosphorylation to disrupt the semi-crystalline starch structure at the granule surface. The phosphoglucan phosphatases starch excess 4 (SEX4) and like-SEX4 2 (LSF2) dephosphorylate glucans to provide access for amylases that release maltose and glucose from starch. Another phosphatase, LSF1, is a putative inactive scaffold protein that may act as regulator of starch degradative enzymes at the granule surface. Absence of these phosphatases disrupts starch breakdown, resulting in plants accumulating excess starch. Here, we describe recent advances in understanding the biochemical and structural properties of each of these starch phosphatases. PMID:24534096

  20. Isolation and expression analysis of tuberous root development related genes in Rehmannia glutinosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng Sun; Yuhai Guo; Jianjun Qi; Lili Zhou; Xianen Li

    2010-01-01

    As one kind of important modified storage organs, tuberous roots are attractive for their economic and biological values.\\u000a Although considerable progresses have been made in the past, molecular information regarding the tuberous root development\\u000a is still limited. In this study, we focused on the molecular profiling of the tuberous root development of Rehmannia glutinosa. Suppression subtractive hybridization technology was employed

  1. Color Blind or Color Conscious?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Beverly Daniel

    1999-01-01

    A color-blind approach often signifies that an educator has not considered what racial/ethnic identity means to youngsters. Students want to find themselves reflected in the faces of teachers and other students. Color-conscious teachers seek out materials that positively reflect students' identities and initiate discussions about race and racism.…

  2. Ectomycorrhizal fungi with edible fruiting bodies 3. Tuber magnatum , tuberaceae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. R. Hall; A. Zambonelli; F. Primavera

    1998-01-01

    The Italian white truffle(Tuber magnatum Pico) forms mycorrhizal relationships, with the roots of, for example, poplars, willows, oaks, aspen, alder and hazelnut in Northern\\u000a Italy and in small areas of Southern France, Switzerland and Yugoslavia. Its fruiting bodies, which are harvested in autumn\\u000a and early winter, have a strong aroma and taste and are much sought-after by chefs and gourmets.

  3. The pathogenesis and imaging of the tuberous sclerosis complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry J. Baskin Jr

    2008-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by the formation of hamartomatous lesions\\u000a in multiple organ systems. It is the second most common neurocutaneous syndrome after neurofibromatosis type 1 and has been\\u000a recognized since the late 1800s. Although the disease has complete penetrance, there is also high phenotypic variability:\\u000a some patients have obvious signs at birth, while others

  4. Latent infection of potato tubers by Pseudomonas solanacearum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Ciampi; Luis Sequeira; E. R. French

    1980-01-01

    Strains ofPseudomonas solanacearum differed in their ability to infect tubers of different resistant potato clones grown in infested soil. When eight resistant\\u000a clones (Solanum phureja orS.phureja ×S. tuberosum hybrids) were grown at 24–28°C in soil infested with a race 1 or a race 3 strain of the bacterium, relatively few plants\\u000a had wilt symptoms at harvest, but 26.7% and 9.2%

  5. Epilepsy secondary to tuberous sclerosis: lessons learned and current challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romina Moavero; Caterina Cerminara; Paolo Curatolo

    2010-01-01

    Background  In tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a substantially increased risk of developing epilepsy is present as a result of a disruption\\u000a of a TSC gene expression in the brain and secondary abnormal cellular differentiation, migration, and proliferation. Dysregulated\\u000a excitation probably has its roots in the disruption of GABAergic interneuron development. There is an age-dependent electroclinical\\u000a expression of seizures, and epilepsy is

  6. Volatile organic compounds from a Tuber melanosporum fermentation system.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Guan; Li, Hong-Mei; Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2012-12-15

    A total of 59 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified from Tuber melanosporum fermentation: 53 from its fermented mycelia and 32 from the fermentation broth. Alcohol-derived compounds were predominant in both the fermentation mycelia and the broth, although long chain fatty acids and isoprenoids were, for the first time, also found in the mycelia. The intense wine bouquet properties of the broth arose from several specific flavor substances, including sulfur compounds, pyrazines, furans and jasmones. Comparing the VOCs identified in this work with those previously reported, our results are more similar to the composition of the Tuber fruiting-body than previous Tuber fermentations. The composition and accumulation of flavor volatiles (e.g., pyrazines, sulfur compounds, and esters) and major constituents (e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethanol) in this fermentation were significantly influenced by the sucrose concentration in the medium. The obtained information could therefore be useful in applications to convert the flavors of truffle mycelia similar to those of the fruiting-body by optimising the fermentation process. PMID:22980851

  7. Color Sudoku

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    OMSI

    2008-01-01

    The popular sudoku puzzles use numbers, but the game could played with any set of 9 different objects! In this activity (on pages 56-75 of PDF), learners use objects of different colors (marbles, paper squares, candies) to solve sudoku puzzles. Learners use logic to determine where all the colored objects go, given the different colors already present on the puzzles. The activity includes suggestions for how to approach the game, 10 puzzles of varying size and difficulty, and links to websites with many more puzzles.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on thermophysical properties of plasticized starch and starch surfactant films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cie?la, Krystyna; Watzeels, Nick; Rahier, Hubert

    2014-06-01

    In this work the influence of gamma irradiation on the thermomechanical properties of the films formed in potato starch-glycerol and potato starch-glycerol-surfactant systems were examined by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, DMA, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry, DSC, and the results were correlated to the amount of the volatile fraction in the films.

  9. THE EFFECT OF STARCH TYPE AND OIL CONTENT ON OXIDATION OF STARCH-SOYBEAN OIL COMPOSITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch-oil composites (SOCs) are stable suspensions of microscopic (1-10 um) oil droplets in a starch dispersion or gel. These dispersions can be dried and reconstituted into an aqueous system without the need for emulsifiers, yet will maintain their physical stability and properties. SOCs have be...

  10. Plantain and banana starches: granule structural characteristics explain the differences in their starch degradation patterns.

    PubMed

    Soares, Claudinéia Aparecida; Peroni-Okita, Fernanda Helena Gonçalves; Cardoso, Mateus Borba; Shitakubo, Renata; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2011-06-22

    Different banana cultivars were used to investigate the influences of starch granule structure and hydrolases on degradation. The highest degrees of starch degradation were observed in dessert bananas during ripening. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed smooth granule surface in the green stage in all cultivars, except for Mysore. The small and round granules were preferentially degraded in all of the cultivars. Terra demonstrated a higher degree of crystallinity and a short amylopectin chain length distribution, resulting in high starch content in the ripe stage. Amylose content and the crystallinity index were more strongly correlated than the distribution of amylopectin branch chain lengths in banana starches. ?- and ?-amylase activities were found in both forms, soluble in the pulp and associated with the starch granule. Starch-phosphorylase was not found in Mysore. On the basis of the profile of ?-amylase in vitro digestion and the structural characteristics, it could be concluded that the starch of plantains has an arrangement of granules more resistant to enzymes than the starch of dessert bananas. PMID:21591784

  11. Position of modifying groups on starch chains of octenylsuccinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starches with degree of substitution of 0.018 (OS-S-L) and 0.092 (OS-S-H) were prepared from granular native waxy maize starch in an aqueous slurry system. The substitution distribution of OS groups was investigated by enzyme hydrolysis followed by chromatogr...

  12. Cecropia peltata Accumulates Starch or Soluble Glycogen by Differentially Regulating Starch Biosynthetic Genes[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bischof, Sylvain; Umhang, Martin; Eicke, Simona; Streb, Sebastian; Qi, Weihong; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2013-01-01

    The branched glucans glycogen and starch are the most widespread storage carbohydrates in living organisms. The production of semicrystalline starch granules in plants is more complex than that of small, soluble glycogen particles in microbes and animals. However, the factors determining whether glycogen or starch is formed are not fully understood. The tropical tree Cecropia peltata is a rare example of an organism able to make either polymer type. Electron micrographs and quantitative measurements show that glycogen accumulates to very high levels in specialized myrmecophytic structures (Müllerian bodies), whereas starch accumulates in leaves. Compared with polymers comprising leaf starch, glycogen is more highly branched and has shorter branches—factors that prevent crystallization and explain its solubility. RNA sequencing and quantitative shotgun proteomics reveal that isoforms of all three classes of glucan biosynthetic enzyme (starch/glycogen synthases, branching enzymes, and debranching enzymes) are differentially expressed in Müllerian bodies and leaves, providing a system-wide view of the quantitative programming of storage carbohydrate metabolism. This work will prompt targeted analysis in model organisms and cross-species comparisons. Finally, as starch is the major carbohydrate used for food and industrial applications worldwide, these data provide a basis for manipulating starch biosynthesis in crops to synthesize tailor-made polyglucans. PMID:23632447

  13. No Latex Starch Utilization in Euphorbia esula L.

    PubMed

    Nissen, S J; Foley, M E

    1986-06-01

    Utilization of leaf, stem, root, and latex starch was monitored in Euphorbia esula L. plants. Leaf, stem, and root starch decreased rapidly during a 52 day light starvation period while latex starch did not. Scanning electron and light microscope studies provided additional evidence that no changes in latex starch granules had occurred. Amylase activity (6.6 units per milligram protein) could be isolated from latex. However, latex starch granules were extremely resistant to enzymic hydrolysis by latex amylases, Bacillus subtilis alpha-amylase, and by amyloglucosidase from Aspergillus niger. Results indicate that latex starch grains do not function as utilizable carbohydrate in this species under these conditions. PMID:16664883

  14. Phenolic profile, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of black (Tuber aestivum Vittad.) and white (Tuber magnatum Pico) truffles.

    PubMed

    Beara, Ivana N; Lesjak, Marija M; Cetojevi?-Simin, Dragana D; Marjanovi?, Zaklina S; Risti?, Jelena D; Mrkonji?, Zorica O; Mimica-Duki?, Neda M

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was a comprehensive investigation on phenolic profile, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of the still insufficiently explored black summer truffles (Tuber aestivum Vittad.) and white (Tuber magnatum Pico) truffles. Methanol and water extracts, obtained by maceration and Soxhlet extraction, were examined. Forty-five phenolics was studied using LC-MS/MS: presence of 14 compounds was confirmed, with the most dominant being p-hydroxybenzoic acid, baicalein and kaempferol (T. aestivum), epicatechin and catechin (T. magnatum). Moderate antioxidant activity of both species was determined through several assays. Only T. magnatum showed anti-inflammatory potential by inhibiting COX-1 and 12-LOX pathway products synthesis. Methanol extracts exerted cytotoxicity against some tumour cell lines (HeLa, MCF7, HT-29), besides the prominent activity of water extracts towards breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7). To conclude, these results support further investigations of phytochemicals and biological activity towards verification of nutraceutical use of both species. PMID:25038699

  15. Cloning and characterization of PKC-homologous genes in the truffle species Tuber borchii and Tuber magnatum.

    PubMed

    Ambra, R; Macino, G

    2000-08-01

    The protein kinases C (PKCs) define a growing family of ubiquitous signal transducting serine/threonine kinases that control ion conductance channels, release of hormones and cell growth and proliferation. Degenerated oligonucleotides were used as primers for polymerase chain reactions to amplify PKC-related sequences from the white truffle species Tuber magnatum and Tuber borchii. The deduced amino acid sequences of cloned sequences reveal domains homologous to the regulatory and kinase domains of PKC-related proteins, but lack typical Ca(2+)-binding domain and therefore should be classified as nPKCs. Both contain a large extended N-terminus which is found exclusively in fungi PKCs. Phylogenetic analysis of the kinase domain demonstrates high homology with known filamentous fungi isoenzymes. PMID:10913864

  16. Colorful Electrophoresis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Utah

    2012-01-01

    In this activity, learners follow step-by-step instructions to build a gel electrophoresis chamber using inexpensive materials from local hardware and electronic stores. Then, learners follow instructions to simulate DNA electrophoresis using food colors from the kitchen pantry.

  17. Finding Colors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-08-27

    In this chemistry challenge, learners combine acids and bases in a universal indicator to create five different colors. Using vinegar, washing soda, and Bogen universal indicator, the goal is to find combinations that create red, orange, yellow, green, and blue solutions. Background information explains a little about how acids and bases interact to affect the pH of a solution, and how the indicator changes color based on the pH. Safety notes are included.

  18. Effects of starch synthase IIa gene dosage on grain, protein and starch in endosperm of wheat.

    PubMed

    Konik-Rose, Christine; Thistleton, Jenny; Chanvrier, Helene; Tan, Ihwa; Halley, Peter; Gidley, Michael; Kosar-Hashemi, Behjat; Wang, Hong; Larroque, Oscar; Ikea, Joseph; McMaugh, Steve; Regina, Ahmed; Rahman, Sadequr; Morell, Matthew; Li, Zhongyi

    2007-11-01

    Starch synthases (SS) are responsible for elongating the alpha-1,4 glucan chains of starch. A doubled haploid population was generated by crossing a line of wheat, which lacks functional ssIIa genes on each genome (abd), and an Australian wheat cultivar, Sunco, with wild type ssIIa alleles on each genome (ABD). Evidence has been presented previously indicating that the SGP-1 (starch granule protein-1) proteins present in the starch granule in wheat are products of the ssIIa genes. Analysis of 100 progeny lines demonstrated co-segregation of the ssIIa alleles from the three genomes with the SGP-1 proteins, providing further evidence that the SGP-1 proteins are the products of the ssIIa genes. From the progeny lines, 40 doubled haploid lines representing the eight possible genotypes for SSIIa (ABD, aBD, AbD, ABd, abD, aBd, Abd, abd) were characterized for their grain weight, protein content, total starch content and starch properties. For some properties (chain length distribution, pasting properties, swelling power, and gelatinization properties), a progressive change was observed across the four classes of genotypes (wild type, single nulls, double nulls and triple nulls). However, for other grain properties (seed weight and protein content) and starch properties (total starch content, granule morphology and crystallinity, granule size distribution, amylose content, amylose-lipid dissociation properties), a statistically significant change only occurred for the triple nulls, indicating that all three genes had to be missing or inactive for a change to occur. These results illustrate the importance of SSIIa in controlling grain and starch properties and the importance of amylopectin fine structure in controlling starch granule properties in wheat. PMID:17721773

  19. Grain processing effects on starch utilization by ruminants.

    PubMed

    Theurer, C B

    1986-11-01

    Starch utilization may be markedly enhanced by proper grain processing; however, extent of improvement is primarily dependent upon the ruminant species, grain source and method of processing. Grain processing has less impact on starch digestion by sheep than cattle. The magnitude of improvement is inverse to the starch digestion values for nonprocessed (or minimally processed) grains. Utilization of sorghum grain starch is improved most by extensive processing, and then corn, with little improvement in barley starch digestion. Studies comparing processing effects on barley or wheat starch utilization by cattle were not found. Steam-flaking consistently improves digestibility of starch by cattle fed corn- or sorghum grain-based diets over whole, ground or dry-rolled processes. Other extensive processing methods appear to enhance starch digestibility of corn and sorghum grain to a similar extent as steam-flaking, but comparative data are too limited to quantitate adequately effects of these methods. This improvement in starch utilization appears to be the primary reason for enhanced feed conversion of cattle fed diets high in these processed grains. The major site of cereal grain starch digestion is usually the rumen. Processing increases microbial degradation of starch in the rumen and decreases amounts of starch digested post-ruminally. Rates of in vitro amylolytic attack of starch in cereal grains by both ruminal microbial and pancreatic enzyme sources are improved by processing methods employing proper combinations of moisture, heat and pressure. In vitro and in situ studies suggest that much of the increase in ruminal starch fermentation with steam-flaking is due to changes in starch granular structure, which produces additive effects beyond those of decreasing particle size. Thus, efficiency of ruminal starch fermentation by cattle appears to be improved by proper processing of corn and sorghum grain. Processing and grain source studies both suggest that maximal total tract starch digestibility is positively related to the extent of digestion in the rumen. PMID:3539906

  20. Dissolution and depolymerization of barley starch in selected ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, Katja; Kärkkäinen, Johanna; Lajunen, Marja

    2013-03-01

    Polysaccharides like starch are poorly soluble in common solvents. However, certain ionic liquids (ILs) have been found to dissolve them, although some depolymerization happens during the dissolution. Dissolution and depolymerization of barley starch in ten ionic liquids have been studied with p-TsOH as a catalyst under controlled microwave heating. Dissolution time and the extent of the depolymerization of starch, determined by using HPLC-ELSD, were specific to each IL. Dialkylimidazolium halide ILs dissolved starch fast and depolymerized it substantially producing 79-100% water-soluble starch oligomers with the average molecular weight of 1000-2000Da. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium phosphate ([EMIM][Me2PO4]) and 2-hydroxyethylammonium formate ([NH3CH2CH2OH][HCOO]) dissolved starch slowly and depolymerized it least among the tested ILs. For the slow depolymerization of starch these ILs can be considered as suitable solvents for starch modifications where its depolymerization should be avoided. PMID:23465905

  1. Initiator Effects in Reactive Extrusion of Starch Graft Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Graft copolymers of starch with water-soluble polymers such as polyacrylamide have potential applications including hydrogels, superabsorbents, and thickening agents. Reactive extrusion is a rapid, continuous method for production of starch graft copolymers with high reaction and grafting efficienc...

  2. Acetylated adipate of retrograded starch as RS 3/4 type resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Kapelko-?eberska, M; Zi?ba, T; Spychaj, R; Gryszkin, A

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed at producing acetylated adipate of retrograded starch (ADA-R) with various degrees of substitution with functional groups and at determining the effect of esterification degree on resistance and pasting characteristics of the produced preparations. Paste was prepared from native potato starch, and afterwards frozen and defrosted. After drying and disintegration, the paste was acetylated and crosslinked using various doses of reagents. An increase in the total degree of esterification of the produced ADA-R-preparation caused an increase in its resistance to the action of amyloglucosidase. Viscosity of the paste produced from ADA-R-preparation in a wide range of acetylation degrees was increasing along with increasing crosslinking of starch. The study demonstrated that acetylated adipate of retrograded starch may be classified as a preparation of RS 3/4 type resistant starch (retrograded starch/chemically-modified starch) with good texture-forming properties. The conducted modification offers the possibility of modeling the level of resistance of the produced preparation. PMID:26041205

  3. Starch Gelatinization Measured By Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. MENDES DA SILVA; C. F. CIACCO; G. E. BARBERIS; W. M. R. SOLANO; C. RETTORI

    Cereal Chem. 73(3):297-301 The extent of starch gelatinization was quantified by pulsed-proton wheat starch in starch-water systems by the NMR method showed a first- nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. To quantify the gelatiniza- order reaction until the degree of gelatinization reached a fixed and tion of starch, a relative liquefying index (RLI), calculated from the ratio constant value, which increased

  4. Physicochemical and functional properties of Chenopodium quinoa starch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Thoufeek Ahamed; Rekha S. Singhal; Pushpa R. Kulkarni; Mohinder Pal

    1996-01-01

    Starch isolated from lysine-rich high protein Chenopodium quinoa grains was studied for physicochemical and functional properties. In contrast to corn starch which showed a two-stage swelling, C. quinoa showed a single-stage swelling in the temperature range of 65–95 °C. However, C. quinoa starch had a lower solubility and lower viscosity than corn starch at same concentration. The unique property of

  5. Additional Isozyme Loci in Tuber-Bearing Solanums: Inheritance and Linkage

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    Additional Isozyme Loci in Tuber-Bearing Solanums: Inheritance and Linkage Relationships D. S of codominant ex.pression, these isozyme markers provide new oppor tunities for further genetic studies of tuber-bearing further progress is to be made tected between two loci involved in this in the genetics a/luber-bearing

  6. POST HARVEST APPLICATIONS OF ZOXAMIDE AND PHOSPHITE FOR CONTROL OF POTATO TUBER ROTS CAUSED BY OOMYCETES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato storage tuber rots caused by the late blight and pink rot pathogens can cause severe economic losses warranting the need for effective post-harvest fungicide applications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of selective post-harvest fungicides in reducing tuber infections...

  7. Problems of using rockroses in Tuber melanosporum culture: soil and truffle harvest associated with Cistus laurifolius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. G. García-Montero; C. Pascual; A. García-Abril; J. García-Cañete

    2007-01-01

    The Périgord black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad.) can mycorrhize with rockroses (Cistus L.) in Mediterranean forests. These shrubs may be of interest for truffle cultivation as they produce early carpophores,\\u000a collaborate in tree mycorrhization and in the survival of Tuber melanosporum mycelium. However, there are very few quantitative studies on truffle production associated with Cistus. For this reason, we have

  8. USING A WILD SPECIES, SOLANUM MICRODONTUM, TO MOVE HIGH TUBER CALCIUM TRAIT TO THE CULTIVATED POTATOES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CULTIVATED potato tuber tissue is naturally deficient in calcium, resulting in many physiological defects and pathogen susceptibilities that affect the quality of the crop. Recent studies have demonstrated that tuber quality of potatoes can be significantly improved by in-season calcium application....

  9. Aquatic plant shows flexible avoidance by escape from tuber predation by swans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Hidding; M. R. J. Klaassen; T. De Boer; P. P. De Vries; B. A. Nolet

    2012-01-01

    Deeper burial of bulbs and tubers has been suggested as an escape against below-ground herbivory by vertebrates, but experimental evidence is lacking. As deep propagule burial can incur high costs of emergence after dormancy, burial depth may represent a trade-off between sprouting survival and herbivore avoidance. We tested whether burial depth of subterraneous tubers is a flexible trait in fennel

  10. Genetic Consequences of Tuber Versus Seed Sampling in Two Wild Potato Species Indigenous to the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild potatoes reproduce in the wild (in situ) clonally by tubers or sexually by seeds. This study used model populations to assess the genetic consequences of sampling in situ tubers or in situ seeds for two indigenous potato species of the USA, Solanum stoloniferum PI 564039 (sto) and Solanum james...

  11. Distribution of Potato virus Y strains in tubers during the post-harvest period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PVYO, PVYN:O, and PVYNTN infected tubers from Russet Burbank, Russet Norkotah, and Shepody were tested following storage, at the initiation of sprouting and then again at seventy eight days later. Samples were taken from eyes in the stem, middle, and bud (distal end) areas of the tubers. Testing ...

  12. Effect of production site and storage on antioxidant levels in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato can make a significant contribution of antioxidants to the human diet. In this study, antioxidant levels in tubers of 16 clones grown at four production sites (two conventional, two organic), both fresh and stored, were examined across two years. Antioxidant activity of fresh tubers at ...

  13. FREEZING BEHAVIOR OF POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM), CULTIVAR 'RUSSET BURBANK' TUBERS IN SOIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volunteer potatoes are a major weed problem in potato rotations in regions with mild winter soil temperatures. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine cold temperatures required to kill potato tubers in soil. Potato tubers in air dried soil columns exposed to decreasing temper...

  14. The Canon of Potato Science: 40. Physiological Age of Seed Tubers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Struik

    2007-01-01

    What is it? The physiological quality of seed tubers is determined by dormancy and – after the dormancy has been broken – by physiological age. Physiological age is the developmental stage of a potatoseedtuber but itcan alsobedefined as the physiological state of the seed tuber which influences its production capacity. Physiological age determines the behaviour of each bud of the

  15. Association genetics in Solanum tuberosum provides new insights into potato tuber bruising and enzymatic tissue discoloration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Urbany; Benjamin Stich; Lysann Schmidt; Ludwig Simon; Hergen Berding; Holger Junghans; Karl-Heinz Niehoff; Alexander Braun; Eckhard Tacke; Hans-Rheinhardt Hofferbert; Jens Lübeck; Josef Strahwald; Christiane Gebhardt

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most agronomic plant traits result from complex molecular networks involving multiple genes and from environmental factors. One such trait is the enzymatic discoloration of fruit and tuber tissues initiated by mechanical impact (bruising). Tuber susceptibility to bruising is a complex trait of the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) that is crucial for crop quality. As phenotypic evaluation of bruising is

  16. Phytochrome B Affects the Levels of a Graft-Transmissible Signal Involved in Tuberization1

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Stephen D.; James, Pat; Prat, Salomé; Thomas, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Grafting experiments between phytochrome B antisense and wild-type potato (Solanum tuberosum L. subsp. andigena [line 7540]) plants provide evidence that phytochrome B is involved in the production of a graft-transmissible inhibitor of tuberization, the level of which is reduced in the antisense plants, allowing them to tuberize in noninducing photoperiods. PMID:9576771

  17. The role of endophytic bacteria during seed piece decay and potato tuberization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Sturz

    1995-01-01

    Healthy potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Kennebec were found to be internally colonized by non-pathogenic bacterial populations originating from root zone soil. These endophytic bacteria were categorized, on the basis of bioassays, as plant growth promoting (PGP), plant growth retarding (PGR) and plant growth neutral (PGN). Genera isolated from tubers included Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Xanthomonas, Agrobacterium, Actinomyces and Acinetobacter. The

  18. Content of starch and sugars and in vitro digestion of starch by alpha-amylase in five minor millets.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumari, S; Thayumanavan, B

    1995-12-01

    Five varieties of minor millets were studied for their amylose, soluble amylose, amylopectin, soluble amylopectin, reducing sugar, total sugar and starch contents. Pure starch was isolated from each variety and the enzymic degradation of starch by porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase were examined with and without gelatinisation. Gelatinised sample of Echinochloa frumentacea (var. K2) showed minimal hydrolysis and gelatinised sample of Panicum miliaceum (var. CO3) showed maximum hydrolysis of starch by porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase. Gelatinised starch was highly susceptible to enzymic digestion when compared to ungelatinised starch. The extent of starch degradation varied from 71 to 85 percent in gelatinised samples and starch degradation in ungelatinised sample varied from 10 to 18 percent. PMID:8882370

  19. Shape memory starch-clay bionanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Coativy, Gildas; Gautier, Nicolas; Pontoire, Bruno; Buléon, Alain; Lourdin, Denis; Leroy, Eric

    2015-02-13

    1-10% starch/clay bionanocomposites with shape memory properties were obtained by melt processing. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and TEM evidenced the presence of a major fraction of clay tactoids, consisting of 4-5 stacked crystalline layers, with a thickness of 6.8 nm. A significant orientation of the nanoparticles induced by extrusion was also observed. Tensile tests performed above the glass transition of the materials showed that the presence of clay nanoparticles leads to higher elastic modulus and maximum stress, without significant loss in elongation at break which typically reached 100%. Samples submitted to a 50% elongation and cooled below the glass transition showed shape memory behavior. Like unreinforced starch, the bionanocomposites showed complete shape recovery in unconstrained conditions. In mechanically constrained conditions, the maximum recovered stress was significantly improved for the bionanocomposites compared to unreinforced starch, opening promising perspectives for the design of sensors and actuators. PMID:25458305

  20. Colorful Mathematics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Funded by Industry Canada's SchoolNet initiative with the cooperation of the Canadian Mathematical Society, Colorful Mathematics takes a game-oriented approach to teaching K-12 mathematics. The project has developed five coloring games that teach children about problem solving, and pattern identification, which "are all at the very heart of mathematics." The coloring approach makes difficult graph concepts "that are still the subject of active research by mathematicians, computer scientists and industry researchers" more accessible to children. The software program, which is available for free from this website, is set up to check for mistakes and challenge students to improve on their results. A Teacher's Corner section gives an overview of the games, "some sample questions for discussion with the curious student," and an overview of terminology used in the software program. The website is also available in French.

