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Sample records for colorectal cancer meta-analysis

  1. GSTM1 polymorphism contribute to colorectal cancer in Asian populations: a prospective meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Xu, Wen; Liu, Fang; Huang, Silin; He, Meirong

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are enzymes which expressed in many tissues and play important roles in neutralization of toxic compounds, and protecting hosts against cancer. Among several GSTs, Glutathione S-transferases mu (GSTM) has been drawn attention upon the association with the genetic risk for many types of cancers. But whether the GSTM1 polymorphisms confer the susceptibility to colorectal cancer in Asians has not been well established. We searched the PubMed database with GSTM1, polymorphism and colorectal cancer, attempting to identify the eligible studies. In total, 33 case-control studies in Asian populations with 8502 colorectal cancer patients and 13699 controls were included in the current meta-analysis. The association between the polymorphism and susceptibility to colorectal cancer was evaluated by the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The pooled meta-analysis suggested that GSTM1 null variant was correlated to the colorectal cancer risk in Asians. There was a marginal heterogeneity among these eligible studies. Nevertheless, cumulative meta-analysis observed a trend of an obvious association between the GSTM1 null genotype and colorectal cancer risk in Asians. In summary, the meta-analysis suggested that GSTM1 null polymorphism confer the susceptibility to colorectal cancer in Asians, especially in Chinese populations. PMID:26219826

  2. Soy Consumption and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Humans: A Meta-Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between soy consumption and colorectal cancer risk in humans by conducting a meta-analysis of available epidemiologic studies. We systematically reviewed publications obtained through a Medline literature search and identified four ...

  3. Passive Smoking and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-analysis of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Wang, Xin; Huang, Chang-Hao; Yuan, Wei-Jie; Chen, Zi-Hua

    2016-07-01

    We conducted this meta-analysis to explore the association between passive smoking and the risk of colorectal cancer. A literature search of online databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science was performed up to June 30, 2015. A fixed-effects meta-analysis using Stata 12.0 was carried out to estimate the relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations. Eleven articles, including 6 case-control studies and 6 cohort studies, were included in our analysis according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The pooled RR of all studies showed a statistically significant association between passive smoking and colorectal cancer (RR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.05-1.24). Results of subgroup analysis showed a positive association between passive smoking and rectal cancer ((RR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.15-1.53) and that male passive smokers were at greater risks of colorectal cancer (RR = 1.73; 95% CI = 1.37-2.19) than females. Results suggested that passive smoking is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. PMID:27217428

  4. Meat subtypes and their association with colorectal cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Carr, Prudence R; Walter, Viola; Brenner, Hermann; Hoffmeister, Michael

    2016-01-15

    Associations between specific red meat subtypes and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) have been investigated in a number of epidemiological studies. However, no publication to date has summarised the overall epidemiological evidence. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies (cohort, nested case-control or case-cohort studies), which reported relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between intake of meat subtypes with colorectal, colon or rectal cancer or colorectal adenoma risk. PubMed and ISI Web of Science were searched up until August 1, 2014. Nineteen studies examined meat subtypes (5 beef, 5 pork, 2 lamb, 1 veal and 19 poultry) and associations with colorectal, colon or rectal cancer risk and 4 studies examined associations with adenoma risk (1 beef and 4 poultry). Comparing highest versus lowest intake, beef consumption was associated with an increased risk of CRC (RR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.22) and colon cancer (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.44), but no association was found with rectal cancer (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.78 to 1.16). Higher consumption of lamb was also associated with increased risk of CRC (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.44). No association was observed for pork (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.90 to 1.27), but some between study heterogeneity was observed. No association was observed for poultry consumption and risk of colorectal adenomas or cancer. This meta-analysis suggests that red meat subtypes differ in their association with CRC and its sub sites. Further analysis of data from prospective cohort studies is warranted, especially regarding the role of pork. PMID:25583132

  5. Meta-analysis of New Genome-wide Association Studies of Colorectal Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Ulrike; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Hsu, Li; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Conti, David V.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Edlund, Christopher K.; Haile, Robert W.; Gallinger, Steven; Zanke, Brent W.; Lemire, Mathieu; Rangrej, Jagadish; Vijayaraghavan, Raakhee; Chan, Andrew T.; Hazra, Aditi; Hunter, David J.; Ma, Jing; Fuchs, Charles S.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Kraft, Peter; Liu, Yan; Chen, Lin; Jiao, Shuo; Makar, Karen W.; Taverna, Darin; Gruber, Stephen B.; Rennert, Gad; Moreno, Victor; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Woods, Michael O.; Green, Roger C.; Parfrey, Patrick S.; Prentice, Ross L.; Kooperberg, Charles; Jackson, Rebecca D.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Caan, Bette J.; Hayes, Richard B.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Schoen, Robert E.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hoffmeister, Michael; Brenner, Hermann; Frank, Bernd; Bézieau, Stéphane; Küry, Sébastien; Slattery, Martha L.; Hopper, John L.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindor, Noralane M.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Seminara, Daniela; Hudson, Thomas J.; Duggan, David J.; Potter, John D.; Casey, Graham

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified novel susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer. To follow-up on these findings, and try to identify novel colorectal cancer susceptibility loci, we present results for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of colorectal cancer (2,906 cases, 3,416 controls) that have not previously published main associations. Specifically, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using log-additive models for each study. In order to improve our power to detect novel colorectal cancer susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis combining the results across studies. We selected the most statistically significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for replication using 10 independent studies (8,161 cases and 9,101 controls). We again used a meta-analysis to summarize results for the replication studies alone, and for a combined analysis of GWAS and replication studies. We measured 10 SNPs previously identified in colorectal cancer susceptibility loci and found eight to be associated with colorectal cancer (p-value range: 0.02 to 1.8 × 10−8). When we excluded studies that have previously published on these SNPs, five SNPs remained significant at p<0.05 in the combined analysis. No novel susceptibility loci were significant in the replication study after adjustment for multiple testing, and none reached genome-wide significance from a combined analysis of GWAS and replication. We observed marginally significant evidence for a second independent SNP in the BMP2 region at chromosomal location 20p12 (rs4813802; replication p-value 0.03; combined p-value 7.3 × 10−5). In a region on 5p33.15, which includes the coding regions of the TERT-CLPTM1L genes and has been identified in GWAS to be associated with susceptibility to at least seven other cancers, we observed a marginally significant

  6. Time to benefit for colorectal cancer screening: survival meta-analysis of flexible sigmoidoscopy trials

    PubMed Central

    Boscardin, W John; Stijacic-Cenzer, Irena; Lee, Sei J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the time to benefit of using flexible sigmoidoscopy for colorectal cancer screening. Design Survival meta-analysis. Data sources A Cochrane Collaboration systematic review published in 2013, Medline, and Cochrane Library databases. Eligibility criteria Randomized controlled trials comparing screening flexible sigmoidoscopy with no screening. Trials with fewer than 100 flexible sigmoidoscopy screenings were excluded. Results Four studies were eligible (total n=459 814). They were similar for patients’ age (50-74 years), length of follow-up (11.2-11.9 years), and relative risk for colorectal cancer related mortality (0.69-0.78 with flexible sigmoidoscopy screening). For every 1000 people screened at five and 10 years, 0.3 and 1.2 colorectal cancer related deaths, respectively, were prevented. It took 4.3 years (95% confidence interval 2.8 to 5.8) to observe an absolute risk reduction of 0.0002 (one colorectal cancer related death prevented for every 5000 flexible sigmoidoscopy screenings). It took 9.4 years (7.6 to 11.3) to observe an absolute risk reduction of 0.001 (one colorectal cancer related death prevented for every 1000 flexible sigmoidoscopy screenings). Conclusion Our findings suggest that screening flexible sigmoidoscopy is most appropriate for older adults with a life expectancy greater than approximately 10 years. PMID:25881903

  7. Folic acid supplements and colorectal cancer risk: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Tingting; Du, Mulong; Du, Haina; Shu, Yongqian; Wang, Meilin; Zhu, Lingjun

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the effects of folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk, but conflicting results were reported. We herein performed a meta-analysis based on relevant studies to reach a more definitive conclusion. The PubMed and Embase databases were searched for quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published before October 2014. Eight articles met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently analyzed. The results suggested that folic acid treatment was not associated with colorectal cancer risk in the total population (relative risk [RR] = 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.82-1.22, P = 0.974). Moreover, no statistical effect was identified in further subgroup analyses stratified by ethnicity, gender, body mass index (BMI) and potential confounding factors. No significant heterogeneity or publication bias was observed. In conclusion, our meta-analysis demonstrated that folic acid supplementation had no effect on colorectal cancer risk. However, this finding must be validated by further large studies.

  8. Meta-analysis of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in identification of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Hongyuan; Ma, Xuelei; Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Jingyi; Liu, Rongjun; Chen, Zihang; Chen, Jinna; Huang, Jingwen; Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the performance of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in identification of colorectal cancer. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed for studies that evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of DWI in identification of colorectal cancer. Methodological quality was assessed by Quality Assessment for Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy 2 (QUADAS 2) tool. After extracting data, we estimated the pooled sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and constructed summary receiver operating characteristics (SROC) curve. Results: Ten studies involving 367 malignant lesions and 178 benign lesions were considered eligible after full-text review. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.90-0.97) and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.85-0.97), respectively. Positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio were 12.8 (95% CI: 5.99-27.4) and 0.06 (95% CI: 0.03-0.11), respectively. The area under SROC curve was 0.98. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis indicates that DWI is a highly accurate diagnostic method in identification of colorectal cancer. PMID:26770325

  9. CCND1 G870A polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk: An updated meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    XU, XIAO-MING; NI, XIAO-BING; YANG, GONG-LI; LUO, ZHI-GUO; NIU, YU-MING; SHEN, MING

    2016-01-01

    Molecular epidemiological studies have revealed a closer association between cyclin D1 (CCND1) polymorphism and the risk of colorectal cancer; however, the results were inconsistent. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the association between CCND1 G870A polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk. Online electronic databases (PubMed and Embase) were searched. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the association between CCND1 G870A polymorphism and the risk of colorectal cancer. In addition, heterogeneity, publication bias and sensitivity analysis were performed to guarantee the statistical power. In total, 23 published case-control studies with 6,320 patients and 8,252 controls were selected. Significantly increased risks were observed in four genetic models (A vs. G: OR=1.09, 95% CI=1.00–1.18, I2=54.3%; GA vs. GG: OR=1.13, 95% CI=1.04–1.24, I2=18.2%; AA vs. GG, OR=1.17: 95% CI=1.00–1.38, I2=52.5%; GA+AA vs. GG: OR=1.14, 95% CI=1.05–1.24, I2=33.8%). Similarly, significant associations were also identified in the stratified analysis in the cancer subtype of sporadic colorectal cancer (GA vs. GG: OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.04–1.42, I2=24.1%; GA+AA vs. GG: OR=1.18, 95% CI=1.02–1.37, I2=35.0%), Caucasian population (GA vs. GG, OR=1.14, 95% CI=1.02–1.28, I2=19.8%; GA+AA vs. GG, OR=1.14, 95% CI=1.02–1.27, I2=37.5%) and other subgroups of control design and genotyping type. The present updated meta-analysis suggested that CCND1 G870A may present an increased risk for developing colorectal cancer, particularly in sporadic colorectal cancer and a Caucasian population. PMID:27284448

  10. Reduced incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer with flexible-sigmoidoscopy screening: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shroff, Jennifer; Thosani, Nirav; Batra, Sachin; Singh, Harminder; Guha, Sushovan

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of published population-based randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: RCTs evaluating the difference in mortality and incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) between a screening flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) group and control group (not assigned to screening FS) with a minimum 5 years median follow-up were identified by a search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials through August 2013. Random effects model was used for meta-analysis. RESULTS: Four RCTs with a total of 165659 patients in the FS group and 249707 patients in the control group were included in meta-analysis. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that there was a 22% risk reduction in total incidence of CRC (RR = 0.78, 95%CI: 0.74-0.83), 31% in distal CRC incidence (RR = 0.69, 95%CI: 0.63-0.75), and 9% in proximal CRC incidence (RR = 0.91, 95%CI: 0.83-0.99). Those who underwent screening FS were 18% less likely to be diagnosed with advanced CRC (OR = 0.82, 95%CI: 0.71-0.94). There was a 28% risk reduction in overall CRC mortality (RR = 0.72, 95%CI: 0.65-0.80) and 43% in distal CRC mortality (RR = 0.57, 95%CI: 0.45-0.72). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggests that screening FS can reduce the incidence of proximal and distal CRC and mortality from distal CRC along with reduction in diagnosis of advanced CRC. PMID:25561818

  11. Prognostic value of MGMT methylation in colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanliang; Lyu, Zhongchuan; Zhao, Lixin; Cheng, Hong; Zhu, Dongyuan; Gao, Yongsheng; Shang, Xiuwan; Shi, Huaijie

    2015-03-01

    The development of colorectal cancer (CRC) spans about 5-10 years, making early detection and prevention beneficial to the survival of CRC patients. To address inconsistencies in evidence regarding O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation as a potential prognostic factor in CRC, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate MGMT methylation in CRC patients. Fourteen studies were included in the meta-analysis after screening 120 articles. The following items were collected from each study: author, published year, country, patient gender, MGMT methylation status, and patients' disease progression. Pooled hazard ratios and odd ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed or random effect models depending on the heterogeneity between studies. The overall survival of CRC patients was found not to be significantly associated with MGMT methylation. Further subgroup analysis showed that the frequency of MGMT methylation was significantly higher in CRC than in normal tissues (p < 0.00001). MGMT promoter in CRC patients was more frequently methylated than in adenoma patients. In addition, MGMT methylation was significantly increased in adenoma than in normal tissues (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, MGMT methylation is central to the development of cancer that involves a stepwise carcinogenesis of normal adenoma carcinoma cascade. However, MGMT methylation is not associated with the prognosis of CRC. PMID:25596081

  12. Adjuvant chemotherapy for resected colorectal cancer metastases: Literature review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brandi, Giovanni; De Lorenzo, Stefania; Nannini, Margherita; Curti, Stefania; Ottone, Marta; Dall’Olio, Filippo Gustavo; Barbera, Maria Aurelia; Pantaleo, Maria Abbondanza; Biasco, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Surgical resection is the only option of cure for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the risk of recurrence within 18 mo after metastasectomy is around 75% and the liver is the most frequent site of relapse. The current international guidelines recommend an adjuvant therapy after surgical resection of CRC metastases despite the lower level of evidence (based on the quality of studies in this setting). However, there is still no standard treatment and the effective role of an adjuvant therapy remains controversial. The aim of this review is to report the state-of-art of systemic chemotherapy and regional chemotherapy with hepatic arterial infusion in the management of patients after resection of metastases from CRC, with a literature review and meta-analysis of the relevant randomized controlled trials. PMID:26811604

  13. The effectiveness of FOBT vs. FIT: A meta-analysis on colorectal cancer screening test

    PubMed Central

    Mousavinezhad, Maryam; Majdzadeh, Reza; Akbari Sari, Ali; Delavari, Alireza; Mohtasham, Farideh

    2016-01-01

    Background: After lung and prostate cancers, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer worldwide. Every year, more than one million people are diagnosed with colorectal cancer worldwide and half of these patients die from this disease, making it the fourth leading cause of death in the world. This systematic review aimed to assess the effectiveness of the two colorectal diagnostic tests of FOBT (fecal occult blood test) and FIT (fecal immunochemical test)) in terms of technical performance. Methods: To retrieve the relevant evidence, appropriate medical databases such as Cochrane library, NHSEED, Scopus and Google scholar were searched from February 2013 to July 2014, using free-texts and Mesh. In this study, inclusion/exclusion criteria of the papers, randomized controlled trials, economic evaluations, systematic reviews, meta-analyses and meta-syntheses of the effectiveness of FIT versus FOBT tests in moderate-risk populations (age: 50 to 70 years), which had reported the least of such outcomes as sensitivity, specificity and clinical outcomes were reviewed. The analyses of the effectiveness outcomes were performed in the form of meta-analysis. Results: Five papers were eligible to be included in the final phase of the study for synthesis. FIT showed a better performance in participation and positivity rate. Moreover, in terms of false positive and negative rate, FIT showed fewer rates compared to FOBT (RR:-4.06; 95% CI (-7.89-0.24), and NN-scope (Number need to scope) (2.2% vs. 1.6%), and NN-screen (Number need to screen) (84% vs. 31-49% in different cut off levels) showed significant differences in FOBT vs. FIT, respectively. Conclusion: In the five included studies (3, 11-14), the acceptability of FIT was more than FOBT. However, in our meta-analysis, no difference was found between the two tests. FIT was significant in positivity rate and had a better performance in

  14. The Prognostic Value of Circulating Cell-Free DNA in Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Basnet, Shiva; Zhang, Zhen-yu; Liao, Wen-qiang; Li, Shu-heng; Li, Ping-shu; Ge, Hai-yan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a promising candidate biomarker for detection, monitoring and survival prediction of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, its prognostic significance for patients with CRC remains controversial. To derive a precise estimation of the prognostic significance of cfDNA, a meta-analysis was performed. Methods: We made a systematic search in data base of the Science Citation Index Embase and Pubmed for studies reporting prognostic data of cfDNA in CRC patients. The data of cfDNA on recurrences-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were extracted and measured in hazard rates (HRs) and 95% confident intervals (CIs). Subgroup analyses were carried out as well. Finally, the meta-analysis is accompanied with nine studies including 19 subunits. Results: The pooled HRs with 95% CIs revealed strong associations between cfDNA and RFS (HR [95%CI]=2.78[2.08-3.72], I2=32.23%, n=7) along with OS (HR [95%CI]=3.03[2.51-3.66], I2=29.24%, n=12) in patients with CRC. Entire subgroup analyses indicated strong prognostic value of cfDNA irrespective tumor stage, study size, tumor markers, detection methods and marker origin. Conclusions: All the results exhibits that appearance of cfDNA in blood is an indicator for adverse RFS and OS in CRC patients. PMID:27326254

  15. Meta-analysis of mismatch repair polymorphisms within the cogent consortium for colorectal cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Picelli, Simone; Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hoffmeister, Michael; Fernández-Rozadilla, Ceres; Carracedo, Angel; Castells, Antoni; Castellví-Bel, Sergi; Naccarati, Alessio; Pardini, Barbara; Vodickova, Ludmila; Müller, Heiko; Talseth-Palmer, Bente A; Stibbard, Geoffrey; Peterlongo, Paolo; Nici, Carmela; Veneroni, Silvia; Li, Li; Casey, Graham; Tenesa, Albert; Farrington, Susan M; Tomlinson, Ian; Moreno, Victor; van Wezel, Tom; Wijnen, Juul; Dunlop, Malcolm; Radice, Paolo; Scott, Rodney J; Vodicka, Pavel; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Brenner, Hermann; Buch, Stephan; Völzke, Henry; Hampe, Jochen; Schafmayer, Clemens; Lindblom, Annika

    2013-01-01

    In the last four years, Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified sixteen low-penetrance polymorphisms on fourteen different loci associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). Due to the low risks conferred by known common variants, most of the 35% broad-sense heritability estimated by twin studies remains unexplained. Recently our group performed a case-control study for eight Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in 4 CRC genes. The present investigation is a follow-up of that study. We have genotyped six SNPs that showed a positive association and carried out a meta-analysis based on eight additional studies comprising in total more than 8000 cases and 6000 controls. The estimated recessive odds ratio for one of the SNPs, rs3219489 (MUTYH Q338H), decreased from 1.52 in the original Swedish study, to 1.18 in the Swedish replication, and to 1.08 in the initial meta-analysis. Since the corresponding summary probability value was 0.06, we decided to retrieve additional information for this polymorphism. The incorporation of six further studies resulted in around 13000 cases and 13000 controls. The newly updated OR was 1.03. The results from the present large, multicenter study illustrate the possibility of decreasing effect sizes with increasing samples sizes. Phenotypic heterogeneity, differential environmental exposures, and population specific linkage disequilibrium patterns may explain the observed difference of genetic effects between Sweden and the other investigated cohorts. PMID:24039736

  16. XPC Lys939Gln polymorphism contributes to colorectal cancer susceptibility: evidence from a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Published studies investigating the association between XPC Lys939Gln polymorphism and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk reported inconclusive results. We performed a meta-analysis to derive a precise estimation of the relationship. Methods A comprehensive literature search was done in databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library up to December 2013. The association between XPC Lys939Gln polymorphism and CRC risk was assessed by odds ratios (ORs) together with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Eight studies with 3,301 cases and 4,177 controls were included in the meta-analysis. We observed that the XPC Lys939Gln polymorphism was correlated with an increased CRC risk when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis (Gln/lys vs. Lys/Lys: OR = 1.293, 95% CI 1.169–1.430, P = 0.000; Gln/Gln + Gln/lys vs. Lys/Lys: OR = 1.260, 95% CI 1.145–1.388, P = 0.000). In stratified analyses by ethnicity, smoking, and study quality, significant increased CRC risk was found in Asians (Gln/lys vs. Lys/Lys: OR = 1.345, 95% CI 1.187–1.523, P = 0.000; Gln/Gln + Gln/lys vs. Lys/Lys: OR = 1.317, 95% CI 1.170–1.484, P = 0.000), nonsmokers (Gln/Gln + Gln/lys vs. Lys/Lys: OR = 1.286, 95% CI 1.020–1.622, P = 0.033), and high quality studies. In subgroup analysis by source of control, significant increased CRC risk was found in both hospital-based studies and population-based studies. However, in subgroup analysis according to cancer location, no any significant association was detected. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that the XPC is a candidate gene for CRC susceptibility. The XPC Lys939Gln polymorphism may play an important role in CRC development among Asians and nonsmokers. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm this association. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http

  17. Cruciferous vegetables intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Q. J.; Yang, Y.; Vogtmann, E.; Wang, J.; Han, L. H.; Li, H. L.; Xiang, Y. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent associations between cruciferous vegetable (CV) intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. To our knowledge, a comprehensive and quantitative assessment of the association between CV intake and CRC has not been reported. Methods Relevant articles were identified by searching MEDLINE. We pooled the relative risks (RR) from individual studies using a random-effect model and carried out heterogeneity and publication bias analyses. Results Twenty-four case–control and 11 prospective studies were included in our analysis. When all studies were pooled, we yielded a significantly inverse association between CV (RR: 0.82; 95% confidence interval 0.75–0.90) intake and CRC risk. Specific analysis for cabbage and broccoli yielded similar result. When separately analyzed, case–control studies of CV intake yield similar results, and the results from the prospective studies showed borderline statistical significance. Moreover, significant inverse associations were also observed in colon cancer and its distal subsite both among prospective and case–control studies. Conclusions Findings from this meta-analysis provide evidence that high intake of CV was inversely associated with the risk of CRC and colon cancer in humans. Further analysis on other specific CV, food preparation methods, stratified results by anatomic cancer site, and subsite of colon cancer should be extended in future study. PMID:23211939

  18. The Relationship between Telomerase Activity and Clinicopathological Parameters in Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xue-Cheng; Ge, Lian-Ying; Lai, Hao; Qiu, Hai; Tang, Fan; Qin, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, accumulated research has found that the expression of telomerase activity (TA) was associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) advancement, whereas the TA prognostic effect in CRC patients is still controversial. Aims: To investigate relationships between TA and CRC clinicopathological parameters. Study Design: Meta-analysis study. Methods: We searched published studies in databases, such as EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Ovid databases (last search updated to October 2014) by meeting specified search criteria. The quality of the included studies was usually evaluated and a meta-analysis was implemented by Stata 12.0 software. We used an odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) to evaluate relationship strengths between TA and CRC clinicopathological parameters. Results: In total, 11 studies (715 patients) were included to assess the relation between TA and metastasis-related parameters in CRC patients. The results indicate that a senior TA expression was connected with the existence of lymph node metastasis (180 patients; OR=2.85, 95% CI=1.40–5.81, p=0.004), and tumor site (522 patients; OR=2.93, 95% CI=1.29–6.67, p=0.010). However, a senior TA expression was not connected with tumor size (137 patients; OR=1.57, 95% CI=0.71–3.47, p=0.267), histological differentiation (570 patients; OR=1.28, 95% CI=0.78–2.09, p=0.332), depth of invasion (57 patients; OR=3.76, 95% CI=0.61–23.04, p=0.152), distant metastasis (123 patients; OR=1.76, 95% CI=0.54–5.74, p=0.346), and clinical stage of the cancer (543 patients; OR=1.59, 95% CI=0.74–3.38, p=0.232). Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that a positive TA was correlated with lymph node metastasis progression and tumor site of the CRC but did not correlate with other important clinicopathological parameters. TA can play a useful part in the prognosis and treatment of CRC patients, but further studies are required to confirm this. PMID:26966620

  19. Survival after liver resection in metastatic colorectal cancer: review and meta-analysis of prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Kanas, Gena P; Taylor, Aliki; Primrose, John N; Langeberg, Wendy J; Kelsh, Michael A; Mowat, Fionna S; Alexander, Dominik D; Choti, Michael A; Poston, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatic metastases develop in approximately 50% of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. We performed a review and meta-analysis to evaluate survival after resection of CRC liver metastases (CLMs) and estimated the summary effect for seven prognostic factors. Methods Studies published between 1999 and 2010, indexed on Medline, that reported survival after resection of CLMs, were reviewed. Meta-relative risks for survival by prognostic factor were calculated, stratified by study size and annual clinic volume. Cumulative meta-analysis results by annual clinic volume were plotted. Results Five- and 10-year survival ranged from 16% to 74% (median 38%) and 9% to 69% (median 26%), respectively, based on 60 studies. The overall summary median survival time was 3.6 (range: 1.7–7.3) years. Meta-relative risks (95% confidence intervals) by prognostic factor were: node positive primary, 1.6 (1.5–1.7); carcinoembryonic antigen level, 1.9 (1.1–3.2); extrahepatic disease, 1.9 (1.5–2.4); poor tumor grade, 1.9 (1.3–2.7); positive margin, 2.0 (1.7–2.5); >1 liver metastases, 1.6 (1.4–1.8); and >3 cm tumor diameter, 1.5 (1.3–1.8). Cumulative meta-analyses by annual clinic volume suggested improved survival with increasing volume. Conclusion The overall median survival following CLM liver resection was 3.6 years. All seven investigated prognostic factors showed a modest but significant predictive relationship with survival, and certain prognostic factors may prove useful in determining optimal therapeutic options. Due to the increasing complexity of surgical interventions for CLM and the inclusion of patients with higher disease burdens, future studies should consider the potential for selection and referral bias on survival. PMID:23152705

  20. Prognostic significance of matrix metalloproteinase 7 immunohistochemical expression in colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haiyan; Hu, Yeting; Xiang, Weibo; Cai, Yibo; Wang, Zhanhuai; Xiao, Qian; Liu, Yue; Li, Qiong; Ding, Kefeng

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP-7) was speculated to have a key role in the development and progression of human cancer. Considerable studies investigated the relationship between its expression and survival in colorectal cancer (CRC), but inconsistent results were obtained. The clinical significance of MMP-7 overexpression in CRC remains controversial. Therefore, in this article, we conducted a meta-analysis to analyze the prognostic value of MMP-7 in CRC. We searched studies in PubMed, Medline, and Web of Science databases until August 2014 to find relevant studies. A total of six high-quality studies met the inclusion criteria and 1631 patients were included in our study. Combined hazard ratios (HRs) suggested that MMP-7 overexpression had an unfavorable impact on overall survival (HR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.24-2.71). Subgroup and sensitivity analyses further validated the role of MMP-7 as a predictor for prognosis. In conclusion, MMP-7 overexpression detected by immunohistochemistry indicated worse prognosis in CRC and may help to guide clinical therapy. PMID:26064217

  1. Soy isoflavone consumption and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yi; Jing, Xiaoli; Li, Hui; Zhao, Xiang; Wang, Dongping

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most predominant solid carcinomas in Western countries. However, there is conflicting information on the effects of soy isoflavone on CRC risk. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between soy isoflavone consumption and CRC risk in humans using PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. A total of 17 epidemiologic studies, which consisted of thirteen case-control and four prospective cohort studies, met the inclusion criteria. Our research findings revealed that soy isoflavone consumption reduced CRC risk (relative risk, RR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.72-0.85; I(2) = 34.1%, P = 0.024). Based on subgroup analyses, a significant protective effect was observed with soy foods/products (RR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.69-0.89), in Asian populations (RR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.72-0.87), and in case-control studies (RR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.68-0.84). Therefore, soy isoflavone consumption was significantly associated with a reduced risk of CRC risk, particularly with soy foods/products, in Asian populations, and in case-control studies. However, due to the limited number of studies, other factors may affect this association. PMID:27170217

  2. Association Between Six Genetic Polymorphisms and Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng; Wang, Lingyan; Liao, Qi; Xu, Leiting; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Cheng; Ye, Huadan; Xu, Xuting

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether six genetic polymorphisms confer susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: A systematic search for candidate genes of CRC was performed among several online databases, including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, and Wanfang online libraries. After a comprehensive filtering procedure, we harvested five genes, including MGMT (rs12917 and rs2308321), ADH1B (rs1229984), SOD2 (rs4880), XPC (rs2228001), and PPARG (rs1801282). Using the REVMAN and Stata software, six meta-analyses were conducted for associations between CRC and the just-mentioned genetic variants. Results: A total of 34 comparative studies among 17,289 cases and 54,927 controls were involved in our meta-analyses. Significant association was found between ADH1B rs1229984 polymorphism and CRC (p=0.03, odds ratio [OR]=1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.01–1.36). We also found significant association between PPARG rs1801282 polymorphism and CRC (p=0.004, OR=1.498, 95% CI=1.139–1.970), and this significant association is specific in Caucasians (p=0.004, OR=1.603, 95% CI=1.165–2.205). Conclusions: The current meta-analysis has established that ADH1B (rs1229984) and PPARG (rs1801282) are two risk variants of CRC. PMID:24552298

  3. Soy isoflavone consumption and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi; Jing, Xiaoli; Li, Hui; Zhao, Xiang; Wang, Dongping

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most predominant solid carcinomas in Western countries. However, there is conflicting information on the effects of soy isoflavone on CRC risk. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between soy isoflavone consumption and CRC risk in humans using PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. A total of 17 epidemiologic studies, which consisted of thirteen case-control and four prospective cohort studies, met the inclusion criteria. Our research findings revealed that soy isoflavone consumption reduced CRC risk (relative risk, RR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.72–0.85; I2 = 34.1%, P = 0.024). Based on subgroup analyses, a significant protective effect was observed with soy foods/products (RR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.69–0.89), in Asian populations (RR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.72–0.87), and in case-control studies (RR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.68–0.84). Therefore, soy isoflavone consumption was significantly associated with a reduced risk of CRC risk, particularly with soy foods/products, in Asian populations, and in case-control studies. However, due to the limited number of studies, other factors may affect this association. PMID:27170217

  4. Tumour-infiltrating inflammation and prognosis in colorectal cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Z; Liu, Y; Liu, C; Cui, A; Liang, Z; Wang, G; Peng, H; Cui, L; Li, C

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of tumour-infiltrating inflammation in the prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been fully evaluated. The primary objective of our meta-analysis was to determine the impact of tumour-infiltrating inflammation on survival outcomes. Methods: Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched to identify studies reporting the prognostic significance of tumour-infiltrating inflammation for patients with CRC. The primary outcome measures were overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Results: A total of 30 studies involving 2988 patients were identified. Studies were subdivided into those considering the associations between CRC survival and generalised tumour inflammatory infiltrate (n=12) and T lymphocyte subsets (n=18). Pooled analyses revealed that high generalised tumour inflammatory infiltrate was associated with good OS (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.48–0.72), CS (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.27–0.61) and DFS (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.57–0.91). Stratification by location and T lymphocyte subset indicated that in the tumour centre, CD3+, CD8+ and FoxP3+ infiltrates were not statistically significant prognostic markers for OS or CS. In the tumour stroma, high CD8+, but not CD3+ or FoxP3+ cell infiltrates indicated increased OS. Furthermore, high CD3+ cell infiltrate was detected at the invasive tumour margin in patients with good OS and DFS; and high CCR7+ infiltrate was also indicated increased OS. Conclusion: Overall, high generalised tumour inflammatory infiltrate could be a good prognostic marker for CRC. However, significant heterogeneity and an insufficient number of studies underscore the need for further prospective studies on subsets of T lymphocytes to increase the robustness of the analyses. PMID:24504370

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ 34C>G polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yong-Liang; Li, Gai-Ling; Huang, Hui-Lian; Zhong, Jing; Dai, Li-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) gene polymorphism 34 C>G and colorectal cancer (CRC), a meta-analysis review was performed in this report. METHODS: A systematic literature search and selection of eligible relevant studies were carried out. Nine independent studies with a total number of 4533 cases and 6483 controls were included in the meta-analysis on the association between polymorphism 34 C>G and CRC. RESULTS: There was no evidence for the association between PPAR-γ 34 C>G and CRC if all of the subjects in the nine studies were included. However, CG + GG showed a marginally significant difference from CC (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.69-1.01, P = 0.07) in random-effect model. Stratified meta-analysis indicated that PPAR-γ 34 C>G was associated with colon cancer (OR = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.65-0.99, P = 0.04) in random-effect model, and the G allele decreased colon cancer risk. No significant association was observed between PPAR-γ 34 C>G and rectal cancer. CONCLUSION: PPAR-γ 34 C>G is associated with colon cancer risk, but not associated with CRC and rectal cancer risk. PMID:20440859

  6. Prognostic and Clinicopathological Significance of Survivin in Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, Andreas; Werner, Thomas A.; Verde, Pablo E.; Stoecklein, Nikolas H.; Knoefel, Wolfram T.

    2013-01-01

    Survivin/BIRC5 is a potentially interesting prognostic marker and therapeutic target in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the available data on survivin expression in CRC are heterogeneous. Thus, to clarify the prognostic relevance of survivin in patients with CRC and its association with clinicopathological parameters we performed a meta-analysis. We screened PubMed and EMBASE for those studies that investigated the prognostic value of survivin and its association with clinicopathological parameters in CRC. Data from eligible studies were extracted and included into the meta-analyses using a random effects model. Electronical literature search identified 15 studies including 1934 patients with CRC mostly detecting survivin by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Pooled hazard ratios of 11 studies that performed survival analysis revealed a positive correlation between survivin expression and poor prognosis (HR 1.93; 95% CI: 1.55–2.42; P<0.00001; I2 = 23%). Subgroup analyses with respect to the detection method, HR estimation, global quality score and the country of origin in which the study was conducted supported the stability of this observation. In addition, meta-analyses revealed a significant association between expression of survivin and the presence of lymph node metastases (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.19–0.75; I2 = 61%) or blood vessel invasion (OR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.28–0.90; I2 = 0%). Expression of survivin indicates poor prognosis and a pro-metastatic phenotype and may be useful in identifying a subgroup of patients that could benefit from a targeted therapy against survivin in CRC. PMID:23755220

  7. A Linear Dose-Response Relationship between Fasting Plasma Glucose and Colorectal Cancer Risk: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jianguo; Xiong, Lijuan; Li, Jiaoyuan; Cao, Heng; Jiang, Wen; Liu, Bo; Chen, Xueqin; Liu, Cheng; Liu, Ke; Wang, Guobin; Cai, Kailin

    2015-01-01

    For many years, the question of whether hyperglycaemia, a manifestation of prediabetes, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, is a risk factor for colorectal cancer has been intensely studied. In fact, even after the conclusion of several prospective studies, the topic is still controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the dose-response relationship between blood glucose concentration and the incidence of colorectal cancer. A linear (P = 0.303 for non-linearity) dose-response relationship was observed between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and colorectal cancer risk without significant heterogeneity. The relative risk (RR) for colorectal cancer per 20 mg/dL increase in FPG was 1.015 (95% CI: 1.012–1.019, P = 0.000). In subgroup analyses, the pooled RRs for colon cancer (CC) and rectal cancer (RC) studies were 1.035 (95% CI 1.008–1.062, P = 0.011) and 1.031 (95% CI: 0.189–5.628, P = 0.972), respectively; in the analysis comparing men and women, the pooled RRs were 1.016 (95% CI: 1.012–1.020, P = 0.000) and 1.011 (95% CI: 0.995–1.027, P = 0.164), respectively. Sensitivity analyses using two methods showed similar results. In conclusion, there is a significant linear dose-response relationship between FPG and the incidence risk of colorectal cancer. For people with diabetes or prediabetes, controlling blood glucose might be useful to prevent colorectal cancer. PMID:26620869

  8. Effectiveness and safety of monoclonal antibodies for metastatic colorectal cancer treatment: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Bruno; de Jesus, Jose Paulo; de Mello, Eduardo L; Cesar, Daniel; Correia, Mauro M

    2015-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of chemotherapy (CT) for select cases of metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC) has been well established in the literature, however, it provides limited benefits and in many cases constitutes a treatment with high toxicity. The use of specific molecular biological treatments with monoclonal antibodies (MA) has been shown to be relevant, particularly for its potential for increasing the response rate of the host to the tumour, as these have molecular targets present in the cancerous cells and their microenvironment thereby blocking their development. The combination of MA and CT can bring a significant increase in the rate of resectability of metastases, the progression-free survival (PFS), and the global survival (GS) in MCRC patients. Objective To assess the effectiveness and safety of MA in the treatment of MCRC. Methods A systematic review was carried out with a meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials comparing the use of cetuximab, bevacizumab, and panitumumab in the treatment of MCRC. Results Sixteen randomised clinical trials were selected. The quality of the evidence on the question was considered moderate and data from eight randomised clinical trials were included in this meta-analysis. The GS and PFS were greater in the groups which received the MA associated with CT, however, the differences were not statistically significant between the groups (mean of 17.7 months versus 17.1 months; mean difference of 1.09 (CI: 0.10–2.07); p = 0.84; and 7.4 versus 6.9 months. mean difference of 0.76 (CI: 0.08–1.44); p = 0.14 respectively). The meta-analysis was not done for any of the secondary outcomes. Conclusion The addition of MA to CT for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer does not prolong GS and PFS. PMID:26557880

  9. The Role of p-STAT3 as a Prognostic and Clinicopathological Marker in Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Qi; Gan, Yong; Ren, Hui; Zhang, Liyan; Wang, Liwei; Li, Xiaoxiu; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective High expression of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) has been detected in a variety of human tumors. However, the association of positive p-STAT3 expression with clinicopathological parameters and the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients remain controversial. To identify the relationship between p-STAT3 expression and clinicopathological parameters and prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. Methods We performed a comprehensive literature search from PubMed, EMBASE, and SinoMed through 27 March, 2016. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were combined to evaluate the association between p-STAT3 expression and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CI were combined to evaluate the association between p-STAT3 expression and clinicopathological parameters in patients with colorectal cancer. Results Seventeen studies including a total of 2,346 colorectal cancer patients were included in this meta-analysis. The combined HR was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.23–1.67, P < 0.001), which suggested a positive relationship between p-STAT3 overexpression and poorer overall survival of colorectal cancer patients. In addition, the results indicated that positive p-STAT3 expression was significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis (OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.18–5.01, P = 0.02) but was not associated with TNM stage, tumor differentiation or gender. Conclusion The meta-analysis results suggest that p-STAT3 overexpression is unfavorable for the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients, and p-STAT3 overexpression is associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis among colorectal cancer patients. PMID:27504822

  10. MUC1 Predicts Colorectal Cancer Metastasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Case Controlled Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Minxun; Liu, Yang; Zheng, Tianying; Feng, Shijian; Hao, Meiqin; Shi, Huashan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the predicting value of MUC1 expression in lymph node and distant metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods Pubmed/ MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched to identify eligible studies that evaluated the correlation between MUC1 and CRC. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the impact of MUC1 expression on CRC metastasis. Results A total of 18 studies (n = 3271) met inclusion criteria and the mean Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) score was 6.3 with a range from 4 to 8. The pooled OR in the meta-analysis of 15 studies indicated that positive MUC1 expression correlated with more CRC node metastasis (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.63–3.29). The data synthesis of 6 studies suggested that MUC1 expression predicted more possibility of CRC distant metastasis (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.23–4.00). In addition, the combined OR of 7 studies showed that MUC1 expression indicated higher Duke’s stage (OR = 3.02, 95% CI = 2.11–4.33). No publication bias was found in the mate-analysis by Begg’s test or Egger’s test with the exception of the meta-analysis of MUC1 with CRC node metastasis (Begg’s test p = 0.729, Egger’s test p = 0.000). Conclusions Despite of some modest bias, the pooled evidence suggested that MUC1 expression was significantly correlated with CRC metastasis. PMID:26367866

  11. Association of type 2 diabetes mellitus and the risk of colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Guraya, Salman Yousuf

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To provide a quantitative assessment of the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: Systematic review was conducted thorough MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and ISI Web of knowledge databases till 31st January 2014. This meta-analysis included the cohort studies that illustrated relative risk (RR) or odds ratio estimates with 95%CI for the predictive risk of CRC by T2DM. Summary relative risks with 95%CI were analyzed by using an effects summary ratio model. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed by the Cochran’s Q and I2 statistics. RESULTS: The meta analysis of 8 finally selected studies showed a positive correlation of T2DM with the risk of CRC as depicted by effects summary RR of 1.21 (95%CI: 1.02-1.42). Diabetic women showed greater risk of developing CRC as their effect summary RR of 1.22 (95%CI: 1.01-49) with significant overall Z test at 5% level of significance was higher than the effect summary RR of 1.17 (95%CI: 1.00-1.37) of men showing insignificant Z test. The effect summary RR of 1.19 with 95%CI of 1.07-1.33 indicate a positive relationship between DM and increased risk of CRC with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 92% and P-value < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Results from this systematic review and meta-analysis report that diabetic people have an increased risk of CRC as compared to non-diabetics. PMID:26019469

  12. Prognostic Significance of Cyclin D1 Expression in Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Wei, Jun; Xu, Chuanhui; Zhao, Zhongxin; You, Tiangeng

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cyclin D1 plays a vital role in cancer cell cycle progression and is overexpressed in many human cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the prognostic value of cyclin D1 overexpression in colorectal cancer is conflicting and heterogeneous. We conducted a meta-analysis to more precisely evaluate its prognostic significance. Methods A comprehensive literature search for relevant studies published up to January 2014 was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was used to estimate the effects. Results 22 studies with 4150 CRC patients were selected to evaluate the association between cyclin D1 and overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and clinicopathological parameters. In a random-effects model, the results showed that cyclin D1 overexpression in CRC was significantly associated with both poor OS (HR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.63–0.85, P<0.001) and DFS (HR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.44–0.82, P = 0.001). Additionally, cyclin D1 overexpression was significantly associated with more relative older patients (≥60 years) (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44–0.89, P = 0.009), T3,4 tumor invasion (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.57–0.85, P<0.001), N positive (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.60–0.95, P = 0.016) and distant metastasis (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.36–0.99, P = 0.047) of CRC. Conclusion The meta-analysis results indicated that cyclin D1 is an unfavorable prognostic factor for CRC. Cyclin D1 overexpression might be associated with poor clinical outcome and some clinicopathological factors such as age, T category, N category and distant metastasis in CRC patients. PMID:24728073

  13. The role of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase polymorphisms in colorectal cancer susceptibility: a meta analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yongchao; Cao, Mingfeng; Gao, Kejian; Jiang, Jinjiao; Shi, Xuewen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: O6-methylguanine DNA methyl-transferase gene (MGMT) is a central DNA repair mechanism with a significant role in removing DNA damage caused by alkylating agents and inhibiting human oncogenesis. Two single polymorphisms in the MGMT gene, Leu84Phe and Ile143Val, have been reported to affect DNA repair capability and enzymic activity, thereby leading to formation of different cancers. In this work, we quantitatively assess the associations between MGMT polymorphisms and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), as previous studies has implicated inconsistencies in their results. Methods: Analysis was performed on all usable data collected from the eligible studies that were searched in multiple bibliographical databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, and Embase). Results: We obtained studies on Leu84Phe and Ile143Val, providing 6,154 and 7,371 samples, respectively. In the analysis on Leu84Phe, the SNP presented no global association with CRC at both the genotypic and the allelic level, but a trend towards an increased or decreased risk was shown in the models examined. Stratification by ethnicity revealed a significant increase in risk of CRC related to the Phe/Phe genotype in Caucasian samples (homozygote genetic model: OR=1.70, 95% CI=1.06-2.72; recessive genetic model: OR=1.80, 95% CI=1.12-2.87). Conclusions: Based on the statistical data, our meta-analysis indicates that Leu84Phe polymorphism in the MGMT gene may predispose Caucasians to CRC. PMID:25785059

  14. Factors Affecting Survival in Patients with Lung Metastases from Colorectal Cancer. A Short Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lumachi, Franco; Chiara, Giordano B; Tozzoli, Renato; Del Conte, Alessandro; Del Contea, Alessandro; Basso, Stefano M M

    2016-01-01

    Liver and pulmonary metastases (PMs) are relatively common in patients with colorectal cancer. The majority of metastases are suitable for surgical resection, and the effectiveness of metastasectomy is usually assessed based on overall survival (OS). Metastasectomy provides a mean 5-year OS rate of approximately 50%, but the results are better in patients with liver metastases compared to those with PMs. Unfortunately, the presence of bilateral or multiple PMs represents a relative contraindication to surgical metastasectomy. Unresectable PMs can be safely treated with percutaneous radiofrequency ablation or radiotherapy, but the reported results vary widely. Several clinical prognostic factors affecting OS after metastasectomy have been reported, such as number of PMs, hilar or mediastinal lymph node involvement, disease-free interval, age and gender, resection margins, size of the metastases, neoadjuvant chemotherapy administration, and histological type of the primary cancer. The accurate evaluation of all clinical prognostic factors, circulating and immunohistochemical markers, and the study of gene mutational status will lead to a more accurate selection of patients scheduled to metastasectomy, with the aim of improving outcome. PMID:26722023

  15. Prognostic Role of BRAF Mutation in Stage II/III Colorectal Cancer Receiving Curative Resection and Adjuvant Chemotherapy: A Meta-Analysis Based on Randomized Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ying; Fang, Xuefeng; Zhong, Chenhan; Li, Dan; Yuan, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Studies examining the prognostic value of the BRAF mutation on relapse-free survival (RFS), disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in stage II/III colorectal cancer (CRC) patients receiving curative resection and adjuvant chemotherapy so far showed discrepant results. Therefore, a meta-analysis of relevant studies was performed for clarification. Methods Randomized trials of stage II/III colorectal cancer treated with curative resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy were selected to conduct a meta-analysis. The necessary descriptive and statistical information such as hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived from published survival data. Results Seven phase III randomized clinical trials (RCTs) including 1,035 BRAF mutation stage II/III CRC patients receiving curative resection and adjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed. Overall, BRAF mutation resulted in poorer OS (HR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.25–1.60; P < 0.00001), and poorer DFS (HR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.07–1.48, P = 0.006) compared with BRAF wild-type CRC. The prognostic role on RFS could not be elucidated in the meta-analysis because of limited data. Conclusions BRAF mutation was significantly related with shorter DFS and OS among stage II/III CRC patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection. Its prognostic role for RFS needs to be further analyzed when more data is available. PMID:27138801

  16. Prognostic Value and Clinicopathological Differences of HIFs in Colorectal Cancer: Evidence from Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Wenjie; Huang, Qi; Zhang, Zhigang; Ye, Jun; Ni, Chao; Wu, Pin; Wu, Dang; Xu, Jinghong; Qiu, Fuming; Huang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Background The prognostic value of HIFs in colorectal cancer was evaluated in a large number of studies, but the conclusions were inconclusive. Meanwhile, clinicopathologic differences of HIF-1α and HIF-2α were rarely compared in recent studies. Methodology Identical search strategies were used to search relevant literatures in the PubMed and Web of Science databases. The prognostic significances and clinicopathological differences of HIFs in CRC were analyzed. Principal Findings A total of 23studies comprising 2984 CRC patients met the inclusion criteria. The results indicated that overexpressed HIFs were significantly associated with increase of mortality risk, including overall survival (OS) (HR 2.06 95%CI 1.55–2.74) and disease free survival (HR 2.84, 95%CI 1.87–4.31). Subgroup analysis revealed that both overexpressed HIF-1α and HIF-2α had correlations with worse prognosis. The pooled HRs were 2.01 (95% CI: 1.55–2.6) and 2.07(95% CI: 1.01–4.26). Further subgroup analysis on HIF-1α was performed by study location, number of patients, quality score and cut-off value. The results showed that HIF-1α overexpression was significantly associated with poor OS, particularly in Asian countries (HR 2.3, 95% CI: 1.74–3.01), while not in European or other countries. In addition, overexpression of HIF-1α was closely related with these clinicopathological features, including Dukes' stages (OR 0.39, 95% CI: 0.17–0.89), UICC stages (OR 0.42 95% CI: 0.3–0.59), depth of invasion (OR 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51–0.99), lymphnode status (OR 0.49, 95% CI: 0.32–0.73) and metastasis (OR 0.29, 95% CI: 0.11–0.81). While overexpression of HIF-2α was only associated with grade of differentiation (OR 0.48, 95% CI: 0.29–0.81). Conclusions This study showed that both HIF-1α and HIF-2α overexpression were associated with an unfavorable prognosis. HIF-1α overexpression seemed to be associated with worse prognosis in Asian countries. Additionally, HIF-1α and HIF-2

  17. MicroRNA-92a as a Potential Biomarker in Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin; Zeng, Zongyue; Hou, Yixuan; Yuan, Taixian; Gao, Chao; Jia, Wei; Yi, Xiaoyan; Liu, Manran

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies demonstrated that MicroRNA-92a (miR-92a) was significantly differential expressed between colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and control cohorts, which provide timely relevant evidence for miR-92a as a novel promising biomarker in the colorectal cancer patients. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate potential diagnostic value of plasma miR-92a. Methods Relevant literatures were collected in PubMed, Embase, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Technology of Chongqing (VIP), and Wan Fang Data. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) for miR-92a in the diagnosis of CRC were pooled using random effects models. Summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve analysis and the area under the curve (AUC) were used to estimate the overall test performance. Results This Meta-analysis included six studies with a total of 521 CRC patients and 379 healthy controls. For miR-92a, the pooled sensitivity, specificity and DOR to predict CRC patients were 76% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 72%–79%), 64% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 59%–69%) and 8.05 (95% CI: 3.50–18.56), respectively. In addition, the AUC of miR-92a in diagnosis CRC is 0.7720. Conclusions MicroRNA-92a might be a novel potential biomarker in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer, and more studies are needed to highlight the theoretical strengths. PMID:24551148

  18. Associations of the A66G Methionine Synthase Reductase Polymorphism in Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pabalan, Noel; Singian, Eloisa; Tabangay, Lani; Jarjanazi, Hamdi; Singh, Neetu

    2015-01-01

    Inconsistency in the reported associations between the A66G polymorphism in the methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) gene and colorectal cancer (CRC) prompted a meta-analysis, so that we could obtain a more precise estimate. Databases searches of the published literature yielded 20 case–control studies from 17 articles (8,371 cases and 12,574 controls). We calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals in three genetic comparisons (A allele, G allele, and A/G genotype). We found no evidence of overall associations between MTRR A66G and CRC risk (OR 0.96–1.05, P = 0.12–0.44). This was materially unchanged when reanalyzed without the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE)-deviating studies (OR 0.97–1.06, P = 0.11–0.65). In the A allele comparison, however, outlier treatment generated significant protection (OR 0.91, P = 0.01). Combined removal of the outliers and HWE-deviating studies reflected this summary effect (OR 0.90, P = 0.01) as did the pooled OR from high-quality studies (OR 0.90, P = 0.01). Only the Asian subgroup showed significant (both at P = 0.05) A allele (OR 1.13) and A/G genotype (OR 0.88) associations. In conclusion, post-outlier A allele effects were protective. Our study also suggests ethnic-specific associations with Asian susceptibility and protection in the A allele and A/G genotype comparisons, respectively. Folate status showed no association of this polymorphism with CRC. PMID:26549973

  19. A new GWAS and meta-analysis with 1000Genomes imputation identifies novel risk variants for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Al-Tassan, Nada A; Whiffin, Nicola; Hosking, Fay J; Palles, Claire; Farrington, Susan M; Dobbins, Sara E; Harris, Rebecca; Gorman, Maggie; Tenesa, Albert; Meyer, Brian F; Wakil, Salma M; Kinnersley, Ben; Campbell, Harry; Martin, Lynn; Smith, Christopher G; Idziaszczyk, Shelley; Barclay, Ella; Maughan, Timothy S; Kaplan, Richard; Kerr, Rachel; Kerr, David; Buchanan, Daniel D; Buchannan, Daniel D; Win, Aung Ko; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly A; Gallinger, Steve; Conti, David; Schumacher, Fred; Casey, Graham; Dunlop, Malcolm G; Tomlinson, Ian P; Cheadle, Jeremy P; Houlston, Richard S

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of colorectal cancer (CRC) have identified 23 susceptibility loci thus far. Analyses of previously conducted GWAS indicate additional risk loci are yet to be discovered. To identify novel CRC susceptibility loci, we conducted a new GWAS and performed a meta-analysis with five published GWAS (totalling 7,577 cases and 9,979 controls of European ancestry), imputing genotypes utilising the 1000 Genomes Project. The combined analysis identified new, significant associations with CRC at 1p36.2 marked by rs72647484 (minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.09) near CDC42 and WNT4 (P = 1.21 × 10(-8), odds ratio [OR] = 1.21 ) and at 16q24.1 marked by rs16941835 (MAF = 0.21, P = 5.06 × 10(-8); OR = 1.15) within the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) RP11-58A18.1 and ~500 kb from the nearest coding gene FOXL1. Additionally we identified a promising association at 10p13 with rs10904849 intronic to CUBN (MAF = 0.32, P = 7.01 × 10(-8); OR = 1.14). These findings provide further insights into the genetic and biological basis of inherited genetic susceptibility to CRC. Additionally, our analysis further demonstrates that imputation can be used to exploit GWAS data to identify novel disease-causing variants. PMID:25990418

  20. Toll-like receptor 4 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis and review

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Wang Yan; Yong, Zhang; Yun, Zhu; Hong, Hu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many case-control studies have investigated the association between toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, published data are still conflicting. Material and methods A systematic search was conducted in the electronic databases of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and CNKI between 2000 and 2014. The associations between TLR4 polymorphisms and CRC susceptibility were assessed by pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) in fixed or random effects models. Results In total nine case-control studies were identified in this meta-analysis. For TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphism, 9 studies included 1198 cases and 1290 controls. The GG genotype carriers had higher risk for developing CRC than AA + GA genotype carriers (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.00–3.77, p = 0.05). No association was found in other genetic models (p > 0.05). Analysis stratified by ethnicity showed no association in any genetic models among the Asian or Caucasian population. For TLR4 Thr399Ile polymorphism, 6 studies contained 619 cases and 632 controls. The overall analysis showed significantly increased risk in TT homozygote carriers compared to CC homozygote (OR = 4.99, 95% CI: 1.41–17.65, p = 0.01) and C carriers (TC + CC) (OR = 4.50, 95% CI: 1.27–15.87, p = 0.02). In terms of analyses stratified by race, a significant association was found in each genetic model among the Asian population, rather than the Caucasian group. Conclusions The GG homozygote carriers of TLR4 Asp299Gly and TT homozygote carriers of TLR4 Thr399Ile polymorphisms might be correlated with an increased risk of CRC, suggesting they may serve as genetic risk factors for CRC. PMID:26322080

  1. Associations of the A66G Methionine Synthase Reductase Polymorphism in Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pabalan, Noel; Singian, Eloisa; Tabangay, Lani; Jarjanazi, Hamdi; Singh, Neetu

    2015-01-01

    Inconsistency in the reported associations between the A66G polymorphism in the methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) gene and colorectal cancer (CRC) prompted a meta-analysis, so that we could obtain a more precise estimate. Databases searches of the published literature yielded 20 case-control studies from 17 articles (8,371 cases and 12,574 controls). We calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals in three genetic comparisons (A allele, G allele, and A/G genotype). We found no evidence of overall associations between MTRR A66G and CRC risk (OR 0.96-1.05, P = 0.12-0.44). This was materially unchanged when reanalyzed without the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE)-deviating studies (OR 0.97-1.06, P = 0.11-0.65). In the A allele comparison, however, outlier treatment generated significant protection (OR 0.91, P = 0.01). Combined removal of the outliers and HWE-deviating studies reflected this summary effect (OR 0.90, P = 0.01) as did the pooled OR from high-quality studies (OR 0.90, P = 0.01). Only the Asian subgroup showed significant (both at P = 0.05) A allele (OR 1.13) and A/G genotype (OR 0.88) associations. In conclusion, post-outlier A allele effects were protective. Our study also suggests ethnic-specific associations with Asian susceptibility and protection in the A allele and A/G genotype comparisons, respectively. Folate status showed no association of this polymorphism with CRC. PMID:26549973

  2. Worldwide Incidence of Colorectal Cancer, Leukemia, and Lymphoma in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wheat, Chelle L.; Clark-Snustad, Kindra; Devine, Beth; Grembowski, David; Thornton, Timothy A.; Ko, Cynthia W.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). In addition, there may be an association between leukemia and lymphoma and IBD. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the IBD literature to estimate the incidence of CRC, leukemia, and lymphoma in adult IBD patients. Methods. Studies were identified by a literature search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Pooled incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years [py]) were calculated through use of a random effects model, unless substantial heterogeneity prevented pooling of estimates. Several stratified analyses and metaregression were performed to explore potential study heterogeneity and bias. Results. Thirty-six articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. For CRC, the pooled incidence rate in CD was 53.3/100,000 py (95% CI 46.3–60.3/100,000). The incidence of leukemia was 1.5/100,000 py (95% CI −0.06–3.0/100,000) in IBD, 0.3/100,000 py (95% CI −1.0–1.6/100,000) in CD, and 13.0/100,000 py (95% CI 5.8–20.3/100,000) in UC. For lymphoma, the pooled incidence rate in CD was 0.8/100,000 py (95% CI −0.4–2.1/100,000). Substantial heterogeneity prevented the pooling of other incidence estimates. Conclusion. The incidence of CRC, leukemia, and lymphoma in IBD is low. PMID:27293427

  3. Interleukin-6 and risk of colorectal cancer: results from the CLUE II cohort and a meta-analysis of prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    Kakourou, Artemisia; Koutsioumpa, Charalampia; Lopez, David S.; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith; Bradwin, Gary; Rifai, Nader; Helzlsouer, Kathy J.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The association between prediagnostic inter-leukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations and risk of colorectal cancer was evaluated in a nested case–control study and a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Methods Colorectal cancer cases (n = 173) and matched controls (n = 345) were identified between 1989 and 2000 among participants in the CLUE II cohort of Washington Country, Maryland. Matched odds ratios and the corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression models. Results Participants in the highest third of plasma IL-6 concentration had a 2.48 times higher risk of colon cancer compared to participants in the bottom third (95 % CI 1.26–4.87; p-trend 0.02) after multivariate adjustment. This association did not differ according to the stage of disease, age, sex, or other potential modifying variables and remained statistically significant after adjustment for C-reactive protein concentrations. No statistically significant association was observed for rectal cancer risk. The meta-analysis of six prospective studies yielded an increased but borderline statistically significant risk of colon cancer per 1 U increase in naturally logarithm-transformed IL-6 (summary RR 1.22; 95 % CI 1.00–1.49; I2 46 %). An inverse association was noted for rectal cancer (RR 0.69; 95 % CI 0.54–0.88; I2 0 %), but there was evidence for small-study effects (p 0.02). Conclusion Our findings provide support for a modest positive association between IL-6 concentrations and colon cancer risk. More work is needed to determine whether IL-6 is a valid marker of colorectal inflammation and whether such inflammation contributes to colon and rectal cancer risk. PMID:26220152

  4. Tissue microRNA-21 expression predicted recurrence and poor survival in patients with colorectal cancer – a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zexin; Liu, Hui; Jin, Wen; Ding, Zheyuan; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Yu, Yunxian

    2016-01-01

    Objective MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) has been shown to play an important role in cancer prognosis. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic effect of miR-21 from tissues and serum on survival of the patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of total and subgroup analyses, for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS), were calculated to investigate the association between miR-21 expression and CRC prognosis. Results Our analysis included eleven studies (3,669 subjects). In addition, four studies explored the association between miR-21 and DFS, and ten studies focused on the prognostic value of miR-21 for OS. Our results indicated that increased miR-21 expression of tissues predicted both poor DFS and OS in patients with CRC (DFS: HR =1.59, 95% CI =1.20–2.10; OS: HR =1.53, 95% CI =1.23–1.90). Consistent results were observed among colon cancer and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction subgroups. Conclusion Meta-analysis indicated that miR-21 predicted recurrence and poor survival in patients with CRC. miR-21 may be more suitable to predict cancer prognosis in colon cancer patients. PMID:27226723

  5. Let-7 microRNA-binding-site polymorphism in the 3′UTR of KRAS and colorectal cancer outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Langevin, Scott M; Christensen, Brock C

    2014-01-01

    There is a small but growing body of literature regarding the predictive utility of a Let-7 microRNA-binding-site polymorphism in the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of KRAS (KRAS-LCS6) for colorectal cancer outcome, although the results are conflicting. We performed a review and meta-analysis in an attempt to better clarify this relationship. A PubMed search was conducted to identify all studies reporting on KRAS let-7 microRNA-binding site polymorphism (LCS6; rs61764370) and colorectal cancer outcome. Hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were extracted or estimated from each manuscript. Log HRs and log CIs were combined across studies using the inverse-variance weight to calculate fixed- and random-effects summary estimates and corresponding 95% CIs for overall and progression-free survival. We did not observe any significant association between overall or progression-free survival, neither when considering all colorectal cancer patients nor for subgroup analyses (metastatic, anti-EGFR [epidermal growth factor receptor] treatment, or KRAS wild type). There was substantial heterogeneity across studies, overall and among subgroups analyzed. We have found no clear evidence to support an association between the KRAS-LCS6 genotype and overall or progression-free survival among colorectal cancer patients, even after conducting subgroup analyses by stage and anti-EGFR treatment status. This information helps to clarify the confusing body of literature regarding the clinical implications of the KRAS-LCS6 genetic variant on colorectal cancer outcomes, indicating that it should not be used at the present time to personalize therapeutic strategies (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013005325). PMID:24890702

  6. The association of three promoter polymorphisms in interleukin-10 gene with the risk for colorectal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yan-Hui; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Wang, Yue-Fei; Li, Xue; Ji, Man-Ru; Jiang, Dan-Na; Xu, Bai-Ping; Zhou, Li; Lu, Chang-Zhu; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports a potent inhibitory role of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in tumor carcinogenesis, angiogenesis and metastasis. This meta-analysis was designed to examine the association of three promoter polymorphisms (−592C > A, −819C > T and −1082G > A) in IL-10 gene with the risk for colorectal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. Qualification assessment and data collection were completed by two authors independently. The random-effects model using the DerSimonian and Laird method was fitted by the STATA software. Twenty-five articles involving 5933 cases and 9724 controls were meta-analyzed. Overall comparisons of the mutant alleles (−592A, −819T and −1082A) of three promoter polymorphisms with alternative wild alleles failed to reveal any statistical significance for both colorectal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma (P > 0.05), and the likelihood of heterogeneity was low (I2 < 50%). For −592C > A polymorphism, a significant risk for colorectal cancer was identified when analysis was restricted to East Asians (odds ratio or OR = 1.41, 95% confidence interval or CI: 1.18–1.68, P < 0.001) and retrospective studies (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.09–1.39, P = 0.001). As weighed by the Egger’s test and the fill-and-trim method, there was a low probability of publication bias for all studied polymorphisms. Our findings collectively suggest that the −592C > A polymorphism in IL-10 gene might be a susceptibility locus for colorectal cancer in East Asians. PMID:27489033

  7. Diagnostic Performance of DNA Hypermethylation Markers in Peripheral Blood for the Detection of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bingsheng; Gan, Aihua; Chen, Xiaolong; Wang, Xinying; He, Weifeng; Zhang, Xiaohui; Huang, Renxiang; Zhou, Shuzhu; Song, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Angao

    2016-01-01

    DNA hypermethylation in blood is becoming an attractive candidate marker for colorectal cancer (CRC) detection. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of blood hypermethylation markers for CRC in different clinical settings, we conducted a meta-analysis of published reports. Of 485 publications obtained in the initial literature search, 39 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Hypermethylation markers in peripheral blood showed a high degree of accuracy for the detection of CRC. The summary sensitivity was 0.62 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56–0.67] and specificity was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.89–0.93). Subgroup analysis showed significantly greater sensitivity for the methylated Septin 9 gene (SEPT9) subgroup (0.75; 95% CI, 0.67–0.81) than for the non-methylated SEPT9 subgroup (0.58; 95% CI, 0.52–0.64). Sensitivity and specificity were not affected significantly by target gene number, CRC staging, study region, or methylation analysis method. These findings show that hypermethylation markers in blood are highly sensitive and specific for CRC detection, with methylated SEPT9 being particularly robust. The diagnostic performance of hypermethylation markers, which have varied across different studies, can be improved by marker optimization. Future research should examine variation in diagnostic accuracy according to non-neoplastic factors. PMID:27158984

  8. Metformin Is Associated With Slightly Reduced Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Moderate Survival Benefits in Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    He, Xing-Kang; Su, Ting-Ting; Si, Jian-Min; Sun, Lei-Min

    2016-02-01

    To systematically assess the effect of metformin on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library databases for relevant articles before August 2015. Two investigators identified and extracted data independently. We adopted adjusted estimates to calculate summary estimates with 95% confidence interval (CI) using either a fixed-effects or a random-effects model. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the robustness of the pooled results. The risk of publication bias was assessed by examining funnel plot asymmetry as well as Begg test and Egger test.Fifteen studies on CRC incidence and 6 studies on CRC survival were finally included in our meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) of observational studies illustrated that a slight 10% reduction of CRC incidence was associated with metformin use (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.85-0.96). Furthermore, the pooled hazard ratio (HR) revealed an improved survival outcome for metformin users in CRC patients compared to nonusers (HR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.58-081). There was no publication bias across studies.Our meta-analysis demonstrated that metformin therapy could slightly reduce CRC incidence and moderately improve the survival outcomes in patients with T2DM. More prospective studies are warranted to certify this protective association. PMID:26886616

  9. Clinical outcome of panitumumab for metastatic colorectal cancer with wild-type KRAS status: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ezzeldin M; Abouelkhair, Khaled M

    2011-12-01

    Panitumumab is a fully human anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody that has a favorable effect on patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) harboring wild-type (WT) KRAS gene. This meta-analysis was planned to quantify the benefit and assess safety. Selected for the analysis were randomized clinical studies that have used panitumumab-based therapy (PBT) for patients with mCRC and where the outcome of patients with WT KRAS was reported. Four eligible studies were analyzed including 1,010 and 1,105 patients who received PBT and the control intervention, respectively. Used in subsequent-line setting, PBT was associated with 42% improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.36-0.93; P = 0.02), a non-significant overall survival (OS) benefit (HR = 0.90; [95% CI, 0.76-1.05]; P = 0.18), and a significant increase in objective response rate (ORR) (odds ratio (OR) = 0.67 [95% CI, 1.15-77.98]; P = 0.04). PBT showed no benefit in the first-line setting. Restricted analysis to two studies (first- and second-line setting), where the treatment effect of PBT was prospectively analyzed according to tumor KRAS status, showed significant PFS (HR = 0.77), OS (HR = 0.84), and ORR (OR = 2.06) advantage. Almost all patients' subgroups attained clinical benefit. PBT-related adverse events were similar across comparisons with the exception of toxicities known to be associated with anti-EGFR therapy. This meta-analysis showed significant clinical benefit for PBT for patients with WT KRAS mCRC predominantly when used following prior chemotherapy exposure. The benefit was demonstrated in most subgroup analyses. Further research to better define potential responders is needed. PMID:21221853

  10. The Common Variant rs4444235 near BMP4 Confers Genetic Susceptibility of Colorectal Cancer: An Updated Meta-Analysis Based on a Comprehensive Statistical Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Su, Qinji; Li, Lixia; Lin, Xiaohui; Gan, Yu; Chen, Sidong

    2014-01-01

    Objective We performed an updated meta-analysis, using a comprehensive strategy of a logistic regression and a model-free approach, to evaluate more precisely the role of the rs4444235 variant near the Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) gene in susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods A total of 19 studies with 28770 cases and 28234 controls were included. Metagen system with logistic regression was applied to choose the most plausible genetic model for rs4444235. Generalized odds ratio (ORG) metric was used to provide a global test of relationship between rs4444235 and CRC risk. Results Metagen analysis suggested the rs4444235 fitted best to an additive model. In assessment of the additive model, heterogeneity was observed (P = 0.059, I2 = 36.1), and pooled per-allele OR was 1.08 (95% CI = 1.05–1.11). Based on the model-free approach, pooled ORG was 1.09 (95% CI = 1.05–1.14) under a random-effect model. Stratified analyses suggested heterogeneity could be in part explained by population ethnicity, study design, sources of controls, and sample size. Sensitivity analysis further supported the robust stability of the current results, by showing similar pooled estimates before and after sequential removal of each study. Conclusions This meta-analysis provides a robust estimate of the positive association between the rs4444235 and CRC risk and further emphasizes the importance of the rs4444235 in CRC risk prediction. PMID:24932582

  11. Patients with Chronically Diseased Livers Have Lower Incidence of Colorectal Liver Metastases: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Bin; Liao, Kai; Song, Xian-qing; Wei, Wei-yuan; Zhuang, Yuan; Zhang, Sen

    2014-01-01

    Background 70 years ago, it was put forward that the diseased liver was not a favorable soil for metastatic tumor cells. In addition, a few studies have demonstrated that rare occurrence of colorectal liver metastases among patients with fatty liver, cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis B and C virus infection. We performed a meta-analysis to verify the association between the incidences of colorectal liver metastases with chronically diseased livers. Methods Relevant studies were identified by a search of electronic database PubMed, Cochrane Library, OVID, Web of Science and CNKI (up to February 24, 2014). Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using random- or fixed-effect models when appropriate. Meta-analysis and publication bias (Bgger's test) was evaluated with STATA 12.0. Results A total of 10,349 colorectal cancer patients from 10 studies were included. The meta-analysis result showed there was a significant difference in the incidences of colorectal liver metastases between patients with normal and chronically diseased livers (OR = 0.32; 95% CI 95%: 0.26–0.38, P = 0.000 fixed-effects model). The result of Begg's test (Pr>|z| = 0.089; P>0.05) revealed no publication bias. Conclusions The results of this meta-analysis demonstrated that patients with chronically diseased livers had significantly lower incidences of colorectal liver metastases than those with normal livers. PMID:25265536

  12. Folate Intake, MTHFR Polymorphisms, and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Deborah A.; Stern, Seth J.; Matok, Ilan; Moretti, Myla E.; Sarkar, Moumita; Adams-Webber, Thomasin; Koren, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    Background. The objective was to determine whether relationships exist between the methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and examine whether the risk is modified by level of folate intake. Methods. MEDLINE, Embase, and SCOPUS were searched to May 2012 using the terms “folic acid,” “folate,” “colorectal cancer,” “methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase,” “MTHFR.” Observational studies were included which (1) assessed the risk of CRC for each polymorphism and/or (2) had defined levels of folate intake for each polymorphism and assessed the risk of CRC. Results. From 910 references, 67 studies met our criteria; hand searching yielded 10 studies. The summary risk estimate comparing the 677CT versus CC genotype was 1.02 (95% CI 0.95–1.10) and for 677TT versus CC was 0.88 (95% CI 0.80–0.96) both with heterogeneity. The summary risk estimates for A1298C polymorphisms suggested no reduced risk. The summary risk estimate for high versus low total folate for the 677CC genotype was 0.70 (95% CI 0.56–0.89) and the 677TT genotype 0.63 (95% CI 0.41–0.97). Conclusion. These results suggest that the 677TT genotype is associated with a reduced risk of developing CRC, under conditions of high total folate intake, and this associated risk remains reduced for both MTHFR 677 CC and TT genotypes. PMID:23125859

  13. Integrative Medicine for Relief of Nausea and Vomiting in the Treatment of Colorectal Cancer Using Oxaliplatin-Based Chemotherapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng Hua; May, Brian H; Zhou, Iris W; Zhang, Anthony L; Xue, Charlie C

    2016-05-01

    The management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) remains an issue in the treatment of colorectal cancer using oxaliplatin-based regimens. Certain traditional plant-based medicines (TMs) have histories of use for nausea and vomiting and have been integrated with conventional therapies for CINV. To assess the effectiveness of integrative management of CINV, meta-analysis was conducted of 27 randomised controlled studies (1843 participants) published from 2005 to 2013. The oxaliplatin plus TM groups showed significantly reduced CINV (risk ratio 0.65 [0.59, 0.71], I(2)  = 28%) compared with oxaliplatin controls, with or without the addition of conventional anti-emetics. Further sensitivity analyses based on the ingredients of the TMs identified six plants (Atractylodes macrocephala, Poria cocos, Coix lacryma-jobi, Astragalus membranaceus, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Panax ginseng) that were associated with significant reductions in CINV without important heterogeneity. Experimental studies of these six plants have reported inhibitory effects on nausea and vomiting (or its animal equivalent), regulation of gastrointestinal motility, gastroprotective effects and antioxidant actions, which may at least partially explain the effects identified in the meta-analyses of the clinical trial results. These plants warrant further clinical research as potential additions to chemotherapy regimens in patients whose CINV is not sufficiently well controlled by conventional therapies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26912094

  14. Oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy combined with traditional medicines for neutropenia in colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis of the contributions of specific plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Menghua; May, Brian H; Zhou, Iris W; Sze, Daniel Man-Yuen; Xue, Charlie C; Zhang, Anthony L

    2016-09-01

    This review assessed the effects on chemotherapy induced neutropenia (CIN) of combining oxaliplatin regimens with traditional plant-based medicines (TMs) in the management of colorectal cancer (CRC). 32 RCTs (2224 participants) were included. Meta-analysis showed reduced incidence of grade 3/4 CIN (RR 0.45[0.31, 0.65], I(2)=0%). No studies reported serious adverse events or reduction in tumour response rates associated with concurrent use of oxaliplatin and TM. Due to small sample sizes and risk of bias, these results should be interpreted with caution. Analyses of sub-groups of studies that used similar TM interventions assessed the relative contributions of individual plant-based ingredients to the results. Astragalus, Codonopsis, Atractylodes, Poria and Coix, in various combinations were consistently associated with reduced CIN incidence when administered orally. Experimental studies of these plants have reported reduced myelosuppression and/or enhanced immune response. Further studies of these plants may lead to the development of interventions to supplement conventional CIN treatment. PMID:27497028

  15. Meta-Analysis of Oxaliplatin-Based Chemotherapy Combined With Traditional Medicines for Colorectal Cancer: Contributions of Specific Plants to Tumor Response.

    PubMed

    Chen, Menghua; May, Brian H; Zhou, Iris W; Xue, Charlie C L; Zhang, Anthony L

    2016-03-01

    This meta-analysis evaluates the clinical evidence for the addition of traditional medicines (TMs) to oxaliplatin-based regimens for colorectal cancer (CRC) in terms of tumor response rate (TRR). Eight electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy combined with TMs compared to the same oxaliplatin-based regimen. Data on TRR from 42 randomized controlled trials were analyzed using Review Manager 5.1. Studies were conducted in China or Japan. Publication bias was not evident. The meta-analyses suggest that the combination of the TMs with oxaliplatin-based regimens increased TRR in the palliative treatment of CRC (risk ratio [RR] 1.31 [1.20-1.42], I(2) = 0%). Benefits were evident for both injection products (RR 1.36 [1.18-1.57], I(2) = 0%) and orally administered TMs (RR 1.27 [1.15-1.41], I(2) = 0%). Further sensitivity analysis of specific plant-based TMs found that Paeonia, Curcuma, and Sophora produced consistently higher contributions to the RR results. Compounds in each of these TMs have shown growth-inhibitory effects in CRC cell-line studies. Specific combinations of TMs appeared to produce higher contributions to TRR than the TMs individually. Notable among these was the combination of Hedyotis, Astragalus, and Scutellaria. PMID:26254190

  16. Comparative effectiveness of chemopreventive interventions for colorectal cancer: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Veettil, Sajesh K.; Saokaew, Surasak; Lim, Kean Ghee; Ching, Siew Mooi; Phisalprapa, Pochamana

    2016-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and is associated with substantial socioeconomic burden. Despite considerable research, including numerous randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews assessed the effect of various chemopreventive interventions for CRC, there remains uncertainty regarding the comparative effectiveness of these agents. No network meta-analytic study has been published to evaluate the efficacies of these agents for CRC. Therefore, the aim of this study is to summarise the direct and indirect evidence for these interventions to prevent CRC in average-high risk individuals, and to rank these agents for practical consideration. Methods We will acquire eligible studies through a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, CINAHL plus, IPA and clinicaltrials.gov website. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool will be used to assess the quality of included studies. The primary outcomes are the incidence of CRC, the incidence/recurrence of any adenoma or change in polyp burden (number or size). Quantitative synthesis or meta-analysis will be considered. We will also construct a network meta-analysis (NMA) to improve precision of the comparisons among chemo-preventive interventions by combining direct and indirect evidence. The probability of each treatment being the best and/or safest, the number-needed-to-treat [NNT; 95% credible interval (CrIs)], and the number-needed-to-harm (NNH; 95% CrIs) will be calculated to provide measures of treatment efficacy. The GRADE approach will be used to rate the quality of evidence of estimates derived from NMA. Results This protocol has been registered (registration number: CRD42015025849) with the PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews). The procedures of this systematic review and NMA will be conducted in accordance with the PRISMA-compliant guideline. The results of this systematic review and

  17. Associations of Polymorphisms in mir-196a2, mir-146a and mir-149 with Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liping; Tang, Wenru

    2016-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs which act as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. And single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in miRNA regions is one type of genetic variations in human genome. Various studies have investigated the associations of miRNAs SNP and kinds of cancers. In this article, we searched eligible studies to explore the relationships between mir-196a2 /mir-146a /mir-149 polymorphisms and colorectal cancer (CRC). A literature search of PubMed, Web of Science and ScienceDirect was conducted to identify all relevant studies. Three genetic models with pooled ratio and 95 % confidence interval were used to evaluate the associations. We found that mir-196a2 polymorphism was significantly associated with CRC in Asian group (additive model: OR = 1.197, 95 %CI 1.084 ~ 1.32, P < 0.001; dominant model: OR = 1.247, 95 %CI 1.065 ~ 1.46, P = 0.006; recessive model: OR = 1.298, 95 %CI 1.101 ~ 1.531, P = 0.002). And no associations were observed between SNPs of mir-146a, mir-149 and CRC in three genetic models. We also found CRC risk was not associated with mir-146a and mir-149 polymorphisms in population subgroup analysis. The current meta-analysis suggests that mir-196a2 polymorphism is associated with CRC, especially in Asian group. While, no associations have been found between mir-146a /mir-149 polymorphisms and CRC. PMID:26208586

  18. Association of UGT1A1*28 polymorphisms with irinotecan-induced toxicities in colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Cheng, D; Kuang, Q; Liu, G; Xu, W

    2014-04-01

    A meta-analysis in Caucasians was conducted to investigate the possible association of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 gene polymorphisms with irinotecan (IRI)-induced neutropenia and diarrhoea in colorectal cancer (CRC). We searched PubMed and Embase until May 2012 to identify eligible studies, extracted data, assessed methodological quality, and performed statistical analysis using REVMAN 5.1 and R software. Subgroups meta-analyses were performed in groups representing different IRI combination regimens and IRI doses. Sixteen trials were included. UGT1A1*28/*28 genotype was associated with more than fourfold (odds ratio (OR)=4.79, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 3.28-7.01; P<0.00001) and threefold (OR=3.44, 95% CI: 2.45-4.82; P<0.00001) increases in the risk of neutropenia when compared with wild type and with at least one UGT1A1*1 allele, respectively. UGT1A1*1/*28 genotype had an OR of 1.90 (95% CI: 1.44-2.51; P<0.00001) for an increased risk of neutropenia. A twofold increase in risk of diarrhoea was associated with UGT1A1*28/*28 genotype (OR=1.84, 95% CI: 1.24-2.72; P=0.002). In subgroup meta-analysis, the higher incidence of diarrhoea in UGT1A1*28/*28 patients was limited to studies where when IRI was given at higher doses (OR=2.37, 95% CI: 1.39-4.04; P=0.002) or combined with 5-fluorouracil (FU or analogue) (OR=1.78, 95% CI: 1.16-2.75; P=0.009). Genotyping of UGT1A1*28 polymorphism before treatment for CRC can tailor IRI therapy and reduce the IRI-related toxicities. IRI-combined 5-FU (or analogue) and a high-dose IRI therapy enhance IRI-induced diarrhoea among patients bearing the UGT1A1*28 allele. Although the toxicity relationships were much stronger with the UGT1A1*28 homozygous variant, associations were also found with the UGT1A1*28 heterozygous variant. PMID:23529007

  19. Efficacy of cetuximab-based chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer according to RAS and BRAF mutation subgroups: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    LIN, LI; CHEN, LU-LU; WANG, YOU; MENG, XIANG-YU; LIANG, CHEN; ZHOU, FU-XIANG

    2016-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting monoclonal antibody, cetuximab, has been added to standard chemotherapy regimens for treating metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, the efficacy of adding cetuximab to chemotherapy regimens for patients of differing genetic backgrounds remains controversial. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of adding cetuximab to chemotherapeutic regimens in subgroups of patients defined according to the RAS and BRAF mutation status in the first-line treatment of patients with mCRC. A systematic literature search was performed in databases (including PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane library, the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society For Medical Oncology) up to August 2015. Randomized controlled trials analyzing overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in mCRC treated with cetuximab, and grouped by RAS and BRAF mutation status, were identified. The major outcome measures were hazard ratios (HRs). Pooled HRs were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models, according to the magnitude of the heterogeneity. A total of nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Use of cetuximab was significantly associated with longer OS in KRAS exon 2 wild-type tumors [HR=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.79–0.96, Z=2.91, P=0.004] and wild-type KRAS/RAS (in exons 2, 3 and 4 of KRAS and exons 2, 3 and 4 of an associated gene, NRAS; HR=0.72, 95% CI=0.60–0.85, Z=3.74, P=0.0002). No significant differences in OS and PFS were identified between KRAS exon 2 mutations and tumors with the other RAS mutations (in exons 3 and 4 of KRAS and exons 2, 3 and 4 of an associated gene, NRAS). The meta-analysis demonstrated that cetuximab-based chemotherapeutic regimens led to a marked improvement in OS in patients with mCRC who lacked any RAS mutations (either KRAS exon 2 or any other RAS mutation). By contrast, the subgroup analyses revealed no evident PFS or OS benefit in using cetuximab

  20. EGFR gene copy number as a predictive biomarker for resistance to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in metastatic colorectal cancer treatment: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong-Lin; Liu, Peng-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Objective The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) have already shown the therapeutic effectiveness in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). But many patients resist to the treatment. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess EGFR gene copy number (GCN) as a candidate predictive biomarker for resistance to anti-EGFR MoAbs in mCRC treatment. Methods Systematic computerized searches of the PubMed, EMBase and Cochrane Library were performed. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR). The second endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). The pooled odd ratio (OR) and pooled sensitivity, specificity, and summary receiver operator characteristic (SROC) for ORR were estimated. The pooled hazard ratios (HR) for PFS and OS were also calculated. Results Fourteen studies with 1,021 patients were included. Increased EGFR GCN was associated with increased ORR (OR=6.905; 95% CI: 4.489-10.620). It was also found in wild-type KRAS mCRC patients, with the pooled OR of 8.133 (95% CI: 4.316-15.326). GCN has medium value for predicting ORR, with the pooled sensitivity of 0.79 (95% CI: 0.73-0.84), the pooled specificity of 0.59 (95% CI: 0.55-0.62). In wild-type KRAS mCRC patients, the sensitivity and the specificity were 0.80 (95% CI: 0.70-0.87) and 0.60 (95% CI: 0.53-0.66), respectively. Increased EGFR GCN was associated with increased PFS (HR=0.557; 95% CI: 0.382-0.732) and OS (HR=0.579; 95% CI: 0.422-0.737). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that EGFR GCN represents a predictive biomarker for tumor response in mCRC patients treated with MoAbs regardless of KRAS mutation. mCRC patients with increased EGFR GCN are more likely to have a better response, PFS, and OS when treated with cetuximab or panitumumab. PMID:24653627

  1. Tracking the Correlation Between CpG Island Methylator Phenotype and Other Molecular Features and Clinicopathological Features in Human Colorectal Cancers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Liang; Abe, Masanobu; Ji, Jiafu; Zhu, Wei-Guo; Yu, Duonan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The controversy of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancers (CRCs) persists, despite many studies that have been conducted on its correlation with molecular and clinicopathological features. To drive a more precise estimate of the strength of this postulated relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. Methods: A comprehensive search for studies reporting molecular and clinicopathological features of CRCs stratified by CIMP was performed within the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. CIMP was defined by either one of the three panels of gene-specific CIMP markers (Weisenberger panel, classic panel, or a mixture panel of the previous two) or the genome-wide DNA methylation profile. The associations of CIMP with outcome parameters were estimated using odds ratio (OR) or weighted mean difference (WMD) or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for each study using a fixed effects or random effects model. Results: A total of 29 studies involving 9,393 CRC patients were included for analysis. We observed more BRAF mutations (OR 34.87; 95% CI, 22.49–54.06) and microsatellite instability (MSI) (OR 12.85 95% CI, 8.84–18.68) in CIMP-positive vs. -negative CRCs, whereas KRAS mutations were less frequent (OR 0.47; 95% CI, 0.30–0.75). Subgroup analysis showed that only the genome-wide methylation profile-defined CIMP subset encompassed all BRAF-mutated CRCs. As expected, CIMP-positive CRCs displayed significant associations with female (OR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.56–0.72), older age at diagnosis (WMD 2.77; 95% CI, 1.15–4.38), proximal location (OR 6.91; 95% CI, 5.17–9.23), mucinous histology (OR 3.81; 95% CI, 2.93–4.95), and poor differentiation (OR 4.22; 95% CI, 2.52–7.08). Although CIMP did not show a correlation with tumor stage (OR 1.10; 95% CI, 0.82–1.46), it was associated with shorter overall survival (HR 1.73; 95% CI, 1.27–2.37). Conclusions: The meta-analysis highlights that CIMP-positive CRCs take their own

  2. Reduced NM23 Protein Level Correlates With Worse Clinicopathologic Features in Colorectal Cancers: A Meta-Analysis of Pooled Data.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tian; Chen, Bo-Zan; Li, Dan-Feng; Wang, Huai-Ming; Lin, Xiao-Sheng; Wei, Hong-Fa; Zeng, Yong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The clinical value of a prominent metastasis suppressor, nonmetastatic protein 23 (NM23), remains controversial. In this study, we examined the correlation between NM23 protein levels and the clinicopathologic features of colorectal cancers (CRC), and assessed the overall prognostic value of NM23 for CRC. Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and other scientific literature databases were exhaustively searched to identify relevant studies published prior to June 31, 2015. The methodological qualities of selected studies were scored based on the critical appraisal skills program (CASP) criteria, as independently assessed by 2 reviewers. NM23 protein levels in tumor tissues of CRC patients were examined in relation to Dukes stage, differentiation grade, T-stage, lymph node metastasis status, and overall survival (OS). STATA software version 12.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX) was used for statistical analysis of data pooled from selected studies. Nineteen cohort studies met the inclusion criteria for present study and contained a combined total of 2148 study subjects. Pooled odd ratios (ORs) for NM23 expression revealed that reduced NM23 protein levels in CRC tumor tissues correlated with Dukes stage C and D (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.06-3.39, P = 0.032), poor differentiation grades (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.03-1.94, P = 0.032), and positive lymph node metastasis status (OR = 3.21, 95% CI: 1.95-5.29, P < 0.001). On the other hand, no such correlations were evident with T-stage T3-4 (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 0.60-4.06, P = 0.367) or OS (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.58-1.08, P = 0.138). Our analysis of pooled data found that NM23 expression is reduced in CRC tissues and low NM23 levels tightly correlate with higher Dukes stages, poorer differentiation grade, and positive lymph node metastases. However, NM23 levels did not influence the OS in CRC patients. PMID:26825905

  3. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors versus bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    LIN, ZEXIN; YANG, YILIN; HUANG, YONGLIANG; LIANG, JUNJIE; LU, FANG; LAO, XUEJUN

    2015-01-01

    Bevacizumab has demonstrated a survival benefit in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) when combined with chemotherapy. Several randomized clinical trials comparing the efficacy and toxicity of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) against bevacizumab have been reported. The present meta-analysis was conducted to identify the potentially significant benefit of the combined treatment regimens in patients with mCRC. PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were searched for the randomized controlled trials published on or before September 2014, which compared the efficacy and toxicity of VEGFR TKIs with bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy in patients with mCRC. The primary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and overall response rate (ORR), and secondary endpoints were the toxicity profiles. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for response rate and adverse events (AEs) were calculated, as well as hazard ratios (HRs) for PFS and OS. The final analysis included 4 studies comprising a total of 1,929 intent-to-treat patients with mCRC, which compared VEGFR TKIs (cediranib and axitinib) plus chemotherapy with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy. Results demonstrated that VEGFR TKIs plus chemotherapy significantly resulted in a modest but significantly shorter PFS [hazard ratio (HR), 1.12; 95% CI, 1.00–1.25; P=0.05] compared with that of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy but not in OS (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.88–1.17; P=0.87) and ORR (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.85–1.05; P=0.30). VEGFR TKIs treatment showed a less favorable AE profile compared with bevacizumab, with higher rates of grade-III/IV diarrhea, fatigue, hypertension, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, whereas a higher incidence of peripheral neuropathy associated with the bevacizumab group was observed. In conclusion, the addition of VEGFR TKIs to chemotherapy resulted in a modest but

  4. Pre-operative TNM staging of primary colorectal cancer by (18)F-FDG PET-CT or PET: a meta-analysis including 2283 patients.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yanwei; Liu, Tao; Lu, Lisha; Wang, Guojun; Wang, Min; Li, Jingjing; Han, Chao; Wen, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic value of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET-CT/PET in the pre-operative evaluation of TNM staging in patients with primary colorectal cancer (CRC). The Medline, Embase and Web of Knowledge were searched for studies assessing the diagnostic value of (18)F-FDG PET-CT/PET in the pre-operative evaluation of TNM staging in CRC patients. We pooled the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative Likelihood ratio (LR+ and LR-) and Diagnostic Odds Ratio (DOR) and constructed summary receiver operating characteristic curves. A total of 28 studies including 2283 CRC patients were analyzed. The pre-operative tumor detecting rate of PET-CT was 95.35%, which was superior to CT (P < 0.05). The pooled sensitivity and specificity of pre-operative T staging by PET-CT/PET was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.65-0.81) and 0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-0.99), which the AUC and Q* were 0.96 and 0.91, respectively. Concerning pre-operative N staging, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT/PET were 0.62 and 0.70, which the AUC and Q* were 0.76 and 0.70, respectively. As for M staging, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT/PET were 0.91 (95% CI: 0.80-0.96) and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.91-0.98), which the AUC and Q* were 0.96 and 0.91, respectively. (18)F-FDG PET-CT/PET had good performance in the pre-operative tumor detecting rate, T staging and M staging in patients with primary CRC, which might alter the therapeutic strategy. However, the diagnostic value of (18)F-FDG PET-CT/PET in pre-operative N staging in CRC patients was not ideal. PMID:26885142

  5. Pre-operative TNM staging of primary colorectal cancer by 18F-FDG PET-CT or PET: a meta-analysis including 2283 patients

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yanwei; Liu, Tao; Lu, Lisha; Wang, Guojun; Wang, Min; Li, Jingjing; Han, Chao; Wen, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic value of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET-CT/PET in the pre-operative evaluation of TNM staging in patients with primary colorectal cancer (CRC). The Medline, Embase and Web of Knowledge were searched for studies assessing the diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET-CT/PET in the pre-operative evaluation of TNM staging in CRC patients. We pooled the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative Likelihood ratio (LR+ and LR-) and Diagnostic Odds Ratio (DOR) and constructed summary receiver operating characteristic curves. A total of 28 studies including 2283 CRC patients were analyzed. The pre-operative tumor detecting rate of PET-CT was 95.35%, which was superior to CT (P < 0.05). The pooled sensitivity and specificity of pre-operative T staging by PET-CT/PET was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.65-0.81) and 0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-0.99), which the AUC and Q* were 0.96 and 0.91, respectively. Concerning pre-operative N staging, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT/PET were 0.62 and 0.70, which the AUC and Q* were 0.76 and 0.70, respectively. As for M staging, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT/PET were 0.91 (95% CI: 0.80-0.96) and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.91-0.98), which the AUC and Q* were 0.96 and 0.91, respectively. 18F-FDG PET-CT/PET had good performance in the pre-operative tumor detecting rate, T staging and M staging in patients with primary CRC, which might alter the therapeutic strategy. However, the diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET-CT/PET in pre-operative N staging in CRC patients was not ideal. PMID:26885142

  6. Meta-analysis in cancer genetics.

    PubMed

    Pabalan, Noel A

    2010-01-01

    Genetic association studies report potentially conflicting findings which meta-analysis seeks to quantify and objectively summarize. Attributing cancer to a single gene variant requires large sample sizes, which may strain resources in a primary study. Properly used, meta-analysis is a powerful tool for resolving discrepancies in genetic association studies given the exponential increase in sample sizes when data are combined. The several steps involved in this methodology require careful attention to critical issues in meta-analysis, heterogeneity and publication bias, evaluation of which can be graphical or statistical. Overall summary effects of a meta-analysis may or may not reflect similar associations when the component studies are sub grouped. Overall associations and that of the subgroups are evaluated for tenability using sensitivity analysis. The low association between a polymorphism and cancer is offset by detectable changes in cancer incidence in the general population making them an important issue from a public health point of view. Asian meta-analytic publications in cancer genetics come from six countries with an output that number from one to two. The exception is China, whose publication output has increased exponentially since 2008. PMID:20593927

  7. Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  8. Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... both men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  9. Cruciferous vegetables and risk of colorectal neoplasms: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tse, Genevieve; Eslick, Guy D

    2014-01-01

    Evidence shows cruciferous vegetables exhibit chemoprotective properties, commonly attributed to their rich source of isothiocyanates. However, epidemiological data examining the association between cruciferous vegetable intake and colorectal neoplasms have been inconclusive. This meta-analysis examines the epidemiological evidence to characterize the association between cruciferous vegetable intake and risk of developing colorectal neoplasms. Thirty-three articles were included in the meta-analysis after a literature search of electronic databases. Subgroup analysis for individual cruciferae types (n = 8 studies) and GST polymorphism (n = 8 studies) were performed. Pooled adjusted odds ratios (ORs) comparing highest and lowest categories of dietary pattern scores were calculated. Results show a statistically significant inverse association between cruciferous vegetable intake and colon cancer [OR = 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-0.98; P value heterogeneity < 0.001]. Broccoli in particular exhibited protective benefits against colorectal (CRC) neoplasms (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.65-0.99; P value heterogeneity = 0.02). Stratification by GST genotype reveals that the GSTT1 null genotype confers a reduction in CRC risk (OR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.64-0.95; P value heterogeneity = 0.32). This study provides support to the hypothesis that cruciferous vegetable intake protects against cancer of the colon. This study also demonstrates the significance of gene-diet interactions and the importance of assessing individual cruciferous vegetables. PMID:24341734

  10. CD133 expression may be useful as a prognostic indicator in colorectal cancer, a tool for optimizing therapy and supportive evidence for the cancer stem cell hypothesis: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Enlong; Jiang, Ning; Li, Jiang; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Xuening; Niu, Yuanjie

    2016-01-01

    We performed a meta-analysis of CD133-related clinical data to investigate the role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the clinical outcomes of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, analyzing the effectiveness of various therapeutic strategies and examining the validity of the CSC hypothesis. For 28 studies (4546 patients), the relative risk (RR) to survival outcomes associated with CD133+ CRCs were calculated using STATA 12.0 software. Pooled results showed that CD133High patients had poor 5-year overall survival (RR 0.713, 95% CI 0·616–0·826) and 5-year disease free survival (RR 0·707, 95% CI 0·602–0·831). Both associations were consistently observed across different races, research techniques and therapeutic strategies. In a subgroup receiving adjuvant therapy, CD133Low patients achieved significantly better survival than CD133High patients. The findings suggest that CD133 could serve as a predictive marker of poor prognosis and treatment failure in CRC. CD133Low patients could benefit from adjuvant treatments, while CD133High patients should be given novel treatments besides adjuvant therapy. Our results also provide evidence in support of the CSC hypothesis. PMID:26840260

  11. The Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Colorectal Neoplasm: Systemic review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jinjuvadia, Raxitkumar; Lohia, Prateek; Jinjuvadia, Chetna; Montoya, Sergio; Liangpunsakul, Suthat

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been constant speculation about the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and colorectal neoplasia (CN); however, the published results are conflicting. The aims of this study are to systematic search, and assess literature to determine the available evidence on the association between these two conditions. Methods Meta-analysis was conducted based on relevant studies identified through a systematic literature review from PubMed, OvidSP and Cochrane database during January 1980 to July 2011. A combined analysis was performed, followed by a subgroup analyses stratified by the study design, type of colorectal lesions and gender. Publication bias was assessed using the Begg’s and Egger’s tests and visual inspection of funnel plot. Results Eighteen studies were included in the final analysis. Overall, MetS was associated with 34% increase in the risk of CN (summary RR - 1.34, 95% CI 1.24–1.44). The association between MetS and CN was found to be statistically significant in separate analysis for both case-control studies (summary RR -1.58, 95% CI 1.44–1.79) and cohort studies (summary RR – 1.21, 95% CI 1.13–1.29). The association remained significant when analyses were restricted by type of colorectal lesions (colorectal cancer: RR – 1.30, 95% CI 1.18–1.43; colorectal adenoma: RR – 1.37, 95% CI 1.26–1.49). Further subgroup analysis by gender showed significant association between MetS and CN in both male and female population. Conclusion Our meta-analysis showed significant association between presence of MetS and CN. These results may help in identifying high risk individuals at early stage that might benefit from targeted CRC screening intervention. PMID:23090040

  12. Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio could be a promising prognostic biomarker for survival of colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hong-Xin; Lin, Kang; He, Bang-Shun; Pan, Yu-Qin; Ying, Hou-Qun; Hu, Xiu-Xiu; Xu, Tao; Wang, Shu-Kui

    2016-07-01

    Inflammation is one of the most important causes leading to colorectal carcinogenesis, and inflammatory biomarkers such as the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) might predict survival in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the prognostic value of PLR in CRC patients remains controversial. The prognostic value of PLR was comprehensively analyzed in 12 articles including 3541 CRC patients (10 for overall survival (OS), seven for disease-free survival (DFS), three for recurrence-free survival (RFS), and three for cancer-specific survival (CSS)) in this study. The overall pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of PLR for OS, DFS, and CSS were significant at 1.29 (95% confidence interval, CI = 1.13-1.47, P H = 0.149), 1.43 (95% CI = 1.03-1.97, P H = 0.025), and 1.26 (95% CI = 1.04-1.52, P H = 0.223), respectively. However, there was no evidence of significance for RFS (HR = 1.29, 95% CI = 0.98-1.70, P H = 0.231) in our study. Stratified analyses indicated elevated PLR was a predictor of poor OS (metastatic patients) and DFS (Caucasian population) and was also significantly associated with OS in univariate analysis (HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.14-1.60, P H = 0.532) and those only treated surgically (HR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.10-1.70, P H = 1.080). However, our findings indicated that elevated PLR is a promising prognostic biomarker for colorectal cancer, especially in metastatic Caucasian CRC patients. PMID:27398314

  13. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies common susceptibility polymorphisms for colorectal and endometrial cancer near SH2B3 and TSHZ1

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Timothy HT; Thompson, Deborah; Painter, Jodie; O’Mara, Tracy; Gorman, Maggie; Martin, Lynn; Palles, Claire; Jones, Angela; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Ko Win, Aung; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Gallinger, Steve; Conti, David; Schumacher, Fred; Casey, Graham; Giles, Graham G; Pharoah, Paul; Peto, Julian; Cox, Angela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Couch, Fergus; Cunningham, Julie M; Goode, Ellen L; Winham, Stacey J; Lambrechts, Diether; Fasching, Peter; Burwinkel, Barbara; Brenner, Hermann; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Salvesen, Helga B.; Kristensen, Vessela; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Tao; Lindblom, Annika; Hall, Per; de Polanco, Magdalena Echeverry; Sans, Monica; Carracedo, Angel; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Aguiar Jnr, Samuel; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Dunning, Alison M; Dennis, Joe; Otton, Geoffrey; Proietto, Tony; Holliday, Elizabeth; Attia, John; Ashton, Katie; Scott, Rodney J; McEvoy, Mark; Dowdy, Sean C; Fridley, Brooke L; Werner, Henrica MJ; Trovik, Jone; Njolstad, Tormund S; Tham, Emma; Mints, Miriam; Runnebaum, Ingo; Hillemanns, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Amant, Frederic; Schrauwen, Stefanie; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif; Czene, Kamila; Meindl, Alfons; Bolla, Manjeet K; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Wang, Qin; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S; Shah, Mitul; Annibali, Daniela; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Al-Tassan, Nada A.; Harris, Rebecca; Meyer, Brian F.; Whiffin, Nicola; Hosking, Fay J; Kinnersley, Ben; Farrington, Susan M.; Timofeeva, Maria; Tenesa, Albert; Campbell, Harry; Haile, Robert W.; Hodgson, Shirley; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Cheadle, Jeremy P.; Easton, Douglas; Dunlop, Malcolm; Houlston, Richard; Spurdle, Amanda; Tomlinson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    High-risk mutations in several genes predispose to both colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC). We therefore hypothesised that some lower-risk genetic variants might also predispose to both CRC and EC. Using CRC and EC genome-wide association series, totalling 13,265 cancer cases and 40,245 controls, we found that the protective allele [G] at one previously-identified CRC polymorphism, rs2736100 near TERT, was associated with EC risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, P = 0.000167); this polymorphism influences the risk of several other cancers. A further CRC polymorphism near TERC also showed evidence of association with EC (OR = 0.92; P = 0.03). Overall, however, there was no good evidence that the set of CRC polymorphisms was associated with EC risk, and neither of two previously-reported EC polymorphisms was associated with CRC risk. A combined analysis revealed one genome-wide significant polymorphism, rs3184504, on chromosome 12q24 (OR = 1.10, P = 7.23 × 10−9) with shared effects on CRC and EC risk. This polymorphism, a missense variant in the gene SH2B3, is also associated with haematological and autoimmune disorders, suggesting that it influences cancer risk through the immune response. Another polymorphism, rs12970291 near gene TSHZ1, was associated with both CRC and EC (OR = 1.26, P = 4.82 × 10−8), with the alleles showing opposite effects on the risks of the two cancers. PMID:26621817

  14. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies common susceptibility polymorphisms for colorectal and endometrial cancer near SH2B3 and TSHZ1.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Timothy H T; Thompson, Deborah; Painter, Jodie; O'Mara, Tracy; Gorman, Maggie; Martin, Lynn; Palles, Claire; Jones, Angela; Buchanan, Daniel D; Ko Win, Aung; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly A; Gallinger, Steve; Conti, David; Schumacher, Fred; Casey, Graham; Giles, Graham G; Pharoah, Paul; Peto, Julian; Cox, Angela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Couch, Fergus; Cunningham, Julie M; Goode, Ellen L; Winham, Stacey J; Lambrechts, Diether; Fasching, Peter; Burwinkel, Barbara; Brenner, Hermann; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Salvesen, Helga B; Kristensen, Vessela; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Tao; Lindblom, Annika; Hall, Per; de Polanco, Magdalena Echeverry; Sans, Monica; Carracedo, Angel; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Aguiar Jnr, Samuel; Teixeira, Manuel R; Dunning, Alison M; Dennis, Joe; Otton, Geoffrey; Proietto, Tony; Holliday, Elizabeth; Attia, John; Ashton, Katie; Scott, Rodney J; McEvoy, Mark; Dowdy, Sean C; Fridley, Brooke L; Werner, Henrica M J; Trovik, Jone; Njolstad, Tormund S; Tham, Emma; Mints, Miriam; Runnebaum, Ingo; Hillemanns, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Amant, Frederic; Schrauwen, Stefanie; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif; Czene, Kamila; Meindl, Alfons; Bolla, Manjeet K; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Wang, Qin; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S; Shah, Mitul; Annibali, Daniela; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Al-Tassan, Nada A; Harris, Rebecca; Meyer, Brian F; Whiffin, Nicola; Hosking, Fay J; Kinnersley, Ben; Farrington, Susan M; Timofeeva, Maria; Tenesa, Albert; Campbell, Harry; Haile, Robert W; Hodgson, Shirley; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Cheadle, Jeremy P; Easton, Douglas; Dunlop, Malcolm; Houlston, Richard; Spurdle, Amanda; Tomlinson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    High-risk mutations in several genes predispose to both colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC). We therefore hypothesised that some lower-risk genetic variants might also predispose to both CRC and EC. Using CRC and EC genome-wide association series, totalling 13,265 cancer cases and 40,245 controls, we found that the protective allele [G] at one previously-identified CRC polymorphism, rs2736100 near TERT, was associated with EC risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, P = 0.000167); this polymorphism influences the risk of several other cancers. A further CRC polymorphism near TERC also showed evidence of association with EC (OR = 0.92; P = 0.03). Overall, however, there was no good evidence that the set of CRC polymorphisms was associated with EC risk, and neither of two previously-reported EC polymorphisms was associated with CRC risk. A combined analysis revealed one genome-wide significant polymorphism, rs3184504, on chromosome 12q24 (OR = 1.10, P = 7.23 × 10(-9)) with shared effects on CRC and EC risk. This polymorphism, a missense variant in the gene SH2B3, is also associated with haematological and autoimmune disorders, suggesting that it influences cancer risk through the immune response. Another polymorphism, rs12970291 near gene TSHZ1, was associated with both CRC and EC (OR = 1.26, P = 4.82 × 10(-8)), with the alleles showing opposite effects on the risks of the two cancers. PMID:26621817

  15. Chinese Herbal Medicine and Fluorouracil-Based Chemotherapy for Colorectal Cancer: A Quality-Adjusted Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Michael; Ly, Helen; Broffman, Michael; See, Caylie; Clemons, Jen; Chang, Raymond

    2016-09-01

    Background Chinese herbal medicines reportedly increase efficacy and minimize toxicity of chemotherapy; however, little attention has been paid to how poor study quality can bias outcomes. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, TCMLARS, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicines combined with fluorouracil-based chemotherapy compared with the same chemotherapy alone. We screened for eligibility, extracted data, and pooled data with random-effects meta-analysis. Outcome measures were survival, toxicity, tumor response, performance status, quality of life, and Cochrane Risk of Bias (ROB) criteria to critically evaluate the quality of reporting in the randomized trials included in the meta-analysis. Results We found 36 potentially eligible studies, with only 3 (those with low ROB) qualifying for meta-analysis. Two reported chemotherapy-related diarrhea reduced by 57% (relative risk [RR] = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.19-1.01; I(2) test for variation in RR due to heterogeneity = 0.0%), with nonsignificant results. Two reported white blood cell toxicity reduced by 66% (RR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.16-0.72; I(2) test for variation in RR due to heterogeneity = 0.0%), with statistically significant results. Stratifying analysis by studies with high versus low ROB, we found substantial overestimation of benefit: Studies with high ROB overestimated by nearly 2-fold reduction of platelet toxicity by Chinese herbal medicines (RR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.15-0.84 vs RR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.11-3.92). Studies with high ROB overestimated by nearly 2-fold reduction of vomiting toxicity (RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.33-0.61 vs RR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.48-1.58). And, studies with high ROB overestimated by 21% the reduction in diarrhea toxicity (RR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.20-0.58 vs RR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.19-1.01). Studies with high ROB also overestimated by 16% improvement in tumor response (RR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.18-1.63 vs RR = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.81-1.79). Not accounting for

  16. Should noncurative resection of the primary tumour be performed in patients with stage iv colorectal cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, S.; Shahid, R.K.; Leis, A.; Haider, K.; Kanthan, S.; Reeder, B.; Pahwa, P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Surgical resection of the primary tumour in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (crc) remains controversial. This review compares survival in patients with advanced crc who underwent surgical resection of the primary tumour with that in patients not undergoing resection, and determines rates of post-operative mortality and nonfatal complications, the primary tumour complication rate, the non-resection surgical procedures rate, and quality of life (qol). Methods Reports in the central, medline, and embase databases were searched for relevant studies, which were selected using pre-specified eligibility criteria. The search was also restricted to publication dates from 1980 onward, the English language, and studies involving human subjects. Screening, evaluation of relevant articles, and data abstraction were performed in duplicate, and agreement between the abstractors was assessed. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were assessed for quality using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale. Data were collected and synthesized per protocol. Results From among the 3379 reports located, fifteen retrospective observational studies were selected. Of the 12,416 patients in the selected studies, 8620 (69%) underwent surgery. Median survival was 15.2 months (range: 10–30.7 months) in the resection group and 11.4 months (range: 3–22 months) in the non-resection group. Hazard ratio for survival was 0.69 [95% confidence interval (ci): 0.61 to 0.79] favouring surgical resection. Mean rates of postoperative mortality and nonfatal complications were 4.9% (95% ci: 0% to 9.7%) and 25.9% (95%ci: 20.1% to 31.6%) respectively. The mean primary tumour complication rate was 29.7% (95% ci: 18.5% to 41.0%), and the non-resection surgical procedures rate in the non-resection group was 27.6% (95 ci: 15.4% to 39.9%). No study provided qol data. Conclusions Although this review supports primary tumour resection in advanced crc, the results have significant biases. Randomized trials

  17. Association of Vitamin D Receptor Cdx-2 Polymorphism With Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhi-Ming; Fei, Yu-Lang; Zhang, Wang-Gang; Liu, Jie; Cao, Xing-Mei; Qu, Qiu-Min; Li, Yan-Chun; Lin, Shuai; Wang, Meng; Dai, Zhi-Jun

    2015-08-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) Cdx-2 polymorphism (rs11568820) has been indicated to be associated to cancer susceptibility. However, published studies reported mixed results. This meta-analysis was conducted to get a more accurate estimation of the association between Cdx-2 polymorphism and cancer risk.We identified 25 independent studies with a total of 34,018 subjects published prior to March 2015. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the susceptibility to cancer. Separate analyses were conducted on features of the population such as ethnicity, source of controls, and cancer types.Meta-analysis results showed that Cdx-2 polymorphism significantly increased cancer risk in the homozygous model in overall analysis. According to the further stratified analysis, significant association was found between Cdx-2 variant and cancer risk in American-Africans in the homozygous, recessive, and dominant comparison models. However, no significant associations were found in Caucasians and Asians. When stratified by different cancer types, significant association was observed between Cdx-2 variant and an increased risk of colorectal cancer in the homozygous, recessive, and dominant models. In addition, ovarian cancer susceptibility increased based on the homozygous and dominant comparison models.Our study indicated that VDR Cdx-2 polymorphism was associated with an increased cancer risk, particularly in American-Africans, colorectal, and ovarian cancers. However, other factors may impact on the association. Further multicenter studies are needed to confirm the effects of Cdx-2 polymorphism on cancer susceptibility. PMID:26287424

  18. Selenium Exposure and Cancer Risk: an Updated Meta-analysis and Meta-regression

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xianlei; Wang, Chen; Yu, Wanqi; Fan, Wenjie; Wang, Shan; Shen, Ning; Wu, Pengcheng; Li, Xiuyang; Wang, Fudi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between selenium exposure and cancer risk. We identified 69 studies and applied meta-analysis, meta-regression and dose-response analysis to obtain available evidence. The results indicated that high selenium exposure had a protective effect on cancer risk (pooled OR = 0.78; 95%CI: 0.73–0.83). The results of linear and nonlinear dose-response analysis indicated that high serum/plasma selenium and toenail selenium had the efficacy on cancer prevention. However, we did not find a protective efficacy of selenium supplement. High selenium exposure may have different effects on specific types of cancer. It decreased the risk of breast cancer, lung cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, and prostate cancer, but it was not associated with colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, and skin cancer. PMID:26786590

  19. Meta-Analysis of the Association between Mir-196a-2 Polymorphism and Cancer Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huan; Su, Yu-liang; Yu, Herbert; Qian, Bi-yun

    2012-01-01

    Objective MicroRNA plays a vital role in gene expression, and microRNA dysregulation is involved in carcinogenesis. The miR-196a-2 polymorphism rs11614913 is reportedly associated with cancer susceptibility. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the overall association of miR-196a-2 with cancer risk. Methods A total of 27 independent case-control studies involving 10,435 cases and 12,075 controls were analyzed for the rs11614913 polymorphism. Results A significant association was found between rs11614913 polymorphism and cancer risk in four genetic models (CT vs. TT, OR=1.15, 95%CI=1.05–1.27; CC vs. TT, OR=1.23, 95%CI=1.08–1.39; Dominant model, OR=1.17, 95%CI=1.06–1.30; Additive model, OR=1.08, 95%CI=1.01–1.14). In the subgroup analysis of different tumor types, the C allele was associated with increased risk of lung, breast, and colorectal cancer, but not with liver, gastric, or esophageal cancer. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, a significantly increased risk of cancer was found among Asians in all genetic models, but no associations were found in the Caucasian subgroup. Conclusions The meta-analysis demonstrated that the miR-196a-2 polymorphism is associated with cancer susceptibility, especially lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and breast cancer among Asian populations. PMID:23691458

  20. Human papillomavirus and breast cancer in Iran: a meta- analysis

    PubMed Central

    Haghshenas, Mohammad Reza; Mousavi, Tahoora; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Afshari, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): This study aims to investigate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and breast cancer using meta- analysis. Materials and Methods: Relevant studies were identified reviewing the national and international databases. We also increased the search sensitivity by investigating the references as well as interview with research centers and experts. Finally, quality assessment and implementation of inclusion/exclusion criteria determined the eligible articles for meta-analysis. Based on the heterogeneity observed among the results of the primary studies, random effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of HPV infection and also pooled odds ratio between HPV and developing breast cancer using Stata SE V. 11 software. Results: This meta- analysis included 11 primary studies investigating the HPV infection prevalence among 1539 Iranian women. Pooled prevalence (95% confidence interval) of HPV infection among Iranian women with breast cancer was estimated as of 23.6% (6.7- 40.5), while, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) between HPV infection and developing breast cancer was estimated as of 5.7% (0.7- 46.8). Conclusion: This meta- analysis showed a high prevalence of HPV infection among women with breast cancer. We also found that the odds of developing breast cancer among women with breast cancer was more than that of women without breast cancer. PMID:27114791

  1. Retraction Note: Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Incidence of Obesity-Related Cancers: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Wu; Li, Peng-Zhou; Zhu, Li-Yong; Zhu, Shaihong

    2016-01-01

    In the article entitled, "Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Incidence of Obesity-Related Cancers: A Meta-Analysis" which was published in Medical Science Monitor 2015;21: 1350-1357, sections in the text have been directly copied from a previously published article, entitled, "The Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Colorectal Cancer Risk: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis", Sorena Afshar, Seamus B. Kelly, Keith Seymour, Jose Lara, Sean Woodcock, John C. Mathers  in Obesity Surgery 2014; 24(10):1793-1799. Thus owing to duplicity of text, the article is being retracted. Reference: 1. Xiang-wu Yang, Peng-zhou Li, Li-yong Zhu, Shaihong Zhu Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Incidence of Obesity-Related Cancers: A Meta-Analysis Medical Science Monitor 2015;21: 1350-1357 DOI: 10.12659/MSM.893553. PMID:27215479

  2. Robotic-assisted versus laparoscopic colorectal surgery: a meta-analysis of four randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Robotic-assisted laparoscopy is popularly performed for colorectal disease. The objective of this meta-analysis was to compare the safety and efficacy of robotic-assisted colorectal surgery (RCS) and laparoscopic colorectal surgery (LCS) for colorectal disease based on randomized controlled trial studies. Methods Literature searches of electronic databases (Pubmed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library) were performed to identify randomized controlled trial studies that compared the clinical or oncologic outcomes of RCS and LCS. This meta-analysis was performed using the Review Manager (RevMan) software (version 5.2) that is provided by the Cochrane Collaboration. The data used were mean differences and odds ratios for continuous and dichotomous variables, respectively. Fixed-effects or random-effects models were adopted according to heterogeneity. Results Four randomized controlled trial studies were identified for this meta-analysis. In total, 110 patients underwent RCS, and 116 patients underwent LCS. The results revealed that estimated blood losses (EBLs), conversion rates and times to the recovery of bowel function were significantly reduced following RCS compared with LCS. There were no significant differences in complication rates, lengths of hospital stays, proximal margins, distal margins or harvested lymph nodes between the two techniques. Conclusions RCS is a promising technique and is a safe and effective alternative to LCS for colorectal surgery. The advantages of RCS include reduced EBLs, lower conversion rates and shorter times to the recovery of bowel function. Further studies are required to define the financial effects of RCS and the effects of RCS on long-term oncologic outcomes. PMID:24767102

  3. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... of colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  4. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  5. Cytokines as Early Markers of Colorectal Anastomotic Leakage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sparreboom, Cloë L.; Dereci, Adem; Boersema, Geesien S. A.; Menon, Anand G.; Ji, Jiafu; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; Lange, Johan F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Colorectal anastomotic leakage (CAL) is one of the most severe complications after colorectal surgery. This meta-analysis evaluates whether systemic or peritoneal inflammatory cytokines may contribute to early detection of CAL. Methods. Systematic literature search was performed in the acknowledged medical databases according to the PRISMA guidelines to identify studies evaluating systemic and peritoneal levels of TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 for early detection of CAL. Means and standard deviations of systemic and peritoneal cytokine levels were extracted, respectively, for patients with and without CAL. The meta-analysis of the mean differences was carried out for each postoperative day using Review Manager. Results. Seven articles were included. The meta-analysis was performed with 5 articles evaluating peritoneal cytokine levels. Peritoneal levels of IL-6 were significantly higher in patients with CAL compared to patients without CAL on postoperative days 1, 2, and 3 (P < 0.05). Similar results were found for peritoneal levels of TNF but on postoperative days 3, 4, and 5 (P < 0.05). The articles regarding systemic cytokine levels did not report any significant difference accordingly. Conclusion. Increased postoperative levels of peritoneal IL-6 and TNF are significantly associated with CAL and may contribute to its early detection. PMID:27051416

  6. Laparoscopic colorectal resection versus open colorectal resection in octogenarians: a systematic review and meta-analysis of safety and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Wang, S; Gao, S; Yang, C; Yang, W; Guo, S

    2016-03-01

    Octogenarians are more often viewed as high-risk surgical candidates. This increased risk is attributed to an age-related decline in physical function and reserve capacity coupled with the presence of various underlying diseases. There are no current guidelines or consensus on the optimal treatment strategy for this cohort of complex patients. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic colorectal resection versus open colorectal resection in octogenarians. The meta-analysis was conducted following all aspects of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. A systematic literature review was carried out using the following databases: MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and OVID. Only studies comparing outcome of laparoscopic and open colorectal resections in the elderly population (≥80 years) were selected. The data collected included the patient demographics, interventions, observed outcome and sources of bias. When performing the statistical analysis, we used the odds ratio for categorical variables and the weighted mean difference for continuous variables. The results of this systematic review and pooled analysis demonstrated the safety and potential benefits of laparoscopic colorectal resection in octogenarians. LC can reduce the length of hospital stay, intraoperative blood loss, time to return of normal bowel function, and incidence of postoperative pneumonia, wound infection, and postoperative ileus. PMID:26783029

  7. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the ... professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to- ...

  8. Coffee and gastric cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Francisco; Lunet, Nuno; Barros, Henrique

    2006-05-01

    We systematically reviewed the literature on the association between coffee consumption and gastric cancer and performed a meta-analysis of the results. Published cohort and case-control studies were identified in PubMed and reference lists. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool effects from 23 studies, and heterogeneity was explored by stratification and meta-regression. The odds ratio (OR) for the overall association between coffee and gastric cancer (highest vs. lowest category of exposure) was 0.97 (95%CI: 0.86-1.09), similar for cohort (OR = 1.02; 95%CI: 0.76-1.37) and case-control studies (population-based: OR = 0.90; 95%CI: 0.70-1.15; hospital-based: OR = 0.97; 95%CI: 0.83-1.13). The OR was 1.26 (95%CI: 1.02-1.57) when considering five studies conducted in the USA, 0.97 (95%CI: 0.82-1.14) for the five Japanese studies, 0.98 (95%CI: 0.81-1.17) for the six studies from Europe, and 0.64 (95%CI: 0.47-0.86) for the two studies from South America. In this meta-analysis we found no adverse effect of coffee associated with gastric cancer. Knowledge on the level of exposure to different coffee constituents may provide a deeper understanding of this reassuring result and the real role of coffee on cancer risk. PMID:16680342

  9. Iron and cancer risk--a systematic review and meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Jakszyn, Paula; Agudo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Iron has been suggested as a risk factor for different types of cancers mainly due to its prooxidant activity, which can lead to oxidative DNA damage. Furthermore, subjects with hemochromatosis or iron overload have been shown to have a higher risk of developing liver cancer. We have systematically reviewed 59 epidemiologic studies, published between 1995 and 2012, reporting information on total iron, dietary iron, heme iron, and biomarkers of iron status and cancer risk. Furthermore we conducted meta-analysis for colorectal [relative risk (RR), 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-1.17], colon (RR = 1.12; 95% CI, 1.03-1.22), breast (RR = 1.03; 95% CI, 0.97-1.09), and lung cancer (RR = 1.12; 95% CI, 0.98-1.29), for an increase of 1 mg/day of heme iron intake. Globally, on the basis of the systematic review and the meta-analysis results, a higher intake of heme iron has shown a tendency toward a positive association with cancer risk. Evidence regarding high levels of biomarkers of iron stores (mostly with serum ferritin) suggests a negative effect toward cancer risk. More prospective studies combining research on dietary iron intake, iron biomarkers, genetic susceptibility, and other relevant factors need to be conducted to clarify these findings and better understand the role of iron in cancer development. PMID:24243555

  10. Meta-Analysis of Massage Therapy on Cancer Pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Yeop; Yeo, Sujung; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lim, Sabina

    2015-07-01

    Cancer pain is the most common complaint among patients with cancer. Conventional treatment does not always relieve cancer pain satisfactorily. Therefore, many patients with cancer have turned to complementary therapies to help them with their physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Massage therapy is increasingly used for symptom relief in patients with cancer. The current study aimed to investigate by meta-analysis the effects of massage therapy for cancer patients experiencing pain. Nine electronic databases were systematically searched for studies published through August 2013 in English, Chinese, and Korean. Methodological quality was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and Cochrane risk-of-bias scales. Twelve studies, including 559 participants, were used in the meta-analysis. In 9 high-quality studies based on the PEDro scale (standardized mean difference, -1.24; 95% confidence interval, -1.72 to -0.75), we observed reduction in cancer pain after massage. Massage therapy significantly reduced cancer pain compared with no massage treatment or conventional care (standardized mean difference, -1.25; 95% confidence interval, -1.63 to -0.87). Our results indicate that massage is effective for the relief of cancer pain, especially for surgery-related pain. Among the various types of massage, foot reflexology appeared to be more effective than body or aroma massage. Our meta-analysis indicated a beneficial effect of massage for relief of cancer pain. Further well-designed, large studies with longer follow-up periods are needed to be able to draw firmer conclusions regarding the effectiveness. PMID:25784669

  11. Five Myths about Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACS » Your Local Offices Close + - Text Size Five Myths About Colorectal Cancer In many cases, colorectal cancer ... screening tests you need, when you need them. Myth: Colorectal cancer is a man’s disease. Truth: Colorectal ...

  12. Efficacy and safety of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy compared with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer in first-line and second-line therapies: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongchi; Ma, Bin; Gao, Peng; Song, Yongxi; Xu, Qingzhou; Hu, Yaoyuan; Zhang, Cong; Wang, Zhenning

    2016-01-01

    Aim This study aimed to compare anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) therapy and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy as first-line and second-line therapies in patients with KRAS exon 2 codon 12/13 wild-type (KRAS-WT) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Methods Major databases were systematically searched. The hazard ratio (HR), odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to estimate the effect measures. Review Manager software version 5.3 was used for statistical analysis. Results Seven trials including ten articles were eligible in the meta-analysis. The patients treated with anti-EGFR as first-line therapy showed a longer overall survival (OS) for KRAS-WT and all RAS wild-type (RAS-WT) mCRC (HR =0.81, 95% CI: 0.72–0.92, P<0.01, n=5; HR =0.78, 95% CI: 0.66–0.93, P<0.01, n=3, respectively). The objective response rate (ORR) was better with the anti-EGFR therapy for KRAS-WT and all RAS-WT mCRC (OR =1.32, 95% CI: 1.11–1.56, P<0.01, n=5; OR =1.55, 95% CI: 1.21–2.00, P<0.01, n=3, respectively). There was no difference in progression-free survival (PFS) for KRAS-WT mCRC and all RAS-WT mCRC between the two groups (HR =1.00; 95% CI: 0.92–1.09, P=0.99, n=4; HR =0.92, 95% CI: 0.71–1.19, P=0.52, n=3, respectively). In addition, two trials provided data on the second-line therapy; there was no significant difference in OS and PFS for the second-line therapy, but a significant improvement in ORR was found in the anti-EGFR group (OR =1.91, 95% CI: 1.16–3.16, P=0.01, n=2). No difference in the conversion therapy (OR =1.34; 95% CI: 0.91–1.99; P=0.14, n=4) was observed between the two therapies. Conclusion Our results indicate that anti-EGFR therapy is superior to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for OS and ORR as a first-line therapy for KRAS-WT mCRC. In the second-line therapy, there was no significant difference in the survival outcomes on the basis of OS and PFS between the two groups. However, ORR

  13. Endoscopic versus surgical resection for early colorectal cancer—a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Moura, Eduardo Guimaraes Hourneaux; Bernardo, Wanderley Marques; Leite de Castro, Vinicius; Morais, Cintia; Baba, Elisa Ryoka; Safatle-Ribeiro, Adriana Vaz

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the available data on the treatment of early colorectal cancer (CRC), either endoscopically or surgically. Methods Two independent reviewers searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL COCHRANE, LILACS and EBSCO for articles published up to August 2015. No language or dates filters were applied. Inclusion criteria were studies with published data about patients with early colonic or rectal cancer undergoing either endoscopic resection (i.e., mucosectomy or submucosal dissection) or surgical resection (i.e., open or laparoscopic). Extracted data items undergoing meta-analysis were en bloc resection rate, curative resection rate, and complications. A complementary analysis was performed on procedure time. The risk of bias among studies was evaluated with funnel-plot expressions, and sensitivity analyses were carried out whenever a high heterogeneity was found. The risk of bias within studies was assessed with the Newcastle score. Results A total of 12,819 articles were identified in the preliminary search. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, three cohort studies with a total of 768 patients undergoing endoscopic resection and 552 patients undergoing surgical resection were included. The en bloc resection rate risk difference was −11% [−13%, −8% confidence interval (CI)], demonstrating worse outcome results for the endoscopic resection group as compared to the surgical resection group [number need to harm (NNH) =10]. The curative resection rate risk difference was −9% [(−12%, 6% CI)] after a sensitivity analysis was performed, which also demonstrated worse outcomes in the intervention group (NNH =12). The complications rate exhibited a −7% risk difference [(−11%, −4% CI)], denoting a lesser number of complications in the endoscopic group [Number Need to Treat (NNT =15). A complementary analysis of procedure time with two of the selected studies demonstrated a mean difference of −118.32 min [(−127.77, −108.87 CI)], in

  14. Tubal ligation, hysterectomy and ovarian cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the strength of the association between gynecologic surgeries, tubal ligation and hysterectomy, and ovarian cancer. Methods We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases for all English-language articles dated between 1969 through March 2011 using the keywords “ovarian cancer” and “tubal ligation” or “tubal sterilization” or “hysterectomy.” We identified 30 studies on tubal ligation and 24 studies on hysterectomy that provided relative risks for ovarian cancer and a p-value or 95% confidence interval (CI) to include in the meta-analysis. Summary RRs and 95% CIs were calculated using a random-effects model. Results The summary RR for women with vs. without tubal ligation was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.64, 0.75). Similarly, the summary RR for women with vs. without hysterectomy was 0.74 (95%CI: 0.65, 0.84). Simple hysterectomy and hysterectomy with unilateral oophorectomy were associated with a similar decrease in risk (summery RR = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.49-0.79 and 0.60, 95%CI: 0.47-0.78, respectively). In secondary analyses, the association between tubal ligation and ovarian cancer risk was stronger for endometrioid tumors (summary RR = 0.45, 95%CI: 0.33, 0.61) compared to serous tumors. Conclusion Observational epidemiologic evidence strongly supports that tubal ligation and hysterectomy are associated with a decrease in the risk of ovarian cancer, by approximately 26-30%. Additional research is needed to determine whether the association between tubal ligation and hysterectomy on ovarian cancer risk differs by individual, surgical, and tumor characteristics. PMID:22587442

  15. Meta-Analysis of Prognostic and Clinical Significance of CD44v6 in Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bangli; Luo, Wei; Hu, Rui-Ting; Zhou, You; Qin, Shan-Yu; Jiang, Hai-Xing

    2015-08-01

    CD44v6 is a cell adhesion molecule that plays an important role in the development and progression of esophageal cancer. However, the prognostic value and clinical significance of CD44v6 in esophageal cancer remains controversial. In the present study, we aimed to clarify these relationships through a meta-analysis.We performed a comprehensive search of studies from PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid library database, Google scholar, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases that were published before June 2015. The odds ratio (OR) and pooled hazard ratio (HR) with the 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate the effects.Twenty-one studies including 1504 patients with esophageal cancer were selected to assess the prognostic value and clinical significance of CD44v6 in these patients. The results showed that the expression of CD44v6 was higher in esophageal cancer tissue than in normal colorectal tissue (OR=9.19, 95% CI=6.30-13.42). Moreover, expression of CD44v6 was higher in patients with lymphoid nodal metastasis, compared to those without (OR=6.91, 95% CI=4.81-9.93). The pooled results showed that CD44v6 was associated with survival in patients with esophageal cancer (HR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.56-3.92). No significant difference in CD44v6 expression was found in patients with different histological types and tumor stages (both P>0.05). Moreover, no publication bias was found among the studies (all P > 0.05).This meta-analysis demonstrates that CD44v6 is associated with the metastasis of esophageal cancer and a poor prognosis, but is not associated with the histological types and tumor stages. PMID:26252284

  16. The effect of neuraxial anesthesia on cancer recurrence and survival after cancer surgery: an updated meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Meilin; Chen, Wankun; Hou, Wenting; Li, Lihong; Ding, Ming; Miao, Changhong

    2016-01-01

    Several animal and observational studies have evaluated the effects of neuraxial anesthesia on the recurrence and survival of cancer surgery; studies reported benefit, whereas others did not. To provide further evidence that neuraxial anesthesia(combined with or without general anesthesia (GA))may be associated with reduced cancer recurrence and long-term survival after cancer surgery, we conducted this meta-analysis. A total of 21 studies were identified and analyzed, based on searches conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE database and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. After data abstraction, adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the impact of neuraxial anesthesia (combined with or without GA) and GA on oncological outcomes after cancer surgery. For overall survival (OS), a potential association between neuraxial anesthesia and improved OS (HR 0.853, CI 0.741-0.981, P = 0.026, the random-effects model) was observed compared with GA. Specifically, we found a positive association between neuraxial anesthesia and improved OS in colorectal cancer (HR 0.653, CI 0.430-0.991, P = 0.045, the random-effects model). For recurrence-free survival (RFS), a significant association between neuraxial anesthesia and improved RFS (HR 0.846, CI 0.718-0.998, P = 0.047, the random-effects model) was detected compared with GA. Our meta-analysis suggests that neuraxial anesthesia may be associated with improved OS in patients with cancer surgery, especially for those patients with colorectal cancer. It also supports a potential association between neuraxial anesthesia and a reduced risk of cancer recurrence. More prospective studies are needed to elucidate whether the association between neuraxial use and survival is causative. PMID:26918830

  17. The association between serum ferritin with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhe; Chen, Ji-Wei; Feng, Jian-Hua; Shen, Fei; Cai, Wen-Song; Cao, Jie; Xu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    There are conflicting reports on the correlation between serum levels of ferritin with colorectal cancer. The purpose of the present study is to clarify the association between serum ferritin with colorectal cancer using a meta-analysis approach. We searched articles indexed in Pubmed published as of July 2015 that met our predefined criteria. Six eligible articles involving 927 subjects were identified. Overall, pooled analysis indicated that subjects with colorectal cancer had lower serum level of ferritin than the healthy controls (SMD=-1.569, 95% CI=[-2.718, -0.420], P= 0.007). Further subgroup analysis found lower serum level of ferritin among patients with colorectal cancer in eastern country (SMD=-1.956, 95% CI=[-3.750, -0.162], P=0.033), but not in western country (SMD=-1.285, 95% CI=[-2.778, 0.207], P=0.091). In conclusion, this meta-analysis supports a significant association between serum ferritin with colorectal cancer. However, the subgroup analysis found that there was significant effect modification of ferritin level by ethnic. Thus this finding needs further confirmation by trans-regional multicenter, long-term observation in a cohort design to obtain better understanding of causal relationships between serum ferrintin levels and colorectal cancer, through measuring ferritin at baseline to investigate whether the highest ferritin category versus lowest is associated with colorectal cancer risk. PMID:26885206

  18. The Association between Telomere Length and Cancer Prognosis: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lu; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Chao; Hou, Shuxun

    2015-01-01

    Background Telomeres are essential for chromosomal integrity and stability. Shortened telomere length (TL) has been associated with risk of cancers and aging-related diseases. Several studies have explored associations between TL and cancer prognosis, but the results are conflicting. Methods Prospective studies on the relationship between TL and cancer survival were identified by a search of PubMed up to May 25, 2015. There were no restrictions on the cancer type or DNA source. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analysis approaches were conducted to determine pooled relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Results Thirty-three articles containing forty-five independent studies were ultimately involved in our meta-analysis, of which twenty-seven were about overall cancer survival and eighteen were about cancer progression. Short TL was associated with increased cancer mortality risk (RR = 1.30, 95%CI: 1.06–1.59) and poor cancer progression (RR = 1.44, 95%CI: 1.10–1.88), both with high levels of heterogeneity (I2 = 83.5%, P = 0.012for overall survival and I2 = 75.4%, P = 0.008 for progression). TL was an independent predictor of overall cancer survival and progression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Besides, short telomeres were also associated with increased colorectal cancer mortality and decreased overall survival of esophageal cancer, but not in other cancers. Cancer progression was associated with TL in Asian and America populations and short TL predicted poor cancer survival in older populations. Compared with tumor tissue cells, TL in blood lymphocyte cells was better for prediction. In addition, the associations remained significant when restricted to studies with adjustments for age, with larger sample sizes, measuring TL using southern blotting or estimating risk effects by hazard ratios. Conclusion Short TL demonstrated a significant association with poor cancer survival, suggesting the

  19. Meta-Analysis of the Prognostic Value of Smad4 Immunohistochemistry in Various Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zebo; Qiu, Tianzhu; Wang, Jian; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Tongshan; Liu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that Smad4 (DPC4) plays a fundamental role in the development and prognosis of several types of cancer. The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate whether the loss of Smad4 staining could serve as a prognostic marker. Methods A comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted using major useful databases to determine the relationship between the immunohistochemical detection of Smad4 and the survival of patients with various cancers. We used hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CIs) as the effect estimation to evaluate the association of Smad4 with overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) or recurrence-free survival (RFS). The relationship between the clinical characteristics of patients and Smad4 was also evaluated using the odds ratio (OR). Results A total of 7570 patients from 26 studies were included in the analysis. The pooled results showed that loss of Smad4 staining was a negative predictor of OS with an HR of 1.97 (95% CI: 1.55–2.51; Pheterogeneity<0.001) and CSS/RFS (HR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.30–2.54; Pheterogeneity<0.001). In addition, loss of Smad4 staining was more likely to be found in older (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.09–2.61; Pheterogeneity = 0.648) colorectal cancer patients with a late tumor stage (OR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.71–3.10; Pheterogeneity = 0.218) and in gastric cancer patients with lymph node metastasis (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.03–4.34; Pheterogeneity = 0.038). Conclusion Based on these results, our meta-analysis provided evidence that loss of Smad4 staining could act as an unfavorable biomarker in the prognosis of various cancers and should be used as a powerful tool in future clinical trials. PMID:25333693

  20. What Is Colorectal Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... on staging, see “ Colorectal cancer stages ” The normal colon and rectum The colon and rectum are parts ... through the anus . Types of cancer in the colon and rectum Adenocarcinomas make up more than 95% ...