  1. Rapid and Environmentally Friendly Preparation of Starch Esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel method for the speedy preparation of starch esters by rapid microwave heating is described herein. A two minute method to prepare starch acetate with a 3 deg C of substitution (DS) was developed by fast microwave heating of starch with acetic anhydride in the presence of catalytic amounts (...

  2. PROSPECTS OF BREEDING FOR LOW STARCH CONTENT IN SUGARCANE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated levels of starch in sugarcane juice adversely affect the processing quality of raw and refined sugar. Despite reports of differences among cultivars for starch content, most research has focused on processing aids to minimize the negative processing effects of starch. Deploying cultivars ...

  3. Gelation and retrogradation of concentrated starch systems: 1 Gelation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. A. M. Keetels; T. van Vliet; P. Walstra

    1996-01-01

    Small deformation properties of potato and wheat starch suspensions were studied during heating and cooling at rest by a small amplitude dynamic rheological test method. Starch concentrations used were 10 to 30% w\\/w. The temperature to which the suspensions were heated varied from 65 to 90°C. During heating the moduli of the starch sytems at first increase and subsequently decrease.

  4. Biodegradable Blends of Cellulose Acetate and Starch: Production and Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean M. Mayer; Glenn R. Elion; Charles M. Buchanan; Barbara K. Sullivan; Sheldon D. Pratt; David L. Kaplan

    1995-01-01

    Blends of cellulose acetate (2.5 degree of substitution) and starch were melt processed and evaluated for mechanical properties, biodegradability during composting, and marine and soil toxicity. Formulations containing, on a weight basis, 57% cellulose acetate (CA), 25% corn starch (St) and 19% propylene glycol (PG) had mechanical properties similar to polystyrene. Increasing plasticizer or starch content lowered tensile strength. Simulated

  5. Extraction of starch from wheat flour by alkaline solution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Separation of starch from wheat flour with high purity is very important for the analysis of starch such as amylose and amylopectin determination by size exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC). A procedure that extracts starch from flour by ethanol precipitation after dissolving flour in KOH and urea solution wa...

  6. HRP-Mediated Synthesis of Starch-Polyacrylamide Graft Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modified starch-based polymers can be engineered for specific properties by combining starch with synthetic polymers through graft copolymerization. Polyacrylamide grafted starches have received a great deal of applications in areas such as superabsorbent paper-making additives, drag reduction and ...

  7. Adsorption of Polyethylene from Solution onto Starch Film Surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch films were prepared by jet cooking aqueous dispersions of high-amylose starch and then allowing the jet cooked dispersions to air-dry on Teflon surfaces. When the starch films were immersed in 1 % solutions of PE in 1-dodecanol, dodecane and xylene at 120º C and the solutions were allowed to...

  8. ISOLATION OF AMYLOSE FROM STARCH SOLUTIONS BY PHASE SEPARATION*

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventionally, fractionation of the two components of starches, amylopectin and amylose had been achieved by aqueous dispersion or aqueous leaching of granules, and selective retrogradation or alcohol precipitation of one component from starch dispersion. Recently, we found that starch solutions s...

  9. Composition, structure, physicochemical properties, and modifications of cassava starch.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan

    2015-05-20

    Cassava is highly tolerant to harsh climatic conditions and has great productivity on marginal lands. The supply of cassava starch, the major component of the root, is thus sustainable and cheap. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the composition, physical and chemical structures, physicochemical properties, nutritional quality, and modifications of cassava starch. Research opportunities to better understand this starch are provided. PMID:25817690

  10. Acetylated starch-polylactic acid loose-fill packaging materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junjie Guan; Kent M. Eskridge; Milford A. Hanna

    2005-01-01

    Different genetic and botanical sources of starches are available for use in hydrophobic starch-based packaging materials. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of the type of acetylated starch and the presence of polylactic acid (PLA) and ethanol on the functional properties of extruded foams, and to compare the specific mechanical energy requirements for preparing these foams.

  11. Variation of Starch Granule Size in Tropical Maize Germ Plasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. CAMPBELL; J. LI; T. G. BERKE; D. V. GLOVER

    Granule size is an important characteristic of starch that can influence its functional and wet-milling extraction properties. Genetic variation for granule size has been found among maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes pos- sessing single gene mutations affecting starch synthesis. In a previous study, 35 tropical and semitropical maize populations were examined for starch thermal properties. The purpose of this study

  12. Biodegradable Multiphase Systems Based on Plasticized Starch: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luc Avérous

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this review is to show the relationships between the structure, the process, and the properties of biodegradable multiphase systems based on plasticized starch (PLS), the so?called “thermoplastic starch.” These mutiphase materials are obtained when associating association between plasticized starches and other biodegradable materials, such as biodegradable polyesters [polycaprolactone (PCL), polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), polylactic acid (PLA), polyesteramide (PEA), aliphatic,

  13. Kool Colors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Oregon Museum of Science and Industry

    2007-01-01

    Learners investigate how temperature affects the rate of chemical reactions by observing how steel wool reacts with various types of Kool-Aid solutions at different temperatures. The reaction is monitored as the color fades in the Kool-Aid solutions. Background information includes how the dyes change color from an oxidation-reduction reaction. Extensions include investigating how surface area and concentration affect reaction rate. Part of the "No Hassle Messy Science with a Wow" activity guide by OMSI, where all activities use only household materials.

  14. The influence of PEG molecular weight on the structural changes of corn starch in a starch\\/PEG blend

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-Hyeon Kim; Dong-Won Kim; Kuk Young Cho

    2009-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a nonvolatile plasticizer used for starch gelatinization. Blends of starch and PEG at a fixed\\u000a ratio of 50:50 (based on wt%) were prepared by varying the molecular weight of PEG. Interaction of the PEG and starch was\\u000a investigated as a function of the PEG molecular weight via FT-IR and DSC experiment. The starch chain conformation changed

  15. Production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by yeasts isolated from the ascocarps of black ( Tuber melanosporum Vitt.) and white ( Tuber magnatum Pico) truffles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pietro Buzzini; Chiara Gasparetti; Benedetta Turchetti; Maria Rita Cramarossa; Ann Vaughan-Martini; Alessandro Martini; Ugo Maria Pagnoni; Luca Forti

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-nine yeast strains were isolated from the ascocarps of black and white truffles (Tuber\\u000a melanosporum Vitt. and Tuber\\u000a magnatum Pico, respectively), and identified using a polyphasic approach. According to the conventional taxonomic methods, MSP-PCR\\u000a fingerprinting and sequencing of the D1\\/D2 domain of 26S rDNA, the strains were identified as Candida saitoana, Debaryomyces hansenii, Cryptococcus sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and Trichosporon moniliiforme.

  16. Potential for treatment of severe autism in tuberous sclerosis complex

    PubMed Central

    Gipson, Tanjala T; Gerner, Gwendolyn; Wilson, Mary Ann; Blue, Mary E; Johnston, Michael V

    2013-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved two mechanism-based treatments for tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-everolimus and vigabatrin. However, these treatments have not been systematically studied in individuals with TSC and severe autism. The aim of this review is to identify the clinical features of severe autism in TSC, applicable preclinical models, and potential barriers that may warrant strategic planning in the design phase of clinical trial development. A comprehensive search strategy was formed and searched across PubMed, Embase and SCOPUS from their inception to 2/21/12, 3/16/12, and 3/12/12 respectively. After the final search date, relevant, updated articles were selected from PubMed abstracts generated electronically and emailed daily from PubMed. The references of selected articles were searched, and relevant articles were selected. A search of clinicaltrials.gov was completed using the search term “TSC” and “tuberous sclerosis complex”. Autism has been reported in as many as 60% of individuals with TSC; however, review of the literature revealed few data to support clear classification of the severity of autism in TSC. Variability was identified in the diagnostic approach, assessment of cognition, and functional outcome among the reviewed studies and case reports. Objective outcome measures were not used in many early studies; however, diffusion tensor imaging of white matter, neurophysiologic variability in infantile spasms, and cortical tuber subcategories were examined in recent studies and may be useful for objective classification of TSC in future studies. Mechanism-based treatments for TSC are currently available. However, this literature review revealed two potential barriers to successful design and implementation of clinical trials in individuals with severe autism-an unclear definition of the population and lack of validated outcome measures. Recent studies of objective outcome measures in TSC and further study of applicable preclinical models present an opportunity to overcome these barriers. PMID:25254170

  17. Deformation mechanisms of plasticized starch materials.

    PubMed

    Mikus, P-Y; Alix, S; Soulestin, J; Lacrampe, M F; Krawczak, P; Coqueret, X; Dole, P

    2014-12-19

    The aim of this paper is to understand the influence of plasticizer and plasticizer amount on the mechanical and deformation behaviors of plasticized starch. Glycerol, sorbitol and mannitol have been used as plasticizers. After extrusion of the various samples, dynamic mechanical analyses and video-controlled tensile tests have been performed. It was found that the nature of plasticizer, its amount as well as the aging of the material has an impact on the involved deformation mechanism. The variations of volume deformation could be explained by an antiplasticization effect (low plasticizer amount), a phase-separation phenomenon (excess of plasticizer) and/or by the retrogradation of starch. PMID:25263913

  18. [Hemorrhagic tuberous sclerosis. Report of a Jehovah Witness patient].

    PubMed

    Azócar, G; Castillo, O; Van Cauwelaert, R; Aguirre, C; Wöhler, C; Wash, A

    1999-11-01

    We report a 26 years old male with a tuberous sclerosis with multiple and bilateral kidney cysts and angiomyolipomas. The patient presented to the emergency room with a severe abdominal pain and anemia, secondary to a bleeding angiomyolipoma. The patient rejected blood transfusions due to his religious beliefs. A selective angiography was performed confirming diagnosis and the lesion artery was selectively embolized, stopping the bleeding immediately. The patient had a satisfactory evolution thereafter. This is a rare lesion and the fact that the patient was a Jehovah witness that rejected blood transfusions, required an innovative medical approach. PMID:10835724

  19. Morphological and mechanical characterization of thermoplastic starch and its blends with polylactic acid using cassava starch and bagasse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aims the use of an agro waste coming from the industrialization of cassava starch, known as cassava bagasse (BG). This material contains residual starch and cellulose fibers which can be used to obtain thermoplastic starch (TPS) and /or blends reinforced with fibers. In this context, it w...

  20. Examining Colors, Color Perception, and Sight

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Eichinger

    2009-05-15

    Students of all ages are fascinated by color and how we perceive it. For the main activity in this chapter, your class explores colors and visual perception by mixing colors in several ways. Students learn more about colors, light, vision, and color compo

  1. Development and Characterization of Spaghetti with High Resistant Starch Content Supplemented with Banana Starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasta products, such as spaghetti, are relatively healthy foods traditionally manufactured from durum wheat semolina and water. Nutritionally improved spaghetti products with additional health benefits can be produced by supplementing durum wheat with suitable food additives, such as banana starch....

  2. Resistant Starch: Promise for Improving Human Health12

    PubMed Central

    Birt, Diane F.; Boylston, Terri; Hendrich, Suzanne; Jane, Jay-Lin; Hollis, James; Li, Li; McClelland, John; Moore, Samuel; Phillips, Gregory J.; Rowling, Matthew; Schalinske, Kevin; Scott, M. Paul; Whitley, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing research to develop digestion-resistant starch for human health promotion integrates the disciplines of starch chemistry, agronomy, analytical chemistry, food science, nutrition, pathology, and microbiology. The objectives of this research include identifying components of starch structure that confer digestion resistance, developing novel plants and starches, and modifying foods to incorporate these starches. Furthermore, recent and ongoing studies address the impact of digestion-resistant starches on the prevention and control of chronic human diseases, including diabetes, colon cancer, and obesity. This review provides a transdisciplinary overview of this field, including a description of types of resistant starches; factors in plants that affect digestion resistance; methods for starch analysis; challenges in developing food products with resistant starches; mammalian intestinal and gut bacterial metabolism; potential effects on gut microbiota; and impacts and mechanisms for the prevention and control of colon cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Although this has been an active area of research and considerable progress has been made, many questions regarding how to best use digestion-resistant starches in human diets for disease prevention must be answered before the full potential of resistant starches can be realized. PMID:24228189

  3. Drying and cracking mechanisms in a starch slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, Lucas

    2009-09-01

    Starch-water slurries are commonly used to study fracture dynamics. Drying starch cakes benefit from being simple, economical, and reproducible systems, and have been used to model desiccation fracture in soils, thin-film fracture in paint, and columnar joints in lava. In this paper, the physical properties of starch-water mixtures are studied, and used to interpret and develop a multiphase transport model of drying. Starch cakes are observed to have a nonlinear elastic modulus, and a desiccation strain that is comparable to that generated by their maximum achievable capillary pressure. It is shown that a large material porosity is divided between pore spaces between starch grains, and pores within starch grains. This division of pore space leads to two distinct drying regimes, controlled by liquid and vapor transport of water, respectively. The relatively unique ability for drying starch to generate columnar fracture patterns is shown to be linked to the unusually strong separation of these two transport mechanisms.

  4. Drying and cracking mechanisms in a starch slurry

    E-print Network

    Lucas Goehring

    2009-10-09

    Starch-water slurries are commonly used to study fracture dynamics. Drying starch-cakes benefit from being simple, economical, and reproducible systems, and have been used to model desiccation fracture in soils, thin film fracture in paint, and columnar joints in lava. In this paper, the physical properties of starch-water mixtures are studied, and used to interpret and develop a multiphase transport model of drying. Starch-cakes are observed to have a nonlinear elastic modulus, and a desiccation strain that is comparable to that generated by their maximum achievable capillary pressure. It is shown that a large material porosity is divided between pore spaces between starch grains, and pores within starch grains. This division of pore space leads to two distinct drying regimes, controlled by liquid and vapor transport of water, respectively. The relatively unique ability for drying starch to generate columnar fracture patterns is shown to be linked to the unusually strong separation of these two transport mechanisms.

  5. Resistant starch in food: a review.

    PubMed

    Raigond, Pinky; Ezekiel, Rajarathnam; Raigond, Baswaraj

    2015-08-15

    The nutritional property of starch is related to its rate and extent of digestion and absorption in the small intestine. For nutritional purposes, starch is classified as rapidly available, slowly available and resistant starch (RS). The exact underlying mechanism of relative resistance of starch granules is complicated because those factors are often interconnected. The content of RS in food is highly influenced by food preparation manner and processing techniques. Physical or chemical treatments also alter the level of RS in a food. Commercial preparations of RS are now available and can be added to foods as an ingredient for lowering the calorific value and improving textural and organoleptic characteristics along with increasing the amount of dietary fiber. RS has assumed great importance owing to its unique functional properties and health benefits. The beneficial effects of RS include glycemic control and control of fasting plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels and absorption of minerals. This review attempts to analyze the information published, especially in the recent past, on classification, structure, properties, applications and health benefits of RS. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25331334

  6. Modification of starch during malting of sorghum

    E-print Network

    Floyd, Cherie Diane

    1994-01-01

    Five sorghum varieties, Dorado, Malisor 84-7, Tortillero, ATx630*R3338, and ATx623*SC1 03 were malted according to standard procedures and monitored for malting quality and starch modification during a 5 day malting period. Dry matter losses (DML...

  7. Starch-lipid composites containing cimmamaldehyde

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The formulation of a starch-lipid composite containing cinnamaldehyde as antimicrobial agent has been studied. Cinnamaldehyde was incorporated as an emulsion using Acetem 90-50K as a carrier and Tween 60 as the emulsifier. Oil in water emulsions were prepared by direct emulsification using a high sh...

  8. LOW WASTEWATER POTATO STARCH/PROTEIN PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    While potato starch has been an item of commerce for many years, traditional processing methods have incurred large volumes of high BOD effluents. The research summarized by this report has lead to a modified process which upgrades the soluble components formerly discarded in the...

  9. Breadmaking with zein-starch dough

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mixtures of maize prolamins (zein) and starch form a cohesive, extensible, viscoelastic dough when mixed above zein's glass transition temperature, e.g. at 35-40 degrees Celsius. Although this phenomenon has long been known, it has not yet been successfully used for gluten-free breadmaking. We fou...

  10. Iodine catalyzed acetylation of starch and cellulose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch and cellulose, earth's most abundant biopolymers, are of tremendous economic importance. Over 90% of cotton and 50% of wood are made of cellulose. Wood and cotton are the major resources for all cellulose products such as paper, textiles, construction materials, cardboard, as well as such c...

  11. PROTEIN TARGETING TO STARCH Is Required for Localising GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE to Starch Granules and for Normal Amylose Synthesis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Seung, David; Soyk, Sebastian; Coiro, Mario; Maier, Benjamin A.; Eicke, Simona; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2015-01-01

    The domestication of starch crops underpinned the development of human civilisation, yet we still do not fully understand how plants make starch. Starch is composed of glucose polymers that are branched (amylopectin) or linear (amylose). The amount of amylose strongly influences the physico-chemical behaviour of starchy foods during cooking and of starch mixtures in non-food manufacturing processes. The GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE (GBSS) is the glucosyltransferase specifically responsible for elongating amylose polymers and was the only protein known to be required for its biosynthesis. Here, we demonstrate that PROTEIN TARGETING TO STARCH (PTST) is also specifically required for amylose synthesis in Arabidopsis. PTST is a plastidial protein possessing an N-terminal coiled coil domain and a C-terminal carbohydrate binding module (CBM). We discovered that Arabidopsis ptst mutants synthesise amylose-free starch and are phenotypically similar to mutants lacking GBSS. Analysis of granule-bound proteins showed a dramatic reduction of GBSS protein in ptst mutant starch granules. Pull-down assays with recombinant proteins in vitro, as well as immunoprecipitation assays in planta, revealed that GBSS physically interacts with PTST via a coiled coil. Furthermore, we show that the CBM domain of PTST, which mediates its interaction with starch granules, is also required for correct GBSS localisation. Fluorescently tagged Arabidopsis GBSS, expressed either in tobacco or Arabidopsis leaves, required the presence of Arabidopsis PTST to localise to starch granules. Mutation of the CBM of PTST caused GBSS to remain in the plastid stroma. PTST fulfils a previously unknown function in targeting GBSS to starch. This sheds new light on the importance of targeting biosynthetic enzymes to sub-cellular sites where their action is required. Importantly, PTST represents a promising new gene target for the biotechnological modification of starch composition, as it is exclusively involved in amylose synthesis. PMID:25710501

  12. Resistance to multiple tuber diseases expressed in somaclonal variants of the potato cultivar Russet Burbank.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, Tamilarasan; Steven Tegg, Robert; Wilson, Calum Rae

    2014-01-01

    Multiple disease resistance is an aim of many plant breeding programs. Previously, novel somatic cell selection was used to generate potato variants of "Russet Burbank" with resistance to common scab caused by infection with an actinomycete pathogen. Coexpression of resistance to powdery scab caused by a protozoan pathogen was subsequently shown. This study sought to define whether this resistance was effective against additional potato tuber diseases, black scurf, and tuber soft rot induced by fungal and bacterial pathogens. Pot trials and in vitro assays with multiple pathogenic strains identified significant resistance to both tuber diseases across the potato variants examined; the best clone A380 showed 51% and 65% reductions in disease severity to tuber soft rot and black scurf, respectively, when compared with the parent line. The resistance appeared to be tuber specific as no enhanced resistance was recorded in stolons or stem material when challenged Rhizoctonia solani that induces stolon pruning and stem canker. The work presented here suggests that morphological characteristics associated with tuber resistance may be the predominant change that has resulted from the somaclonal cell selection process, potentially underpinning the demonstrated broad spectrum of resistance to tuber invading pathogens. PMID:24523639

  13. A novel green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using soluble starch and its antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Yakout, Sobhy M; Mostafa, Ashraf A

    2015-01-01

    A green method of Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) preparation has been established. This method depends on reduction of silver nitrate with soluble starch. The formation of AgNPs was observed by the color change from colorless to dark brown through the starch addition into silver nitrate solution. It was observed that use of starch makes convenient method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and can reduce silver ions into the produced silver nanoparticles within one hour of reaction time without using any harsh conditions. The prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-visible spectroscopy and evaluated for its antimicrobial activity. The synthesized green AgNPs showed a potential antibacterial activity that was stronger against Gram positive pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococus aureus and Streptococus pyogenes) than against Gram negative pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella typhi, Shigellasonnei and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Inhibition zones diameter of antibacterial activity depends upon nanoparticles concentration as AgNPs exhibited greater inhibition zone for S.aureus (16.4 mm) followed by P. aeruginosa and S. pyogenes while the least activity was observed for S. typhi (10.4 mm) at 40 ?l/ disc. These results suggested that AgNPs can be used as an effective antiseptic agents in medical fields and process of synthesis creates new opportunities in process development for the synthesis of safe and eco-friendly AgNPs.

  14. Diversity of culturable microorganisms and occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in Tuber aestivum and Tuber melanosporum ascocarps.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Carmen Susana; Blanco, Domingo; Oria, Rosa; Venturini, María Eugenia

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the total mesophilic microorganisms, Pseudomonas genus, Enterobacteriaceae family, mold and yeast counts and the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp on Tuber aestivum and Tuber melanosporum ascocarps. The results confirmed that the major percentage of the microorganisms, approximately 9.0 log ufc/g, were present in the peridium, the glebas of healthy truffles being practically free of microorganisms. The predominant microbial group was the Pseudomonas averaging 8.3 and 8.4 log cfu/g on T. aestivum and T. melanosporum whole ascocarps, respectively. The Enterobacteriaceae also achieved high populations, especially in T. aestivum truffles, with 6.3 log cfu/g. Molds and yeasts never exceeded 5.0 log cfu/g. The characterization of the isolates revealed that the fluorescens pseudomonads were the most prevalent. Raoultella terrigena and Enterobacter intermedius were the dominant Enterobacteriaceae. The identification of the yeast isolates revealed five species: Debaryomyces hansenii, Issatchenkia scutulata, Rhodotorula aurantiaca, Saccharomyces dairensis and Trichosporon beigelii subspecies A and B. The mold genera detected in both species of truffles were Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Fusarium, Trichoderma being present only in T. aestivum. L. monocytogenes was found in 10% of the samples of T. aestivum analysed but Salmonella spp. was not detected. Knowledge of the microbial population in terms of possible food borne and pathogen microorganisms is very useful for establishing successful disinfection and storage methods to prolong the shelf-life of ascocarps of T. aestivum and T. melanosporum. PMID:20141948

  15. Increasing of Food and Bioenergy Potato Resources by Microbial Influence on Tubers Phytohormonal Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiprushkina, Elena I.; Baranenko, Denis A.

    2014-12-01

    Potato and its by-products became a promising both food and bioenergy resource. The determination of the bacteriaantagonists influence on phytohormone status and productivity of potato tubers was studied. The indole-3-acetic acid content during the dormancy end and germinating in the tubers treated with Bacillus subtilis Ch-13 was fewer than in the control samples. L-tryptophan significant quantity compared to the control was found in the treated tubers in a state of physiological dormancy (more than 2-fold) and especially during active germination (43 times greater). Average potato yield increase at treated fields was of 18.8 %.

  16. Properties and applications of starch-converting enzymes of the ?-amylase family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc J. E. C. van der Maarel; Bart van der Veen; Joost C. M. Uitdehaag; Hans Leemhuis; L. Dijkhuizen

    2002-01-01

    Starch is a major storage product of many economically important crops such as wheat, rice, maize, tapioca, and potato. A large-scale starch processing industry has emerged in the last century. In the past decades, we have seen a shift from the acid hydrolysis of starch to the use of starch-converting enzymes in the production of maltodextrin, modified starches, or glucose

  17. Morphological, thermal and rheological properties of starches from different botanical sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narpinder Singh; Jaspreet Singh; Lovedeep Kaur; Navdeep Singh Sodhi; Balmeet Singh Gill

    2003-01-01

    Corn, rice, wheat and potato are the main sources of starches which differ significantly in composition, morphology, thermal, rheological and retrogradation properties. Cereal starches contain a significant quantity of phospholipids, while potato starch is rich in esterified phosphorus. Potato starch exhibits higher swelling power, solubility, paste clarity and viscosity than wheat, rice or corn starches. Morphological characteristics, such as shape

  18. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose concentration on physical properties of biodegradable cassava starch-based films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wirongrong Tongdeesoontorn; Lisa J Mauer; Sasitorn Wongruong; Pensiri Sriburi; Pornchai Rachtanapun

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cassava starch, the economically important agricultural commodity in Thailand, can readily be cast into films. However, the cassava starch film is brittle and weak, leading to inadequate mechanical properties. The properties of starch film can be improved by adding plasticizers and blending with the other biopolymers. RESULTS: Cassava starch (5%w\\/v) based films plasticized with glycerol (30 g\\/100 g starch)

  19. Structure, morphology and functionality of acetylated and oxidised barley starches.

    PubMed

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Bartz, Josiane; Radunz, Marjana; Carreño, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Acetylation and oxidation are chemical modifications which alter the properties of starch. The degree of modification of acetylated and oxidized starches is dependent on the catalyst and active chlorine concentrations, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetylation and oxidation on the structural, morphological, physical-chemical, thermal and pasting properties of barley starch. Barley starches were acetylated at different catalyst levels (11%, 17%, and 23% of NaOH solution) and oxidized at different sodium hypochlorite concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% of active chlorine). Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractograms, thermal, morphological, and pasting properties, swelling power and solubility of starches were evaluated. The degree of substitution (DS) of the acetylated starches increased with the rise in catalyst concentration. The percentage of carbonyl (CO) and carboxyl (COOH) groups in oxidized starches also increased with the rise of active chlorine level. The presence of hydrophobic acetyl groups, carbonyl and carboxyl groups caused a partial disorganization and depolymerization of starch granules. The structural, morphological and functional changes in acetylated and oxidized starches varied according to reaction conditions. Acetylation makes barley starch more hydrophobic by the insertion of acetyl groups. Also the oxidation promotes low retrogradation and viscosity. All these characteristics are important for biodegradable film production. PMID:25172707

  20. Susceptibility of glutinous rice starch to digestive enzymes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Zhang, Juanjuan; Hu, Jian; Li, Xueling; Du, Xianfeng

    2015-09-01

    To understand the susceptibility of glutinous rice starch to digestive enzymes and its potential impact on glycemic response, enzyme kinetics and in vitro digestibility of the native and gelatinized starches were investigated. The results showed that the Km values of the native and gelatinized starch were 10.35mg/mL and 9.92mg/mL, respectively. The digestion rate coefficients k values of the native and gelatinized starches were 2.0×10(-3)min(-1) and 1.1×10(-2)min(-1), respectively. The contents of rapid digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) in native glutinous rice starch were 8.92%, 21.52% and 69.56%, respectively. After gelatinization, the amounts of RDS, SDS and RS were 18.47%, 29.75% and 51.78%, respectively. The native and gelatinized glutinous rice starches were 10.34% and 14.07% for hydrolysis index (HI), as well as 43.14% and 45.92% for glycemic index (GI), respectively. During the in vitro digestion, the crystallinity of native glutinous rice starch was increased from 34.7% to 35.8% and 38.4% after 20 and 120min, respectively. PMID:26005151

  1. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    PubMed Central

    Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and ?-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated for both HP and AO lines as compared with the WT. At late seedling establishment stages, specific sugars were rapidly consumed in the AO line. ?-Amylase activity was distinctly suppressed in both the HP and the AO lines. Pre-germination ?-amylase deposition was low in the AO grains and ?-amylase was generally suppressed in both HP and AO lines throughout germination. As further supported by scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analyses on grain and seedlings, it was concluded that inadequate starch granule deposition in combination with the suppressed hydrolase activity leads to temporal and compensating re-direction of starch, sugar, and protein catabolism important to maintain metabolic dynamics during grain germination and seedling establishment. PMID:24642850

  2. Sites, rates, and limits of starch digestion and glucose metabolism in growing cattle.

    PubMed

    Huntington, G B; Harmon, D L; Richards, C J

    2006-04-01

    Growing cattle in the United States consume up to 6 kg of starch daily, mainly from corn or sorghum grain. Total tract apparent digestibility of starch usually ranges from 90 to 100% of starch intake. Ruminal starch digestion ranges from 75 to 80% of starch intake and is not greatly affected by intake over a range of 1 to 5 kg of starch/d. Starch apparently digested in the small intestine decreases from 80 to 34% as starch entering the small intestine increases from 0.2 to 2 kg/d. Starch apparently digested in the large intestine ranges from 44 to 46% of starch entering the large intestine. Approximately 70% of starch digested in the small intestine appears as glucose in the bloodstream. Within the range of starch intakes that do not cause rumen upsets, increasing starch (and energy) intake increases the amount of starch digested in the rumen, increases the supply of starch to the small intestine, increases starch digested in small intestine (albeit at reduced efficiency), and increases starch digested in the large intestine, such that total tract digestibility remains relatively constant. With increased starch intake, most of the starch is still digested in the rumen, but increasing amounts of starch escape ruminal and intestinal digestion, and disappear distal to the ileocecal junction. Again, within the range of starch intakes that do not cause rumen upsets, as starch intake increases, hepatic gluconeogenesis increases, glucose entry increases, and glucose irreversible loss increases, with a significant portion lost as CO2. The ability to increase use of dietary starch to support greater weight gains or improved marbling could come from increasing starch digestion in a healthy rumen or in the small intestine, but we conclude that the main limit to use of dietary starch to support live weight gain is digestion and absorption from the small intestine. Increased oxidation of glucose at greater starch intakes may alter energetic efficiency by sparing other oxidizable substrates, like amino acids. PMID:16582085

  3. Limits to starch digestion in the ruminant small intestine.

    PubMed

    Owens, F N; Zinn, R A; Kim, Y K

    1986-11-01

    Site and extent of starch digestion by ruminant animals varies with species, grain type and processing method. Based on a review of 40 different experiments with cattle, between 18 and 42% of the dietary starch from corn and sorghum grains fed to cattle reaches the small intestine for digestion. With more extensive grain processing, a smaller quantity of starch reaches the small intestine. In the small intestine, from 47 to 88% of the presented starch is digested, while in the large intestine, 33 to 62% of the presented starch is digested. Though limits to digestion in and absorption from the small intestine can be demonstrated by infusing starch and glucose into the duodenum, enzymatic capacity does not appear to limit intestinal starch digestion since no plateau in the amount of starch disappearing from the small intestine is detected with typical diets. Yet, extent of digestion is incomplete. Other factors, such as time and surface exposure may limit small intestinal digestion of starch. Processing methods to reduce particle size or alter the protein matrix, which cements starch granules together, will increase the extent of digestion both in the rumen and in the small intestine. Performance data from growing cattle fed processed corn and sorghum grains indicate that starch was used 42% more efficiently if it was digested in the small intestine rather than in the rumen. Though total tract starch digestibility is of primary concern, results support the concept that energetic efficiency of growing ruminants is greater if starch is digested in the small intestine rather than in the rumen. PMID:3539905

  4. Physical, mechanical and barrier properties of corn starch films incorporated with plant essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ghasemlou, Mehran; Aliheidari, Nahal; Fahmi, Ronak; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Keshavarz, Behnam; Cran, Marlene J; Khaksar, Ramin

    2013-10-15

    Corn starch-based films are inherently brittle and lack the necessary mechanical integrity for conventional packaging. However, the incorporation of additives can potentially improve the mechanical properties and processability of starch films. In this work two essential oils, Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) or Mentha pulegium (MEO) at three levels (1%, 2% and 3% (v/v)), were incorporated into starch films using a solution casting method to improve the mechanical and water vapor permeability (WVP) properties and to impart antimicrobial activity. Increasing the content of ZEO or MEO from 2% to 3% (v/v) increased values for elongation at break from 94.38% to 162.45% and from 53.34% to 107.71% respectively, but did not significantly change tensile strength values of the films. The WVP properties of the films decreased from 7.79 to 3.37 or 3.19 g mm m(-2) d(-1) kPa(-1) after 3% (v/v) ZEO or MEO incorporation respectively. The oxygen barrier properties were unaffected at the 1% and 2% (v/v) oil concentration used but oxygen transmission increased with 3% (v/v) for both formulations. The films' color became slightly yellow as the levels of ZEO or MEO were increased although transparency was maintained. Both films demonstrated antimicrobial activity with films containing ZEO more effective against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus than those containing MEO. These results suggest that ZEO and MEO have the potential to be directly incorporated into corn starch to prepare antimicrobial biodegradable films for various food packaging applications. PMID:23987453

  5. Brainard Color Constancy 1 Color Constancy

    E-print Network

    Brainard, David H.

    out likely candidates; our driver's licenses list the color of our eyes and hair for identificationBrainard Color Constancy 1 1 Color Constancy We would rather eat a banana that looks yellow rather than one that looks green, as the banana's color appearance carries reliable information about its

  6. The effect of temperature and duration of exposure of potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in infested tubers to the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Lawrence A; Horton, David R; Jones, Dana C

    2008-02-01

    The endophytic fungus, Muscodor albus produces several volatile compounds (alcohols, esters, ketones, acids and lipids) that are biocidal for a range of organisms including plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi, nematodes and insects. We studied the effects of these volatiles on 3-day-old potato tuber moth larvae within infested tubers inside sealed chambers. The length of exposure to M. albus significantly affected mortality of larvae, calculated as percentage of larvae failing to survive to the adult stage. Exposure durations of 3, 7, or 14 days at 24 degrees C followed by incubation in fresh air at 27 degrees C until emergence resulted in mortalities of 84.2, 95.5 and 99.6%, respectively. However, the longer exposures also resulted in increased levels of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) that are unacceptable for tuber storage. Effects of M. albus on larval survival was also monitored at 10, 15 and 24 degrees C, using an exposure duration of 7 days followed by incubation in clean air at 27 degrees C until emergence. Mortality of larvae was sharply reduced at the lower temperatures resulting in 50.8, 76.8, and 95.4% mortality, respectively. Tuber storage conditions, especially cooling rates, are discussed with respect to using M. albus as a fumigant without simultaneously producing unacceptable (for tuber storage) levels of CO(2). PMID:17897669

  7. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors. PMID:24695195

  8. Reduction of starch granule size by expression of an engineered tandem starch-binding domain in potato plants.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qin; Oomen, Ronald J F J; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Bolam, David N; Gilbert, Harry J; Suurs, Luc C J M; Visser, Richard G F

    2004-05-01

    Granule size is an important parameter when using starch in industrial applications. An artificial tandem repeat of a family 20 starch-binding domain (SBD2) was engineered by two copies of the SBD derived from Bacillus circulans cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase via the Pro-Thr-rich linker peptide from Xyn10A from Cellulomonas fimi. SBD2 and a single SBD were introduced into the amylose-free potato mutant, amf, using appropriate signal sequences. The accumulation of SBD2 into transgenic starch granules was much higher than that of SBD. In a number of transformants, particularly amfSS3, the starch granules were much smaller than in control plants. The amfSS3 mean granule size was 7.8 microm, compared with 15.2 microm in the control, whereas other starch properties were unaltered. This new starch combines the advantage of the high purity of potato starch with that of the small granule size of other crop species, such as cassava, taro and wheat. This starch may find application in the manufacture of biodegradable plastic films. Both genes were also expressed in Escherichia coli and the affinity for soluble starch of the purified recombinant proteins was determined. SBD2 had an approximately 10-fold higher affinity for starch than SBD, indicating that the two appended SBDs act in synergy when binding to their target polysaccharide ligand. PMID:17147616

  9. Genetic and Phylogeographic Structures of the Symbiotic Fungus Tuber magnatum†

    PubMed Central

    Rubini, Andrea; Paolocci, Francesco; Riccioni, Claudia; Vendramin, Giovanni G.; Arcioni, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    The quality and market price of truffles vary with the species and, traditionally, the place of origin. The premium species Tuber magnatum produces white truffles and has a patchy distribution restricted to Italy and some Balkan areas. We used polymorphic microsatellites to evaluate 316 specimens grouped into 26 populations sampled across the species' geographic range to determine if natural populations of T. magnatum are genetically differentiated. We found that the southernmost and the northwesternmost populations were significantly differentiated from the rest of the populations. The simple sequence repeat data also could be used to make inferences about the postglacial T. magnatum expansion pattern. This study is the first to identify a genetic and phylogeographic structure in T. magnatum. The presence of a genetic structure can be of practical interest in tracing truffle populations according to their geographic origin for marketing strategies. Evidence for extensive outcrossing in field populations of T. magnatum also is provided for the first time. PMID:16269685

  10. Pulmonary choriostoma in a case of tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Spalgais, S; Gothi, D; Verma, A K

    2015-01-01

    A 52 years old lady was diagnosed to have Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) on the basis of 2 major and one minor criterion. She had family history of similar complaints in her sister and two sons. There was involvement of kidney in the form of angiomyolipoma, skin in the form of facial angiofibroma and teeth with a dental pit. She had an unusual lung involvement in the form of multiple small choristomas. Choristoma was diagnosed on transbronchial lung biopsy and was present in the form of disorganised striated muscles. The reported pulmonary manifestations of TCS i.e. lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia (MMPH) are types of hamartomas. Hamartomas and choristomas are both types of disorganized tissue. 'Choristoma'of lung in TSC however is not reported. Clinopathological correlation of pulmonary hamartoma and choristoma, and treatment in TSC has been discussed. PMID:26119439

  11. [Chymotrypsin and trypsin inhibitor isolated from potato tubers].

    PubMed

    Revina, T A; Parfenov, I A; Gvozdeva, E L; Gerasimova, N G; Valueva, T A

    2011-01-01

    Potato Kunitz-type chymotrypsin inhibitor (PKCI-23) was isolated from potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L., Zhukov's Jubilee breed) and purified to a homogenous state. The protein was purified by gel-filtration chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography using Sephadex G-75 and CM-Sepharose CL-6B, respectively. PKCI-23 protein has been shown to inhibit both chymotrypsin and trypsin with equal efficacy, forming equimolar complexes with these enzymes. However, much weaker inhibitory effect of PKCI-23 has been observed for Carlsberg subtilisin. The N-terminal 20 amino acid sequence of PKCI-23 has been sequenced. PKCI-23 has been shown to suppress, with different efficacy, the growth and development of pathogenic microorganisms Fusarium culmorum (Wm. G. Sm.) Sacc. and Phytophtora infestans (Mont.) de Bary that infect potato. PMID:21790024

  12. Structure of starch synthase I from barley: insight into regulatory mechanisms of starch synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A; Nielsen, Morten M; Marri, Lucia; Tanaka, Hidenori; Beeren, Sophie R; Palcic, Monica M

    2013-06-01

    Starch, a polymer of glucose, is the major source of calories in the human diet. It has numerous industrial uses, including as a raw material for the production of first-generation bioethanol. Several classes of enzymes take part in starch biosynthesis, of which starch synthases (SSs) carry out chain elongation of both amylose and amylopectin. Plants have five classes of SS, each with different roles. The products of the reaction of SS are well known, but details of the reaction mechanism remain obscure and even less is known of how different SSs select different substrates for elongation, how they compete with each other and how their activities are regulated. Here, the first crystal structure of a soluble starch synthase is presented: that of starch synthase I (SSI) from barley refined to 2.7 Å resolution. The structure captures an open conformation of the enzyme with a surface-bound maltooligosaccharide and a disulfide bridge that precludes formation of the active site. The maltooligosaccharide-binding site is involved in substrate recognition, while the disulfide bridge is reflective of redox regulation of SSI. Activity measurements on several SSI mutants supporting these roles are also presented. PMID:23695246

  13. Sambutoxin, a new mycotoxin produced by toxic Fusarium isolates obtained from rotted potato tubers.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J C; Lee, Y W

    1994-01-01

    Ninety-nine isolates of Fusarium species were obtained from rotted potato tubers from various parts of Korea. Of these isolates, 80 were identified as Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, or F. sambucinum. The isolates of these species were grown on autoclaved wheat grains and examined for toxicity in a rat-feeding test. A total of 8 of 57 F. oxysporum isolates, 3 of 14 F. solani isolates, and 5 of 9 F. sambucinum isolates caused the death of the rats. Of the 16 toxic isolates, 1 isolate of F. oxysporum produced a substantial amount of moniliformin, which could account for its toxicity. None of the other 15 isolates produced trichothecenes, moniliformin, fusarochromanone, fumonisin B1, or wortmannin. F. sambucinum PZF-4 produced an unknown toxin in wheat culture. This new toxin, given the trivial name sambutoxin, caused toxic effects in rats, including body weight loss, feed refusal, hemorrhage in the stomach and intestines, and, finally, death when rats were fed diets supplemented with 0.05 and 0.1% sambutoxin. The toxin was also toxic to chicken embryos, and the 50% lethal concentration was 29.6 micrograms per egg. Sambutoxin formed as white crystals that turned purple when combined with reagents such as sulfuric acid and p-anisaldehyde. It exhibited a green color immediately after treatment with potassium ferricyanide-ferric chloride. Its UV spectrum had absorption maxima at 213, 233, and 254 nm, and its infrared spectrum showed an amide group at 1,650 and 1,560 cm-1 and a hydroxy group at 3,185 cm-1. Mass spectrometry showed that the molecular weight of the toxin was 453 and the molecular formula was C28H39NO4.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7811078

  14. Altered inhibition in Tuberous Sclerosis and Type IIb cortical dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Talos, Delia M.; Sun, Hongyu; Kosaras, Bela; Joseph, Annelise; Folkerth, Rebecca D.; Poduri, Annapurna; Madsen, Joseph R.; Black, Peter M.; Jensen, Frances E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The most common neurological symptom of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is early-life refractory epilepsy. As previous studies have shown enhanced excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission in TSC and FCD brains, we hypothesized that neurons associated with these lesions may also express altered GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated inhibition. Methods Expression of the GABAAR subunits?1 and ?4, the Na+-K+-2Cl? (NKCC1), and the K+?Cl? (KCC2) transporters in human TSC and FCD Type II specimens were analyzed by Western blot and double label immunocytochemistry. GABAAR responses in dysplastic neurons from a single case of TSC were measured by perforated-patch recording and compared to normal-appearing cortical neurons from a non-TSC epilepsy case. Results TSC and FCD Type IIb lesions demonstrated decreased expression of the GABAAR ?1, increased NKCC1 and decreased KCC2 levels. In contrast, FCD Type IIa lesions showed decreased ?4, and increased expression of both NKCC1 and KCC2 transporters. Patch clamp recordings from dysplastic neurons in acute slices from TSC tubers demonstrated excitatory GABAAR responses that were significantly attenuated by the NKCC1 inhibitor bumetanide, in contrast to hyperpolarizing GABAAR-mediated currents in normal neurons from non-TSC cortical slices. Interpretation Expression and function of GABAARs in TSC and FCD IIb suggests the relative benzodiazepine insensitivity and more excitatory action of GABA compared to FCD IIa. These factors may contribute to resistance of seizure activity to anticonvulsants that increase GABAergic function, and may justify add-on trials of the NKCC1 inhibitor bumetanide for the treatment of TSC and FCD Type IIb related epilepsy. PMID:22447678

  15. Microsatellite primed-PCR to select molecular markers for Tuber species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonella Amicucci; Chiara Guidi; Lucia Potenza; Vilberto Stocchi

    2002-01-01

    The direct microsatellite-primed PCR and the RAMPO techniques were applied to detect inter-specific polymorphisms in Tuber species and to select species specific fragments. A T. borchii marker was identified and specific primers were selected.

  16. Quick genetic screening using targeted next-generation sequencing in patients with tuberous sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Mingrong; Wang, Lian Qing; Guo, Xia Nan; Si, Nuo; Qi, Zhan; Zhou, Xiang Qin; Cui, Li-ying

    2015-04-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hamartomas in multiple organ systems. Mutations in the 2 large genes TSC1 and TSC2 have been demonstrated to be associated with tuberous sclerosis complex by various mutation screening methods. Targeted next-generation sequencing for genetic analysis is performed in the current study and is proved to be less cost, labor, and time consuming compared with Sanger sequencing. Two de novo and 1 recurrent TSC2 mutation in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex were revealed. Clinical details of patients were described and the underlying mechanism of the 2 novel TSC2 mutations, c.245G>A(p.W82X) and c.5405_5408dupACTT(p.P1803Lfs*25), were discussed. These results added to variability of TSC mutation spectrum and suggest that targeted next-generation sequencing could be the primary choice over Sanger sequencing in future tuberous sclerosis complex genetic counseling. PMID:24789117

  17. Multiple Cardiac Rhabdomyomas, Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome, and Tuberous Sclerosis: An Infrequent Combination

    PubMed Central

    Castilla Cabanes, Elena; Lacambra Blasco, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac rhabdomyomas are benign cardiac tumours and are often associated with tuberous sclerosis. They are often asymptomatic with spontaneus regresion but can cause heart failure, arrhythmias, and obstruction. There have also been a few isolated reports of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome occurring in association with tuberous sclerosis and the great majority has been detected in patients with concomitant rhabdomyomas. We report a 12-day-old infant girl with tuberous sclerosis who presented with intraparietal and intracavitary rhabdomyomas with a Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW). She represents one of the few published cases of WPW syndrome and tuberous sclerosis and particularly interesting because of intramural rhabdomyomas regression with persistent intracavitary rhabdomyomas after two years of followup. PMID:25328743

  18. Enzymatic browning and after-cooking darkening of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.).

    PubMed

    Bach, Vibe; Jensen, Sidsel; Clausen, Morten R; Bertram, Hanne C; Edelenbos, Merete

    2013-11-15

    Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) undergo enzymatic browning when peeled or cut, and turn grey after boiling, due to after-cooking darkening reactions between iron and phenolic acids. In an attempt to reveal the components responsible for these discolouration reactions, sensory evaluation and instrumental colour measurements were related to contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids, organic acids and iron in three varieties of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers harvested in the autumn and the spring. No differences were found between varieties in sensory evaluated enzymatic browning, but Rema and Draga had higher scores than Mari in after-cooking darkening. Jerusalem artichoke tubers had higher contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids and citric acid in the autumn and low contents in the spring, while it was the opposite for malic acid. None of the chemical parameters investigated could explain the discolouration of the Jerusalem artichoke tubers. PMID:23790937

  19. The Or gene enhances carotenoid accumulation and stability during post-harvest storage of potato tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Provitamin A carotenoids in staple crops are not very stable during storage and their loss compromises nutritional quality. To elucidate the fundamental mechanisms underlying carotenoid accumulation and stability, we investigated transgenic potato tubers that express the cauliflower Orange (Or) gene...

  20. TSC1 R509X Mutation in a Chinese Family with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Gan, Jing; Pu, Zheng; Xu, Ming ming; Wang, Li feng; Li, Yu hua; Liu, Zhen guo

    2015-06-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in either of TSC1 and TSC2 genes. Tuberous sclerosis complex presents diverse clinical characteristics, and either of TSC1 and TSC2 genes shows a wide range of mutations in their coding regions. However, the correlation between genotype and phenotype is yet unknown. We describe the clinical characteristics of a Chinese family with TSC1 gene mutation and present a literature review of Chinese patients with tuberous sclerosis complex gene mutation reported since 2004. This is the first report of TSC1 R509X mutation in a Chinese family, which might deepen our insight into the clinical and molecular pathogenesis of tuberous sclerosis complex. PMID:25900779

  1. The Laccaria and Tuber Genomes Reveal Unique Signatures of Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Evolution (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Steve

    2010-03-24

    Francis Martin from the French agricultural research institute INRA talks on how "The Laccaria and Tuber genomes reveal unique signatures of mycorrhizal symbiosis evolution" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  2. Slowly digestible starch-a review.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ming; Jiang, Bo; Cui, Steve W; Zhang, Tao; Jin, Zhengyu

    2015-10-15

    The link between carbohydrate intake and health is becoming increasingly important for consumers, particularly in the areas of glycemic index (GI) and extended energy-releasing starches. From a physiological point of view, slowly digestible starch (SDS) delivers a slow and sustained release of blood glucose along with the benefits resulting from low glycemic and insulinemic response. SDS has been implicated in several health problems, including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases (metabolic syndromes). It may also have commercial potential as a novel functional ingredient in a variety of fields, such as nutrition, medicine, and agriculture. The present review assesses this form of digestion by analyzing methods to prepare and evaluate SDS, and factors affecting its transformation, its health benefits, and its applications. PMID:24915311

  3. Surface modifications of some nanocomposites containing starch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M-C Pascu; M-C Popescu; C Vasile

    2008-01-01

    Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites have attracted strong interest in today's materials research, due to the possible impressive enhancements of material properties, comparatively with those of pure polymers. Several starch\\/poly(vinylalcohol)\\/montmorillonite nanocomposites have been subjected to surface modification by physical treatments such as dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) exposure and coating with proteins (albumin) or polysaccharides (chitosan), for improving their biocompatibility. Untreated and treated

  4. Calcareous amendments to soils to eradicate Tuber brumale from T. melanosporum cultivations: a multivariate statistical approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inmaculada Valverde-Asenjo; Luis G. García-Montero; Asunción Quintana; Javier Velázquez

    2009-01-01

    Calcareous amendments are being used in Tuber melanosporum truffle plantations in attempts to eradicate Tuber brumale. However, there are no studies available which provide soil analysis and statistical data on this topic. We studied 77 soil\\u000a samples to compare the values for carbonates, pH and total organic carbon in T. brumale truffières with the values for T. melanosporum truffières on

  5. A new sprout inhibitor of potato tuber based on carvone\\/?-cyclodextrin inclusion compound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Costa E Silva; C. I. C. Galhano; A. M. G. Moreira Da Silva

    2007-01-01

    A monoterpene, D-carvone or (4S)-(+)-carvone, present in the essential oil of caraway seeds (Carum carvi L.), acts as a sprouting inhibitor agent for potato tubers in storage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the\\u000a possibility of using carvone\\/?-cyclodextrin inclusion compound as a sprout inhibitor agent for potato tubers. A Raman study\\u000a of the interactions between ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD)

  6. The effect of tuber-borne sclerotia of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn on the potato crop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. James; A. R. McKenzie

    1972-01-01

    Black scurf on seed tubers did not result in seed decay or stem cankers and did not affect the tuber yield in two field experiments\\u000a at Ottawa and Fredericton. Seed pieces were classified into three disease categories: 0 to 1%, 1.1 to 5%, 5.1 to 15%, according\\u000a to the percentage surface area covered by sclerotia ofRhizoctonia solani. The difference between

  7. Aesthetic Reconstruction of the Tuberous Breast Deformity: A 10Year Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Apostolos D. Mandrekas; George J. Zambacos

    2010-01-01

    Background: Tuberous breast deformity is a developmental aberration of the breast whereby a constricting ring on the base of the breast prevents its expansion on the horizontal and\\/or the vertical axis. This leads to the well-known “tuberous” appearance of the breast, causing a herniation of the breast tissue toward the nipple-areola complex due to the increased pressure. Several techniques have

  8. Timed application of ammonium nitrate for optimum yield of uniform sweetpotato (lpomoea batatas) tuberous roots 

    E-print Network

    Marshall, Kelly Lynn

    2001-01-01

    TIMED APPLICATION OF AMMONIUM NITRATE FOR OPTIMUM YIELD OF UNIFORM SWEETPOTATO (/pomoea beta/as ) TUBEROUS ROOTS A Thesis by KELLY LYNN MARSHALL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2001 Major Subject Plant Breeding TIMED APPLICATION OF AMMONIUM NITRATE FOR OPTIMUM YIELD OF UNIFORM SWEETPOTATO (IPOMOEA BATATAS) TUBEROUS ROOTS A Thesis By KELLY LYNN MARSHALL Submitted to Texas...