  1. Poultry consumption and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    He, Qian; Wan, Zheng-ce; Xu, Xiao-bing; Wu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background. Several kinds of foods are hypothesized to be potential factors contributing to the variation of prostate cancer (PCa) incidence. But the effect of poultry on PCa is still inconsistent and no quantitative assessment has been published up to date. So we conducted this meta-analysis to clarify the association between them. Materials and Methods. We conducted a literature search of PubMed and Embase for studies examining the association between poultry consumption and PCa up to June, 2015. Pooled risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) of the highest versus lowest poultry consumption categories were calculated by fixed-effect model or random-effect model. Results. A total of 27 (12 cohort and 15 case-control) studies comprising 23,703 cases and 469,986 noncases were eligible for inclusion. The summary RR of total PCa incidence was 1.03 (95% CI [0.95–1.11]) for the highest versus lowest categories of poultry intake. The heterogeneity between studies was not statistically significant (P = 0.768, I2 = 28.5%). Synthesized analysis of 11 studies on high stage PCa and 8 studies on chicken exposure also demonstrated null association. We also did not obtain significant association in the subgroup of cohort study (RR = 1.04, 95% CI [0.98–1.10]), as well as in the subgroups of population-based case-control study and hospital-based case-control study. Then the studies were divided into three geographic groups: Western countries, Asia and South America. The pooled RRs in these areas did not reveal statistically significant association between poultry and PCa. Conclusions. This meta-analysis suggests no association between poultry consumption and PCa risk. Further well-designed studies are warranted to confirm the result. PMID:26855875

  2. Systematic review and meta-analysis on vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yeqiong; He, Bangshun; Pan, Yuqin; Deng, Qiwen; Sun, Huiling; Li, Rui; Gao, Tianyi; Song, Guoqi; Wang, Shukui

    2014-05-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) can influence cancer susceptibility through binding to vitamin D. However, the previous studies were contradictory. Therefore this meta-analysis was conducted to clarify the association between VDR polymorphisms (BsmI, TaqI, FokI, and ApaI) and cancer risk. One hundred twenty-six studies were enrolled through PubMed. For VDR BsmI polymorphism, significantly increased cancer risks were observed in the overall analysis. In the further stratified analysis, increased risks were observed in colorectal and skin cancer, especially in Caucasian population. However, no significant associations were observed in other VDR polymorphisms in the overall analysis. In the further subgroup analysis, increased risks were found in oral, breast, and basal cell cancer while decreased risk was found in prostate cancer in t allele carriers of TaqI polymorphism. For VDR FokI polymorphism, increased risks were found in ovarian and skin cancer while decreased risk in glioma in f allele carriers. For VDR ApaI polymorphism, increased risk was observed in basal cell cancer, especially in Asian population in a allele carriers. In conclusion, these results indicated that b allele of BamI polymorphism was a risk factor for cancer susceptibility. Meanwhile, t allele of TaqI polymorphism was a risk factor for oral, breast, and basal cell cancer and a protective factor for prostate cancer. Moreover, f allele of FokI polymorphism was a risk factor for ovarian and skin cancer and a protective factor for glioma. Finally, a allele of ApaI polymorphism was a risk factor for basal cell cancer in Asian population. PMID:24408013

  3. [Epidemiology of colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Launoy, Guy

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer increased in France until the 2000s' then decreased. Time trends in incidence for this cancer varied according to its sublocation along the gut. Incidence increased for right and left colon cancers, whereas it remained stable for sigmoid cancers in males and decreased in females. Incidence decreased over time for rectal cancers. The proportion of colorectal cancer in the overall French cancer prevalence is 12%. In 2008, 121,000 patients had a colorectal cancer diagnosed in the 5 previous years. The cumulative risk of colorectal cancer increased from 3.9% for males born around 1900 to 4.9% for those born around 1930 and then slightly decreased, being 4.5% among those born around 1950. It remained at the same level for females and was 2.9% for those born around 1950. The prognosis of colorectal cancer improved over time. Net 5-year survival increased in males from 53% for cancers diagnosed between 1989 and 1991 to 58% for those diagnosed between 2001 and 2004. The highest improvement of 10 year survival rates concerned left colon and rectosigmoid junction (+19% in a decade). The progressive set up of national colorectal screening since the early 2000's and the introduction of recent immunological tests in 2015 should decrease the mortality for this cancer and, at term, should decrease its incidence too. PMID:26298897

  4. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michaela; Gasche, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has become one of the most prevalent malignant diseases for both men and women. Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases or certain inherited cancer syndromes are at high risk of developing colorectal cancer and have naturally the highest need for cancer prevention. In familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and Lynch syndrome, most of the underlying germline mutations can be detected by DNA sequencing, and medical counselling of affected individuals involves both surveillance tests and chemopreventive measures. However, as the mechanisms leading to colorectal cancer differ in these high-risk groups, the molecular action of chemopreventive drugs needs to be adjusted to the certain pathway of carcinogenesis. In the last decades, a number of drugs have been tested, including sulindac, aspirin, celecoxib, and mesalazine, but some of them are still controversially discussed. This review summarizes the advances and current standards of colorectal cancer prevention in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, FAP and Lynch syndrome. PMID:25531498

  5. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Peter; Leon, Maria Elena

    2002-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a important public health problem: there are nearly one million new cases of colorectal cancer diagnosed world-wide each year and half a million deaths. Recent reports show that, in the US, it was the most frequent form of cancer among persons aged 75 years and older. Given that the majority of cancers occur in elder people and with the ageing of the population in mind, this observation gives further impetus to investigating prevention and treatment strategies among this subgroup of the population. Screening research, recommendations and implementation is an obvious priority. While there are many questions to be resolved, it is apparent that many facets of colorectal cancer are becoming increasingly understood and prospects for prevention are becoming apparent. Achieving colorectal cancer control is the immediate challenge. PMID:12421722

  6. Identification of Genetic Susceptibility Loci for Colorectal Tumors in a Genome-wide Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Ulrike; Jiao, Shuo; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Aragaki, Aaron K.; Baron, John A.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bézieau, Stéphane; Brenner, Hermann; Butterbach, Katja; Caan, Bette J.; Campbell, Peter T.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Casey, Graham; Chan, Andrew T.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Lin S.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Coetzee, Simon G.; Conti, David V.; Curtis, Keith R.; Duggan, David; Edwards, Todd; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gallinger, Steven; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Gruber, Stephen B.; Haile, Robert W.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Hunter, David J.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Jee, Sun Ha; Jenkins, Mark A.; Jia, Wei-Hua; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kooperberg, Charles; Küry, Sébastien; Lacroix, Andrea Z.; Laurie, Cathy C.; Laurie, Cecelia A.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lemire, Mathieu; Levine, David; Lindor, Noralane M.; Liu, Yan; Ma, Jing; Makar, Karen W.; Matsuo, Keitaro; Newcomb, Polly A.; Potter, John D.; Prentice, Ross L.; Qu, Conghui; Rohan, Thomas; Rosse, Stephanie A.; Schoen, Robert E.; Seminara, Daniela; Shrubsole, Martha; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Slattery, Martha L.; Taverna, Darin; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; White, Emily; Xiang, Yongbing; Zanke, Brent W.; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Zhang, Ben; Zheng, Wei; Hsu, Li

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Heritable factors contribute to the development of colorectal cancer. Identifying the genetic loci associated with colorectal tumor formation could elucidate the mechanisms of pathogenesis. METHODS We conducted a genome-wide association study that included 14 studies, 12,696 cases of colorectal tumors (11,870 cancer, 826 adenoma), and 15,113 controls of European descent. The 10 most statistically significant, previously unreported findings were followed up in 6 studies; these included 3056 colorectal tumor cases (2098 cancer, 958 adenoma) and 6658 controls of European and Asian descent. RESULTS Based on the combined analysis, we identified a locus that reached the conventional genome-wide significance level at less than 5.0 × 10−8: an intergenic region on chromosome 2q32.3, close to nucleic acid binding protein 1 (most significant single nucleotide polymorphism: rs11903757; odds ratio [OR], 1.15 per risk allele; P = 3.7 × 10−8). We also found evidence for 3 additional loci with P values less than 5.0 × 10−7: a locus within the laminin gamma 1 gene on chromosome 1q25.3 (rs10911251; OR, 1.10 per risk allele; P = 9.5 × 10−8), a locus within the cyclin D2 gene on chromosome 12p13.32 (rs3217810 per risk allele; OR, 0.84; P = 5.9 × 10−8), and a locus in the T-box 3 gene on chromosome 12q24.21 (rs59336; OR, 0.91 per risk allele; P = 3.7 × 10−7). CONCLUSIONS In a large genome-wide association study, we associated polymorphisms close to nucleic acid binding protein 1 (which encodes a DNA-binding protein involved in DNA repair) with colorectal tumor risk. We also provided evidence for an association between colorectal tumor risk and polymorphisms in laminin gamma 1 (this is the second gene in the laminin family to be associated with colorectal cancers), cyclin D2 (which encodes for cyclin D2), and T-box 3 (which encodes a T-box transcription factor and is a target of Wnt signaling to β-catenin). The roles of these genes and their products

  7. Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening Summer 2016 Table of Contents Dr. Asad Umar, ... know to help determine the best colon cancer screening test for them? Colonoscopy is considered the gold ...

  8. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the ... professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to- ...

  9. Tests for Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... to look for colorectal cancer Imaging tests use sound waves, x-rays, magnetic fields, or radioactive substances to ... has spread to the liver. Ultrasound Ultrasound uses sound waves and their echoes to create images of the ...

  10. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test. PMID:21954677

  11. Colorectal cancer in adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, A.; Renaut, A. J.; Whelan, J.; Taylor, I.

    1999-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, one of the most common malignancies among adults, is rare in adolescence. This low incidence coupled with non-specific symptoms and aggressive natural history leads to a poorer prognosis than in reported adult series. This article describes two cases of colorectal cancer in adolescents and reviews the literature regarding this rare condition. Earlier diagnosis and a greater understanding of the natural history may lead to improved treatment with concomitant improvements in survival. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10364965

  12. Comparative Effectiveness of Hepatic Artery Based Therapies for Unresectable Colorectal Liver Metastases: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rilling, William S.; Thomas, James P.; George, Ben; Johnston, Fabian M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with unresectable Colorectal Liver Metastases (CRLM) are increasingly being managed using Hepatic Artery Based Therapies (HAT), including Hepatic Arterial Infusion (HAI), Radioembolization (RE), and Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization (TACE). Limited data is available on the comparative effectiveness of these options. We hypothesized that outcomes in terms of survival and toxicity were equivalent across the three strategies. Methods A meta-analysis was performed using a prospectively registered search strategy at PROSPERO (CRD42013003861) that utilized studies from PubMed (2003–2013). Primary outcome was median overall survival (OS). Secondary outcomes were treatment toxicity, tumor response, and conversion of the tumor to resectable. Additional covariates included prior or concurrent systemic therapy. Results Of 491 studies screened, 90 were selected for analyses—52 (n = 3,000 patients) HAI, 24 (n = 1,268) RE, 14 (n = 1,038) TACE. The median OS (95% CI) for patients receiving HAT in the first-line were RE 29.4 vs. HAI 21.4 vs. TACE 15.2 months (p = 0.97, 0.69 respectively). For patients failing at least one line of prior systemic therapy, the survival outcomes were TACE 21.3 (20.6–22.4) months vs. HAI 13.2 (12.2–14.2) months vs. RE 10.7 (9.5–12.0). Grade 3–4 toxicity for HAT alone was 40% in the HAI group, 19% in the RE group, and 18% in the TACE groups, which was increased with the addition of systemic chemotherapy. Level 1 evidence was available in 5 studies for HAI, 2 studies for RE and 1 for TACE. Conclusion HAI, RE, and TACE are equally effective in patients with unresectable CRLM with marginal differences in survival. PMID:26448327

  13. Meta-analysis on vitamin D receptor and cancer risk: focus on the role of TaqI, ApaI, and Cdx2 polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Davide; Gnagnarella, Patrizia; Raimondi, Sara; Gandini, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D plays a significant role in our health, including cancer incidence and mortality. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may affect its activity, influencing the risk of cancer. Several studies have investigated VDR SNPs, but the association with the risk of cancer is controversial. Here, we present a meta-analysis to assess the association of TaqI, ApaI, and Cdx2 SNPs with the risk of cancer. A systematic literature search was performed following a predefined protocol and using validated search strategies. This meta-analysis shows the summary odd ratio (SOR) overall, by cancer sites and by ethnicity. Up to January 2014, we identified 73 independent studies with 35 525 cases and 38 675 controls. The meta-analysis of Cdx2 gg versus GG showed a significant 12% increased risk for all cancers [SOR=1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.25]. The other SNPs analyzed did not show an overall significant association with the risk of cancer: SOR=0.98 (95% CI: 0.90-1.07) and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.95-1.19) for TaqI tt versus TT and ApaI aa versus AA, respectively. TaqI shows a significant 43% increased risk for colorectal cancer (SOR=1.43; 95% CI: 1.30-1.58 for tt vs. TT). Strong frequency variations are present among different ethnic groups. This meta-analysis showed an overall increased risk of cancer associated with Cdx2 SNP and a specific higher risk of colorectal cancer associated with the TaqI polymorphism. The VDR genotype might become more relevant when clustered in a specific haplotype, associated with other SNPs of genes involved in vitamin D metabolism, or for specific tumors and/or patient characteristics. PMID:25738688

  14. Meta-analysis on vitamin D receptor and cancer risk: focus on the role of TaqI, ApaI, and Cdx2 polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Davide; Raimondi, Sara; Gandini, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D plays a significant role in our health, including cancer incidence and mortality. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may affect its activity, influencing the risk of cancer. Several studies have investigated VDR SNPs, but the association with the risk of cancer is controversial. Here, we present a meta-analysis to assess the association of TaqI, ApaI, and Cdx2 SNPs with the risk of cancer. A systematic literature search was performed following a predefined protocol and using validated search strategies. This meta-analysis shows the summary odd ratio (SOR) overall, by cancer sites and by ethnicity. Up to January 2014, we identified 73 independent studies with 35 525 cases and 38 675 controls. The meta-analysis of Cdx2 gg versus GG showed a significant 12% increased risk for all cancers [SOR=1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00–1.25]. The other SNPs analyzed did not show an overall significant association with the risk of cancer: SOR=0.98 (95% CI: 0.90–1.07) and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.95–1.19) for TaqI tt versus TT and ApaI aa versus AA, respectively. TaqI shows a significant 43% increased risk for colorectal cancer (SOR=1.43; 95% CI: 1.30–1.58 for tt vs. TT). Strong frequency variations are present among different ethnic groups. This meta-analysis showed an overall increased risk of cancer associated with Cdx2 SNP and a specific higher risk of colorectal cancer associated with the TaqI polymorphism. The VDR genotype might become more relevant when clustered in a specific haplotype, associated with other SNPs of genes involved in vitamin D metabolism, or for specific tumors and/or patient characteristics. PMID:25738688

  15. Dietary flavonoid intake and the risk of digestive tract cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Yacong; Sun, Jinfeng; Wang, Mengmeng; Ding, Jizhe; Lu, Quanjun; Yuan, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between dietary flavonoid intake and digestive tract cancers risk; however, the results remain inconclusive. The aim of our study was to evaluate this association. PubMed and the Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant publications from inception to October 2015. The risk ratio (RR) or odds ratio (OR) with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the highest versus the lowest categories of flavonoid intake were pooled using a fixed-effects model. A total of 15 articles reporting 23 studies were selected for the meta-analysis. In a comparison of the highest versus the lowest categories of dietary flavonoid intake, we found no significant association between flavonoid intake and oesophageal cancer (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.75–1.10; I2 = 0.0%), colorectal cancer (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.92–1.14, I2 = 36.2%) or gastric cancer (OR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.74–1.04, I2 = 63.6%). The subgroup analysis indicated an association between higher flavonoid intake and a decreased risk of gastric cancer in the European population (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62–0.97). In conclusion, the results of this meta-analysis do not strongly support an association between dietary flavonoid intake and oesophageal or colorectal cancer. Furthermore, the subgroup analysis suggested an association between higher dietary flavonoid intake and decreased gastric cancer risk in European population. PMID:27112267

  16. Dietary flavonoid intake and the risk of digestive tract cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bo, Yacong; Sun, Jinfeng; Wang, Mengmeng; Ding, Jizhe; Lu, Quanjun; Yuan, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between dietary flavonoid intake and digestive tract cancers risk; however, the results remain inconclusive. The aim of our study was to evaluate this association. PubMed and the Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant publications from inception to October 2015. The risk ratio (RR) or odds ratio (OR) with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the highest versus the lowest categories of flavonoid intake were pooled using a fixed-effects model. A total of 15 articles reporting 23 studies were selected for the meta-analysis. In a comparison of the highest versus the lowest categories of dietary flavonoid intake, we found no significant association between flavonoid intake and oesophageal cancer (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.75-1.10; I(2) = 0.0%), colorectal cancer (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.92-1.14, I(2) = 36.2%) or gastric cancer (OR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.74-1.04, I(2) = 63.6%). The subgroup analysis indicated an association between higher flavonoid intake and a decreased risk of gastric cancer in the European population (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62-0.97). In conclusion, the results of this meta-analysis do not strongly support an association between dietary flavonoid intake and oesophageal or colorectal cancer. Furthermore, the subgroup analysis suggested an association between higher dietary flavonoid intake and decreased gastric cancer risk in European population. PMID:27112267

  17. Survival benefit and safety of the combinations of FOLFOXIRI ± bevacizumab versus the combinations of FOLFIRI ± bevacizumab as first-line treatment for unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Kuang, Meng; Gong, Yang; Cao, Chunxiang; Chen, Jinfei; Tang, Cuiju

    2016-01-01

    Background The survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) could be improved with exposure to three active drugs, irinotecan, fluorouracil/leucovorin, and oxaliplatin, irrespective of their sequence. However, only 50%–80% of patients can be exposed to all the three drugs in a sequential strategy with two-drug combinations. We carried out this systematic assessment to compare the survival benefit and safety of FOLFOXIRI (irinotecan, fluorouracil/leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) ± bevacizumab (with or without bevacizumab) versus FOLFIRI (irinotecan and fluorouracil/leucovorin) ± bevacizumab (with or without bevacizumab) as first-line treatment for unresectable mCRC. Methods PubMed and EMBASE were searched for original articles written in English and published before December 2015. A total of 1,035 patients from three randomized controlled trials were included. Results Our results demonstrated that overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73–0.97), progression-free survival (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.59–0.81), and overall response rate (odds ratio, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.28–2.98) were significantly improved in the FOLFOXIRI ± bevacizumab arm compared to the FOLFIRI ± bevacizumab arm. Significantly higher incidences of neutropenia, anemia, diarrhea, stomatitis, and neuropathy were observed in the FOLFOXIRI ± bevacizumab arm. Conclusion Current evidence shows that the combination of FOLFOXIRI ± bevacizumab significantly improves the overall survival, progression-free survival, and overall response rate of patients with mCRC, with an increased but manageable toxicity, compared with the combinations of FOLFIRI ± bevacizumab. The combination of FOLFOXIRI ± bevacizumab should be considered as a treatment option for these patients under the premise of reasonable selection of target population. PMID:27536147

  18. Second malignancies after radiotherapy for prostate cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Christopher J D; Mahar, Alyson L; Choo, Richard; Herschorn, Sender; Kodama, Ronald T; Shah, Prakesh S; Danjoux, Cyril; Narod, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between exposure to radiotherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer and subsequent second malignancies (second primary cancers). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Data sources Medline and Embase up to 6 April 2015 with no restrictions on year or language. Study selection Comparative studies assessing the risk of second malignancies in patients exposed or unexposed to radiotherapy in the course of treatment for prostate cancer were selected by two reviewers independently with any disagreement resolved by consensus. Data extraction and synthesis Two reviewers independently extracted study characteristics and outcomes. Risk of bias was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Outcomes were synthesized with random effects models and Mantel-Haenszel weighting. Unadjusted odds ratios and multivariable adjusted hazard ratios, when available, were pooled. Main outcome measures Second cancers of the bladder, colorectal tract, rectum, lung, and hematologic system. Results Of 3056 references retrieved, 21 studies were selected for analysis. Most included studies were large multi-institutional reports but had moderate risk of bias. The most common type of radiotherapy was external beam; 13 studies used patients treated with surgery as controls and eight used patients who did not undergo radiotherapy as controls. The length of follow-up among studies varied. There was increased risk of cancers of the bladder (four studies; adjusted hazard ratio 1.67, 95% confidence interval 1.55 to 1.80), colorectum (three studies; 1.79, 1.34 to 2.38), and rectum (three studies; 1.79, 1.34 to 2.38), but not cancers of the hematologic system (one study; 1.64, 0.90 to 2.99) or lung (two studies; 1.45, 0.70 to 3.01), after radiotherapy compared with the risk in those unexposed to radiotherapy. The odds of a second cancer varied depending on type of radiotherapy: treatment with external beam radiotherapy was

  19. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, W. J.; Moorehead, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma represents a major cause of cancer deaths in the United Kingdom. Tumours detected at an early or even premalignant stage have a better prognosis. In this review we consider the argument for screening for colorectal carcinomas and discuss the means available and the implications of implementing screening programmes using some of these methods. A suggestion is made for the more rational use of limited resources to target those at greatest risk. PMID:9185482

  20. Cancer risk in patients receiving renal replacement therapy: A meta-analysis of cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Weifeng; Huang, Liu; Li, Li; Li, Xiaojuan; Zeng, Rui; Ge, Shuwang; Xu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that patients receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT), including dialysis and kidney transplantation, tend to have an increased risk of cancer; however, studies on the degree of this risk have remained inconclusive. The present meta-analysis was therefore performed to quantify the cancer risk in patients with RRT. Cohort studies assessing overall cancer risk in RRT patients published before May 29, 2015 were included following systematic searches with of PubMed, EMBASE and the reference lists of the studies retrieved. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to pool standardized incidence rates (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity tests, sensitivity analyses and publication bias assessment were performed. A total of 18 studies including 22 cohort studies were eventually identified, which comprised a total of 1,528,719 patients. In comparison with the general population, the pooled SIR for patients with dialysis including non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), dialysis excluding NMSC, transplantation including NMSC, transplantation excluding NMSC and RRT were 1.40 (95% CI, 1.36–1.45), 1.35 (95% CI, 1.23–1.50), 3.26 (95% CI, 2.29–4.63), 2.08 (95% CI, 1.73–2.50) and 2.01 (95% CI, 1.70–2.38), respectively. The cancer risk was particularly high in subgroups of large sample size trials, female patients, younger patients (age at first dialysis, 0–34 years; age at transplantation, 0–20 years), the first year of RRT and non-Asian transplant patients. A significant association was also found between RRT and the majority of organ-specific cancers. However, neither dialysis nor transplantation was associated with breast, body of uterus, colorectal or prostate cancer. Significant heterogeneity was found regarding the association between RRT and overall cancer as well as the majority of site-specific cancer types. However, this heterogeneity had no substantial influence on the pooled SIR for overall cancer in RRT according to the

  1. β-Blockers Reduce Breast Cancer Recurrence and Breast Cancer Death: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Childers, W Kurtis; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Cheriyath, Pramil

    2015-12-01

    The normal physiologic stress mechanism, mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, causes a release of the neurotransmitters epinephrine and norepinephrine. Preclinical data have demonstrated an effect on tumor progression and metastasis via the sympathetic nervous system mediated primarily through the β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) pathway. In vitro data have shown an increase in tumor growth, migration, tumor angiogenesis, and metastatic spread in breast cancer through activation of the β-AR. Retrospective cohort studies on the clinical outcomes of β-blockers in breast cancer outcomes showed no clear consensus. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of β-blockers on breast cancer outcomes. A systematic review was performed using the Cochrane library and PubMed. Publications between the dates of January 2010 and December 2013 were identified. Available hazard ratios (HRs) were extracted for breast cancer recurrence, breast cancer death, and all-cause mortality and pooled using a random effects meta-analysis. A total of 7 studies contained results for at least 1 of the outcomes of breast cancer recurrence, breast cancer death, or all-cause mortality in breast cancer patients receiving β-blockers. In the 5 studies that contained results for breast cancer recurrence, there was no statistically significant risk reduction (HR, 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-1.13). Breast cancer death results were contained in 4 studies, which also suggested a significant reduction in risk (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.32-0.80). Among the 4 studies that reported all-cause mortality, there was no significant effect of β-blockers on risk (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.75-1.37). Results of this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that the use of β-blockers significantly reduced risk of breast cancer death among women with breast cancer. PMID:26516037

  2. Soy Consumption of Prostate Cancer Risk in Men: A Meta-Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy is a major plant source of dietary protein to humans. Epidemiologic studies show that consumption of soy foods may be related to a reduction in cancer risk in humans. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a meta-analysis on the association between soy consumption and prostate cancer r...

  3. Soy, Isoflavones, and Prostate Cancer Risk in Men: A Revisit of Meta-Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy is a major plant source of dietary protein to humans. Epidemiologic studies show that soy consumption may be associated with a reduction in cancer risk in humans. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis on the association between soy and prostate cancer in men. We systematicall...

  4. Association between tea and coffee consumption and risk of laryngeal cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Zhiguo; Wang, Zhaoyan; Jin, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Epidemiological studies evaluating the association of tea and coffee consumption and the risk of laryngeal cancer have produced inconsistent results. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between tea and coffee consumption and laryngeal cancer risk. Methods: Pertinent studies were identified by a search in PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Wan Fang Med Online. The random effect model was used based on heterogeneity test. Publication bias was estimated using Egger’s regression asymmetry test. As a result, 11 articles were included in this meta-analysis. Results: For tea consumption and laryngeal cancer, data from 8 studies including 2167 laryngeal cancer cases were used, and the pooled results suggested that highest tea consumption versus lowest level wasn’t associated with the risk of laryngeal cancer [summary RR = 0.909, 95% CI = 0.674-1.227]. Eight studies comprising 2596 laryngeal cancer cases for coffee consumption and laryngeal cancer risk were included, and no association was found (summary RR = 1.218, 95% CI = 0.915-1.622). Conclusions: Finding from this meta-analysis suggested that tea and coffee consumption weren’t associated with the risk of laryngeal cancer. Since the potential biases and confounders could not be ruled out completely in this meta-analysis, further studies are warranted to confirm this result. PMID:25664021

  5. Association between BHMT gene rs3733890 polymorphism and cancer risk: evidence from a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yue; Yan, Cunye; Hao, Zongyao; Zhou, Jun; Fan, Song; Tai, Sheng; Yang, Cheng; Zhang, Li; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective The gene betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) has drawn much attention during the past decades. An increasing number of clinical and genetic investigations have supposed that BHMT rs3733890 polymorphism might be associated with risk of breast cancer and ovarian cancer. As no consistent conclusion has been achieved, we conducted an up-to-date summary of BHMT rs3733890 polymorphism and cancer risk through a meta-analysis. Materials and methods The articles were collected from PubMed, Google Scholar, and CNKI (Chinese) databases up to December 2015. Then, the correlations were determined by reading the titles and abstracts and by further reading the full text to filter the unqualified articles. Odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the results. Results Among 187 articles collected in the analysis, seven studies with a total of 2,832 cases and 3,958 controls were included for evaluation of the association between BHMT rs3733890 polymorphism and susceptibility of cancer risk. The heterogeneity test showed no significant differences. Furthermore, we found that BHMT −742G>A polymorphism in case and control groups showed no statistically significant association with susceptibility in various cancer types except for uterine cervical cancer (A vs G: OR =0.641, 95% CI =0.445–0.923, P=0.017; AA+AG vs GG: OR =0.579, 95% CI =0.362–0.924, P=0.022). In addition, no statistically significant association was uncovered when stratification analyses were conducted by ethnicity and genotyping methods. Conclusion Our results have shown no obvious evidence that rs3733890 polymorphism in BHMT gene affected the susceptibility of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, colorectal adenoma, and liver cancer. In contrast, we found the protective role of BHMT −742G>A polymorphism in uterine cervical cancer incidence. Future well-designed studies comprising larger sample size

  6. Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... section Colorectal Cancer 4 of 6 sections Take Action! Take Action: Get Tested The best way to prevent colorectal ... I at Risk? 5 of 6 sections Take Action: Healthy Habits Quit smoking. People who smoke are ...

  7. Endobronchial metastases of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Rosado Dawid, Natalia-Zuberoa; Villegas Fernández, Francisco Ramón; Rodríguez Cruz, María Del Mar; Ramos Meca, Asunción

    2016-04-01

    Colorectal metastases affecting trachea or bronchi are highly unusual. Up to 26% of endotracheal/endobronchial metastases are due to colorectal cancer. Treatment and palliative management rely on a multidisciplinary team to improve their quality of life. PMID:26856850

  8. [Nutrition and colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Alexander; Maike, Wolters; Hahn, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Diet plays an important role in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. Current prospective cohort studies and metaanalysis enable a reevaluation of how food or nutrients such as fiber and fat influence cancer risk. Based on the evidence criteria of the WHO/FAD, risk reduction by a high intake of fruit is assessed as possible, while a lowered risk by a high vegetable intake is probable. Especially raw vegetables and fruits seem to exert anticancer properties. The evidence of a risk reducing effect of whole grain relating to colorectal cancer is assessed as probable whereas the evidence of an increased risk by high consumption of refined white flour products and sweets is (still) insufficient despite some evidences. There is a probable risk reducing effect of milk and dairy products. e available data on eggs and red meat indicate a possible risk increasing influence. Stronger clues for a risk increasing effect have been shown for meat products leading to an evidence assessed as probable. Owing to varied interpretations of the data on fiber, the evidence of a risk reducing effect relating to colorectal cancer is assessed as possible or insufficient. The available data on alcohol consumption indicate a possible risk increasing effect. In contrast to former evaluations, diets rich in fat seem to increase colorectal cancer risk only indirectly as part of a hypercaloric diet by advancing the obesity risk. Thus, the evidence of obesity, especially visceral obesity, as a risk of colorectal cancer is judged as convincing today. Prospective cohort studies suggest that people who get higher than average amounts of folic acid from multivitamin supplements have lower risks of colorectal cancer. The evidence for a risk reducing effect of calcium, selenium, vitamin D and vitamin E on colorectal cancer is insufficient. As primary prevention, a diet rich in vegetables, fruits, whole grain products, and legumes added by low-fat dairy products, fish, and poultry can be recommended. In

  9. Radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Deland, F.H.; Casper, S.; Corgan, R.L.; Primus, F.J.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1980-03-15

    This study examines the accuracy of colorectal cancer radioimmunodetection. Twenty-seven patients with a history of histologically-confirmed colonic or rectal carcinoma received a high-titer, purified goat anti-CEA IgG labelled with /sup 131/I at a total dose of at least 1.0 ..mu..Ci. Various body views were scanned at 24 and 48 hours after administration of the radioantibody. Three additional cases were evaluated; one had a villous adenoma in the rectum and received the /sup 131/I-labeled anti-CEA IgG, while two colonic carcinoma patients received normal goat IgG labelled with /sup 131/I. All of the 7 cases with primary colorectal cancer showed true-positive tumor localization, while 20 of 25 sites of metastatic colorectal cancer detected by immune scintigraphy were corroborated by other detection measures. The sensitivity of the radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancers (primary and metastatic) was found to be 90% (true-positive rate), the putative specificity (true-negative rate) was 94%, and the apparent overall accuracy of the technique was 93%. Neither the case of a villous adenoma receiving the anti-CEA IgG nor the two cases of colonic cancer receiving normal goat IgG showed tumor radiolocalization. Very high circulating CEA titers did not appear to hinder successful tumor radiolocalization. These findings suggest that in colorectal cancers the method of CEA radioimmunodetection may be of value in preoperatively determining the location and extent of disease, in assessing possible recurrence or spread postoperatively, and in localizing the source of CEA production in patients with rising or elevated CEA titers. An ancilliary benefit could be a more tumor-specific detection test for confirming the findings of other, more conventional diagnostic measures.

  10. Work stress and risk of cancer: meta-analysis of 5700 incident cancer events in 116 000 European men and women

    PubMed Central

    Nyberg, Solja T; Theorell, Töres; Fransson, Eleonor I; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jakob B; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Borritz, Marianne; Bouillon, Kim; Burr, Herman; Dragano, Nico; Geuskens, Goedele A; Goldberg, Marcel; Hamer, Mark; Hooftman, Wendela E; Houtman, Irene L; Joensuu, Matti; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Koskinen, Aki; Kouvonen, Anne; Madsen, Ida E H; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Marmot, Michael G; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Salo, Paula; Rugulies, Reiner; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Väänänen, Ari; Westerholm, Peter; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Ferrie, Jane E; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Batty, G David; Kivimäki, Mika

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, is associated with the overall risk of cancer and the risk of colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers. Design Meta-analysis of pooled prospective individual participant data from 12 European cohort studies including 116 056 men and women aged 17-70 who were free from cancer at study baseline and were followed-up for a median of 12 years. Work stress was measured and defined as job strain, which was self reported at baseline. Incident cancers (all n=5765, colorectal cancer n=522, lung cancer n=374, breast cancer n=1010, prostate cancer n=865) were ascertained from cancer, hospital admission, and death registers. Data were analysed in each study with Cox regression and the study specific estimates pooled in meta-analyses. Models were adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic position, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol intake Results A harmonised measure of work stress, high job strain, was not associated with overall risk of cancer (hazard ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.90 to 1.04) in the multivariable adjusted analyses. Similarly, no association was observed between job strain and the risk of colorectal (1.16, 0.90 to 1.48), lung (1.17, 0.88 to 1.54), breast (0.97, 0.82 to 1.14), or prostate (0.86, 0.68 to 1.09) cancers. There was no clear evidence for an association between the categories of job strain and the risk of cancer. Conclusions These findings suggest that work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, at baseline is unlikely to be an important risk factor for colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers. PMID:23393080

  11. Association between cadmium exposure and renal cancer risk: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ju kun; Luo, Hong; Yin, Xin hai; Huang, Guang lei; Luo, Si yang; Lin, Du ren; Yuan, Dong Bo; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Jian guo

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental pollutant and has been a recognized carcinogen for several decades. Many observational studies reported Cd exposure might be one cause of renal cancer. However, these findings are inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between cadmium exposure and renal cancer risk. A comprehensive PubMed and Embase search was conducted to retrieve observational studies meeting our meta-analysis criteria. A combined odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were applied to assess the association between Cd exposure and renal cancer risk. The meta-analysis showed that a high Cd exposure significantly increased renal cancer 1.47 times (OR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.27 to 1.71, for highest versus lowest category of cadmium categories). The significant association remained consistent when stratified by geographic region and gender, however mixed results were produced when stratified by sample size, study design, NOS score, adjustment for covariates, effects measure, and exposure type. Our results indicated that a high Cd exposure was associated with increased renal cancer risk and the association was higher for occupational exposure compared with non-occupational exposure. This meta-analysis suggests that a high Cd exposure may be a risk factor for renal cancer in occupational population. PMID:26656678

  12. Worldwide variations in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Center, Melissa M; Jemal, Ahmedin; Smith, Robert A; Ward, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have documented significant international variations in colorectal cancer rates. However, these studies were limited because they were based on old data or examined only incidence or mortality data. In this article, the colorectal cancer burden and patterns worldwide are described using the most recently updated cancer incidence and mortality data available from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The authors provide 5-year (1998-2002), age-standardized colorectal cancer incidence rates for select cancer registries in IARC's Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, and trends in age-standardized death rates by single calendar year for select countries in the World Health Organization mortality database. In addition, available information regarding worldwide colorectal cancer screening initiatives are presented. The highest colorectal cancer incidence rates in 1998-2002 were observed in registries from North America, Oceania, and Europe, including Eastern European countries. These high rates are most likely the result of increases in risk factors associated with "Westernization," such as obesity and physical inactivity. In contrast, the lowest colorectal cancer incidence rates were observed from registries in Asia, Africa, and South America. Colorectal cancer mortality rates have declined in many longstanding as well as newly economically developed countries; however, they continue to increase in some low-resource countries of South America and Eastern Europe. Various screening options for colorectal cancer are available and further international consideration of targeted screening programs and/or recommendations could help alleviate the burden of colorectal cancer worldwide. PMID:19897840

  13. The association of HMGB1 expression with clinicopathological significance and prognosis in Asian patients with colorectal carcinoma: a meta-analysis and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Yu, Jinming; Li, Minghuan; Zhu, Hui; Sun, Xindong; Kong, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background The association of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) expression with clinicopathological significance and prognosis in Asian patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis and literature review to identify the role of HMGB1 in the development and prognosis of CRC in Asians. Methods All eligible studies regarding the association between HMGB1 expression in tissue with clinicopathological significance and prognosis in Asian patients with CRC published up to January 2015 were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and WanFang database. Analysis of pooled data was performed, while odds ratio (OR) or hazard radio with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated and summarized to evaluate the strength of this association in fixed- or random-effects model. Results The expression level of HMGB1 in CRC tissues was much higher than normal colorectal tissues (OR =27.35, 95% CI 9.32–80.26, P<0.0001) and para-tumor colorectal tissues (OR =10.06, 95% CI 4.61–21.95, P<0.0001). There was no relation between the HMGB1 expression and sex, age, clinical T stage, tumor size, and location (colon or rectum cancer). However, a significant relation was detected between the HMGB1 expression and clinical stage (American Joint Committee on Cancer 7), lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, tumor invasion depth, and differentiation rate (P=0.002, P≤0.0001, P<0.0001, P<0.0001, and P=0.007, respectively). Patients with higher HMGB1 expression had shorter overall survival time, whereas patients with lower level of HMGB1 had better survival (hazard ratio =1.40, 95% CI 0.98–1.82, P<0.0001). Conclusion In this meta-analysis, our results illustrated the significant relationship of HMGB1 protein overexpression in tissues with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of CRC. Thus, HMGB1 may be a promising marker in predicting the clinical outcome

  14. Genetic polymorphisms of CASR and cancer risk: evidence from meta-analysis and HuGE review

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Sohyun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Myeong Gyu; Han, Nayoung; Kim, In-Wha; Kim, Therasa; Oh, Jung Mi

    2016-01-01

    Background CASR gene appears to be involved in cancer biology and physiology. However, a number of studies investigating CASR polymorphisms and cancer risks have presented inconclusive results. Thus, a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the effect of CASR polymorphisms on several cancer risks were performed to suggest a statistical evidence for the association of CASR polymorphisms with cancer risks. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and the HuGE databases were searched. Nineteen articles of case–control and cohort studies were included for the final analysis. Results The colorectal cancer risk was reduced in proximal (odds ratio [OR] =0.679, P=0.001) and distal (OR =0.753, P=0.026) colon sites with GG genotype of CASR rs1042636 and increased in distal colon site (OR =1.418, P=0.039) with GG genotype of rs1801726 by additive genetic model. The rs17251221 demonstrated noticeable associations that carrying a homozygote variant increases breast and prostate cancer risk considerably. Conclusion The significant association of CASR polymorphisms with several cancer risks was observed in this review. In particular, the act of CASR polymorphisms as a tumor suppressor or an oncogene differs by cancer site and can be the research target for tumorigenesis. PMID:26929638

  15. MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, X Y; Shen, Q

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have evaluated the association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and ovarian cancer risk. However, the specific association is still controversial. Therefore, we performed the present meta-analysis. A systematic literature search of PubMed and Embase databases was undertaken in August 2014, and the reference lists of articles were retrieved. ORs with their 95%CI were calculated to evaluate the strength of the association. Meta-analysis was performed using the STATA version 12.0 software package and publication bias was investigated by Begg's funnel plot. Five case-control studies from three publications (with 7026 subjects) on the relationship between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and ovarian cancer were analyzed by meta-analysis. Overall, no significant variation in ovarian cancer risk was detected in any of the genetic models (AA vs CC: OR = 0.93, 95%CI = 0.78-1.10; AA vs AC: OR = 1.02, 95%CI = 0.92-1.13; dominant model: OR = 1.00, 95%CI = 0.91-1.10; recessive model: OR = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.78-1.08). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that the A1298C polymorphism in the MTHFR gene may be not associated with susceptibility to ovarian cancer. PMID:26345746

  16. Tea consumption and the risk of five major cancers: a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We conducted a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies to summarize evidence of the association between tea consumption and the risk of breast, colorectal, liver, prostate, and stomach cancer. Methods We searched PubMed and two other databases. Prospective studies that reported risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cancer risk for ≥3 categories of tea consumption were included. We estimated an overall RR with 95% CI for an increase of three cups/day of tea consumption, and, usingrestricted cubic splines, we examined a nonlinear association between tea consumption and cancer risk. Results Forty-one prospective studies, with a total of 3,027,702 participants and 49,103 cancer cases, were included. From the pooled overall RRs, no inverse association between tea consumption and risk of five major cancers was observed. However, subgroup analysis showed that increase in consumption of three cups of black tea per day was a significant risk factor for breast cancer (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05-1.32). Conclusion Ourresults did not show a protective role of tea in five major cancers. Additional large prospective cohort studies are needed to make a convincing case for associations. PMID:24636229

  17. Biology of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a serious health problem, a challenge for research, and a model for studying the molecular mechanisms involved in its development. According to its incidence, this pathology manifests itself in three forms: family, hereditary, and most commonly sporadic, apparently not associated with any hereditary or familial factor. For the types having inheritance patterns and a family predisposition, the tumours develop through defined stages ranging from adenomatous lesions to the manifestation of a malignant tumour. It has been established that environmental and hereditary factors contribute to the development of colorectal cancer, as indicated by the accumulation of mutations in oncogenes, genes which suppress and repair DNA, signaling the existence of various pathways through which the appearance of tumours may occur. In the case of the suppressive and mutating tracks, these are characterised by genetic disorders related to the phenotypical changes of the morphological progression sequence in the adenoma/carcinoma. Moreover, alternate pathways through mutation in BRAF and KRAS genes are associated with the progression of polyps to cancer. This review surveys the research done at the cellular and molecular level aimed at finding specific alternative therapeutic targets for fighting colorectal cancer. PMID:25932044

  18. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and the risk for female reproductive cancers: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mun, Myung-Jin; Kim, Tae-Hee; Hwang, Ji-Young; Jang, Won-Cheoul

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and the risks for various breast and ovarian cancers have been reported in many epidemiological studies. However, the associations between VDR gene polymorphisms and the risk for each type of cancer are unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the associations between VDR gene polymorphisms and female reproductive cancers. A systematic review was performed with the PubMed Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases up to April 2014 using the search terms "vitamin D receptor or VDR" and "variant or polymorphism or SNP" with terms for breast, ovarian, cervical, endometrial, uterine, and vaginal cancers. A meta-analysis with the pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals was carried out to assess the associations between VDR polymorphisms (Cdx-2, FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI) and the risks for reproductive cancers under the heterozygous, homozygous, dominant, and recessive models with fixed or random effects models. Six ovarian cancer studies (13 individual studies involving 4107 cases and 6661 controls) and 29 breast cancer studies (38 individual studies involving 16,453 cases and 22,044 controls) were included in our meta-analysis. Our results indicate that the FokI polymorphism was related to increased risks for breast and ovarian cancers, whereas the BsmI polymorphism was associated with a decreased risk for developing these cancers. Our comprehensive meta-analysis indicated that the FokI and BsmI VDR gene polymorphisms may be significantly associated with gynecological cancers. We suggest monitoring VDR gene polymorphisms as potential biomarkers in patients with gynecological malignancy. PMID:25882760

  19. Comparison of Resting Energy Expenditure Between Cancer Subjects and Healthy Controls: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Yen Vi; Batterham, Marijka J; Edwards, Cheree

    2016-04-01

    There is conflicting evidence surrounding the extent of changes in resting energy expenditure (REE) in cancer. This meta-analysis aimed to establish the mean difference in REE, as kilojoules per kilogram fat-free mass, among cancer patients when compared to healthy control subjects. The secondary aim was to determine differences among different cancer types. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, and ProQuest Central were searched from the earliest records until March 2014. Studies were included if measured REE was reported as kilojoules or kilocalories per kilogram fat-free mass (FFM) in adult subjects with cancer. Twenty-seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Fourteen studies included both cancer (n = 1453) and control (n = 1145) groups. The meta-analysis shows an average increase in REE of 9.66 (95% confidence interval: 3.34, 15.98) kJ/kgFFM/day in cancer patients when compared to control subjects. Heterogeneity was detected (P < 0.001) which suggest variations in REE among cancer types. Elevations are most noticeable in patients with cancers of metabolically demanding organs. PMID:27007947

  20. Association of OPN rs11730582 polymorphism with cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    He, Lanlan; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Several molecular epidemiological studies have investigated the association between OPN rs11730582 C>T polymorphism and cancer risk, but the results are inconsistent. Hence, a meta-analysis was conducted to determine the association of this polymorphism with cancer risk. Materials and methods The related articles were searched in PubMed, Embase, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to evaluate the strength of the associations. A random-effects model or fixed-effects model was employed depending on the heterogeneity. Results A total of ten case-control studies involving 2,749 cancer cases and 3,398 controls were included in the meta-analysis. In overall analysis, OPN rs11730582 C.T polymorphism was not associated with cancer risk. In a stratified analysis by cancer type, no significant association was found between OPN rs11730582 C>T polymorphism and the risk of glioma, gastric cancer, and other cancers. Conclusion This meta-analysis suggests that OPN rs11730582 C.T polymorphism is not associated with cancer susceptibility. PMID:27022284

  1. [Epigenetics and colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Pablo; Villarejo, Pedro; Padilla, David; Menéndez, José María; Rodríguez Montes, José Antonio

    2012-05-01

    The epigenetic and physiological mechanisms that alter the structure of chromatin include the methylation of DNA, changes in the histones, and changes in RNA. A literature review has been carried out using PubMed on the evidence published on the association between epigenetics and colorectal cancer. The scientific literature shows that epigenetic changes, such as genetic modifications may be very significant in the origin of neoplastic disease, contributing both to the development and progression of the disease. PMID:22425513

  2. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    LANGMAN, M; BOYLE, P

    1998-01-01

    Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK P BOYLE Colorectal cancer is the fourth commonest form of cancer in men with 678 000 estimated new cases per year worldwide, representing 8.9% of all new cancers. The disease is most frequent in Occidental countries and particularly so in North America, Australia, New Zealand, and parts of Europe. Prospects for colorectal cancer control are bright and a number of possible approaches could prove fruitful. Among these, pharmaceutical measures seem to be valid and logical approaches to the prevention of colorectal cancer and diminishing its impact. Such approaches could concentrate in primary prevention in at-risk subjects or be applied in altering the course of precursor or established disease. Treatments used must fulfil basic requirements of biological plausibility and safety in continued use in large numbers of subjects. Those available include vitamins and minerals, and other drugs with potential as antioxidants, immune modulators or promoters of cell differentiation or apoptosis. Of the various regimens suggested, vitamin A supplementation may even predispose to adverse outcomes, and antioxidant vitamins in general have no coherent body of evidence to support their use. N-acetylcysteine and ursodeoxycholic acid have promising characteristics but there are as yet no clinical data to support the use of the former in gut epithelial cancer, and formal dose ranging studies must be carried out before the latter is submitted to large scale trial. Folate shows promising characteristics but non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and vitamin D seem the most promising agents. Both seem to reduce the incidence of disease, and to reduce growth rates and/or induce differentiation or apoptosis in gut epithelial cancer cells. Both are also well understood pharmacologically. They may be preferred to newer selective compounds in the same class until these newer compounds are confirmed as safe for widespread

  3. Circulating adiponectin levels and risk of endometrial cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    LI, ZHI-JUN; YANG, XUE-LING; YAO, YAN; HAN, WEI-QING; LI, BO

    2016-01-01

    Previous epidemiological studies have presented conflicting results regarding associations between circulating adiponectin (APN) levels and the risk of endometrial cancer. Thus a meta-analysis was performed to investigate the association between these factors. Multiple electronic sources, including PubMed, SpringerLink and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify relevant studies for the present meta-analysis. All of the selected studies examined the correlation between circulating APN levels and endometrial cancer. The standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated and pooled using meta-analysis methods. Overall, 18 case-control studies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 5,692 participants and 2,337 cases of endometrial cancer were included in this meta-analysis. The SMD of the pooled analysis (95% CI) were −1.96 (−2.60, −1.31), P=0.000. When the cancer grades were compared, the APN values were not significantly different between the grades of endometrial cancer [G1 vs. G3, 1.02 (−0.68, 2.72), P>0.05; G1 vs. G2, 0.34 (−0.86, 1.54), P>0.05]. However, there was a significant association between high APN levels and postmenopausal endometrial cancer cases with an SMD (95% CI) of −2.27 (−4.36, −0.18) and P<0.05, however, no association was observed in premenopausal endometrial cancer cases with an SMD (95% CI) of −1.52 (−3.49, 0.45) and P>0.05. The low circulating APN level increases the risk of endometrial cancer, whereas the high APN level decreases this risk in postmenopausal women. Circulating APN as simple biomarkers may be a promising tool for the prevention, early diagnosis and disease monitoring of endometrial cancer. PMID:27284314

  4. Clinicopathological significance of forkhead box protein A1 in breast cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    HE, KELI; ZENG, HUI; XU, XIANQUN; LI, ANLING; CAI, QING; LONG, XINGHUA

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between the expression of forkhead box protein A1 (FOXA1) and differential clinicopathological characteristics in breast cancer using a meta-analysis method. Eligible studies that investigated the correlation between FOXA1 expression and the clinical characteristics of breast cancer were collected through searching numerous databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and the VIP database. In total, eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. Following a systematic analysis, the expression of FOXA1 was found to be significantly associated with the estrogen receptor α status, the progesterone receptor status, lymph node metastasis and the histological grade in breast cancer. However, no statistically significant association was observed between FOXA1 expression and the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status in breast cancer patients. PMID:27284343

  5. Familial colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lung, M S; Trainer, A H; Campbell, I; Lipton, L

    2015-05-01

    Identifying individuals with a genetic predisposition to developing familial colorectal cancer (CRC) is crucial to the management of the affected individual and their family. In order to do so, the physician requires an understanding of the different gene mutations and clinical manifestations of familial CRC. This review summarises the genetics, clinical manifestations and management of the known familial CRC syndromes, specifically Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH-associated neoplasia, juvenile polyposis syndrome and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. An individual suspected of having a familial CRC with an underlying genetic predisposition should be referred to a familial cancer centre to enable pre-test counselling and appropriate follow up. PMID:25955461

  6. A Data Similarity-Based Strategy for Meta-analysis of Transcriptional Profiles in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yuzhu; Shyr, Yu; Chen, Xi; Lehmann, Brian David; Viox, Daniel Joseph; George, Alfred L.; Yi, Yajun

    2013-01-01

    Background Robust transcriptional signatures in cancer can be identified by data similarity-driven meta-analysis of gene expression profiles. An unbiased data integration and interrogation strategy has not previously been available. Methods and Findings We implemented and performed a large meta-analysis of breast cancer gene expression profiles from 223 datasets containing 10,581 human breast cancer samples using a novel data similarity-based approach (iterative EXALT). Cancer gene expression signatures extracted from individual datasets were clustered by data similarity and consolidated into a meta-signature with a recurrent and concordant gene expression pattern. A retrospective survival analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive power of a novel meta-signature deduced from transcriptional profiling studies of human breast cancer. Validation cohorts consisting of 6,011 breast cancer patients from 21 different breast cancer datasets and 1,110 patients with other malignancies (lung and prostate cancer) were used to test the robustness of our findings. During the iterative EXALT analysis, 633 signatures were grouped by their data similarity and formed 121 signature clusters. From the 121 signature clusters, we identified a unique meta-signature (BRmet50) based on a cluster of 11 signatures sharing a phenotype related to highly aggressive breast cancer. In patients with breast cancer, there was a significant association between BRmet50 and disease outcome, and the prognostic power of BRmet50 was independent of common clinical and pathologic covariates. Furthermore, the prognostic value of BRmet50 was not specific to breast cancer, as it also predicted survival in prostate and lung cancers. Conclusions We have established and implemented a novel data similarity-driven meta-analysis strategy. Using this approach, we identified a transcriptional meta-signature (BRmet50) in breast cancer, and the prognostic performance of BRmet50 was robust and applicable across a

  7. [Colorectal cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Castells, Antoni

    2013-10-01

    Colorectal cancer is the paradigm of tumoral growth that is susceptible to preventive measures, especially screening. Various screening strategies with demonstrated efficacy and efficiency are currently available, notable examples being the fecal occult blood test and endoscopic tests. In addition, new modalities have appeared in the last few years that could become viable alternatives in the near future. The present article reviews the most important presentations on colorectal screening at the annual congress of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Orlando in May 2013, with special emphasis on the medium- and long-term results of strategies using the fecal occult blood test and flexible sigmoidoscopy, as well as initial experiences with the use of new biomarkers. PMID:24160954

  8. Depression and anxiety in ovarian cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence rates

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Sam; Prescott, Philip; Mason, Jessica; McLeod, Natalie; Lewith, George

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review the literature pertaining to the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with ovarian cancer as a function of treatment stage. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Participants 3623 patients with ovarian cancer from primary research investigations. Primary outcome measure The prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with ovarian cancer as a function of treatment stage. Results We identified 24 full journal articles that met the inclusion criteria for entry into the meta-analysis resulting in a pooled sample size of 3623 patients. The meta-analysis of prevalence rates identified pretreatment, on-treatment and post-treatment depression prevalences of 25.34% (CI 22.79% to 28.07%), 22.99% (CI 19.85% to 26.46%) and 12.71% (CI 10.14% to 15.79%), respectively. Pretreatment, on-treatment and post-treatment anxiety prevalences were 19.12% (CI 17.11% to 21.30%), 26.23% (CI 22.30% to 30.56%) and 27.09% (CI 23.10% to 31.49%). Conclusions Our findings suggest that the prevalence of depression and anxiety in women with ovarian cancer, across the treatment spectrum, is significantly greater than in the healthy female population. With the growing emphasis on improving the management of survivorship and quality of life, we conclude that further research is warranted to ensure psychological distress in ovarian cancer is not underdiagnosed and undertreated. PMID:26621509

  9. Vitamin D receptor gene ApaI polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shayang; Guo, Lei; Li, Yan; Wang, Shouman

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) principally mediates the anticancer activities of vitamin D. Many studies investigated the association between VDR gene ApaI polymorphism and breast cancer, but the results were inconclusive. We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the association between VDR gene ApaI polymorphism and breast cancer. Twelve studies with a total of 8,254 subjects were identified from PubMed and Wanfang databases. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to assess the association. The meta-analysis indicated that VDR gene ApaI polymorphism was not associated with risk of breast cancer (a vs. A: OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.91-1.04, P = 0.378; aa vs. AA: OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.85-1.10, P = 0.618; aa vs. AA + Aa: OR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.89-1.12, P = 0.972; aa + Aa vs. AA: OR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.82-1.11, P = 0.550). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity further showed that VDR gene ApaI polymorphism was not associated with risk of breast cancer in both Asians and Caucasians. These data from the meta-analysis indicate that VDR gene ApaI polymorphism is not associated with breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:24048755

  10. Prognostic Significance of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Colorectal Liver Metastasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Aiqun; Lu, Wenping; Xiang, Canhong; Dong, Jiahong

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Inflammation is deemed to play critical roles in tumor progression and metastasis, and an increased neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been reported to correlate with poor survivals in various malignancies. However, association between NLR elevation and survival outcome in patients with colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of elevated NLR in CRLM. Methods The meta-analysis was conducted in adherence to the MOOSE guidelines. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and the Chinese SinoMed were systematically searched to identify eligible studies from the initiation of the databases to May, 2016. Overall survival (OS) and recurrence free survival (RFS) were pooled by using hazard ratio (HR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Correlation between NLR values and clinicopathological features was synthesized by using odds ratio (OR) with corresponding 95% CI. Results A total of 1685 patients from 8 studies (9 cohorts) were analyzed, consisting 347 (20.59%) in high pretreatment NLR value group and 1338 (79.41%) in low pretreatment NLR value one. The results demonstrated that elevated pretreatment NLR was significantly related to poor OS (HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.82–2.58) and RFS (HR 1.96, 95% CI 1.64–2.35) in patients with CRLM. Conclusion The result of this systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that an elevated pretreatment NLR was closely correlated with poor long-term survival (OS and RFS) in CRLM patients. NLR can be routinely monitored and serve as a useful and cost-effective marker with strong prognostic significance in patients with CRLM. PMID:27427969

  11. Association between the ERCC1 rs11615 polymorphism and clinical outcomes of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapies in gastrointestinal cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shou-Cheng; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Tao; Ling, Xiao-Ling; Zhao, Da

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The relationship between the excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1) rs11615 polymorphism (C/T) and responses to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy for gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) patients is controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to assess this relationship. Method Relevant studies were retrieved by searching the PubMed database. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive value of the ERCC1 rs11615 polymorphism for the clinical outcomes of GC and CRC patients receiving oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Therapeutic response to chemotherapy, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Results A total of 22 studies were included in this meta-analysis, including 1,242 cases of GC and 1,772 cases of CRC. For the ERCC1 rs11615 polymorphism, the T allele was associated with a reduced response to chemotherapy in Asians and GC patients (P<0.05). On the other hand, the T allele was associated with a significant increase in the risk for shorter PFS and OS in all patients (PFS: hazard ratio [HR] =1.22, P<0.001, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.93–1.51 and OS: HR =1.12, P<0.001, 95% CI =0.85–1.40). Conclusion The ERCC1 rs11615 polymorphism was closely associated with the clinical outcomes of GC and CRC patients treated with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. PMID:25834456

  12. MicroRNA-18a as a promising biomarker for cancer detection: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shan; Tan, Shi-Sheng; Li, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cancer discovered at an early stage have relatively high survival rates. Increasing researches have shown the potential of detecting dysregulated microRNA-18a (miR-18a) to diagnose cancer. However, non-uniform results in previous studies were found. Thus, this meta-analysis was conducted to further explore the clinical applicability of miR-18a as an ideal biomarker for cancer detection. Suitable articles were obtained from online databases like PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, CBM and Wanfang. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) tool was used to evaluate the quality of our meta-analysis. The pooled diagnostic parameters like specificity, sensitivity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), positive and negative likelihood ratios (PLR and NLR) and area under the summary receiver operator characteristic curve (SROC) were pooled to assess the entire test accuracy. Overall, 10 studies from 9 articles, including 979 patients with cancer and 713 healthy controls were involved in our meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.70-0.84) and the corresponding specificity was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.73-0.89). The merged PLR was 4.3 (95% CI: 2.8-6.8), NLR was 0.27 (95% CI: 0.20-0.37), and DOR was 16 (95% CI: 8-31). The pooled AUC was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.83-0.89). Our meta-analysis suggested that miR-18a might open up a new field for novel clinical cancer screening with the merits of high accuracy, non-invasiveness, convenience and cheap cost. However, more reliable studies in larger cohort should be conducted before it is used. PMID:26550138

  13. NAT2 polymorphisms combining with smoking associated with breast cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Qiu, Li-Xin; Wang, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Jia-Lei; He, Shuang-Shuang; Hu, Xi-Chun

    2010-10-01

    To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship between the slow or rapid acetylation resulting from N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) polymorphisms and breast cancer risk, a meta-analysis was performed. PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Web of Science were searched. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess strength of association. The pooled ORs were performed for slow versus rapid acetylation genotypes. A total of 26 studies including 9,215 cases and 10,443 controls were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, no significantly elevated breast cancer risk was associated with NAT2 slow genotypes when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis (OR = 1.026, 95% CI = 0.968-1.087). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, increased risks were not found for either Caucasians (OR = 1.001, 95% CI = 0.938-1.068) or Asians (OR = 1.155, 95% CI = 0.886-1.506). When stratified by study design, statistically significantly elevated risk associated with NAT2 slow genotypes was only found among hospital-based studies (OR = 1.178, 95% CI = 1.037-1.339). In the subgroup analysis by menopausal status, no statistically significantly increased risk was found in either premenopausal (OR = 1.053, 95% CI = 0.886-1.252) or postmenopausal women (OR = 0.965, 95% CI = 0.844-1.104). When stratified by cumulative smoking exposure, in the subgroup of smokers with high pack-years, NAT2 slow genotypes were significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk (OR = 1.400, 95% CI = 1.099-1.784). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that there is overall lack of association between NAT2 genotypes and breast cancer risk, however, NAT2 polymorphisms when combining with heavy smoking history may contribute to breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:20180012

  14. Nut consumption and risk of cancer and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Zhu, Jingjing; Murad, Angela L.; Prokop, Larry J.; Murad, Mohammad H.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The identification of foods that can decrease the risk of cancer and type 2 diabetes may be helpful in reducing the burden of these diseases. Although nut consumption has been suggested to have a disease-preventive role, current evidence remains inconsistent. Objective: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to clarify the association between nut consumption and risk of cancer or type 2 diabetes. Data Sources: Six databases were searched for relevant studies from the time of database inception to August 2014. Reference lists of relevant review articles were hand searched, and authors were contacted when data were insufficient. Study Selection: Eligible studies included epidemiological studies (case–control and cohort) or clinical trials that reported an association between nut consumption and the outcome of type 2 diabetes or specific cancers. Data Extraction: Two investigators independently extracted descriptive, quality, and risk data from included studies. Data Synthesis: Random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool relative risks from the included studies. The I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. A total of 36 eligible observational studies, which included 30 708 patients, were identified. The studies had fair methodological quality, and length of follow-up ranged between 4.6 years and 30 years. Comparison of the highest category of nut consumption with the lowest category revealed significant associations between nut consumption and decreased risk of colorectal cancer (3 studies each with separate estimates for males and females, RR 0.76, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.61–0.96), endometrial cancer (2 studies, RR 0.58, 95%CI 0.43–0.79), and pancreatic cancer (1 study, RR 0.68, 95%CI 0.48–0.96). No significant association was found with other cancers or type 2 diabetes. Overall, nut consumption was significantly associated with a reduced risk of cancer incidence (RR 0.85, 95%CI 0.76–0.95). Conclusions: Nut

  15. A meta-analysis of clinical trials assessing the effect of radiofrequency ablation for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiayan; Zhang, Chi; Li, Fei; Xu, Liping; Zhu, Hongcheng; Wang, Shui; Liu, Xiaoan; Zha, Xiaoming; Ding, Qiang; Ling, Lijun; Zhou, Wenbin; Sun, Xinchen

    2016-01-01

    Background Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive thermal ablation technique. We conducted a meta-analysis based on eligible studies to assess the efficacy and safety of RFA for treating patients with breast cancer. Methods A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases. Eligible studies were clinical trials that assessed RFA in patients with breast cancer. The outcomes included complete ablation rate, recurrence rate, excellent or good cosmetic rates, and complication rate. A random-effects or fixed-effects model was used to pool the estimate, according to the heterogeneity among the included studies. Results Fifteen studies, with a total of 404 patients, were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled results showed that 89% (95% confidence interval: 85%–93%) of patients achieved a complete ablation after RFA treatment and 96% of patients reported a good-to-excellent cosmetic result. Although the pooled result for recurrence rate was 0, several cases of relapse were observed at different follow-up times. No RFA-related complications were recorded, except for skin burn with an incidence of 4% (95% confidence interval: 1%–6%). Conclusion This meta-analysis showed that RFA can be a promising alternative option for treating breast cancer since it produces a higher complete ablation rate with a low complication rate. Further well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of RFA for breast cancer. PMID:27042126

  16. Vasectomy and risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, L H; Kang, R; He, J; Zhao, S K; Li, F T; Wan, S P; Zhao, Z G

    2015-07-01

    The results of published literature focusing on the association between vasectomy and the incidence of prostate cancer are often inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of the association between vasectomy and the risk of prostate cancer. We identified all cohort studies by searching the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library before August 2014. The quality of the studies was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale checklist. Summary effect estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived using a fixed or random effects model, depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Nine cohort studies that spanned across two continents involving 1 127 096 participants (ages 20-75) with 7539 cases of prostate cancer cases were included in the meta-analysis. The overall combined relative risks for men with the reference group were 1.08 (95% CI: 0.87-1.34) in a random effects, however, the association was not statistically significant (p = 0.48). Estimates of total effects were generally consistent in the sensitivity and subgroup analyses. No evidence of publication bias was observed. This meta-analysis indicated that vasectomy may not contribute to the risk of prostate cancer. The conclusion might have a far-reaching significance for the public health, especially in countries with high prevalence rates of vasectomy. PMID:26041315

  17. Does ovarian stimulation for IVF increase gynaecological cancer risk? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Li, Yanping; Zhang, Qiong; Wang, Yonggang

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ovarian stimulation for IVF increases the risk of gynaecological cancer, including ovarian, endometrial, cervical and breast cancers, as an independent risk factor. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. Clinical trials that examined the association between ovarian stimulation for IVF and gynaecologic cancers were included. The outcomes of interest were incidence rate of gynaecologic cancers. Twelve cohort studies with 178,396 women exposed to IVF were included; 10 studies were used to analyse ovarian (167,640 women) and breast (151,702 women) cancers, and six studies were identified in the analysis of endometrial (116,672 women) and cervical cancer (114,799 women). Among these studies, 175 ovarian, 48 endometrial, 502 cervical and 866 cases of breast cancer were reported. The meta-analysis found no significant association between ovarian stimulation for IVF and increased ovarian, endometrial, cervical and breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85 to 1.32; OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.63; OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.60; OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.76, respectively). Ovarian stimulation for IVF, therefore, does not increase the gynaecologic cancer risk, whether hormone-dependent endometrial and breast cancer or non-hormone-dependent ovarian and cervical cancer. PMID:26003452

  18. Significant association between long non-coding RNA HOTAIR polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Liu, Xu; You, Liang-Hao; Zhou, Rui-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    HOTAIR, a well-known long non-coding RNA, is involved in carcinogenesis and progression of multiple cancers. Molecular epidemiological studies suggest that HOTAIR polymorphisms may be associated with cancer susceptibility, but the results remain controversial. To derive a more precise evaluation, we performed a meta-analysis focused on the associations between HOTAIR polymorphisms and cancer risk for the first time. PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang databases were searched. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were applied to assess the association between HOTAIR rs920778 C>T, rs4759314 A>G, rs7958904 G>C, and rs1899663 G>T polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility. Analyses were conducted to detect heterogeneity, sensitivity, and publication bias in order to measure the robustness of our findings. Overall, 13 related studies involving 7,151 patients and 8,740 control samples were analyzed. Significant associations between the HOTAIR rs920778 polymorphism and cancer risk were observed (T vs C: OR =1.33, 95% CI =1.17–1.53; TT vs TC + CC: OR =1.55, 95% CI =1.21–2.00; TC + TT vs CC: OR =1.33, 95% CI =1.11–1.59; TT vs CC: OR =2.02, 95% CI =1.31–3.10) in the total population, as well as in subgroup analyses. For rs4759314 A>G polymorphism, a similarly increased risk was found in the gastric cancer group. However, significant decreases in cancer risk were observed both in the overall population and colorectal cancer group for rs7958904 G>C polymorphism. In addition, no significant association was detected between rs1899663 G>T polymorphism and cancer susceptibility. In conclusion, our meta-analyses suggest that HOTAIR polymorphisms may be associated with the risk of cancer development. PMID:27330313

  19. HOXB7 as a promising molecular marker for metastasis in cancers: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang-teng; Ou, Yang-xi; Zhang, Guan-ping; Qiu, Cheng; Luo, Hong-liang; Zhu, Pei-qian

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies on carcinoma have revealed that the expression level of HOXB7 in cancerous tissues was significantly higher than that in noncancerous tissues. Elevated expression of HOXB7 is associated with the susceptibility to lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis in various tumors. In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to involve majority of relevant articles and explore the association of HOXB7 expression level with metastasis in cancer patients. Literature retrieval was conducted by searching in a number of electronic databases (up to December 1, 2015). The meta-analysis was conducted with RevMan 5.3 software and Stata SE12.0. A total of 1,532 patients with carcinoma from 14 studies were included in analysis. The results of meta-analysis demonstrated that lymph node metastasis was observed more frequently in the patients group with high expression level of HOXB7 than in the patients group with low expression level of HOXB7 (odds ratio =2.17, 95% CI: 1.74–2.71, P<0.00001, fixed-effects model). In addition, a similar result was observed in the association between HOXB7 expression and distant metastasis; the odds ratio was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.09–2.88, P=0.02, fixed-effects model). This meta-analysis demonstrated that the overexpression of HOXB7 was significantly associated with metastasis in cancer patients, which may be served as a common molecular marker for indicating cancer metastasis. PMID:27274269