  9. Starch composites reinforced by bamboo cellulosic crystals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dagang; Zhong, Tuhua; Chang, Peter R; Li, Kaifu; Wu, Qinglin

    2010-04-01

    Using a method of combined HNO(3)-KClO(3) treatment and sulfuric acid hydrolysis, bamboo cellulose crystals (BCCs) were prepared and used to reinforce glycerol plasticized starch. The structure and morphology of BCCs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and solid-state (13)C NMR. Results showed that BCCs were of typical cellulose I structure, and the morphology was dependent on its concentration in the suspension. BCC of 50-100 nm were assembled into leaf nervations at low concentration (i.e. 0.1 wt.% of solids), but congregated into a micro-sized "flower" geometry at high concentration (i.e. 10.0 wt.% of solids). Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the starch/BCC composite films (SBC) were enhanced by the incorporation of the crystals due to reinforcement of BCCs and reduction of water uptake. BCCs at the optimal 8% loading level exhibited a higher reinforcing efficiency for plasticized starch plastic than any other loading level. PMID:20015636

  10. Enzymatic transformation of nonfood biomass to starch

    PubMed Central

    You, Chun; Chen, Hongge; Myung, Suwan; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Ma, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Zhou; Li, Jianyong; Zhang, Y.-H. Percival

    2013-01-01

    The global demand for food could double in another 40 y owing to growth in the population and food consumption per capita. To meet the world’s future food and sustainability needs for biofuels and renewable materials, the production of starch-rich cereals and cellulose-rich bioenergy plants must grow substantially while minimizing agriculture’s environmental footprint and conserving biodiversity. Here we demonstrate one-pot enzymatic conversion of pretreated biomass to starch through a nonnatural synthetic enzymatic pathway composed of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolyase, cellobiose phosphorylase, and alpha-glucan phosphorylase originating from bacterial, fungal, and plant sources. A special polypeptide cap in potato alpha-glucan phosphorylase was essential to push a partially hydrolyzed intermediate of cellulose forward to the synthesis of amylose. Up to 30% of the anhydroglucose units in cellulose were converted to starch; the remaining cellulose was hydrolyzed to glucose suitable for ethanol production by yeast in the same bioreactor. Next-generation biorefineries based on simultaneous enzymatic biotransformation and microbial fermentation could address the food, biofuels, and environment trilemma. PMID:23589840

  11. Changes of property and morphology of cationic corn starches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wan-Yuan Kuo; Hsi-Mei Lai

    2007-01-01

    Cationic starches with the degree of substitution (DS) ranging from 0.0075 to 0.1215 were prepared from the reaction of native corn starch with cationizing agent (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride (CHPTAC) under the molar ratios of CHPTAC\\/AGU (anhydroglucose unit)=1 and 1.71 in aqueous suspension at 40°C for different reaction times (2, 5 and 24h). Pasting and thermal properties of the cationic starches were

  12. Stimulation of fluid intake by maltodextrins and starch.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, I

    1995-04-01

    Maltodextrin solutions are more potent stimulators of fluid intake than are starch suspensions, even though these two substances are both glucose polymers. When rats were offered a choice of two fluids, one containing maltodextrin and the other containing the same concentration of starch, rats preferred maltodextrin; this preference increased over successive days for rats given 7.4% or 10% carbohydrate but not for rats given 1% carbohydrate. Rats offered fluids containing artificial flavors mixed with maltodextrin and starch acquired preferences for flavors paired with 10% or 7.4% maltodextrin but not for flavors paired with 1% maltodextrin. In an attempt to determine whether this greater preference for maltodextrin is due to an innate flavor preference, rats were given a choice of maltodextrin containing sucrose octaacetate vs. plain starch; these rats initially preferred starch but subsequently ingested more maltodextrin flavored with sucrose octaacetate than plain starch. Direct evidence for a postingestive factor was obtained by giving rats intragastric infusions of either maltodextrin, starch, or vehicle whenever they drank a dilute saccharin solution. Both carbohydrates stimulated fluid intake, but maltodextrin did so more rapidly (within 1 day rather than the 2 days of training required with starch infusions). These results indicate that some difference in the postingestive effects of maltodextrin and starch contributes to the greater intake-stimulating effect of maltodextrin. The postingestive factor responsible for the difference between maltodextrin and starch has not been identified, but it is not the amount of utilizable energy because rats prefer maltodextrin over starch even when the starch suspension contains more calories than does the maltodextrin solution. It is proposed that the postingestive factor differentiating these substances is rate of digestion. PMID:7777604

  13. Reducing water absorption in compostable starch-based plastics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gáspár; Zs. Benk?; G. Dogossy; K. Réczey; T. Czigány

    2005-01-01

    To improve the mechanical and physical properties of corn starch-based bioplastics the addition of natural polymers was investigated. Thermoplastic starch (TPS) was made of 70g corn starch and 30g glycerol. To this mixture 10–10g of cellulose, hemicellulose and zein (protein) were added. Mechanical strength, water absorption and enzymatic degradation of composite materials were measured. Unfilled TPS and 10w\\/w% polycaprolactone filled

  14. Characterization of starch breakdown in the intact spinach chloroplast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Peavey; M. Steup; M. Gibbs

    1977-01-01

    Starch degradation with a rate of 1 to 2 microgram-atom carbon per milligram chlorophyll per hour was monitored in the isolated intact spinach (Spinacia oleracea) chloroplast which had been preloaded with ¹⁴C-starch photosynthetically from ¹⁴COâ. Starch breakdown was dependent upon inorganic phosphate and the ¹⁴C-labeled intermediates formed were principally those of the Embden-Meyerhof pathway from glucose phosphate to glycerate 3-phosphate.

  15. Effects of citric acid esterification on digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of cassava starch.

    PubMed

    Mei, Ji-Qiang; Zhou, Da-Nian; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Han-Qing

    2015-11-15

    In this study, citric acid was used to react with cassava starch in order to compare the digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of citrate starch samples. The results indicated that citric acid esterification treatment significantly increased the content of resistant starch (RS) in starch samples. The swelling power and solubility of citrate starch samples were lower than those of native starch. Compared with native starch, a new peak at 1724cm(-1) was appeared in all citrate starch samples, and crystalline peaks of all starch citrates became much smaller or even disappeared. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that the endothermic peak of citrate starches gradually shrank or even disappeared. Moreover, the citrate starch gels exhibited better freeze-thaw stability. These results suggested that citric acid esterification induced structural changes in cassava starch significantly affected its digestibility and it could be a potential method for the preparation of RS with thermal stability. PMID:25977040

  16. Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. ) control with herbicides: the role of tuberization

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, W.

    1985-01-01

    Trials were carried out under greenhouse, growth chamber, laboratory, outdoor pot, and field conditions to characterize stages of yellow nutsedge tuberization and to investigate the influence of herbicides. The effects of herbicides on tuberization and phytotoxicity at several growth stages, as well as on sprouting, growth characteristics, and survival of new tubers were determined. Tuberization was a continuous process, but was modulated by plant age and environmental conditions. The growth stage that included the time of first tuber initiation was the best for applying glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) and oxyfluorfen (2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluromethyl)benzene). Plant-age and length of period after spraying influenced glyphosate and oxyfluorfen absorption and translocation. Addition of unlabelled oxyfluorfen as a tank mixture can glyphosate increased absorption of /sup 14/C-glyphosate to 27% after 1 day and 46% after 8 days and increased translocation into other plant parts. Timing of postemergence herbicide applications relative to tuberization is crucial for overall control of yellow nutsedge. When soil applied herbicides were compared in the field, consecutive applications of dichlobenil (2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile) and metolachlor (2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide) for two years provided the best control of nutsedge.

  17. Temperature cycling periods affect growth and tuberization in potatoes under continuous irradiation.

    PubMed

    Cao, W; Tibbitts, T W

    1992-04-01

    Plants of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Denali, Norland, Haig and Kennebec were grown for 42 days under three temperature cycling periods (thermoperiods) with continuous irradiation in two repeated experiments to help determine if temperature cycling might be varied to optimize tuber development of potatoes in controlled environments. Thermoperiods of 6/6 hours, 12/12 hours and 24/24 hours were established with the same temperature change of 22/14C and same controlled vapor pressure deficit of 0.60 kPa. The thermoperiod of 24/24 hours significantly promoted tuber initiation but slowed tuber enlargement in all four cultivars, compared to the thermoperiods of 6/6 hours and 12/12 hours. Denali' produced the highest tuber and total dry weights under the 6/6 hours thermoperiod. Kennebec' produced the highest tuber dry weight under the 12/12 hours thermoperiod. Thermoperiods had no significant effect on shoot and root dry weights of any cultivars. The major effect of thermoperiods was on initiation and enlargement of tubers. PMID:11537729

  18. Temperature cycling periods affect growth and tuberization in potatoes under continuous irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1992-01-01

    Plants of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Denali, Norland, Haig and Kennebec were grown for 42 days under three temperature cycling periods (thermoperiods) with continuous irradiation in two repeated experiments to help determine if temperature cycling might be varied to optimize tuber development of potatoes in controlled environments. Thermoperiods of 6/6 hours, 12/12 hours and 24/24 hours were established with the same temperature change of 22/14C and same controlled vapor pressure deficit of 0.60 kPa. The thermoperiod of 24/24 hours significantly promoted tuber initiation but slowed tuber enlargement in all four cultivars, compared to the thermoperiods of 6/6 hours and 12/12 hours. Denali' produced the highest tuber and total dry weights under the 6/6 hours thermoperiod. Kennebec' produced the highest tuber dry weight under the 12/12 hours thermoperiod. Thermoperiods had no significant effect on shoot and root dry weights of any cultivars. The major effect of thermoperiods was on initiation and enlargement of tubers.

  19. Preparation and characterization of biodegradable copolyester-starch based foams.

    PubMed

    Fang, Q; Hanna, M A

    2001-06-01

    Regular (25% amylose) and waxy corn starches blended to various ratios with Eastar Bio Copolyester 14766 (EBC) were extruded into loose-fill foams using a twin screw extruder. Included in this study were two types of corn starch, three levels of EBC content, and three levels of starch moisture content. Waxy starch produced foams with greater radial expansions and lower unit and bulk densities than regular starch. Regular starch foams had lower water solubility indices (WSIs) than waxy starch foams. Foams made of both types of starch possessed similar mechanical properties. No differences were observed in compressibilities and spring indices of either waxy or regular starch foams. Higher levels of EBC addition resulted in less radial expansion and higher unit and bulk densities. Foams made with 10% EBC had higher compressibility than foams containing 25% EBC. Spring indices of single-piece samples and compressibilities and spring indices of bulk samples were not affected by the differences in the level of EBC addition. At 19% and 22% of moisture contents, foams had greater radial expansion than at 25% moisture content. Unit and bulk densities were not affected by variations in moisture content. At 22% moisture content, a lower WSI of 18.5% was obtained. At 22% moisture content, softer foams were produced. At all three levels of moisture content, no differences were detected in the spring indices. PMID:11333028

  20. Fluorescent nanoparticles from starch: facile preparation, tunable luminescence and bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meiying; Zhang, Xiqi; Yang, Bin; Li, Zhan; Deng, Fengjie; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2015-05-01

    Fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) based on carbohydrate polymers were prepared through one-pot hydrothermal treatment of starch in the presence of polyethyleneimine. These FONs (named as PEI-Starch FONs) were characterized by a series of techniques including UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescent spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results showed that the size of PEI-Starch FONs is 10-30 nm. The PEI-Starch FONs exhibited high water dispersibility because of the existence of hydrophilic functional groups on their surface. After excited with different wavelength, PEI-Starch FONs emitted strong and excitation-dependent fluorescence. To evaluate their potential for biomedical applications, biocompatibility and cell uptake behavior of PEI-Starch FONs were further investigated. We demonstrated that PEI-Starch FONs are biocompatible with cells and can be easily internalized by cells within 3h. Taken together, novel FONs have been prepared via a simple and scalable hydrothermal method using starch and polyethyleneimine as precursors. These PEI-Starch FONs showed excellent fluorescence properties, high water dispersibility and good biocompatibility, making them highly potential for various biomedical applications. PMID:25659670

  1. Automatic segmentation on multiple starch granules from microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shengwen

    2012-04-01

    Starch is the most important carbohydrate in the human diet and contained in many staple foods such as rice, wheat, corn, potatoes and cassava, etc. Currently, microscopic imaging technology is one of the most effective ways to investigate and analyze the structure of starches. Segmentation of starch granules is a necessary step for starch granule structure analysis such as starch granules detection, shape recognition, and size computation. This article investigates a new method based on GVF (gradient vector flow) snake deformable model for starch granules segmentation. The proposed method focuses on full automatic segmentation on granules, especially on separation of adjacent and contacted starch granules, which occur widely in microscopic images. A novel energy function based on position and intensity is introduced into the directional gradient computation, thus the directional gradient is used to obtain the directional GVF snake, which drives the deforming contours to the real contours of multiple granules. To demonstrate the good ability of the proposed method, we segment 30 starch granule images and compare it with the level set method, experimental results show that the new method can separate multiple starch granules successfully; especially it works much better on overlapping objects segmentation than the level set method. PMID:21997964

  2. Drug release from starch-acetate films.

    PubMed

    Tuovinen, Laura; Peltonen, Soili; Järvinen, Kristiina

    2003-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to compare the drug release rates from the native and acetylated starches. The average degree of acetyl substitution per glucose residue of potato starch was either 1.9 (SA DS 1.9) or 2.6 (SA DS 2.6). Bovine serum albumin (BSA) (mol. wt. 68,000), FITC-dextran (mol. wt. 4400), timolol (mol. wt. 332, log P=1.91) and sotalol-HCl (mol. wt. 308, log P=-0.62) were used as model drugs. All of the model drugs were released rapidly from the potato starch film in PBS pH 7.4 with and without alpha-amylase in the dissolution medium (t50% varied from 0.17 to 3.37 h). When compared to the potato starch film, all of the studied drugs were released at a substantially slower rate from the SA films in the corresponding mediums. The release of the smaller drugs (sotalol, timolol) from the SA films was faster than that of the macromolecules (FITC-dextran, BSA). Furthermore, sotalol was released faster than the more lipohilic timolol from the SA films. Release of macromolecules from the SA films was biphasic with and without alpha-amylase in the dissolution medium: an initial fast release phase was followed by a slower release phase (SA DS 1.9) or no release occurred after the initial phase (SA DS 2.6). All of the drugs were released faster from the SA DS 1.9 film than the weight loss of the film itself. When compared to the SA DS 1.9 film, the model drugs (except sotalol) were released slower from the SA DS 2.6 film. The macromolecule release from the SA DS 2.6 film was erosion-controlled. The weight loss of the SA DS 2.6 film was slow with and without alpha-amylase in the incubation medium. The present results show that acetylation of potato starch can substantially retard drug release. The drug release profiles may be controlled by the degree of substitution, since drug release from the SA DS 1.9 film was faster than the corresponding release from the SA DS 2.6 film. PMID:12932712

  3. Disruptive Coloration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Ipsen

    2009-04-01

    Most animals are patterned. While some markings may serve as an advertisement, many appear to function in concealment. Because of the principal way in which they seem to function, such markings are often termed disruptive coloration . Although there are a number of characteristics that may influence the effectiveness of markings in disruption; this study will only focus on two aspects: (1) the effectiveness of the position of markings in blurring or enhancing outline, and (2) the degree to which strongly contrasting markings may interfere with or aid recognition. In regard to the former, it must be kept in mind that the profile changes with change in viewing angle. Thus the pattern seen in relation to the profile most commonly presented to predator (or prey) is of most interest to us here.

  4. Novel polymer blends with thermoplastic starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghizadeh, Ata

    A new class of polymers known as "bioplastics" has emerged and is expanding rapidly. This class consists of polymers that are either bio-based or biodegradable, or both. Among these, polysaccharides, namely starch, are of great interest for several reasons. By gelatinizing starch via plasticizers, it can be processed in the same way as thermoplastic polymers with conventional processing equipment. Hence, these bio-based and biodegradable plastics, with their low source and refinery costs, as well as relatively easy processability, have made them ideal candidates for incorporation into various current plastic products. Four different plasticizers have been chosen here for gelatinization of thermoplastic starch (TPS): glycerol, sorbitol, diglycerol and polyglycerol, with the latter two being used for the first time in such a process. Two methodological categories are used. The first involves a calorimetric method (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) as well as optical microscopy; these are "static" methods where no shear is applied A wide range of starch/water/plasticizer compositions were prepared to explore the gelatinization regime for each plasticizer. The onset and conclusion gelatinization temperatures for sorbitol and glycerol were found to be in the same vicinity, while diglycerol and polyglycerol showed significantly higher transition temperatures. The higher molecular weight and viscosity of polyglycerol allow this transition to occur at an even higher temperature than with diglycerol. This is due to the increase in molecular weight and viscosity of the two new plasticizers, as well as their significant decrease in water solubility. It is demonstrated that the water/plasticizer ratio has a pronounced effect on gelatinization temperatures. When plasticizer content was held constant and water content was increased, it was found that the gelatinization temperature decreased for all the plasticizers. Meanwhile, when the water content was held constant and the plasticizer content was increased, the gelatinization temperature increased for glycerol, sorbitol and diglycerol, but it moved in the opposite direction in the case of polyglycerol. The gelatinization temperature variation for glycerol, sorbitol and diglycerol caused by changing water and plasticizer content indicates that water is the primary agent causing granular swell and plasticization in the gelatinization process. Due to the high molecular weight and viscosity, as well as the low hydroxyl group density (~ one --OH per two carbon) and borderline solubility of polyglycerol in water, it is believed that water-aided penetration of the plasticizer among the crystalline structure of starch molecules is significantly decelerated. So it is proposed that in the case of low-water solubility of the plasticizers, gelatinization temperature is determined more by the total amount of the plasticizer and water, rather than the water/plasticizer ratio. Increasing the miscibility of polyglycerol in water by increasing the temperature of the initial slurry, results in a return of the system to the typical thermal dependence of gelatinization with plasticizer/water ratio. Secondly, the gelatinization of starch under "dynamic conditions" was studied. In this case, a constant shear is applied to the slurry, along with a temperature ramp to induce gelatinization. This is, in fact, a rheological technique that heats up the slurry, while a mechanical shear is applied throughout. The reason for using this method is that in the plastic industry, thermoplastic starch is produced via processes involving shear such as extrusion, but, to date, there has not yet been a thorough study on the effect of pure shear on the gelatinization process. Glycerol, diglycerol and sorbitol were subjected to different dynamic gelatinization treatments in a couette flow system, and the results were compared with static gelatinization. Applying shear showed virtually no effect on the onset gelatinization temperature. However, the conclusion temperature was remarkably reduced

  5. Antibacterial, antioxidant and optical properties of edible starch-chitosan composite film containing Thymus kotschyanus essential oil.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Tooraj; Tajik, Hossein; Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Oromiehie, Abdol Rassol

    2012-01-01

    Thyme Essential oils (EO) with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties are widely used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and perfume industry. It is also used for flavoring and preservation of several foods. Nowadays, packaging research is receiving a considerable attention due to the development of eco-friendly materials made from natural polymers such as starch and chitosan. In this study Thymus kotschyanus EO concentrations ranging from 0 to 2.0%, incorporated in starch-chitosan composite (S-CH) film were used. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties significantly increased with the incorporation of EO (p < 0.05). Incorporating EO, increased total color differences (DE), yellowness index (YI) and whiteness index (WI) which were significantly higher than control and its transparency was reduced. Our results pointed out that the incorporation of Thymus kotschyanus EO as a natural antibacterial agent has potential for using the developed film as an active packaging. PMID:25610564

  6. Antibacterial, antioxidant and optical properties of edible starch-chitosan composite film containing Thymus kotschyanus essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Mehdizadeh, Tooraj; Tajik, Hossein; Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Oromiehie, Abdol Rassol

    2012-01-01

    Thyme Essential oils (EO) with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties are widely used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and perfume industry. It is also used for flavoring and preservation of several foods. Nowadays, packaging research is receiving a considerable attention due to the development of eco-friendly materials made from natural polymers such as starch and chitosan. In this study Thymus kotschyanus EO concentrations ranging from 0 to 2.0%, incorporated in starch-chitosan composite (S-CH) film were used. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties significantly increased with the incorporation of EO (p < 0.05). Incorporating EO, increased total color differences (DE), yellowness index (YI) and whiteness index (WI) which were significantly higher than control and its transparency was reduced. Our results pointed out that the incorporation of Thymus kotschyanus EO as a natural antibacterial agent has potential for using the developed film as an active packaging. PMID:25610564

  7. Effect of infection by Phytophthora infestans on phenolics in potato tubers with various degrees of field resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. McLauchlin

    1983-01-01

    Browning of potato tubers infected withPhytophthora infestans was correlated with field resistance. The composition of brown material extracted from tubers was investigated by preparing alkaline-neutral difference spectra, which were similar to those obtained from a model system of tuber cell walls incubated with ferulic or p-coumaric acids and H2O2. The activities of L-phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase and phenolase in wounded

  8. Effect of Zinc Sulfate and Boric Acid on the Hormonal Status of Potato Plants in Relation to Tuberization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. I. Puzina

    2004-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants were grown in a greenhouse using zinc- and boron-deficient soil. The effects of seed-tuber treatment with 3 mM zinc sulfate and 8 mM boric acid on the content and ratio of phytohormones in the leaves and mature tubers, the indices of photosynthetic activity, the rate and NaF-sensitivity of respiration, and the tuber growth were studied.

  9. Heterologous expression of Arabidopsis ABF4 gene in potato enhances tuberization through ABA-GA crosstalk regulation.

    PubMed

    Muñiz García, María Noelia; Stritzler, Margarita; Capiati, Daniela Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuberization is regulated by many signals, such as abscisic acid (ABA), sucrose and gibberellic acid (GA). ABA and sucrose are positive modulators, while GA is an inhibitor of the process. ABF (ABRE-binding factor) proteins are transcription factors involved in ABA and stress signaling. Previously, we reported that S. tuberosum StABF1 could mediate the ABA effects on tuberization. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential use of ABF genes to enhance tuberization and to determine the molecular mechanism involved. For this purpose, transgenic potato plants expressing the Arabidopsis ABF4 or ABF2 genes were generated, and their tuberization capacity and response to tuberization-related signals were analyzed in vitro. The results indicate that both ABF4 and ABF2 proteins positively regulate potato tuber induction; however, only ABF4 expression significantly increases the number and weight of the tubers obtained, without stunting growth. ABF4 and ABF2 transgenic plants exhibit ABA hypersensitivity during tuberization, accompanied by a GA-deficient phenotype. ABF4 expression triggers a significant rise in ABA levels in stolons under tuber-inducing conditions as compared with wild-type plants and a transcriptional deregulation of GA metabolism genes. Our results demonstrate that Arabidopsis ABF4 functions in potato ABA-GA signaling crosstalk during tuberization by regulating the expression of ABA- and GA-metabolism genes. ABF4 gene might be a potential tool to increase tuber production, since its heterologous expression in potato enhances tuber induction without affecting plant growth. PMID:24288009

  10. Selection of a set of specific primers for the identification of Tuber rufum: a truffle species with high genetic variability.

    PubMed

    Iotti, Mirco; Amicucci, Antonella; Bonito, Gregory; Bonuso, Enrico; Stocchi, Vilberto; Zambonelli, Alessandra

    2007-12-01

    Tuber rufum is a truffle widely distributed throughout Europe, which forms mycorrhizal associations with numerous species of broadleaf and coniferous trees. The possibility of T. rufum contamination in commercial truffle-infected plants makes its detection important. To facilitate the identification of T. rufum from mycorrhiza and fruitbodies, species-specific primers were designed and tested. To overcome the high intraspecific genetic variability within the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of T. rufum, as demonstrated by phylogenetic analysis, two forward primers, Ru1f and Ru2f, located on the ITS1 region were designed to be used in concert with the reverse primer ITS4. Only T. rufum was amplified with this primer combination, while DNA of Tuber magnatum, Tuber brumale, Tuber maculatum, Tuber borchii, Tuber excavatum and Tuber melanosporum was not. These primers give a specific amplicon ranging between 566 and 572 bp and are able to discriminate between T. rufum, T. borchii and T. magnatum in multiplex PCR. In addition, T. rufum-specific amplicons were obtained from both spore suspensions and mycorrhiza by direct PCR. Tuber rufum mycorrhiza obtained in the greenhouse using mycelial inoculation techniques had morphological features similar to those of other species of Tuber, stressing the importance of molecular tools for their identification. PMID:18031344

  11. Effect of starch on the molecular mobility of amorphous sucrose.

    PubMed

    You, Yumin; Ludescher, Richard D

    2011-04-13

    Molecular mobility in amorphous solid biomaterials is modulated by the composition and environment (primarily temperature). Phosphorescence of the triplet probe erythrosin B was used to generate a mobility map within amorphous sucrose films doped with starch ranging from 0.001 to 0.1 g starch/g sucrose. Data on the emission energy and lifetime of erythrosin B in sucrose and sucrose-starch films over the temperature range from 5 to 100 °C indicates that starch influences the molecular mobility as well as dynamic site heterogeneity of amorphous sucrose in a dose-dependent manner. At a starch/sucrose weight (wt) ratio below 0.005, both emission energy and lifetime decreased, and both the dipolar relaxation rate and nonradiative quenching rate k(TS0) increased, indicating that starch increased the matrix molecular mobility. At a ratio above 0.005, both emission energy and lifetime increased, and the dipolar relaxation rate and nonradiative quenching rate decreased, indicating that starch decreased the matrix mobility both in the glass and in the melt. The mobility showed a minimum value at a ratio of 0.01. The interactions existing in the sucrose-starch matrix are considered as the determining factor to influence the molecular mobility of sucrose-starch mixtures. Changes in the distribution of emission energies (emission bandwidth) and lifetimes indicated that starch increased the spectral heterogeneity at high contents while showing insignificant change or a slight decrease in the heterogeneity at low starch contents. These data illustrate the complex effects of a polymer with mainly linear structure and flexible conformation on the mobility of an amorphous, hydrogen bonded sugar matrix. PMID:21381746

  12. The deposition and characterization of starch in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Tanackovic, Vanja; Svensson, Jan T; Jensen, Susanne L; Buléon, Alain; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    Brachypodium distachyon is a non-domesticated cereal. Nonetheless, Brachypodium was recently introduced as a model plant for temperate cereals. This study compares grain starch metabolism in Brachypodium and barley (Hordeum vulgare). In Brachypodium, we identified and annotated 28 genes involved in starch metabolism and identified important motifs including transit peptides and putative carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) of the families CBM20, CBM45, CBM48, and CBM53. Starch content was markedly lower in Brachypodium grains (12%) compared to barley grains (47%). Brachypodium starch granules were doughnut shaped and bimodally distributed into distinct small B-type (2.5-10 µm) and very small C-type (0.5-2.5 µm) granules. Large A-type granules, typical of cereals, were absent. Starch-bound phosphate, important for starch degradation, was 2-fold lower in Brachypodium compared with barley indicating different requirements for starch mobilization. The amylopectin branch profiles were similar and the amylose content was only slightly higher compared with barley cv. Golden Promise. The crystallinity of Brachypodium starch granules was low (10%) compared to barley (20%) as determined by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and molecular disorder was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The expression profiles in grain for most genes were distinctly different for Brachypodium compared to barley, typically showing earlier decline during the course of development, which can explain the low starch content and differences in starch molecular structure and granule characteristics. High transitory starch levels were observed in leaves of Brachypodium (2.8% after 14h of light) compared to barley (1.9% after 14h of light). The data suggest important pre-domesticated features of cereals. PMID:25056772

  13. Color Perception Optical Illusions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website from eChalk contains optical illusions offering proof that our color perception is strongly influenced by surrounding colors. The site also includes educational games related to optical illusions and color.

  14. Development of a Starch Iodide Method for the Determination of Phosphite in Natural Waters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barco, R. A.; Patil, D.; Salmassi, T. M.; Hanrahan, G.

    2004-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is believed to occur almost exclusively in the environment as fully oxidized phosphate (H3PO4, oxidation state +V). Recent developments in the field of microbiology and research on the origin of life have suggested a possibly significant role for reduced, inorganic forms of P such as phosphorus acid [H3PO3, P(+III)], hypophosphorus acid [H3PO2, P(+I)] and various forms of phosphides [P(-III)] in the biogeochemical cycling of P. In order to confirm the importance of reduced forms of P, we need to develop new and better methods for the detection of these compounds in the environment, often at levels below 1 mM. Traditional methods of P determination are based on the reaction of P with acidified molybdate in aqueous solution to yield phosphomolybdate heteropolyacid, which is then reduced and analyzed spectrophotometrically to quantify the total amount of P in the sample. Limitations in this technique have resulted in our development of a new method using a starch iodide complex for the detection of phosphorus acid or phosphite. Under laboratory conditions, phosphite [P (+III)] is oxidized to phosphate [P (+V)] by tri-iodide (I3). Starch reacts with excess tri-iodide present in solution to form a blue colored complex having a ? max of 580 nm. The I3, as well as other species such as I5, are responsible for the formation of the complex when they fit inside the coiled amylose structure of starch. Linear determination is possible in water samples containing 1 - 80 mM of P (+III). Measurement of the loss of blue color complex can then be correlated with phosphite concentration in the starting sample. Current efforts to optimize this method in order to reach limits of detection below 1 mM are underway. We believe that with better detection methods, the evidence for reduced P in the environment will increase. Due to chemical kinetics, microbial activity, surface catalyzed reactions and possible storage effects, it is difficult to effectively measure the low concentrations present after removing the samples from their natural environments for laboratory analysis. Therefore, to fully understand the importance of reduced P, ultimately, we hope to develop the starch iodide method into an in situ detection technique for measuring phosphite directly in natural waters where sensitive and reliable field-based methods of analysis are needed.

  15. The Characterization of Modified Starch Branching Enzymes: Toward the Control of Starch Chain-Length Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng; Wu, Alex Chi; Go, Rob Marc; Malouf, Jacob; Turner, Mark S.; Malde, Alpeshkumar K.; Mark, Alan E.; Gilbert, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Starch is a complex branched glucose polymer whose branch molecular weight distribution (the chain-length distribution, CLD) influences nutritionally important properties such as digestion rate. Chain-stopping in starch biosynthesis is by starch branching enzyme (SBE). Site-directed mutagenesis was used to modify SBEIIa from Zea mays (mSBEIIa) to produce mutants, each differing in a single conserved amino-acid residue. Products at different times from in vitro branching were debranched and the time evolution of the CLD measured by size-exclusion chromatography. The results confirm that Tyr352, Glu513, and Ser349 are important for mSBEIIa activity while Arg456 is important for determining the position at which the linear glucan is cut. The mutant mSBEIIa enzymes have different activities and suggest the length of the transferred chain can be varied by mutation. The work shows analysis of the molecular weight distribution can yield information regarding the enzyme branching sites useful for development of plants yielding starch with improved functionality. PMID:25874689

  16. The characterization of modified starch branching enzymes: toward the control of starch chain-length distributions.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Wu, Alex Chi; Go, Rob Marc; Malouf, Jacob; Turner, Mark S; Malde, Alpeshkumar K; Mark, Alan E; Gilbert, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Starch is a complex branched glucose polymer whose branch molecular weight distribution (the chain-length distribution, CLD) influences nutritionally important properties such as digestion rate. Chain-stopping in starch biosynthesis is by starch branching enzyme (SBE). Site-directed mutagenesis was used to modify SBEIIa from Zea mays (mSBEIIa) to produce mutants, each differing in a single conserved amino-acid residue. Products at different times from in vitro branching were debranched and the time evolution of the CLD measured by size-exclusion chromatography. The results confirm that Tyr352, Glu513, and Ser349 are important for mSBEIIa activity while Arg456 is important for determining the position at which the linear glucan is cut. The mutant mSBEIIa enzymes have different activities and suggest the length of the transferred chain can be varied by mutation. The work shows analysis of the molecular weight distribution can yield information regarding the enzyme branching sites useful for development of plants yielding starch with improved functionality. PMID:25874689

  17. Porous starch extracted from Chinese rice wine vinasse: characterization and adsorption properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Jiao, Aiquan; Wei, Benxi; Wang, Yong; Wu, Chunsen; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2013-10-01

    Chinese rice wine vinasse (the fermentation residue after removal of the crude wine or beer) contains 20-30% residual native starch. These starches are partly hydrolyzed by amylase and glucoamylase during rice wine fermentation, indicating that it is a potential source of porous starch, which is a value-added material. In the present study, morphological, short-range order, crystalline, and thermal studies were determined to characterize the structural and chemical properties of vinasse starch. The results showed that vinasse starch granule had a rough and porous shape and was much more ordered than native starch. Vinasse starch also could tolerate a higher temperature than native starch. The water and oil adsorptive capacities of vinasse starch were 1.89 and 4.14 times higher than that of native rice starch. These results suggest that vinasse is an effective and economical source of porous starch for using as adsorbent. PMID:23850681

  18. Relation between the tritium in continuous atmospheric release and the tritium contents of fruits and tubers.

    PubMed

    Korolevych, V Y; Kim, S B

    2013-04-01

    Concentrations of organically bound tritium (OBT) and tissue-free water tritium (TFWT, also referred to as HTO) in fruits and tubers were measured at a garden plot in the vicinity of the source of chronic airborne tritium emissions during the 2008, 2010, and 2011 growing seasons. A continuous record of HTO concentration in the air moisture was reconstructed from the continuous record of Ar-41 ambient gamma radiation, as well as from frequent measurements of air HTO by active samplers at the garden plot and Ar-41 and air HTO monitoring data from the same sector. Performed measurements were used for testing the modified Specific Activity (SA) model based on the assumption that the average air HTO during the pod-filling period provides an appropriate basis for estimating the levels of OBT present in pods, fruits and tubers. It is established that the relationship between the OBT of fruits and tubers and the average air HTO from a 15-20 day wide window centred at the peak of the pod-filling period is consistent throughout the three analysed years, and could be expressed by the fruit or tuber's OBT to air-HTO ratio of 0.93 ± 0.21. For all three years, the concentration of HTO in fruits and tubers was found to be related to levels of HTO in the air, as averaged within a 3-day pre-harvest window. The variability in the ratio of plant HTO to air HTO appears to be three times greater than that for the OBT of the fruits and tubers. It is concluded that the OBT of fruits and tubers adequately follows an empirical relationship based on the average level of air HTO from the pod-filling window, and therefore is clearly in line with the modified SA approach. PMID:23337314

  19. The use of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes from newly isolated Penicillium ochrochloron Biourge for viscosity reduction in ethanol production with fresh sweet potato tubers as feedstock.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuhong; Jin, Yanling; Shen, Weiliang; Fang, Yang; Zhang, Guohua; Zhao, Hai

    2013-12-12

    Penicillium ochrochloron Biourge, which was isolated from rotten sweet potato, can produce plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) with high viscosity reducing capability for ethanol production using fresh sweet potato tubers as feedstock. The enzyme preparation was characterized by a broad enzyme spectrum including 13 kinds of enzymes with the activity to hydrolyze cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, starch, and protein. The maximum viscosity-reducing capability was observed when the enzyme preparation was obtained after 5 days of fermentation using 20 g/L corncob as a sole carbon source, 4.5 g/L NH4 NO3 as a sole nitrogen source, and an initial medium pH of 6.5. The sweet potato mash treated with the enzyme preparation exhibited much higher fermentation efficiency (92.58%) compared with commercial cellulase (88.06%) and control (83.5%). The enzyme production was then scaled up to 0.5, 5, and 100 L, and the viscosity-reducing rates were found to be 85%, 90%, and 91%, respectively. Thus, P. ochrochloron Biourge displays potential viscosity-reducing capability for ethanol production. PMID:24329940

  20. Starch-hydrolyzing bacteria from Ethiopian soda lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita F. Martins; Wagied Davids; Waleed Al-Soud; Fredrik Levander; Peter Rådström; Rajni Hatti-Kaul

    2001-01-01

    Alkaliphilic bacteria were isolated from soil and water samples obtained from Ethiopian soda lakes in the Rift Valley area - Lake Shala, Lake Abijata, and Lake Arenguadi. Starch-hydrolyzing isolates were selected on the basis of their activity on starch agar plate assay. Sixteen isolates were chosen, characterized, and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. All the isolates were gram

  1. Nutrient utilization in rats and pigs fed enzyme resistant starch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. De Schrijver; K. Vanhoof; J. Vande Ginste

    1999-01-01

    The influence of 6% dietary raw or retrograded high-amylose corn starch on protein, fat, carbohydrate, energy and mineral utilization was studied in rats and ileum-cannulated pigs fed the same conventional diets. Ileal nitrogen digestibility tended to decrease and faecal nitrogen excretion to increase in pigs fed one of the tested enzyme resistant starch (RS) sources. In rats, the effect from

  2. Biocomposites based on plasticized starch: thermal and mechanical behaviours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Averous; N. Boquillon

    2004-01-01

    The paper is focusses on the study of the thermal and mechanical behaviour of reinforced agro-materials. Various formulations based on plasticized starch matrix have been carried out, varying matrix formulation, filler content, fibres length and nature. Cellulose and lignocellulose fibres, which show unequal surface tensions, have been tested. After extrusion and injection moulding, the properties of these wheat starch-based biocomposites

  3. In vitro starch digestion in sorghum flour from Algerian cultivars.

    PubMed

    Souilah, Rachid; Djabali, Djaffar; Belhadi, Badreddine; Mokrane, Hind; Boudries, Nadia; Nadjemi, Boubekeur

    2014-05-01

    This work aims to evaluate starch digestion in whole sorghum grains. Nine sorghum cultivars were sampled from the Sahara of Algeria. The structural characteristics of sorghum grains were measured. Total starch (TS) varied between 67.67% and 74.82%, digestible starch (DS) between 64.34% and 69.70%, and resistant starch (RS) ranged from 2.55% to 7.98%. The kinetic of starch digestion displayed first-order model. For all sorghum cultivars, starch were digested with different extents, DS at infinite time (D ?) ranged from 52.58 to 102.13 g/100 g dry starch, while the hydrolysis index (HI) ranged from 41.55% to 76.93% and high average glycemic index (GIavg) ranged from 65.97 to 94.14. The results showed that there are differences in grain quality of Algerian sorghum cultivars. The starch fractions have acceptable nutritional value with good in vitro digestibility characteristics suitable for human health and nutrition. PMID:24936295

  4. Starch Accumulation in Shoot-Forming Tobacco Callus Cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor A. Thorpe; Toshio Murashige

    1968-01-01

    Microscopic histochemical examinations of cultured tobacco callus disclosed a strong correlation between starch accumulation and shoot initiation. The accumulation started before any observable organized development and was heaviest in cells of loci which ultimately gave rise to organ primordia. Treatment of tissue cultures with gibberellin prevented starch accumulation and organ formation.

  5. Physicochemical properties of cassava starch oxidized by sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Lúcia Helena; Schnitzler, Egon; Zortéa, Manoela Estefânea Boff; de Souza Rocha, Thaís; Demiate, Ivo Mottin

    2014-10-01

    In this work, cassava starch was modified by treatment with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) at different concentrations (0.8, 2.0 and 5.0 % of active chlorine) and selected physicochemical properties of the oxidized starches were investigated. The native and modified samples were evaluated considering moisture, carboxyl content, apparent viscosity, susceptibility to syneresis, mid-infrared spectroscopy and crystallinity index. The treatment with NaClO resulted in alterations in carboxyl content of the oxidized starches that increased with increasing concentration of the oxidant. Oxidized starches also showed higher susceptibility to syneresis, as assessed by the release of liquid during freezing and thawing. Apparent viscosity analysis showed decrease in peak viscosity of the oxidized starches. X-ray diffractograms showed that the oxidation influenced the extent of cassava starch relative crystallinity found to lie between 34.4 % (native) and 39.9 % (2.0 % active chlorine). The infrared spectra are sensitive to structural changes on starch macromolecules and presented characteristic peaks as C-O-C of the six carbon glucose ring absorbs at 1,150-1,085 cm(-1) and due to axial deformation these bands changed with the crystal structure of the starch samples. PMID:25328206

  6. In vitro starch digestion in sorghum flour from Algerian cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Souilah, Rachid; Djabali, Djaffar; Belhadi, Badreddine; Mokrane, Hind; Boudries, Nadia; Nadjemi, Boubekeur

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to evaluate starch digestion in whole sorghum grains. Nine sorghum cultivars were sampled from the Sahara of Algeria. The structural characteristics of sorghum grains were measured. Total starch (TS) varied between 67.67% and 74.82%, digestible starch (DS) between 64.34% and 69.70%, and resistant starch (RS) ranged from 2.55% to 7.98%. The kinetic of starch digestion displayed first-order model. For all sorghum cultivars, starch were digested with different extents, DS at infinite time (D?) ranged from 52.58 to 102.13 g/100 g dry starch, while the hydrolysis index (HI) ranged from 41.55% to 76.93% and high average glycemic index (GIavg) ranged from 65.97 to 94.14. The results showed that there are differences in grain quality of Algerian sorghum cultivars. The starch fractions have acceptable nutritional value with good in vitro digestibility characteristics suitable for human health and nutrition. PMID:24936295

  7. Starch-Based Foamed Materials—Use and Degradation Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl F. Tiefenbacher

    1993-01-01

    Many discussions on packaging lead to undue expectations regarding the usability of degradable materials. There is also considerable misuse of the term “biodegradable.” The manufacture of a new foamed material based on native starch is discussed. The structure forms by water evaporation and gelatinization of starch during a molding and heating step. Typical applications are shown. Composting tests confirm degradation

  8. LABORATORY METHODS OF ANALYSIS FOR FEEDSTUFF STARCH CONTENT AND AVAILABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationships that starch has with profitable production or with health disorders in cattle advise closer accounting of its quantity and quality in diets. Native starch is an -(1-4)-linked-glucan with -(1-6) linked branch points found in crystalline granules in plants. In feedstuffs, it can b...

  9. THERMOPLASTIC STARCH-KRAFT LIGNIN-GLYCEROL BLENDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch-kraft lignin-glycerol blends were extruded in a twin-screw extruder to produce non-brittle films. One week after extrusion, films with a mid-range composition of 52% starch, 20% lignin, and 28% glycerol showed a tensile strength at break of 2.8 MPa, Young's modulus of 48 MPa, and elongation ...

  10. Potential Targets for Seed Improvement through Bioengineering Starch Synthesis Pathways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch is the principle carbohydrate in the food chain and is a renewable and biodegradable polymer widely used in the food, beverage, paper, textile, and livestock feed industries. It is the major component of the harvestable organs in many agronomic plants. The quantity and quality of starch thus ...

  11. [Insect pests dissemination by extruded starch packages].

    PubMed

    Fraga, Felipe B; Alencar, Isabel D C C; Tavares, Marcelo T

    2009-01-01

    We observed the viability of extruded starch products used as impact protector for fragile packing as a food source of the following stored grains pests: Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), Lasioderma serricorne (Fabr.), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera). Cryptolestes ferrugineus, L. serricorne and T. castaneum were found in these products, which are used by them as shelter and food. Under experimentation, we observed the development of O. surinamensis, S. oryzae and P. interpunctella feeding on this food source. Thus, it is recorded the viability of such material to be a potential dispersal vehicle to spread insect pests. PMID:19768278

  12. Dry media blasting with wheat starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Terry

    1995-04-01

    The brand name TECHNOSTRIP covers several types of installations and facilities. These were developed mainly to meet the requirements of customers in the aeronautic field. The range of products includes: complete self-supporting and semi-automated system for aircraft stripping; large-size blasting booth for semi-automatic stripping; manual blasting booth; and sealed and portable manual stripping head. Wheat starch media was developed for particle blasting stripping and is used in TECHNOSTRIP. This paper reviews its origins and use as well as use of automated facilities, reliability, effects on materials, effects on environment, and utilization examples.

  13. Plasticized-starch/poly(ethylene oxide) blends prepared by extrusion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang; Prashantha, Kalappa; Soulestin, Jeremie; Lacrampe, Marie-France; Krawczak, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Blends based on plasticized-wheat starch (as matrix or rich phase) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) (as dispersed phase) were prepared by melt processing in a twin-screw extruder. The extrusion of the plasticized-starch is significantly facilitated by blending with PEO. Plasticized-starch and PEO are immiscible in the range of the investigated blend ratios (90/10-50/50). The phase inversion takes place when the PEO content is 50 wt.% in the blend. Both the thermal stability and the tensile properties of plasticized-starch are improved by blending with PEO. Also, a synergistic effect between plasticized-starch and PEO is noticed at 25-40 wt.% PEO content in the blend, the Young's modulus of the materials obtained being the highest and higher than both neat polymer components at those blending ratios. PMID:23044130

  14. Tuberous Sclerosis: A New Frontier in Targeted Treatment of Autism.

    PubMed

    Davis, Peter E; Peters, Jurriaan M; Krueger, Darcy A; Sahin, Mustafa

    2015-07-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder with a high prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Tremendous progress in understanding the pathogenesis of TSC has been made in recent years, along with initial trials of medical treatment aimed specifically at the underlying mechanism of the disorder. At the cellular level, loss of TSC1 or TSC2 results in upregulation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. At the circuitry level, TSC and mTOR play crucial roles in axonal, dendritic, and synaptic development and function. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanism underlying TSC, and how this disease results in aberrant neural connectivity at multiple levels in the central nervous system, leading to ASD symptoms. We then review recent advances in mechanism-based treatments of TSC, and the promise that these treatments provide for future mechanism-based treatment of ASD. Because of these recent advances, TSC represents an ideal model for how to make progress in understanding and treating the mechanisms that underlie ASD in general. PMID:25986747

  15. Nitrogen recycling during phenylpropanoid metabolism in sweet potato tubers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, S.; Lewis, N. G.; Towers, G. H.

    1998-01-01

    In the first step of the phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway, L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) is deaminated to form E-cinnamate, in a conversion catalyzed by phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5). The metabolic fate of the ammonium ion (NH4+) produced in this reaction was investigated in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) tuber discs. [15N]-Labeled substrates including L-Phe, in the presence or absence of specific enzyme inhibitors, were administered to sweet potato discs in light under aseptic conditions. 15N-Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analyses revealed that the 15NH4+ liberated during the PAL reaction is first incorporated into the amide nitrogen of L-glutamine (L-Gln) and then into L-glutamate (L-Glu). These results extend our previous observations in pine and potato that PAL-generated NH4+ is assimilated by the glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2)/glutamate synthase (GOGAT; EC 1.4.1.13) pathway, with the NH4+ so formed ultimately being recycled back to L-Phe via L-Glu as aminoreceptor and donor.

  16. Phylogeny and phylogeography of the Tuber brumale aggr.

    PubMed

    Merényi, Zsolt; Varga, Torda; Geml, József; Orczán, Ákos Kund; Chevalier, Gerard; Bratek, Zoltán

    2014-04-01

    The Tuber brumale (winter truffle) is a black truffle reported from most European countries, belonging to the Melanosporum group. Its significance in the economy is ambivalent as the winter truffle has been shown to be a frequent contaminant species in the orchards of the Perigord truffle and occasionally in those of the summer truffle, yet owing to its delicate fragrance, its trade is worthy of note. The phylogeny and phylogeography of economically important truffles are relatively well-explored; however, no thorough research has been published on these aspects of the winter truffle. Therefore, here, we report the first phylogeographic analyses based on samples representing the entire distribution of the species. ITS sequences were used in this survey for haplotype and coalescent analyses, while phylogenetic analyses were based on the ITS, LSU and PKC loci. According to all loci, the samples clustered into two big clades imply the existence of two phylogenetic species. Based on our results, one of these appears to be endemic to the Carpathian Basin. In the other more widespread species, two main phylogeographic groups can be distinguished that show east-west separation with a zone of overlap in the Carpathian Basin, suggesting that they survived the latest glacial period in separate refugia. PMID:24604084

  17. Mammalian target of rapamycin and tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Wataya-Kaneda, Mari

    2015-08-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase that is a member of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-related kinase (PIKK) family. mTOR forms two distinct complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. mTORC1 has emerged as a central regulator of cellular metabolism, cell proliferation, cellular differentiation, autophagy and immune response regulation. In contrast to mTORC1, mTORC2, which is not well understood, participates in cell survival and the regulation of actin and cytokeratin organization. In addition, mTORC1 has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, metabolic diseases, neurological disease, genetic diseases and longevity/aging. One of the diseases resulting from dysfunction of mTORC1 is tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), which reflects all the symptoms that arise in response to mTORC1 dysfunction. TSC is a multiple hamartomas syndrome with epilepsy, autism, mental retardation and hypopigmented macules that are caused by the constitutive activation of mTORC1 resulting from genetic mutation of TSC1 or TSC2. Inhibitors of mTORC1, such as rapamycin, effectively suppress the symptoms of TSC. This article summarizes the current knowledge on mTOR and the efficacy of mTORC1 inhibitors in the treatment of TSC. PMID:26051878

  18. Solanum Tuber-bearing Species Resistance Behavior Against Nacobbus aberrans.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Silvia I; Chaves, Eliseo J; Clausen, Andrea M; Franco, Javier

    2009-03-01

    Naccobus aberrans is a major pest of the potato crop in the Andean regions of Argentina, Bolivia, and Perú. It is endemic in northwest Argentina and is also found in lowlands. The resistance of eleven Andean potato landraces and three accessions of the wild tuber-bearing species Solanum acaule, S. infundibuliforme, and S. megistacrolobum were evaluated against a population of N. aberrans from Coctaca, Jujuy province, while Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum 'Spunta', 'Kennebec', and 'Frital INTA' were evaluated against a population from the southeast of Buenos Aires province. The presence, the number of galls, and the number of individuals were recorded. In addition, a reproduction factor was calculated and races were determined. Results showed that the N. aberrans population from Coctaca corresponded to race 2 and the population from the lowlands belonged to the sugar beet group. Landrace Azul, one genotype of S. megistacrolobum, and two genotypes of S. acaule showed resistance towards the race from Coctaca while no infection was recorded in potato cultivars with the Naccobus race from the lowland area. PMID:22661771

  19. Genome sequence and analysis of the tuber crop potato.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xun; Pan, Shengkai; Cheng, Shifeng; Zhang, Bo; Mu, Desheng; Ni, Peixiang; Zhang, Gengyun; Yang, Shuang; Li, Ruiqiang; Wang, Jun; Orjeda, Gisella; Guzman, Frank; Torres, Michael; Lozano, Roberto; Ponce, Olga; Martinez, Diana; De la Cruz, Germán; Chakrabarti, S K; Patil, Virupaksh U; Skryabin, Konstantin G; Kuznetsov, Boris B; Ravin, Nikolai V; Kolganova, Tatjana V; Beletsky, Alexey V; Mardanov, Andrei V; Di Genova, Alex; Bolser, Daniel M; Martin, David M A; Li, Guangcun; Yang, Yu; Kuang, Hanhui; Hu, Qun; Xiong, Xingyao; Bishop, Gerard J; Sagredo, Boris; Mejía, Nilo; Zagorski, Wlodzimierz; Gromadka, Robert; Gawor, Jan; Szczesny, Pawel; Huang, Sanwen; Zhang, Zhonghua; Liang, Chunbo; He, Jun; Li, Ying; He, Ying; Xu, Jianfei; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Binyan; Du, Yongchen; Qu, Dongyu; Bonierbale, Merideth; Ghislain, Marc; Herrera, Maria del Rosario; Giuliano, Giovanni; Pietrella, Marco; Perrotta, Gaetano; Facella, Paolo; O'Brien, Kimberly; Feingold, Sergio E; Barreiro, Leandro E; Massa, Gabriela A; Diambra, Luis; Whitty, Brett R; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Lin, Haining; Massa, Alicia N; Geoffroy, Michael; Lundback, Steven; DellaPenna, Dean; Buell, C Robin; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Marshall, David F; Waugh, Robbie; Bryan, Glenn J; Destefanis, Marialaura; Nagy, Istvan; Milbourne, Dan; Thomson, Susan J; Fiers, Mark; Jacobs, Jeanne M E; Nielsen, Kåre L; Sønderkær, Mads; Iovene, Marina; Torres, Giovana A; Jiang, Jiming; Veilleux, Richard E; Bachem, Christian W B; de Boer, Jan; Borm, Theo; Kloosterman, Bjorn; van Eck, Herman; Datema, Erwin; Hekkert, Bas te Lintel; Goverse, Aska; van Ham, Roeland C H J; Visser, Richard G F