  20. Hypertension and risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhen; Xie, Bo; Li, Jiangfeng; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Song; Meng, Shuai; Ji, Alin; Zhu, Yi; Xu, Xin; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The previously reported association between hypertension and prostate cancer risk was controversial. We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis of all available studies to summarize evidence on this association. Studies were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases through January 2016. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. A total of 21 published studies were included in this meta-analysis. A significant increase in the risk of prostate cancer (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.15, P = 0.014) was observed among individuals with hypertension. There was statistically significant heterogeneity among included studies (P < 0.001 for heterogeneity, I(2) = 72.1%). No obvious evidence of significant publication bias was detected by either Begg's test (P = 0.174) or Egger's test (P = 0.277). In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicates that hypertension may be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Considering the substantial heterogeneity and residual confounding among included studies, further large-scale, well-designed prospective cohorts, as well as mechanistic studies, are urgently needed to confirm our preliminary findings. PMID:27511796

  1. Hypertension and risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhen; Xie, Bo; Li, Jiangfeng; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Song; Meng, Shuai; Ji, Alin; Zhu, Yi; Xu, Xin; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The previously reported association between hypertension and prostate cancer risk was controversial. We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis of all available studies to summarize evidence on this association. Studies were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases through January 2016. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. A total of 21 published studies were included in this meta-analysis. A significant increase in the risk of prostate cancer (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02–1.15, P = 0.014) was observed among individuals with hypertension. There was statistically significant heterogeneity among included studies (P < 0.001 for heterogeneity, I2 = 72.1%). No obvious evidence of significant publication bias was detected by either Begg’s test (P = 0.174) or Egger’s test (P = 0.277). In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicates that hypertension may be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Considering the substantial heterogeneity and residual confounding among included studies, further large-scale, well-designed prospective cohorts, as well as mechanistic studies, are urgently needed to confirm our preliminary findings. PMID:27511796

  2. Association Between BRCA Status and P53 Status in Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lin; Xu, Tao; Long, Ting; Zuo, Huaiquan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Research on BRCA mutation has meaningful clinical implications, such as identifying risk of second primary cancers and risk of hereditary cancers. This study seeks to summarize available data to investigate the association between BRCA status and P53 status by meta-analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases for relevant studies. Meta-analysis was conducted using STATA software. We summarized odds ratios by fixed-effects or random-effects models. RESULTS This study included a total of 4288 cases from 16 articles, which including 681 BRCA1 mutation carriers (BRCA1Mut), 366 carriers of BRCA2 mutation (BRCA2Mut), and 3241 carriers of normal versions of these genes. BRCA1Mut was significantly associated with P53 over-expression compared with BRCA2Mut (OR 1.851, 95% CI=1.393-2.458) or non-carriers (OR=2.503, 95% CI=1.493-4.198). No difference was found between p53 protein expression in BRCA2 Mut carriers and non-carriers (OR=0.881, 95% CI=0.670-1.158). CONCLUSIONS Our meta-analysis suggests that BRCA1Mut breast cancer patients are more likely to have P53 overexpression compared with BRCA2Mut and non-carriers. This information provides valuable information for clinicians who perform related studies in the future. PMID:27272763

  3. Effect of passive smoking on female breast cancer in China: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenghong; Shao, Jing; Gao, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaofeng

    2015-03-01

    The objective is to explore the relationship between passive smoking and female breast cancer using meta-analysis. Literature on risk factors for female breast cancer published from January 2001 to December 2011 was collected from CBM, CAJD, VIP, WanFangData, and MEDLINE databases. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.0.24. A total of 8 studies were included according to inclusion and exclusion standards. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that the combined odds ratio (OR) estimate for those who had been exposed to passive smoke from tobacco was 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27-2.21). Results of the subgroup analysis were consistent with an OR = 1.98 (95% CI = 1.63-2.42) for 1:1 paired design research and 1.60 (95% CI = 1.08-2.37) for the group design research. Results suggest a possible association between passive tobacco smoke and female breast cancer in China. PMID:23572370

  4. Association Between BRCA Status and P53 Status in Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lin; Xu, Tao; Long, Ting; Zuo, Huaiquan

    2016-01-01

    Background Research on BRCA mutation has meaningful clinical implications, such as identifying risk of second primary cancers and risk of hereditary cancers. This study seeks to summarize available data to investigate the association between BRCA status and P53 status by meta-analysis. Material/Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases for relevant studies. Meta-analysis was conducted using STATA software. We summarized odds ratios by fixed-effects or random-effects models. Results This study included a total of 4288 cases from 16 articles, which including 681 BRCA1 mutation carriers (BRCA1Mut), 366 carriers of BRCA2 mutation (BRCA2Mut), and 3241 carriers of normal versions of these genes. BRCA1Mut was significantly associated with P53 over-expression compared with BRCA2Mut (OR 1.851, 95% CI=1.393–2.458) or non-carriers (OR=2.503, 95% CI=1.493–4.198). No difference was found between p53 protein expression in BRCA2 Mut carriers and non-carriers (OR=0.881, 95% CI=0.670–1.158). Conclusions Our meta-analysis suggests that BRCA1Mut breast cancer patients are more likely to have P53 overexpression compared with BRCA2Mut and non-carriers. This information provides valuable information for clinicians who perform related studies in the future. PMID:27272763

  5. Human papillomavirus type-18 prevalence in oesophageal cancer in the Chinese population: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, L W; Zhang, S K; Liu, S Z; Chen, Q; Zhang, M; Quan, P L; Lu, J B; Sun, X B

    2016-02-01

    Globally, the prevalence of oesophageal cancer cases is particularly high in China. Since 1982, oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) has been hypothesized as a risk factor for oesophageal cancer, but no firm evidence of HPV infection in oesophageal cancer has been established to date. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to estimate the high-risk HPV-18 prevalence of oesophageal cancer in the Chinese population. Eligible studies published from 1 January 2005 to 12 July 2014 were retrieved via computer searches of English and Chinese literature databases (including Medline, EMBASE, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform). A random-effects model was used to calculate pooled prevalence and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 2556 oesophageal cancer cases from 19 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, the pooled HPV-18 prevalence in oesophageal cancer cases was 4·1% (95% CI 2·7-5·5) in China, 6·1% (95% CI 2·9-9·3) in fresh or frozen biopsies and 4·0% (95% CI 2·3-5·8) in paraffin-embedded fixed biopsies, 8·2% (95% CI 4·6-11·7) by the E6/E7 region and 2·2% (95% CI 0·9-3·6) by the L1 region of the HPV gene. This meta-analysis indicated that China has a moderate HPV-18 prevalence of oesophageal cancer compared to cervical cancer, although there is variation between different variables. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of HPV in oesophagus carcinogenesis with careful consideration of study design and laboratory detection method, providing more accurate assessment of HPV status in oesophageal cancer. PMID:26211663

  6. Primary Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Andrew T.; Giovannucci, Edward L.

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has been strongly associated with a Western lifestyle. In the past several decades, much has been learned about the dietary, lifestyle, and medication risk factors for this malignancy. Although there is controversy about the role of specific nutritional factors, consideration of the dietary pattern as a whole appears useful for formulating recommendations. For example, several studies have shown that high intake of red and processed meats, highly refined grains and starches, and sugars is related to increased risk of colorectal cancer. Replacing these factors with poultry, fish, and plant sources as the primary source of protein; unsaturated fats as the primary source of fat; and unrefined grains, legumes and fruits as the primary source of carbohydrates is likely to lower risk of colorectal cancer. Although a role for supplements, including vitamin D, folate, and vitamin B6, remains uncertain, calcium supplementation is likely to be at least modestly beneficial. With respect to lifestyle, compelling evidence indicates that avoidance of smoking and heavy alcohol use, prevention of weight gain, and the maintenance of a reasonable level of physical activity are associated with markedly lower risks of colorectal cancer. Medications such as aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and post-menopausal hormones for women are associated with significant reductions in colorectal cancer risk, though their utility is affected by associated risks. Taken together, modifications in diet and lifestyle should substantially reduce the risk of colorectal cancer and could complement screening in reducing colorectal cancer incidence. PMID:20420944

  7. Calcium supplementation for the prevention of colorectal adenomas: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Bonovas, Stefanos; Fiorino, Gionata; Lytras, Theodore; Malesci, Alberto; Danese, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the efficacy of calcium supplementation in reducing the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies. We searched PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and the ClinicalTrials.gov website, through December 2015. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials assessing supplemental calcium intake for the prevention of recurrence of adenomas were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently selected studies based on predefined criteria, extracted data and outcomes (recurrence of colorectal adenomas, and advanced or “high-risk” adenomas), and rated each trial’s risk-of-bias. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed, and pooled risk ratio (RR) estimates with their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated using fixed- and random-effects models. To express the treatment effect in clinical terms, we calculated the number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one adenoma recurrence. We also assessed the quality of evidence using GRADE. RESULTS: Four randomized, placebo-controlled trials met the eligibility criteria and were included. Daily doses of elemental calcium ranged from 1200 to 2000 mg, while the duration of treatment and follow-up of participants ranged from 36 to 60 mo. Synthesis of intention-to-treat data, for participants who had undergone follow-up colonoscopies, indicated a modest protective effect of calcium in prevention of adenomas (fixed-effects, RR = 0.89, 95%CI: 0.82-0.96; random-effects, RR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.77-0.98; high quality of evidence). The NNT was 20 (95%CI: 12-61) to prevent one colorectal adenoma recurrence within a period of 3 to 5 years. On the other hand, the association between calcium treatment and advanced adenomas did not reach statistical significance (fixed-effects, RR = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.75-1.13; random-effects, RR = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.71-1.18; moderate quality of evidence). CONCLUSION: Our

  8. Association between Alcohol Consumption and Cancers in the Chinese Population—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Yang, Huan; Cao, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is increasing worldwide and is associated with numerous cancers. This systematic review examined the role of alcohol in the incidence of cancer in the Chinese population. Methods Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI and VIP were searched to identify relevant studies. Cohort and case-control studies on the effect of alcohol use on cancers in Chinese were included. Study quality was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Data were independently abstracted by two reviewers. Odds ratios (OR) or relative risks (RR) were pooled using RevMan 5.0. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the Q test and I-squared statistic. P<.01 was considered statistically significant. Results Pooled results from cohort studies indicated that alcohol consumption was not associated with gastric cancer, esophageal cancers (EC) or lung cancer. Meta-analysis of case-control studies showed that alcohol consumption was a significant risk factor for five cancers; the pooled ORs were 1.79 (99% CI, 1.47–2.17) EC, 1.40 (99% CI, 1.19–1.64) gastric cancer, 1.56 (99% CI, 1.16–2.09) hepatocellular carcinoma, 1.21 (99% CI, 1.00–1.46) nasopharyngeal cancer and 1.71 (99% CI, 1.20–2.44) oral cancer. Pooled ORs of the case-control studies showed that alcohol consumption was protective for female breast cancer and gallbladder cancer: OR 0.76 (99% CI, 0.60–0.97) and 0.70 (99% CI, 0.49–1.00) respectively. There was no significant correlation between alcohol consumption and lung cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, cancer of the ampulla of Vater, prostate cancer or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Combined results of case-control and cohort studies showed that alcohol consumption was associated with 1.78- and 1.40-fold higher risks of EC and gastric cancer but was not significantly associated with lung cancer. Conclusions Health programs focused on limiting alcohol intake may be important for cancer control in China. Further studies are needed to examine the

  9. Plasma prolactin and breast cancer risk: a meta- analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minghao; Wu, Xiujuan; Chai, Fan; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and its incidence is on a constant rise. Previous studies suggest that higher levels of plasma prolactin are associated with escalated risk of breast cancer, however, these results are contradictory and inconclusive. PubMed and Medline were used to search and identify published observational studies that assessed the relationship between plasma prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer. The pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a fixed-effects or random-effects model. A total of 7 studies were included in our analysis. For the highest versus lowest levels of plasma prolactin, the pooled RR (95% CI) of breast cancer were 1.16 (1.04, 1.29). In subgroup analyses, we found a positive association between plasma prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer among the patients who were postmenopausal, ER+/PR+ or in situ and invasive carcinoma. However, this positive association was not detected in the premenopausal and ER-/PR- patients. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence supporting a significantly positive association between plasma prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer. PMID:27184120

  10. A meta-analysis on depression and subsequent cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background The authors tested the hypothesis that depression is a possible factor influencing the course of cancer by reviewing prospective epidemiological studies and calculating summary relative risks. Methods Studies were identified by computerized searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO. as well as manual searches of reference lists of selected publications. Inclusion criteria were cohort design, population-based sample, structured measurement of depression and outcome of cancer known for depressed and non-depressed subjects Results Thirteen eligible studies were identified. Based on eight studies with complete crude data on overall cancer, our summary relative risk (95% confidence interval) was 1.19 (1.06–1.32). After adjustment for confounders we pooled a summary relative risk of 1.12 (0.99–1.26). No significant association was found between depression and subsequent breast cancer risk, based on seven heterogeneous studies, with or without adjustment for possible confounders. Subgroup analysis of studies with a follow-up of ten years or more, however, resulted in a statistically significant summary relative risk of 2.50 (1.06–5.91). No significant associations were found for lung, colon or prostate cancer. Conclusion This review suggests a tendency towards a small and marginally significant association between depression and subsequent overall cancer risk and towards a stronger increase of breast cancer risk emerging many years after a previous depression. PMID:18053168

  11. Plasma prolactin and breast cancer risk: a meta- analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minghao; Wu, Xiujuan; Chai, Fan; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and its incidence is on a constant rise. Previous studies suggest that higher levels of plasma prolactin are associated with escalated risk of breast cancer, however, these results are contradictory and inconclusive. PubMed and Medline were used to search and identify published observational studies that assessed the relationship between plasma prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer. The pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a fixed-effects or random-effects model. A total of 7 studies were included in our analysis. For the highest versus lowest levels of plasma prolactin, the pooled RR (95% CI) of breast cancer were 1.16 (1.04, 1.29). In subgroup analyses, we found a positive association between plasma prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer among the patients who were postmenopausal, ER(+)/PR(+) or in situ and invasive carcinoma. However, this positive association was not detected in the premenopausal and ER(-)/PR(-) patients. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence supporting a significantly positive association between plasma prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer. PMID:27184120

  12. Meta-analysis of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism and lung cancer risk in Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Yue, Kai; Hao, Liran

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism with lung cancer (LC) susceptibility in Chinese; however, the findings are inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis. PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang were searched. Pooled ORs and 95% CIs were used to assess the strength of the associations. Overall, 10 studies with 2487 cases and 3228 controls investigating the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and LC risk were included. We did not find a significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and LC risk. However, significantly increased LC risk was found in the population from North China, which was not found in the population from South China. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR C677T polymorphism might influence the risk of LC. PMID:25785167

  13. Association among Dietary Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses and Ovarian Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    You, Ruxu; Yang, Yu; Liao, Jing; Chen, Dongsheng; Yu, Lixiu

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have indicated that intake of dietary flavonoids or flavonoid subclasses is associated with the ovarian cancer risk, but presented controversial results. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of these associations. Methods We performed a search in PubMed, Google Scholar and ISI Web of Science from their inception to April 25, 2015 to select studies on the association among dietary flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses and ovarian cancer risk. The information was extracted by two independent authors. We assessed the heterogeneity, sensitivity, publication bias and quality of the articles. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled risk estimates. Results Five cohort studies and seven case-control studies were included in the final meta-analysis. We observed that intake of dietary flavonoids can decrease ovarian cancer risk, which was demonstrated by pooled RR (RR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68–0.98). In a subgroup analysis by flavonoid subtypes, the ovarian cancer risk was also decreased for isoflavones (RR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.50–0.92) and flavonols (RR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.58–0.80). While there was no compelling evidence that consumption of flavones (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.71–1.03) could decrease ovarian cancer risk, which revealed part sources of heterogeneity. The sensitivity analysis indicated stable results, and no publication bias was observed based on the results of Funnel plot analysis and Egger’s test (p = 0.26). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggested that consumption of dietary flavonoids and subtypes (isoflavones, flavonols) has a protective effect against ovarian cancer with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer except for flavones consumption. Nevertheless, further investigations on a larger population covering more flavonoid subclasses are warranted. PMID:26960146

  14. Association between NADPH oxidase (NOX) and lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ming; Zhang, Tianhui; Yang, Lei; Ruan, Junzhong; Chang, Xiujun

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Considerable studies have reported that NADPH oxidase (NOX) expression or activity may play an important role in the tumorigenesis of lung cancer. However, the results are inconsistent. Thus, a systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted in this study. Methods A systematic search of electronic databases was performed. Statistical analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (Version 3). The pooled Hedges’s g with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) or rate ratio with 95% CIs was adopted to assess the effect size. Fixed or random effect model was separately used based on the heterogeneity between the studies. Results A total of ten eligible studies were included in the current systematic review and overall meta-analysis showed that NOX/DUOX activity and mRNA were significantly in favor of lung cancer (Hedges’s g =1.216, P=0.034). Suppression of NOX function by pharmacologic inhibitor or expression by siRNA resulted in significant inhibition of lung cancer cell invasion and migration in in vitro experiments (Hedges’s g =2.422, P<0.001) and lung cancer formation in vivo studies (rate ratio =0.366, P=0.002). Conclusions Findings of this systematic review indicate that NOX activity and expression is associated with tumorigenesis of lung cancer and inhibition of NOX function or mRNA expression significantly blocks lung cancer formation and invasion. Suppressing NOX up-regulation or interfering NOX function in tumor microenvironment may be one important approach to prevent oxidative-stress-related carcinogenesis in the lung. PMID:27499960

  15. Chemotherapy for patients with gastric cancer after complete resection: A network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Wu; Zhang, Yu-Long; Pan, Hui; Wei, Feng-Xian; Zhang, You-Cheng; Shao, Yuan; Han, Wei; Liu, Hai-Peng; Wang, Zhe-Yuan; Yang, Sun-Hu

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a network meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of different chemotherapy regimens for patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: PubMed (1966-2011.12), the Cochrane Library (2011 Issue 2) and EMBASE (1974-2011.12) were searched with the terms “gastric cancer” and “chemotherapy”, as well as the medical subject headings. References from relevant articles and conferences were also included. Patients who had previous gastric surgery, radiation before or after surgery or chemotherapy before surgery were excluded. In this study, only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were considered, and the end-point was the overall mortality. Direct comparisons were performed using traditional meta-analysis whereas indirect comparisons were performed using network meta-analysis. RESULTS: In total, 31 RCTs with 7120 patients were included. Five chemotherapy regimens, fluorouracil (FU) + BCNU, FU + methyl-CCNU (mCCNU), FU + cisplatin, FU + anthracyclines and FU + mitomycin c (MMC) + cytarabine (Ara-c), were found to be less beneficial in terms of overall mortality. In contrast, four chemotherapy regimens were effective for the patients after surgery, including FU + MMC + adriamycin (FMA), FU + MMC (FM), Tegafur and MMC, There was no significant difference in terms of overall mortality among these regimens. The evidence for the FM regimen and MMC regimen was poor. Additionally, the FMA regimen, which includes a variety of chemotherapy drugs and causes many side effects, was not better than the Tegafur regimen. CONCLUSION: Although the four chemotherapy regimens were effective in patients with gastric cancer after surgery and the overall mortality revealed no significant difference among them in the network meta-analysis, thorough analysis of the results recommends Tegafur as the first-line adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for patients after complete resection. PMID:24574729

  16. Clinicopathological significance of CD133 in lung cancer: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yaoxi; Chen, Bo; Xu, Wei; Zhao, Weihong; Wu, Jianqing

    2014-01-01

    CD133 is one of the most commonly used markers of lung cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are characterized by their ability for self-renewal and tumorigenicity. However, the clinical value and significance of CD133 in lung cancer remains controversial. Due to the limited size of the individual studies, the association between CD133 and the clinicopathological characteristics of lung cancer had not been fully elucidated. A meta-analysis based on published studies was performed with the aim of evaluating the effect of CD133 on the clinicopathological characteristics of lung cancer and to investigate the role of CSCs in the prognosis of lung cancer. A total of 15 eligible studies were included in this meta-analysis and our results indicated that a positive CD133 expression was significantly associated with poor differentiation and lymph node metastasis, although it was not associated with tumor stage or histological type. Therefore, CD133 may be considered as a prognostic maker of lung cancer. Further clinical studies, with larger patient samples, unified methods and cut-off levels to detect CD133 expression, classified by tumor stage, therapeutic schedule, follow-up time and survival events, are required to determine the role of CD133 in clinical application and the association between CD133 and the prognosis of lung cancer. PMID:24649317

  17. An individual patient data meta-analysis of adjuvant therapy with uracil–tegafur (UFT) in patients with curatively resected rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, J; Hamada, C; Yoshida, S; Kodaira, S; Yasutomi, M; Kato, T; Oba, K; Nakazato, H; Saji, S; Ohashi, Y

    2007-01-01

    Uracil–Tegafur (UFT), an oral fluorinated pyrimidine chemotherapeutic agent, has been used for adjuvant chemotherapy in curatively resected colorectal cancer patients. Past trials and meta-analyses indicate that it is somewhat effective in extending survival of patients with rectal cancer. The objective of this study was to perform a reappraisal of randomised clinical trials conducted in this field. We designed an individual patient-based meta-analysis of relevant clinical trials to examine the benefit of UFT for curatively resected rectal cancer in terms of overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and local relapse-free survival (LRFS). We analysed individual patient data of five adjuvant therapy randomised clinical trials for rectal cancer, which met the predetermined inclusion criteria. These five trials had a combined total of 2091 patients, UFT as adjuvant chemotherapy compared to surgery-alone, 5-year follow-up, intention-to-treat-based analytic strategy, and similar endpoints (OS and DFS). In a pooled analysis, UFT had significant advantage over surgery-alone in terms of both OS (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.70–0.97; P=0.02) and DFS (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95%CI, 0.63–0.84; P<0.0001). This individual patient-based meta-analysis demonstrated that oral UFT significantly improves both OS and DFS in patients with curatively resected rectal cancer. PMID:17375049

  18. Living near nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaeyoung; Bang, Yejin; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-02-01

    There has been public concern regarding the safety of residing near nuclear power plants, and the extent of risk for thyroid cancer among adults living near nuclear power plants has not been fully explored. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies was conducted to investigate the association between living near nuclear power plants and the risk of thyroid cancer. A comprehensive literature search was performed on studies published up to March 2015 on the association between nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk. The summary standardized incidence ratio (SIR), standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effect model of meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were performed by study quality. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis, covering 36 nuclear power stations in 10 countries. Overall, summary estimates showed no significant increased thyroid cancer incidence or mortality among residents living near nuclear power plants (summary SIR=0.98; 95% CI 0.87-1.11, summary SMR=0.80; 95% CI 0.62-1.04). The pooled estimates did not reveal different patterns of risk by gender, exposure definition, or reference population. However, sensitivity analysis by exposure definition showed that living less than 20 km from nuclear power plants was associated with a significant increase in the risk of thyroid cancer in well-designed studies (summary OR=1.75; 95% CI 1.17-2.64). Our study does not support an association between living near nuclear power plants and risk of thyroid cancer but does support a need for well-designed future studies. PMID:26638017

  19. Soy intake and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrom, Suhaila; Idris, Nik Ruzni Nik

    2016-06-01

    The impact of soy intake on breast cancer risk has been investigated extensively. However, these studies reported conflicting results. The objective of this study is to perform comprehensive review and updated meta-analysis on the association between soy intake and breast cancer risk and to identify significant factors which may contribute to the inconsistencies of results of the individual studies. Based on reviews of existing meta-analysis, we identified four main factors which contributed to the inconsistencies of results of individual studies on the association of soy intake and breast cancer risk namely; region, menopausal status of the patients, soy type and study design. Accordingly, we performed an updated meta-analysis of 57 studies grouped by the identified factors. Pooled ORs of studies carried out in Asian countries suggested that soy isoflavones consumption was inversely associated with the risk of breast cancer among both pre and postmenopausal women (OR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.54-0.74 for premenopausal women; OR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.52-0.75 for postmenopausal women). However, pooled OR of studies carried out in Western countries shows that there is no statistically significant association between soy intake and breast cancer risk (OR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.93-1.03). Our study suggests that soy food intake is associated with significantly reduced risk of breast cancer for women in Asian but not in Western countries. Further epidemiological studies need to be conducted with more comprehensive information about the dietary intake and relative exposure among the women in these two different regions.

  20. Depression and anxiety in prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence rates

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Sam; Leydon, Geraldine; Birch, Brian; Prescott, Philip; Lai, Lily; Eardley, Susan; Lewith, George

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review the literature pertaining to the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with prostate cancer as a function of treatment stage. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Participants 4494 patients with prostate cancer from primary research investigations. Primary outcome measure The prevalence of clinical depression and anxiety in patients with prostate cancer as a function of treatment stage. Results We identified 27 full journal articles that met the inclusion criteria for entry into the meta-analysis resulting in a pooled sample size of 4494 patients. The meta-analysis of prevalence rates identified pretreatment, on-treatment and post-treatment depression prevalences of 17.27% (95% CI 15.06% to 19.72%), 14.70% (95% CI 11.92% to 17.99%) and 18.44% (95% CI 15.18% to 22.22%), respectively. Pretreatment, on-treatment and post-treatment anxiety prevalences were 27.04% (95% CI 24.26% to 30.01%), 15.09% (95% CI 12.15% to 18.60%) and 18.49% (95% CI 13.81% to 24.31%), respectively. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the prevalence of depression and anxiety in men with prostate cancer, across the treatment spectrum, is relatively high. In light of the growing emphasis placed on cancer survivorship, we consider that further research within this area is warranted to ensure that psychological distress in patients with prostate cancer is not underdiagnosed and undertreated. PMID:24625637

  1. A Healthy Dietary Pattern Reduces Lung Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanlai; Li, Zhenxiang; Li, Jianning; Li, Zengjun; Han, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diet and nutrients play an important role in cancer development and progress; a healthy dietary pattern has been found to be associated with several types of cancer. However, the association between a healthy eating pattern and lung cancer risk is still unclear. Objective: Therefore, we conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis to evaluate whether a healthy eating pattern might reduce lung cancer risk. Methods: We identified relevant studies from the PubMed and Embase databases up to October 2015, and the relative risks were extracted and combined by the fixed-effects model when no substantial heterogeneity was observed; otherwise, the random-effects model was employed. Subgroup and publication bias analyses were also performed. Results: Finally, eight observational studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled relative risk of lung cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of healthy dietary pattern was 0.81 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.75–0.86), and no significant heterogeneity was detected. The relative risks (RRs) for non-smokers, former smokers and current smokers were 0.89 (95% CI: 0.63–1.27), 0.74 (95% CI: 0.62–0.89) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.79–0.93), respectively. The results remained stable in subgroup analyses by other confounders and sensitivity analysis. Conclusions: The results of our meta-analysis suggest that a healthy dietary pattern is associated with a lower lung cancer risk, and they provide more beneficial evidence for changing the diet pattern in the general population. PMID:26959051

  2. Can Aspirin Reduce the Risk of Endometrial Cancer?: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongyu; Bai, Bei; Xi, Yuzhi; Zhao, Yuqian

    2016-07-01

    Current evidences suggest that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can reduce the risk of several types of cancer, including breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. However, evidences regarding the chemopreventive effect of aspirin to endometrial cancer are inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to further explore the association. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus to identify potentially eligible studies. After title/abstract screening and full-text review, we identified 7 cohort studies and 6 case-control studies. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed independently, and a random-effects model was used for data synthesis. Subgroup analysis was conducted based on obesity, hormone replacement therapy use, and cancer subtype; sensitivity analysis was conducted by pooling risk ratios of the highest dosage or longest duration of use. Dose-response relationship was assessed by a 2-stage linear dose-response model. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed by the I value and a χ test for the Cochrane Q statistic. In overall meta-analysis, the pooled risk ratio was 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.99), and no substantial statistical heterogeneity was observed (I = 0.0%, P = 0.550). In subgroup analysis, a negative association was observed for obese women and type I endometrial cancer. Higher dosage or frequency of aspirin use was significantly associated with a reduced risk, and long-term aspirin use was protective only for obese women. In conclusion, our study suggests that the use of aspirin can reduce the risk of endometrial cancer, particularly for obese women. However, the generalizability of our conclusion should be further studied for premenopausal women and type II endometrial cancer. PMID:27177285

  3. Prognostic value of ALDH1 expression in lung cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Wei; Du, Min; Pan, Xinyan; Zhu, Xiaomin; Li, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: ALDH1 has recently been reported as a marker of cancer stem-like cells in lung cancer. However, the predictive value of ALDH1 in lung cancer remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association of ALDH1 expression with the clinicopathological features and outcomes of lung cancer patients through a meta-analysis. Methods: Publications that assessed the clinical or prognostic significance of ALDH1 in lung cancer up to October 2014 were identified. A meta-analysis was performed to clarify the association between ALDH1 expression and clinical outcomes. Results: Ten eligible publications with 1836 patients were included. The analysis of these data showed that ALDH1 expression was highly correlated with lymph node metastasis (pooled OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.04-2.02, P = 0.027), decreased overall survival (pooled RR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.15-4.41, P = 0.019), and decreased disease-free survival (pooled RR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.01-2.64, P = 0.047). Conclusion: Patients with ALDH1-positive lung cancer had poor prognosis, which was associated with common clinicopathological poor prognostic factors. PMID:25932135

  4. Prognostic value of melanoma cell adhesion molecule expression in cancers: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guoqing; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Yulan; Xiong, Huizi; Zhao, Yinghui; Wang, Jiayi; Sun, Fenyong

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MACM) has been reported in many studies as a novel bio-marker for its prognosis value in cancers. But the prognosis significance of MACM expression in cancer remains inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted a system review and meta-analysis to assess its prognosis value in cancers. A systematic search through Pubmed, EMBASE and Cochran Library database was conducted. Hazard Ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the prognosis value of MACM expression. Eleven studies with 2657 cases were included after sorting out 462 articles for this meta-analysis. The results of the fixed-model depending on the heterogeneity in studies demonstrated that MACM expression was significantly associated with overall survival (OS) in cancer (HR=2.84, 95% CI: 1.10-7.31, P<0.00001). Furthermore, subgroup analysis indicated that high expressed MACM predicted a poor OS in both Asian (HR=2.52, 95% CI: 1.80-3.52, P<0.00001) and Caucasian (HR=2.40, 95% CI: 2.01-2.88, P<0.00001). In conclusion, high expression of MACM was significantly associated with a poor prognostic outcome in cancer. MACM can be regarded as a novel bio-marker in different types of cancers and can be used to evaluate the prognosis of therapeutic effect during clinical practices. PMID:26550117

  5. Vasectomy and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yonggang; Han, Guangwei; Li, Jia; Zhao, Jiang; Cui, Dong; Liu, Chengcheng; Yi, Shanhong

    2015-01-01

    Some studies have suggested that vasectomy is associated with the increased risk of prostate cancer, however, this conclusion is not supported by all the published studies. In order to examine the relationship between vasectomy and prostate cancer risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of cohort studies to clarify this controversial association. PubMed and Medline were used to identify the cohort studies that reported the association of vasectomy with prostate cancer risk from 1980 to January 2015. Based on a random effects model, the RR and 95% CI were used to assess the combined risk. In total, 10 cohort studies involving more than 7027 cases and 429914 participants were included. There was no significant relationship between vasectomy and prostate cancer risk, the pooled RR (95%CI) was 1.11[0.98, 1.27] (P = 0.109). In subgroup-analysis, the relationship between vasectomy and prostate cancer risk was not significantly modified by the length of follow-up and population distribution except Americans. Omission of any single study had little effect on the pooled risk estimate. Little evidence of publication bias was found. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggests that vasectomy is not associated with the increased risk of prostate cancer. More studies based on other populations including the Chinese are needed. PMID:25927401

  6. Individual patient data meta-analysis in cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, M.; Stewart, L.; Pignon, J. P.; Bijnens, L.

    1998-01-01

    As in many areas of health care, treatments for cancer may differ only moderately in their effects on major end points, such as death. But, such differences are worth knowing about, particularly in common diseases in which they could represent a substantial benefit to public health. Large-scale randomized evidence allows moderate differences to be investigated reliably, and one way to achieve this is by meta-analyses of updated and centrally collected individual patient data from all relevant trials. This paper illustrates why this form of research can often be important in cancer. It also offers the first list of such projects, as a source of information on current and past research in this area. PMID:9667689

  7. Animal Models of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Robert L.; Fleet, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that afflicts a large number of people in the United States. The use of animal models has the potential to increase our understanding of carcinogenesis, tumor biology, and the impact of specific molecular events on colon biology. In addition, animal models with features of specific human colorectal cancers can be used to test strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. In this review we provide an overview of the mechanisms driving human cancer, we discuss the approaches one can take to model colon cancer in animals, and we describe a number of specific animal models that have been developed for the study of colon cancer. We believe that there are many valuable animal models to study various aspects of human colorectal cancer. However, opportunities for improving upon these models exist. PMID:23076650

  8. Association of rs6983267 Polymorphism and Thyroid Cancer Susceptibility: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingdong; Wang, Xiaofei; Dong, Jiahong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent genome-wide association studies have identified rs6983267 polymorphism as a key locus in the 8q24 region associated with multisite cancers. However, the information on its association with thyroid cancer is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to determine whether this locus is a risk factor for susceptibility to thyroid cancer by conducting a meta-analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase databases. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. RESULTS A total of 4 studies including 2825 cases and 9684 controls were enrolled to this meta-analysis. The pooled data showed the G allele of the rs6983267 polymorphism is a risk factor for susceptibility to thyroid cancer (OR=1.08, 95%CI: 1.02-1.16, P=0.01). Significant associations were also found in homozygote comparison (GG vs. TT: OR=1.17, 95%CI: 1.03-1.33, P=0.02) and dominant model (GG+GT vs. TT: OR=1.13, 95%CI: 1.01-1.26, P=0.03). Borderline significant associations in similar directions were found in the recessive model (GG vs. GT+TT: OR=1.10, 95%CI: 0.99-1.22, P=0.07) and heterozygote comparison (GT vs. TT: OR=1.10, 95%CI: 0.99-1.24, P=0.09). CONCLUSIONS Our meta-analysis shows that the rs6983267 G>T polymorphism might be associated with higher risk of thyroid cancer. Further research with larger sample sizes and full investigation of confounding risk factors is needed to confirm or revise our conclusions. PMID:27251952

  9. Diagnostic significance of diffusion-weighted MRI in patients with cervical cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Bo; Xiang, Shi-Feng; Yao, Gen-Dong; Yang, Su-Jun; Wang, Yu-Fang; Zhang, Yi-Xin; Wang, Jun-Wei

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis is to demonstrate whether diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) could assist in the precise diagnosis of cervical cancer or not. Both English and Chinese electronic databases were searched for potential relevant studies followed by a comprehensive literature search without any language restriction. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of the included trials. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were calculated in this meta-analysis. We chose Version 12.0 STATA statistical software to analyze our statistical data. Thirteen eligible cohort studies were selected for statistical analysis, including 645 tumor tissues and 504 normal tissues. Combined SMD of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) suggested that the ADC value in cervical cancer tissues was significantly lower than that of normal tissue (SMD = 2.80, 95 % CI = 2.64 ~ 2.96, P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity indicated a higher ADC value in the normal tissues compared to the cancer tissues in both the Asian and Caucasian subgroups (Asians: SMD = 2.83, 95 % CI = 2.64 ~ 3.02, P < 0.001; Caucasians: SMD = 2.73, 95 % CI = 2.45 ~ 3.01, P < 0.001, respectively). The results from the subgroup analysis by MRI machine type revealed a statistically significant difference in ADC value between normal cervical tissue and tumor tissues among all of the six MRI machine type subgroups (all P < 0.05). The main finding from our meta-analysis revealed that increased signal intensity on DWI and decreased signal on ADC seem to be useful in the diagnosis of cervical cancer. DWI could therefore be an important imaging tool in potentially identifying patients with cervical cancer. PMID:25168365

  10. Association of rs6983267 Polymorphism and Thyroid Cancer Susceptibility: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingdong; Wang, Xiaofei; Dong, Jiahong

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent genome-wide association studies have identified rs6983267 polymorphism as a key locus in the 8q24 region associated with multisite cancers. However, the information on its association with thyroid cancer is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to determine whether this locus is a risk factor for susceptibility to thyroid cancer by conducting a meta-analysis. Material/Methods Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase databases. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Results A total of 4 studies including 2825 cases and 9684 controls were enrolled to this meta-analysis. The pooled data showed the G allele of the rs6983267 polymorphism is a risk factor for susceptibility to thyroid cancer (OR=1.08, 95%CI: 1.02–1.16, P=0.01). Significant associations were also found in homozygote comparison (GG vs. TT: OR=1.17, 95%CI: 1.03–1.33, P=0.02) and dominant model (GG+GT vs. TT: OR=1.13, 95%CI: 1.01–1.26, P=0.03). Borderline significant associations in similar directions were found in the recessive model (GG vs. GT+TT: OR=1.10, 95%CI: 0.99–1.22, P=0.07) and heterozygote comparison (GT vs. TT: OR=1.10, 95%CI: 0.99–1.24, P=0.09). Conclusions Our meta-analysis shows that the rs6983267 G>T polymorphism might be associated with higher risk of thyroid cancer. Further research with larger sample sizes and full investigation of confounding risk factors is needed to confirm or revise our conclusions. PMID:27251952

  11. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Symptom Management in Cancer Palliative Care: Systematic Review And Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Vincent C H; Wu, Xinyin; Lu, Ping; Hui, Edwin P; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Anthony L; Lau, Alexander Y L; Zhao, Junkai; Fan, Min; Ziea, Eric T C; Ng, Bacon F L; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wu, Justin C Y

    2016-02-01

    Use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) in symptom management for cancer palliative care is very common in Chinese populations but clinical evidence on their effectiveness is yet to be synthesized.To conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis to summarize results from CHM randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on symptoms that are undertreated in conventional cancer palliative care.Five international and 3 Chinese databases were searched. RCTs evaluating CHM, either in combination with conventional treatments or used alone, in managing cancer-related symptoms were considered eligible. Effectiveness was quantified by using weighted mean difference (WMD) using random effect model meta-analysis.Fourteen RCTs were included. Compared with conventional intervention alone, meta-analysis showed that combined CHM and conventional treatment significantly reduced pain (3 studies, pooled WMD: -0.90, 95% CI: -1.69 to -0.11). Six trials comparing CHM with conventional medications demonstrated similar effect in reducing constipation. One RCT showed significant positive effect of CHM plus chemotherapy for managing fatigue, but not in the remaining 3 RCTs. The additional use of CHM to chemotherapy does not improve anorexia when compared to chemotherapy alone, but the result was concluded from 2 small trials only. Adverse events were infrequent and mild.CHM may be considered as an add-on to conventional care in the management of pain in cancer patients. CHM could also be considered as an alternative to conventional care for reducing constipation. Evidence on the use of CHM for treating anorexia and fatigue in cancer patients is uncertain, warranting further research. PMID:26886628

  12. Esophagus cancer and occupational exposure to asbestos: results from a meta-analysis of epidemiology studies.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Tang, S P; Wang, K Z

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between occupational asbestos exposure and esophagus cancer (EC) is not fully understood. We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association. We systematically searched databases of PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science for studies with quantitative estimates of asbestos exposure and EC mortality. Pooled standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Twenty cohort studies on EC and asbestos exposure were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, occupational exposure to asbestos was associated with an excess risk of EC (SMR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.13-1.38, P < 0.001), with little evidence of heterogeneity among studies (I(2) = 0.0%, P = 0.682). Being male, exposure to chrysotile or mixed asbestos, working at textile industry, long study follow-up (≥20 years), Asia, Europe and America cohorts with larger cohort size (>500), and high-exposure group all contribute to significantly higher SMR. Publication bias was not detected (Egger's test P-value = 0.374). This meta-analysis suggested that occupational asbestos exposure might be associated with an increased risk of EC in male. High-exposure level of asbestos could contribute to significantly higher risk of EC mortality. PMID:25758922

  13. Prognosis value of MGMT promoter methylation for patients with lung cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao; Hua, Haiqing; Han, Chenglong; Cheng, Yuan; Cheng, Yin; Wang, Zhen; Bao, Jutao

    2015-01-01

    The role of MGMT promoter methylation in lung cancer (LC) remains controversial. To clarify the association of MGMT promoter methylation with survival in LC, we performed a meta-analysis of the literature with meta-analysis. Trials were selected for further analysis if they provided an independent assessment of MGMT promoter methylation in LC and reported the survival data in the context of MGMT promoter methylation status. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to the study characteristic. A total of 9 trials, which comprised 859 patients, were included in the meta-analysis. The combined hazard ratio (HR) of 1.27 [95% CI 0.88-1.82; test for heterogeneity P = 0.027] suggests that MGMT promoter methylation has none impact on patient survival. In Stage I-III or younger populations, a significant association was found for MGMT promoter methylation in the prognosis of LC. In addition, the heterogeneity disappeared when the analysis was restricted to Stage I-III LC. Our analysis indicates that MGMT promoter methylation in stage I-III or younger patients was significantly correlated with wore survival. Further study is needed to determine these specific subgroups of LC patients. PMID:26617891

  14. Meta-analysis of the association between selenium and gastric cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Gong, He-Yi; He, Jin-Guang; Li, Bao-Sheng

    2016-03-29

    To clarify the effects of selenium level on the risk of gastric cancer (GC) and GC mortality, a meta-analysis was performed. Related studies were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM). Pooled ORs and 95% CIs were used to assess the strengthof the associations. A total of 8 studies including 17834 subjects were involved in this meta-analysis. High selenium level was associated with GC risk in case-control study (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.44-0.89, P = 0.009; I2 = 52%) and cohort study (OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.78-0.97, P = 0.01; I2 = 25%). In addition, high selenium level was associated with GC mortality risk (OR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.84-0.97, P = 0.006, I2 = 49%). In summary, this meta-analysis suggested that selenium might inversely associated with GC risk and GC mortality. PMID:26862854

  15. Different prognostic roles of tumor suppressor gene BAP1 in cancer: A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Luchini, Claudio; Veronese, Nicola; Yachida, Shinichi; Cheng, Liang; Nottegar, Alessia; Stubbs, Brendon; Solmi, Marco; Capelli, Paola; Pea, Antonio; Barbareschi, Mattia; Fassan, Matteo; Wood, Laura D; Scarpa, Aldo

    2016-10-01

    Biallelic inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) has been demonstrated in several cancers, but its prognostic role has not been completely explained. We aimed to investigate the risk associated with loss of BAP1 (BAP1-) for all-cause mortality, cancer-specific mortality and recurrence of disease in subjects with cancer. PubMed and SCOPUS were searched from database inception until 09/15/2015 without language restrictions. Prospective studies reporting data on prognostic parameters in subjects with cancer, comparing participants with presence of BAP1 (BAP1+) vs. BAP1- were included. Data were summarized using risk ratios (RR) for number of deaths/recurrences and hazard ratios (HR) for time-dependent risk related to BAP1- adjusted for potential confounders. From 261 hits, 12 studies (including 13 cohorts) with 3,447 participants (BAP1-: n = 697; BAP1+: n = 2,750), with a median follow-up over 60 months, were meta-analyzed. Compared to BAP1+, BAP1- significantly increased all-cause mortality, cancer-specific mortality and risk of recurrence in all the tumor types analyzed, except for mesothelioma, in which the presence of BAP1 mutations correlates with a better prognosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that BAP1 mutated colorectal and renal carcinomas are associated with high-tumor grading (P < 0.0001), and that BAP1 mutated is more common in women than in men (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, on the basis of our meta-analysis, we have demonstrated a peculiar role of BAP1 in influencing the prognosis in cancer. Thus, BAP1 could be considered as an important potential target for personalized medicine. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27223342

  16. Xenovaccinotherapy for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Seledtsov, Victor I; Niza, Natalya A; Felde, Mariya A; Shishkov, Alexey A; Samarin, Denis M; Seledtsova, Galina V; Seledtsov, Dmitriy V

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this phase I-II trial were to assess the toxicity, immunological and clinical responses induced in 37 patients with stage IV colorectal cancer by the subcutaneous administration of a xenogenic polyantigenic vaccine (XPV) prepared from disrupted murine melanoma (B16) and carcinoma (LLC) cells. An inducing course of vaccinotherapy consisted of 10 immunizations (5 at weekly and 5 at fortnight intervals). Twenty-four hours later each of first 5 vaccinations the patient was subcutaneously given a low dose of the recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2). A consolidating course of vaccinotherapy consisted of monthly vaccinations. No grade III or IV toxicities, but also laboratory and clinical signs of developing systemic autoimmune disorders were noted in any XPV-treated patient. A significant increase in cell-mediated immunoreactivity to both LLC and B16 antigens (Ags) occurred in the patients after inducing vaccinations, as determined by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reactions, as well as by blood lymphocyte proliferation responses. Vaccinations also led to increased cell-mediated reactivity to murine non-tumor, spleen cell (SC)-associated Ags. This reactivity, however, was not as significant as that to tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). XPV was also found to capable of generating IgG antibody-mediated responses. With immunotherapy concentrations of both interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) detectably elevated in patients' sera, suggesting intensification of T helper 1-/T helper 2-mediated responses in the XPV-treated patients. The average survival of the XPV-treated patients was noticeably superior than was that of the clinically comparable control patients (17 vs 7 months). Collectively the results suggest that xenogenic TAAs are safe to use, able to induce measurable cellular and humoral immune responses, and may be clinically effective in certain colorectal cancer patients. PMID:17258887

  17. Molecular genetics of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Julie; Prenen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 90% of colorectal cancer cases are sporadic without family history or genetic predisposition, while in less than 10% a causative genetic event has been identified. Historically, colorectal cancer classification was only based on clinical and pathological features. Many efforts have been made to discover the genetic and molecular features of colorectal cancer, and there is more and more evidence that these features determine the prognosis and response to (targeted) treatment. Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease, with three known major molecular groups. The most common is the chromosomal instable group, characterized by an accumulation of mutations in specific oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. The second is the microsatellite instable group, caused by dysfunction of DNA mismatch repair genes leading to genetic hypermutability. The CpG Island Methylation phenotype is the third group, distinguished by hypermethylation. Colorectal cancer subtyping has also been addressed using genome-wide gene expression profiling in large patient cohorts and recently several molecular classification systems have been proposed. In this review we would like to provide an up-to-date overview of the genetic aspects of colorectal cancer. PMID:24714764

  18. Dietary Flavonoid Intake and Smoking-Related Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Jeongseon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To systematically investigate the effects of dietary flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses on the risk of smoking-related cancer in observational studies. Methods Summary estimates and corresponding standard errors were calculated using the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) and 95% CI of selected studies and weighted by the inverse variance. Results A total of 35 studies, including 19 case-controls (9,525 cases and 15,835 controls) and 15 cohort studies (988,082 subjects and 8,161 cases), were retrieved for the meta-analysis. Total dietary flavonoids and most of the flavonoid subclasses were inversely associated with smoking-related cancer risk (OR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72-0.93). In subgroup analyses by cancer site, significant associations were observed in aerodigestive tract and lung cancers. Total dietary flavonoid intake was significantly associated with aerodigestive tract cancer risk (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.54-0.83) marginally associated with lung cancer risk (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.71-1.00). Subgroup analyses by smoking status showed significantly different results. The intake of total flavonoids, flavonols, flavones, and flavanones, as well as the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol was significantly associated with decreased risk of smoking-related cancer in smokers, whereas no association was observed in non-smokers, except for flavanones. In meta-analysis for the effect of subclasses of dietary flavonoids by cancer type, aerodigestive tract cancer was inversely associated with most flavonoid subclasses. Conclusion The protective effects of flavonoids on smoking-related cancer risk varied across studies, but the overall results indicated that intake of dietary flavonoids, especially flavonols, was inversely associated with smoking-related cancer risk. The protective effects of flavonoids on smoking-related cancer risk were more prominent in smokers. PMID:24069431

  19. MDM2 T309G polymorphism and esophageal cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lei, Caipeng; Zhang, Weiguo; Fan, Junli; Qiao, Bin; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Qin; Zhao, Chunling

    2015-01-01

    Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) has suggested to play an important role in esophageal cancer. The association between MDM2 T309G polymorphism and esophageal cancer risk was inconclusive. To clarify the possible association, we conducted a meta-analysis. We searched in the PubMed, Embase, and Wanfang databases. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association. A total of 6 studies with 4909 cases and controls were included based on the search criteria. The MDM2 T309G polymorphism was associated with a significantly decreased risk of esophageal cancer (OR=0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.96; I(2)=22%). When stratified by type of race, a significantly decreased esophageal cancer risk were observed in Asians (OR=0.85; 95% CI, 0.78-0.93; I(2)=0%). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that MDM2 T309G polymorphism was associated with a significantly decreased risk of esophageal cancer. PMID:26550276

  20. MDM2 T309G polymorphism and esophageal cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Caipeng; Zhang, Weiguo; Fan, Junli; Qiao, Bin; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Qin; Zhao, Chunling

    2015-01-01

    Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) has suggested to play an important role in esophageal cancer. The association between MDM2 T309G polymorphism and esophageal cancer risk was inconclusive. To clarify the possible association, we conducted a meta-analysis. We searched in the PubMed, Embase, and Wanfang databases. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association. A total of 6 studies with 4909 cases and controls were included based on the search criteria. The MDM2 T309G polymorphism was associated with a significantly decreased risk of esophageal cancer (OR=0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.96; I2=22%). When stratified by type of race, a significantly decreased esophageal cancer risk were observed in Asians (OR=0.85; 95% CI, 0.78-0.93; I2=0%). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that MDM2 T309G polymorphism was associated with a significantly decreased risk of esophageal cancer. PMID:26550276

  1. Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses, and Esophageal Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lingling; Liu, Xinxin; Tian, Yalan; Xie, Chen; Li, Qianwen; Cui, Han; Sun, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids have been suggested to play a chemopreventive role in carcinogenesis. However, the epidemiologic studies assessing dietary intake of flavonoids and esophageal cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. This study was designed to examine the association between flavonoids, each flavonoid subclass, and the risk of esophageal cancer with a meta-analysis approach. We searched for all relevant studies with a prospective cohort or case-control study design published from January 1990 to April 2016, using PUBMED, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed or random-effect models. In total, seven articles including 2629 cases and 481,193 non-cases were selected for the meta-analysis. Comparing the highest-intake patients with the lowest-intake patients for total flavonoids and for each flavonoid subclass, we found that anthocyanidins (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.49–0.74), flavanones (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.49–0.86), and flavones (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.64–0.95) were inversely associated with the risk of esophageal cancer. However, total flavonoids showed marginal association with esophageal cancer risk (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59–1.04). In conclusion, our study suggested that dietary intake of total flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavanones, and flavones might reduce the risk of esophageal cancer. PMID:27338463

  2. Systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that dietary cholesterol intake increases risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Changkun; Yang, Li; Zhang, Dongfeng; Jiang, Wenjie

    2016-07-01

    Several epidemiological investigations have been conducted to evaluate the relationship between dietary cholesterol intake and risk of breast cancer, but the results are inconsistent. This meta-analysis was performed to summarize the evidence from observational studies to test the hypothesis that dietary cholesterol intake increases the risk of breast cancer. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched for relevant articles published up to July 2015. Pooled relative risks were calculated with random effects model. Dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline model. Overall, 9 articles involving 6 cohort studies and 3 case-control studies were included in this study. The pooled relative risk with 95% confidence intervals of breast cancer for the highest vs lowest category of dietary cholesterol intake was 1.29 (1.06-1.56). For dose-response analysis, a nonlinear relationship was found between dietary cholesterol and breast cancer, and the association became statistically significant when the cholesterol intake was greater than 370 mg/d. Results from this meta-analysis indicated that dietary cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. PMID:27333953

  3. Correlation between PON1 gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yayuan; Huang, Zemin; Zhang, Xiaohua; Gao, Bo; He, Yujun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A number of studies have investigated the relationship between the PON1 gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk, but the conclusions are not consistent. In this paper, a meta-analysis was conducted to explore the possible reasons for these inconsistencies, expecting to further clarify the correlation between PON1 gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Methods: After searches in the database such as MEDLINE, EBSCO, ProQuest, Google Scholar, High-Wire, SID (Scientific Information Database) and PubMed, 7 literatures were collected. RevMan 5.2 software was used to perform the meta-analysis. Random-effects or fixed-effects model was used to analyze the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. Results: The analysis of L55M single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showed that M allele frequency was positively correlated with the incidence risk of breast cancer (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.03-1.74). While we did not found Q192R polymorphism associated with the risk of breast cancer (OR=1.0, 95% CI: 0.71-1.42). Conclusion: For PON1 gene, the frequencies of M allele were associated with the incidence risk of breast cancer. PMID:26884950

  4. Prognostic value of stromal decorin expression in patients with breast cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuang-Jiang; Chen, Da-Li; Zhang, Wen-Biao; Shen, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Numbers of studies have investigated the biological functions of decorin (DCN) in oncogenesis, tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis. Although many of them aim to highlight the prognostic value of stromal DCN expression in breast cancer, some controversial results still exist and a consensus has not been reached until now. Therefore, our meta-analysis aims to determine the prognostic significance of stromal DCN expression in breast cancer patients. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, the Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were searched for full-text literatures met out inclusion criteria. We applied the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) as the appropriate summarized statistics. Q-test and I2 statistic were employed to estimate the level of heterogeneity across the included studies. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to further identify the possible origins of heterogeneity. The publication bias was detected by Begg’s test and Egger’s test. Results There were three English literatures (involving 6 studies) included into our meta-analysis. On the one hand, both the summarized outcomes based on univariate analysis (HR: 0.513; 95% CI: 0.406-0.648; P<0.001) and multivariate analysis (HR: 0.544; 95% CI: 0.388-0.763; P<0.001) indicated that stromal DCN expression could promise the high cancer-specific survival (CSS) of breast cancer patients. On the other hand, both the summarized outcomes based on univariate analysis (HR: 0.504; 95% CI: 0.389-0.651; P<0.001) and multivariate analysis (HR: 0.568; 95% CI: 0.400-0.806; P=0.002) also indicated that stromal DCN expression was positively associated with high disease-free survival (DFS) of breast cancer patients. No significant heterogeneity or publication bias was observed within this meta-analysis. Conclusions The present evidences indicate that high stromal DCN expression can significantly predict the good prognosis in patients with breast cancer. The

  5. Association between the TERT Genetic Polymorphism rs2853676 and Cancer Risk: Meta-Analysis of 76 108 Cases and 134 215 Controls

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jin-Lin; Yuan, Ping; Abuduwufuer, Abudumailamu; Lv, Wang; Yang, Yun-Hai; Hu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Several recent studies have identified that the TERT genetic polymorphism rs2853676 is associated with cancer risk, but presented inconsistent results. We investigated these inconclusive results by performing a meta-analysis to systematically evaluate the association. Methods We conducted a search in PubMed, Google Scholar and ISI Web of Science to select studies on the association between TERT rs2853676 and cancer risk. We conducted a stratified analysis using cancer type, ethnicity and source of controls. We calculated the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Article quality, heterogeneity, sensitivity, publication bias and statistical power were also assessed. Results 26 articles covering 76 108 cases and 134 215 controls met our inclusion criteria. A significant association between TERT rs2853676 allele A and cancer susceptibility was demonstrated under a per-allele risk analysis (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04-1.13). Stratification analysis revealed an increased cancer risk in subgroups of glioma, lung cancer and ovarian cancer. No significant increase was found in melanoma, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer and colorectal cancer. In a subgroup analysis of lung cancer, a statistically significant increase was only observed in adenocarcinoma. Moreover, a stratified analysis performed for ethnic groups revealed that the significant increase was only observed in Caucasians, whereas a non-significant increase was found in Asians. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that the TERT genetic polymorphism rs2853676 is associated with increased risk of glioma, lung adenocarcinoma and ovarian cancer among Caucasians. Further functional studies are warranted to validate this association and investigate further. PMID:26042809

  6. Dairy consumption and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi; Li, Hui; Xu, Kaiwu; Li, Xin; Hu, Chunlin; Wei, Hongyan; Zeng, Xiaoyun; Jing, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung cancer risk is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between dairy consumption and lung cancer risk. Methods The databases included EMBASE, Medline (PubMed), and Web of Science. The relationship between dairy consumption and lung cancer risk was analyzed by relative risk or odds ratio estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We identified eight prospective cohort studies, which amounted to 10,344 cases and 61,901 participants. Results For milk intake, relative risk was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.76–1.15); heterogeneity was 70.2% (P=0.003). For total dairy product intake, relative risk was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.89–1.03), heterogeneity was 68.4% (P=0.004). Conclusion There was no significant association between dairy consumption and lung cancer risk. PMID:26766916

  7. The Breast-Thyroid Cancer Link: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Sarah M; White, Michael G; Hong, Susan; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Kaplan, Edwin L; Angelos, Peter; Kulkarni, Swati A; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Grogan, Raymon H

    2016-02-01

    Rates of thyroid cancer in women with a history of breast cancer are higher than expected. Similarly, rates of breast cancer in those with a history of thyroid cancer are increased. Explanations for these associations include detection bias, shared hormonal risk factors, treatment effect, and genetic susceptibility. With increasing numbers of breast and thyroid cancer survivors, clinicians should be particularly cognizant of this association. Here, we perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature utilizing PubMed and Scopus search engines to identify all publications studying the incidence of breast cancer as a secondary malignancy following a diagnosis of thyroid cancer or thyroid cancer following a diagnosis of breast cancer. This demonstrated an increased risk of thyroid cancer as a secondary malignancy following breast cancer [OR = 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.44-1.67] and an increased risk of breast cancer as a secondary malignancy following thyroid cancer (OR = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09-1.26). There is a clear increase in the odds of developing either thyroid or breast cancer as a secondary malignancy after diagnosis with the other. Here, we review this association and current hypothesis as to the cause of this correlation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(2); 231-8. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26908594

  8. Incidence of Cancer in ANCA-Associated Vasculitis: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Weifeng; Ning, Yong; Xu, Xiu; Li, Menglan; Guo, Shuiming; Han, Min; Zeng, Rui; Ge, Shuwang; Xu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper is to examine cancer incidence in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AASV) derived from population-based cohort studies by means of meta-analysis. Methods Relevant electronic databases were searched for studies characterizing the associated risk of overall malignancy in patients with AASV. Standardized incidence rates (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the strength of association. We tested for publication bias and heterogeneity and stratified for site-specific cancers. Results Six studies (n = 2,578) were eventually identified, of which six provided the SIR for overall malignancy, five reported the SIR for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), four for leukemia, five for bladder cancer, three for lymphoma, three for liver cancer, four for lung cancer, three for kidney cancer, four for prostate cancer, four for colon cancer and four for breast cancer. Overall, the pooled SIR of cancer in AASV patients was 1.74 (95%CI = 1.37–2.21), with moderate heterogeneity among these studies (I2 = 65.8%, P = 0.012). In sub-analyses for site-specific cancers, NMSC, leukemia and bladder cancer were more frequently observed in patients with AASV with SIR of 5.18 (95%CI = 3.47–7.73), 4.89 (95%CI = 2.93–8.16) and 3.84 (95%CI = 2.72–5.42) respectively. There was no significant increase in the risk of kidney cancer (SIR = 2.12, 95%CI = 0.66–6.85), prostate cancer (SIR = 1.45, 95%CI = 0.87–2.42), colon cancer (SIR = 1.26, 95%CI = 0.70–2.27), and breast cancer (SIR = 0.95, 95%CI = 0.50–1.79). Among these site-specific cancers, only NMSC showed moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 55.8%, P = 0.06). No publication bias was found by using the Begg’s test and Egger's test. Conclusions This meta-analysis shows that AASV patients treatment with cyclophosphamide (CYC) are at increased risk of late-occurring malignancies, particularly of the NMSC, leukemia and bladder cancer. However, there is no significant

  9. Association between Occupational Exposure to Wood Dust and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Sardón, Montserrat; Chamorro, Antonio-J.; Hernández-García, Ignacio; Iglesias-de-Sena, Helena; Martín-Rodero, Helena; Herrera, Cristian; Marcos, Miguel; Mirón-Canelo, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review to analyze the association between occupational exposure to wood dust and cancer. Methods A systematic literature search of entries made in the MEDLINE-PubMed database between 1957 and 2013 was conducted to identify studies that had assessed the relationship between occupational exposure to wood dust and different types of cancer. A meta-analysis of selected case-control and cohort studies was subsequently performed. Results A total of 114 studies were identified and 70 were selected for review. Of these, 42 studies focused on the relationship between wood dust and nasal cancer (n = 22), lung cancer (n = 11), and other types of cancer (n = 9). Low-to-moderate quality evidence that wood dust acts as a carcinogen was obtained, and a stronger association between wood dust and nasal adenocarcinoma was observed. A lesser association between wood dust exposure and lung cancer was also observed. Several studies suggested that there is a relationship between wood dust and the onset of other cancers, although there was no evidence to establish an association. A meta-analysis that included four case-controls studies showed that workers exposed to wood dust exhibited higher rates of nasal adenocarcinoma than other workers (odds ratio = 10.28; 95% confidence interval: 5.92 and 17.85; P<0,0001), although a large degree of heterogeneity was found. Conclusions Low-to-moderate quality evidence supports a causal association between cancer and occupational exposure to wood dust, and this association was stronger for nasal adenocarcinoma than for lung cancer. There was no evidence of an association between wood dust exposure and the other cancers examined. PMID:26191795

  10. Cancer and occupational exposure to inorganic lead compounds: a meta-analysis of published data.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, H; Boffetta, P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To review and summarise the epidemiological evidence on the carcinogenicity of occupational exposure to inorganic lead. METHODS--Case-control and cohort studies were reviewed and combined for meta-analysis. Fixed and random effect methods were used to estimate the summary effects. RESULTS--The combined results show a significant excess risk of overall cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, and bladder cancer, with relative risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) in the meta-analysis of 1.11 (1.05-1.17), 1.33 (1.18-1.49), 1.29 (1.10-1.50), and 1.41 (1.16-1.71) respectively. The RR (95% CI) for kidney cancer was also high, but did not reach significance (1.19 (0.96-1.48)). A separate analysis of studies of heavily exposed workers provided slightly increased RRs for cancers of the stomach (1.50) and lung (1.42). CONCLUSIONS--The findings from the workers with heavy exposure to lead provided some evidence to support the hypothesis of an association between stomach and lung cancer and exposure to lead. The main limitation of the present analysis is that the excess risks do not take account of potential confounders, because little information was available for other occupational exposures, smoking, and dietary habits. To some extent, the risk of lung cancer might be explained by confounders such as tobacco smoking and exposure to other occupational carcinogens. The excess risk of stomach cancer may also be explained, at least in part, by non-occupational factors. For bladder and kidney cancers, the excess risks are only suggestive of a true effect because of possible publication bias. PMID:7757170

  11. Association between two interleukin-2 gene polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Tan, Xiuxiu; Huang, Junjie; Xie, Lijuan; Wang, Hao; Shi, Jizhou; Lu, Wei; Lv, Zhaojie; Mei, Hongbing; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    Background Several epidemiological studies have illustrated that polymorphisms in interleukin-2 (IL-2) were associated with diverse cancer types. However, recently published statistics were inconsistent and inconclusive. Therefore, the current meta-analysis was performed to elaborate the effects of IL-2 polymorphisms (rs2069762 and rs2069763) on cancer susceptibility. Material and methods A total of 5,601 cancer cases and 7,809 controls from 21 published case–control studies were enrolled in our meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the association between IL-2 polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility. Results Our study demonstrated an increased susceptibility to cancer in rs2069762 (G vs T: OR =1.268, 95% CI =1.113–1.445; GG vs TT: OR =1.801, 95% CI =1.289–2.516; GT vs TT: OR =1.250, 95% CI =1.061–1.473; GG + GT vs TT: OR =1.329, 95% CI =1.118–1.579; GG vs GT + TT: OR =1.536, 95% CI =1.162–2.030). In the subgroup analysis, increased susceptibility to cancer was identified in the hospital-based group and PHWE<0.05 (P-value of the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium [HWE]) group. In addition, a positive association with cancer susceptibility was observed among both Chinese and non-Chinese. However, no relationship was detected between the rs2069763 polymorphism of IL-2 and cancer susceptibility. Conclusion To conclude, rs2069762 polymorphism of IL-2 contributed to an increased susceptibility to cancer, whereas no association was identified between rs2069763 polymorphism and cancer susceptibility. Further detailed studies are warranted to confirm our findings. PMID:27143914

  12. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) Polymorphisms and Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, Daye; LIANG, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) Lys469Glu (K469E) polymorphism and Gly 241Arg (G241R) polymorphism might play important roles in cancer development and progression. However, the results of previous studies are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between ICAM-1 K469E and G241R polymorphisms and the risk of cancer by meta-analysis. Methods: A comprehensive literature search (last search updated in November 2013) was conducted to identify case-control studies that investigated the association between ICAM-1 K469E and G241R polymorphisms and cancer risk. Results: A total of 18 case-control studies for ICAM-1 polymorphisms were included in the meta-analysis, including 4,844 cancer cases and 5,618 healthy controls. For K469E polymorphism, no significant association was found between K469E polymorphism and cancer risk. However, subgroup analysis by ethnicity revealed one genetic comparison (GG vs. AA) presented the relationship with cancer risk in Asian subgroup, and two genetic models (GG+GA vs. AA and GA vs. AA) in European subgroup, respectively. For G241R polymorphism, G241R polymorphism was significantly association with cancer risk in overall analysis. The subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed that G241R polymorphism was significantly associated with cancer risk in European subgroup. Conclusion: ICAM-1 G241R polymorphism might be associated with cancer risk, especially in European populations, but the results doesn’t support ICAM-1 K469E polymorphism as a risk factor for cancer. PMID:26284202

  13. Acupuncture for Pain Management in Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Caiqiong; Zhang, Haibo; Wu, Wanyin; Yu, Weiqing; Li, Yong; Bai, Jianping; Luo, Baohua; Li, Shuping

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for cancer-related pain. Methods. A systematic review of literatures published from database inception to February 2015 was conducted in eight databases. RCTs involving acupuncture for treatment of cancer-related pain were identified. Two researchers independently performed article selection, data extraction, and quality assessment of data. Results. 1,639 participants in twenty RCTs were analyzed. All selected RCTs were associated with high risk of bias. Meta-analysis indicated that acupuncture alone did not have superior pain-relieving effects as compared with conventional drug therapy. However, as compared with the drug therapy alone, acupuncture plus drug therapy resulted in increased pain remission rate, shorter onset time of pain relief, longer pain-free duration, and better quality of life without serious adverse effects. However, GRADE analysis revealed that the quality of all outcomes about acupuncture plus drug therapy was very low. Conclusions. Acupuncture plus drug therapy is more effective than conventional drug therapy alone for cancer-related pain. However, multicenter high-quality RCTs with larger sample sizes are needed to provide stronger evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture in cancer-related pain due to the low data quality of the studies included in the current meta-analysis. PMID:26977172

  14. Prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in rectal cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi-wei; Shi, Yan-qiang; He, Li-wen; Su, Pei-zhu

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammatory responses play decisive roles in tumor development, immune surveillance, and responses to therapy. High neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), as an inflammation index, has been reported to be a predictor for poor prognosis of various cancers. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the prognostic value of NLR in patients with rectal cancer. Methods A comprehensive search of the literature was conducted through PubMed and EMBASE. Pooled hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to evaluate the association between NLR and three outcomes: overall survival, disease-free survival, and recurrence-free survival. Results Seven cohorts involving 959 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Our pooled results demonstrated that elevated NLR was associated with poor overall survival (HR: 13.41, 95% CI: 4.90–36.72), disease-free survival (HR: 4.37, 95% CI: 2.33–8.19), and recurrence-free survival (HR: 3.64, 95% CI: 1.88–7.05). Conclusion An elevated NLR is a valuable and easily available prognostic marker for rectal cancer. It is associated with unfavorable overall survival, disease-free survival, and recurrence-free survival. NLR could be a useful candidate factor for making treatment decisions for individual patients with rectal cancer. PMID:27307753