    2011-07-14

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the world's most important non-grain food crop and is central to global food security. It is clonally propagated, highly heterozygous, autotetraploid, and suffers acute inbreeding depression. Here we use a homozygous doubled-monoploid potato clone to sequence and assemble 86% of the 844-megabase genome. We predict 39,031 protein-coding genes and present evidence for at least two genome duplication events indicative of a palaeopolyploid origin. As the first genome sequence of an asterid, the potato genome reveals 2,642 genes specific to this large angiosperm clade. We also sequenced a heterozygous diploid clone and show that gene presence/absence variants and other potentially deleterious mutations occur frequently and are a likely cause of inbreeding depression. Gene family expansion, tissue-specific expression and recruitment of genes to new pathways contributed to the evolution of tuber development. The potato genome sequence provides a platform for genetic improvement of this vital crop. PMID:21743474

  20. Acral Lesions in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Insights into Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, Shelley; Hong, Chien-Hui; Groves, Leslie; Olsen, Cara; Moss, Joel; Darling, Thomas N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are predisposed to developing ungual fibromas and other acral lesions. Objective To determine the numbers, types, and locations of acral skin lesions in TSC. Methods Examination and photography of 76 adult women with TSC. Results The age of the patients ranged from 20 to 69 years, with a mean age of 39 ±11 years. Ungual fibromas were observed in 61/76 (80%)patients . Periungual fibromas were more common than subungual fibromas, were more common on the feet than the hands, and showed the greatest frequency on the 5thtoe . Longitudinal grooves in the nails occurred with or without a visible fibroma. Longitudinal short red streaks -lesions that we term “red comets”-were observed in 22 patients(29%) . Longitudinal leukonychia was observed in 14 patients(18%) . One patient had isolated digital overgrowth and one patient had pachydermodactyly. Limitations No men and children were included in this study. Conclusions Examination of patients for skin lesions of TSC could be improved by including inspection for longitudinal nail grooves, red comets, longitudinal leukonychia, and splinter hemorrhages in addition to ungual fibromas. The anatomical distribution of TSC ungual fibromas is not random and appears consistent with trauma-promoted tumor formation. PMID:20462663

  1. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 Loss Increases Lysophosphatidylcholine Synthesis in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Priolo, Carmen; Ricoult, Stéphane J H; Khabibullin, Damir; Filippakis, Harilaos; Yu, Jane; Manning, Brendan D; Clish, Clary; Henske, Elizabeth P

    2015-07-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a destructive lung disease affecting women. LAM is caused by mutations in the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes. The TSC protein complex inhibits the mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which is a master regulator of cellular metabolism. Using mass spectrometry-based lipid profiling, we analyzed plasma from patients with LAM and discovered elevated levels of four lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) species (C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, and C20:4) compared with those in healthy control women. To investigate whether these lipids are generated in a TSC2-dependent manner, we profiled in vitro preclinical models of TSC/LAM and found significant LPC accumulation in TSC2-deficient cells relative to TSC2-expressing control cells. These lysoglycerophospholipid changes occurred alongside changes in other phospholipid and neutral lipid species. Treatment with rapamycin or torin1 or down-regulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), a lipogenic transcription factor, did not suppress LPC in TSC2-deficient cells. Inhibition of distinct isoforms of phospholipase A2 decreased the proliferation of TSC2-deficient cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that TSC2-deficient cells have enhanced choline phospholipid metabolism and reveal a novel function of the TSC proteins in choline lysoglycerophospholipid metabolism, with implications for disease pathogenesis and targeted therapeutic strategies. PMID:25780943

  2. Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Curcuma longa tuber powder

    PubMed Central

    Shameli, Kamyar; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Zamanian, Ali; Sangpour, Parvanh; Shabanzadeh, Parvaneh; Abdollahi, Yadollah; Zargar, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Green synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles is a vastly developing area of research. Metallic nanoparticles have received great attention from chemists, physicists, biologists, and engineers who wish to use them for the development of a new-generation of nanodevices. In this study, silver nanoparticles were biosynthesized from aqueous silver nitrate through a simple and eco-friendly route using Curcuma longa tuber-powder extracts, which acted as a reductant and stabilizer simultaneously. Characterizations of nanoparticles were done using different methods, which included ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The ultraviolet-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed an absorption peak at around 415 nm. Transmission electron microscopy showed that mean diameter and standard deviation for the formation of silver nanoparticles was 6.30 ± 2.64 nm. Powder X-ray diffraction showed that the particles are crystalline in nature, with a face-centered cubic structure. The most needed outcome of this work will be the development of value-added products from C. longa for biomedical and nanotechnology-based industries. PMID:23341739

  3. mTOR Inhibitors in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    PubMed Central

    Curatolo, Paolo; Moavero, Romina

    2012-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic multiple organ system disorder that is characterized by the development of tumor-like lesions (hamartomas) and neurodevelopmental disorders. Mutations in the TSC1 and TSC2 tumor suppressor genes occur in the majority of patients with TSC, resulting in hyperactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and subsequent abnormalities in numerous cell processes. As a result, mTOR inhibitors such as sirolimus and everolimus have the potential to provide targeted therapy for patients with TSC. Everolimus is the first mTOR inhibitor approved as a treatment option in the USA and in Europe for patients with subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) associated with TSC. The clinical evidence to date supports the use of mTOR inhibitors in a variety of TSC-associated disease manifestations, including SEGAs, renal angiomyolipoma, skin manifestations, and epilepsy. Furthermore, ongoing clinical trials evaluating mTOR inhibitors in TSC are underway, and the results of these studies are expected to provide further evidence that will firmly establish their role in this setting. This article will discuss the role of the mTOR pathway in TSC and review the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical efficacy, and tolerability of mTOR inhibitors, along with their current place in clinical practice. PMID:23730262

  4. Cassava starch granule structure–function properties: influence of time and conditions at harvest on four cultivars of cassava starch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Sriroth; V Santisopasri; C Petchalanuwat; K Kurotjanawong; K Piyachomkwan; C. G Oates

    1999-01-01

    Impact of environmental conditions on cassava starch variability was examined by studying four commercially important cultivars, Rayong 1, Rayong 60, Rayong 90, and Kasetsart 50 (KU 50). Age of the root and environmental conditions at harvest influenced granule structure and hydration properties. All cultivars were grown under identical field conditions, and harvested at different times. Starches extracted from cassava roots

  5. Increased Mitochondrial DNA and RNA Polymerase Activity in Ethylene-Treated Potato Tubers

    PubMed Central

    Apelbaum, Akiva; Vinkler, Chana; Sfakiotakis, Evangalos; Dilley, David R.

    1984-01-01

    A purified mitochondrial fraction was isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers respiring normally at 23°C or at an accelerated rate in response to treatment with ethylene (10 microliters per liter). A pronounced increase in various mitochondrial enzymic activities was observed in response to exposure of the whole tubers to ethylene. Cytochrome c oxidase activity increased more than 50%, DNA polymerase activity increased about 2-fold, and RNA polymerase activity increased 2.5-fold. Moreover, DNA or RNA polymerase activities of mitochondria isolated from tubers not treated with ethylene were not affected by ethylene treatment in vitro. Respiratory control ratios decreased from 2.84 to 1.50 with increasing periods of ethylene treatment from 0 to 15 hours. None of these changes were observed in untreated tubers. It is concluded that the stimulation of respiration by ethylene in potato tubers is accompanied in vivo by an enhancement of mitochondrial enzymic activity of both membrane-associated enzymes which participate in the mitochondrial oxidative electron transport as well as soluble enzymes which are not directly involved in respiration. PMID:16663865

  6. Administration of Cyperus rotundus tubers extract prevents weight gain in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Lemaure, Bernard; Touché, André; Zbinden, Irène; Moulin, Julie; Courtois, Didier; Macé, Katherine; Darimont, Christian

    2007-08-01

    Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae; C. rotundus) is an Indian medicinal plant demonstrated to exert multiple health benefits. The purpose of the present study was to test the biological efficacy of C. rotundus tubers extract on weight control in obese Zucker rats. It was demonstrated that administration of 45 or 220 mg/kg/day of C. rotundus tubers hexane extract for 60 days in Zucker rats induced a significant reduction in weight gain without affecting food consumption or inducing toxicity. In vitro, 250 microg/mL of this extract was able to stimulate lipolysis in 3T3-F442 adipocytes suggesting that this medicinal plant contains activators of beta-adrenoreceptors (AR). The binding assay performed on the rat beta3-AR isoform, known to induce thermogenesis, demonstrated that C. rotundus tubers extract can consistently and effectively bind to this receptor. These data suggest that the effect on weight gain exerted by C. rotundus tubers extract may be mediated, at least partially, through the activation of the beta3-AR. In conclusion, C. rotundus tubers extract prove to be a new herbal supplement for controlling body weight preferentially in beta3-AR sensitive species. PMID:17444573

  7. Response of potatoes (cv russet burbank) to supplemental calcium applications under field conditions: Tuber calcium, yield, and incidence of internal brown spot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Senay Ozgen; Björn H. Karlsson; Jiwan P. Palta

    2006-01-01

    Potato tuber tissue is low in calcium as compared to leaves and stems. Several recent studies have provided evidence linking\\u000a tuber quality with tuber tissue Ca concentration. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of supplemental\\u000a Ca and N fertilization on tuber Ca concentration and internal brown spot of potato. Three soluble products (calcium nitrate,\\u000a calcium

  8. Color Me Understood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Judy J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the "color system" as a way of grouping children into different personality types based on a certain color: orange, blue, green, and gold. Lists stress producers for specific color people. Asserts that, through making groups of different colors, children begin to see the various specialties others can bring to the group and learn to…

  9. New color anaglyph method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomohiko Hattori; Eiji Arita; Toshihisa Nakamura; Masaru Kurio; Sadayuki Sakuma

    1997-01-01

    Anagliphs generally means a stereoscopic method using 2 principal color filters and is impossible to perceive the full-color stereo-pair for the viewers as above. A new anagliph method using 3 principal color filters (RGB) is presented in this paper. The method enables the complete full- color stereoscopic image taking and output technique. We produced the prototype system which composed of

  10. Color in architecture 

    E-print Network

    Vrooman, Richard

    1952-01-01

    Good design can be spoiled by poor color. Weak design can be helped by good color. Color is therefore of prime importance as an integral element of architectural design. Color is vitally related to man in many fields. The study of architecture...

  11. Color: A Functionalist Proposal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Cohen

    2003-01-01

    In this paper I propose and defend an account of color that I call color functionalism. I argue that functionalism is a non-traditional species of primary quality theory, and that it accommodates our intuitions about color and the facts of color science better than more widely discussed alternatives.

  12. Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Sour Starches from Different Cassava Varieties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. O. Onitilo; L. O. Sanni; O. B. Oyewole; B. Maziya-Dixon

    2007-01-01

    This article reports our investigation on the effect of cassava varieties on the physicochemical and functional properties of sour starches. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in the ash, pH, amylose, amylopectin, starch damage, total titratable acidity (TTA), sugar, and starch content but not moisture contents of various cassava sour starches. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05)

  13. Preparation and Physical Properties of Starch Stearates of Low to High Degree of Substitution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch stearates of degree of substitution (DS) 0.07-2.40 were prepared by heating dry starch and vinyl stearate in the ionic liquid BMIM dca at 75 Degrees C. Starch stearate of low DS (0.07) was insoluble in water but formed a gel and absorbed over seven times its weight of water. Starch stearate...

  14. Starch Utilization by Ruminants: From Basics to the Bunk1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald B. Huntington

    2010-01-01

    Starch is the major energy component of grains. Wheat contains 77% of DM as starch, corn and sorghum contain 72%, and barley and oats contain 57 to 58%. In vitro systems have provided valuable data on kinetic aspects of starch digestion. Molecular biological techniques have provided a clearer picture of the ruminal microbial milieu. Proportions of starch fermented in the

  15. PASTING PROPERTY DIFFERENCES OF COMMERCIAL AND ISOLATED RICE STARCH WITH ADDED LIPIDS AND B-CYCLODEXTRIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipids are known to generally affect starch properties but the effects of lipid structure and B-cyclodextrin (B-CD) on different starches has not been investigated. This study compared the effects of lipids and B-CD on pasting properties of isolated rice starch with commercial rice starch. Four wa...

  16. The impact of resistant starch on characteristics of gluten-free dough and bread

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaros?aw Korus; Mariusz Witczak; Rafa? Ziobro; Les?aw Juszczak

    2009-01-01

    The study focused on partial replacement in gluten-free breads of corn starch with tapioca and corn resistant starch preparations. The use of resistant starch resulted in the increase of storage and loss moduli of the dough, and the lowering of loss tangent, which indicates its more elastic character. The incorporation of resistant starch reduced creep and recovery compliance and elevated

  17. Structural basis for the glucan phosphatase activity of Starch Excess4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig W. Vander Kooi; Adam O. Taylor; Rachel M. Pace; David A. Meekins; Hou-Fu Guo; Youngjun Kim; Matthew S. Gentry

    2010-01-01

    Living organisms utilize carbohydrates as essential energy storage molecules. Starch is the predominant carbohydrate storage molecule in plants while glycogen is utilized in animals. Starch is a water-insoluble polymer that requires the concerted activity of kinases and phosphatases to solubilize the outer surface of the glucan and mediate starch catabolism. All known plant genomes encode the glucan phosphatase Starch Excess4

  18. Expression and Purification of a Tuber borchii Fruitbody?Specific Protein, TBF?1, from Escherichia coli: Generation of Polyclonal Antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Palma; Deborah Agostini; Emanuela Cerigini; Emanuela Polidori; Vilberto Stocchi

    2005-01-01

    TBF?1 is a fruitbody?specific protein present in the white truffle species Tuber borchii Vittad. A similar protein has been found only in the closely related species Tuber dryophilum (TDF?1), but not in other truffles. The protein from T. borchii was overexpressed as fusion protein in E. coli and was purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography. Recombinant protein was used for

  19. The effect of foliar application of phosphonate formulations on the susceptibility of potato tubers to late blight.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Louise R; Little, George

    2002-01-01

    Foliar sprays of potato plants with phosphonic acid (partially neutralised with potassium hydroxide to pH 6.4) substantially reduced infection of the tubers by Phytophthora infestans, the cause of late blight, in glasshouse and field experiments over a 4-year period. Healthy tubers of blight-susceptible cultivars removed from treated plants and artificially inoculated by spraying with sporangial/zoospore suspensions of P infestans did not develop disease symptoms, demonstrating that the phosphonate applications had directly reduced the susceptibility of tubers to infection, probably as a result of translocation into tuber tissue. In contrast, foliar application of fosetyl-aluminium did not significantly reduce tuber blight development following inoculation. Five to six sprays of partially neutralised phosphonic acid (2 kg ha-1) applied at 10-14 day intervals resulted in the least tuber infection, but such a treatment regime may not be economic. In trials where the effect of timing and rate of application of 2-4 kg phosphonic acid ha-1 was examined, a single treatment of 4 kg ha-1 applied mid- or late-season proved the most effective. A spray programme in which one or two applications of phosphonic acid are combined with use of a non-systemic or systemic fungicide to enhance foliar protection offers the possibility of controlling both foliage and tuber blight and could have a major impact in reducing overwinter survival of P infestans in tubers. PMID:11838279

  20. Treatment of potato seed and ware tubers with imazalil and thiabendazole for control of silver scurf and other storage diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Cayley; G. A. Hide; P. J. Read; Yvonne Dunne

    1983-01-01

    Potato seed tubers were sprayed or dipped in suspensions of imazalil or thiabendazole soon after harvest. Samples were re-treated in February and treated and untreated seed was planted in experiments 1979–81. After harvest, tuber samples were sprayed with imazalil or thiabendazole before storage.

  1. Structure and digestibility of debranched and repeatedly crystallized waxy rice starch.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Feng; Chen, Fuquan; Kong, Fansheng; Gao, Qunyu; Aadil, Rana Muhammad; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-11-15

    Debranched waxy rice starch was subjected to repeated crystallization (RC) treatment, and its physicochemical properties and digestion pattern were investigated. The A-type crystalline pattern of native starch was crystallized to a complex of B- and V-type patterns by debranching and RC treatment. Among the treated starches, the relative crystallinity of debranched starch reached its maximum (29.6%) after eight repetitions of crystallization. Changes in weight-average molar mass among treated starch samples were not significantly different. The repeated-crystallized starches showed higher thermal transition temperatures and melting enthalpy than that of debranched starch. As a result, slowly digestible starch (SDS) content of repeated-crystallized starches reached a very high level (57.8%). Results showed that RC treatment induced structural changes of waxy rice starch result in a great amount of SDS. PMID:25977036

  2. Biphasic Superoxide Generation in Potato Tubers. A Self-Amplifying Response to Stress1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S.M.; Doherty, S.J.; Croy, R.R.D.

    2003-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars differ quantitatively in their responses to mechanical stress including the ability to synthesize melanin pigments in tuber tissues. Investigations into the cellular events induced by mechanical stress on tuber tissues have shown that an early cellular response is a significant and rapid synthesis of superoxide radicals. This burst of radical production distinctively displays a reproducible biphasic pattern over time with peaks of generation at 2 and 5 h. A concomitant consequence of the generation of these free radicals is elevated levels of oxidatively modified tuber proteins. Both radical generation and protein modification vary between cultivars but both are directly proportional to the amount of melanin pigments produced. Cell-free extracts of mechanically stressed tissues, pectic fragments, and scission products generated from cell walls are able to induce superoxide generation in non-stressed tissues, indicating the participation of a biologically active factor that induces a further a phase of radical synthesis. PMID:12644693

  3. Rheological and biochemical properties of Solanum lycocarpum starch.

    PubMed

    Di-Medeiros, Maria Carolina B; Pascoal, Aline M; Batista, Karla A; Bassinello, Priscila Z; Lião, Luciano M; Leles, Maria Inês G; Fernandes, Kátia F

    2014-04-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the rheological and physicochemical properties of Solanum lycocarpum starch. The thermogravimetric analysis of S. lycocarpum starch showed a typical three-step weight loss pattern. Microscopy revealed significant changes in the granule morphology after hydrothermal treatment. Samples hydrothermally treated at 50°C for 10 min lost 52% of their crystallinity, which was recovered after storage for 7 days at 4°C. However, samples hydrothermally treated at 65°C were totally amorphous. This treatment was sufficient to completely disrupt the starch granule, as evidenced by the absence of an endothermic peak in the DSC thermogram. The RVA of S. lycocarpum starch revealed 4440.7cP peak viscosity, 2660.5cP breakdown viscosity, 2414.1cP final viscosity, 834.3cP setback viscosity, and a pasting temperature of 49.6°C. The low content of resistant starch (10.25%) and high content of digestible starch (89.78%) in S. lycocarpum suggest that this starch may be a good source for the production of hydrolysates, such as glucose syrup and its derivatives. PMID:24607161

  4. Synthesis and properties of silane-fluoroacrylate grafted starch.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jia; He, Ling

    2013-10-15

    The latex of silane-fluoroacrylate grafted starch for coating materials, VTMS-starch/P(MMA/BA/3FMA), is obtained by two step grafting reactions. Vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS) is primarily grafted onto starch by condensation between Si-OH and C-OH at 120 °C, and then the copolymer of methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA) and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate (3FMA) is grafted onto the VTMS-starch by emulsion polymerization. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to confirm the chemically grafting reactions in every step. The conversion percent, grafting percent and grafting efficiency for VTMS-starch/p(MMA/BA/3FMA) latex indicate that the optimum conditions should be controlled at 75 °C for 1h as VTMS-starch/P(MMA/BA/3FMA) in 1/3 weight ratio. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis have revealed that the latexes exhibit the uniform spherical particles of 40-60 nm in a narrow size distribution. The latex films perform the obvious hydrophobic (107°) property, lower surface free energy (25-35 mN/m) and the higher thermostability (330-440 °C) than starch (51°, 51.32 mN/m, 100-330 °C). Dynamic thermomechanical analysis (DMA) shows that the latex film could gain considerable toughness and strength with an elongation at break of 39.45% and a tensile strength of 11.97 MPa. PMID:23987447

  5. Drying and cracking mechanisms in a starch slurry.

    PubMed

    Goehring, Lucas

    2009-09-01

    Starch-water slurries are commonly used to study fracture dynamics. Drying starch cakes benefit from being simple, economical, and reproducible systems, and have been used to model desiccation fracture in soils, thin-film fracture in paint, and columnar joints in lava. In this paper, the physical properties of starch-water mixtures are studied, and used to interpret and develop a multiphase transport model of drying. Starch cakes are observed to have a nonlinear elastic modulus, and a desiccation strain that is comparable to that generated by their maximum achievable capillary pressure. It is shown that a large material porosity is divided between pore spaces between starch grains, and pores within starch grains. This division of pore space leads to two distinct drying regimes, controlled by liquid and vapor transport of water, respectively. The relatively unique ability for drying starch to generate columnar fracture patterns is shown to be linked to the unusually strong separation of these two transport mechanisms. PMID:19905189

  6. Corn porous starch: preparation, characterization and adsorption property.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Cui, Dapeng; Liu, Mingzhu; Gong, Honghong; Huang, Yinjuan; Han, Fei

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to develop a new type of modified starch based on ?-amylase and glucoamylase. The structural and chemical characteristics of the porous starch were determined by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The potential application of the porous starch as an adsorbent was evaluated using methyl violet as an adsorbed model. The adsorption capacity was optimized by investigating the reaction factors, including the mass ratio of ?-amylase to glucoamylase (m(?-amylase)/m(glucoamylase)), the mass ratio of total amount of enzymes to starch (m(enzyme)/m(St)), the ratio of liquid volume to starch mass (V(H2O)/M(St)), pH value of the reaction solution, enzymatic reaction temperature, and enzymatic reaction time. The hydrolysis ratio of each sample was also determined to investigate the effect of different reaction conditions on the hydrolysis degree. The results suggest that the porous starch has a more excellent adsorption capacity than the native starch, and may be expected to have wide potential applications in many fields. PMID:22100869

  7. Association genetics in Solanum tuberosum provides new insights into potato tuber bruising and enzymatic tissue discoloration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most agronomic plant traits result from complex molecular networks involving multiple genes and from environmental factors. One such trait is the enzymatic discoloration of fruit and tuber tissues initiated by mechanical impact (bruising). Tuber susceptibility to bruising is a complex trait of the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) that is crucial for crop quality. As phenotypic evaluation of bruising is cumbersome, the application of diagnostic molecular markers would empower the selection of low bruising potato varieties. The genetic factors and molecular networks underlying enzymatic tissue discoloration are sparsely known. Hitherto there is no association study dealing with tuber bruising and diagnostic markers for enzymatic discoloration are rare. Results The natural genetic diversity for bruising susceptibility was evaluated in elite middle European potato germplasm in order to elucidate its molecular basis. Association genetics using a candidate gene approach identified allelic variants in genes that function in tuber bruising and enzymatic browning. Two hundred and five tetraploid potato varieties and breeding clones related by descent were evaluated for two years in six environments for tuber bruising susceptibility, specific gravity, yield, shape and plant maturity. Correlations were found between different traits. In total 362 polymorphic DNA fragments, derived from 33 candidate genes and 29 SSR loci, were scored in the population and tested for association with the traits using a mixed model approach, which takes into account population structure and kinship. Twenty one highly significant (p < 0.001) and robust marker-trait associations were identified. Conclusions The observed trait correlations and associated marker fragments provide new insight in the molecular basis of bruising susceptibility and its natural variation. The markers diagnostic for increased or decreased bruising susceptibility will facilitate the combination of superior alleles in breeding programs. In addition, this study presents novel candidates that might control enzymatic tissue discoloration and tuber bruising. Their validation and characterization will increase the knowledge about the underlying biological processes. PMID:21208436

  8. Transcriptomic changes during tuber dormancy release process revealed by RNA sequencing in potato.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bailin; Zhang, Ning; Wen, Yikai; Jin, Xin; Yang, Jiangwei; Si, Huaijun; Wang, Di

    2015-03-20

    Potato tuber dormancy release is a critical development process that allows potato to produce new plant. The first Illumina RNA sequencing to generate the expressed mRNAs at dormancy tuber (DT), dormancy release tuber (DRT) and sprouting tuber (ST) was performed. We identified 26,639 genes including 5,912 (3,450 up-regulated while 2,462 down-regulated) and 3,885 (2,141 up-regulated while 1,744 down-regulated) genes were differentially expressed from DT vs DRT and DRT vs ST. The RNA-Seq results were further verified using qRT-PCR. We found reserve mobilization events were activated before the bud emergence (DT vs DRT) and highlighted after dormancy release (DRT vs ST). Overexpressed genes related to metabolism of auxin, gibberellic acid, cytokinin and barssinosteriod were dominated in DT vs DRT, whereas overexpressed genes involved in metabolism of ethylene, jasmonate and salicylate were prominent in DRT vs ST. Various histone and cyclin isoforms associated genes involved in cell division/cycle were mainly up-regulated in DT vs DRT. Dormancy release process was also companied by stress response and redox regulation, those genes related to biotic stress, cell wall and second metabolism was preferentially overexpressed in DRT vs ST, which might accelerate dormancy breaking and sprout outgrowth. The metabolic processes activated during tuber dormancy release were also supported by plant seed models. These results represented the first comprehensive picture of a large number of genes involved in tuber dormancy release process. PMID:25661840