  15. Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Demin; Jing, Lei; Zhang, Suzhan

    2016-05-01

    The objective was to perform a meta-analysis to summarize the available evidence from prospective nested case-control studies on the association of vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism and the risk of breast cancer.We searched PubMed, ISI web of science, EMBASE, and reference lists for included articles. Study specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled by using fixed-effect or random-effects models.Eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. There were no association between Fok1 gene allele contrast f versus F (OR: 0.859; 95%CI: 0.685-1.079), ff versus FF (OR: 0.893; 95%CI: 0.763-1.045), recessive models ff versus FF+Ff (OR: 0.932; 95%CI: 0.796-1.092), and dominant models ff+Ff versus FF (OR: 0.899; 95%CI: 0.780-1.037). The estimated VDR polymorphism showed no significant association between Bsm1, Taq1, Apa1 polymorphism, and breast cancer risk. In the Caucasian ethnic subgroup, no association was found between allele contrast, recessive models, and dominant models on Fok1, Bsm1 polymorphism, and breast cancer risk.VDR polymorphism (Fok1, Bsm1, Taq1, and Apa1) were not associated with the risk of breast cancer in the general population as well as Caucasian population. PMID:27149457

  16. Personal hair dye use and bladder cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Turati, Federica; Pelucchi, Claudio; Galeone, Carlotta; Decarli, Adriano; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2014-02-01

    Despite considerable research, the issue of hair dyes and bladder cancer is still open to discussion. In January 2013, we searched in PubMed/EMBASE to identify observational studies investigating the association between personal use of hair dyes and bladder cancer incidence/mortality. Pooled relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects models. Fifteen case-control and two cohort studies were available for meta-analysis (8504 cases/deaths, 14,102 controls, and 617,937 persons at risk). Compared with no use, the pooled RR of bladder cancer for personal use of any type of hair dyes was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.82-1.05), with moderate heterogeneity among studies (I(2) = 34.1%, P = .07). Similar RRs were found for females (RR = 0.95) and males (RR = 0.81). Based on seven studies, the pooled RR for personal use of permanent hair dyes was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.77-1.09). Compared with no use, no association was observed for the highest categories of duration of use and lifetime frequency of use of both any type of dyes and permanent dyes. The pooled RR from four studies reporting results for use of dark-colored dyes was 1.29 (95% CI, 0.98-1.71). This meta-analysis allows to definitively exclude any appreciable excess risk of bladder cancer among personal hair dye users. PMID:24342029

  17. Coffee Consumption and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: An Update Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Heng-Quan; Wang, Jun-Zhou; Sun, Chang-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objective: The results of epidemiologic studies on the relationship between the coffee consumption and pancreatic cancer risk were inconsistent. Thus, we performed an update meta-analysis of cohort studies to quantitatively summarize the association between coffee consumption and pancreatic cancer risk. Methods: We searched CBM (China Biology Medicine disc) and MEDLINE for studies of coffee consumption and pancreatic cancer risk up to June 2015. A total of 20 cohort studies were identified in this meta-analysis, and we analyzed these studies using random effects model. The dose-response analysis was conducted too. Results: The overall relative risk (RR) for highest coffee consumption versus lowest coffee consumption was 0.75 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.63-0.86). Statistic significant heterogeneity was found among these studies (I2 =37.8%, P for heterogeneity =0.045). The pooled RR for increment of 1 cup/day of coffee consumption was 0.99 (95%CI, 0.96-1.03) for the nine studies, without statistically significant. Conclusions: High coffee consumption is associated with a reduced pancreatic cancer risk. However, the result should be accepted with caution, due to the potential confounder and bias could not be excluded. Further well designed studies are needed to confirm the finding. PMID:27022386

  18. The Prognosis of Breast Cancer Patients after Mastectomy and Immediate Breast Reconstruction: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background An increasing number of patients with breast cancer are being offered immediate breast reconstruction (IBR). The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of IBR on the prognosis of patients with breast cancer. Methods We searched the electronic databases of Medline (Pubmed), ISI Web of Knowledge, Embase, and Google Scholar databases for studies reporting the overall recurrence, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) of patients after mastectomy only and mastectomy with IBR. With these data, we conducted a meta-analysis of the clinical outcomes. Results Fourteen studies, including 3641 cases and 9462 controls, matched our criteria. Relevant information was extracted from these 14 studies. There was no significant heterogeneity (P for Q-statistic > 0.10 and I2 < 25%). Patients who underwent IBR showed no increased risk of overall recurrence of breast cancer (RR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75, 1.04; P = 0.14). Furthermore, patients receiving IBR had similar DFS (RR = 1.04; 95%CI: 0.99, 1.08); P = 0.10) and OS (RR = 1.02; 95%CI: 0.99, 1.05; P = 0.24)) as those of control patients. Conclusion This meta-analysis provides evidence that IBR does not have an adverse effect on prognosis. These data suggest that IBR is an appropriate and safe choice for patients with breast cancer. PMID:26024490

  19. Meta-Analysis of Gene Expression Signatures Defining the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition during Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Gröger, Christian J.; Grubinger, Markus; Waldhör, Thomas; Vierlinger, Klemens; Mikulits, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) represents a crucial event during cancer progression and dissemination. EMT is the conversion of carcinoma cells from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype that associates with a higher cell motility as well as enhanced chemoresistance and cancer stemness. Notably, EMT has been increasingly recognized as an early event of metastasis. Numerous gene expression studies (GES) have been conducted to obtain transcriptome signatures and marker genes to understand the regulatory mechanisms underlying EMT. Yet, no meta-analysis considering the multitude of GES of EMT has been performed to comprehensively elaborate the core genes in this process. Here we report the meta-analysis of 18 independent and published GES of EMT which focused on different cell types and treatment modalities. Computational analysis revealed clustering of GES according to the type of treatment rather than to cell type. GES of EMT induced via transforming growth factor-β and tumor necrosis factor-α treatment yielded uniformly defined clusters while GES of models with alternative EMT induction clustered in a more complex fashion. In addition, we identified those up- and downregulated genes which were shared between the multitude of GES. This core gene list includes well known EMT markers as well as novel genes so far not described in this process. Furthermore, several genes of the EMT-core gene list significantly correlated with impaired pathological complete response in breast cancer patients. In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides a comprehensive survey of available EMT expression signatures and shows fundamental insights into the mechanisms that are governing carcinoma progression. PMID:23251436

  20. Dietary fiber intake and pancreatic cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun-Hui; Qiao, Chong; Wang, Ruo-Chen; Zhou, Wen-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on the association between dietary fiber intake and pancreatic cancer risk has been controversial. Therefore, we carried out this meta-analysis to summarize available evidence from epidemiologic studies on this point. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases as well as by reviewing the rence lists of relevant articles. Random or fixed-effects model was used to calculate the summary risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). This meta-analysis included one cohort and thirteen case-control studies which involving a total of 3287 subjects with pancreatic cancer. After summarizing the risk estimates of these studies, we yielded a significant association between dietary fiber intake and pancreatic cancer risk among case-control studies (odds ratio = 0.54; 95%CI = 0.44–0.67; I2 = 41.4%; P = 0.043) but a non-significant result in cohort study (hazard ratio = 1.01; 95%CI = 0.59–1.74). Additionally, significant inverse associations were observed when we carried out the stratify analyses by the study characteristics and adjustment for potential confounders among case-control studies. Given only one cohort study included in the present meta-analysis, further prospective-designed studies should validate our findings and report more detail results, including those for subtypes of fiber, the risk estimates which corrected the impact of measurement errors and fully adjust for the potential confounders. PMID:26035410

  1. [Tumor markers for colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, H; Miyake, Y; Noura, S; Ogawa, M; Yasui, M; Ikenaga, M; Sekimoto, M; Monden, M

    2001-09-01

    CEA and CA19-9 are the two most common tumor markers for colorectal cancer that are currently utilized clinically. The positive rate of CEA is 40-60% and that of CA19-9 is 30-50%. Simultaneous use of the two markers is useful in evaluating the therapeutic effect and monitoring the recurrence of advanced colorectal cancer. Surgical specimens may also provide useful information for the appropriate treatment of patients. Using surgically resected lymph nodes, we examined micrometastasis to assess the spread of the cancer cells and the malignant potential of colorectal cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis using anti-cytokeratin antibody revealed no significant impact of micrometastasis on patient prognosis, while RT-PCR assay using CEA as a genetic marker suggested a positive value in predicting a rapid recurrence. Among various molecular markers, we found that CDC25B phosphatase was a powerful prognostic factor for colorectal cancer. Diagnosis of the existence and malignant potential of cancer cells, together with serum tumor marker levels, may help to construct a more useful system for the better treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:11579645

  2. Survivorship Care Plan in Promoting Physical Activity in Breast or Colorectal Cancer Survivors in Wisconsin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-19

    Cancer Survivor; Healthy Subject; Stage I Colorectal Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer

  3. The polymorphisms in the MGMT gene and the risk of cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Du, Liang; Wang, Haichuan; Xiong, Tianyuan; Ma, Yaxian; Yang, Jiqiao; Huang, Jichong; Zeng, Dong; Wang, Xiaoze; Huang, He; Huang, Jin

    2013-10-01

    Polymorphisms in the MGMT gene have been implicated in susceptibility to cancer, but the published studies have reported inconclusive results. The objective of the current study was to investigate the genetic risk of polymorphisms in the MGMT gene for cancer. A meta-analysis was carried out to analyze the association between polymorphisms in the MGMT gene and cancer risk. Five polymorphisms (Leu84Phe, Leu53Leu, Ile143Val, Lys178Arg, and -485C/A) with 98 case-control studies from 49 articles were analyzed. The results indicated that individuals who carried the Phe/Phe homozygote genotype of Leu84Phe had a 31 % increased risk of cancer compared with the Leu allele (Leu + Leu/Phe) carriers (odds ratio [OR] = 1.32, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.15-1.52, P < 0.0001 for Phe/Phe vs. Phe/Leu + Leu/Leu). However, there was no significant association between the risk of cancer and the other four polymorphisms (Leu53Leu, Ile143Val, Lys178Arg, and -485C/A). In further stratified analyses for the Leu84Phe and Ile143Val polymorphisms, the increased risk of cancer remained in subgroups of Caucasians, patients with esophageal cancer for the Leu84Phe polymorphism, and patients with lung cancer for the Ile143Val polymorphism. Results from the current meta-analysis suggested that Leu84Phe and Ile143Val in the MGMT gene are risk factors for cancer. In the future, more studies should be performed to validate our results. PMID:23760981

  4. Prognostic value of caveolin-1 in genitourinary cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Cheng, Si-Hang; Liu, Xiao-Xiao; Xia, Chao; Wang, Wei-Wen; Ma, Xue-Lei

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to obtain the most comprehensive picture to date of the prognostic value of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) in genitourinary carcinoma by meta-analyzing all eligible studies in PubMed and EMBASE. Data on patient clinical characteristics, cancer-specific survival (CSS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were extracted. The meta-analysis included 6 articles on prostate cancer, 5 on renal cancer, 1 on bladder cancer and 1 on transition cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Two studies examining the association of ELISA-measured Cav-1 levels in serum with RFS in 621 patients with prostate cancer gave a combined hazard ratio (HR) of 1.25 (95% CI 0.36 to 4.36). The other 4 studies on prostate cancer examined the association of immunohistochemically determined Cav-1 levels in cancerous tissue with RFS and gave a combined HR of 1.83 (95% CI 1.36 to 2.47). Three studies on renal cancer examining the association of Cav-1 levels with CSS gave a multivariate HR of 1.98 (95% CI 1.35 to 2.90). The single studies on bladder carcinoma and upper urinary tract carcinoma gave, respectively, a multivariate HR of 2.28 (95% CI 1.09 to 4.74) for the relationship of Cav-1 levels to DFS, and a multivariate HR of 5.08 (95% CI 1.799 to 14.342) for the relationship of Cav-1 levels to CSS. This meta-analysis of available evidence suggests that elevated Cav-1 levels in serum can predict poor survival in patients with genitourinary cancer, which may help identify high-risk patients earlier and guide clinical decision-making. PMID:26884999

  5. Effects of Serum Triglycerides on Prostate Cancer and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong-Qun; Cui, Lian-Hua; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Yu, Zhuang; Piao, Jin-Mei

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological studies show conflicting results regarding the link between serum triglyceride and the risk of prostate cancer and breast cancer. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of prospective studies to clarify this association. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database to identify relevant prospective studies of the relationship between serum triglyceride and prostate cancer and breast cancer risk. Study-specific estimates adjusting for potential confounders were combined to evaluate a summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using a fixed- or random-effects model. A total of 11 prospective studies (619,410 subjects and 15,691 incident prostate cancer patients) and 8 prospective studies (590,878 subjects and 12,177 incident breast cancer patients) were respectively included in our meta-analysis to assess the associations of serum triglyceride with prostate cancer and breast cancer risk. The pooled adjusted RR estimates for prostate cancer and breast cancer for the highest versus the lowest exposure levels of serum triglycerides were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.87-1.04) and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.87-1.00), respectively. Additionally, a dose-response analysis revealed that serum levels of triglycerides were not associated with the risk of prostate cancer and breast cancer. We found that serum triglyceride was not related to the risk of prostate cancer and breast cancer. PMID:27618148

  6. MGMT Leu84Phe gene polymorphism and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhi-xiong; Xue, Fei; Shi, Xuan-feng; He, Xiao; Ma, Hui-ni; Chen, Lan; Chen, Pin-zhong

    2014-05-01

    Many studies have examined the association between the MGMT Leu84Phe polymorphism gene polymorphisms and lung cancer risk in various populations, but their results have been inconsistent. To assess this relationship more precisely, a meta-analysis was performed. The PubMed and CNKI database was searched for case-control studies published up to Nov. 2013. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Ultimately, 7 studies, comprising 3,094 lung cancer cases and 4,216 controls, were included. Overall, for (Phe/Phe+Phe/Leu) versus Leu/Leu, the pooled OR for all studies was 1.08 (95% CI = 0.97-1.21 P = 0.518 for heterogeneity); for Phe/Phe versus Leu/Leu and Phe versus Leu, the pooled OR was 1.10 (95% CI = 0.99-1.21 P = 0.445 for heterogeneity) and 1.46 (95% CI = 1.05-2.02 P = 0.352 for heterogeneity), respectively. In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, significantly risks were found among Caucasians not in Asians. This meta-analysis suggests that the MGMT Leu84Phe polymorphisms are associated with lung cancer risk among Caucasians not in Asians. PMID:24390665

  7. Tea and Coffee Consumption and Risk of Laryngeal Cancer: A Systematic Review Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiangbo; Long, Shuo

    2014-01-01

    Background Tea and coffee are the most commonly consumed beverages in the worldwide. The relationship between tea and coffee consumption on the risk of laryngeal cancer was still unclear. Methods Relevant studies were identified by searching electronic database (Medline and EMBASE) and reviewing the reference lists of relevant articles until Oct. 2013. Observational studies that reported RRs and 95% CIs for the link of tea and coffee consumption on the risk of laryngeal cancer were eligible. A meta-analysis was obtained to combine study-specific RRs with a random-effects model. Results A total of 2,803 cases and 503,234 controls in 10 independent studies were identified. The overall analysis of all 10 studies, including the case-control and cohort studies, found that tea drinking was not associated with laryngeal carcinoma (RR = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.66–1.61). However, coffee consumption was significantly associated with the laryngeal carcinoma (RR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.03–2.11). A dose-response relationship between coffee intake and laryngeal carcinoma was detected; however, no evidence of dose-response link between tea consumption and laryngeal carcinoma risk was detected. Conclusions The results from this meta-analysis of observational studies demonstrate that coffee consumption would increase the laryngeal cancer risk, while tea intake was not associated with risk of laryngeal carcinoma. PMID:25502726

  8. Association between three exonuclease 1 polymorphisms and cancer risks: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zi-Yu; Zheng, Si-Rong; Zhong, Jie-Hui; Zhuang, Xiao-Duan; Zhou, Jue-Yu

    2016-01-01

    To date, the results of studies exploring the relation between exonuclease 1 (Exo1) polymorphisms and cancer risks have differed. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the effect of the three most extensively studied Exo1 polymorphisms (Pro757Leu, Glu589Lys, and Glu670Gly) on cancer susceptibility. The related studies published before August 5, 2015, were collected by searching the PubMed and EMBASE databases. We found 16 publications containing studies that were eligible for our study, including 10 studies for Pro757Leu polymorphism (4,093 cases and 3,834 controls), 12 studies for Glu589Lys polymorphism (6,479 cases and 6,550 controls), and 7 studies for Glu670Gly polymorphism (3,700 cases and 3,496 controls). Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the strength of the associations, and all the statistical analyses were calculated using the software program STATA version 12.0. Our results revealed that the Pro757Leu polymorphism was significantly associated with a reduced cancer risk, whereas an inverse association was found for the Glu589Lys polymorphism. Furthermore, subgroup analysis of smoking status indicated that the Glu589Lys polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased cancer risk in smokers, but not in nonsmokers. However, no evidence was found for an association between the Glu670Gly polymorphism and cancer risk. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that the Pro757Leu polymorphism may provide protective effects against cancer, while the Glu589Lys polymorphism may be a risk factor for cancer. Moreover, the Glu670Gly polymorphism may have no influence on cancer susceptibility. In the future, large-scaled and well-designed studies are needed to achieve a more precise and comprehensive result. PMID:26966378

  9. The association between BMI and cervical cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Poorolajal, Jalal; Jenabi, Ensiyeh

    2016-05-01

    The association between BMI and cervical cancer risk is not clear. This meta-analysis was carried out to estimate the association between overweight and obesity and cervical cancer risk. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, LILACS, and SciELO for observational studies addressing the association between BMI and cervical cancer until February 2015. Data were independently extracted and analyzed using odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), on the basis of random-effects models. We identified a total of 3543 references and included nine studies with 128 233 participants. On the basis of the results of case-control and cohort studies, the association between cervical cancer and overweight was estimated to be 1.03 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.25) and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.17), respectively. According to the results of case-control and cohort studies, the association between cervical cancer and obesity was estimated to be 1.40 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.71) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.52), respectively. No evidence of heterogeneity and publication bias was observed. The findings from this meta-analysis indicate that overweight is not associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer, but obesity is weakly associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer. However, more evidence, based on large prospective cohort studies, is required to provide conclusive evidence on whether or not BMI is associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer. PMID:25932869

  10. Sweetened carbonated beverage consumption and cancer risk: meta-analysis and review.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Peter; Koechlin, Alice; Autier, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    There is speculation on an association between sweetened, carbonated beverage consumption and cancer risk. This study aimed to examine this issue. Over 50 independent estimates of risk were available, 11 for colas specifically. A random-effects meta-analysis was carried out with tests for publication bias performed as well as Higgins and Thompson's I measure of the percentage of heterogeneity between studies that could not be explained by chance. Over all the different sites of cancer, the summary relative risk (SRR), when all 55 independent estimates were considered together, was SRR=1.03 [95% confidence interval (0.96; 1.11)]. When individual cancer sites were considered, there was no significant increase or decrease in the meta-analysis estimate of risk of cancer of the pancreas, bladder, kidney, squamous cell or adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus, colon, gastric cardia, gastric noncardia, prostate, breast, larynx and ovary or of the oral cavity, pharynx or glioma. There was no evidence in a sensitivity analysis from those studies that reported results separately for colas of an associated risk of pancreas cancer [SRR=1.00, 95% confidence interval (0.61; 1.65)]. The results for all other forms of cancers were considerably hampered by poor methodology and small numbers of studies (mainly one report on each cancer site studied). Overall, the findings are reassuring in terms of the association between soft drinks, including colas, and cancer risk, although the quality of many of the studies is quite poor by acceptable, modern standards and no study has been carried out with use of carbonated beverages as a primary hypothesis. PMID:24625472

  11. Physical activity for cancer survivors: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Daniel Y T; Hui, Bryant P H; Lee, Antoinette M; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Leung, Sharron S K; Cerin, Ester; Chan, Wynnie Y Y; Leung, Ivy P F; Taylor, Aliki J; Cheng, Kar-keung

    2012-01-01

    Objective To systematically evaluate the effects of physical activity in adult patients after completion of main treatment related to cancer. Design Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials with data extraction and quality assessment performed independently by two researchers. Data sources Pubmed, CINAHL, and Google Scholar from the earliest possible year to September 2011. References from meta-analyses and reviews. Study selection Randomised controlled trials that assessed the effects of physical activity in adults who had completed their main cancer treatment, except hormonal treatment. Results There were 34 randomised controlled trials, of which 22 (65%) focused on patients with breast cancer, and 48 outcomes in our meta-analysis. Twenty two studies assessed aerobic exercise, and four also included resistance or strength training. The median duration of physical activity was 13 weeks (range 3-60 weeks). Most control groups were considered sedentary or were assigned no exercise. Based on studies on patients with breast cancer, physical activity was associated with improvements in insulin-like growth factor-I, bench press, leg press, fatigue, depression, and quality of life. When we combined studies on different types of cancer, we found significant improvements in body mass index (BMI), body weight, peak oxygen consumption, peak power output, distance walked in six minutes, right handgrip strength, and quality of life. Sources of study heterogeneity included age, study quality, study size, and type and duration of physical activity. Publication bias did not alter our conclusions. Conclusions Physical activity has positive effects on physiology, body composition, physical functions, psychological outcomes, and quality of life in patients after treatment for breast cancer. When patients with cancer other than breast cancer were also included, physical activity was associated with reduced BMI and body weight, increased peak oxygen consumption and peak power

  12. Association between Breastfeeding and Endometrial Cancer Risk: Evidence from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lianlian; Li, Jingxi; Shi, Zhan

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of the association between breastfeeding and risk of endometrial cancer is still conflicting. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between breastfeeding and endometrial cancer risk. Pertinent studies were identified by a search of PubMed and Web of Knowledge through April 2015. A random effect model was used to combine the data for analysis. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias were conducted. Dose-response relationships were assessed by restricted cubic spline and variance-weighted least squares regression analysis. Fourteen articles involving 5158 endometrial cancer cases and 706,946 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled results suggested that breastfeeding significantly reduced the risk of endometrial cancer (summary relative risk (RR): 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62–0.96, I2: 63.0%), especially in North America (summary RR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.79–0.95). A linear dose-response relationship was found, with the risk of endometrial cancer decreased by 2% for every one-month increase in the duration of breastfeeding (summary RR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97–0.99). Our analysis suggested that breastfeeding, particularly a longer duration of breastfeeding, was inversely associated with the risk of endometrial cancer, especially in North America, but not in Europe and Asia, probably due to the small number of cases included. Due to this limitation, further studies originating in other countries are required to assess the association between breastfeeding and endometrial cancer risk. PMID:26184301

  13. Environmental Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingwen; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Lin, Kun; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Association between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and breast cancer risk has been widely studied, but the results remain controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the evidences from observational studies on PCB exposure and breast cancer risk. Methods Relevant studies with data on internal PCB dose were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, CBM and CNKI databases through November 2014. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were applied to assess the association between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk. Heterogeneity test, sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis and publication bias test were also performed. To further explore the association between specific groups of PCB congeners and breast cancer, we examined the PCB congeners classified, according to their structural, biological and pharmacokinetics properties, as group I (potentially estrogenic), group II (potentially anti-estrogenic and immunotoxic, dioxin-like), and group III (phenobarbital, CYP1A and CYP2B inducers, biologically persistent). Results Of 660 studies screened, 25 studies which met criteria were selected, involving a total of 12866 participants (6088 cases and 6778 controls) from eight countries. The results showed that the risk of breast cancer was associated with group II (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.08–1.40) and group III (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09–1.43) PCBs, but not with group I (OR = 1.10, 95%CI: 0.97–1.24) PCBs or total PCB exposure (OR = 1.09, 95%CI: 0.97–1.22). Conclusions Our meta-analysis based on the selected studies found group II and group III PCB exposure might contribute to the risk of breast cancer. More studies in developing countries with higher PCB levels are needed, as well as studies to explore the relationships between mixtures of organochlorine compounds and breast cancer risk. PMID:26555153

  14. The Association between Leptin Level and Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Weiheng; Shao, Liang; Liu, Yi; Wang, Liqin

    2013-01-01

    Background Contradictory results have been reported regarding the association between leptin level and breast cancer. Therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to investigate this issue. Methods Published literature from PubMed and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) Database was retrieved. This study was performed based on different cases and control groups. The combined effect () with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using fixed-effects or random-effects model analysis. Results Overall, the mean serum leptin level of case groups was significantly higher than that of control groups. A) For 9 studies comparing breast cancer cases and healthy controls the combined effect was 0.58 with 95% CI (0.48, 0.68). B) For 4 studies comparing premenopausal breast cancer cases and healthy controls the was 0.32 (0.12, 0.52). C) For 5 studies comparing postmenopausal cases and healthy controls the was 0.65 (0.46, 0.84). D) For 4 studies comparing breast cancer cases and breast benign controls the was 0.38 (0.17, 0.59). E) For 2 studies comparing premenopausal breast cancer cases and breast benign controls the was 0.33 (-0.25, 0.91). F) For 6 studies comparing postmenopausal breast cancer cases and breast benign controls the was 0.39 (0.19, 0.60). G) For 4 studies comparing lymph node metastasis positive cases and negative controls the was 0.72 (0.45, 1.00). H) For 3 studies comparing breast benign cases and healthy controls the was 0.71 (0.41, 1.01). Conclusion This meta-analysis suggests that leptin level plays a role in breast cancer and has potential for development as a diagnostic tool. PMID:23826274

  15. Physical activity and risk of pancreatic cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Gundula; Jochem, Carmen; Schmid, Daniela; Keimling, Marlen; Ricci, Cristian; Leitzmann, Michael F

    2015-04-01

    Physical activity may prevent pancreatic cancer by regulating body weight and decreasing insulin resistance, DNA damage, and chronic inflammation. Previous meta-analyses found inconsistent evidence for a protective effect of physical activity on pancreatic cancer but those studies did not investigate whether the association between physical activity and pancreatic cancer varies by smoking status, body mass index (BMI), or level of consistency of physical activity over time. To address these issues, we conducted an updated meta-analysis following the PRISMA guidelines among 30 distinct studies with a total of 10,501 pancreatic cancer cases. Random effects meta-analysis of cohort studies revealed a weak, statistically significant reduction in pancreatic cancer risk for high versus low levels of physical activity (relative risk (RR) 0.93, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.88-0.98). By comparison, case-control studies yielded a stronger, statistically significant risk reduction (RR 0.78, 95 % CI 0.66-0.94; p-difference by study design = 0.07). When focusing on cohort studies, physical activity summary risk estimates appeared to be more pronounced for consistent physical activity over time (RR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.76-0.97) than for recent past physical activity (RR 0.95, 95 % CI 0.90-1.01) or distant past physical activity (RR 0.95, 95 % CI 0.79-1.15, p-difference by timing in life of physical activity = 0.36). Physical activity summary risk estimates did not differ by smoking status or BMI. In conclusion, physical activity is not strongly associated with pancreatic cancer risk, and the relation is not modified by smoking status or BMI level. While overall findings were weak, we did find some suggestion of potential pancreatic cancer risk reduction with consistent physical activity over time. PMID:25773752

  16. Metformin therapy and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gang-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Luo, Zhen-Gang; Yan, Jia-Jun; Pan, Shou-Hua; Ying, Xiang-Rong; Pan, Jian-Gang; Zhang, Guan-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Several observational studies have shown that metformin therapy may modify the risk of prostate cancer. We carried out a meta-analysis of relevant studies evaluating the effect of metformin therapy on prostate cancer risk. Methods: We searched pubmed database (January 1966-February 2014) for case-control and cohort studies that assessed metformin therapy and prostate cancer risk. Two authors independently assessed eligibility and extracted data. Summary RRs was calculated using fixed-effects model or random-effects model. Heterogeneity among studies was examined using Q and I2 statistics. Results: We included six cohort studies and four case-control studies in the present meta-analysis, comprising 863,769 participants and 39,073 prostate cancer cases. The pooled RR of prostate cancer in relation to metformin therapy was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.84-1.02, P = 0.112). When we stratified the various studies by study type, we found that metformin therapy was associated with a significant reduced risk of prostate cancer among cohort studies (RR = 0.92, 95% CI [0.87, 0.96], P<0.001); however, no significant association was detected among case-control studies (RR = 0.95, 95% CI [0.78, 1.16], P = 0.632). There was also no indication of publication bias as suggested by Begg’s test (P = 0.421) and Egger’s test (P = 0.627). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that metformin therapy is not significantly associated with lower prostate cancer risk. PMID:26550231

  17. Myeloperoxidase Polymorphism, Menopausal Status, and Breast Cancer Risk: An Update Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Qi-Liu; Huang, Xiu-Li; Mo, Cui-Ju; Li, Shan; Zhao, Jin-Min

    2013-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a metabolic/oxidative lysosomal enzyme secreted by reactive neutrophils at the sites of inflamed organs and tissues during phagocytosis. MPO has been either directly or indirectly linked to neoplasia, which is a well-established risk factor for many types of cancer. A large number of studies have reported the role of MPO G-463A polymorphism regarding breast-cancer risk. However, the published findings are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to determine more precise estimations for the relationship. Eligible studies were identified by searching several electronic databases for relevant reports published before June 2012. According to the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria, a total of five eligible studies were included in the pooled analyses. When the five eligible studies concerning MPO G-463A polymorphism were pooled into this meta-analysis, there was no evidence found for a significant association between MPO G-463A polymorphism and breast-cancer risk in any genetic model. We also categorized by ethnicity (Caucasian or Asian) for subgroup analysis; according to this subgroup analysis, we found no significant association between MPO G-463A polymorphism and breast-cancer risk in any genetic model. However, in the stratified analysis for the premenopausal group, women carrying the AA genotype were found to have a significantly reduced risk (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.34–0.94, p = 0.027). Under the recessive model, there was a significant association between MPO G-463A polymorphism and breast-cancer risk (OR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.34–0.93, p = 0.025). We conclude that MPO-G463A polymorphism might not be a good predictor of breast-cancer risk, though menopausal status modified women’s risk of developing breast cancer. PMID:23991124

  18. The association between physical activity and gastroesophageal cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Gundula; Jochem, Carmen; Keimling, Marlen; Ricci, Cristian; Schmid, Daniela; Leitzmann, Michael Fred

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity may decrease gastroesophageal cancer risk through a reduction of oxidative stress and decreased chronic inflammation, yet few epidemiologic studies have been able to report a clear inverse association between physical activity and gastroesophageal cancer. Because no meta-analysis has investigated the relation of physical activity to gastroesophageal cancer, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis according to the PRISMA guidelines based on 24 studies with a total of 15,745 cases. When we compared high versus low physical activity levels and summarized associations according to anatomic site and tumor histology, risk reductions were evident for esophageal adenocarcinoma [relative risk (RR) = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.66-0.94], gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.69-0.99) and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (RR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.62-0.84). The risk reduction for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (RR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.41-2.16) became statistically significant (RR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.46-0.96) after excluding an influential study. The test for heterogeneity by gastroesophageal cancer subtype was statistically non-significant (p-difference = 0.71). The RR of total gastroesophageal cancer for high versus low physical activity was 0.82 (95% CI = 0.74-0.90). A dose-response analysis of frequency of physical activity and total gastroesophageal cancer risk revealed that the greatest risk reduction was achieved among those engaging in moderate to vigorous physical activity five times per week (RR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.58-0.79). Our results provide support for an inverse relation of physical activity, in particular exercise frequency, to gastroesophageal cancer risk. PMID:24705782

  19. Distress in Couples Coping with Cancer: A Meta-Analysis and Critical Review of Role and Gender Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedoorn, Mariet; Sanderman, Robbert; Bolks, Hilde N.; Tuinstra, Jolanda; Coyne, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Research concerning distress in couples coping with cancer was integrated using meta-analysis and narrative critical appraisal. Individual levels of distress were determined more by gender than by the role of being the person with cancer versus that person's partner. That is, women reported consistently more distress than men regardless of their…

  20. Efficacy of Vitamin C Supplements in Prevention of Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bobae; Oh, Seung-Won

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported inconsistent findings regarding the association between vitamin C supplementation and the risk of cancer. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of RCTs to investigate the efficacy of vitamin C supplements for prevention of cancer. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases in November 2014 using common keywords related to vitamin C supplements and cancer. Results Among 785 articles, a total of seven trials were identified, which included 62,619 participants; 31,326 and 31,293 were randomized to vitamin C supplementation and control or placebo groups, respectively, which were included in the final analysis. A fixed-effects meta-analysis of all seven RCTs revealed no significant association between vitamin C supplementation and cancer (relative risk, 1.00; 95% confidence intervals, 0.95-1.05). Similarly, subgroup meta-analysis by dose of vitamin C administered singly or in combination with other supplements, follow-up period, methodological quality, cancer mortality, gender, smoking status, country, and type of cancer also showed no efficacy of vitamin C supplementation for cancer prevention. Conclusion This meta-analysis shows that there is no evidence to support the use of vitamin C supplements for prevention of cancer. PMID:26634093

  1. Colorectal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing colorectal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  2. IL-1α -889 C/T polymorphism and cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Daye; Hao, Yiwen; Zhou, Wenling

    2014-01-01

    The -889 C/T polymorphism in the interleukin-1α (IL-1α) gene has been implicated in the risk of cancer, but the results are inconclusive. The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between the -889 C/T polymorphism and cancer risk. A literature search in PubMed, Embase™, Web of Science™, Science Direct®, SpringerLink, EBSCO, Wanfang, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases was carried out to identify studies investigating the association between IL-1α -889 C/T polymorphism and cancer risk. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the strength of association. A total of 20 publications, involving 6,782 cases and 7,767 controls, were included in this meta-analysis. Combined analysis revealed a significant association between -889 C/T polymorphism and cancer risk under an allele model (OR =1.12, 95% CI =1.02–1.24, P=0.02), recessive model (OR =1.34, 95% CI =1.06–1.68, P=0.01), and homozygous comparison (OR =1.38, 95% CI =1.10–1.74, P<0.01). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed there was significant association between cancer risk and IL-1α -889C/T polymorphism in Asian populations under a recessive model (OR =2.57, 95% CI =1.11–5.98, P=0.03) and homozygous comparison (OR =2.60, 95% CI =1.12–6.04, P=0.03). Moreover, a subgroup analysis was conducted by source of control, and a statistically increased cancer risk was found in the hospital-based group, under a recessive model (OR =1.62, 95% CI =1.03–2.56, P=0.04) and homozygous comparison (OR =1.67, 95% CI =1.04–2.68, P=0.03). This meta-analysis suggests that IL-1α -889 C/T polymorphism contributes to cancer susceptibility. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm this association. PMID:25419144

  3. Association between ATM polymorphisms and cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li; Yin, Zhi-Hua; Wan, Yan; Zhang, Yue; Li, Kun; Zhou, Bao-Sen

    2012-05-01

    To date, epidemiological studies have assessed the association between Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene polymorphisms and cancer risk, including lung cancer, breast cancer, glioma and pancreatic cancer. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. We aimed to examine the associations between two SNPs (rs664143 and rs664677) and cancer risk by conducting a meta-analysis of case-control studies. A total of 12 publications were included in this meta-analysis, 8 for rs664143 and 7 for rs664677. Overall, rs664143 heterozygote carriers turned out to be associated with cancer risk (OR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.02-1.36). In the subgroup analysis by cancer type, we observed that the ATM rs664143 polymorphism was significantly associated with lung cancer risk (GA vs. GG: OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.18-1.85, AA vs. GG: OR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.18-1.93) and rs664677 polymorphism was associated with decreased lung cancr risk and increased breast cancer risk (for lung cancer: TC vs. TT: OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.62-0.92, CC vs. TT: OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.64-0.99 and for breast cancer: TC vs. TT: OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.17-1.73, CC vs. TT: OR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.21-1.87). In the subgroup analysis by region, we also observed that individuals with ATM rs664143 GA or AA genotype had an obvious increased cancer risk among Asian people (GA vs. GG: OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.20-1.63, AA vs. GG: OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.16-1.62). In conclusion, ATM rs664143 polymorphism was associated with cancer susceptibility. ATM rs664143 polymorphism was significantly associated with lung cancer risk. ATM rs664677 polymorphism was associated with decreased lung cancer risk as well as increased breast cancer risk. PMID:22203481

  4. Association between MGMT Promoter Methylation and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Changmei; Lu, Jiachun; Cui, Tianpen; Lu, Cheng; Shi, Hao; Xu, Wenmao; Yuan, Xueli; Yang, Xiaobo; Huang, Yangxin; Lu, Meixia

    2013-01-01

    Background O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is one of most important DNA repair enzyme against common carcinogens such as alkylate and tobacco. Aberrant promoter methylation of the gene is frequently observed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the importance of epigenetic inactivation of the gene in NSCLC published in the literature showed inconsistence. We quantified the association between MGMT promoter methylation and NSCLC using a meta-analysis method. Methods We systematically reviewed studies of MGMT promoter methylation and NSCLC in PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid, ISI Web of Science, Elsevier and CNKI databases and quantified the association between MGMT promoter methylation and NSCLC using meta-analysis method. Odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to evaluate the strength of association. Potential sources of heterogeneity were assessed by subgroup analysis and meta-regression. Results A total of 18 studies from 2001 to 2011, with 1, 160 tumor tissues and 970 controls, were involved in the meta-analysis. The frequencies of MGMT promote methylation ranged from 1.5% to 70.0% (median, 26.1%) in NSCLC tissue and 0.0% to 55.0% (median, 2.4%) in non-cancerous control, respectively. The summary of OR was 4.43 (95% CI: 2.85, 6.89) in the random-effects model. With stratification by potential source of heterogeneity, the OR was 20.45 (95% CI: 5.83, 71.73) in heterogeneous control subgroup, while it was 4.16 (95% CI: 3.02, 5.72) in the autologous control subgroup. The OR was 5.31 (95% CI: 3.00, 9.41) in MSP subgroup and 3.06 (95% CI: 1.75, 5.33) in Q-MSP subgroup. Conclusion This meta-analysis identified a strong association between methylation of MGMT gene and NSCLC. Prospective studies should be required to confirm the results in the future. PMID:24086261

  5. Does salmon calcitonin cause cancer? A review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wells, G; Chernoff, J; Gilligan, J P; Krause, D S

    2016-01-01

    Recently an association between the use of calcitonin and cancer has been postulated. We reviewed the biological rationale and performed an additional analysis of historical data with respect to the possibility. An association cannot be excluded, but the relationship is weak and causality is unlikely. The purpose of the present study is to review the strength of association and likelihood of a causal relationship between use of calcitonin and cancer. We reviewed the evidence for this association, including the molecular signaling mechanisms of calcitonin, preclinical data, an "experiment of nature," and the results of a previous meta-analysis which showed a weak association. We performed an additional meta-analysis to incorporate the data from a novel investigational oral formulation of salmon calcitonin. Review of the literature did not identify a cellular signaling mechanism of action which might account for a causal relationship or toxicologic or postmarketing data to support the thesis. Additional clinical results incorporated into previous meta-analyses weakened but did not completely negate the possibility of association. A causal association between calcitonin use and malignancy is unlikely, as there is little biological plausibility. The preponderance of nonclinical and clinical evidence also does not favor a causal relationship. PMID:26438308

  6. Breastfeeding and ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies1234

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qi-Jun; Gong, Ting-Ting; Vogtmann, Emily; Wang, Yong-Lai; Lin, Bei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies have yielded inconsistent findings between breastfeeding and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. Objective: We performed a meta-analysis to summarize available evidence of the association between breastfeeding and breastfeeding duration and EOC risk from published cohort and case-control studies. Design: Relevant published studies were identified by a search of MEDLINE through December 2012. Two authors (T-TG and Q-JW) independently performed the eligibility evaluation and data abstraction. Study-specific RRs from individual studies were pooled by using a random-effects model, and heterogeneity and publication-bias analyses were conducted. Results: Five prospective and 30 case-control studies were included in this analysis. The pooled RR for ever compared with never breastfeeding was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.83), with moderate heterogeneity (Q = 69.4, P < 0.001, I2 = 55.3%). Risk of EOC decreased by 8% for every 5-mo increase in the duration of breastfeeding (RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.90, 0.95). The risk reduction was similar for borderline and invasive EOC and was consistent within case-control and cohort studies. Conclusions: Results of this meta-analysis support the hypothesis that ever breastfeeding and a longer duration of breastfeeding are associated with lower risks of EOC. Additional research is warranted to focus on the association with cancer grade and histologic subtypes of EOC. PMID:23966430

  7. Prognostic Value of Ezrin in Various Cancers: A Systematic Review and Updated Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianwei; Wei, Kuanhai; Yu, Hailang; Jin, Dan; Wang, Gang; Yu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    More and more studies have investigated the effects of Ezrin expression level on the prognostic role in various tumors. However, the results remain controversial rather than conclusive. Here, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the correlation of Ezrin expression with the prognosis in various tumors. the pooled hazard ratios (HR) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to evaluate the degree of the association. The overall results of fifty-five studies with 6675 patients showed that elevated Ezrin expression was associated with a worse prognosis in patients with cancers, with the pooled HRs of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.51–2.31, P < 0.001) for over survival (OS), 2.55 (95% CI: 2.14–3.05, P < 0.001) for disease-specific survival (DFS) and 2.02 (95% CI: 1.13–3.63, P = 0.018) for disease-specific survival (DSS)/metastasis-free survival (MFS) by the random, fixed and random effect model respectively. Similar results were also observed in the stratified analyses by tumor types, ethnicity background and sample source. This meta-analysis suggests that Ezrin may be a potential prognostic marker in cancer patients. High Ezrin is associated with a poor prognosis in a variety of solid tumors. PMID:26632332

  8. Serum Lipids and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiologic studies exploring causal associations between serum lipids and breast cancer risk have reported contradictory results. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate these associations. Methods Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE through April 2015. We included prospective cohort studies that reported relative risk (RR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations of specific lipid components (i.e., total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], and triglycerides [TG]) with breast cancer risk. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was used to calculate pooled RRs. Results Fifteen prospective cohort studies involving 1,189,635 participants and 23,369 breast cancer cases were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest versus lowest categories were 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86–1.07) for TC, 0.92 (95% CI: 0.73–1.16) for HDL-C, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.77–1.06) for LDL-C, and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86–1.00) for TG. Notably, for HDL-C, a significant reduction of breast cancer risk was observed among postmenopausal women (RR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.64–0.93) but not among premenopausal women. Similar trends of the associations were observed in the dose-response analysis. Conclusions Our findings suggest that serum levels of TG but not TC and LDL-C may be inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Serum HDL-C may also protect against breast carcinogenesis among postmenopausal women. PMID:26554382

  9. Prognostic significance of miR-126 in various cancers: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuanli; Fu, Chengrui; Guan, Hui; Zhang, Zicheng; Zhou, Tao; Li, Baosheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recent studies have demonstrated that microRNA-126 (miR-126) might be a promising prognostic factor for cancer patients. This meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effectiveness of miR-126 as a prognostic biomarker for various cancers. Methods The search of studies was performed by using PubMed and Embase until January 22, 2016. Pooled hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for patients’ survival was calculated. A fixed-effect or random-effects model was applied according to heterogeneity. The trim and fill method was used to adjust pooled HR. Results In all 17 articles comprising of 2,437 participants were included in this meta-analysis. The results indicated that a high level of miR-126 played a favorable role in the overall survival (HR 0.70, 95% CI: 0.62–0.79, random-effects model), with a heterogeneity measure index of I2=63.2% (P<0.01). Subgroup analyses showed that pooled HR was more significant in patients with digestive system cancers (HR 0.70, 95% CI: 0.59–0.83, fixed-effects model) and respiratory system cancers (HR 0.71, 95% CI: 0.59–0.85, random-effects model). Owing to publication bias, HR was adjusted to 0.59 (0.463–0.752, P<0.01) by the trim and fill method. Conclusion miR-126 could be a promising biomarker for cancer prognosis prediction, especially in patients with digestive or respiratory system cancers. PMID:27217773

  10. Analgesic use and the risk of kidney cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Choueiri, Toni K; Je, Youjin; Cho, Eunyoung

    2014-01-15

    Analgesics are the most commonly used over-the-counter drugs worldwide with certain analgesics having cancer prevention effect. The evidence for an increased risk of developing kidney cancer with analgesic use is mixed. Using a meta-analysis design of available observational epidemiologic studies, we investigated the association between analgesic use and kidney cancer risk. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases to identify eligible case-control or cohort studies published in English until June 2012 for three categories of analgesics: acetaminophen, aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Study-specific effect estimates were pooled to compute an overall relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) using a random-effects model for each category of the analgesics. We identified 20 studies (14 with acetaminophen, 13 with aspirin and five with other NSAIDs) that were performed in six countries, including 8,420 cases of kidney cancer. Use of acetaminophen and non-aspirin NSAIDs were associated with an increased risk of kidney cancer (pooled RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.15-1.44 and 1.25; 95% CI: 1.06-1.46, respectively). For aspirin use, we found no overall increased risk (pooled RR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.95-1.28), except for non-US studies (five studies, pooled RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.04-1.33). Similar increases in risks were seen with higher analgesic intake. In this largest meta-analysis to date, we found that acetaminophen and non-aspirin NSAIDs are associated with a significant risk of developing kidney cancer. Further work is needed to elucidate biologic mechanisms behind these findings. PMID:23400756

  11. Association between the ERCC5 Asp1104His Polymorphism and Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    He, Jing; Shi, Ting-Yan; Xia, Kai-Qin; Qiu, Li-Xin; Wei, Qing-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Background Excision repair cross complementing group 5 (ERCC5 or XPG) plays an important role in regulating DNA excision repair, removal of bulky lesions caused by environmental chemicals or UV light. Mutations in this gene cause a rare autosomal recessive syndrome, and its functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may alter DNA repair capacity phenotype and cancer risk. However, a series of epidemiological studies on the association between the ERCC5 Asp1104His polymorphism (rs17655, G>C) and cancer susceptibility generated conflicting results. Methodology/Principal Findings To derive a more precise estimation of the association between the ERCC5 Asp1104His polymorphism and overall cancer risk, we performed a meta-analysis of 44 published case-control studies, in which a total of 23,490 cases and 27,168 controls were included. To provide additional biological plausibility, we also assessed the genotype-gene expression correlation from the HapMap phase II release 23 data with 270 individuals from 4 ethnic populations. When all studies were pooled, we found no statistical evidence for a significantly increased cancer risk in the recessive genetic models (His/His vs. Asp/Asp: OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.92–1.06, P = 0.242 for heterogeneity or His/His vs. Asp/His + Asp/Asp: OR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.93–1.03, P = 0.260 for heterogeneity), nor in further stratified analyses by cancer type, ethnicity, source of controls and sample size. In the genotype-phenotype correlation analysis from 270 individuals, we consistently found no significant correlation of the Asp1104His polymorphism with ERCC5 mRNA expression. Conclusions/Significance This meta-analysis suggests that it is unlikely that the ERCC5 Asp1104His polymorphism may contribute to individual susceptibility to cancer risk. PMID:22815677

  12. Whole Grain Intake Reduces Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Lei, Qiucheng; Zheng, Huazhen; Bi, Jingcheng; Wang, Xinying; Jiang, Tingting; Gao, Xuejin; Tian, Feng; Xu, Min; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Li; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2016-03-01

    Mounting evidence from epidemiology studies suggests that whole grain intake may reduce pancreatic cancer risk, but convincing evidence is scarce. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between whole grain intake and pancreatic cancer risk. Relevant observational studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane library databases for the period from January 1980 to July 2015, with no restrictions. We calculated the summary odds ratios (ORs) for pancreatic cancer using random-effects model meta-analysis. Between-study heterogeneity was analyzed using the I statistic. A total of 8 studies regarding whole grain intake were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled OR of pancreatic cancer for those with high versus low whole grain intake was 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64-0.91; P = 0.002). There was no significant heterogeneity across these studies (I² = 11.7%; Pheterogeneity = 0.339). In the subgroup analysis by geographic area, the summary ORs of developing pancreatic cancer were 0.64 (95% CI, 0.53-0.79; P < 0.001; I ²= 0%; Pheterogeneity = 0.482) in the United States (n = 4) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.63-1.43; P = 0.803; I ²= 45.6%; Pheterogeneity = 0.175) in Europe (n = 2). In the subgroup analysis by type of whole grain, the summary ORs were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.60-0.87; P = .001; I² = 0; Pheterogeneity = 0.876) for grains (n = 4) and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.27-2.02; P = 0.554; I² = 86.3%; Pheterogeneity = 0.007) for wheat (n = 2). A high intake of whole grains was associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Because of the absent of more cohort studies, further prospective studies need to be conducted to ensure conclusions that are more robust. PMID:26945361

  13. Coffee consumption and bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weixiang; Tong, Yeqing; Zhao, Qiang; Yu, Guangxia; Wei, Xiaoyun; Lu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Controversial results of the association between coffee consumption and bladder cancer (BC) risk were reported among epidemiological studies. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to clarify the association. Relevant studies were identified according to the inclusion criteria. Totally, 34 case-control studies and 6 cohort studies were included in our meta-analysis. The overall odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) between coffee consumption and BC risk was 1.33 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.48). The summary ORs of BC for an increase of 1 cup of coffee per day were 1.05 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.06) for case-control studies and 1.03 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.06) for cohort studies. The overall ORs for male coffee drinkers, female coffee drinkers and coffee drinkers of both gender were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.08 to 1.59), 1.30 (95% CI: 0.87 to 1.96) and 1.35 (95% CI: 1.20 to 1.51). Compared with smokers (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.70), non-smokers had a higher risk (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.25 to 2.35) for BC. Results of this meta-analysis suggested that there was an increased risk between coffee consumption and BC. Male coffee drinkers and non-smoking coffee drinkers were more likely to develop BC. PMID:25761588

  14. CYFRA21-1 levels could be a biomarker for bladder cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuang, L I; Song, W J; Qing, H M; Yan, S; Song, F L

    2015-01-01

    The proteolytic region of cytokeratin-19, referred to as CYFRA21-1, is a soluble molecule present in the serum and other body fluids, and is considered a tumor marker in several neoplastic diseases. To examine whether urinary or serum samples containing CYFRA21-1 can be used as biomarkers for bladder cancer, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of 3 case-control studies. In all studies considered, patients with bladder cancer had a higher CYFRA21-1 level than healthy subjects. Subgroup analysis showed that patients with metastatic bladder cancer had a higher CYFRA21-1 level than those with locally invasive disease. However, no significant difference in CYFRA21-1 was observed between patients with stage I and stage II bladder cancer; there was also no difference in patients with stage II local bladder cancer and those with stage III local bladder cancer. Based on our results, CYFRA21-1 level may be a diagnostic biomarker for diagnosing bladder cancer as well as a possible biomarker for differentiation between local and metastatic bladder cancer. However, it cannot be used as a urinary or serum biomarker for differentiating histological stages of local bladder cancer for histological grades I-III. PMID:25966163

  15. Prognostic and Clinicopathological Value of Programmed Death Ligand-1 in Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zeming; Maimaiti, Yusufu; Wang, Shan; Yin, Xingjie; Liu, Chunping

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the interest in programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) as a prognostic marker in several types of malignant tumors has increased. In the present meta-analysis, we aimed to explore the prognostic and clinicopathological value of PD-L1 in breast cancer. We searched Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library databases, and grey literature from inception until January 20, 2016. Studies concerning breast cancer that focused on PD-L1 expression and studies reporting survival data were included; two authors independently performed the data extraction. The pooled risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were assessed to determine the association between the clinicopathological parameters of patients and PD-L1 expression. Five studies involving 2061 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The results indicated that positive/higher PD-L1 expression was a negative predictor for breast cancer, with an RR of 1.64 (95% CI, 1.14–2.34) for the total mortality risk and an RR of 2.53 (95% CI, 1.78–3.59) for the mortality risk 10 years after surgery. Moreover, positive/higher PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with positive lymph node metastasis (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.04–1.70), poor nuclear grade (RR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.07–1.43), and negative estrogen receptor status (RR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.31–4.60) in breast cancer patients. Our findings suggest that PD-L1 can serve as a significant biomarker for poor prognosis and the adverse clinicopathologic features of breast cancer and could facilitate the better management of individual patients. PMID:27227453

  16. Diagnostic value of SHOX2 DNA methylation in lung cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qing-Tao; Guo, Tao; Wang, Hui-En; Zhang, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhi-Kang; Yuan, Zheng; Duan, Guo-Chen

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic value of SHOX2 DNA methylation in patients with lung cancer remains controversial. Thus, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess diagnostic accuracy of SHOX2 DNA methylation in the lymph node, bronchial aspirates, pleural effusion, plasma, and tumor tissue for lung cancer. We conducted a comprehensive literature search in PubMed, Ovid, the Cochrane library, and Web of Science databases in May 2015. The diagnostic sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve were pooled using STATA 12.0 software. A total of 2,296 subjects included 1,129 lung cancer patients in eight studies were recruited in this meta-analysis. The summary estimates for SHOX2 DNA methylation in the diagnosis of lung cancer in these studies were pooled SEN =0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.46–0.87), SPE =0.96 (95% CI: 0.91–0.99), PLR 20.01 (95% CI: 6.96–57.52), NLR 0.31 (95% CI: 0.15–0.64), and DOR 65.11 (95% CI: 13.10–323.61), and the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.94–0.97). SHOX2 DNA methylation has greater diagnostic value in detecting lung cancer. In addition, considering the potential publication bias and high heterogeneity, further research studies with more well-designed and large sample sizes are needed in the future. PMID:26640383

  17. Prognostic Value of SMAD4 in Pancreatic Cancer: A Meta-Analysis12

    PubMed Central

    Shugang, Xing; Hongfa, Yang; Jianpeng, Liu; Xu, Zheng; Jingqi, Feng; Xiangxiang, Li; Wei, Li

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The prognostic value of SMAD4 in pancreatic cancer has been evaluated in several studies. However, the conclusions remain controversial. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the association between SMAD4 expression and the outcome of pancreatic cancer patients by performing a meta-analysis. METHODS: We systematically searched for relevant studies evaluating the relationship between SMAD4 expression and the outcome of pancreatic cancer patients until May 2015. A meta-analysis was performed using STATA 12.0, and pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the strength of the association between SMAD4 expression and the prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients. RESULTS: The analysis included 1762 patients from 14 studies, with 1401 patients from 11 studies and 927 patients from 8 studies included in the univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Loss of SMAD4 expression was found to be significantly correlated with poor overall survival, with the combined HR (95% CI) of 1.20 (1.03-1.40). After adjusting for potential confounders using the Cox regression model, the pooled HR (95% CI) was 1.88 (1.31-2.70). In subgroup analysis, study region, number of patients, follow-up duration, and cutoff value were found to affect the significance of the association between loss of SMAD4 expression and poor prognosis. In addition, there was no evidence of publication bias, as suggested by Begg’s and Egger’s test. CONCLUSIONS: Loss of SMAD4 was associated with poor survival and was a negative prognostic indicator in patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:26947875

  18. Dairy product consumption and gastric cancer risk: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Lin, Lian-Jie; Sang, Li-Xuan; Dai, Cong; Jiang, Min; Zheng, Chang-Qing

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether dairy product consumption is a risk factor for gastric cancer. METHODS: We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases for English-language studies on dairy product consumption and gastric cancer risk that were published between October 1980 and September 2013. One author independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Based on the heterogeneity results, we used either the fixed effects model or the random effects model to compute the summary relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We also analyzed subgroups according to the study design, geographic region, sex, and whether there were adjustments for confounders (smoking and drinking) with respect to the sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: We found 39 studies that were potentially eligible for inclusion in this meta-analysis, including 10 cohort studies and 29 case-control studies. The summary relative risk for gastric cancer, comparing the highest and lowest dairy product consumption categories, was 1.06 (95%CI: 0.95-1.18). Specific analyses for milk, butter, and margarine yielded similar results, but the results for cheese and yogurt were different. There was significant heterogeneity for all studies (Q = 112.61; P = 0.000; I2 = 67.1%). No publication bias was observed (Egger’s test: P = 0.135; Begg’s test: P = 0.365). There was a nonsignificant association between dairy product consumption and gastric cancer risk in the subgroup analysis for the study design, sex, geographic region, and whether there were adjustments for confounders (smoking and drinking). CONCLUSION: In our meta-analysis, dairy product consumption was associated with a nonsignificantly increased risk of gastric cancer. However, this result should be verified using large, well-designed prospective studies. PMID:25400475

  19. The Impact of Underweight Status on the Prognosis of Ovarian Cancer Patients: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pergialiotis, Vasilios; Doumouchtsis, Stergios K; Perrea, Despina; Vlachos, Georgios D

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition and underweight status pose an unfavorable prognosis for cancer patients. Several studies have addressed the impact of a low body mass index (BMI) (<18.5 kg/m(2)) on ovarian cancer progression. However, their results seem to be conflicting. The present meta-analysis investigates whether the underweight status negatively affects the progress of ovarian cancer. We conducted a systematic review searching the Medline (1966-2014), Scopus (2004-2014), Popline (1974-2014), ClinicalTrials.gov (2008-2014), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (1999-2014) databases together with reference lists from included studies. All prospective and retrospective observational cohort studies were included. Statistical meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan 5.1 software. Current evidence suggests that the stage of the disease does not differ between underweight and normal-weight patients [odds ratio (OR) 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46-1.39 for stage I; OR 1.27, 95% CI 0.71-2.27 for stage II; OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.71-1.51 for stage III; and OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.63-1.76 for stage IV disease]. Concurrently, the risk of residual disease after surgery (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.69-1.52) and the risk of dying due to ovarian cancer (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.64-1.85) seem to be similar. According to the findings of our systematic review, the underweight status does not seem to have a detrimental impact on ovarian cancer prognosis. However, the methodological limitations of published studies and the small number of enrolled underweight patients preclude firm results. Thus, future research in this field is necessary. PMID:27351098

  20. Tooth Loss and Head and Neck Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xian-Tao; Luo, Wei; Huang, Wei; Wang, Quan; Guo, Yi; Leng, Wei-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Backgroud Epidemiological studies have shown that tooth loss is associated with risk of head and neck cancer (HNC); however, the results were inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to ascertain the relationship between tooth loss and HNC. Methods We searched for relevant observational studies that tested the association between tooth loss and risk of HNC from PubMed and were conducted up to January 30, 2013. Data from the eligible studies were independently extracted by two authors. The meta-analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 2.2 software. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were conducted to evaluate the influence of various inclusions. Publication bias was also detected. Results Ten articles involving one cohort and ten case-control studies were yielded. Based on random-effects meta-analysis, an association between tooth loss and HNC risk was identified [increased risk of 29% for 1 to 6 teeth loss (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 0.52–3.20, p = 0.59), 58% for 6 to 15 teeth loss (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.08–2.32, p = 0.02), 63% for 11+ teeth loss (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.23–2.14, p<0.001), 72% for 15+ teeth loss (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.26–2.36, p<0.001), and 89% for 20+ teeth loss (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.27–2.80, p<0.001)]. The sensitivity analysis shows that the result was robust, and publication bias was not detected. Conclusions Based on the current evidence, tooth loss is probably a significant and dependent risk factor of HNC, which may have a dose-response effect. People who lost six or more teeth should pay attention to symptoms of HNC, and losing 11 teeth or 15 teeth may be the threshold. PMID:24260154

  1. Colorectal cancers and chlorinated water

    PubMed Central

    El-Tawil, Ahmed Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Published reports have revealed increased risk of colorectal cancers in people exposed to chlorinated drinking water or chemical derivatives of chlorination. Oestrogen plays a dual positive functions for diminishing the possibilities of such risk by reducing the entrance, and increasing the excretion, of these chemicals. In addition, there are supplementary measures that could be employed in order to reduce this risk further, such as boiling the drinking water, revising the standard concentrations of calcium, magnesium and iron in the public drinking water and prescribing oestrogen in susceptible individuals. Hypo-methylation of genomic DNA could be used as a biological marker for screening for the potential development of colorectal cancers. PMID:27096035

  2. LINE-1 Hypomethylation in Blood and Tissue Samples as an Epigenetic Marker for Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barchitta, Martina; Quattrocchi, Annalisa; Maugeri, Andrea; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Agodi, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Objective A systematic review and a meta-analysis were carried out in order to summarize the current published studies and to evaluate LINE-1 hypomethylation in blood and other tissues as an epigenetic marker for cancer risk. Methods A systematic literature search in the Medline database, using PubMed, was conducted for epidemiological studies, published before March 2014. The random-effects model was used to estimate weighted mean differences (MDs) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs). Furthermore, subgroup analyses were conducted by sample type (tissue or blood samples), cancer types, and by assays used to measure global DNA methylation levels. The Cochrane software package Review Manager 5.2 was used. Results A total of 19 unique articles on 6107 samples (2554 from cancer patients and 3553 control samples) were included in the meta-analysis. LINE-1 methylation levels were significantly lower in cancer patients than in controls (MD: −6.40, 95% CI: −7.71, −5.09; p<0.001). The significant difference in methylation levels was confirmed in tissue samples (MD −7.55; 95% CI: −9.14, −65.95; p<0.001), but not in blood samples (MD: −0.26, 95% CI: −0.69, 0.17; p = 0.23). LINE-1 methylation levels were significantly lower in colorectal and gastric cancer patients than in controls (MD: −8.33; 95% CI: −10.56, −6.10; p<0.001 and MD: −5.75; 95% CI: −7.75, −3.74; p<0.001) whereas, no significant difference was observed for hepatocellular cancer. Conclusions The present meta-analysis adds new evidence to the growing literature on the role of LINE-1 hypomethylation in human cancer and demonstrates that LINE-1 methylation levels were significantly lower in cancer patients than in control samples, especially in certain cancer types. This result was confirmed in tissue samples, both fresh/frozen or FFPE specimens, but not in blood. Further studies are needed to better clarify the role of LINE-1 methylation in specific subgroups, considering both cancer

  3. Colorectal Cancer Coalition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Million Strong Shop Join the Movement Share Your Story Check our Calendar Colorectal Support Community Latest News Help Wanted Read Blogs Get Social Free Printable Coloring Sheets Action Alerts About Our ...

  4. Worldwide Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus and Relative Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Xie, Shuanghua; Feng, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yuheng; Zheng, Tongzhang; Dai, Min; Ke Zhou, Cindy; Hu, Zhibin; Li, Ni; Hang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing number of studies conducted recently to evaluate the association between HPV infections and the risk of prostate cancer, the results remain inconclusive. Furthermore, the prevalence and distribution of overall and individual HPV types worldwide in prostate cancer has not been reported until now. Therefore, we estimated the prevalence of HPV in prostate cancer by pooling data of 46 studies with 4919 prostate cancer cases, taking into account the heterogeneity of major related parameters, including study region, specimen type, HPV DNA source, detection method, publication calendar period and Gleason score. Moreover, we tested the association of HPV infections with prostate cancer risks by a meta-analysis of 26 tissue-based case-control studies. We found that the prevalence of HPV infection was 18.93% (95% CI = 17.84–20.05%) in prostate cancer cases, and most of which were high-risk HPV types (17.73%, 95% CI = 16.52–18.99%). The prevalence varied by region, PCR primers used, publication calendar period and Gleason score. Our study also showed a significantly increased risk of prostate cancer with the positivity of overall HPV detected in prostate tissues (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.29–2.49) and revealed the geographic variation of association strength (P < 0.001). In conclusion, HPV infections may contribute to the risk of prostate cancer. PMID:26441160

  5. Dietary intake and urinary level of cadmium and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinbo; Zhang, Fang; Lei, Yixiong

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium, a human carcinogenic heavy metal, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer risk; however, the results from the epidemiological studies are not always consistent. The objective of this study was to quantitatively summarize the current evidence for the relationship between cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk using meta-analysis methods. Six studies determining the dietary cadmium intake level and five studies evaluating the urinary cadmium level were identified in a systematic search of MEDLINE and PubMed databases, and the associations between these levels and breast cancer risk were analysed. The pooled estimates under the random-effects model suggested that higher urinary cadmium levels were associated with an increased risk for breast cancer (highest versus lowest quantile, pooled odds ratio [OR]=2.24, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=1.49-3.35) and a 1μg/g creatinine increase in urinary cadmium led to a 1.02-fold increment of breast cancer (pooled OR=2.02, 95%CI=1.34-3.03); however, pooled estimates for dietary cadmium intake found no significant association between cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk (highest versus lowest quantile, pooled relative risk [RR]=1.01, 95%CI=0.89-1.15). These results suggest that cadmium exposure may lead to an increased risk of breast cancer, and urinary cadmium levels can serve as a reliable biomarker for long-term cadmium exposure and may predict the breast cancer risk. PMID:27085960

  6. Chemotherapy for Late-Stage Cancer Patients: Meta-Analysis of Complete Response Rates

    PubMed Central

    Ashdown, Martin L.; Robinson, Andrew P.; Yatomi-Clarke, Steven L.; Ashdown, M. Luisa; Allison, Andrew; Abbott, Derek; Markovic, Svetomir N.; Coventry, Brendon J.

    2015-01-01

    Complete response (CR) rates reported for cytotoxic chemotherapy for late-stage cancer patients are generally low, with few exceptions, regardless of the solid cancer type or drug regimen. We investigated CR rates reported in the literature for clinical trials using chemotherapy alone, across a wide range of tumour types and chemotherapeutic regimens, to determine an overall CR rate for late-stage cancers. A total of 141 reports were located using the PubMed database. A meta-analysis was performed of reported CR from 68 chemotherapy trials (total 2732 patients) using standard agents across late-stage solid cancers—a binomial model with random effects was adopted. Mean CR rates were compared for different cancer types, and for chemotherapeutic agents with different mechanisms of action, using a logistic regression. Our results showed that the CR rates for chemotherapy treatment of late-stage cancer were generally low at 7.4%, regardless of the cancer type or drug regimen used. We found no evidence that CR rates differed between different chemotherapy drug types, but amongst different cancer types small CR differences were evident, although none exceeded a mean CR rate of 11%. This remarkable concordance of CR rates regardless of cancer or therapy type remains currently unexplained, and motivates further investigation. PMID:26834979

  7. A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Social Constraints and Distress in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Rebecca N.; Winger, Joseph G.; Mosher, Catherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Social constraints on cancer-related disclosure have been associated with increased distress among cancer patients. The goals of this meta-analysis were: (1) to quantify the average strength of the relationships between social constraints and general and cancer-specific distress in cancer patients; and (2) to examine potential moderators of these relationships. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases, and 30 studies met inclusion criteria. Moderate, significant relationships were found between social constraints and both general distress (r=0.37; 95% CI: 0.31-0.43) and cancer-specific distress (r=0.37; 95% CI: 0.31-0.44). The relationship between social constraints and cancer-specific distress was stronger for studies of patients who, on average, had been diagnosed more recently. Relationships between social constraints and both general and cancer-specific distress did not vary by age or gender. Findings suggest that social constraints may be important to target in interventions to reduce distress in cancer patients, especially those who have been recently diagnosed. PMID:25262383

  8. Effects of aerobic exercise on cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ling-Yun; Yang, Liu; He, Xiao-Ling; Sun, Ming; Xu, Jin-Jiang

    2014-06-01

    Increasing scientific evidences suggest that aerobic exercise may improve cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients, but many existing studies have yielded inconclusive results. This meta-analysis aimed to derive a more precise estimation of the effects of aerobic exercise on cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. The PubMed, CISCOM, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases were searched from inception through July 1, 2013 without language restrictions. Crude standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Twelve comparative studies were assessed with a total of 1,014 breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, including 522 patients in the aerobic exercise group (intervention group) and 492 patients in the usual care group (control group). The meta-analysis results revealed that the Revised Piper Fatigue Scale (RPFS) scores of breast cancer patients in the intervention group were significantly lower than those in the control group (SMD=-0.82, 95% CI=-1.04 ∼ -0.60, P<0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Treatment-Fatigue scale (FACIT-F) scores between the intervention and control groups (SMD=0.09, 95% CI=-0.07 ∼ 0.25, P=0.224). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity indicated that there were significant differences in RPFS and FACIT-F scores between the intervention and control groups among Asian populations (RPFS: SMD=-1.08, 95% CI=-1.35 ∼ -0.82, P<0.001; FACIT-F: SMD=1.20, 95 % CI=0.70 ∼1.71, P<0.001), but not among Caucasian populations (all P>0.05). The current meta-analysis indicates that aerobic exercise may improve cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, especially among Asian populations. PMID:24570186

  9. Religion, spirituality, and physical health in cancer patients: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jim, Heather S L; Pustejovsky, James E; Park, Crystal L; Danhauer, Suzanne C; Sherman, Allen C; Fitchett, George; Merluzzi, Thomas V; Munoz, Alexis R; George, Login; Snyder, Mallory A; Salsman, John M

    2015-11-01

    Although religion/spirituality (R/S) is important in its own right for many cancer patients, a large body of research has examined whether R/S is also associated with better physical health outcomes. This literature has been characterized by heterogeneity in sample composition, measures of R/S, and measures of physical health. In an effort to synthesize previous findings, a meta-analysis of the relation between R/S and patient-reported physical health in cancer patients was performed. A search of PubMed, PsycINFO, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Cochrane Library yielded 2073 abstracts, which were independently evaluated by pairs of raters. The meta-analysis was conducted for 497 effect sizes from 101 unique samples encompassing more than 32,000 adult cancer patients. R/S measures were categorized into affective, behavioral, cognitive, and 'other' dimensions. Physical health measures were categorized into physical well-being, functional well-being, and physical symptoms. Average estimated correlations (Fisher z scores) were calculated with generalized estimating equations with robust variance estimation. Overall R/S was associated with overall physical health (z = 0.153, P < .001); this relation was not moderated by sociodemographic or clinical variables. Affective R/S was associated with physical well-being (z = 0.167, P < .001), functional well-being (z = 0.343, P < .001), and physical symptoms (z = 0.282, P < .001). Cognitive R/S was associated with physical well-being (z = 0.079, P < .05) and functional well-being (z = 0.090, P < .01). 'Other' R/S was associated with functional well-being (z = 0.100, P < .05). In conclusion, the results of the current meta-analysis suggest that greater R/S is associated with better patient-reported physical health. These results underscore the importance of attending to patients' religious and spiritual needs as part of comprehensive

  10. Systematic review and meta-analysis of glyphosate exposure and risk of lymphohematopoietic cancers

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ellen T.; Delzell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This systematic review and meta-analysis rigorously examines the relationship between glyphosate exposure and risk of lymphohematopoietic cancer (LHC) including NHL, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), multiple myeloma (MM), and leukemia. Meta-relative risks (meta-RRs) were positive and marginally statistically significant for the association between any versus no use of glyphosate and risk of NHL (meta-RR = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0–1.6, based on six studies) and MM (meta-RR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0–1.9; four studies). Associations were statistically null for HL (meta-RR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.7–1.6; two studies), leukemia (meta-RR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6–1.5; three studies), and NHL subtypes except B-cell lymphoma (two studies each). Bias and confounding may account for observed associations. Meta-analysis is constrained by few studies and a crude exposure metric, while the overall body of literature is methodologically limited and findings are not strong or consistent. Thus, a causal relationship has not been established between glyphosate exposure and risk of any type of LHC. PMID:27015139

  11. The diagnostic value of monoclonal gastric cancer 7 antigen: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zongyue; Fu, Sheng; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Liuyang; Zhang, Hailong; Tang, Xi; Yang, Xiaorong; Zeng, Zhaofang

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the clinical characteristic and the diagnostic role of MG7-Ag in detecting gastric cancer (GC) through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Relevant manuscripts aiming at the application of serum MG7-Ag level in GC diagnosis were searched in PubMed, Embase, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP, and Wan Fang Data independently,which were published between January 1, 1980 and February 28, 2013. The pooled sensitivity, specificity,positive diagnostic likelihood ratio (DLR+), negative diagnostic likelihood ratio (DLR-), diagnostic odds ratio,and the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic(AUC) were used to evaluate the value of serum MG7-Ag in diagnosis of GC by using the Meta-DiSc and STATA 11.0 statistical software. 410 manuscripts were retrieved, and 7 manuscripts of high quality including 652 patients were of high quality in this meta-analysis. Overall,the pooled sensitivity, specificity, DLR+, DLR-, and AUC were 0.73 (95 % CI 0.63-0.82), 0.91 (95 % CI 0.84-0.94), 8.59 (95 % CI 5.62-13.11), 0.29 (95 % CI 0.21-0.42), and 0.92 (95 % CI 0.89-0.94), respectively. MG7-Ag is a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of GC.However, more studies are needed to confirm the standard criteria. PMID:23797567

  12. Systematic review and meta-analysis of glyphosate exposure and risk of lymphohematopoietic cancers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ellen T; Delzell, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis rigorously examines the relationship between glyphosate exposure and risk of lymphohematopoietic cancer (LHC) including NHL, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), multiple myeloma (MM), and leukemia. Meta-relative risks (meta-RRs) were positive and marginally statistically significant for the association between any versus no use of glyphosate and risk of NHL (meta-RR = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-1.6, based on six studies) and MM (meta-RR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0-1.9; four studies). Associations were statistically null for HL (meta-RR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.7-1.6; two studies), leukemia (meta-RR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6-1.5; three studies), and NHL subtypes except B-cell lymphoma (two studies each). Bias and confounding may account for observed associations. Meta-analysis is constrained by few studies and a crude exposure metric, while the overall body of literature is methodologically limited and findings are not strong or consistent. Thus, a causal relationship has not been established between glyphosate exposure and risk of any type of LHC. PMID:27015139

  13. The Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Lung Cancer Prognosis: A PRISMA-compliant Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linhai; Cao, Hongxin; Zhang, Tiehong; Shen, Hongchang; Dong, Wei; Wang, Liguang; Du, Jiajun

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies suggested that diabetes mellitus (DM) was associated with risk and mortality of cancer, but studies investigating the correlation between DM and lung cancer prognosis remain controversial. Herein, a meta-analysis was performed to derive a more precise estimate of the prognostic role of DM in lung cancer.Medline and Embase were searched for eligible articles from inception to October 25, 2015. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was calculated to evaluate the correlation between DM and lung cancer prognosis. Subgroup meta-analysis was performed based on the histology and the treatment methods.A total of 20 cohort studies from 12 articles were included in the meta-analysis. Also, 16 studies investigated the overall survival (OS) and 4 studies investigated the progression-free survival (PFS). DM was significantly associated with the inferior OS of lung cancer with the pooled HR 1.28 (95% CI: 1.10-1.49, P = 0.001). The association was prominent in the nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) subgroup (HR 1.35, 95%CI: 1.14-1.60, P = 0.002), whereas the association was not significant in the small cell lung cancer (SCLC) subgroup (HR 1.33, 95% CI: 0.87-2.03, P = 0.18). When NSCLC patients were further stratified by treatment methods, DM had more influence on the surgically treated subgroup than the nonsurgically treated subgroup. There was no obvious evidence for publication bias by Begg's and Egger's test.The results of this meta-analysis exhibit an association of DM with inferior prognosis amongst lung cancer patients, especially the surgically treated NSCLC patients. Given the small number of studies included in this meta-analysis, the present conclusion should be consolidated with more high-quality prospective cohort studies or randomized controlled trials. PMID:27124062

  14. Sorafenib in the treatment of radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chen-Tian; Qiu, Zhong-Ling; Luo, Quan-Yong

    2014-04-01

    The advent of biologically targeted agents and increased understanding of thyroid carcinogenesis have generated much interest in the development of biologically targeted therapeutic agents for thyroid cancer. Among them, sorafenib is the most commonly studied drug. The current meta-analysis was carried out to estimate the efficacy and safety of sorafenib administered in radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer patients. An electronic search was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE. Statistical analyses were carried out using either random-effects or fixed-effects models according to heterogeneity. All the statistical analyses were carried out using the Stata version 12.0 software. Seven eligible studies were identified. The final results indicated that 22% of the patients (95% CI: 15-28) achieved a partial response. Hand-foot syndrome, diarrhea, fatigue, rash, weight loss, and hypertension were the most frequently observed adverse effects (AEs) associated with sorafenib use and the incidence of these AEs (all grades) was 80% (95% CI: 68-91), 68% (95% CI: 59-77), 67% (95% CI: 57-78), 66% (95% CI: 50-82), 52%(95% CI: 33-72), and 31% (95% CI: 21-42) respectively. Sixty-two percent (95% CI: 36-89) patients required dose reductions due to toxicity of sorafenib. As far as PR and AEs are concerned, the results of this meta-analysis indicate that sorafenib has a modest effect in patients with radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer and the high incidence of AEs associated with this agent may affect the quality of patients' lives. Though the use of sorafenib in the treatment of radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer is considered promising by most physicians working in this field, more effective agents with less toxicity and cost are still needed. PMID:24302666

  15. Meta-analysis of residential exposure to radon gas and lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Pavia, Maria; Bianco, Aida; Pileggi, Claudia; Angelillo, Italo F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relation between residential exposure to radon and lung cancer. METHODS: A literature search was performed using Medline and other sources. The quality of studies was assessed. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the risk of lung cancer among categories of levels of exposure to radon were extracted. For each study, a weighted log-linear regression analysis of the adjusted odds ratios was performed according to radon concentration. The random effect model was used to combine values from single studies. Separate meta-analyses were performed on results from studies grouped with similar characteristics or with quality scores above or equal to the median. FINDINGS: Seventeen case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Quality scoring for individual studies ranged from 0.45 to 0.77 (median, 0.64). Meta-analysis based on exposure at 150 Bq/m3 gave a pooled odds ratio estimate of 1.24 (95% CI, 1.11-1.38), which indicated a potential effect of residential exposure to radon on the risk of lung cancer. Pooled estimates of fitted odds ratios at several levels of randon exposure were all significantly different from unity--ranging from 1.07 at 50 Bq/m3 to 1.43 at 250 Bq/m3. No remarkable differences from the baseline analysis were found for odds ratios from sensitivity analyses of studies in which > 75% of eligible cases were recruited (1.12, 1.00-1.25) and studies that included only women (1.29, 1.04-1.60). CONCLUSION: Although no definitive conclusions may be drawn, our results suggest a dose-response relation between residential exposure to radon and the risk of lung cancer. They support the need to develop strategies to reduce human exposure to radon. PMID:14758433

  16. Meta-analysis of microRNAs as biomarkers for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lin-Feng; Sun, Wen-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the most common cancer of the urinary tract. A quarter of bladder cancer patients presenting with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) suffer significant morbidity and succumb to the disease. MicroRNA (miRNA) from tissue, urine or blood samples of MIBC patients have been demonstrated to differ from healthy individuals, and possibly have diagnostic value. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to access the overall diagnostic accuracy comprehensively and quantitatively. Systematic searching in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database was conducted. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios (PLR and NLR) and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were calculated via the random effects model to evaluate the overall test performance. Deeks' funnel plot asymmetry test was used to test the publication bias. A total of 10 studies were included in the meta-analysis, with a total of 577 patients and 412 controls. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.78 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.69–0.86] and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.72–0.81), respectively. The pooled PLR was 2.9 (95% CI, 2.1–3.8), the NLR was 0.31 (95% CI, 0.27–0.35), the DOR was 7 (95% CI, 4–13) and the pooled AUC was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.69–0.87). In conclusion, the current miRNA assays support their use as markers for MIBC diagnosis. PMID:27446534

  17. Robot-assisted versus conventional laparoscopic surgery for endometrial cancer staging: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Hui; Li, Zhao-Ai; Huang, Rui; Xue, Hui-Qin

    2016-08-01

    This meta-analysis broadly compared the safety and efficacy of robot-assisted laparoscopy (RAL) with that of conventional laparoscopy (CL) for endometrial cancer staging. The advantages of RAL were evaluated through the outcomes in terms of conversion rates, complications, length of operation, blood loss, number of lymph nodes harvested, and length of hospitalization. Three electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, and EmBASE) were searched to identify eligible studies. We selected all retrospective studies documenting a comparison between RAL and CL for endometrial cancer staging between 2005 and 2015, and tallied with meta-analyses criteria. Only studies published in English were included in this analysis. The outcomes of the extracted data were pooled and estimated by the Review Manager version 5.1 software. Seventeen studies met the eligibility criteria. Among the 2105 patients reported, 912 underwent RAL and the other 1193 underwent CL for endometrial cancer staging. Compared with CL, RAL had lower conversion rates [risk ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.25-0.64; p = 0.0002]. Its complications were also less than that of CL (risk ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.56-0.94; p = 0.02). RAL was associated with significantly less intraoperative blood loss (weighted mean difference, -79.2 mL; 95% CI, from -103.43 to -54.97; p < 0.00001) and a shorter length of hospitalization (weighted mean difference, -0.37 days; 95% CI, from -0.57 to -0.17; p = 0.0003). We found no significant differences in the length of operation and number of lymph nodes harvested between the two groups. From our meta-analysis results, RAL is a safe and effective alternative to CL for endometrial cancer staging. Further studies are required to determine potential advantages or disadvantages of RAL. PMID:27590368

  18. Lung Cancer and Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide and Traffic: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Laden, Francine; Cohen, Aaron J.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Brauer, Michael; Loomis, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants is an important public health issue. Here, we present a systematic review and meta-analysis of research examining the relationship of measures of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and of various measures of traffic-related air pollution exposure with lung cancer. Methods We conducted random-effects meta-analyses of studies examining exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and NOx and its association with lung cancer. We identified 20 studies that met inclusion criteria and provided information necessary to estimate the change in lung cancer per 10-μg/m3 increase in exposure to measured NO2. Further, we qualitatively assessed the evidence of association between distance to roadways and traffic volume associated with lung cancer. Results The meta-estimate for the change in lung cancer associated with a 10-μg/m3 increase in exposure to NO2 was 4% (95% CI: 1%, 8%). The meta-estimate for change in lung cancer associated with a 10-μg/m3 increase in NOx was similar and slightly more precise, 3% (95% CI: 1%, 5%). The NO2 meta-estimate was robust to different confounding adjustment sets as well as the exposure assessment techniques used. Trim-and-fill analyses suggest that if publication bias exists, the overall meta-estimate is biased away from the null. Forest plots for measures of traffic volume and distance to roadways largely suggest a modest increase in lung cancer risk. Conclusion We found consistent evidence of a relationship between NO2, as a proxy for traffic-sourced air pollution exposure, with lung cancer. Studies of lung cancer related to residential proximity to roadways and NOx also suggest increased risk, which may be attributable partly to air pollution exposure. The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified outdoor air pollution and particulate matter as carcinogenic (Group 1). These meta-analyses support this conclusion, drawing particular attention to traffic-sourced air

  19. GSTT1 polymorphism and breast cancer risk in the Chinese population: an updated meta-analysis and review

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhang-Sheng; Li, Yun; Guan, Yan-Li; Li, Jia-Gen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although a number of studies have been conducted on the association between GSTT1 polymorphism and breast cancer in China, this association remains elusive and controversial. To clarify the effects of GSTT1 polymorphism on the risk of breast cancer, an updated meta-analysis was performed in the Chinese population. Material/methods: Related studies were identified from PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM) to up 28th January 2015. Pooled ORs and 95% CIs were used to assess the strength of the associations. Results: A total of 13 studies including 3387 breast cancer cases and 5085 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. Overall, a significant association (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.02-1.67) was found between the null GSTT1 and breast cancer risk when all studies in Chinese population pooled into the meta-analysis. In subgroup analyses stratified by geographic areas and source of controls, it revealed the significant results in population-based studies (OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.23-1.65) and South China (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.27-1.70). Conclusions: This meta-analysis showed that the null GSTT1 may be potential biomarkers for breast cancer risk in Chinese, and further studies with gene-gene and gene-environment interactions are required for definite conclusions. PMID:26221202

  20. Dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer risk: A dose response meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Lyu, Chen; Gao, Jian; Du, Li; Shan, Boer; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Hua-Ying; Gao, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Since body fatness is a convincing risk factor for endometrial cancer, dietary fat intake was speculated to be associated with endometrial cancer risk. However, epidemiological studies are inconclusive. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to assess the associations between dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer risk. We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Web of science databases updated to September 2015. In total, 7 cohort and 14 case-control studies were included. Pooled analysis of case-control studies suggested that endometrial cancer risk was significantly increased by 5% per 10% kilocalories from total fat intake (P=0.02) and by 17% per 10 g/1000 kcal of saturated fat intake (P < 0.001). Summary of 3 cohort studies showed significant inverse association between monounsaturated fatty acids and endometrial cancer risk (odds ratio = 0.84, 95% confidence interval = 0.73-0.98) with a total of 524583 participants and 3503 incident cases. No significant associations were found for polyunsaturated fatty acids and linoleic acid. In conclusion, positive associations with endometrial cancer risk were observed for total fat and saturated fat intake in the case-control studies. Results from the cohort studies suggested higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake was significantly associated with lower endometrial cancer risk. PMID:27399120

  1. Nutrients, Foods, and Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S.; Chan, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigation have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grain have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, folate, fruits and vegetables. Nutrients and foods may also interact, as a dietary pattern, to influence colorectal cancer risk. Diet likely influences colorectal carcinogenesis through several interacting mechanisms. These include the direct effects on immune responsiveness and inflammation, and the indirect effects of over-nutrition and obesity—risk factors for colorectal cancer. Emerging evidence also implicates the gut microbiota as an important effector in the relationship between diet and cancer. Dietary modification therefore has the promise of reducing colorectal cancer incidence. PMID:25575572

  2. Cyclin D1 Pro241Pro (CCND1-G870A) polymorphism is associated with increased cancer risk in human populations: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pabalan, Noel; Bapat, Bharati; Sung, Lillian; Jarjanazi, Hamdi; Francisco-Pabalan, Ofelia; Ozcelik, Hilmi

    2008-10-01

    The G870A polymorphism in the CCND1 gene may influence cancer risk. However, data from published studies with individual low statistical power have been controversial. To evaluate whether combined evidence shows an association between this polymorphism and cancer, we considered all available studies in a meta-analysis. Sixty studies were combined representing data for 18,411 cases and 22,209 controls. In our meta-analysis, we investigated overall sample and two ethnic populations (Caucasians and Asians) as well as nine cancer subtypes. Individuals who are homozygous for A allele (AA) were found to be associated with significantly increased cancer risk in overall sample [odds ratio (OR), 1.23; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.13-1.33; P cancer subtypes investigated, modestly significant risk (ORs, 1.08 to 1.51; P=0.02 to 0.04) was detected in breast, colorectal, head and neck, and other cancers. Highly significant and increased risk was found to be associated with genitourinary (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.20-1.89; P=0.0004) and blood-related cancers (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.28-2.05; P colorectal cancers. Significant dominant effects seem to prevail in the majority of the categories investigated, where some recessive effects were also detected. Overall, the risk effects associated with this polymorphism were small; however, due its common occurrence, it affects a large portion of the human population (AA, 25%; AG, 50%). Although the independent small risk associated with CCND1-A870G polymorphism is not clinically useful, its interaction with other genetic variants and environmental factors has been shown to be associated with further increase in cancer risk (OR, 1.6-7.1). In conclusion, our study strongly

  3. Stomach cancer and occupational exposure to asbestos: a meta-analysis of occupational cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, L; Rushton, L

    2015-01-01

    Background: A recent Monographs Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there is limited evidence for a causal association between exposure to asbestos and stomach cancer. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate this association. Random effects models were used to summarise the relative risks across studies. Sources of heterogeneity were explored through subgroup analyses and meta-regression. Results: We identified 40 mortality cohort studies from 37 separate papers, and cancer incidence data were extracted for 15 separate cohorts from 14 papers. The overall meta-SMR for stomach cancer for total cohort was 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.03–1.27), with heterogeneous results across studies. Statistically significant excesses were observed in North America and Australia but not in Europe, and for generic asbestos workers and insulators. Meta-SMRs were larger for cohorts reporting a SMR for lung cancer above 2 and cohort sizes below 1000. Conclusions: Our results support the conclusion by IARC that exposure to asbestos is associated with a moderate increased risk of stomach cancer. PMID:25928706

  4. Metabolic Syndrome Is Associated with Increased Breast Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Ruchi; Kelley, George A.; Hartley, Tara A.; Rockett, Ian R. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Although individual metabolic risk factors are reported to be associated with breast cancer risk, controversy surrounds risk of breast cancer from metabolic syndrome (MS). We report the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between MS and breast cancer risk in all adult females. Methods. Studies were retrieved by searching four electronic reference databases [PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science, and ProQuest through June 30, 2012] and cross-referencing retrieved articles. Eligible for inclusion were longitudinal studies reporting associations between MS and breast cancer risk among females aged 18 years and older. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each study and pooled using random-effects models. Publication bias was assessed quantitatively (Trim and Fill) and qualitatively (funnel plots). Heterogeneity was examined using Q and I2 statistics. Results. Representing nine independent cohorts and 97,277 adult females, eight studies met the inclusion criteria. A modest, positive association was observed between MS and breast cancer risk (RR: 1.47, 95% CI, 1.15–1.87; z = 3.13; p = 0.002; Q = 26.28, p = 0.001; I2 = 69.55%). No publication bias was observed. Conclusions. MS is associated with increased breast cancer risk in adult women. PMID:25653879

  5. Clinicopathologic significance of legumain overexpression in cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Ye; Chunlei, Guo; Wenzhi, Shen; Shuangtao, Zhao; Na, Luo; Rongrong, Wang; Xiaohe, Luo; Haiying, Niu; Dehong, Luo; Shan, Jiang; Xiaoyue, Tan; Rong, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Since reports on the clinical significance of legumain in cancer have shown inconsistent results, we systematically evaluated clinical indicators of legumain in cancer. We searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and EBSCO databases and the Wangfang and CNKI databases in China by using “legumain” and (“neoplasms” OR “cancer”) as search terms. We included case-controlled studies of legumain and cancer. The quality of the studies was evaluated by using Lichtenstein’s guidelines, and valid data was extracted for analysis. In total, 10 articles were included in this study. Meta-analysis showed that legumain was overexpressed in cancer compared with in normal tissue and was higher in stage III–IV disease than in I–II disease. Moreover, legumain overexpression was correlated with poor prognosis and clinical stage. Furthermore, Cancer Genome Atlas data showed that among patients with rectal cancer, those with tumors overexpressing legumain had shorter overall survival than those in the low expression group (P < 0.05). Legumain appears to be involved in tumor development and deterioration; thus, it can potentially be developed into both a marker for monitoring and diagnosing tumors and a therapeutic target. PMID:26607955

  6. Association between Metformin Therapy and Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ting; Yang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Metformin may be associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the effect of metformin intake on breast cancer risk and mortality. Methods We performed a PubMed and EMbase search for all available studies that described the risk of breast cancer and all-cause mortality in relation to the use of metformin among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pooled relative risks (RRs) were determined using a random effects model to assess the strength of association between metformin and the risk of breast cancer. Results Fifteen articles from PubMed satisfied the inclusion criteria, including a total of 838,333 participants. Compared with the control group, metformin use was not related to a reduced incidence of breast cancer (RR, 0.964; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.761-1.221; p=0.761). However, metformin therapy was associated with decreased all-cause mortality (RR, 0.652; 95% CI, 0.488-0.873; p=0.004). No obvious publication bias was detected (incidence: pBegg=0.755, pEgger=0.008; mortality: pBegg=0.072, pEgger=0.185). Conclusion The present study suggested that metformin therapy may decrease the all-cause mortality of patients affected by breast cancer. However, this finding should be considered carefully and confirmed with further studies. PMID:26472977

  7. Tea and coffee and risk of endometrial cancer: cohort study and meta-analysis1234

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Francesca; Cairns, Benjamin J; Reeves, Gillian K; Beral, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous reports, mostly from retrospective studies, suggested possible protective effects of both tea and coffee against endometrial cancer, but recent reports from prospective studies generally showed weaker or null associations. Objectives: We investigated endometrial cancer risk in relation to tea and coffee consumption in a large prospective study and did a meta-analysis of published results. Design: Daily consumption of tea and coffee was recorded in 560,356 participants (without a hysterectomy) in the UK Million Women Study of whom 4067 women developed endometrial cancer during 5.2 million person-years of follow up (average: 9.3 y per woman). Results: With the use of Cox proportional hazards regression, we showed no significant association between endometrial cancer risk and consumption of either tea (multivariate adjusted RR per cup daily: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.02) or coffee (RR per cup daily: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.01). Our meta-analyses showed no significant association between endometrial cancer risk and tea consumption and a weak association for coffee consumption in prospective studies, but there may have been selective publication of only part of the evidence. Conclusions: There is little or no association between tea consumption and endometrial cancer risk. If there is any association with coffee consumption, it appears to be weak. PMID:25733642

  8. Prognostic Value of Osteopontin Splice Variant-c Expression in Breast Cancers: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Chengcheng; Wang, Zhiyan; Gu, Yanan; Jiang, Wen G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Osteopontin (OPN) is overexpressed in breast cancers, while its clinical and prognostic significance remained unclear. This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of OPN, especially its splice variants, in breast cancers. Methods. Data were extracted from eligible studies concerning the OPN and OPN-c expression in breast cancer patients and were used to calculate the association between OPN/OPN-c and survival. Two reviewer teams independently screened the literatures according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria based on quality evaluation. Following the processes of data extraction, assessment, and transformation, meta-analysis was carried out via RevMan 5.3 software. Results. A total of ten studies involving 1,567 patients were included. The results demonstrated that high level OPN indicated a poor outcome in the OS (HR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.23–4.00, and P = 0.008; random-effects model) with heterogeneity (I2 = 62%) of breast cancer patients. High level OPN-c appeared to be more significantly associated with poor survival (HR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.51–3.04, and P < 0.0001; fixed-effects model) with undetected heterogeneity (I2 = 0%). Conclusions. Our analyses indicated that both OPN and OPN-c could be considered as prognostic markers for breast cancers. The high level of OPN-c was suggested to be more reliably associated with poor survival in breast cancer patients. PMID:27462610

  9. Cholesterol and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Touvier, Mathilde; Fassier, Philippine; His, Mathilde; Norat, Teresa; Chan, Doris S M; Blacher, Jacques; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Latino-Martel, Paule

    2015-08-14

    The objective of the present study was to conduct the first systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies investigating the associations between total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and the risk of breast cancer. Relevant studies were identified in PubMed (up to January 2014). Inclusion criteria were original peer-reviewed publications with a prospective design. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CI. Distinction was made between studies that did or did not exclude cancer cases diagnosed during the first years of follow-up, thereby eliminating potential preclinical bias. Overall, the summary HR for the association between TC and breast cancer risk was 0.97 (95% CI 0.94, 1.00; dose-response per 1 mmol/l increment, thirteen studies), and that between HDL-C and breast cancer risk was 0.86 (95% CI 0.69, 1.09; dose-response per 1 mmol/l increment, six studies), with high heterogeneity (I2= 67 and 47%, respectively). For studies that eliminated preclinical bias, an inverse association was observed between the risk of breast cancer and TC (dose-response HR 0.94 (95% CI 0.89, 0.99), seven studies, I2= 78%; highest v. lowest HR 0.82 (95% CI 0.66, 1.02), nine studies, I2= 81%) and HDL-C (dose-response HR 0.81 (95% CI 0.65, 1.02), five studies, I2= 30 %; highest v. lowest HR 0.82 (95% CI 0.69, 0.98), five studies, I2= 0%). There was no association observed between LDL-C and the risk of breast cancer (four studies). The present meta-analysis confirms the evidence of a modest but statistically significant inverse association between TC and more specifically HDL-C and the risk of breast cancer, supported by mechanistic plausibility from experimental studies. Further large prospective studies that adequately control for preclinical bias are needed to confirm the results on the role of cholesterol level and its fractions in the aetiology of breast cancer. PMID:26173770

  10. Telomere function in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Frías, Cristina; Morán, Alberto; de Juan, Carmen; Ortega, Paloma; Fernández-Marcelo, Tamara; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Torres, Antonio José; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo; Benito, Manuel; Iniesta, Pilar

    2009-10-15

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the western world. Tumour cells acquire the hallmarks of cancer during the carcinogenic selection process. Cell immortality is one of the principal features acquired during this process which involves the stabilization of telomere length. It is achieved mainly, by telomerase activation. Thus, the discovery of telomeres and telomerase allowed an understanding of the mechanisms by which cells can become immortalized. Different studies have shown that tumour cells have shorter telomeres than nontumour cells and have detected telomerase activity in the majority of tumours. Survival studies have determined that telomere maintenance and telomerase activity are associated with poor prognosis. Taking into account all the results achieved by different groups, quantification and evaluation of telomerase activity and measurement of telomere length may be useful methods for additional biologic and prognostic staging of colorectal carcinoma. PMID:21160767

  11. Potential Role of MicroRNA-210 as Biomarker in Human Cancers Detection: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jiongjiong; Xie, Feng; Geng, Li; Shen, Weifeng; Sui, Chengjun; Yang, Jiamei

    2015-01-01

    We conducted this meta-analysis aimed to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of miR-210 in human cancers. A total of 673 cancer patients and 606 cancer-free individuals from 13 studies were contained in this meta-analysis. The overall diagnostic results in our study showed that the pooled sensitivity was 0.70, specificity was 0.76, and the AUC was 0.80. In addition, the PLR and NLR were 2.9 and 0.39, with DOR of 8. After the outliner exclusion detected by sensitivity analysis, these parameters had minimal change, which confirmed the stability of our work. The results in our studies showed that the miR-210 assay yielded relatively moderate accuracy in cancer patients and cancer-free individual differentiation. More basic researches are needed to highlight its role as supplement in clinical treatment. PMID:26446394

  12. Prognostic significance of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in pancreatic cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-Jun; Hu, Zhi-Gao; Shi, Wu-Xiang; Deng, Te; He, Song-Qing; Yuan, Sheng-Guang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a meta-analysis evaluating the association between the peripheral blood neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the outcome of patients with pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Studies evaluating the relationship between the peripheral blood NLR and outcome of patients with pancreatic cancer published up to May 2014 were searched using electronic databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Ovid. A meta-analysis was performed to pool the hazard ratios (HRs) or odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using either a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model to quantitatively assess the prognostic value of NLR and its association with clinicopathological parameters. RESULTS: Eleven studies containing a total of 1804 patients were eligible according to our selection criteria, and combined hazard ratios indicated that high NLR was a poor prognostic marker for pancreatic cancer patients because it had an unfavorable impact on the overall survival (OS) (HR = 2.61, 95%CI: 1.68-4.06, P = 0.000) and cancer specific survival (HR = 1.66, 95%CI: 1.08-2.57, P = 0.021). Subgroup analysis revealed that high NLR was associated with poor OS in patients with mixed treatment (HR = 4.36, 95%CI: 2.50-7.61, P = 0.000), chemotherapy (HR = 2.08, 95%CI: 1.49-2.9, P = 0.000), or surgical resection (HR = 1.2, 95%CI: 1.00-1.44, P = 0.048). Additionally, high NLR was significantly correlated with tumor metastasis (OR = 1.69, 95%CI: 1.10-2.59, P = 0.016), poor tumor differentiation (OR = 2.75, 95%CI: 1.19-6.36, P = 0.016), poor performance status (OR = 2.56, 95%CI: 1.63-4.03, P = 0.000), high cancer antigen 199 (OR = 2.62, 95%CI: 1.49-4.60, P = 0.000), high C-reactive protein (OR = 4.32, 95%CI: 2.71-6.87, P = 0.000), and low albumin (OR = 3.56, 95%CI: 1.37-9.27, P = 0.009). CONCLUSION: High peripheral blood NLR suggested a poor prognosis for patients with pancreatic cancer, and it could be a novel marker of survival evaluation and could help clinicians

  13. Hyperfractionated or Accelerated Radiotherapy in Lung Cancer: An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mauguen, Audrey; Le Péchoux, Cécile; Saunders, Michele I.; Schild, Steven E.; Turrisi, Andrew T.; Baumann, Michael; Sause, William T.; Ball, David; Belani, Chandra P.; Bonner, James A.; Zajusz, Aleksander; Dahlberg, Suzanne E.; Nankivell, Matthew; Mandrekar, Sumithra J.; Paulus, Rebecca; Behrendt, Katarzyna; Koch, Rainer; Bishop, James F.; Dische, Stanley; Arriagada, Rodrigo; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Pignon, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In lung cancer, randomized trials assessing hyperfractionated or accelerated radiotherapy seem to yield conflicting results regarding the effects on overall (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS). The Meta-Analysis of Radiotherapy in Lung Cancer Collaborative Group decided to address the role of modified radiotherapy fractionation. Material and Methods We performed an individual patient data meta-analysis in patients with nonmetastatic lung cancer, which included trials comparing modified radiotherapy with conventional radiotherapy. Results In non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC; 10 trials, 2,000 patients), modified fractionation improved OS as compared with conventional schedules (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.97; P = .009), resulting in an absolute benefit of 2.5% (8.3% to 10.8%) at 5 years. No evidence of heterogeneity between trials was found. There was no evidence of a benefit on PFS (HR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.03; P = .19). Modified radiotherapy reduced deaths resulting from lung cancer (HR = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.98; P = .02), and there was a nonsignificant reduction of non–lung cancer deaths (HR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.15; P = .33). In small-cell lung cancer (SCLC; two trials, 685 patients), similar results were found: OS, HR = 0.87, 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.02, P = .08; PFS, HR = 0.88, 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.03, P = .11. In both NSCLC and SCLC, the use of modified radiotherapy increased the risk of acute esophageal toxicity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.44 in NSCLC and OR = 2.41 in SCLC; P < .001) but did not have an impact on the risk of other acute toxicities. Conclusion Patients with nonmetastatic NSCLC derived a significant OS benefit from accelerated or hyperfractionated radiotherapy; a similar but nonsignificant trend was observed for SCLC. As expected, there was increased acute esophageal toxicity. PMID:22753901

  14. Systemic Treatment of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wolpin, Brian M.; Mayer, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common non-cutaneous malignancy in the United States and the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death. Over the past 12 years, significant progress has been made in the systemic treatment of this malignant condition. Six new chemotherapeutic agents have been introduced, increasing median overall survival for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer from less than 9 months with no treatment to approximately 24 months. For patients with stage III (lymph node positive) colon cancer, an overall survival benefit for fluorouracil-based chemotherapy has been firmly established, and recent data have shown further efficacy for the inclusion of oxaliplatin in such adjuvant treatment programs. For patients with stage II colon cancer, the use of adjuvant chemotherapy remains controversial, but may be appropriate in a subset of individuals at higher risk for disease recurrence. Ongoing randomized clinical trials are evaluating how best to combine currently available therapies, while smaller studies are evaluating new agents, with the goal of continued progress in prolonging life among patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and increasing cure rates among those with resectable disease. PMID:18471507

  15. ADAMTS Expression in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Filou, Serafula; Korpetinou, Aggeliki; Kyriakopoulou, Dora; Bounias, Dimitrios; Stavropoulos, Michael; Ravazoula, Panagiota; Papachristou, Dionysios J.; Theocharis, Achilleas D.; Vynios, Demitrios H.

    2015-01-01

    ADAMTSs are a family of secreted proteinases that share the metalloproteinase domain with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). By acting on a large panel of extracellular substrates, they control several cell functions such as fusion, adhesion, proliferation and migration. Through their thrombospondin motifs they also possess anti-angiogenic properties. We investigated whether ADAMTSs participate in colorectal cancer progression and invasion. Their expression was investigated at both mRNA and protein levels. Using RT-PCR, the expression of ADAMTS-1, -4, -5 and ADAMTS-20 was estimated in colorectal tumors of different cancer stage and anatomic site and 3 cell lines of different aggressiveness. An overexpression of ADAMTS-4 and -5 was observed, especially in tissue samples, whereas ADAMTS-1 and -20 were found to be down-regulated. Western blot analysis further supported the RT-PCR findings, revealing in addition the degradation of ADAMTS-1 and -20 in cancer. In situ expression and localization of ADAMTS-1, -4, -5 and -20 was also investigated by immunohistochemical analysis. Our data suggest a positive correlation between ADAMTS-4 and -5 expression and cancer progression, in contrast with the anti-angiogenic members of the family, ADAMTS-1 and -20, which were found to be down-regulated. Our findings support the notion that overexpression of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 in colorectal cancer might be a possible invasive mechanism of cancer cells in order to degrade proteoglycans of ECM. PMID:25786261

  16. Migraine and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of observational studies based on MOOSE compliant.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiujuan; Wang, Minghao; Li, Shifei; Zhang, Yi

    2016-07-01

    It has long been speculated that migraine may contribute to an increased risk of breast cancer; however, results from previous studies have been inconclusive. To definitively interrogate this issue, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the correlation between these 2 diseases.Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant studies that had been published until October 2015. Based on a random effects model, relative risk (RR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the pooled risk.A total of 7 studies involving 17,776 cases and 162,954 participants were included. Our study revealed that there was an inverse relationship between migraine and total breast cancer risk, with RR (95%CI) was 0.78 (0.66, 0.92). In subgroup-analysis, such an inverse relationship was also identified in the ductal and lobular carcinoma, case-control studies, and the ER/PR breast cancer. Little evidence indicative of a publication bias was uncovered.In conclusion, our study implicates a statistically significant inverse association between migraine and the risk of breast cancer. However, larger prospective cohort studies concerning other geographic populations to assess the association between migraine and the breast cancer risk are warranted. PMID:27472675

  17. Association between Tooth Loss and Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hong; Zhao, Ke; Huang, Guang-Lei; Luo, Si-Yang; Peng, Ju-Xiang; Song, Ju-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Observational studies showed that tooth loss is associated with gastric cancer, but the findings are inconsistent. In this study, a meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between tooth loss and gastric cancer. Relevant studies were screened in PubMed and Embase databases, and nine observational studies were considered eligible for the analysis. The combined relative risks for the highest versus the lowest categories of tooth loss were 1.86 (95% CI: 1.08–3.21) and 1.31 (95% CI: 1.12–1.53) in case control and cohort studies, respectively. However, unstable results were observed in the stratified and sensitivity analysis. The current evidence, based solely on four case-control studies and five cohort studies, suggested that tooth loss is a potential marker of gastric cancer. However, we can not concluded at this time that tooth loss may be a risk factor for gastric cancer due to significant heterogeneity among studies and mixed results between case-control studies and cohort studies. Additional large-scale and high-quality prospective studies are required to evaluate the association between tooth loss and risk of gastric cancer. PMID:26934048

  18. Aspirin use and risk of breast cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shanliang; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yu, Dandan; Tang, Jinhai; Zhao, Jianhua

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies concerning the association between aspirin use and breast cancer risk yielded inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate the association by meta-analysis. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for relevant studies. We calculated the summary relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using random-effects models. Seventeen cohort studies and 15 case-control studies were included. The overall result showed that aspirin use decreased risk of breast cancer (RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85-0.95). However, there was evidence of publication bias and heterogeneity and the association disappeared after correction using the trim-and-fill method. When stratified by study design, a significant benefit for aspirin users was only found in population-based and hospital-based case-control studies but not in cohort or nest case-control studies. Further subgroup analyses showed that aspirin use could decrease risk of in situ breast tumors or hormone receptor-positive tumors and reduce risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Aspirin use may not affect overall risk of breast cancer, but decrease risk of in situ breast tumors or hormone receptor-positive tumors and reduce risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Considering between-study significant heterogeneity and publication bias, confirmation in future studies is also essential. PMID:26315555

  19. Association between pesticide exposure and risk of kidney cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo; Hu, Yingfang; Liang, Zhen; Liu, Ben; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the correlation between pesticide exposure and kidney cancer. We conducted a systematic search of the Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Medline (updated to March 1, 2015) to identify all relevant studies. References of the retrieved articles were also identified. Fixed- or random-effect models were used to summarize the estimates of relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval for the association between exposure of pesticide and risk of kidney cancer. The pooled RR estimate indicated that pesticide exposure might have an elevated risk for kidney cancer (RR =1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.19). In a subgroup analysis of high quality articles, we detected that pesticide exposure is a significant risk factor for kidney cancer in a subgroup analysis of case-control studies, (Newcastle–Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale score >6) (RR =1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.12–1.51). North America studies, odds ratio studies, and studies with effect estimate adjusted for more than two confounder studies. In conclusion, pesticide exposure may be a risk factor for kidney cancer. PMID:27418833

  20. Occupational Exposure to Asbestos and Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, M. Constanza; Straif, Kurt; Reina, Margarita; Al-Alem, Umaima; Demers, Paul A.; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A recent Monographs Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is sufficient evidence for a causal association between exposure to asbestos and ovarian cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate this association. Data sources: Searches of PubMed and unpublished data yielded a total of 18 cohort studies of women occupationally exposed to asbestos. Data extraction: Two authors independently abstracted data; any disagreement was resolved by consulting a third reviewer. Data synthesis: All but one study reported standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) comparing observed numbers of deaths with expected numbers for the general population; the exception was a study that reported standardized incidence ratios. For simplicity, we refer to all effect estimates as SMRs. The overall pooled SMR estimate for ovarian cancer was 1.77 (95% confidence interval, 1.37–2.28), with a moderate degree of heterogeneity among the studies (I2 = 35.3%, p = 0.061). Effect estimates were stronger for cohorts compensated for asbestosis, cohorts with estimated lung cancer SMRs > 2.0, and studies conducted in Europe compared with other geographic regions. Effect estimates were similar for studies with and without pathologic confirmation, and we found no evidence of publication bias (Egger’s test p-value = 0.162). Conclusions: Our study supports the IARC conclusion that exposure to asbestos is associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer. PMID:21642044

  1. Statin use and breast cancer survival and risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Zhu, Jingjing; Qian, Ke-Qing; Li, Wen-Jing; Wu, Lang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the associations between statin use and breast cancer survival and risk by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science up to August 2015 for identifying relevant prospective or case-control studies, or randomized clinical trials. Five prospective studies involving 60,911 patients reported the association between statin use and breast cancer mortality. Eleven prospective studies, 12 case-control studies and 9 randomized clinical trials involving 83,919 patients reported the association between statin use and breast cancer risk. After pooling estimates from all available studies, there was a significantly negative association between pre-diagnosis statin use and breast cancer mortality (for overall survival (OS): hazard ratio (HR) = 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54–0.84; for disease specific survival (DSS): HR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.53–0.99). There was also a significant inverse association between post-diagnosis statin use and breast cancer DSS (HR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.43–0.98), although the association with breast cancer OS did not reach statistical significance (HR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.48–1.07). Additionally, there was a non-linear relationship for the duration of post-diagnosis statin use with breast cancer specific mortality. On the other hand, with regards to the relationship between statin use and breast cancer risk, no significant association was detected. Our analyses suggest that although statin use may not influence breast cancer risk, the use of statin may be associated with decrease mortality of breast cancer patients. Further large-scale studies are warranted to validate our findings. PMID:26472026

  2. Risks on N-acetyltransferase 2 and bladder cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zongheng; Zhang, Jinshan; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Xianjue; Li, Youkong; Xu, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Background It is known that bladder cancer disease is closely related to aromatic amine compounds, which could cause cancer by regulating of N-acetylation and N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2). The NAT2 slowed acetylation and would increase the risk of bladder cancer, with tobacco smoke being regarded as a risk factor for this increased risk. However, the relationship between NAT2 slow acetylation and bladder cancer is still debatable at present. This study aims to explore preliminarily correlation of NAT2 slow acetylation and the risk of bladder cancer. Methods The articles were searched from PubMed, Cochran, McGrane English databases, CBM, CNKI, and other databases. The extraction of bladder cancer patients and a control group related with the NAT2 gene were detected by the state, and the referenced articles and publications were also used for data retrieval. Using a random effects model, the model assumes that the studies included in the analysis cases belong to the overall population in the study of random sampling, and considering the variables within and between studies. Data were analyzed using STATA Version 6.0 software, using the META module. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the literature study, 20 independent studies are included in this meta-analysis. Results The results showed that the individual differences of bladder cancer susceptibility might be part of the metabolism of carcinogens. Slow acetylation status of bladder cancer associated with the pooled odds ratio was 1.31 (95% confidence interval: 1.11–1.55). Conclusion The status of NAT2 slow N-acetylation is associated with bladder cancer risks, and may increase the risk of bladder cancer. PMID:26715854

  3. Percentage of Adults Who Receive Colorectal Cancer Screening as Appropriate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Appropriate Percentage of Adults Who Receive Colorectal Cancer Screening as Appropriate Colorectal cancer is the second leading ... Percentage of Adults Who Receive Recommended Colorectal Cancer Screening by Age Group 78pm-ubty Download these data » ...

  4. What's New in Colorectal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Additional resources for colorectal cancer What’s new in colorectal cancer research? Research is always going ... ways to find colorectal cancer early by studying new types of screening tests and improving the ones ...

  5. The association between deficient manganese levels and breast cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Fei; Cai, Wen-Song; Li, Jiang-Lin; Feng, Zhe; Cao, Jie; Xu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    There are conflicting reports on the correlation between manganese (Mn) levels and breast cancer. The purpose of the present study is to clarify the association between Mn levels and breast cancer using a meta-analysis approach. We searched articles indexed in Pubmed and the Chinese Journal Full-text Database (CJFD) published as of August 2014 that met our predefined criteria. Eleven eligible studies involving 1302 subjects were identified. Overall, pooled analysis indicated that subjects with breast cancer had lower Mn levels than the healthy controls (SMD = -1.51, 95% CI = [-2.47, -0.56]). Further subgroup analysis found a similar pattern in China (SMD = -1.32, 95% CI = [-2.33, -0.32]) and Korea (SMD = -4.08, 95% CI = [-4.63, -3.54]), but not in Turkey (SMD = -0.96, 95% CI = [-3.19, 1.27]). Further subgroup analysis also found a similar pattern in different sample specimens (serum: SMD = -1.24, 95% CI = [-2.31, -0.16]; hair: SMD = -1.99, 95% CI = [-3.91, -0.06]) and different types of Mn measurement (inductively coupled plasma-atomic absorption spectrometry (ICP-AAS): SMD = -1.14, 95% CI = [-2.24, -0.04]; graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS): SMD = -1.94, 95% CI = [-2.38, -1.49]; inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES): SMD = -3.77, 95% CI = [-4.70, -2.85]). No evidence of publication bias was observed. In conclusion, this meta-analysis supports a significant association between deficient Mn levels and breast cancer. However, the subgroup analysis found that there was contradiction regarding races and geography, like China and Turkey. Thus this finding needs further confirmation by trans-regional multicenter, long-term observation in a cohort design to obtain better understanding of causal relationships between Mn levels and breast cancer, through measuring Mn at baseline to investigate whether the highest Mn category versus lowest was associated with breast cancer risk. PMID:26064262

  6. Genetic Variants Associated with Breast Cancer Risk: Comprehensive Field Synopsis, Meta-Analysis, and Epidemiologic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ben; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Long, Jirong; Zheng, Wei

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Over 1,000 reports have been published during the past two decades on associations between genetic variants in candidate genes and breast cancer risk. Results have been generally inconsistent. We conducted literature searches and meta-analyses to provide a field synopsis of the current understanding of the genetic architecture of breast cancer risk. Methods Systematic literature searches for candidate gene association studies of breast cancer risk were conducted in two stages using PubMed on or before February 28, 2010. A total of 24,500 publications were identified, of which, 1,059 were deemed eligible for inclusion. Meta-analyses were conducted for 279 genetic variants in 128 candidate genes or chromosomal loci that had a minimum of three data sources available. Variants with significant associations by meta-analysis were assessed using the Venice criteria and scored as having strong, moderate, or weak cumulative evidence for an association with breast cancer risk. Findings Fifty-one variants in 40 genes showed statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk. Cumulative epidemiologic evidence for an association with breast cancer risk was graded as strong for 10 variants in six genes (ATM, CASP8, CHEK2, CTLA4, NBN, and TP53), moderate for four variants in four genes (ATM, CYP19A1, TERT, and XRCC3), and weak for 37 additional variants. Additionally, in meta-analyses that included a minimum of 10,000 cases and 10,000 controls, convincing evidence of no association with breast cancer risk was identified for 45 variants in 37 genes. Interpretation While most genetic variants evaluated in previous candidate gene studies showed no association with breast cancer risk in meta-analyses, 14 variants in 9 genes were found to have moderate to strong evidence for an association with breast cancer risk. Further evaluation of these variants is warranted. PMID:21514219

  7. Association between vitamin D receptor poly(A) polymorphism and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinjiang; Li, Hongyu; Gu, Lixue; Zhou, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) poly(A) is a common genetic polymorphism in the VDR gene, and it has been implicated to be associated with breast cancer risk. However, previous studies on the association reported inconclusive results. We performed this meta-analysis to comprehensively assess the association. Eligible studies were searched in PubMed and EMBASE databases. Odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were used for statistical analysis. A total 6,631 cases and 6,718 controls from 11 case-control studies were finally included into the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of total eligible studies showed that VDR poly(A) polymorphism was not associated with the risk of breast cancer (S versus L: OR = 0.99, 95% CI of 0.90-1.09, P = 0.84; SS versus LL: OR = 0.96, 95% CI of 0.79-1.18, P = 0.70; SS/LS versus LL: OR = 0.96, 95% CI of 0.83-1.12, P = 0.63; SS versus LL/LS: OR = 1.00, 95% CI of 0.91-1.10, P = 0.98). Meta-analysis of studies with high quality also showed that there was no association between VDR poly(A) polymorphism and breast cancer risk. In addition, in the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, no significant association was found among Caucasians. Therefore, the meta-analysis suggests that VDR poly(A) polymorphism is not associated with the risk of breast cancer. Large well-designed studies are necessary to clarify the possible association in Asians. PMID:24037913

  8. Ovarian metastasis from colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Birnkrant, A; Sampson, J; Sugarbaker, P H

    1986-11-01

    Controversies exist regarding the surgical treatment of the ovaries in women with primary colorectal cancer. A review of the authors' experience and the surgical literature reveals an incidence of ovarian metastases from colorectal cancer of approximately 6 percent. This problem may occur somewhat more frequently in premenopausal women. Resection of the ovaries at the time of colectomy is unlikely to affect survival. Removal of the ovaries at the time of bowel resection will prevent repeat laparotomy to resect an ovarian mass in approximately 2 percent of women with large bowel cancer. Oophorectomy should be performed in all postmenopausal females at the time of primary resection. Oophorectomy should be performed in premenopausal women if any gross abnormality of the ovary is detected or if peritoneal implants are seen at the time of primary resection. PMID:3533472

  9. Tai chi chuan exercise for patients with breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuanqing; Yang, Kehu; Shi, Xiue; Liang, Haiqian; Zhang, Fengwa; Lv, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) is a form of aerobic exercise that may be an effective therapy for improving psychosomatic capacity among breast cancer survivors. This meta-analysis analyzed the available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of TCC in relieving treatment-related side effects and quality of life in women with breast cancer. Methods. RCTs were searched in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library through April 2014. Data were analyzed on pathology (pain, interleukin-6, and insulin-like growth factor 1), physical capacity (handgrip, limb physical fitness, and BMI), and well-being (physical, social, emotional, and general quality of life). Results. Nine RCTs, including a total of 322 breast cancer patients, were examined. Compared with control therapies, the pooled results suggested that TCC showed significant effects in improving handgrip dynamometer strength, limb elbow flexion (elbow extension, abduction, and horizontal adduction). No significant differences were observed in pain, interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor, BMI, physical well-being, social or emotional well-being, or general health-related quality of life. Conclusion. The short-term effects of TCC may have potential benefits in upper limb functional mobility in patients with breast cancer. Additional randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up are needed to provide more reliable evidence. PMID:25793000

  10. Prognostic Indications of Elevated MCT4 and CD147 across Cancer Types: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bovenzi, Cory D.; Hamilton, James; Tassone, Patrick; Johnson, Jennifer; Cognetti, David M.; Luginbuhl, Adam; Keane, William M.; Zhan, Tingting; Tuluc, Madalina; Bar-Ad, Voichita; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo; Curry, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Metabolism in the tumor microenvironment can play a critical role in tumorigenesis and tumor aggression. Metabolic coupling may occur between tumor compartments; this phenomenon can be prognostically significant and may be conserved across tumor types. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) play an integral role in cellular metabolism via lactate transport and have been implicated in metabolic synergy in tumors. The transporters MCT1 and MCT4 are regulated via expression of their chaperone, CD147. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of existing publications on the relationship between MCT1, MCT4, and CD147 expression and overall survival and disease-free survival in cancer, using hazard ratios derived via multivariate Cox regression analyses. Results. Increased MCT4 expressions in the tumor microenvironment, cancer cells, or stromal cells were all associated with decreased overall survival and decreased disease-free survival (p < 0.001 for all analyses). Increased CD147 expression in cancer cells was associated with decreased overall survival and disease-free survival (p < 0.0001 for both analyses). Few studies were available on MCT1 expression; MCT1 expression was not clearly associated with overall or disease-free survival. Conclusion. MCT4 and CD147 expression correlate with worse prognosis across many cancer types. These results warrant further investigation of these associations. PMID:26779534

  11. Association between two CHRNA3 variants and susceptibility of lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiao; Wang, Kai; Dong, Wei; Shen, Hongchang; Wang, Ying; Liu, Qi; Du, Jiajun

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified two CHRNA3 polymorphisms (rs578776 and rs938682) associated with lung cancer risk. Furthermore, these polymorphisms were investigated and genotyped by PCR analysis. All eligible case-control studies published up to Mar 1st 2015 were identified by searching Pubmed and Embase database. Negative association between rs578776-T allele and risk of lung cancer was obtained without obvious heterogeneity (OR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.79-0.86; p = 0.898 for Q test). Rs938682-C allele carriers had a 12% to 28% decreased risk. Genotype model analysis showed results of dominant model for rs578776 (OR with 95% CI: 0.839(0.718-0.981)), dominant model for rs938682 (OR with 95% CI: 0.778(0.663-0.912)) and homozygous model for rs938682 (OR with 95% CI: 0.767(0.708-0.831)) were statistically significant. Subgroup analysis indicated rs578776-T variant had protective effect in Smokers, Caucasians, two histology subgroups, and two match subgroups. Meanwhile, rs938682-C allele was associated with decreased risk in Smokers, Caucasians, Lung cancer, and two match subgroups. Meta-regression suggested ethnicity might be the major source of heterogeneity in allele model and homozygous model for rs938682. Moreover, smoking status might contribute to part of heterogeneity under allele model. In summary, this meta-analysis suggested both rs578776 and rs938682 were significantly associated with the susceptibility of lung cancer. PMID:26831765

  12. Smoking Before the First Pregnancy and the Risk of Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    DeRoo, Lisa A.; Cummings, Peter; Mueller, Beth A.

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a meta-analysis of the association between smoking before a first pregnancy, when undifferentiated breast tissue may be vulnerable to tobacco carcinogens, and the risk of breast cancer. A search of the published literature through August 2010 identified 23 papers reporting on associations between smoking before a first pregnancy and breast cancer. Odds ratios or hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for known or suspected breast cancer risk factors, were abstracted from each study. Data were pooled using both fixed- and random-effects models. The fixed-effect summary risk ratio for breast cancer among the women who smoked before their first pregnancy versus women who had never smoked was 1.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.14); the random-effects estimate was similar. The separate fixed-effect risk ratios for smoking only before the first pregnancy (5 studies) or only after the first pregnancy (16 studies) were both 1.07, providing no evidence that breast tissue is more susceptible to malignant transformation from smoking before the first pregnancy. While these small summary risk ratios may represent causal effects, residual confounding could readily produce estimates of this size in the absence of any causal effect. PMID:21719745

  13. Effect of exercise on cancer-related fatigue: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Deborah; Diorio, Caroline; Beyene, Joseph; Sung, Lillian

    2014-08-01

    Numerous randomized controlled trials have been conducted to determine efficacy of exercise on cancer-related fatigue. However, many trials lacked sufficient power to demonstrate significant differences, and little is known about how the effect of exercise differs depending on patient- and intervention-level characteristics. A meta-analysis was performed to determine whether exercise reduces fatigue compared with usual care or nonexercise control intervention in patients with cancer. The authors searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and CINAHL. Two authors independently extracted the data. Randomized controlled trials comparing exercise with control intervention in cancer patients in which fatigue was quantified were eligible. Seventy-two randomized controlled trials were identified, 71 in adults and 1 in children. Exercise had a moderate effect on reducing fatigue compared with control intervention. Exercise also improved depression and sleep disturbance. Type of exercise did not significantly influence the effect on fatigue, depression, or sleep disturbance. Exercise effect was larger in the studies published 2009 or later. There was only one pediatric study. The results of this study suggest that exercise is effective for the management of cancer-related fatigue. PMID:24743466

  14. Occupational exposures and colorectal cancers: A quantitative overview of epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Oddone, Enrico; Modonesi, Carlo; Gatta, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    A traditional belief widespread across the biomedical community was that dietary habits and genetic predisposition were the basic factors causing colorectal cancer. In more recent times, however, a growing evidence has shown that other determinants can be very important in increasing (or reducing) incidence of this malignancy. The hypothesis that environmental and occupational risk factors are associated with colorectal cancer is gaining ground, and high risks of colorectal cancer have been reported among workers in some industrial branches. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic relationship between colorectal cancer and occupational exposures to several industrial activities, by means of a scientific literature review and meta-analysis. This work pointed out increased risks of colorectal cancer for labourers occupied in industries with a wide use of chemical compounds, such as leather (RR = 1.70, 95%CI: 1.24-2.34), basic metals (RR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.07-1.65), plastic and rubber manufacturing (RR = 1.30, 95%CI: 0.98-1.71 and RR = 1.27, 95%CI: 0.92-1.76, respectively), besides workers in the sector of repair and installation of machinery exposed to asbestos (RR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.07-1.84). Based on our results, the estimated crude excess risk fraction attributable to occupational exposure ranged from about 11% to about 15%. However, homogeneous pattern of association between colorectal cancer and industrial branches did not emerge from this review. PMID:25253943

  15. Serum IL-10 Predicts Worse Outcome in Cancer Patients: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pin; Wang, Zhen; Huang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background IL–10 is an important immunosuppressive cytokine which is frequently elevated in tumor microenvironment. Some studies have reported that overexpression of serous IL–10 is correlated with worse outcome in patients with malignant tumor. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the prognostic impact of serous IL–10 expression in cancer patients. Methods We searched PubMed and EBSCO for studies in evaluating the association of IL–10 expression—in serum and clinical outcome in cancer patients. Overall survival (OS) was the primary prognostic indicator and disease-free survival (DFS) was the secondary indicator. Extracted data were computed into odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) or a P value for survival at 1, 3 and 5 years. Pooled data were weighted using the Mantel–Haenszel Fixed-effect model. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results A total of 1788 patients with cancer from 21 published studies were incorporated into this meta-analysis. High level of serum IL–10 was significantly associated with worse OS at 1-year (OR = 3.70, 95% CI = 2.81 to 4.87, P < 0.00001), 3-year (OR = 3.33, 95% CI = 2.53 to 4.39, P < 0.0001) and 5-year (OR = 2.80, 95% CI = 1.90 to 4.10, P < 0.0001) of cancer. Subgroup analysis showed that the correlation between serous IL–10 expression and outcome of patients with solid tumors and hematological malignancies are consistent. The association of IL–10 with worse DFS at 1-year (OR = 3.34, 95% CI = 1.40 to 7.94, P = 0.006) and 2-year (OR = 3.91, 95% CI = 1.79 to 8.53, P = 0.0006) was also identified. Conclusions High expression of serous IL–10 leads to an adverse survival in most types of cancer. IL–10 is a valuable biomarker for prognostic prediction and targeting IL–10 treatment options for both solid tumors and hematological malignancies. PMID:26440936

  16. Calcium intake and breast cancer risk: meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Hidayat, Khemayanto; Chen, Guo-Chong; Zhang, Ru; Du, Xuan; Zou, Sheng-Yi; Shi, Bi-Min; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Findings from observational studies have suggested a possible relation between Ca and breast cancer risk. However, the results of these studies are inconclusive, and the dose-response relationship between Ca intake and risk of breast cancer remains to be determined. A meta-analysis of prospective studies was conducted to address these issues. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for relevant studies concerning the association between Ca intake and breast cancer up to March 2016. The summary relative risks (RR) with 95 % CI were calculated with a random-effects model. The final analysis included eleven prospective cohort studies involving 26 606 cases and 872 895 participants. The overall RR of breast cancer for high v. low intake of Ca was 0·92 (95 % CI 0·85, 0·99), with moderate heterogeneity (P=0·026, I 2=44·2 %). In the subgroup analysis, the inverse association appeared stronger for premenopausal breast cancer (RR 0·75; 95 % CI 0·59, 0·96) than for postmenopausal breast cancer (RR 0·94; 95 % CI 0·87, 1·01). Dose-response analysis revealed that each 300 mg/d increase in Ca intake was associated with 2 % (RR 0·98; 95 % CI 0·96, 0·99), 8 % (RR 0·92; 95 % CI 0·87, 0·98) and 2 % (RR 0·98; 95 % CI 0·97, 0·99) reduction in the risk of total, premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer, respectively. Our findings suggest an inverse dose-response association between Ca intake and risk of breast cancer. PMID:27170091

  17. The relationship between altered mitochondrial DNA copy number and cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jia; Tian, Geng; Liu, Shuang; Li, Xianglin; Ni, Tianhui; Zhang, Liwei; Wang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Currently, a comprehensive assessment between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and cancer risk is lacking. We designed this meta-analysis to test the hypothesis that altered mtDNA copy number might influence genetic susceptibility to some specific types of cancer. The processes of literature search, eligibility appraisal and data retrieval were independently completed in duplicate. The mtDNA copy number which was dichotomized or classified into tertiles was compared between cancer cases and controls. Twenty-six articles with 38 study groups were analyzed among 6682 cases and 9923 controls. When dichotomizing mtDNA copy number at the median value, there was an 11% increased cancer risk for carriers of high mtDNA content (P = 0.320). By cancer type, high mtDNA content was associated with an increased risk for lymphoma (OR = 1.76; P = 0.023) but a reduced risk for skeleton cancer (OR = 0.39; P = 0.001). Carriers of the 2(nd) and 3(rd) tertiles of mtDNA copy number had an 1.74-fold (P = 0.010) and 2.07-fold (P = 0.021) increased risk of lymphoma, respectively. By contrast, there was correspondingly a 56% (P < 0.001) and 80% (P < 0.001) reduced risk of skeleton cancer. Our findings suggested that elevated mtDNA content was associated with a higher risk for lymphoma, but a lower risk for skeleton cancer. PMID:25952580

  18. Statin use and mortality of patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yang; Liao, Yan-Biao; Xu, Peng; Wei, Wu-Ran; Wang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of statin use on the mortality of patients with prostate cancer (PCa). Methods An electronic search of PubMed, Embase, and CENTRAL databases from inception to August 2015 was performed to find eligible studies. Articles investigating the association between statin use and mortality of PCa were identified. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random- or fixed-effects models. Results In total, 13 studies that enrolled 100,536 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Results showed that prediagnostic statin use had a significantly lower risk of both all-cause mortality (ACM; HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.38–0.83) and PCa-specific mortality (PCSM; HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.36–0.77). Similarly, postdiagnostic statin use was correlated with reductions in both ACM (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.69–0.87) and PCSM (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.52–0.79). When stratified by primary treatment, postdiagnostic use of statins had a 0.4-fold lower risk of ACM in patients with PCa who were treated with local therapy; both pre- and postdiagnostic use of statins was correlated with a significantly lower risk of PCSM in patients who were treated with androgen deprivation therapy. Conclusion Both pre- and postdiagnostic use of statins is associated with better overall survival and PCa-specific survival. This suggests a need for randomized controlled trials of statins in patients with PCa. PMID:27051303

  19. Breastfeeding and the incidence of endometrial cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Baojian; Liu, Xiaoqin; Li, Fang; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2015-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between breastfeeding and endometrial cancer (EC). However, the results of the studies are controversial. Thus, we conduct this meta-analysis to explore the association between breastfeeding and EC and to evaluate the possible does-response relationship between duration of breastfeeding and EC. PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, China biology medical literature database, Wan fang databases and Database of Chinese Scientific and Technical Periodicals were searched for eligible observational studies up to 11 July 2015. Random effects model was used to calculate the pooled relative risks (RRs) and restricted cubic spline model was adopted for the does-response analysis. Fifteen articles with 623570 participants were identified. The RRs of these studies suggested that breastfeeding was associated with the reduced risk of EC (high versus low/no: RR = 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.58–0.95). In subgroup analyses, a significant association of breastfeeding with EC risk was found in Asia (RR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.37–0.87), and an inverse association of breastfeeding with EC risk was found in cohort studies (RR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.41–0.94). The results were also significant after adjusted for hormone use (RR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.41–0.97) and body mass index (RR=0.65, 95% CI 0.44–0.96). A linear relationship was found of breastfeeding with EC (p for nonlinearity = 0.93), and it indicated that EC risk decreased by 1.2% for one month increment of breastfeeding. This meta-analysis indicates that long term breastfeeding might be associated with decreased risk of EC. PMID:26384296

  20. Dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer risk: dose-response meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Luo; Hou, Rui; Gong, Ting-Ting; Wu, Qi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have provided controversial evidence of the association between dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer (EC) risk. To address this inconsistency, we conducted this dose-response meta-analysis by total dietary fat intake, based on epidemiological studies published up to the end of June 2015 identified from PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science. Two authors (RH and Q-JW) independently performed the eligibility evaluation and data extraction. All differences were resolved by discussion with the third investigator (LJ). Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, the search yielded 16 studies (6 cohort and 10 case-control studies) that involved a total of 7556 EC cases and 563,781 non-cases. The summary RR for EC for each 30g/day increment intake was 0.98 (95%CI = 0.95–1.001; I2 = 0%; n = 11) for total dietary fat. Non-significant results were observed in plant-based fat (summary RR = 1.05, 95%CI = 0.94–1.18; I2 = 0%; n = 5) and animal-based fat (summary RR = 1.17, 95%CI = 0.92–1.36; I2 = 85.0%; n = 6). Additionally, the null associations were observed in almost all the subgroup and sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, findings of the present meta-analysis suggested a lack of association between total dietary fat intake and EC risk. Further studies, especially prospective designed studies are warranted to confirm our findings. PMID:26568366

  1. Wine drinking and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Seung; Shouten, Leo J.; Larsson, Susanna C.; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Kim, Yong Beom; Ju, Woong; Park, Noh Hyun; Song, Yong Sang; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kang, Soon-Beom

    2010-01-01

    Objective Wine has been the focus in the prevention of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) development because resveratrol abundant in wine has anti-carcinogenic properties. However, epidemiologic results have been heterogenous in the chemopreventive effect of wine on the development of EOC. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis for comparing EOC risk between wine and never drinkers using previous related studies. Methods After extensive search of the literature between January 1986 and December 2008, we analyzed 10 studies (3 cohort and 7 case control studies) with 135,871 women, who included 65,578 of wine and 70,293 of never drinkers. Results In all studies, there was no significant difference in EOC risk between wine and never drinkers (odds ratio [OR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 1.38; random effects). When we performed re-analysis according to the study design, 3 cohort and 7 case control studies showed that there were also no significant differences in EOC risk between wine and never drinkers, respectively (OR, 1.44 and 1.04; 95% CI, 0.74 and 2.82 and 0.88 to 1.22; random effects). In sub-analyses using 2 case-control studies, EOC risk was not different between former and never drinkers (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.44; fixed effect), and between current and former drinkers (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.41 to 1.34; random effects). Conclusion Although resveratrol, abundantly found in wine, is a promising naturally occurring compound with chemopreventive properties on EOC in preclinical studies, this meta-analysis suggests the epidemiologic evidence shows no association between wine drinking and EOC risk. PMID:20613902

  2. Single Gene Prognostic Biomarkers in Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Scooter; Villalobos, Victor M.; Gevaert, Olivier; Abramovitz, Mark; Williams, Casey; Sikic, Branimir I.; Leyland-Jones, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To discover novel prognostic biomarkers in ovarian serous carcinomas. Methods A meta-analysis of all single genes probes in the TCGA and HAS ovarian cohorts was performed to identify possible biomarkers using Cox regression as a continuous variable for overall survival. Genes were ranked by p-value using Stouffer’s method and selected for statistical significance with a false discovery rate (FDR) <.05 using the Benjamini-Hochberg method. Results Twelve genes with high mRNA expression were prognostic of poor outcome with an FDR <.05 (AXL, APC, RAB11FIP5, C19orf2, CYBRD1, PINK1, LRRN3, AQP1, DES, XRCC4, BCHE, and ASAP3). Twenty genes with low mRNA expression were prognostic of poor outcome with an FDR <.05 (LRIG1, SLC33A1, NUCB2, POLD3, ESR2, GOLPH3, XBP1, PAXIP1, CYB561, POLA2, CDH1, GMNN, SLC37A4, FAM174B, AGR2, SDR39U1, MAGT1, GJB1, SDF2L1, and C9orf82). Conclusion A meta-analysis of all single genes identified thirty-two candidate biomarkers for their possible role in ovarian serous carcinoma. These genes can provide insight into the drivers or regulators of ovarian cancer and should be evaluated in future studies. Genes with high expression indicating poor outcome are possible therapeutic targets with known antagonists or inhibitors. Additionally, the genes could be combined into a prognostic multi-gene signature and tested in future ovarian cohorts. PMID:26886260