  9. Glycoalkaloids in potato tubers grown under controlled environments.

    PubMed

    Nitithamyong, A; Vonelbe, J H; Wheeler, R M; Tibbitts, T W

    1999-01-01

    Tuber content of alpha-solanine, alpha-chaconine, and total glycoalkaloids (TGA) was determined for the potato cultivars, Norland, Russet Burbank, and Denali grown under different environmental conditions in growth chambers. The lowest TGA concentrations (0.30 to 0.35 mg g-1 dry tissue) were found in the cv. Norland with 400 micromoles m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), 12 h day length, 16 C temperature, and 350 micromoles mol-1 carbon dioxide. The ratio of alpha-chaconine to alpha-solanine was close to 60:40 under all growing conditions, except that it was 50:50 under the low temperature of 12 C. Cultivars responded similarly to environmental conditions although TGA was about 20% greater in cv. Russet Burbank and about 30% greater in Denali compared to Norland. The largest changes in TGA occurred with changes in temperature. In comparison to 16 C, TGA were 40% greater at 12 C, 80% greater at 20 C, and 125% greater at 24 C (0.70 mg g-1 dry weight). The TGA concentration increased from 10 to 25% with an increase in light from 400 to 800 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF for all three cultivars. TGA increased 20% with extension of the day length from 12 to 24 hr and also increased 20% when carbon dioxide was increased from 350 to 1000 micromoles mol-1. TGA concentrations were not influenced by changes in relative humidity from 50 to 80%. TGA concentrations decreased only slightly in harvests made from 9 to 21 weeks after planting. Variations in TGA among the different growing conditions and cultivars were below 20 mg/100 g fresh weight (approximately 1.0 mg g-1 dry weight) recognized as the upper concentration for food safety. However the results suggest that TGA should be considered when potatoes are grown at temperatures above 20 C. PMID:11543354

  10. Zinc enrichment of whole potato tuber by vacuum impregnation.

    PubMed

    Erihemu; Hironaka, Kazunori; Koaze, Hiroshi; Oda, Yuji; Shimada, Kenichiro

    2015-04-01

    Zinc is a nutritionally essential truce element, and thus zinc deficiency (ZD) severely affects human health. More than 25% of the world's population is at risk of ZD. This study was initiated to examine the use of the vacuum impregnation (VI) technique for enriching zinc content of whole potatoes; the effect of vacuum time, restoration time, steam-cooking and storage at 4 °C on the zinc content of VI whole potatoes was evaluated. Whole potato tubers were immersed in a 9 g/100 g zinc (zinc gluconate) solution. Vacuum pressure of 1,000 Pa was applied for 0-120 min, and atmospheric pressure restoration for 0-4 h. Experimental results showed that the zinc content of VI potatoes increased with vacuum and restoration time. Moreover, VI-cooked unpeeled or peeled potatoes had 63-94 times and 47-75 times higher zinc contents than un-VI-cooked unpeeled or peeled potatoes, respectively. The world daily potato consumption (86 g) of the VI-cooked unpeeled and peeled potatoes provided adult men with 130-148% and 100-135% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of zinc, respectively. Also, the daily potato consumption of the unpeeled and peeled potatoes supplied adult women with 178-203% and 137-185% of the RDA level, respectively. In addition, the VI potatoes had 40 times higher zinc contents through 30 days of storage at 4 °C, compared with un-VI-treated potatoes. This study indicated that VI treatment of whole potatoes was useful for enriching the zinc content. PMID:25829619

  11. Ophthalmic manifestations of tuberous sclerosis: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, S; O'Callaghan, F; Osborne, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) has retinal and non-retinal ophthalmic manifestations. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of the ophthalmic manifestations and of refractive errors in a population of patients with TSC.?METHODS—179 patients identified were in a prevalence study of TSC in the south of England and 107 of these agreed to full ophthalmic examination which was successful in 100. Ophthalmic examination included examination of the eyelids, cover test, examination of the irides, dilation funduscopy using both direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, and refraction using retinoscopy. Myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent +0.5D.?RESULTS—Retinal hamartomas were seen in 44 of the 100 patients. The commonest morphological type of hamartoma seen was the flat, translucent lesion in 31 of the 44 patients (70%). The multinodular "mulberry" lesion was seen in 24 of the 44 patients (55%) and the transitional type lesion was seen in four of the 44 patients (9%). Punched out areas of retinal depigmentation were seen in 39 of the 100 patients but only six of 100 controls. 27% of eyes were myopic, 22% were hyperopic, and 27% had astigmatism >0.75D. Of the non-retinal findings, 39 patients had angiofibromas of the eyelids, five had non-paralytic strabismus, and three had colobomas.?CONCLUSION—Apart from the higher prevalence of flat retinal hamartomas, the findings of this study compare closely with previous large clinic based series of TSC patients. Refractive findings were similar to previous studies of a similarly aged non-TSC population. This is the first series to document the statistically significant association of punched out chorioretinal depigmentation with TSC and the authors believe that it should be looked for as an aid to diagnosis.?? PMID:11264130

  12. Functional properties of native, physically and chemically modified breadfruit ( Artocarpus artilis) starch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kayode Oyebode Adebowale; Bamidele Iromidayo Olu-Owolabi; Esther kehinde Olawumi; Olayide Samuel Lawal

    2005-01-01

    Starch was isolated from breadfruit (Artocarpus artilis). It was further modified by oxidation, acetylation, heat–moisture-treatment and annealing. The functional properties of native and modified starches were then studied. Proximate analysis revealed that following modifications, the annealed (BANS), oxidised (BOS) and acetylated (BACS) starches retained higher moisture content compared to native starch (BNS), while heat–moisture treated starch (BHMTS) had lower moisture

  13. Wheat genome specific granule-bound starch synthase I differentially influence grain starch synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Geetika; Jaiswal, Sarita; Hucl, Pierre; Chibbar, Ravindra N

    2014-12-19

    Wheat grain development is a complex process and is characterized by changes in physicochemical and structural properties of starch. The present study deals with endosperm starch physicochemical properties and structure during development in different granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) null also known as waxy (Wx) genotypes. The study was conducted with pure starch isolated from wheat grains at 3-30 days post anthesis (DPA), at 3-day intervals. Amylose concentration increased throughout grain development in non-waxy (7.2-30.5%) and partial waxy genotypes (6.0-26.8%). Completely waxy genotype showed 7.0% amylose at 3 and 6 DPA, which declined during development and reached non-detectable quantities by 30 DPA. Amylopectin structure had a higher content of short chains at 3 DPA, which decreased continuously until 12 DPA, after which there were only minor changes in amylopectin chain length distribution. Similarly, the average degree of polymerization (DP) increased from 3 DPA (12.3) to 12 DPA (15.0), and then did not differ significantly up to 30 DPA (15.0). This suggests the formation of basic amylopectin architecture in wheat by 12 DPA. Wx-B and Wx-D affected amylopectin short chains mostly of DP 6-8 at 3 and 6 DPA. Wx-A affected the same fraction of chains at 9 and 12 DPA, and Wx-D affected DP 18-25 chains from 18 to 30 DPA, suggesting differential effect of waxy isoproteins on amylopectin structure formation. PMID:25263868

  14. TMpcp: a Tuber magnatum gene which encodes a putative mitochondrial phosphate carrier.

    PubMed

    Garnero, L; Bonfante, P

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about the genome of Tuber, Ascomycetes which comprise a number of ectomycorrhizal species. Screening of a genomic library of Tuber magnatum led to identification of a chitin synthase gene (chs). On sequencing upstream of it in the same phage, we found a 2000 bp long fragment that proved to contain a hypothetical gene with high homology with mitochondrial phosphate carriers from human and bovine heart, and from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The sequence contains two putative introns and its open reading frame encodes for a protein 305 amino acids long. A primary sequence analysis revealed 6 hydrophobic segments and a signature pattern, similar to that of other mitochondrial carriers. PMID:10826699

  15. DNA probes for identification of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber magnatum Pico.

    PubMed

    Lanfranco, L; Wyss, P; Marzachí, C; Bonfante, P

    1993-12-15

    The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to develop DNA probes for the identification of ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to the genus Tuber. RAPD fingerprinting revealed a high degree of interspecific variability and a low degree of intraspecific variability. One band (approximately 1.5 kb), consistently appearing when genomic DNA was amplified with an aspecific primer (OPA-18), was found to be a good marker for Tuber magnatum, and was used as a probe in Southern hybridization experiments. The specificity of the results suggests that this probe may be useful in developing specific primers for PCR amplifications. PMID:8288100

  16. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in fruits, vegetables and tubers from Nigerian markets.

    PubMed

    Adeyeye, A; Osibanjo, O

    1999-07-01

    Residue levels of organochlorine pesticides have been determined in raw fruits, vegetables and tubers from markets in Nigeria. In the fruits, total HCH, aldrin and total DDT were detected in 77, 38 and 30% of all samples, respectively. In the vegetables, total HCH, HCB, total DDT and aldrin were detected from 95, 53, 50 and 30%, respectively, of all samples. Aldrin + dieldrin, total HCH, and total DDT were detected from 98, 79 and 49%, respectively, of all tuber samples. Other pesticides were below their detection limits. The average levels were generally low and none were above the FAOs maximum residue limits. PMID:10472135

  17. Biotechnological production of colorants.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Lex

    2014-01-01

    The color of food and drinks is important, as it is associated with freshness and taste. Despite that natural colorants are more expensive to produce, less stable to heat and light, and less consistent in color range, natural colorants have been gaining market share in recent years. The background is that artificial colorants are often associated with negative health aspects. Considerable progress has been made towards the fermentative production of some colorants. Because colorant biosynthesis is under close metabolic control, extensive strain and process development are needed in order to establish an economical production process. Another approach is the synthesis of colors by means of biotransformation of adequate precursors. Algae represent a promising group of microorganisms that have shown a high potential for the production of different colorants, and dedicated fermentation and downstream technologies have been developed. This chapter reviews the available information with respect to these approaches. PMID:24037500

  18. Structure and functional properties of sorghum starches differing in amylose content.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yijun; Bean, Scott; Seib, Paul A; Pedersen, Jeff; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2008-08-13

    Starches were isolated from grains of waxy, heterowaxy, and normal sorghum. To study the relationship between starch structure and functionality and guide applications of these starches, amylose content, amylopectin chain-length distributions, gelatinization and retrogradation, pasting properties, dynamic rheological properties, and in vitro enzyme digestion of raw starches were analyzed. Heterowaxy sorghum starch had intermediate amylose content, pasting properties, and dynamic rheological properties. Stress relaxation was a useful indicator of cooked starch cohesiveness. Cooked heterowaxy sorghum starch (10% solids) had a viscoelastic-solid type of character, whereas cooked waxy sorghum starch behaved like a viscoelastic liquid. Amylopectin of normal sorghum starch had a slightly higher proportion of chains with degree of polymerization (DP) of 6-15 (45.5%) compared with amylopectin of heterowaxy starch (44.1%), which had a gelatinization peak temperature 2 degrees C higher than normal sorghum starch. Heterowaxy sorghum starch contained significantly lower rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and higher resistant starch (RS) than waxy sorghum starch. PMID:18627168

  19. Absorption of starch by healthy ileostomates: effect of transit time and of carbohydrate load.

    PubMed

    Chapman, R W; Sillery, J K; Graham, M M; Saunders, D R

    1985-06-01

    Recently, breath hydrogen studies and intubation techniques have indicated that in excess of 10% of starch in normal foods may be malabsorbed in the small intestine and enter the colon. We evaluated starch absorption in healthy subjects with ileostomy. First, unabsorbed starch was quantified in ileostomy effluent from six ileostomates who ingested constant diets of wheat and potato starch for four days. Daily unabsorbed starch ranged from 1.3% to 5.0% of total ingested starch. Second, starch from a radiolabeled solid meal containing 50 g potato starch was measured under control conditions and after altering transit time with either loperamide, or magnesium citrate. Loperamide significantly decreased the amount of unabsorbed starch in all six ileostomates (p less than 0.05), while magnesium citrate significantly increased starch malabsorption in all six subjects (p less than 0.05). Third, starch absorption was measured after single solid meals containing 25, 50, 75, and 100 g potato starch. There was a linear relationship between starch input and output. Mean output expressed as a percent of input remained constant. We conclude that the degree of starch malabsorption by the small intestine of ileostomates may be less than that estimated by indirect methods in intact humans. The amount of unabsorbed starch is directly related to the quantity ingested and to the small intestinal transit time. PMID:4003331

  20. Novel thermoplastic starch clay nanocomposite foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Meng; Chen, Biqiong; Evans, Julian R. G.

    2005-10-01

    Novel thermoplastic starch (TPS)-clay nanocomposite foams were prepared by melt-processing. The use of urea as plasticizer avoids the cracking of TPS during storage and enhances the dispersion of ammonium-treated clay in TPS. X-ray diffraction shows an increase in the basal plane spacings of both natural and treated clays, suggesting formation of nanocomposites. Scanning electron microscopy shows spontaneously formed regular foam structures with 84% porosity in TPS-ammonium-treated clay. This does not form in TPS or TPS-natural clay nanocomposites. This result implies that the regular foam formation is due to the ammonium surfactant of clay, which produces ammonia gas acting as an internal blowing agent. Thermogravimetric analysis confirms this deduction.

  1. Surface modifications of some nanocomposites containing starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu, M.-C.; Popescu, M.-C.; Vasile, C.

    2008-09-01

    Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites have attracted strong interest in today's materials research, due to the possible impressive enhancements of material properties, comparatively with those of pure polymers. Several starch/poly(vinylalcohol)/montmorillonite nanocomposites have been subjected to surface modification by physical treatments such as dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) exposure and coating with proteins (albumin) or polysaccharides (chitosan), for improving their biocompatibility. Untreated and treated surfaces have been comparatively studied by contact angle measurements, FT-IR and 2D-FT-IR spectroscopy and optical microscopy. It has been established that enhancement of the surface characteristics depends on the type and number of incorporated nanoparticles as well as on the treatment applied. Coupling of DBD exposure and coating techniques appears to be highly efficient.

  2. Preferred skin color enhancement for photographic color reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2011-01-01

    Skin tones are the most important colors among the memory color category. Reproducing skin colors pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the color preference of skin color reproduction. Several methods to morph skin colors to a smaller preferred skin color region has been reported in the past. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to further improve the result of skin color enhancement. An ellipsoid skin color model is applied to compute skin color probabilities for skin color detection and to determine a weight for skin color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers determined through psychophysical experiments were applied for color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers for dark, medium, and light skin colors are applied to adjust skin colors differently. Skin colors are morphed toward their preferred color centers. A special processing is applied to avoid contrast loss in highlight. A 3-D interpolation method is applied to fix a potential contouring problem and to improve color processing efficiency. An psychophysical experiment validates that the method of preferred skin color enhancement effectively identifies skin colors, improves the skin color preference, and does not objectionably affect preferred skin colors in original images.

  3. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, Minoru (Troy, NY); Watson, E. Bruce (Troy, NY); Acocella, John (Troy, NY)

    1986-01-01

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

  4. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

    1986-11-04

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

  5. Digestibility of starch in Penaeus vannamei: in vivo and in vitro study on eight samples of various origin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Cousin; Gérard Cuzon; Jean Guillaume

    1996-01-01

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of carbohydrate, protein and lipid were investigated in Penaeus vannamei (18–25 g) with diets containing eight starches of various origin. Test ingredients, included at a level of 35% of diet, were native (NC) or gelatinized (GC) corn starch, waxy corn starch, either native (XC) or gelatinized (GX), high amylose corn starch (AC), potato starch, either native

  6. End-of-life of starch-polyvinyl alcohol biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Guo, M; Stuckey, D C; Murphy, R J

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) model comparing the waste management options for starch-polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) biopolymers including landfill, anaerobic digestion (AD), industrial composting and home composting. The ranking of biological treatment routes for starch-PVOH biopolymer wastes depended on their chemical compositions. AD represents the optimum choice for starch-PVOH biopolymer containing N and S elements in global warming potential (GWP(100)), acidification and eutrophication but not on the remaining impact categories, where home composting was shown to be a better option due to its low energy and resource inputs. For those starch-PVOH biopolymers with zero N and S contents home composting delivered the best environmental performance amongst biological treatment routes in most impact categories (except for GWP(100)). The landfill scenario performed generally well due largely to the 100-year time horizon and efficient energy recovery system modeled but this good performance is highly sensitive to assumptions adopted in landfill model. PMID:23131650

  7. Photosynthesis and starch metabolism of chloroplasts during prolonged illumination.

    PubMed

    Haapala, H

    1969-09-01

    The starch metabolism of the chloroplasts in the leaves of Stellaria media was studied by means of electron microscopy. During the night the starch grains diminished in size but did not disappear entirely. In the light they grew due to photosynthesis. After prolonged illumination of the plant the grains almost filled up the chloroplasts. However, after an illumination of 26-27 hr a sudded disintegration took place. This was apparently caused by the increased activity of ?-amylase observed in an earlier investigation to occur at this time in the chloroplasts. After the disintegration the starch grains of the chloroplasts showed irregular changes.The rate of photosynthesis and respiration was measured by an infra-red gas analyser. During prolonged illumination Stellaria media showed a rather intensive and constant rate of assimilation. The role of starch disintegration and ?-amylase synthesis in making possible this constant assimilation has been discussed. PMID:24515824

  8. Engineering Escherichia coli K12 MG1655 to use starch

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To attain a sustainable bioeconomy, fuel, or valuable product, production must use biomass as substrate. Starch is one of the most abundant biomass resources and is present as waste or as a food and agroindustry by-product. Unfortunately, Escherichia coli, one of the most widely used microorganisms in biotechnological processes, cannot use starch as a carbon source. Results We engineered an E. coli strain capable of using starch as a substrate. The genetic design employed the native capability of the bacterium to use maltodextrins as a carbon source plus expression and secretion of its endogenous ?-amylase, AmyA, in an adapted background. Biomass production improved using 35% dissolved oxygen and pH 7.2 in a controlled bioreactor. Conclusion The engineered E. coli strain can use starch from the milieu and open the possibility of optimize the process to use agroindustrial wastes to produce biofuels and other valuable chemicals. PMID:24886307

  9. Optical temperature behavior of a starch-water mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Dios Ortiz-Alvarado, Juan; Yahuaca-Juárez, Berenice; Vázquez-Landaverde, Pedro; Morales-Sánchez, Eduardo; Martínez-Flores, Héctor E.; Canto-Pérez, Alfredo; Huerta-Ruelas, Jorge A.

    2009-09-01

    An optical set-up was developed to measure transmitted and scattered light in real time using a photodiode array as a detector and tested during starch heating. Statistical parameters calculated were Partial Integrated Scattering (PIS) and variance. Understanding behavior of starch under heat treatment in the presence of water is very important in food industry. The structure of heated starch granule changes depending on different factors like pH, solvent type and amount, enzime presence, amylose/amylopectin relation, etc., such changes has been attempted by using several techniques. In this work, solutions in distilled water of amylopectin, were evaluated. Calcium hydroxide solution was also tested and mixed with previous amylopectin samples to evaluate any interaction in a two-phase system. A close relationship was found between the observed optical signals with literature reported structure changes in starch, demonstrating that the system developed has potential to be used in a real industrial process for monitoring and control.

  10. Hydration and the phase diagram of acid hydrolyzed potato starch.

    PubMed

    Carlstedt, Jonas; Wojtasz, Joanna; Fyhr, Peter; Kocherbitov, Vitaly

    2014-11-01

    We investigated hydration of acid hydrolyzed potato starch (maltodextrin) employing a multi-method approach. In particular, synchrotron radiation X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry were used, and, for the first time, the material was investigated with sorption calorimetry and a newly developed quartz crystal microbalance with humidity scanning. The dry starch was found to be in an amorphous state. During hydration it exhibits a glass transition in both bulk and thin film samples, followed by an exothermic event where the starch crystallized. Recrystallized bulk samples displayed neither a pronounced glass transition nor crystallization upon hydration whereas both events occurred in thin film samples. The hydration-driven crystallization resulted in an X-ray pattern consistent with the coexistence of A and B type crystallites; however, at higher water concentrations only the B form occurred. The results were used to construct the first ever acid hydrolyzed starch-water phase diagram. PMID:25129783

  11. Kinetics of the surface hydrolysis of raw starch by glucoamylase.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Hirosuke; Katano, Hajime

    2005-10-19

    The hydrolysis of raw starch catalyzed by glucoamylase has been studied with starch granules of different sizes by use of an amperometric glucose sensor by which the direct and continuous observation of the concentration of glucose can be achieved even in a thick raw starch suspension. The initial rate of the enzymatic hydrolysis in the raw starch suspension increased with increasing concentration of the enzyme to approach a saturation value and was proportional to the amount of substrate. Also, the rate was proportional to the specific surface area of the substrate. The experimental results can be explained well by the rate equations derived from a three-step mechanism, which consists of adsorption of the free enzyme onto the surface of the substrate, reaction of the adsorbed enzyme with the substrate, and liberation of the product. PMID:16218653

  12. Performance evaluation of starch based polymer for enhanced oil recovery

    E-print Network

    Skurner, James Andrew

    1997-01-01

    of reservoir conditions are investigated to better evaluate the polymer's ability to enhance oil recovery. The Western Atlas' VIP simulator is used for this study. Application of the starch based polymer treatment to the near-wellbore is shown...

  13. Characterization of modified pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) starch.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, S; Sharma, R; Kaur, J; Bhardwaj, N

    2014-02-01

    Pearl millet starch (Pennisetum typhoides) was isolated and subjected to hydrothermal, acidic and enzymatic modifications. Native and various modified starches were characterized in terms of yield, moisture, protein, ash, bulk density, swelling power, solubility, colour, sediment volume, gel consistency, water binding capacity, pasting properties, freeze thaw stability and paste clarity. Hydrothermal modification (HTMS) caused an increase in swelling power and solubility. L value was higher for acid and enzymatically modified starches (EMS). A significant reduction (p???0.05) in sediment volume and water binding capacity was observed for acid modified starch (AMS) and EMS. Peak viscosity values declined for all modifications. However, EMS and AMS showed an improved freeze-thaw stability and paste clarity. PMID:24493886

  14. Color and Streptomycetes1

    PubMed Central

    Pridham, Thomas G.

    1965-01-01

    A report summarizing the results of an international workshop on determination of color of streptomycetes is presented. The results suggest that the color systems which seem most practically appealing and effective to specialists on actinomycetes are those embracing a limited number of color names and groups. The broad groupings allow placement of isolates into reasonably well-defined categories based on color of aerial mycelium. Attempts to expand such systems (more color groups) lead to difficulties. It is common knowledge that many, if not all, of the individual groups would in these broad systems contain strains that differ in many other respects, e.g., spore-wall ornamentation, color of vegetative (substratal) mycelium, morphology of chains of spores, and numerous physiological criteria. Also, cultures of intermediate color can be found, which makes placement difficult. As it now stands, color as a criterion for characterization of streptomycetes and streptoverticillia is in questionable status. Although much useful color information can be obtained by an individual, the application of this information to that in the literature or its use in communication with other individuals leaves much to be desired. More objective methods of color determination are needed. At present, the most effective method that could be used internationally is the color-wheel system of Tresner and Backus. Furthermore, the significance of color in speciation of these organisms is an open question. Obviously, more critical work on the color problem is needed. PMID:14264847

  15. Production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by yeasts isolated from the ascocarps of black (Tuber melanosporum Vitt.) and white (Tuber magnatum Pico) truffles.

    PubMed

    Buzzini, Pietro; Gasparetti, Chiara; Turchetti, Benedetta; Cramarossa, Maria Rita; Vaughan-Martini, Ann; Martini, Alessandro; Pagnoni, Ugo Maria; Forti, Luca

    2005-11-01

    Twenty-nine yeast strains were isolated from the ascocarps of black and white truffles (Tuber melanosporum Vitt. and Tuber magnatum Pico, respectively), and identified using a polyphasic approach. According to the conventional taxonomic methods, MSP-PCR fingerprinting and sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA, the strains were identified as Candida saitoana, Debaryomyces hansenii, Cryptococcus sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and Trichosporon moniliiforme. All isolates assimilated L: -methionine as a sole nitrogen source and produced the volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 2-methyl butanol, 3-methyl butanol, methanethiol, S-methyl thioacetate, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, dihydro-2-methyl-3(2H)-thiophenone and 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol (MTP). ANOVA analysis of data showed significant (P<0.01) differences in VOCs produced by different yeasts, with MTP as the major component (produced at concentrations ranging from 19.8 to 225.6 mg/l). In addition, since some molecules produced by the isolates of this study are also characteristic of truffle complex aroma, it is possible to hypothesize a complementary role of yeasts associated with this ecosystem in contributing to final Tuber spp. aroma through the independent synthesis of yeast-specific volatile constituents. PMID:16187098

  16. Electronic detection of the enzymatic degradation of starch.

    PubMed

    Star, Alexander; Joshi, Vikram; Han, Tzong-Ru; Altoé, M Virginia P; Grüner, George; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2004-06-24

    [reaction: see text] The enzymatic degradation of starch can be monitored electronically using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as semiconducting probes in field-effect transistors (FETs). Incubation of these devices in aqueous buffer solutions of amyloglucosidase (AMG) results in the removal of the starch from both the silicon surfaces and the side walls of the SWNTs in the FETs, as evidenced by direct imaging and electronic measurements. PMID:15200292

  17. Study on starch- graft-acrylamide\\/mineral powder superabsorbent composite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jihuai Wu; Yueling Wei; Jianming Lin; Songbai Lin

    2003-01-01

    A novel starch-graft-acrylamide\\/mineral powder superabsorbent composite with water absorbency about 4000 times is synthesized by graft-copolymerization reaction among acrylamide, potato starch and mineral ultrafinepowder, followed by hydrolysis with sodium hydroxide. It is found that the composite doped with kaolinite powder possess higher water absorbency than those doped with bentonite or sercite powder, since the kaolinite powder can moderately disperse in

  18. Urea and ethanolamine as a mixed plasticizer for thermoplastic starch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. F. Ma; J. G. Yu; J. J. Wan

    2006-01-01

    Mixtures of urea and ethanolamine were used as plasticizers for preparing thermoplastic starch (TPS) in a single-screw extruder. The interaction between urea\\/ethanolamine and starch was investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR). Glass transition temperature of TPS was tested by Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both FT-IR and DSC proved that the mixture of urea and ethanolamine could form more stable and

  19. Thermoplastic Starch Films with Vegetable Oils of Brazilian Cerrado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlemmer, D.; Sales, M. J. A.