  3. Household air pollution and cancers other than lung: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Josyula, Sowmya; Lin, Juan; Xue, Xiaonan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Rohan, Thomas E; Hosgood, H Dean

    2015-01-01

    Household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel combustion contributes to 2.6% of the global burden of disease. HAP emissions are an established lung carcinogen; however, associations with other cancer sites have not been fully explored. We conducted a meta-analysis of 18 case-control studies. Using fixed-effects models, utilizing the adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) from each study, we evaluated the association between HAP and cervical neoplasia (663 cases and 1747 controls) and upper aero-digestive tract cancers (6022 cases and 15 325 controls). We found that HAP was associated with cervical neoplasia (OR = 6.46; 95% CI = 3.12-13.36; 4 studies); oral (OR = 2.44; 95% CI = 1.87-3.19; 4 studies; 1000 cases/3450 controls); nasopharyngeal (OR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.42-2.29; 6 studies; 2231 cases/2160 controls); pharyngeal (OR = 3.56; 95% CI = 2.22-5.70; 4 studies; 1036 cases/3746 controls); and laryngeal (OR = 2.35; 95% CI = 1.72- 3.21; 5 studies; 1416 cases/4514 controls) cancers. The elevated risk for esophageal cancer (OR = 1.92; 95% CI = 0.82-4.49; 2 studies; 339 cases/1455 controls) was non-significant. HAP was associated with cervical neoplasia among studies that accounted for HPV infection (OR = 9.60; 95% CI = 3.79-24.32) and smoking (OR = 4.72; 95% CI = 1.84-12.07). Similarly, our observed associations between HAP and upper aero-digestive tract cancers remained significantly elevated when analyses were restricted to studies that controlled for smoking. No significant publication bias was detected. Our results suggest that the carcinogenic effect of HAP observed for lung cancer may extend to other cancers, including those of the cervix and the upper aero-digestive tract. Further research is needed to confirm these associations in prospective studies. PMID:25890249

  4. Metformin and lung cancer risk of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, NING; ZHANG, YUANYUAN; GONG, YI; HE, JIAN; CHEN, XIAODONG

    2015-01-01

    The association between metformin and the lung cancer risk of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains controversial. Therefore, the present meta-analysis on epidemiological studies was performed to explore this issue. A comprehensive literature search was conducted for all the potential studies addressing metformin use and lung cancer risk by utilizing Pubmed, CBM and ISI Web of Science using the Mesh terms: ‘Metformin,’ or ‘biguanides’ and ‘lung cancer,’ or ‘neoplasms’. The reference lists were also inspected. Eight observational studies, including 17,997 lung cancer patients, were eventually selected, which contained seven case-control and one cohort study. Compared to other antidiabetic agents, metformin was significantly associated with the 16% reduction of lung cancer risk in type 2 diabetic patients [relative risk (RR)=0.84; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.73-0.97]. In the sensitivity analysis by separately excluding the study with a high weight or lower quality, the results did not materially change. Subsequently, subgroup analysis was performed on the type of study design, unadjusted or adjusted hazard ratio, quality of enrolled studies, duration of treatment, country and control drugs. The magnitude of lung cancer risk reduction was strengthened when compared to sulfonylureas (RR=0.79; 95% CI, 0.83-0.9), without significant heterogeneity (Q-value=2.98, P=0.085). In conclusion, the present analysis supported that the use of metformin significantly decreased the risk of lung cancer among patients with T2DM. However, further studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:26075077

  5. CYP1A2 rs762551 polymorphism contributes to risk of lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zheng; Guo, Wei; Gong, Taiqian; Niu, Hui-Jun; Wang, Ru-Wen; Jiang, Yao-Guang

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies proposed that CYP1A2 rs762551 polymorphism might be associated with risk of lung cancer by influencing the function of CYP1A2. However, previous studies on the association between CYP1A2 rs762551 polymorphism and risk of lung cancer reported inconsistent findings. We performed a meta-analysis of the published case-control studies to assess the association between CYP1A2 rs762551 polymorphism and risk of lung cancer. PubMed and Embase were searched to identify relevant studies on the association between CYP1A2 rs762551 polymorphism and risk of lung cancer, and seven studies with a total of 3,320 subjects were finally included into the meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (95%CI) was calculated to evaluate the association. Meta-analysis of total studies showed that CYP1A2 rs762551 polymorphism contributed to risk of lung cancer under all four genetic models (C versus A: OR = 1.26, 95%CI 1.13 to 1.40, P < 0.001; CC versus AA: OR = 1.61, 95%CI 1.28 to 2.04, P < 0.001; CC versus AA/AC: OR = 1.52, 95%CI 1.11 to 2.09, P = 0.009; CC/AC versus AA: OR = 1.28, 95%CI 1.10 to 1.48, P = 0.001). Subgroup analysis based on ethnicity further suggested that CYP1A2 rs762551 polymorphism was associated with risk of lung cancer in Caucasians. These results from the meta-analysis suggest that CYP1A2 rs762551 polymorphism contributes to risk of lung cancer. PMID:24293373

  6. Aspirin for the primary prevention of skin cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, YUN; CHENG, YANG; LUO, RONG-CHENG; LI, AI-MIN

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. There are three major skin cancer types: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. General risk factors for skin cancer include fair skin, a history of tanning and sunburn, family history of skin cancer, exposure to ultraviolet rays and a large number of moles. The incidence of skin cancer has increased in the USA in recent years. Aspirin intake is associated with chemoprotection against the development of a number of types of cancer. However, whether aspirin intake can reduce the risk of development of skin cancer is unclear. The present meta-analysis of available human studies is aimed at evaluating the association between aspirin exposure and the risk of skin cancer. All available human observational studies on aspirin intake for the primary prevention of skin cancer were identified by searching MEDLINE (Pubmed), BIOSIS, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure prior to March 2013. The heterogeneity and publication bias of all studies were evaluated using Cochran’s Q and I2 statistics, followed by a random-effect model where applicable. The pooled data were analyzed by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of eight case-control and five prospective cohort studies from 11 publications were selected for this analysis. There was no evidence of publication bias in these studies. Statistical analyses of the pooled data demonstrated that that a daily dose of 50–400 mg aspirin was significantly associated with a reduced risk of skin cancers (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90–0.99; P=0.02). Stratification analysis indicated that the continual intake of low dose aspirin (≤150 mg) reduced the risk of developing skin cancer (OR, 0.95; CI, 0.90–0.99; P=0.15) and that aspirin intake was significantly associated with a reduced risk of non-melanoma skin cancers (OR, 0.97; CI, 0.95–0.99; P=0.22). Overall, these findings indicated that aspirin

  7. Colorectal Cancer Screening, Version 1.2015.

    PubMed

    Provenzale, Dawn; Jasperson, Kory; Ahnen, Dennis J; Aslanian, Harry; Bray, Travis; Cannon, Jamie A; David, Donald S; Early, Dayna S; Erwin, Deborah; Ford, James M; Giardiello, Francis M; Gupta, Samir; Halverson, Amy L; Hamilton, Stanley R; Hampel, Heather; Ismail, Mohammad K; Klapman, Jason B; Larson, David W; Lazenby, Audrey J; Lynch, Patrick M; Mayer, Robert J; Ness, Reid M; Rao, M Sambasiva; Regenbogen, Scott E; Shike, Moshe; Steinbach, Gideon; Weinberg, David; Dwyer, Mary A; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A; Darlow, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Colorectal Cancer Screening provide recommendations for selecting individuals for colorectal cancer screening, and for evaluation and follow-up of colon polyps. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize major discussion points of the 2015 NCCN Colorectal Cancer Screening panel meeting. Major discussion topics this year were the state of evidence for CT colonography and stool DNA testing, bowel preparation procedures for colonoscopy, and guidelines for patients with a positive family history of colorectal cancer. PMID:26285241

  8. Diet and cancer risk in the Korean population: a meta- analysis.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Park, Sohee; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Hyun Ja; Shin, Hae Rim; Moon, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have found links between diet and cancer. The summary estimates of the association between dietary factors and cancer risk were investigated using previously reported studies of the Korean population. Gastric cancer risk was inversely associated with the high intake of soy foods [OR (95% CI): 0.32 (0.25-0.40) for soybean, 0.56 (0.45-0.71) for soybean curd, and 0.67 (0.46-0.98) for soymilk], allium vegetables [OR (95% CI): 0.37 (0.26-0.53) for green onion, 0.54 (0.40-0.73) for garlic, and 0.54 (0.35-0.85) for onion], fruits [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.42-0.88)], and mushrooms [OR (95% CI): 0.43 (0.21-0.88)]. Salt and Kimchi were associated with an increased gastric cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 1.92 (1.52-2.43) and 2.21 (1.29-3.77), respectively]. Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with meat intake [OR (95% CI): 1.25 (1.15-1.36)]. Total soy products, soybean curd, and soymilk showed an inverse association with breast cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.38-0.99), 0.47 (0.34-0.66), and 0.75 (0.57-0.98), respectively]. Green/yellow and light colored vegetables were associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 0.34 (0.23-0.49) and 0.44 (0.21-0.90), respectively]. Mushroom intake was inversely associated in pre-menopausal women only [OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.26-0.86)]. In conclusion, soy foods, fruits and vegetables might reduce cancer risk in the Korean population. High salt food might be risk factor for gastric cancer, and intake of high amount of meat might cause colorectal cancer. PMID:25339056

  9. Circulating adiponectin and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Macis, Debora; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Gandini, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background: We conducted a meta-analysis in order to investigate whether circulating adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced by adipocytes, is associated with breast cancer risk. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Library. The summary relative risk (SRR) was calculated by pooling the different study-specific estimates using the random effect models. Meta-regression, subgroup and sensitivity analyses were carried out to investigate between-study heterogeneity and to test publication bias. Results: Data from 15 observational studies, published between 2003 and April 2013 for a total of 4249 breast cancer cases, were analysed. The SRR for the ‘highest’ vs ‘lowest’ adiponectin levels indicated a 34% reduction in breast cancer risk [95% confidence interval (CI): 13%–50%]. Between-study heterogeneity was not substantial (I2 = 53%). Ten studies were included in the dose-response analysis: the SRR for an increase of 3 µg/ml of adiponectin corresponded to a 5% risk reduction (95% CI: 1%–9%). The comparison between ‘highest’ and ‘lowest’ levels of adiponectin showed an inverse association in postmenopausal women (SRR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.63–1.01) and an indication of an inverse relationship in premenopausal women (SRR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.30–1.72). No evidence of publication bias was found. Conclusions: Low circulating adiponectin levels are associated with an increased breast cancer risk. However, properly designed studies are needed to confirm the role of adiponectin as breast cancer biomarker, and clinical trials should be performed to identify those interventions that may be effective in modulating adiponectin levels and reducing breast cancer risk. PMID:24737805

  10. Imaging features of HER2 overexpression in breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Elias, Sjoerd G; Adams, Arthur; Wisner, Dorota J; Esserman, Laura J; van't Veer, Laura J; Mali, Willem P Th M; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G A; Hylton, Nola M

    2014-08-01

    Breast cancer imaging phenotype is diverse and may relate to molecular alterations driving cancer behavior. We systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed relations between breast cancer imaging features and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) overexpression as a marker of breast cancer aggressiveness. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for mammography, breast ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and/or [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography studies through February 2013. Of 68 imaging features that could be pooled (85 articles, 23,255 cancers; random-effects meta-analysis), 11 significantly related to HER2 overexpression. Results based on five or more studies and robustness in subgroup analyses were as follows: the presence of microcalcifications on mammography [pooled odds ratio (pOR), 3.14; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.46-4.00] or ultrasound (mass-associated pOR, 2.95; 95% CI, 2.34-3.71), branching or fine linear microcalcifications (pOR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.07-4.14) or extremely dense breasts on mammography (pOR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.07-1.76), and washout (pOR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.11-2.21) or fast initial kinetics (pOR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.43-4.73) on MRI all increased the chance of HER2 overexpression. Maximum [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was higher upon HER2 overexpression (pooled mean difference, +0.76; 95% CI, 0.10-1.42). These results show that several imaging features relate to HER2 overexpression, lending credibility to the hypothesis that imaging phenotype reflects cancer behavior. This implies prognostic relevance, which is especially relevant as imaging is readily available during diagnostic work-up. PMID:24807204

  11. Subnuclear Proteomics in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Knol, Jaco C.; Piersma, Sander R.; Pham, Thang V.; de Wit, Meike; Mongera, Sandra; Carvalho, Beatriz; Verheul, Henk M. W.; Fijneman, Remond J. A.; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Jimenez, Connie R.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormalities in nuclear phenotype and chromosome structure are key features of cancer cells. Investigation of the protein determinants of nuclear subfractions in cancer may yield molecular insights into aberrant chromosome function and chromatin organization and in addition may yield biomarkers for early cancer detection. Here we evaluate a proteomics work flow for profiling protein constituents in subnuclear domains in colorectal cancer tissues and apply this work flow to a comparative analysis of the nuclear matrix fraction in colorectal adenoma and carcinoma tissue samples. First, we established the reproducibility of the entire work flow. In a reproducibility analysis of three nuclear matrix fractions independently isolated from the same colon tumor homogenate, 889 of 1,047 proteins (85%) were reproducibly identified at high confidence (minimally two peptides per protein at 99% confidence interval at the protein level) with an average coefficient of variance for the number of normalized spectral counts per protein of 30%. This indicates a good reproducibility of the entire work flow from biochemical isolation to nano-LC-MS/MS analysis. Second, using spectral counting combined with statistics, we identified proteins that are significantly enriched in the nuclear matrix fraction relative to two earlier fractions (the chromatin-binding and intermediate filament fractions) isolated from six colorectal tissue samples. The total data set contained 2,059 non-redundant proteins. Gene ontology mining and protein network analysis of nuclear matrix-enriched proteins revealed enrichment for proteins implicated in “RNA processing” and “mRNA metabolic process.” Finally, an explorative comparison of the nuclear matrix proteome in colorectal adenoma and carcinoma tissues revealed many proteins previously implicated in oncogenesis as well as new candidates. A subset of these differentially expressed proteins also exhibited a corresponding change at the mRNA level

  12. Fish Intake and Ovarian Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of 15 Case-Control and Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Pei-yue; Jiang, Zhong-bo; Shen, Ke-xin; Yue, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous epidemiological studies have shown that fish consumption may modify the risk of ovarian cancer. However, these studies yielded controversial results. The present meta-analysis was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between fish intake and ovarian cancer risk. Methods A literature search was carried out using Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library Central database for all relevant studies up to August 2013. We pooled the relative risks (RR) from individual studies using fixed-effect or random-effect model, and carried out heterogeneity and publication bias analyses. Results A total of 15 (ten case–control, and five cohort) studies were included in the present meta-analysis, representing data for 889,033 female subjects and 6,087 ovarian cancer cases. We found that total fish intake was not significantly associated with the risk of ovarian cancer among cohort studies (RR = 1.04 95% CI [0.89, 1.22]) as well as case–control studies (RR = 0.90, 95% CI [0.73,1.12]). There was no evidence of publication bias as suggested by Begg's test (P = 0.55) and Egger's test(P = 0.29). Conclusions The present meta-analysis showed that total fish consumption was not significantly associated with the risk of ovarian cancer. Further analysis on different fish species and food preparation methods should be conducted in future studies. PMID:24732053

  13. Effects of exercise intervention in breast cancer survivors: a meta-analysis of 33 randomized controlled trails

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guoqing; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Yulan; Xiong, Huizi; Zhao, Yinghui; Sun, Fenyong

    2016-01-01

    Background Exercise is associated with favorable outcomes in cancer survivors. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to comprehensively summarize the effects of exercise intervention in breast cancer survivors. Methods A systematic search of PubMed, Elsevier, and Google scholar was conducted up to March 2015. References from relevant meta-analyses and reviews were also checked. Results Thirty-three randomized controlled trials were included in this meta-analysis, including 2,659 breast cancer survivors. Compared with the control group, quality of life was significantly improved in exercise intervention group, especially in mental health and general health subscales of short form 36 questionnaire, as well as emotion well-being and social well-being subscales of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy. Besides, exercise alleviated the symptoms of depression and anxiety in the exercise group. Furthermore, exercise was also associated with positive outcomes in body mass index, lean mass, and muscle strength. In addition, the serum concentration of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-II, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 was significantly reduced in exercise intervention group. However, based on the current data of this meta-analysis, there were no significant differences in sleep dysfunction or fatigue between groups. Conclusion Our study suggested that exercise intervention was beneficial to breast cancer survivors. Therefore, exercise should be recommended to this patient group. PMID:27110131

  14. Prognostic Value of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) in Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Mingming; Hu, Ying; He, Jiabei; Li, Baolan

    2016-01-01

    Background Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is known to stimulate angiogenesis and thus to influence the proliferation, migration and survival of tumor cells. Many studies examined the relationship between human bFGF overexpression and survival in lung cancer patients, but the results have been mixed. To systematically summarize the clinical prognostic function of bFGF in lung cancer, we performed this systematic review with meta-analysis. Method Studies were identified by an electronic search of PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang databases, including publications prior toAugust 2014. Pooled hazard ratios (HR) for overall survival (OS) were aggregated and quantitatively analyzed by meta-analysis. Results Twenty-two studies (n = 2154) were evaluated in the meta-analysis. Combined HR suggested that bFGF overexpression had an adverse impact on survival of patients with lung cancer(HR = 1.202,95%CI, 1.022–1.382). Our subgroup analysis revealed that the combined HR evaluating bFGF expression on OS in operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was 1.553 (95%CI, 1.120–1.986); the combined HR in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) was 1.667 (95%CI, 1.035–2.299). There was no significant impact of bFGF expression on survival in advanced NSCLC. Conclusion This meta-analysis showed that bFGF overexpression is a potential indicator of worse prognosis for patients with operable NSCLC and SCLC, but is not associated with outcome in advanced NSCLC. The data suggests that high bFGF expression is highly related to poor prognosis. Nevertheless,more high-quality studies should be performed in order to provide additional evidence for the prognostic value of bFGF in lung cancer. PMID:26824699

  15. The Long Noncoding RNA MALAT-1 is A Novel Biomarker in Various Cancers: A Meta-analysis Based on the GEO Database and Literature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yumin; Xue, Dan; Li, Yuwei; Pan, Xuya; Zhang, Xueying; Kuang, Biao; Zhou, Ming; Li, Xiaoling; Xiong, Wei; Li, Guiyuan; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Yang, Tubao

    2016-01-01

    Background: MALAT-1 is significantly overexpressed in various cancers, suggesting that it might be a potential biomarker of cancer. Methods: A meta-analysis was performed using microarray data obtained via the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 platform found in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and data obtained through a systematic search of PubMed and Web of Science. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and hazard ratio (HR) with 95% CI (Confidence interval) were used to judge the value of biomarkers. Results: A total of 28 studies were included in this meta-analysis, comprising a total of 3573 patients. MALAT-1 was significantly linked with over survival (OS) (HR=1.58, 95%CI: 1.12-2.23), recurrence-free survival (RFS) (HR=2.32, 95% CI: 1.68-3.19) and death-free survival (DFS) (HR=3.28, 95% CI: 1.52-7.09). We found that MALAT-1 was a risk factor in the prognoses of lung cancer (HR=1.54, 95%CI: 1.01-2.34), digestive system cancer (HR=2.16, 95% CI: 1.34-3.48) and ovarian cancer (HR=3.98, 95% CI: 1.54-10.25). In contrast, MALAT-1 was a safe factor in the prognosis of B cell lineage cancer (HR=0.45, 95% CI: 0.33-0.61). MALAT-1 was also a risk factor of RFS in breast cancer (HR=1.97, 95% CI: 1.25-3.09) and the TNM stage in pancreatic cancer (OR=3.65, 95% CI: 1.86-7.18) and glioma (OR=4.30, 95% CI: 1.90-9.73) and was a safe factor in colorectal cancer (OR=0.17, 95% CI: 0.08-0.35). MALAT-1 was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis in clear cell carcinoma (OR=5.04, 95% CI: 2.36-10.78) and distant metastasis in pancreatic cancer (OR=11.64, 95% CI: 2.13-63.78). Conclusions: MALAT-1 can serve as a molecular marker in different types of cancers. PMID:27313790

  16. [Maintenance therapy for colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Kato, Shunsuke

    2014-08-01

    Some trials have demonstrated the benefits of maintenance chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer. In chemotherapeutic strategies for advanced colorectal cancer, chemotherapy-related toxicity prevention and quality of life(QOL)maintenance are more important than the introduction of a strong regimen, especially when additional surgery is not possible. In Japan, the combination of a folinic acid/5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin(FOLFOX)regimen and bevacizumab is a popular first-line chemotherapy regimen. However, despite its effectiveness, neuropathy or hand-foot syndrome after 5 or 6 cycles tends to lead to chemotherapy withdrawal. CAIRO3 trial reported the effectiveness of capecitabine and bevacizumab as a maintenance chemotherapy regimen. Additionally, the ML18147 trial demonstrated that bevacizumab beyond progression(BBP)prolonged overall survival(OS)and progression free survival(PFS)in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Although those trials demonstrated the effectiveness of continuous or maintenance bevacizumab administration, no trials have compared the effectiveness of cytotoxic drugs with bevacizumab as maintenance therapies. Moreover, controversy exists regarding the selection of drugs as a maintenance therapy and the identification of patients who would benefit from maintenance therapy. PMID:25132024

  17. Impact of statin use on cancer recurrence and mortality in breast cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Manthravadi, Sashidhar; Shrestha, Anuj; Madhusudhana, Sheshadri

    2016-09-15

    Statins have shown antineoplastic properties in preclinical studies with breast cancer cells. They inhibit the enzyme "HMG CoA reductase" and the expression of this enzyme in cancer cells has been implicated as a favorable prognostic factor in patients with breast cancer. After a search of MEDLINE and Embase from inception through November 2015, 817 abstracts were reviewed to identify studies that described an association between statin use and outcomes in breast cancer. A total of 14 studies which included 75,684 women were identified. In a meta-analysis of 10 studies, statin use was associated with improved recurrence-free survival (RFS; HR 0.64; 95% CI 0.53-0.79, I(2)  = 44%). Furthermore, this RFS benefit appeared to be confined to use of lipophilic statins (HR 0.72; 95% CI 0.59-0.89) as hydrophilic statin use was not associated with improvement in RFS (HR 0.80; 95% CI 0.44-1.46). Statin users similarly showed improved overall survival in a meta-analysis with substantial heterogeneity (8 studies, HR 0.66; 95% CI 0.44-0.99, I(2)  = 89%). Statin users also had improved cancer-specific survival, although this relationship was measured with less precision (six studies, HR 0.70; 95% CI 0.46-1.06, I(2)  = 86%). In conclusion, breast cancer patients who use statins, or specifically, lipophilic statins show improved recurrence-free survival. Statin users also had improved overall survival and cancer-specific survival. These findings should be assessed in a prospective randomized cohort and the choice of statin, dose and biomarkers that may predict the efficacy of these drugs should be identified. PMID:27176735

  18. Associations of body mass index with cancer incidence among populations, genders, and menopausal status: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Yang, Dong-Lin; Chen, Zhong-Zhu; Gou, Ben-Fu

    2016-06-01

    In order to further reveal the differences of association between body mass index (BMI) and cancer incidence across populations, genders, and menopausal status, we performed comprehensive meta-analysis with eligible citations. The risk ratio (RR) of incidence at 10 different cancer sites (per 5kg/m(2) increase in BMI) were quantified separately by employing generalized least-squares to estimate trends, and combined by meta-analyses. We observed significantly stronger association between increased BMI and breast cancer incidence in the Asia-Pacific group (RR 1.18:1.11-1.26) than in European-Australian (1.05:1.00-1.09) and North-American group (1.06:1.03-1.08) (meta-regression p<0.05). No association between increased BMI and pancreatic cancer incidence (0.94:0.71-1.24) was shown in the Asia-Pacific group (meta-regression p<0.05), whereas positive associations were found in other two groups. A significantly higher RR in men was found for colorectal cancer in comparison with women (meta-regression p<0.05). Compared with postmenopausal women, premenopausal women displayed significantly higher RR for ovarian cancer (pre- vs. post-=1.10 vs. 1.01, meta-regression p<0.05), but lower RR for breast cancer (pre- vs. post-=0.99 vs. 1.11, meta-regression p<0.0001). Our results indicate that overweight or obesity is a strong risk factor of cancer incidence at several cancer sites. Genders, populations, and menopausal status are important factors effecting the association between obesity and cancer incidence for certain cancer types. PMID:26946037

  19. Warehousing re-annotated cancer genes for biomarker meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Orsini, M; Travaglione, A; Capobianco, E

    2013-07-01

    Translational research in cancer genomics assigns a fundamental role to bioinformatics in support of candidate gene prioritization with regard to both biomarker discovery and target identification for drug development. Efforts in both such directions rely on the existence and constant update of large repositories of gene expression data and omics records obtained from a variety of experiments. Users who interactively interrogate such repositories may have problems in retrieving sample fields that present limited associated information, due for instance to incomplete entries or sometimes unusable files. Cancer-specific data sources present similar problems. Given that source integration usually improves data quality, one of the objectives is keeping the computational complexity sufficiently low to allow an optimal assimilation and mining of all the information. In particular, the scope of integrating intraomics data can be to improve the exploration of gene co-expression landscapes, while the scope of integrating interomics sources can be that of establishing genotype-phenotype associations. Both integrations are relevant to cancer biomarker meta-analysis, as the proposed study demonstrates. Our approach is based on re-annotating cancer-specific data available at the EBI's ArrayExpress repository and building a data warehouse aimed to biomarker discovery and validation studies. Cancer genes are organized by tissue with biomedical and clinical evidences combined to increase reproducibility and consistency of results. For better comparative evaluation, multiple queries have been designed to efficiently address all types of experiments and platforms, and allow for retrieval of sample-related information, such as cell line, disease state and clinical aspects. PMID:23639751

  20. Meta-analysis of aspirin use and risk of lung cancer shows notable results.

    PubMed

    Hochmuth, Friederike; Jochem, Maximilian; Schlattmann, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Aspirin is a promising agent for chemoprevention of lung cancer. We assessed the association of aspirin use and the development of lung cancer, with a focus on heterogeneity between studies. Databases were searched for relevant studies until September 2014. Studies evaluating the relationship of aspirin use and incidence of lung cancer were considered. Relative risks (RR) were extracted and a pooled estimate was calculated. Heterogeneity was assessed by the I measure, random-effects models, and finite-mixture models. Sources of heterogeneity were investigated using a meta-regression. A decreased risk of lung cancer was found including 20 studies [RR=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-0.95] on the basis of a random-effects model. Strong heterogeneity was observed (τ=0.0258, I=74.4%). As a result, two subpopulations of studies were identified on the basis of a mixture model. The first subpopulation (42%) has an average RR of 0.64. The remaining subpopulation (58%) shows an RR of 1.04. Different results were found for case-control (RR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.90) and cohort studies (RR=0.99, 95% CI: 0.93-1.06) in a stratified analysis. In a subgroup analysis, use of aspirin was associated with a decreased risk of non-small-cell lung cancer in case-control studies (RR=0.74; 95% CI: 0.58-0.94). At first glance, our meta-analysis shows an average protective effect. A second glance indicates that there is strong heterogeneity. This leads to a subpopulation with considerable benefit and another subpopulation with no benefit. For further investigations, it is important to identify populations that benefit from aspirin use. PMID:26067033

  1. Markers of Vitamin D Exposure and Esophageal Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zgaga, Lina; O'Sullivan, Fiona; Cantwell, Marie M; Murray, Liam J; Thota, Prashanthi N; Coleman, Helen G

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D has been associated with reduced risk of many cancers, but evidence for esophageal cancer is mixed. To clarify the role of vitamin D, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association of vitamin D exposures and esophageal neoplasia, including adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), Barrett's esophagus, and squamous dysplasia. Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched from inception to September 2015. Fifteen publications in relation to circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D; n = 3], vitamin D intake (n = 4), UVB exposure (n = 1), and genetic factors (n = 7) were retrieved. Higher [25(OH)D] was associated with increased risk of cancer [adenocarcinoma or SCC, OR = 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-1.74], with the majority of participants coming from China. No association was observed between vitamin D intake and risk of cancer overall (OR, 1.03; 0.65-1.42); however, a nonsignificantly increased risk for adenocarcinoma (OR, 1.45; 0.65-2.24) and nonsignificantly decreased risk for SCC (OR, 0.80; 0.48-1.12) were observed. One study reported a decreased risk of adenocarcinoma with higher UVB exposure. A decreased risk was found for VDR haplotype rs2238135(G)/rs1989969(T) carriers (OR, 0.45; 0.00-0.91), and a suggestive association was observed for rs2107301. In conclusion, no consistent associations were observed between vitamin D exposures and occurrence of esophageal lesions. Further adequately powered, well-designed studies are needed before conclusions can be made. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(6); 877-86. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27030602

  2. Traffic-related air pollution and lung cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gongbo; Wan, Xia; Yang, Gonghuan; Zou, Xiaonong

    2015-01-01

    Background We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between traffic-related air pollution and lung cancer in order to provide evidence for control of traffic-related air pollution. Methods Several databases were searched for relevant studies up to December 2013. The quality of articles obtained was evaluated by the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist. Statistical analysis, including pooling effective sizes and confidential intervals, was performed. Results A total of 1106 records were obtained through the database and 36 studies were included in our analysis. Among the studies included, 14 evaluated the association between ambient exposure to traffic-related air pollution and lung cancer and 22 studies involved occupational exposure to air pollution among professional drivers. Twenty-two studies were marked A level regarding quality, 13 were B level, and one was C level. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide (meta-odds ratio [OR]: 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.99–1.13), nitrogen oxide (meta-OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01–1.07), sulfur dioxide (meta-OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02–1.05), and fine particulate matter (meta-OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.00–1.22) were positively associated with a risk of lung cancer. Occupational exposure to air pollution among professional drivers significantly increased the incidence (meta-OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.19–1.36) and mortality of lung cancer (meta-OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04–1.26). Conclusion Exposure to traffic-related air pollution significantly increased the risk of lung cancer. PMID:26273377

  3. Active and passive smoking and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Macacu, Alina; Autier, Philippe; Boniol, Mathieu; Boyle, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Studies on active and passive tobacco smoking and breast cancer have found inconsistent results. A meta-analysis of observational studies on tobacco smoking and breast cancer occurrence was conducted based on systematic searches for studies with retrospective (case-control) and prospective (cohort) designs. Eligible studies were identified, and relative risk measurements were extracted for active and passive tobacco exposures. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to compute summary relative risks (SRR). Heterogeneity of results between studies was evaluated using the (I (2)) statistics. For ever active smoking, in 27 prospective studies, the SRR for breast cancer was 1.10 (95 % CI [1.09-1.12]) with no heterogeneity (I (2) = 0 %). In 44 retrospective studies, the SRR was 1.08 (95 % CI [1.02-1.14]) with high heterogeneity (I (2) = 59 %). SRRs for current active smoking were 1.13 (95 % CI [1.09-1.17]) in 27 prospective studies and 1.08 (95 % CI [0.97-1.20]) in 22 retrospective studies. The results were stable across different subgroup analyses, notably pre/post-menopause, alcohol consumption adjustments, including/excluding passive smokers from the referent group. For ever passive smoking, in 11 prospective studies, the SRR for breast cancer was 1.07 (95 % CI [1.02-1.13]) with no heterogeneity (I (2) = 1 %). In 20 retrospective studies, the SRR was 1.30 (95 % CI [1.10-1.54]) with high heterogeneity (I (2) = 74 %). Too few prospective studies were available for meaningful subgroup analyses. There is consistent evidence for a moderate increase in the risk of breast cancer in women who smoke tobacco. The evidence for a moderate increase in risk with passive smoking is more substantial than a few years ago. PMID:26546245

  4. Association between N-acetyltransferase 2 polymorphisms and pancreatic cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, J X; Gao, W; Liang, Y; Zhou, X M

    2015-01-01

    N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is an essential phase II enzyme in the metabolism of aromatic and heterocyclic amines and of hydrazines. NAT2 activity can be divided into three phenotypes: rapid, intermediate, and slow. Studies identifying an association between NAT2 polymorphism and the risk of pancreatic cancer have shown conflicting results. In order to assess this relationship comprehensively, we performed a meta-analysis that involved 1607 patients with pancreatic cancer and 1682 controls from six studies, which were selected from a group of ten, identified by a search of PubMed and Embase databases up to July 2014. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the relationships. In the overall analysis, no significant associations between NAT2 rapid acetylation genotypes and pancreatic cancer risk (RR = 0.93, 95%CI = 0.73-1.19) were found; however, the results showed significant heterogeneity (I2 = 55.0%). The results from subgroup analysis suggested that the rapid genotypes might decrease the risk of pancreatic cancer (RR = 0.56, 95%CI = 0.38-0.84) in Turkey, although the association was not significant in the United States population (RR = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.71-1.34) or in the multi-center studies (RR = 1.10, 95%CI = 0.90-1.34). Analysis of the slow acetylation genotypes demonstrated the converse outcomes. In conclusion, the results of our study suggested that the NAT2 slow acetylation genotypes might increase the susceptibility to pancreatic cancer in Europe but that these have no significant effects in the United States and multi-center populations. PMID:26681215

  5. HER2 codon 655 polymorphism and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tao, Weiyang; Wang, Chunyang; Han, Ruifa; Jiang, Hongchi

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the association between HER2 codon 655 polymorphism and breast cancer risk in this meta-analysis. A comprehensive search was performed to identify all case-control studies investigating such association. Statistical analyses were conducted with software MIX 1.54. Twenty eligible reports, including 10,642 cases/11,259 controls, were identified. In overall analysis, the Val allele frequency in cases was significantly higher than that in controls (OR = 1.0921, 95% CI: 1.0013-1.191, P = 0.0466), while no associations were found in both recessive and dominant models. In subgroup analysis, HER2 codon 655 polymorphism was weakly associated with breast cancer risk in recessive (OR = 2.4624, 95% CI: 1.0619-5.7104, P = 0.0357), dominant (OR = 1.2781, 95% CI: 1.0353-1.5779, P = 0.0225), and co-dominant genetic models (OR = 1.2947, 95% CI: 1.0682-1.5693, P = 0.0085) in Asian population, respectively. Meanwhile, the susceptibility to breast cancer in people aged < or =45 was significantly increased in both recessive (OR = 2.2408; 95% CI: 1.2876-3.8998, P = 0.0043), and dominant models (OR = 1.2902, 95% CI: 1.1035-1.5085, P = 0.0014). No significant associations were observed in Caucasian, European, and Family history subgroups. So our analyses suggest HER2 codon 655 Val allele is weakly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and SNP at HER2 codon 655 could be considered as a susceptibility biomarker for breast cancer for Asian females or women age 45 years or younger. PMID:18438707

  6. MUC1 Immunohistochemical Expression as a Prognostic Factor in Gastric Cancer: Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Tong; Kong, Fan-Biao; Mai, Wei; Li, Lei; Pang, Li-Ming

    2016-01-01

    MUC1, a member of the mucin family, is expressed in tumors of various human organs and may function as an antiadhesion molecule that inhibits cell-to-cell adhesion, inducing tumor metastasis, and served as a potential biomarker of tumor progression in early gastric cancer. However, its prognostic significance in gastric cancer is still in dispute. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between MUC1 expression and prognosis of gastric cancer. A total of ten eligible studies with 834 cases and 548 controls were included. MUC1 positive cases were highly positive in intestinal-type carcinomas (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.27–2.44, P = 0.0008 fixed-effect), higher rate of vascular invasion (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.13–2.39, P = 0.009 fixed-effect), and lymph node metastasis (OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.20–3.67, P = 0.01 random-effect), as well as lower 5-year survival rate (HR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.11–0.66, P = 0.004 random-effect). However, the presence of MUC1 was not associated with gender, tumor size, histologic differentiation, and clinical stage. In summary, MUC1 is a prognostic factor in gastric cancer, which acts as a marker of poor outcome in patients with gastric cancer. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm the role of MUC1 in clinical practice. PMID:27190429

  7. Who Benefits From Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Gastric Cancer? A Meta-Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ohri, Nitin; Garg, Madhur K.; Aparo, Santiago; Kaubisch, Andreas; Tome, Wolfgang; Kennedy, Timothy J.; Kalnicki, Shalom; Guha, Chandan

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Large randomized trials have demonstrated significant survival benefits with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy for gastric cancer. The importance of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) remains unclear. We performed an up-to-date meta-analysis of randomized trials testing the use of RT for resectable gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized trials testing adjuvant (including neoadjuvant) RT for resectable gastric cancer. Hazard ratios describing the impact of adjuvant RT on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were extracted directly from the original studies or calculated from survival curves. Pooled estimates were obtained using the inverse variance method. Subgroup analyses were performed to determine whether the efficacy of RT varies with chemotherapy use, RT timing, geographic region, type of nodal dissection performed, or lymph node status. Results: Thirteen studies met all inclusion criteria and were used for this analysis. Adjuvant RT was associated with a significant improvement in both OS (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.70-0.86, P<.001) and DFS (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.63-0.80, P<.001). In the 5 studies that tested adjuvant chemoradiation therapy against adjuvant chemotherapy, similar effects were seen for OS (HR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.67-1.03, P=.087) and DFS (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.91-0.65, P=.002). Available data did not reveal any subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Conclusion: In randomized trials for resectable gastric cancer, adjuvant RT provides an approximately 20% improvement in both DFS and OS. Available data do not reveal a subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Further study is required to optimize the implementation of adjuvant RT for gastric cancer with regard to patient selection and integration with systemic therapy.

  8. Postoperative chemoradiotherapy versus radiotherapy alone for cervical cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jialin; Yin, Jun; Yan, Gaoshu; Huang, Dandan; Wang, Jichuan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the treatment outcomes of postoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with radiotherapy (RT) alone in patients with cervical cancer. Based on articles published up to December 2014 a literature search in PubMed and EMBASE was conducted to identify eligible studies. Risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were used as pooled statistics. A total of 4 articles consisting of 461 patients were selected for the meta-analysis. Results revealed that there were a significant overall survival improvements (RR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15-1.60, p = 0.0003), a significant reduction of local recurrence (RR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.14-0.51, p < 0001) and distant recurrence (RR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.26-0.63, p < 0.0001) in the patients who received postoperative CRT, comparing with the patients who received RT alone. In conclusion, the results suggest a significant benefit of CRT for patients with cervical cancer, comparing with RT alone treatment. PMID:26821995

  9. CD147/EMMPRIN overexpression and prognosis in cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Xiaoyan; Zeng, Xianqin; Gu, Huajian; Li, Min; Tan, Huaming; Jin, Zhishan; Hua, Teng; Shi, Rui; Wang, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    CD147/EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) plays an important role in tumor progression and a number of studies have suggested that it is an indicator of tumor prognosis. This current meta-analysis systematically reevaluated the predictive potential of CD147/EMMPRIN in various cancers. We searched PubMed and Embase databases to screen the literature. Fixed-effect and random-effect meta-analytical techniques were used to correlate CD147 expression with outcome measures. A total of 53 studies that included 68 datasets were eligible for inclusion in the final analysis. We found a significant association between CD147/EMMPRIN overexpression and adverse tumor outcomes, such as overall survival, disease-specific survival, progression-free survival, metastasis-free survival or recurrence-free survival, irrespective of the model analysis. In addition, CD147/EMMPRIN overexpression predicted a high risk for chemotherapy drugs resistance. CD147/EMMPRIN is a central player in tumor progression and predicts a poor prognosis, including in patients who have received chemo-radiotherapy. Our results provide the evidence that CD147/EMMPRIN could be a potential therapeutic target for cancers. PMID:27608940

  10. Group vs. individual exercise interventions for women with breast cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Both during and after treatment, cancer survivors experience declines in physical and psychosocial quality of life (QoL). Prior research indicates that exercise interventions alleviate problems in physical functioning and some aspects of psychological functioning. For survivors seeking social support, exercise programs that are conducted in group settings may foster optimal QoL improvement (by addressing additional issues related to isolation, social support) over individually-based exercise programs. Methods We reviewed literature on group cohesion in exercise studies, and conducted a meta-analysis to test the hypothesis that group as compared to individual exercise interventions for breast cancer survivors would show greater improvement in QoL. Results As currently implemented, group exercise interventions showed no advantage. However, they typically did not provide any evidence that they capitalized upon potentially beneficial group processes. Conclusions Future exercise intervention studies could investigate the effect on QoL of deliberately using group dynamics processes, such as team building experiences and group goal setting to foster group cohesion. PMID:20607139

  11. Effects of Probiotics on Intestinal Mucosa Barrier in Patients With Colorectal Cancer after Operation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dun; Jiang, Xiao-Ying; Zhou, Lan-Shu; Song, Ji-Hong; Zhang, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have found that probiotics or synbiotics can be used in patients with diarrhea or inflammatory bowel disease for the prevention and treatment of some pathologies by improving gastrointestinal barrier function. However, there are few studies availing the use of probiotics in patients with colorectal cancer. To lay the foundation for the study of nutritional support in colorectal cancer patients, a meta-analysis has been carried out to assess the efficacy of probiotics on the intestinal mucosa barrier in patients with colorectal cancer after operation. To estimate the efficacy of probiotics on the intestinal mucosa barrier in patients with colorectal cancer after operation, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials has been conducted. Databases including PubMed, Ovid, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure have been searched to identify suitable studies. Stata 12.0 was used for statistical analysis, and sensitivity analysis was also conducted. Six indicators were chosen to evaluate probiotics in protecting the intestinal mucosa barrier in patients with colorectal cancer. Ratios of lactulose to mannitol (L/M) and Bifidobacterium to Escherichia (B/E), occludin, bacterial translocation, and levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were chosen to evaluate probiotics in protecting the intestinal mucosa barrier in patients with colorectal cancer. Seventeen studies including 1242 patients were selected for meta-analysis, including 5 English studies and 12 Chinese studies. Significant effects were found in ratios of L/M (standardized mean difference = 3.83, P = 0.001) and B/E (standardized mean difference = 3.91, P = 0.000), occludin (standardized mean difference = 4.74, P = 0.000), bacterial translocation (standardized mean difference = 3.12, P = 0.002), and levels of SIgA (standardized mean

  12. Correlation between XRCC1 Arg399Gln genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to bladder cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nannan; Fei, Xiawei; Shen, Yi; Shi, Weifeng; Ma, Jinhong

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between XRCC1 polymorphisms and bladder cancer has been widely studied. Here, our meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlations between common genetic polymorphisms in XRCC1 and susceptibility to bladder cancer. In order to derive a more precise estimation of the association, 27 clinical case-control studies (which met all the inclusion criteria) were included in this meta-analysis. A total of 8,539 cancer cases and 10,750 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. Overall, no significant association was detected in allelic model (A allele vs T allele odds ratio [OR] =0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71–1.06), homozygote comparison (AA vs GG OR =1.12, 95% CI, 0.68–1.85), heterozygote comparison (AT vs TT OR =1.01, 95% CI, 0.81–1.26), dominant model (AA + AG vs GG OR =0.93, 95% CI, 0.85–1.02), and recessive model (AA vs AG + GG OR =1.01, 95% CI, 0.88–1.15), but a moderately significant association was found for AG vs GG (OR =0.241, 95% CI =0.17–0.35). Subgroup analysis based on ethnicity. Ethnicity analysis suggested that genetic polymorphisms in XRCC1 were not correlated with increased bladder cancer risk among Asians (all P>0.05). Therefore, we concluded that XRCC1 genetic polymorphism may not contribute to bladder cancer susceptibility in the present meta-analysis, and further well-designed studies with a large sample size are warranted to validate our conclusion. PMID:26869802

  13. Does night-shift work increase the risk of prostate cancer? a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Dapang; Yu, Haifeng; Bai, Yu; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Background Night-shift work is suggested to be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, but its association with prostate cancer is still controversial. We examined this association by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods Studies were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid, Web of Science, the Cochrane register, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases through December 25, 2014. Summary relative risks (SRRs) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random effects or fixed effects model. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also evaluated. Results A total of 2,459,845 individuals from eight published studies were included in this meta-analysis. Analysis of all studies suggested that night-shift work was associated with a significantly increased risk of prostate cancer (RR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.05–1.46; P=0.011). Sensitivity analysis showed that the association remained significant when repeating the analysis after removing one study each time. Dose–response meta-analysis suggested that an increase in night-shift work of 5 years duration was statistically significantly associated with a 2.8% (95% CI: 0.3, 5.4%, P=0.030) increase in the risk of prostate cancer. There was no significant publication bias. Conclusion Based on a meta-analysis, night-shift work is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Because of the limited number of included studies and the large level of heterogeneity, further well-designed studies are still warranted to confirm the findings of our analysis. PMID:26491356

  14. Polymorphism in IGFBP3 gene is associated with prostate cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Qie, Yunkai; Nian, Xuewu; Liu, Xuesen; Hu, Hailong; Zhang, Changwen; Xie, Linguo; Han, Ruifa; Wu, Changli; Xu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Objective Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) is the major protein that binds with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and is considered to be involved in the development and progression of various cancers. We aimed to examine the association between prostate cancer (PCa) and the IGFBP3 gene-202A/C polymorphism. Methods A comprehensive search within PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library was conducted to identify all case–control studies up to October 30, 2015, for a meta-analysis. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the fixed or random effects model. Results Eighteen studies including 10,538 cases and 10,078 controls were identified. Overall, the CC genotype of IGFBP3-202A/C polymorphism was associated with increased risk of PCa in homozygote comparison (CC vs AA − OR =1.16, 95% CI: 1.08–1.25) and in recessive model (CC vs AA+AC − OR =1.11, 95% CI: 1.04–1.17). In dominant model, the CC/AC genotypes also implicated an increased risk of PCa (CC+AC vs AA − OR =1.11, 95% CI: 1.05–1.19). The C allele of IGFBP3-202A/C polymorphism was the risk allele for PCa relative to the A allele (OR =1.09, 95% CI: 1.05–1.14). Further stratification analysis revealed that the association between –202A/C polymorphism and PCa risk among Caucasians, but not in other ethnicities, was statistically significant (recessive model, OR =1.10, 95% CI: 1.02–1.19). In addition, the IGFBP3-202A/C polymorphism was associated with PCa risk in both population-based and hospital-based studies in homozygote comparison, recessive model, and allele model. Conclusion Our meta-analysis indicates that the IGFBP3-202A/C polymorphism is associated with the risk of PCa, particularly in Caucasians, with the C allele being the risk allele for PCa. PMID:27462171

  15. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  16. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Nuri Faruk

    2015-02-10

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  17. Molecular Diagnostic Applications in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huth, Laura; Jäkel, Jörg; Dahl, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, a clinically diverse disease, is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Application of novel molecular diagnostic tests, which are summarized in this article, may lead to an improved survival of colorectal cancer patients. Distinction of these applications is based on the different molecular principles found in colorectal cancer (CRC). Strategies for molecular analysis of single genes (as KRAS or TP53) as well as microarray based techniques are discussed. Moreover, in addition to the fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) and colonoscopy some novel assays offer approaches for early detection of colorectal cancer like the multitarget stool DNA test or the blood-based Septin 9 DNA methylation test. Liquid biopsy analysis may also exhibit great diagnostic potential in CRC for monitoring developing resistance to treatment. These new diagnostic tools and the definition of molecular biomarkers in CRC will improve early detection and targeted therapy of colorectal cancer.

  18. History and present status of pulmonary metastasectomy in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Treasure, Tom; Milošević, Mišel; Fiorentino, Francesca; Pfannschmidt, Joachim

    2014-10-28

    Clinical practice with respect to metastatic colorectal cancer differs from the other two most common cancers, breast and lung, in that routine surveillance is recommended with the specific intent of detecting liver and lung metastases and undertaking liver and lung resections for their removal. We trace the history of this approach to colorectal cancer by reviewing evidence for effectiveness from the 1950s to the present day. Our sources included published citation network analyses, the documented proposal for randomised trials, large systematic reviews, and meta-analysis of observational studies. The present consensus position has been adopted on the basis of a large number of observational studies but the randomised trials proposed in the 1980s and 1990s were either not done, or having been done, were not reported. Clinical opinion is the mainstay of current practice but in the absence of randomised trials there remains a possibility of selection bias. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are now routine before adoption of a new practice but RCTs are harder to run in evaluation of already established practice. One such trial is recruiting and shows that controlled trial are possible. PMID:25356017

  19. History and present status of pulmonary metastasectomy in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Treasure, Tom; Milošević, Mišel; Fiorentino, Francesca; Pfannschmidt, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Clinical practice with respect to metastatic colorectal cancer differs from the other two most common cancers, breast and lung, in that routine surveillance is recommended with the specific intent of detecting liver and lung metastases and undertaking liver and lung resections for their removal. We trace the history of this approach to colorectal cancer by reviewing evidence for effectiveness from the 1950s to the present day. Our sources included published citation network analyses, the documented proposal for randomised trials, large systematic reviews, and meta-analysis of observational studies. The present consensus position has been adopted on the basis of a large number of observational studies but the randomised trials proposed in the 1980s and 1990s were either not done, or having been done, were not reported. Clinical opinion is the mainstay of current practice but in the absence of randomised trials there remains a possibility of selection bias. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are now routine before adoption of a new practice but RCTs are harder to run in evaluation of already established practice. One such trial is recruiting and shows that controlled trial are possible. PMID:25356017

  20. Dietary Nitrates, Nitrites, and Nitrosamines Intake and the Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Peng; Wu, Lei; Guan, Wenxian

    2015-01-01

    The potential associations between dietary consumption of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines and gastric cancer risk have been investigated by several studies, but yielded inconclusive results. We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of their relationships. Relevant articles were identified by a systematic literature searching of PubMed and Embase databases prior to August 2015. Random-effects models were employed to pool the relative risks. A total of 22 articles consisting of 49 studies—19 studies for nitrates, 19 studies for nitrites, and 11 studies for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)—were included. The summary relative risk of stomach cancer for the highest categories, compared with the lowest, was 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.69–0.93) for dietary nitrates intake, 1.31 (95% CI, 1.13–1.52) for nitrites, and 1.34 (95% CI, 1.02–1.76) for NDMA (p for heterogeneity was 0.015, 0.013 and <0.001, respectively). The study type was found as the main source of heterogeneity for nitrates and nitrites. The heterogeneity for NDMA could not be eliminated completely through stratified analysis. Although significant associations were all observed in case-control studies, the cohort studies still showed a slight trend. The dose-response analysis indicated similar results as well. High nitrates intake was associated with a weak but statistically significant reduced risk of gastric cancer. Whereas increased consumption of nitrites and NDMA seemed to be risk factors for cancer. Due to the lack of uniformity for exposure assessment across studies, further prospective researches are warranted to verify these findings. PMID:26633477

  1. Effect of Exercise Training on Peak Oxygen Consumption in Patients with Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yuanyuan; Pituskin, Edith N.; Battaglini, Claudio L.; Scott, Jessica M.; Hornsby, Whitney E.; Haykowsky, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the effects of supervised exercise training on peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) in adults with cancer. Methods. A literature review using Ovid MEDLINE (1950–2010), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1991–2010), AMED (1985–2010), Embase (1988–2010), PubMed (1966–2010), Scopus (1950–2010), and Web of Science (1950–2010) was performed to identify randomized controlled trials examining the effects of supervised exercise training on measurement of VO2peak (via gas exchange analysis) in adults with cancer. Studies were selected using predetermined criteria, and two independent reviewers extracted data. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) were calculated using random effect models. Results. Six studies evaluated VO2peak involving a total of 571 adult cancer patients (exercise, n = 344; usual care control, n = 227). Pooled data indicated that exercise training was associated with a statistically significant increase in VO2peak (WMD, 2.90 ml·kg−1·min−1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16–4.64); however, significant heterogeneity was evident in this estimate (I2, 87%). Usual care (control) was associated with a significant decline in VO2peak from baseline to postintervention (WMD, −1.02 ml·kg−1·min−1; 95% CI, −1.46 to −0.58; I2, 22%). Sensitivity analyses indicated superior improvements in VO2peak for studies conducted for a shorter duration (<4 months) and following the completion of adjuvant therapy (p-values < .001). Exercise training was not associated with a higher incidence of adverse events, although safety was not rigorously monitored or reported. Conclusions. Supervised exercise training is associated with significant improvements in VO2peak following a diagnosis of early-stage cancer, with minimal adverse events. PMID:21212429

  2. Dietary Nitrates, Nitrites, and Nitrosamines Intake and the Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Peng; Wu, Lei; Guan, Wenxian

    2015-12-01

    The potential associations between dietary consumption of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines and gastric cancer risk have been investigated by several studies, but yielded inconclusive results. We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of their relationships. Relevant articles were identified by a systematic literature searching of PubMed and Embase databases prior to August 2015. Random-effects models were employed to pool the relative risks. A total of 22 articles consisting of 49 studies-19 studies for nitrates, 19 studies for nitrites, and 11 studies for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)-were included. The summary relative risk of stomach cancer for the highest categories, compared with the lowest, was 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.69-0.93) for dietary nitrates intake, 1.31 (95% CI, 1.13-1.52) for nitrites, and 1.34 (95% CI, 1.02-1.76) for NDMA (p for heterogeneity was 0.015, 0.013 and <0.001, respectively). The study type was found as the main source of heterogeneity for nitrates and nitrites. The heterogeneity for NDMA could not be eliminated completely through stratified analysis. Although significant associations were all observed in case-control studies, the cohort studies still showed a slight trend. The dose-response analysis indicated similar results as well. High nitrates intake was associated with a weak but statistically significant reduced risk of gastric cancer. Whereas increased consumption of nitrites and NDMA seemed to be risk factors for cancer. Due to the lack of uniformity for exposure assessment across studies, further prospective researches are warranted to verify these findings. PMID:26633477

  3. Prognostic Value of MicroRNA-182 in Cancers: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Baoan

    2015-01-01

    Objective. MicroRNA-182 (miR-182) exhibits altered expression in various cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of miR-182 expression for cancer patient survival. Methods. Eligible studies were identified through multiple search strategies, and the hazard ratios (HRs) for patient outcomes were extracted and estimated. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the prognostic value of miR-182. Results. In total, 14 studies were included. A high miR-182 expression level predicted a worse outcome with a pooled HR of 2.18 (95% CI: 1.53–3.11) in ten studies related to overall survival (OS), especially in Chinese populations. The results of seven studies evaluating disease-free survival/relapse-free survival/recurrence-free interval/disease-specific survival (DFS/RFS/RFI/DSS) produced a pooled HR of 1.77 (95% CI: 0.91–3.43), which was not statistically significant; however, the trend was positive. When disregarding the DSS from one study, the expression of miR-182 was significantly correlated with DFS/RFS/RFI (pooled HR = 2.52, 95% CI: 1.67–3.79). Conclusions. High miR-182 expression is associated with poor OS and DFS/RFS/RFI in some types of cancers, and miR-182 may be a useful prognostic biomarker for predicting cancer prognosis. However, given the current insufficient relevant data, further clinical studies are needed. PMID:26063957

  4. Liver Metastases in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Folprecht, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Resection of colorectal liver metastases is a treatment standard because patients experience long-term disease-free survival or are even cured after undergoing this procedure. Improved surgical techniques for liver resection in combination with downsizing liver metastases by chemotherapy, interventions to induce liver hypertrophy before resection, and the use of ablative techniques have allowed us to expand the indications for liver surgery and local treatment in situations with limited metastatic colorectal cancer. Resectability and identification of patients who might benefit from liver surgery and local ablative techniques are key factors for the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. Despite the wide acceptance of liver surgery and ablative techniques, there are many open questions on the management of limited metastatic disease, such as which patients benefit from an aggressive surgical approach, what the indications for ablative and other local techniques are, and what the role of chemotherapy is for patients with resectable or resected disease. Unfortunately, results of randomized trials are only available for a limited number of these questions. PMID:27249722

  5. A genetic study and meta-analysis of the genetic predisposition of prostate cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shan-Chao; Ren, Guoping; Yu, Yongwei; Wu, Yudong; Wu, Ji; Xue, Yao; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Yanling; Xu, Xingxing; Li, Jie; He, Weiyang; Benlloch, Sara; Ross-Adams, Helen; Chen, Li; Li, Jucong; Hong, Yingqia; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Cui, Xingang; Hou, Jianguo; Guo, Jianming; Xu, Lei; Yin, Changjun; Zhou, Yuanping; Neal, David E.; Oliver, Tim; Cao, Guangwen; Zhang, Zhengdong; Easton, Douglas F.; Chelala, Claude; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Zhang, Hongwei; Lu, Yong-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer predisposition has been extensively investigated in European populations, but there have been few studies of other ethnic groups. To investigate prostate cancer susceptibility in the under-investigated Chinese population, we performed single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis on a cohort of Chinese cases and controls and then meta-analysis with data from the existing Chinese prostate cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS). Genotyping 211,155 SNPs in 495 cases and 640 controls of Chinese ancestry identified several new suggestive Chinese prostate cancer predisposition loci. However, none of them reached genome-wide significance level either by meta-analysis or replication study. The meta-analysis with the Chinese GWAS data revealed that four 8q24 loci are the main contributors to Chinese prostate cancer risk and the risk alleles from three of them exist at much higher frequencies in Chinese than European populations. We also found that several predisposition loci reported in Western populations have different effect on Chinese men. Therefore, this first extensive single-nucleotide polymorphism study of Chinese prostate cancer in comparison with European population indicates that four loci on 8q24 contribute to a great risk of prostate cancer in a considerable large proportion of Chinese men. Based on those four loci, the top 10% of the population have six- or two-fold prostate cancer risk compared with men of the bottom 10% or median risk respectively, which may facilitate the design of prostate cancer genetic risk screening and prevention in Chinese men. These findings also provide additional insights into the etiology and pathogenesis of prostate cancer. PMID:26881390

  6. Outdoor Particulate Matter Exposure and Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guha, Neela; Cohen, Aaron; Laden, Francine; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Samet, Jonathan M.; Vineis, Paolo; Forastiere, Francesco; Saldiva, Paulo; Yorifuji, Takashi; Loomis, Dana

    2014-01-01

    -Nielsen O, Samet JM, Vineis P, Forastiere F, Saldiva P, Yorifuji T, Loomis D. 2014. Outdoor particulate matter exposure and lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect 122:906–911; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408092 PMID:24911630

  7. Tailored Telephone Counseling Increases Colorectal Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawl, Susan M.; Christy, Shannon M.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Ding, Yan; Krier, Connie; Champion, Victoria L.; Rex, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of two interventions to promote colorectal cancer screening participation and forward stage movement of colorectal cancer screening adoption among first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps. One hundred fifty-eight first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps were…

  8. Economic Burden of Colorectal Cancer in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Ju-Young; Oh, In-Hwan; Kim, Young Ae; Seo, Hye-Young; Lee, Yo-Han

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The incidence and survival rate of colorectal cancer in Korea are increasing because of improved screening, treatment technologies, and lifestyle changes. In this aging population, increases in economic cost result. This study was conducted to estimate the economic burden of colorectal cancer utilizing claims data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Methods Economic burdens of colorectal cancer were estimated using prevalence data and patients were defined as those who received ambulatory treatment from medical institutions or who had been hospitalized due to colorectal cancer under the International Classification of Disease 10th revision codes from C18-C21. The economic burdens of colorectal cancer were calculated as direct costs and indirect costs. Results The prevalence rate (per 100 000 people) of those who were treated for colorectal cancer during 2010 was 165.48. The economic burdens of colorectal cancer in 2010 were 3 trillion and 100 billion Korean won (KRW), respectively. Direct costs included 1 trillion and 960 billion KRW (62.85%), respectively and indirect costs were 1 trillion and 160 billion (37.15%), respectively. Conclusions Colorectal cancer has a large economic burden. Efforts should be made to reduce the economic burden of the disease through primary and secondary prevention. PMID:24744825

  9. Reduced risk of prostate cancer in childless men as compared to fathers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yeqing; Xu, Xin; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The previously reported association between fatherhood status and prostate cancer risk was controversial. We carried out the present meta-analysis of all relevant studies to summarize evidence on this association. A comprehensive literature search of studies was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases, covering all the papers published from their inception to September 2015. The combined risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random effects model. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also evaluated. A total of 11 studies were finally included in this meta-analysis. We found a significantly reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with being childless (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.87-0.96). There was statistically significant heterogeneity across the studies (P < 0.001, I(2) = 88.2%). In summary, this meta-analysis supports that being fatherless is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer. Because of the substantial heterogeneity and residual confounding, using other study designs to further explore this association and the underling mechanism is warranted. PMID:26752096

  10. Systematic review and meta-analysis of uniportal versus multiportal video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Christopher G.; James, Rebecca S.; Tian, David H.; Yan, Tristan D.; Doyle, Mathew P.; Gonzalez-Rivas, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Background Uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has emerged as a less invasive alternative to the conventional multiportal approach in the treatment of lung cancer. The benefits of this uniportal technique have not yet been characterized in patients undergoing VATS lobectomy. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of uniportal and multiportal VATS lobectomy for patients with lung cancer. Methods A systematic review was conducted using seven electronic databases. Endpoints for analysis included perioperative mortality and morbidity, operative time, length of hospital stay, perioperative blood loss, duration of postoperative drainage and rates of conversion to open thoracotomy. Results Eight relevant observational studies were identified and included for meta-analysis. Results demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in the overall rate of complications, length of hospital stay and duration of postoperative drainage for patients who underwent uniportal VATS lobectomy. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups in regard to mortality, operative time, perioperative blood loss and rate of conversion to open thoracotomy. Conclusions The present meta-analysis demonstrated favourable outcomes for uniportal VATS lobectomy in the treatment of lung cancer compared to the conventional multiportal approach. However, long-term follow-up data is still needed to further characterize the benefits of the uniportal approach. PMID:27134832

  11. Reduced risk of prostate cancer in childless men as compared to fathers: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yeqing; Xu, Xin; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The previously reported association between fatherhood status and prostate cancer risk was controversial. We carried out the present meta-analysis of all relevant studies to summarize evidence on this association. A comprehensive literature search of studies was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases, covering all the papers published from their inception to September 2015. The combined risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random effects model. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also evaluated. A total of 11 studies were finally included in this meta-analysis. We found a significantly reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with being childless (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.87–0.96). There was statistically significant heterogeneity across the studies (P < 0.001, I2 = 88.2%). In summary, this meta-analysis supports that being fatherless is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer. Because of the substantial heterogeneity and residual confounding, using other study designs to further explore this association and the underling mechanism is warranted. PMID:26752096

  12. DNA Methylation and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ashktorab, Hassan; Brim, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major cancers in the world and second death-causing cancer in the US. CRC development involves genetic and epigenetic alterations. Changes in DNA methylation status are believed to be involved at different stages of CRC. Promoter silencing via DNA methylation and hypomethylation of oncogenes alter genes’ expression, and can be used as a tool for the early detection of colonic lesions. DNA methylation use as diagnostic and prognostic marker has been described for many cancers including CRC. CpG Islands Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) is one of the underlying CRC mechanisms. This review aims to define methylation signatures in CRC. The analysis of DNA methylation profile in combination with the pathological diagnosis would be useful in predicting CRC tumors’ evolution and their prognostic behavior. PMID:25580099

  13. Does fertility treatment increase the risk of uterine cancer? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Saso, Srdjan; Louis, Louay S; Doctor, Farah; Hamed, Ali Hassan; Chatterjee, Jayanta; Yazbek, Joseph; Bora, Shabana; Abdalla, Hossam; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Thum, Meen-Yau

    2015-12-01

    contained groups that were comparable in age, although the criteria of reporting age varied. Taking all studies into account, the incidence of uterine cancer was 0.14% (150 of 103,758) in the fertility treatment group and 2.22% (14,918 of 672,466) in the non-fertility treatment group. Using the random-effect model to analyze uterine cancer incidence, this difference was not found to be of statistical significance: OR 0.78 (95% CI, 0.39-1.57). The degree of heterogeneity was high (I(2)=68%). The risk for the development of uterine and in particular endometrial cancer posed by infertility and an unopposed oestrogen state is widely recognized. The present analysis aimed to perceive whether standard fertility drugs were also a risk to future uterine cancer development. The treatment does increase the concentrations of unopposed oestrogen for a short periods of time but if successful leads to fertility. This meta-analysis points to a non-deleterious effect of fertility drugs towards the development of uterine cancer, a conclusion strongly supported by our sub-group analysis. PMID:26476799

  14. Lycopene and Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Zhang, Wenhao; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Keke; Negi, Devendra Singh; Zhuo, Li; Qi, Mao; Wang, Xinghuan; Zhang, Xinhua

    2015-08-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common illness for aging males. Lycopene has been identified as an antioxidant agent with potential anticancer properties. Studies investigating the relation between lycopene and PCa risk have produced inconsistent results. This study aims to determine dietary lycopene consumption/circulating concentration and any potential dose-response associations with the risk of PCa. Eligible studies published in English up to April 10, 2014, were searched and identified from Pubmed, Sciencedirect Online, Wiley online library databases and hand searching. The STATA (version 12.0) was applied to process the dose-response meta-analysis. Random effects models were used to calculate pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and to incorporate variation between studies. The linear and nonlinear dose-response relations were evaluated with data from categories of lycopene consumption/circulating concentrations. Twenty-six studies were included with 17,517 cases of PCa reported from 563,299 participants. Although inverse association between lycopene consumption and PCa risk was not found in all studies, there was a trend that with higher lycopene intake, there was reduced incidence of PCa (P = 0.078). Removal of one Chinese study in sensitivity analysis, or recalculation using data from only high-quality studies for subgroup analysis, indicated that higher lycopene consumption significantly lowered PCa risk. Furthermore, our dose-response meta-analysis demonstrated that higher lycopene consumption was linearly associated with a reduced risk of PCa with a threshold between 9 and 21 mg/day. Consistently, higher circulating lycopene levels significantly reduced the risk of PCa. Interestingly, the concentration of circulating lycopene between 2.17 and 85 μg/dL was linearly inversed with PCa risk whereas there was no linear association >85 μg/dL. In addition, greater efficacy for the circulating lycopene concentration on

  15. The role of CD147 expression in prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yun; Li, Su-Liang; Wang, Yao; Yao, Yang; Wang, Juan; Ma, Yue-Yun; Hao, Xiao-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Background There are a number of studies which show that expression of CD147 is increased significantly in prostate cancer (PCa). However, conflicting conclusions have also been reported by other researchers lately. In order to arrive at a clear conclusion, a meta-analysis of eligible studies was conducted. Materials and methods We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases to identify all the published case–control studies on the relationship between the expression of CD147 and PCa until February 2016. In the end, a total of 930 patients in eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. Results CD147 expression in the PCa patients increased significantly (odds ratio [OR], 4.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.52–6.14; Z=10.79; P<0.05), but there was obvious heterogeneity between studies (I2=92.9%, P<0.05). Subgroup analysis showed that positive expression of CD147 was associated with PCa among the Asian population (OR, 21.01; 95% CI, 12.88–34.28; Z=12.19; P<0.05). Furthermore, it was significantly related to TNM stage (OR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.17–0.35; Z=7.74; P<0.05), Gleason score (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.31–0.56; Z=5.62; P<0.05), differentiation grade (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.13–0.56; Z=3.47; P<0.05), and pretreatment serum prostate-specific antigen level (OR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.03–0.16; Z=6.47; P<0.05). Conclusion Positive expression of CD147 was related to PCa, significant heterogeneity was not found between Asian studies, and the result became more significant. The positive expression of CD147 was significantly related to the clinicopathological characteristics of PCa. This suggests that CD147 plays an essential role in poor prognosis and recurrence prediction. PMID:27536064