    2008-08-01

    Biodegradable polymers are one of the most promising ways to replace non-degradable polymers. TPS films were prepared by casting from cassava starch and three different vegetable oils of Brazilian Cerrado as plasticizer: buriti, macaúba and pequi. In this preliminary work it was investigated materials thermal characteristics by TG and TMA. Thermal properties of oils depends on their chemical structures. Starch and vegetable oils are natural resources that can be used how alternative to producing materials that cause minor environmental impact.

  20. Triterpene glycosides from the tubers of Anemone coronaria.

    PubMed

    Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Kazuki; Matsuo, Yukiko; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2009-07-01

    Six new triterpene glycosides (1-6), together with 11 known ones (7-17), have been isolated from a glycoside-enriched fraction prepared from the tubers of Anemone coronaria L. (Ranunculaceae). On the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR data, and the results of hydrolytic cleavage, the structures of 1-6 were determined to be 3beta-[(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-2beta,23-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (1), 3beta-[(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-23-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (2), 3beta-[(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-23-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (3), 3beta-[(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-2beta,23-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (4), 3beta-[(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-2beta-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (5), and 3beta-[(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-23-hydroxyolean-18-en-28-oic acid O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (6), respectively. Furthermore, the isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against HSC-2 cells. PMID:19571419

  1. Comparison of axillary bud growth and patatin accumulation in potato leaf cuttings as assays for tuber induction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Hannapel, D. J.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1988-01-01

    Single-node leaf cuttings from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) cvs. Norland, Superior, Norchip, and Kennebec, were used to assess tuber induction in plants grown under 12, 16, and 20 h daily irradiation (400 micromol s-1 m-2 PPF). Leaf cuttings were taken from plants at four, six and 15 weeks after planting and cultured for 14 d in sand trays in humid environments. Tuber induction was determined by visually rating the type of growth at the attached axillary bud, and by measuring the accumulation of the major tuber protein, patatin, in the base of the petioles. Axillary buds from leaf cuttings of plants grown under the 12 h photoperiod consistently formed round, sessile tubers at the axils for all four cultivars at all harvests. Buds from cuttings of plants grown under the 16 and 20 h photoperiods exhibited mixed tuber, stolon, and leafy shoot growth. Patatin accumulation was highest in petioles of cuttings taken from 12 h plants for all cultivars at all harvests, with levels in 16 and 20 h cuttings approx. one-half that of the 12 h cuttings. Trends, both in visual ratings of axillary buds and in petiole patatin accumulation, followed the harvest index (ratio of tuber to total plant dry matter), suggesting that either method is an acceptable assay for tuber induction in the potato.

  2. Fingers that change color

    MedlinePLUS

    Blanching of the fingers; Fingers - pale; Toes that change color; Toes - pale ... Necrotizing vasculitis Peripheral artery disease Raynaud's phenomenon - sudden change in the finger color ranges from pale to ...

  3. Color and form

    E-print Network

    Buchanan, Mark C. (Mark Calvin)

    1992-01-01

    I have always been interested in painting, particularly in the use of color to describe space, time and emotion. This thesis integrates painterly concepts in the making of architecture. Some issues explored include color ...

  4. Show Your Colors!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-08-20

    In this family or group activity, learners conduct a chromatography experiment to reveal the colors that leaves "hide" under their green pigments. Use this experiment to predict what colors the leaves will "turn" in the fall.

  5. The Trouble with Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, David

    1999-01-01

    Discusses problems with color quality in Web sites. Topics include differences in monitor settings, including contrast; amount of video RAM; user preference settings; browser-safe colors; cross-platform readability; and gamma values. (LRW)

  6. Composite starch-based coatings applied to strawberries (Fragaria ananassa).

    PubMed

    García, M A; Martino, M N; Zaritzky, N E

    2001-08-01

    Starch-based coatings were used to the extend storage life of strawberries (Fragaria ananassa) stored at 0 degree C and 84.8% relative humidity. Effects of coating formulation (including starch type, plasticizer, lipid and antimicrobial agent) were analysed with respect to fruit quality. Plasticizer addition was necessary for film and coating integrity to avoid pores and cracks. Plasticizer presence reduced weight losses and maintained surface colour of fruits. Amylomaize coatings showed lower water vapour and gas permeabilities and decreased weight losses for longer periods than corn starch ones. Coatings with sorbitol showed lower permeabilities than glycerol ones. Coatings with antimicrobial agents decreased microbial counts, extending storage life of coated fruits by 10 to 14 days in comparison to the control. The addition of 2 g/l sunflower oil to the formulations decreased the water vapour permeability of starch-based films, maintained the surface colour of coated fruits and controlled effectively fruit weight losses during storage. Lipid addition minimized the effects of starch and plasticizer types. Composite starch-based coatings showed selective gas permeability (CO2 higher than O2) which helps to delay senescence of fruits. PMID:11534467

  7. Functional, thermal and molecular behaviours of ozone-oxidised cocoyam and yam starches.

    PubMed

    Oladebeye, Abraham Olasupo; Oshodi, Aladesanmi Augustine; Amoo, Isiaka Adekunle; Karim, Alias Abd

    2013-11-15

    Ozone-oxidised starches were prepared from the native starches isolated from white and red cocoyam, and white and yellow yam cultivars. The native and oxidised starches were evaluated for functional, thermal and molecular properties. The correlations between the amount of reacted ozone and carbonyl and carboxyl contents of the starches were positive, as ozone generation time (OGT) increased. Significant differences were obtained in terms of swelling power, solubility, pasting properties and textural properties of the native starches upon oxidation. The DSC data showed lower transition temperatures and enthalpies for retrograded gels compared to the gelatinized gels of the same starch types. The native starches showed CB-type XRD patterns while the oxidised starches resembled the CA-type pattern. As amylose content increased, amylopectin contents of the starches decreased upon oxidation. Similarly, an increase in Mw values were observed with a corresponding decrease in Mn values upon oxidation. PMID:23790933

  8. Transcriptomic Analysis of Starch Biosynthesis in the Developing Grain of Hexaploid Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Stamova, Boryana S.; Laudencia-Chingcuanco, Debbie; Beckles, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    The expression of genes involved in starch synthesis in wheat was analyzed together with the accumulation profiles of soluble sugars, starch, protein, and starch granule distribution in developing caryopses obtained from the same biological materials used for profiling of gene expression using DNA microarrays. Multiple expression patterns were detected for the different starch biosynthetic gene isoforms, suggesting their relative importance through caryopsis development. Members of the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase, starch branching enzyme, and sucrose synthase gene families showed different expression profiles; expression of some members of these gene families coincided with a period of high accumulation of starch while others did not. A biphasic pattern was observed in the rates of starch and protein accumulation which paralleled changes in global gene expression. Metabolic and regulatory genes that show a pattern of expression similar to starch accumulation and granule size distribution were identified, suggesting their coinvolvement in these biological processes. PMID:20224818

  9. Cortical Tubers: Windows into Dysregulation of Epilepsy Risk and Synaptic Signaling Genes by MicroRNAs.

    PubMed

    Dombkowski, Alan A; Batista, Carlos E; Cukovic, Daniela; Carruthers, Nicholas J; Ranganathan, Ramya; Shukla, Upasana; Stemmer, Paul M; Chugani, Harry T; Chugani, Diane C

    2014-12-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem genetic disorder caused by mutations in the TSC1 and TSC2 genes. Over 80% of TSC patients are affected by epilepsy, but the molecular events contributing to seizures in TSC are not well understood. Recent reports have demonstrated that the brain is enriched with microRNA activity, and they are critical in neural development and function. However, little is known about the role of microRNAs in TSC. Here, we report the characterization of aberrant microRNA activity in cortical tubers resected from 5 TSC patients surgically treated for medically intractable epilepsy. By comparing epileptogenic tubers with adjacent nontuber tissue, we identified a set of 4 coordinately overexpressed microRNAs (miRs 23a, 34a, 34b*, 532-5p). We used quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomic profiling to investigate the combined effect of the 4 microRNAs on target proteins. The proportion of repressed proteins among the predicted targets was significantly greater than in the overall proteome and was highly enriched for proteins involved in synaptic signal transmission. Among the combinatorial targets were TSC1, coding for the protein hamartin, and several epilepsy risk genes. We found decreased levels of hamartin in epileptogenic tubers and confirmed targeting of the TSC1 3' UTR by miRs-23a and 34a. PMID:25452577

  10. The effect of photoperiod on tuberization in cultivated x wild potato species hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild Solanum species offer a valuable source of genetic diversity for potato improvement. Most of these species are found in equatorial South and Central America and they do not tuberize under long day photoperiods typical of those in the major potato production areas of North America, Europe and As...

  11. Hyphal and cytoskeleton polarization in Tuber melanosporum: A genomic and cellular analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonella Amicucci; Raffaella Balestrini; Annegret Kohler; Elena Barbieri; Roberta Saltarelli; Antonella Faccio; Robert W. Roberson; Paola Bonfante; Vilberto Stocchi

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous polarized growth involves a series of events including polarization of the cytoskeleton to selected growth sites, and the transport of secretory vesicles containing the components required for growth. The availability of fungal genome sequences has recently led to the identification of a large number of proteins involved in these processes. We have explored the Tuber melanosporum genome sequence by

  12. Mycelial abundance and other factors related to truffle productivity in Tuber melanosporum â?? Quercus ilex orchards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura M. Suz; Daniel Oliach; Christine R. Fischer; Carlos Colinas

    2008-01-01

    Relative quantification of DNA from Tuber melanosporum mycelia was performed by conventional and real-time PCR in soil from trees in three truffle orchards of different ages to determine: (1) whether burn appearance is related to the amount of T. melanosporum mycelium in soil, and (2) whether productivity onset and truffle production are related to (a) the amount of T. melanosporum

  13. Three different forms of hexokinase are identified during Tuber Borchii mycelium growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paola Ceccaroli; Roberta Saltarelli; Michele Buffalini; Giovanni Piccoli; Vilberto Stocchi

    1999-01-01

    Truffles are ectomycorrhizal fungi which have a great dependence on carbohydrates supplied by their host plants. The catabolism of hexoses in the mycobiont is important for the production of energy, and the first enzyme in the hexose assimilation pathways is hexokinase. This study reports differences in the expression of this enzyme during the growth of Tuber borchii Vittad. mycelium (strain

  14. Spatial variation in tuber depletion by swans explained by differences in net intake rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart A. Nolet; Oscar Langevoord; Richard M. Bevan; Kirsten R. Engelaar; Marcel Klaassen; Roef J. W. Mulder; S. Van Dijk

    2001-01-01

    We tested whether the spatial variation in resource depletion by Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus) foraging on belowground tubers of sage pondweed (Potnmogeton pectinatus) was caused by differences in net energy intake rates. The variation in giving up densities within the confines of one lake was nearly eightfold, the giving-up density being positively related to water depth and, to a lesser

  15. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POTATO SPINDLE TUBER VIROID INFECTING SOLANUM JASMINOIDES AND S. RANTONNETII IN ITALY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Di Serio

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), a quarantine pathogen included in the EPPO A2 list was identified in plants of Solanum jasminoides and S. rantonnetii in Italy. Molecular characterization of four S. jasminoides and one S. rantonnetii PSTVd isolates showed limited sequence variability. A tissue-printing hybridization method for detecting PSTVd in ornamental Solanaceae was successfully tested and its potential for

  16. DEFENDER: A HIGH-YIELDING, PROCESSING POTATO CULTIVAR WITH FOLIAR AND TUBER RESISTANCE TO LATE BLIGHT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato cultivar ‘Defender’ has resistance to both foliar and tuber infection by newer genotypes of Phytophthora infestans. Resistance was derived from its Polish parent, KSA195-90. Released in 2004, Defender is high yielding, white-skinned, and suitable for processing into frozen potato products di...

  17. Control of yam tuber rot with leaf extracts of Xylopia aethiopica and Zingiber officinale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Okigbo; I. A Nmeka

    2005-01-01

    Investigation was carried out to test the potency of some plant extracts for the control of yam tuber rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. Hot water extracts were obtained from leaf and seed of uda (Xylopia aethiopica) and Ginger (Zinigiber officinale), and were found to be fungitoxic against the fungi. The extracts of suppressed the growth

  18. LONG-TERM OUTCOME OF TRANSCATHETER EMBOLIZATION OF RENAL ANGIOMYOLIPOMAS DUE TO TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS COMPLEX

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID H. EWALT; NORMAN DIAMOND; CHET REES; STEVEN P. SPARAGANA; MAURICIO DELGADO; LORI BATCHELOR; E. STEVE ROACH

    2005-01-01

    Purpose:Complications from renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs) are common in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and tumors greater than 4 cm are more likely to cause symptoms. AMLs are the most common cause of death in adults with TSC. We present our long-term experience with transcatheter tumor embolization as a definitive treatment for AMLs due to TSC.

  19. HIGH TEMPERATURES AND DURATIONS OF EXPOSURE REDUCE NUTSEDGE (CYPERUS SPP.) TUBER VIABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil solarization has been proposed as an alternative to methyl bromide for controlling nutsedges, however little is known about the relationship between soil solarization and nutsedge tuber viability. Combinations of elevated temperatures and durations of exposure were evaluated for their affect o...

  20. Early diagnosis of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in children with tuberous sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Nabbout; M Santos; Y Rolland; O Delalande; O Dulac; C Chiron

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVESIntraventricular astrocytomas (subependymal giant cell astrocytomas) of tuberous sclerosis have a poor prognosis due to the obstruction of CSF flow. The aim of this study was to determine whether they could be differentiated during childhood and at an early preclinical stage, from subependymal nodules without any growing potential.METHODSThe first two MRIs of all children referred to this neuropaediatric centre between

  1. Effects of 2 : 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid on Enzyme Systems in Jerusalem Artichoke Tubers and Chicory Roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Flood; P. P. Rutherford; E. W. Weston

    1967-01-01

    IN a previous communication1 it was reported that disks cut from tissues storing inulin, such as the tubers of Jerusalem artichoke and roots of chicory, showed a large uptake of water when treated with a number of substances which can regulate plant growth. Associated with this uptake of water were changes in the carbohydrate composition of the tissue. Treatment of

  2. Latitudinal variation in tuber production in an aquatic pseudo-annual plant, Potamogeton pectinatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Santamar ´ õa; Ana I. Llano; Garc ´ õa

    2004-01-01

    The effect of day length and latitude on the induction of tuberisation in Potamogeton pectinatus L. was investigated. Six clones originally collected at widely different latitudes (from 24 ?N in Egypt to 68?N in Russia) were used to test two hypotheses: (1) tuberisation is a short-day response, and (2) critical day length increases with increasing latitude. Plants sprouted from tubers

  3. Glyphosate Hinders Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) and Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) Tuber Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purple and yellow nutsedge are among the most troublesome weeds of cucurbit and fruiting vegetable production in the Southeast US. The phase-out of methyl bromide will necessitate alternative management options that target tubers, the primary means of nutsedge reproduction. Greenhouse studies wer...

  4. Increased purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) tuber sprouting with diurnally fluctuating temperatures.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purple nutsedge is among the most troublesome weeds of vegetables in the Southeast US and a substantial impediment in the search for methyl bromide alternatives. Greater understanding of the environmental cues that regulate tuber sprouting may assist in improved nutsedge management. Experiments we...

  5. From mTOR to Cognition: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Cognitive Impairments in Tuberous Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehninger, D.; de Vries, P. J.; Silva, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is a multi-system disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the "TSC1" or "TSC2" gene and is often associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms, including intellectual disability, specific neuropsychological deficits, autism, other behavioural disorders and epilepsy. Method: Here, we review evidence from animal…

  6. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in fruits, vegetables and tubers from Nigerian markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adeniyi Adeyeye; Oladele Osibanjo

    1999-01-01

    Residue levels of organochlorine pesticides have been determined in raw fruits, vegetables and tubers from markets in Nigeria. In the fruits, total HCH, aldrin and total DDT were detected in 77, 38 and 30% of all samples, respectively. In the vegetables, total HCH, HCB, total DDT and aldrin were detected from 95, 53, 50 and 30%, respectively, of all samples.

  7. Pleurotus tuber-regium Polysaccharides Attenuate Hyperglycemia and Oxidative Stress in Experimental Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui-Yu; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Chaing, Ying-Ying; Chien, Ting-Yi; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Pleurotus tuber-regium contains polysaccharides that are responsible for pharmacological actions, and medicinal effects of these polysaccharides have not yet been studied in diabetic rats. We examined the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidant properties of P. tuber-regium polysaccharides in experimental diabetic rats. Forty rats were equally assigned as diabetic high-fat (DHF) diet and polysaccharides treated DHF groups (DHF+1P, DHF+2P, and DHF+3P, 20?mg/kg bodyweight/8-week). Diabetes was induced by chronic low-dose streptozotocin injections and a high-fat diet to mimic type 2 diabetes. Polysaccharides (1P, 2P, and 3P) were extracted from three different strains of P. tuber-regium. Fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels substantially decreased, while serum insulin levels were restored by polysaccharides treatment compared to DHF. Furthermore, plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein levels were significantly (P < 0.01) lower in polysaccharide groups. High-density lipoprotein levels were attenuated with polysaccharides against diabetes condition. Polysaccharides inhibited (P < 0.01) the lipid peroxidation index (malondialdehyde), and restored superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in the liver of diabetic rats. The antihyperglycemic property of polysaccharides perhaps boosts the antioxidant system that attenuates oxidative stress. We emphasize that P. tuber-regium polysaccharides can be considered as an alternative medicine to treat hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. PMID:22973406

  8. Effect of the cauliflower Or transgene on carotenoid accumulation and chromoplast formation in transgenic potato tubers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex B. Lopez; Joyce Van Eck; Brian J. Conlin; Dominick J. Paolillo; Jennifer O'Neill; Li Li

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic plants have facilitated our understanding of the functional roles of genes and the metabolic processes affected in plants. Recently, the Or gene was isolated from an orange cauliflower mutant and it was shown that the Or gene could serve as a novel genetic tool to enrich carotenoid content in transgenic potato tubers. An in-depth characterization of these Or transgenic

  9. Transcription of potato spindle tuber viroid by RNA polymerase II starts predominantly at two specific sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Fels; Kanghong Hu; Detlev Riesner

    2001-01-01

    Pospiviroidae, with their main representative potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), are replicated via a rolling circle mechanism by the host-encoded DNA- dependent RNA polymerase II (pol II). In the first step, the (+)-strand circular viroid is transcribed into a (-)- strand oligomer intermediate. As yet it is not known whether transcription is initiated by promotors at specific start sites or

  10. Impact of Different US Genotypes of Phytophthora infestans on Potato Seed Tuber

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    Impact of Different US Genotypes of Phytophthora infestans on Potato Seed Tuber Rot and Plant /Accepted: 13 January 2009 # EAPR 2009 Abstract Seed pieces of different potato cultivars and advanced on seed piece rot severity after re-storage was assessed using an image analysis technique. P. infestans

  11. Impact of Different US Genotypes of Phytophthora infestans on Potato Seed Tuber

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    Impact of Different US Genotypes of Phytophthora infestans on Potato Seed Tuber Rot and Plant /Accepted: 13 January 2009 / Published online: 14 February 2009 # EAPR 2009 Abstract Seed pieces). The effect of these genotypes of P. infestans on seed piece rot severity after re-storage was assessed using

  12. Attention Deficits in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC): Rethinking the Pathways to the Endstate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, P. J.; Watson, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder associated with a range of neurocognitive manifestations, including neuropsychological attention deficits most notably in dual tasking/divided attention. These dual-task deficits have so far been interpreted as evidence of a vulnerable "cognitive module" in TSC. Here, we suggest…

  13. Molecular and Cytological aspects of native periderm maturation in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mature native periderm that exhibits resistance to excoriation (RE) is the primary defense for potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers against abiotic and biotic challenges. However, little is known about the physiology of periderm maturation and associated gene expressions. In this study, periderm m...

  14. The Effect of Different Cooking Methods on Phenolics and Vitamin C in Developmentally Young Potato Tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New potatoes (also known as “baby” or “early” potatoes) are harvested at a young developmental age and have higher concentrations of many phytonutrients than mature tubers. A better assessment of the potential of new potatoes in the diet and their suitability as targets for further nutritional enhan...

  15. Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Obstetric Complications in Children and Adolescents with Tuberous Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Rebecca J.; Bolton, Patrick F.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the role of obstetric complications in determining phenotypic manifestations in tuberous sclerosis (TS), a disorder associated with autism spectrum disorders. Comparison of 43 children with TS and 40 unaffected siblings found children with TS experienced more obstetric complications, but these were related to mild rather…

  16. Optimising ketocarotenoid production in potato tubers: effect of genetic background, transgene combinations and environment.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Raymond; Morris, Wayne L; Mortimer, Cara L; Misawa, Norihiko; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Morris, Jenny A; Hedley, Pete E; Fraser, Paul D; Taylor, Mark A

    2015-05-01

    Astaxanthin is a high value carotenoid produced by some bacteria, a few green algae, several fungi but only a limited number of plants from the genus Adonis. Astaxanthin has been industrially exploited as a feed supplement in poultry farming and aquaculture. Consumption of ketocarotenoids, most notably astaxanthin, is also increasingly associated with a wide range of health benefits, as demonstrated in numerous clinical studies. Currently astaxanthin is produced commercially by chemical synthesis or from algal production systems. Several studies have used a metabolic engineering approach to produce astaxanthin in transgenic plants. Previous attempts to produce transgenic potato tubers biofortified with astaxanthin have met with limited success. In this study we have investigated approaches to optimising tuber astaxanthin content. It is demonstrated that the selection of appropriate parental genotype for transgenic approaches and stacking carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes with the cauliflower Or gene result in enhanced astaxanthin content, to give six-fold higher tuber astaxanthin content than has been achieved previously. Additionally we demonstrate the effects of growth environment on tuber carotenoid content in both wild type and astaxanthin-producing transgenic lines and describe the associated transcriptome and metabolome restructuring. PMID:25804807

  17. The current potential of neuroradiology in the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Palmieri; E. De Vecchio; R. Pirolo; D. Gardeur; A. Ambrosio

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography has proved very valuable in the diagnosis of central nervous system changes in tuberous sclerosis. A full analysis of the CT findings in 34 cases is presented.\\u000aIntracranial calcifications — periventricular, corticosubcortical, within the white substance or in the posterior cranial fossa — were the most frequent finding, followed by parenchymal hypodensities and tumors. Hydrocephalus and atrophy, focal

  18. Actin Depolymerization Affects Stress-Induced Translational Activity of Potato Tuber Tissue1

    PubMed Central

    Morelli, James K.; Zhou, Wei; Yu, Jia; Lu, Chen; Vayda, Michael E.

    1998-01-01

    Changes in polymerized actin during stress conditions were correlated with potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber protein synthesis. Fluorescence microscopy and immunoblot analyses indicated that filamentous actin was nearly undetectable in mature, quiescent aerobic tubers. Mechanical wounding of postharvest tubers resulted in a localized increase of polymerized actin, and microfilament bundles were visible in cells of the wounded periderm within 12 h after wounding. During this same period translational activity increased 8-fold. By contrast, low-oxygen stress caused rapid reduction of polymerized actin coincident with acute inhibition of protein synthesis. Treatment of aerobic tubers with cytochalasin D, an agent that disrupts actin filaments, reduced wound-induced protein synthesis in vivo. This effect was not observed when colchicine, an agent that depolymerizes microtubules, was used. Neither of these drugs had a significant effect in vitro on run-off translation of isolated polysomes. However, cytochalasin D did reduce translational competence in vitro of a crude cellular fraction containing both polysomes and cytoskeletal elements. These results demonstrate the dependence of wound-induced protein synthesis on the integrity of microfilaments and suggest that the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton may affect translational activity during stress conditions. PMID:9536039

  19. Effects of agricultural production systems and their components on protein profiles of potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Lehesranta, Satu J; Koistinen, Kaisa M; Massat, Nathalie; Davies, Howard V; Shepherd, Louise V T; McNicol, James W; Cakmak, Ismail; Cooper, Julia; Lück, Lorna; Kärenlampi, Sirpa O; Leifert, Carlo

    2007-02-01

    A range of studies have compared the level of nutritionally relevant compounds in crops from organic and nonorganic farming systems, but there is very limited information on the effect of farming systems and their key components on the protein composition of plants. We addressed this gap by quantifying the effects of different farming systems and key components of such systems on the protein profiles of potato tubers. Tuber samples were produced in the Nafferton factorial systems study, a group of long-term, replicated factorial field experiments designed to identify and quantify the effect of fertility management methods, crop protection practices and rotational designs used in organic, low input and conventional production systems. Protein profiles were determined by 2-DE and subsequent protein identification by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Principal component analysis of 2-DE data showed that only fertility management practices (organic matter vs. mineral fertiliser based) had a significant effect on protein composition. Quantitative differences were detected in 160 of the 1100 tuber proteins separated by 2-DE. Proteins identified by MS are involved in protein synthesis and turnover, carbon and energy metabolism and defence responses, suggesting that organic fertilisation leads to an increased stress response in potato tubers. PMID:17309105

  20. Doyle and Smart: Effect of drawdown on hydrilla tubers 135 Weed Science, 49:135140. 2001

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    Doyle and Smart: Effect of drawdown on hydrilla tubers · 135 Weed Science, 49:135­140. 2001 Effects. University of North Texas, Institute of Applied Sciences, P.O. Box 310559, Denton, TX 76203-0559; rdoyle@unt.edu R. Michael Smart US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Lewisville Aquatic Ecosystem