  16. Meta-analysis of studies using statins as a reducer for primary liver cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Guo-Chao; Liu, Yan; Ye, Yuan-Yuan; Hao, Fa-Bao; Wang, Kang; Gong, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A protective effect of statins on primary liver cancer (PLC) risk has been suggested. However, issues about the dose–response relationship, the protective effect of individual statins, and PLC risk reduction among at-risk populations remain unsolved. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for studies providing the risk ratio (RR) on statins and PLC risk. Summary RRs were calculated using a random-effects model. Twenty-five studies were identified. Stain use was significantly associated with a reduced risk of PLC (RR = 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53–0.69). The summary RR for every additional 50 cumulative defined daily doses per year was 0.87 (95% CI = 0.83–0.91). Evidence of a non-linear dose–response relationship between statins and PLC risk was found (Pnon-linearity < 0.01). All individual statins significantly reduced PLC risk, and the risk reduction was more evident with rosuvastatin. The inverse association between statins and PLC risk remained among populations with common risk factors. Subgroup analyses revealed more significant reduction in PLC risk by statins in high- versus non-high-risk populations (Pinteraction = 0.02). Overall, these findings add to our understanding of the association between statins and PLC risk. Whether statin use is causally associated with a reduced risk of PLC should be further studied. PMID:27198922

  17. Adoptive immunotherapy combined chemoradiotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Haili; Wang, Haijuan; Guan, Xiuwen; Yi, Zongbi; Ma, Fei

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacies between adoptive immunotherapy combined chemoradiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy alone in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane database were searched to identify eligible clinical trials. Data analyses were carried out using a comprehensive meta-analysis program, version 2 software. A total of seven articles were finally included in the analysis. Meta-analyses showed that compared with chemoradiotherapy alone, adoptive immunotherapy combined with chemoradiotherapy could improve the 2-year overall survival [odds ratio (OR)=2.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.60-3.75, P<0.001], but not 2-year progression-free survival (OR=1.81, 95% CI: 0.61-5.36, P=0.284). Specifically, early (OR=3.32, 95% CI: 1.38-7.95, P<0.01) but not advanced (OR=3.75, 95% CI: 0.96-14.68, P=0.057) NSCLC patients were likely to gain a large benefit from the adoptive immunotherapy. Most of the adoptive immunotherapy-induced adverse effects were self-limited, mainly including fever, shiver, nausea, fatigue, etc. and severe toxicities were not observed. Adoptive immunotherapy combined with chemoradiotherapy can delay the recurrence of NSCLC and improve survival in patients, where the benefits are even more significant in patients with early-stage NSCLC. PMID:26872311

  18. Pruritus in Patients Treated with Targeted Cancer Therapies: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ensslin, Courtney J; Rosen, Alyx C; Wu, Shenhong; Lacouture, Mario E

    2014-01-01

    Background Pruritus has been anecdotally described in association with targeted cancer therapies. The risk of pruritus has not been systematically ascertained. Objective A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was conducted for axitinib, cetuximab, dasatinib, erlotinib, everolimus, gefitinib, imatinib, ipilimumab, lapatinib, nilotinib, panitumumab, pazopanib, rituximab, sorafenib, temsirolimus, tositumomab, vandetanib, and vemurafenib. Methods Databases from PubMed, Web of Science (01/1998–07/2012), and American Society of Clinical Oncology abstracts (2004–2012) were searched. Incidence and risk (RR) of pruritus were calculated using random or fixed effects model. Results The incidences of all-grade and high-grade pruritus were 17.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 16.0%−19.0%) and 1.4% (95% CI: 1.2%−1.6%), respectively. There was an increased risk of all-grade pruritus (RR=2.90 (95% CI: 1.76–4.77, p<0.001)); and variation among different drugs (P<0.001). Limitations The reporting of pruritus may vary, resulting from concomitant medications, comorbidities, and underlying malignancies. We found a higher incidence of pruritus in patients with solid tumors, concordant with those targeted therapies with the highest pruritus incidences. Conclusion There is a significant risk of developing pruritus in patients receiving targeted therapies. In order to prevent suboptimal dosing and decreased quality of life, patients should be counseled and treated against this untoward symptom. PMID:23981682

  19. Radiotherapy Boost for the Dominant Intraprostatic Cancer Lesion-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    von Eyben, Finn Edler; Kiljunen, Timo; Kangasmaki, Aki; Kairemo, Kalevi; von Eyben, Rie; Joensuu, Timo

    2016-06-01

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer can be performed with a high dose of 86 Gy; however, one-tenth or more of the patients will develop recurrence. Prostate cancer is mainly multifocal, but a dominant intraprostatic lesion (DIL) is often the site of local recurrence after EBRT. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify whether functional imaging might identify the DIL and whether a RT boost to the DIL might be increased to an ultrahigh dose level of ≥ 90 Gy without increased toxicity. Of 62 selected studies, 13 reported the size of the DIL. The mean of the median DIL volumes was 2.4 cm(3) (95% confidence interval, 0.9-4.4 cm(3)). Eighteen diagnostic studies with 1205 patients evaluated the diagnostic accuracy using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for intraprostatic cancer lesions. Evaluating 14,654 prostate segments, the diagnostic accuracy was 77%. Eleven therapeutic studies with 988 patients reported a RT boost for the DIL. The summary boost dose for the DIL was a mean of 89 Gy in 5 studies using intensity modulated RT (calculated as the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions) and a mean of 141 Gy in 4 studies using a combination of EBRT and brachytherapy (P = .018, t test). In 1 therapeutic study, 239 patients had a 98% 10-year disease-free survival rate. Many of our therapeutic studies used a boost dose to the DIL of > 90 Gy. The reported boost for DIL is effective and safe. PMID:26768965

  20. Systematic review and meta-analysis of sutures coated with triclosan for the prevention of surgical site infection after elective colorectal surgery according to the PRISMA statement

    PubMed Central

    Sandini, Marta; Mattavelli, Ilaria; Nespoli, Luca; Uggeri, Fabio; Gianotti, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) conducted to evaluate the effect of triclosan-coated suture on surgical site infection (SSI) yield to controversial results. The primary purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to analyze the available RCTs, comparing the effect of triclosan-coated suture with uncoated suture on the incidence of SSI after elective colorectal operations. As secondary endpoint of the analysis, we considered length of hospital stay after surgery. Methods: We performed a systematic literature review through Medline, Embase, Pubmed, Scopus, Ovid, ISI Web of Science, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register searching for RCTs published from 1990 to 2015. To conduct these meta-analyses, we followed the guidelines and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Study inclusion criteria were as follows: parallel-group RCTs in adult populations reporting the closure of the abdominal wall after elective colorectal operation with triclosan-coated suture or noncoated suture, and reporting the outcomes considered in the meta-analysis. Results: Six trials including 2168 patients (1102 treated and 1066 controls) provided data on SSIs. The overall rate was 11.7% (129/1102) in the triclosan group and 13.4% (143/1066) in the control group (odds ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58–1.13, P = 0.220). Heterogeneity among studies was moderate (I2 = 44.9%). No evidence of publication bias was detectable. Five RCTs (1783 patients; 914 treated and 689 controls) described hospital length of stay with no significant effect (mean difference: −0.02, 95% CI −0.11 to −0.07, P = 0.668). The I2 test for heterogeneity was 0% (P = 0.836). Moderator analyses showed no significant differences were detected in analyses comparing the suture materials (polydioxanone vs polyglactin). In open-label trials, the odds ratio for SSI risk was 0.62 (95% CI 0.20–1.93, P = 0

  1. Efficacy of Vitamin and Antioxidant Supplements in Prevention of Esophageal Cancer: Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Yang, Hyo Jin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Observational epidemiological studies have shown that higher intakes of vitamins or antioxidants were inversely associated with the risk of esophageal cancer. However, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported no preventive efficacy of vitamin or antioxidant supplements on esophageal cancer. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy of vitamin and antioxidant supplements in the prevention of esophageal cancer as reported by RCTs. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library in May 2013. Two authors independently reviewed and selected eligible articles based on predetermined selection criteria. Results: Of 171 articles searched from three databases and relevant bibliographies, 10 RCTs were included in the final analyses. In a fixed-effect meta-analysis of 10 trials, there was no efficacy of vitamin and antioxidant supplements in the prevention of esophageal cancer (relative risk [RR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86–1.25; I2=0.0%). Also, subgroup meta-analyses showed that vitamin and antioxidant supplements had no preventive efficacy on esophageal cancer both in the high risk (RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.85–1.28; n=4) and non-high risk (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.65–1.56; n=6) groups for esophageal cancer. Further, subgroup meta-analyses revealed no preventive efficacy on esophageal cancer by type of methodological quality and type of vitamin and antioxidant supplements. Conclusions: Unlike observational epidemiological studies, this meta-analysis of RCTs suggests that there is no clinical evidence to support the efficacy of vitamin and antioxidant supplements in the prevention of esophageal cancer. PMID:25337539

  2. New registry: National Cancer Patient Registry--Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wendy, L; Radzi, M

    2008-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is emerging as one of the commonest cancers in Malaysia. Data on colorectal cancer from the National Cancer Registry is very limited. Comprehensive information on all aspects of colorectal cancer, including demographic details, pathology and treatment outcome are needed as the management of colorectal cancer has evolved rapidly over the years involving several disciplines including gastroenterology, surgery, radiology, pathology and oncology. This registry will be an important source of information that can help the development of guidelines to improve colorectal cancer care relevant to this country. The database will initially recruit all colorectal cancer cases from eight hospitals. The data will be stored on a customized web-based case report form. The database has begun collecting data from 1 October 2007 and will report on its first year findings at the end of 2008. PMID:19230248

  3. The association between the poly(A) polymorphism in the VDR gene and cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Yang, Jiqiao; Wang, Haichuan; Xiong, Tianyuan; Zhang, Hongbo; Ma, Yaxian; Wang, Xiaoze; Huang, Jichong; Du, Liang

    2013-06-01

    The poly(A) polymorphism (L/S) in the VDR gene has been implicated in susceptibility of cancer, but a number of studies have reported inconclusive results. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the poly(A) polymorphism in the VDR gene and cancer risk by meta-analysis. We searched PubMed database, EMBASE database, CNKI database, and Wanfang database, covering all studies until January 22, 2013. Statistical analysis was performed by using the software Revman4.2 and STATA 10.0. A total 8,186 cancer cases and 8,685 controls in 19 case-control studies from 15 studies were identified for data analysis. The results suggested that the S allele carriers (SS+SL) did not have an increased or decreased risk of cancer when compared with the homozygote LL carriers (odds ratio (OR) =0.96, 95 % CI=0.87-1.06, P=0.43 for SS+SL vs. LL). In addition, in the subgroup analysis by ethnicity and cancer type, no significant association was found among Caucasians, African-Americans, prostate cancer, or breast cancer. This current meta-analysis suggested that the poly(A) polymorphism in the VDR gene may not contribute to the risk of cancer. Future studies are needed to validate our findings. PMID:23519839

  4. Diagnostic Performance of Indocyanine Green-Guided Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yidong; Mao, Feng; Lin, Yan; Guan, Jinghong; Sun, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background The diagnostic performance of indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence-guided sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for the presence of metastases in breast cancer remains unclear. Objective We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the diagnostic performance of ICG-guided SLNB. Methods Eligible studies were identified from searches of the databases PubMed and EMBASE up to September 2015. Studies that reported the detection rate of ICG fluorescence-guided SLNB with full axillary lymph node dissection and histological or immunohistochemical examinations were included. A meta-analysis was performed to generate pooled detection rate, sensitivity, specificity, false negative rate, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and a summary receiver operator characteristic curve (SROC). Results Nineteen published studies were included to generate a pooled detection rate, comprising 2594 patients. The pooled detection rate was 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96–0.99). Six studies finally met the criteria for meta-analysis, which yielded a pooled sensitivity of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.85–0.96), specificity 1 (95% CI, 0.97–1), and DOR 311.47 (95% CI, 84.11–1153.39). The area under the SROC was 0.9758. No publication bias was found. Conclusion ICG fluorescence-guided SLNB is viable for detection of lymph node metastases in breast cancer. Large-scale randomized multi-center trials are necessary to confirm our results. PMID:27280407

  5. Screening for cervical cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The systematic review on which this paper is based provided evidence for the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care to update their guideline regarding screening for cervical cancer. In this article we highlight three questions covered in the full review that pertain to the effectiveness of screening for reducing cervical cancer mortality and incidence as well as optimal timing and frequency of screening. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Central from 1995 to 2012 for relevant randomized controlled trials and observational studies with comparison groups. Eligible studies included women aged 15 to 70 years who were screened using conventional cytology, liquid-based cytology or human papillomavirus DNA tests. Relevance screening, data extraction, risk of bias analyses and quality assessments were performed in duplicate. We conducted a meta-analysis using a random-effects model on the one body of evidence that could be pooled. Results From the 15,145 screened citations, 27 papers (24 studies) were included; five older studies located in a United States Preventive Services Task Force review were also included. A randomized controlled trial in India showed even a single lifetime screening test significantly decreased the risk of mortality from and incidence of advanced cervical cancer compared to no screening (mortality: risk ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.47, 0.90; incidence: relative risk 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.42, 0.75). Cytology screening was shown to be beneficial in a cohort study that found testing significantly reduced the risk of being diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer compared to no screening (risk ratio 0.38; 95% confidence interval 0.23, 0.63). Pooled evidence from a dozen case–control studies also indicated a significant protective effect of cytology screening (odds ratio 0.35; 95% confidence interval 0.30, 0.41). This review found no conclusive evidence for establishing optimal ages to start and stop

  6. Meta-Analysis of Tumor Stem-Like Breast Cancer Cells Using Gene Set and Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Jun; Kim, Sang Cheol; Yoon, Jung-Ho; Yoon, Sang Jun; Lim, Johan; Kim, You-Sun; Kwon, Sung Won; Park, Jeong Hill

    2016-01-01

    Generally, cancer stem cells have epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition characteristics and other aggressive properties that cause metastasis. However, there have been no confident markers for the identification of cancer stem cells and comparative methods examining adherent and sphere cells are widely used to investigate mechanism underlying cancer stem cells, because sphere cells have been known to maintain cancer stem cell characteristics. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis that combined gene expression profiles from several studies that utilized tumorsphere technology to investigate tumor stem-like breast cancer cells. We used our own gene expression profiles along with the three different gene expression profiles from the Gene Expression Omnibus, which we combined using the ComBat method, and obtained significant gene sets using the gene set analysis of our datasets and the combined dataset. This experiment focused on four gene sets such as cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction that demonstrated significance in both datasets. Our observations demonstrated that among the genes of four significant gene sets, six genes were consistently up-regulated and satisfied the p-value of < 0.05, and our network analysis showed high connectivity in five genes. From these results, we established CXCR4, CXCL1 and HMGCS1, the intersecting genes of the datasets with high connectivity and p-value of < 0.05, as significant genes in the identification of cancer stem cells. Additional experiment using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed significant up-regulation in MCF-7 derived sphere cells and confirmed the importance of these three genes. Taken together, using meta-analysis that combines gene set and network analysis, we suggested CXCR4, CXCL1 and HMGCS1 as candidates involved in tumor stem-like breast cancer cells. Distinct from other meta-analysis, by using gene set analysis, we selected possible markers which can explain the biological

  7. Translation initiation in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Parsyan, Armen; Hernández, Greco; Meterissian, Sarkis

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancers (CRC) are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in high-income countries. Targeted screening programs have resulted in early treatment and a substantial decrease in mortality. However, treatment strategies for CRC still require improvement. Understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of CRC would provide tools for improving treatment of patients with this disease. It is only recently that deregulation of the protein synthesis apparatus has begun to gain attention as a major player in cancer development and progression. Among the numerous steps of protein synthesis, deregulation of the process of translation initiation appears to play a key role in cancer growth and proliferation. This manuscript discusses a fascinating and rapidly growing field exploring translation initiation as a fundamental component in CRC development and progression and summarizing CRC treatment perspectives based on agents targeting translation initiation. PMID:22418835

  8. Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minhhuyen T; Weinberg, David S

    2016-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. The main goals of screening are to prevent carcinogenesis (via adenoma detection and removal) and detect cancer at an early, curable stage. CRC mortality is steadily dropping in the United States, partly because of greater screening utilization. However, nearly 1 in 3 average-risk people are not up to date with standard CRC screening recommendations. This review surveys a wide range of CRC biomarkers in various stages of development, which may offer attractive risk stratification tools; a few have reached the commercial stage. If widely accepted, these tools may contribute to shift CRC screening practices away from 1-step colonoscopy to a 2-step risk stratification process of predictive biomarker measurements followed by colonoscopy for lower-risk patients with a positive result. Such strategies could potentially increase the rate of CRC screening. PMID:27496118

  9. Prognostic Value and Clinicopathological Differences of Bmi1 in Gastric Cancer: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bin; Zhao, Hong; Xue, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Jin; Wang, Xu; Han, Ye; Zhang, Lifeng; Guo, Xiaobo; Zhi, Qiaoming

    2016-01-01

    B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi1) was identified as a biomarker of cancer stem cells, and over-expression of Bmi1 might enhance tumor aggressive clinical behavior in gastric cancer (GC). Our aim of this meta-analysis is to investigate the prognostic role and clinicopathological differences of Bmi1 in GC patients. A total of 6 studies up to September 2014 were included in our study. Our results showed that there were no relationships between Bmi1 expression and the gender (pooled OR=0.87, 95%CI=0.66-1.14, P=0.319, fixed effect), age (pooled OR=1.22, 95%CI=0.95-1.59, P=0.126, fixed effect) and differentiation (pooled OR=1.15, 95%CI=0.71-1.86, P=0.582, random effect) in GC patients. But high Bmi1 expression was significantly correlated with the clinical stage (pooled OR=3.04, 95%CI=1.31-7.07, P=0.010, random effect), tumor size (pooled OR=2.01, 95%CI=1.14-3.55, P=0.016, random effect), T classification (pooled OR=2.79, 95%CI=1.94-4.03, P<0.001, fixed effect), lymph node metastasis (pooled OR=2.24, 95%CI=1.47-3.39, P<0.001, random effect) and distant metastasis (pooled OR=5.05, 95%CI=1.29-19.70, P=0.020, random effect), and led to a poor overall survival (OS) in GC patients (RR=3.38, 95%CI=2.43-4.69, P<0.001, fixed effect). These findings suggested that Bmi1 might serve as a novel and effective prognostic biomarker in GC, and could be a promising emerging molecular target in GC therapy. PMID:25968877

  10. Clinical Potential of DNA Methylation in Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sapari, Nur Sabrina; Loh, Marie; Vaithilingam, Aparna; Soong, Richie

    2012-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates aberrant DNA methylation is involved in gastric tumourigenesis, suggesting it may be a useful clinical biomarker for the disease. The aim of this study was to consolidate and summarize published data on the potential of methylation in gastric cancer (GC) risk prediction, prognostication and prediction of treatment response. Methods Relevant studies were identified from PubMed using a systematic search approach. Results were summarized by meta-analysis. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios were computed for each methylation event assuming the random-effects model. Results A review of 589 retrieved publications identified 415 relevant articles, including 143 case-control studies on gene methylation of 142 individual genes in GC clinical samples. A total of 77 genes were significantly differentially methylated between tumour and normal gastric tissue from GC subjects, of which data on 62 was derived from single studies. Methylation of 15, 4 and 7 genes in normal gastric tissue, plasma and serum respectively was significantly different in frequency between GC and non-cancer subjects. A prognostic significance was reported for 18 genes and predictive significance was reported for p16 methylation, although many inconsistent findings were also observed. No bias due to assay, use of fixed tissue or CpG sites analysed was detected, however a slight bias towards publication of positive findings was observed. Conclusions DNA methylation is a promising biomarker for GC risk prediction and prognostication. Further focused validation of candidate methylation markers in independent cohorts is required to develop its clinical potential. PMID:22558417

  11. One-Carbon Metabolic Factors and Risk of Renal Cell Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Bijing; Li, Yafei; Zhang, Zhimin; Chen, Chuan; Chen, Yuanyuan; Ding, Chenchen; Lei, Lin; Li, Jian; Jiang, Mei; Wang, Dong; Wang, Ge

    2015-01-01

    Background Nutrients related to one-carbon metabolism were previously shown to be significantly associated with the risk of cancer. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate potential relationships between one-carbon metabolic factors and renal cell cancer (RCC) risk. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched through March 2015 for observational studies of quantitative RCC risk estimates in relation to one-carbon metabolic factors. The relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) measured the relationship between one-carbon metabolic factors and RCC risk using a random-effects model. Results Of the 463 citations and abstracts identified by database search, seven cohorts from five observational studies reported data on 133,995 individuals, and included 2,441 RCC cases. Comparing the highest with the lowest category, the pooled RRs of RCC were 0.72 (95%CI: 0.52–1.00; P = 0.048) for vitamin B12. In addition, an increase in folic acid supplementation of 100 μg/day was associated with a 3% lower risk of RCC (RR, 0.97; 95%CI: 0.93–1.00; P = 0.048). Similarly, an increase of 5 nmol/L of vitamin B2 was associated with a reduced risk of RCC 0.94 (95%CI: 0.89–1.00; P = 0.045). Sensitivity analyses suggested that a higher serum vitamin B6 might contribute to a reduced risk of RCC (RR, 0.83; 95%CI: 0.77–0.89; P < 0.001). Conclusions Higher levels of serum vitamin B2, B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation lowered the risk of RCC among the study participants. PMID:26513161

  12. Diagnostic value of S100P for pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haolin; Zhang, Qi; Huang, Chenfei; Shen, Yi; Chen, Xundi; Shi, Xin; Tang, Wenhao

    2014-10-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a fatal disease with a high mortality and poor prognosis. PC is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in America, and 80 % of PCs are diagnosed at an unresectable stage. Effective early detection assays are crucial since a successful operation at early stage is the best strategy for this disease. S100 calcium-binding protein P (S100P) has been reported as a predictive diagnostic index for PC and involves in the development of PC. However, the diagnostic accuracy of S100P in detecting PC has never been systematically assessed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of S100P for PC. All relevant original articles about S100P in the diagnosis of PC published up to December 2013 were retrieved. The methodological quality of each study was assessed by QUADAS. The overall diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), with 95 % confidence interval (CI), and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were pooled to evaluate the diagnostic value of S100P for PC using the Meta-DiSc1.4 statistical software. Eight studies met our criteria in the present meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and DOR calculated by the bivariate random effects model were 0.87 (95 % CI 0.83-0.90), 0.88 (95 % CI 0.82-0.93), and 38.32 (95 % CI 11.22-130.87), respectively. The summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve was located near the desirable left corner and the AUC was 0.9272. The current evidence suggests that S100P plays an important role in the diagnosis of PC with a high sensitivity and specificity. S100P may be regarded as a promising diagnostic marker to PC screening. PMID:25123266

  13. Role of protective stoma in low anterior resection for rectal cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sheng-Wen; Ma, Cong-Chao; Yang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the role of a protective stoma in low anterior resection (LAR) for rectal cancer. METHODS: The PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases were searched for studies and relevant literature published between 2007 and 2014 regarding the construction of a protective stoma during LAR. A pooled risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was used to assess the outcomes of the studies, including the rate of postoperative anastomotic leakage and reoperations related to leakage. Funnel plots and Egger’s tests were used to evaluate the publication biases of the studies. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 11 studies were included in the meta-analysis. In total, 5612 patients were examined, 2868 of whom had a protective stoma and 2744 of whom did not. The sample size of the studies varied from 34 to 1912 patients. All studies reported the number of patients who developed an anastomotic leakage and required a reoperation related to leakage. A random effects model was used to calculate the pooled RR with the corresponding 95%CI because obvious heterogeneity was observed among the 11 studies (I2 = 77%). The results indicated that the creation of a protective stoma during LAR significantly reduces the rate of anastomotic leakage and the number of reoperations related to leakage, with pooled RRs of 0.38 (95%CI: 0.30-0.48, P < 0.00001) and 0.37 (95%CI: 0.29-0.48, P < 0.00001), respectively. The shape of the funnel plot did not reveal any evidence of obvious asymmetry. CONCLUSION: The presence of a protective stoma effectively decreased the incidences of anastomotic leakage and reoperation and is recommended in patients undergoing low rectal anterior resections for rectal cancer. PMID:25548503

  14. Prioritizing Therapeutics for Lung Cancer: An Integrative Meta-analysis of Cancer Gene Signatures and Chemogenomic Data

    PubMed Central

    Fortney, Kristen; Griesman, Joshua; Kotlyar, Max; Pastrello, Chiara; Angeli, Marc; Sound-Tsao, Ming; Jurisica, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Repurposing FDA-approved drugs with the aid of gene signatures of disease can accelerate the development of new therapeutics. A major challenge to developing reliable drug predictions is heterogeneity. Different gene signatures of the same disease or drug treatment often show poor overlap across studies, as a consequence of both biological and technical variability, and this can affect the quality and reproducibility of computational drug predictions. Existing algorithms for signature-based drug repurposing use only individual signatures as input. But for many diseases, there are dozens of signatures in the public domain. Methods that exploit all available transcriptional knowledge on a disease should produce improved drug predictions. Here, we adapt an established meta-analysis framework to address the problem of drug repurposing using an ensemble of disease signatures. Our computational pipeline takes as input a collection of disease signatures, and outputs a list of drugs predicted to consistently reverse pathological gene changes. We apply our method to conduct the largest and most systematic repurposing study on lung cancer transcriptomes, using 21 signatures. We show that scaling up transcriptional knowledge significantly increases the reproducibility of top drug hits, from 44% to 78%. We extensively characterize drug hits in silico, demonstrating that they slow growth significantly in nine lung cancer cell lines from the NCI-60 collection, and identify CALM1 and PLA2G4A as promising drug targets for lung cancer. Our meta-analysis pipeline is general, and applicable to any disease context; it can be applied to improve the results of signature-based drug repurposing by leveraging the large number of disease signatures in the public domain. PMID:25786242

  15. Smoking and risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Knekt, P.; Hakama, M.; Järvinen, R.; Pukkala, E.; Heliövaara, M.

    1998-01-01

    Tobacco smoking was studied in relation to colorectal cancer in 56 973 Finnish men and women initially free from cancer. Smoking status was determined by a health questionnaire. During a follow-up period of 28 years, from the baseline in 1966-72 to the end of 1994, 457 cases of colorectal cancer occurred. There was no significant association between baseline smoking status and colorectal cancer risk over the total follow-up period. The sex- and age-adjusted relative risk of colorectal cancer between smokers and non-smokers was 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.33). For follow-up periods of 11-20 years, however, the relative risk was 1.57 (95% confidence interval 1.09-2.24). In a subgroup in which smoking habits were assessed twice, the relative risk of colorectal cancer among persistent smokers was 1.71 (95% confidence interval 1.09-2.68) compared with others. The results of the present prospective study are consistent with the possibility that smoking increases the risk of colorectal cancer after a relatively long induction period. To clarify the role of smoking in colorectal cancer development, further cohort studies are needed with long follow-up periods and allowing for control of dietary and other potential confounding factors. PMID:9662264

  16. Association between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yingbo; Jiang, Ying; Jin, Shan; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has been the main cause of cancer death around the world. Cigarette smoking has been identified as a risk factor for lung cancer in males. However, the etiological factors in nonsmoking women remain elusive. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women. Thirteen articles containing three population-based case–control and ten hospital-based case–control studies were included in this meta-analysis. These studies with a total of 3,596 lung cancer women and 6,082 healthy controls were analyzed by RevMan 5.3. Fixed effects model or random effects model was used to obtain pooled estimates of risk ratio. The risk ratios with a 95% CI were 1.74 (95% CI =1.57–1.94) and 2.11 (95% CI =1.54–2.89), respectively. Cooking oil fume exposure as well as not using a kitchen ventilator when cooking was significantly associated with lung cancer among nonsmoking women (Z=10.07, P<0.00001; Z=4.65, P<0.00001). Cooking oil fume exposure, especially lacking a fume extractor, may increase the risk of lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women. PMID:27284248

  17. Association between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yingbo; Jiang, Ying; Jin, Shan; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has been the main cause of cancer death around the world. Cigarette smoking has been identified as a risk factor for lung cancer in males. However, the etiological factors in nonsmoking women remain elusive. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women. Thirteen articles containing three population-based case-control and ten hospital-based case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. These studies with a total of 3,596 lung cancer women and 6,082 healthy controls were analyzed by RevMan 5.3. Fixed effects model or random effects model was used to obtain pooled estimates of risk ratio. The risk ratios with a 95% CI were 1.74 (95% CI =1.57-1.94) and 2.11 (95% CI =1.54-2.89), respectively. Cooking oil fume exposure as well as not using a kitchen ventilator when cooking was significantly associated with lung cancer among nonsmoking women (Z=10.07, P<0.00001; Z=4.65, P<0.00001). Cooking oil fume exposure, especially lacking a fume extractor, may increase the risk of lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women. PMID:27284248

  18. The Association Between p53 Codon 72 Polymorphism and Endometrial Cancer Risk: A System Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ke; Yang, LingYun; Lan, Zhu; Xi, MingRong

    2016-07-01

    Polymorphism of p53 codon 72 plays an important role in pathogenesis and development of cancer. Published data on the association between the p53 codon 72 polymorphism and endometrial cancer risk are controversial. A meta-analysis was performed to assess whether the polymorphism of p53 codon 72 is associated with endometrial cancer risk. Medline, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biomedicine Databases were searched to identify eligible studies. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for p53 codon 72 polymorphism and endometrial cancer were appropriately derived from fixed-effects or random effects models. A total of 12 studies were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The pooled analyses revealed that p53 codon 72 polymorphism was not associated with endometrial cancer risk. Stratified analysis by Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium exhibited a significantly increased risk of endometrial cancer among studies deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in heterozygote comparison (Pro/Arg vs Arg/Arg; OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.42-0.87) and dominant model (Pro/Pro + Pro/Arg vs Arg/Arg; OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.47-0.92). This study indicated that the p53 codon 72 polymorphism may not be associated with endometrial cancer risk. PMID:27327151

  19. Factors affecting uptake and adherence to breast cancer chemoprevention: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S. G.; Sestak, I.; Forster, A.; Partridge, A.; Side, L.; Wolf, M. S.; Horne, R.; Wardle, J.; Cuzick, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Preventive therapy is a risk reduction option for women who have an increased risk of breast cancer. The effectiveness of preventive therapy to reduce breast cancer incidence depends on adequate levels of uptake and adherence to therapy. We aimed to systematically review articles reporting uptake and adherence to therapeutic agents to prevent breast cancer among women at increased risk, and identify the psychological, clinical and demographic factors affecting these outcomes. Design Searches were carried out in PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsychInfo, yielding 3851 unique articles. Title, abstract and full text screening left 53 articles, and a further 4 studies were identified from reference lists, giving a total of 57. This review was prospectively registered with PROSPERO (CRD42014014957). Results Twenty-four articles reporting 26 studies of uptake in 21 423 women were included in a meta-analysis. The pooled uptake estimate was 16.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 13.6–19.0], with high heterogeneity (I2 = 98.9%, P < 0.001). Uptake was unaffected by study location or agent, but was significantly higher in trials [25.2% (95% CI 18.3–32.2)] than in non-trial settings [8.7% (95% CI 6.8–10.9)] (P < 0.001). Factors associated with higher uptake included having an abnormal biopsy, a physician recommendation, higher objective risk, fewer side-effect or trial concerns, and older age. Adherence (day-to-day use or persistence) over the first year was adequate. However, only one study reported a persistence of ≥80% by 5 years. Factors associated with lower adherence included allocation to tamoxifen (versus placebo or raloxifene), depression, smoking and older age. Risk of breast cancer was discussed in all qualitative studies. Conclusion Uptake of therapeutic agents for the prevention of breast cancer is low, and long-term persistence is often insufficient for women to experience the full preventive effect. Uptake is higher in trials, suggesting further work

  20. Mammographic Density Phenotypes and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Graff, Rebecca E.; Ursin, Giske; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; McCormack, Valerie; Baglietto, Laura; Vachon, Celine; Bakker, Marije F.; Giles, Graham G.; Chia, Kee Seng; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Louise; Hall, Per; Hartman, Mikael; Warren, Ruth M. L.; Hislop, Greg; Chiarelli, Anna M.; Hopper, John L.; Krishnan, Kavitha; Li, Jingmei; Li, Qing; Pagano, Ian; Rosner, Bernard A.; Wong, Chia Siong; Scott, Christopher; Stone, Jennifer; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Boyd, Norman F.; van Gils, Carla H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fibroglandular breast tissue appears dense on mammogram, whereas fat appears nondense. It is unclear whether absolute or percentage dense area more strongly predicts breast cancer risk and whether absolute nondense area is independently associated with risk. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of 13 case–control studies providing results from logistic regressions for associations between one standard deviation (SD) increments in mammographic density phenotypes and breast cancer risk. We used random-effects models to calculate pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All tests were two-sided with P less than .05 considered to be statistically significant. Results Among premenopausal women (n = 1776 case patients; n = 2834 control subjects), summary odds ratios were 1.37 (95% CI = 1.29 to 1.47) for absolute dense area, 0.78 (95% CI = 0.71 to 0.86) for absolute nondense area, and 1.52 (95% CI = 1.39 to 1.66) for percentage dense area when pooling estimates adjusted for age, body mass index, and parity. Corresponding odds ratios among postmenopausal women (n = 6643 case patients; n = 11187 control subjects) were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.31 to 1.44), 0.79 (95% CI = 0.73 to 0.85), and 1.53 (95% CI = 1.44 to 1.64). After additional adjustment for absolute dense area, associations between absolute nondense area and breast cancer became attenuated or null in several studies and summary odds ratios became 0.82 (95% CI = 0.71 to 0.94; P heterogeneity = .02) for premenopausal and 0.85 (95% CI = 0.75 to 0.96; P heterogeneity < .01) for postmenopausal women. Conclusions The results suggest that percentage dense area is a stronger breast cancer risk factor than absolute dense area. Absolute nondense area was inversely associated with breast cancer risk, but it is unclear whether the association is independent of absolute dense area. PMID:24816206

  1. Screening Mammography & Breast Cancer Mortality: Meta-Analysis of Quasi-Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Irvin, Veronica L.; Kaplan, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The magnitude of the benefit associated with screening has been debated. We present a meta-analysis of quasi-experimental studies on the effects of mammography screening. Methods We searched MEDLINE/PubMed and Embase for articles published through January 31, 2013. Studies were included if they reported: 1) a population-wide breast cancer screening program using mammography with 5+ years of data post-implementation; 2) a comparison group with equal access to therapies; and 3) breast cancer mortality. Studies excluded were: RCTs, case-control, or simulation studies. We defined quasi-experimental as studies that compared either geographical, historical or birth cohorts with a screening program to an equivalent cohort without a screening program. Meta-analyses were conducted in Stata using the metan command, random effects. Meta-analyses were conducted separately for ages screened: under 50, 50 to 69 and over 70 and weighted by population and person-years. Results Among 4,903 published papers that were retrieved, 19 studies matched eligibility criteria. Birth cohort studies reported a significant benefit for women screened cancer mortality were observed in historical comparisons. For geographical comparisons, there was a significant 20% reduction in mortality for women cancer mortality for women ages 50–69, but the effects in most individual studies were non-significant. All studies of women ages 70+ were non-significant. Conclusions Mammography screening may have modest effects on cancer mortality between the ages of 50 and 69 and non-significant effects for women older than age 70. Results are consistent with meta-analyses of RCTs. Effects on total mortality

  2. Correlation Between Interleukin-1β-511 C/T Polymorphism and Gastric Cancer in Chinese Populations: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Luo, Ming-xu; Zhou, Xin; Lv, Yo; Su, Guo-qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have indicated that interleukin (IL)-1β-511 C/T polymorphism may contribute to individual susceptibility to gastric cancer, but the results vary among regions and races. No relevant meta-analysis has been conducted in a Chinese population. Therefore, we performed the current meta-analysis to investigate the possible correlation between IL-1β-511 C/T polymorphism and gastric cancer susceptibility in Chinese subjects. Material/Methods PubMed, EmBase, Cochrane Library, Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang databases were searched for case-control studies published before 21 January 2015 and investigating a correlation between IL-1β-511 C/T polymorphism and gastric cancer susceptibility. Two investigators independently screened the studies, extracted data, and evaluated the quality of included studies with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Meta-analysis was conducted with STATA 12.0. Results A total of 27 articles from 28 case-control studies were collected. Meta-analysis showed that IL-1β-511C/T polymorphism was related to increased susceptibility to gastric cancer in Chinese subjects [T vs. C: OR=1.21, 95%CI (1.07–1.37), P<0.01; TT vs. CC: OR=1.41, 95%CI (1.11–1.80), P<0.01; CT vs. CC: OR=1.26, 95% CI (1.05–1.50), P<0.01; TT+CT vs. CC: OR=1.31, 95%CI (1.08–1.58), P<0.01; and TT vs. CT+CC: OR=1.24, 95%CI (1.05–1.47), P<0.01]. Subgroup analysis showed a significant correlation between IL-1β-511C/T polymorphism and susceptibility to gastric cancer in residents of southern China and in patients with intestinal-type gastric cancer, but not in residents of northern China or in patients with diffuse gastric cancer. Moreover, H. pylori-infected subjects carrying T (CT+TT) exhibited a relatively higher risk of GC [OR=2.4, 95% CI (1.2–5.1), P=0.02]. Conclusions IL-1β-511C/T polymorphism is significantly associated with increased susceptibility to gastric cancer in residents of

  3. Correlation Between Interleukin-1β-511 C/T Polymorphism and Gastric Cancer in Chinese Populations: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Luo, Ming-Xu; Zhou, Xin; Lv, Yo; Su, Guo-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several studies have indicated that interleukin (IL)-1β-511 C/T polymorphism may contribute to individual susceptibility to gastric cancer, but the results vary among regions and races. No relevant meta-analysis has been conducted in a Chinese population. Therefore, we performed the current meta-analysis to investigate the possible correlation between IL-1β-511 C/T polymorphism and gastric cancer susceptibility in Chinese subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS PubMed, EmBase, Cochrane Library, Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang databases were searched for case-control studies published before 21 January 2015 and investigating a correlation between IL-1β-511 C/T polymorphism and gastric cancer susceptibility. Two investigators independently screened the studies, extracted data, and evaluated the quality of included studies with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Meta-analysis was conducted with STATA 12.0. RESULTS A total of 27 articles from 28 case-control studies were collected. Meta-analysis showed that IL-1β-511C/T polymorphism was related to increased susceptibility to gastric cancer in Chinese subjects [T vs. C: OR=1.21, 95%CI (1.07-1.37), P<0.01; TT vs. CC: OR=1.41, 95%CI (1.11-1.80), P<0.01; CT vs. CC: OR=1.26, 95% CI (1.05-1.50), P<0.01; TT+CT vs. CC: OR=1.31, 95%CI (1.08-1.58), P<0.01; and TT vs. CT+CC: OR=1.24, 95%CI (1.05-1.47), P<0.01]. Subgroup analysis showed a significant correlation between IL-1β-511C/T polymorphism and susceptibility to gastric cancer in residents of southern China and in patients with intestinal-type gastric cancer, but not in residents of northern China or in patients with diffuse gastric cancer. Moreover, H. pylori-infected subjects carrying T (CT+TT) exhibited a relatively higher risk of GC [OR=2.4, 95% CI (1.2-5.1), P=0.02]. CONCLUSIONS IL-1β-511C/T polymorphism is significantly associated with increased susceptibility to gastric cancer in residents of southern China

  4. CancerMA: a web-based tool for automatic meta-analysis of public cancer microarray data

    PubMed Central

    Feichtinger, Julia; McFarlane, Ramsay J.; Larcombe, Lee D.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of novel candidate markers is a key challenge in the development of cancer therapies. This can be facilitated by putting accessible and automated approaches analysing the current wealth of ‘omic’-scale data in the hands of researchers who are directly addressing biological questions. Data integration techniques and standardized, automated, high-throughput analyses are needed to manage the data available as well as to help narrow down the excessive number of target gene possibilities presented by modern databases and system-level resources. Here we present CancerMA, an online, integrated bioinformatic pipeline for automated identification of novel candidate cancer markers/targets; it operates by means of meta-analysing expression profiles of user-defined sets of biologically significant and related genes across a manually curated database of 80 publicly available cancer microarray datasets covering 13 cancer types. A simple-to-use web interface allows bioinformaticians and non-bioinformaticians alike to initiate new analyses as well as to view and retrieve the meta-analysis results. The functionality of CancerMA is shown by means of two validation datasets. Database URL: http://www.cancerma.org.uk PMID:23241162

  5. Occupational polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and risk of larynx cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Mandy; Bolm-Audorff, Ulrich; Hegewald, Janice; Fishta, Alba; Schlattmann, Peter; Schmitt, Jochen; Seidler, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are genotoxic substances formed during combustion. Occupational PAH exposure has been shown to increase the risk of lung cancer and may be associated with other respiratory cancers. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the relationship between occupational PAH exposures and larynx malignancies. We searched EMBASE and MEDLINE (until July 2014) using a series of search strings developed to seek case-control studies or longitudinal studies of workers (Population) exposed to PAHs (Exposure) and their risk for larynx cancer incidence and/or mortality (Outcome). Two independent reviewers screened the titles and abstracts for eligible articles and a third reviewer negotiated consensus. Further assessments of eligibility and sources of bias were conducted in a similar manner. The study results were pooled with random effects meta-analysis. The search resulted in 3377 records. The data of 92 full-text articles representing 63 studies were included and extracted. The majority of studies (n=47) was judged likely to be biased; only 16 studies were judged as methodologically adequate. The pooled effect size was 1.45 (95% CI 1.30 to 1.62; I(2)=30.7%; [Formula: see text]=0.03) for larynx cancer incidence and 1.34 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.53; I(2)=23.8%; [Formula: see text]=0.03) for larynx cancer mortality. While few studies allowed an investigation of dose-response, these indicate a positive dose-response effect. Although most studies may underestimate the true effect due to inexact approximations of PAH exposure, the meta-analysis suggests a robust positive association between PAH and larynx cancer. PMID:25398415

  6. The GSTM1 Null Genotype Increased Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis Based on 46 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yi; Deng, Xin; Song, Guoqing; Qin, Shibo; Liu, Zhanzhan

    2013-01-01

    Background Glutathione S-transferases M1 (GSTM1) is an important phase II metabolizing enzyme. The null genotype of GSTM1 causes total loss of GSTM1 enzyme activity and numerous studies have investigated the association between GSTM1 null genotype and gastric cancer risk. Methods This meta-analysis was designed to investigate the relationship between GSTM1 null genotype and susceptibility to gastric cancer and assess the influence of Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking, Lauren’s classification, and other factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the association strength. Results A total of 46 eligible studies were indentified and analyzed in this meta-analysis, including 8138 cases of gastric cancer and 13867 controls. Pooled results showed that the GSTM1 null genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of gastric cancer (OR=1.217, 95% CI: 1.113-1.331, Pheterogeneity<0.001). Sub-group analysis suggested that the significant association was only observed in Asians (OR=1.273, 95%: 1.137-1.426, Pheterogeneity = 0.002), but not in Caucasians. The increased risk was found among H. pylori positive population (OR=1.928, 95% CI: 1.028-3.615, Pheterogeneity=0.065), while no association was found among H. pylori negative population (OR=0.969, 95% CI: 0.618-1.521, Pheterogeneity=0.168). For smoking status, the GSTM1 null genotype increased risk of gastric cancer in both ever-smokers and non-smokers. Source of control, sample size, location of tumor and Lauren’s classification did not modify the association. Conclusions In this meta-analysis based on 46 epidemiological studies, we show that the GSTM1 null genotype is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer among Asians but not among Caucasians. H. pylori infection but not smoking status could modify the association. PMID:24244742

  7. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and head and neck cancer: a meta-analysis implementing a Mendelian randomization approach.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Stefania; Hashibe, Mia; Gallì, Paola; De Feo, Emma; Asakage, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Tomoko; Hiraki, Akio; Katoh, Takahiko; Nomura, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Akira; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ricciardi, Gualtiero; Boffetta, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol drinking at high doses is a risk factor for head and neck cancer, and exposure to acetaldehyde, the principle metabolite of alcohol, is supposed to account for the increased risk. Individuals homozygous for the 2 variant allele of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) are unable to metabolize acetaldehyde, which prevents them from alcohol drinking, whereas 1 2 have 6-fold higher blood acetaldehyde concentration postalcohol consumption with respect to 1 1. According to the concept of Mendelian randomization, because this polymorphism is distributed randomly during gamete formation, its association with head and neck cancer should be not confounded by smoking. We carried out a meta-analysis of ALDH2 and head and neck cancer searching for relevant studies on Medline and Embase up to January 31, 2008, and investigated the consistency between the expected odds ratio (OR) among drinkers from the largest pooled analysis among never smokers and the observed OR from this meta-analysis by an interaction test. Six studies were selected (945 cases, 2,917 controls). The OR of head and neck cancer among 2 2 was 0.53 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.28-1.00] relative to 1 1 and 1.83 (95% CI, 1.21-2.77) among 1 2. The expected OR for head and neck cancer due to alcohol intake among 1 1 was 1.38 (95% CI, 0.88-2.17) and the observed OR among 1 1 compared with 2*2 from this meta-analysis was 1.88 (95% CI, 1.00-3.57; P for interaction = 0.43). Besides showing the effectiveness of the Mendelian randomization approach, these findings support the theory that alcohol increases head and neck cancer risk through the carcinogenic action of acetaldehyde. PMID:19124505

  8. The NQO1 Pro187Ser polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility: evidence from an updated meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) plays a central role in catalyzing the two-electron reduction of quinoid compounds into hydroquinones. The NQO1 Pro187Ser polymorphism was found to correlate with a lower enzymatic activity, which may result in increased incidence of carcinomas including breast cancer. Previous studies investigating the association between NQO1 Pro187Ser polymorphism and breast cancer risk showed inconsistent results. We performed a meta-analysis to summarize the possible association. Methods All studies published from January 1966 to February 2014 on the association between NQO1 Pro187Ser polymorphism and breast cancer risk were identified by searching electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, and Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM). The association between NQO1 Pro187Ser polymorphism and breast cancer risk was assessed by odds ratios (ORs) together with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Ten studies with 2,773 cases and 4,076 controls were finally included in the meta-analysis. We did not observe a significant association between NQO1 Pro187Ser polymorphism and breast cancer risk when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. In subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significant increased breast cancer risk was found in Caucasians (Ser/Pro vs. Pro/Pro: OR = 1.145, 95% CI = 1.008–1.301, P = 0.038; Ser/Ser + Ser/Pro vs. Pro/Pro: OR = 1.177, 95% CI = 1.041–1.331, P = 0.009). When stratified by source of control, significant increased breast cancer risk was found in population-based studies (Ser/Pro vs. Pro/Pro: OR = 1.180, 95% CI = 1.035–1.344, P = 0.013; Ser/Ser + Ser/Pro vs. Pro/Pro: OR = 1.191, 95% CI = 1.050–1.350, P = 0.007). However, in subgroup analyses according to menopausal status, quality score, and HWE in controls, no any significant association was detected. Conclusions Our meta-analysis provides the evidence that the NQO1

  9. Prognostic significance of TAZ expression in various cancers: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Juntao; Ren, Pengwei; Gou, Jinhai; Li, Zhengyu

    2016-01-01

    Background The overexpression of transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), a Hippo pathway effector, was detected in a variety of cancers. However, controversies remain in published studies on the prognostic value of TAZ expression in cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to demonstrate the prognostic significance of TAZ in overall survival (OS) and its association with clinicopathologic characteristics. Methods A systematic literature search was performed by using PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases for eligible studies investigating the association between TAZ and survival. After extracting data, we used hazard ratio (HR), odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for association evaluation, I2 for heterogeneity across studies, and Egger’s test and Begg’s funnel plot for publication bias assessment. Results A total of 15 studies including 2,881 patients were analyzed. Pooled results showed that a high TAZ was significantly associated with poor OS (HR =1.82, 95% CI =1.58–2.11; I2=33%; P=0.11). Subgroup analysis indicated significant correlation between TAZ overexpression and OS in patients stratified by ethnicity, sample size, sample source, and staining location. Furthermore, TAZ overexpression was associated with worse OS in hepatocellular carcinoma (HR =2.26, 95% CI =1.43–3.57; P=0.49) and gastrointestinal cancers (HR =2.00, 95% CI =1.54–2.58; P=0.97), but not in non-small-cell lung cancer (HR =1.71, 95% CI =0.93–3.14; P=0.08). TAZ overexpression was also found to be significantly associated with some clinicopathologic characteristics, including TNM stage (OR =2.56, 95% CI =1.60–4.11; P=0.52), tumor differentiation (OR =3.08, 95% CI =1.25–7.63; P=0.01), and lymph node metastasis (OR =2.53, 95% CI =1.81–3.53; P=0.58). Conclusion TAZ overexpression is not only a predictive factor of poor prognosis but also associated with advanced TNM stage, poor tumor differentiation, and lymph node metastasis. PMID:27601916

  10. Carotenoid Intake from Natural Sources and Head and Neck Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Epidemiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Leoncini, Emanuele; Nedovic, Darko; Panic, Nikola; Pastorino, Roberta; Edefonti, Valeria; Boccia, Stefania

    2015-07-01

    Because of their role as antioxidants, the intake of carotenoids has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the epidemiological studies to investigate whether the intake of specific carotenoids from dietary sources, as well as combined carotenoids, is associated with the risk of HNC according to cancer subsites. A comprehensive literature search of the Medline and Scopus databases was conducted. Sixteen articles were identified from the literature search, of which 15 were case-control studies and one prospective cohort study. The risk reduction associated with β-carotene equivalents intake was 46% (95% CI, 20%-63%) for cancer of oral cavity and 57% (95% CI, 23%-76%) for laryngeal cancer. Lycopene and β-cryptoxanthin also reduced the risk for laryngeal cancer; the ORs for the highest category compared with the lowest one of carotenoid intake were 50% (95% CI, 11%-72%) and 59% (95% CI, 49%-67%), respectively. Lycopene, α-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin were associated with at least 26% reduction in the rate of oral and pharyngeal cancer (95% CI, 2%-44%). Our systematic review and meta-analysis on dietary carotenoids intake and HNC showed carotenoids to act protectively against HNC, in relation to most of single nutrients and subsites. PMID:25873578

  11. Citrus Fruit Intake Substantially Reduces the Risk of Esophageal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anqiang; Zhu, Chengpei; Fu, Lilan; Wan, Xueshuai; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haohai; Miao, Ruoyu; He, Lian; Sang, Xinting; Zhao, Haitao

    2015-09-01

    Many epidemiologic studies indicate a potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and various cancers. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The authors conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from inception until July 2014. Studies presenting information about citrus intake and esophageal cancer were analyzed. The authors extracted the categories of citrus intake, study-specific odds ratio or relative risk, and the P value and associated 95% confidence intervals for the highest versus lowest dietary intake of citrus fruit level. The association was quantified using meta-analysis of standard errors with a random-effects model. Thirteen case-control studies and 6 cohort studies were eligible for inclusion. Citrus intake may significantly reduce risk of esophageal cancer (summary odds ratio = 0.63; 95% confidence interval = 0.52-0.75; P = 0), without notable publication bias (intercept = -0.79, P = 0.288) and with significant heterogeneity across studies (I = 52%). The results from epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The significant effect is consistent between case-control and cohort studies. Larger prospective studies with rigorous methodology should be considered to validate the association between citrus fruits and esophageal cancer. PMID:26426606

  12. Identification of novel therapeutic target genes in acquired lapatinib-resistant breast cancer by integrative meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Seok; Hwang, Sun Goo; Kim, Jin Ki; Park, Tae Hwan; Kim, Young Rae; Myeong, Ho Sung; Choi, Jong Duck; Kwon, Kang; Jang, Cheol Seong; Ro, Young Tae; Noh, Yun Hee; Kim, Sung Young

    2016-02-01

    Acquired resistance to lapatinib is a highly problematic clinical barrier that has to be overcome for a successful cancer treatment. Despite efforts to determine the mechanisms underlying acquired lapatinib resistance (ALR), no definitive genetic factors have been reported to be solely responsible for the acquired resistance in breast cancer. Therefore, we performed a cross-platform meta-analysis of three publically available microarray datasets related to breast cancer with ALR, using the R-based RankProd package. From the meta-analysis, we were able to identify a total of 990 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, 406 upregulated, 584 downregulated) that are potentially associated with ALR. Gene ontology (GO) function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs showed that "response to organic substance" and "p53 signaling pathway" may be largely involved in ALR process. Of these, many of the top 50 upregulated and downregulated DEGs were found in oncogenesis of various tumors and cancers. For the top 50 DEGs, we constructed the gene coexpression and protein-protein interaction networks from a huge database of well-known molecular interactions. By integrative analysis of two systemic networks, we condensed the total number of DEGs to six common genes (LGALS1, PRSS23, PTRF, FHL2, TOB1, and SOCS2). Furthermore, these genes were confirmed in functional module eigens obtained from the weighted gene correlation network analysis of total DEGs in the microarray datasets ("GSE16179" and "GSE52707"). Our integrative meta-analysis could provide a comprehensive perspective into complex mechanisms underlying ALR in breast cancer and a theoretical support for further chemotherapeutic studies. PMID:26361955

  13. Genetic association between interluekin-4 rs2243250 polymorphism and gastric cancer susceptibility: evidence based on a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chi; Huang, Jing-Yu; He, Zi-Qi; Weng, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Numerous studies have suggested that the interleukin-4 (IL-4) rs2243250 polymorphism is associated with gastric cancer susceptibility. However, the results were inconsistent. Hence, we carried out a meta-analysis to confirm the conclusion. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, CBM, CNKI, and Wanfang Data to identify relevant studies up to August 20, 2015. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to estimate the association between IL-4 rs2243250 polymorphism and gastric cancer susceptibility. All the statistical analyses were performed with Stata 12.0 software. Results A total of eleven published case–control studies were identified, including 2,247 gastric cancer patients and 3,370 controls. Overall, no significant association between IL-4 rs2243250 polymorphism and gastric cancer susceptibility was observed in this meta-analysis (T vs C: OR =1.05, 95% CI =0.95–1.17; TT vs CC: OR =1.20, 95% CI =0.89–1.63; CT vs CC: OR =1.14, 95% CI =0.87–1.48; TT + CT vs CC: OR =1.13, 95% CI =0.89–1.44; TT vs CT + CC: OR =1.02, 95% CI =0.88–1.20). Similar results were found in subgroup analyses according to ethnicity and Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in controls. Conclusion This meta-analysis suggests that IL-4 rs2243250 polymorphism may not be associated with gastric cancer susceptibility. Further studies are needed to validate this conclusion. PMID:27143935

  14. Meta-analysis reveals the correlation of Notch signaling with non-small cell lung cancer progression and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xun; Wu, Hua; Xu, Hanxiao; Han, Na; Chu, Qian; Yu, Shiying; Chen, Yuan; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have assessed the clinicopathological and prognostic value of Notch1 and Notch3 expression in Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but their results remain controversial. This meta-analysis was conducted to address the above issues by using a total of 19 studies involving 3663 patients. The correlations between Notch1 and Notch3 expression and clinicopathological features and NSCLC prognosis were analyzed. The meta-analysis indicated that higher expression of Notch1 was associated with greater possibility of lymph node metastasis and higher TNM stages. Moreover, patients with Notch1 overexpression and Notch3 overexpression showed significantly poor overall survival (Notch1: HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.06–1.57, p = 0.468 and I2 = 0.0%; Notch3: HR, 1.57; 95%CI, 1.04-2.36, p = 0.445 and I2 = 0.0%). Furthermore, there are statistically significant association between overall survival of NSCLC patients and the expression of Notch signaling ligand DLL3 and target gene HES1. Our meta-analysis supports that Notch signaling is a valuable bio-marker to predict progression and targeting Notch signaling could benefit subpopulation of NSCLC patients. PMID:25996086

  15. Gastrectomy and D2 Lymphadenectomy for Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis Comparing the Harmonic Scalpel to Conventional Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hang; Hsiao, Chia-Wen; Clymer, Jeffrey W.; Schwiers, Michael L.; Tibensky, Bryanna N.; Patel, Leena; Ferko, Nicole C.; Chekan, Edward

    2015-01-01

    The ultrasonic Harmonic scalpel has demonstrated clinical and surgical benefits in dissection and coagulation. To evaluate its use in gastrectomy, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing the Harmonic scalpel to conventional techniques in gastrectomy for patients with gastric cancer. International databases were searched without language restrictions for comparisons in open or laparoscopic gastrectomy and lymphadenectomy. The meta-analysis used a random-effects model for all outcomes; continuous variables were analyzed for mean differences and dichotomous variables were analyzed for risk ratios. Sensitivity analyses were conducted for study quality, type of conventional technique, and imputation of study results. Ten studies (N = 935) met the inclusion criteria. Compared with conventional hemostatic techniques, the Harmonic scalpel demonstrated significant reductions in operating time (−27.5 min; P < 0.001), intraoperative blood loss (−93.2 mL; P < 0.001), and drainage volume (−138.8 mL; P < 0.001). Results were numerically higher for conventional techniques for hospital length of stay, complication risk, and transfusions but did not reach statistical significance. Results remained robust to sensitivity analyses. This meta-analysis demonstrates the clear advantages of using the Harmonic scalpel compared to conventional techniques, with improvements demonstrated across several outcome measures for patients undergoing gastrectomy and lymphadenectomy. PMID:26075090

  16. Antidepressants in the treatment of depression/depressive symptoms in cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the past thirty years a number of studies have suggested that antidepressants can be effective in the treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with cancer. The aim of this paper was to review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and to perform a meta-analysis in order to quantify their overall effect. Methods Pubmed and the Cochrane libraries were searched for the time period between 1980 and 2010. Results Nine RCTs were identified and reviewed. Six of them (with a total of 563 patients) fulfilled the criteria for meta-analysis, but exhibited an unclear risk for bias. The estimated effect size was 1.56 with 95% CI: 1.07- 2.28 (p= 0.021). There were no differences in discontinuation rates between antidepressants and placebo groups (RR= 0.86 with 95% CI 0.47- 1.56, p=0.62). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that antidepressants can be effective in treating depressive symptoms beside clinical depression. When considering the risk of side effects and interactions and the heterogeneity among the mostly small studies, a general recommendation cannot be made until well-controlled studies are conducted. PMID:23679841

  17. Body Mass Index and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Nonlinear Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xiaoping; Chen, Wei; Li, Jiaoyuan; Chen, Xueqin; Rui, Rui; Liu, Cheng; Sun, Yu; Liu, Li; Gong, Jing; Yuan, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The role of Body Mass Index (BMI) for Breast Cancer (BC) remains to be great interest for a long time. However, the precise effect of nonlinear dose-response for BMI and BC risk is still unclear. We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the effect of BMI on BC risk. Twelve prospective studies with 4,699 cases identified among 426,199 participants and 25 studies of 22,809 cases identified among 1,155,110 participants in premenopausal and postmenopausal groups, respectively, were included in this meta-analysis. Significant non-linear dose-response (P < 0.001) association was identified between BMI and BC risk in postmenopausal women. Individuals with BMI of 25, 30, and 35 kg/m2 yielded relative risks (RRs) of 1.02 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98–1.06], 1.12 (95% CI: 1.01–1.24), and 1.26 (95% CI: 1.07–1.50), respectively, when compared to the mean level of the normal BMI range. However, inverse result though not significant was observed in premenopausal women. In conclusion, the results of this meta-analysis highlighted that obesity contributed to increased BC risk in a nonlinear dose-response manner in postmenopausal women, and it is important to realize that body weight control may be a crucial process to reduce BC susceptibility. PMID:25504309

  18. Impact of diabetes mellitus on the survival of pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hui; Zhan, Ming; Wang, Wei; Yang, Dong; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer (PC), but its prognostic value in PC is still unclear. To elucidate this issue, we systematically reviewed the evidence concerning the association between diabetes status and PC. Methods Medline and EMBASE databases were searched to identify the eligible studies. Overall and subgroup analyses were performed to detect the discrepancy of prognosis according to diabetes status. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CI were used to estimate the effect size. Results Eighteen studies including 16,181 patients with sample size ranging from 113 to 4,658 were pooled in this meta-analysis. Results showed that patients with DM had worse survival (HR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.07–1.32). In view of the impact of diabetes duration and tumor stage on the outcomes, we classified the studies into different groups. The results indicated that DM was associated with survival in both long-standing diabetes (HR 1.26, 95% CI: 1.14–1.40) and recent-onset diabetes (HR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.09–1.51). Data regarding localized disease (HR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.00–2.46) and nonlocalized (locally advanced and metastatic) disease (HR 1.42, 95% CI: 1.16–1.73) verified that the prognostic value was independent of tumor stage. Conclusion Our results suggested that patients with DM were associated with worse survival than those without DM. Diabetes may be a predictive factor of survival in patients with PC. Surveillance of diabetes status and antidiabetes medication administration after the diagnosis of PC is of clinical importance. PMID:27042122

  19. Occupational exposure to pesticides and prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Mikhael, Anne-Mary; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Ofir Guiron, Talia; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies on exposure to pesticides and risk of prostate cancer (PC) provide inconsistent results. We aimed to explore various potential sources of heterogeneity not previously assessed and to derive updated risk estimates from homogenous studies. We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases for case-control and cohort studies published from 1985 to April 2014. We assessed the quality of the articles using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Pooled estimates were calculated using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was explored using subset analyses and metaregression. Fifty-two studies were included in the review and 25 in the meta-analysis. No association was found between low exposure to pesticides and PC, but association was significant for high exposure, pooled OR 1.33 (1.02 to 1.63), I(2)=44.8%, p=0.024. Heterogeneity was explained by a number of variables including method used to assess exposure. Pooled OR was weak and non-significant for studies measuring serum pesticide level, 1.12 (0.74 to 1.50), I(2)=0.00%, p=0.966. For studies applying self-reporting of exposure, pooled estimate was 1.34 (0.91 to 1.77), I(2)=0.00%, p=0.493, while a high significant association was detected for grouped exposure assessment, 2.24 (1.36 to 3.11), I(2)=0.00%, p=0.955. In spite of a weak significant association detected when pooling ORs for high occupational exposure to pesticides, the magnitude of the association was related to the method of exposure assessment used by the original studies. A family history-pesticide exposure interaction was also observed for a number of pesticides. PMID:26644457

  20. Hormonal and reproductive factors and risk of esophageal cancer in women: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, B J; Zhang, B; Yan, S S; Li, Z C; Jiang, T; Hua, C J; Lu, L; Liu, X Z; Zhang, D H; Zhang, R S; Wang, X

    2016-07-01

    Currently published studies on the relationship between hormonal and reproductive factors and esophageal cancer (EC) risk in women have yielded contradictory findings. For a better understanding of this relationship, we first performed this meta-analysis by pooling all available publications. Sixteen independent studies were retrieved after a comprehensive search in PubMed and Embase databases. The pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. The pooled RRs implicated that hormone replacement therapy was negatively associated with the risk of EC (RR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.60-0.86, P < 0.001) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (RR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.97, P = 0.031). Menopausal women were at an increased risk of EC (RR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.07-2.03, P = 0.018), particularly esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (RR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.12-2.48, P = 0.012). Additionally, decreased risk of EC (RR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.68-0.92, P = 0.003) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (RR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.53-0.82, P < 0.001) was demonstrated among women with breast-feeding history. Moreover, such associations were more significant among Caucasians, but not Asians. Our study suggests that menopause is an independent risk factor for EC, while hormone replacement therapy and breast-feeding history play a protective role against EC, particularly among Caucasians. All results are consistent with the hypothesis that effects of estrogen may lower the risk of EC in women. PMID:25809699

  1. Testosterone deficiency in testicular cancer survivors - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bandak, M; Jørgensen, N; Juul, A; Vogelius, I R; Lauritsen, J; Kier, M G; Mortensen, M S; Glovinski, P; Daugaard, G

    2016-05-01

    Results concerning treatment of Testicular Germ Cell Cancer (TGCC) and subsequent risk of testosterone deficiency are conflicting. To systematically evaluate and estimate the risk of testosterone deficiency (TD) in TGCC-patients according to treatment to optimize follow-up and for prevention of late effects related to hypogonadism. We performed a critical review of PubMed in January 2015 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. Twelve publications were selected for inclusion in this analysis. Eleven studies evaluated the risk of TD in TGCC-patients treated with standard chemotherapy (CT) and the odds ratio for TD was 1.8 (95% CI) (1.3-2.5), (p = 0.0007). Seven studies evaluated the risk of TD in TGCC-patients treated with non-conventional therapy and the odds ratio for TD was 3.1 (95% CI) (2.0-4.8), (p < 0.0001). Six studies evaluated the risk of TD in TGCC-patients treated with infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy (RT), and the odds ratio for TD was 1.6 (95% CI) (1.0-2.4), (p = 0.03). In all treatment groups the risk of TD was compared with TGCC-patients treated with orchiectomy alone. There was no indication of heterogeneity between studies in the three treatment groups. Strong evidence exists that standard CT, non-conventional therapy and infradiaphragmatic RT are associated with an increased risk of TD in TGCC-patients when compared with orchiectomy alone. The risk of testosterone defficiency appears to be highest in patients treated with non-conventional therapy. PMID:27009402

  2. Diagnostic value of IMP3 in pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qianqian; Wang, Tao; Wang, Zhu; Zheng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: An increasing number of studies have examined the ability of IMP3 (insulin-like growth factor 2 messenger RNA binding protein 3) to be a marker for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (PCa). The exact role of IMP3 needs to be elucidated. The aim of this study is to determine the overall accuracy of IMP3 in PCa through a meta-analysis of published studies. Materials and methods: Publications addressing the accuracy of IMP3 in the diagnosis of PCa were selected from Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and The Chinese Journals Full-text Database (CNKI). The following indexes of test accuracy were computed for each study: sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR). The diagnostic threshold identified for each study was used to plot a summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve. Statistical analysis was performed by Meta-Disc 1.4 and STATA 12.0 software. Results: 10 studies met the inclusion criteria. The summary estimates for IMP3 in the diagnosis of PCa were: sensitivity 0.82 (95% CI, 0.78-0.85), specificity 0.87 (95% CI, 0.83-0.90), positive likelihood ratio (PLR) 15.04 (95% CI, 1.83-123.26), negative likelihood ratio (NLR) 0.21 (95% CI, 0.10-0.46) and diagnostic odds ratio 70.10 (95% CI, 16.74-293.56). The SROC curve indicated that the maximum joint sensitivity and specificity (Q-value) was 0.87; the area under the curve was 0.94. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that IMP3 may be a useful diagnostic adjunctive tool for confirming PCa. However, further large scale studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26379850

  3. Targeted nanoparticles for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Cisterna, Bruno A; Kamaly, Nazila; Choi, Won Il; Tavakkoli, Ali; Farokhzad, Omid C; Vilos, Cristian

    2016-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly prevalent worldwide, and despite notable progress in treatment still leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The use of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has become one of the most promising strategies for cancer therapy. Targeted nanoparticles could take advantage of differentially expressed molecules on the surface of tumor cells, providing effective release of cytotoxic drugs. Several efforts have recently reported the use of diverse molecules as ligands on the surface of nanoparticles to interact with the tumor cells, enabling the effective delivery of antitumor agents. Here, we present recent advances in targeted nanoparticles against CRC and discuss the promising use of ligands and cellular targets in potential strategies for the treatment of CRCs. PMID:27529192

  4. A meta-analysis of 87,040 individuals identifies 23 new susceptibility loci for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Al Olama, Ali Amin; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Berndt, Sonja I; Conti, David V; Schumacher, Fredrick; Han, Ying; Benlloch, Sara; Hazelett, Dennis J; Wang, Zhaoming; Saunders, Ed; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Lindstrom, Sara; Jugurnauth-Little, Sara; Dadaev, Tokhir; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Stram, Daniel O; Rand, Kristin; Wan, Peggy; Stram, Alex; Sheng, Xin; Pooler, Loreall C; Park, Karen; Xia, Lucy; Tyrer, Jonathan; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Hoover, Robert N; Machiela, Mitchell J; Yeager, Merideth; Burdette, Laurie; Chung, Charles C; Hutchinson, Amy; Yu, Kai; Goh, Chee; Ahmed, Mahbubl; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Auvinen, Anssi; Wahlfors, Tiina; Schleutker, Johanna; Visakorpi, Tapio; Leinonen, Katri A; Xu, Jianfeng; Aly, Markus; Donovan, Jenny; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Tim J; Siddiq, Afshan; Canzian, Federico; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Weischer, Maren; Nordestgaard, Borge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Klarskov, Peter; Røder, Martin Andreas; Iversen, Peter; Thibodeau, Stephen N; McDonnell, Shannon K; Schaid, Daniel J; Stanford, Janet L; Kolb, Suzanne; Holt, Sarah; Knudsen, Beatrice; Coll, Antonio Hurtado; Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Stevens, Victoria L; Maier, Christiane; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Rinckleb, Antje E; Strom, Sara S; Pettaway, Curtis; Yeboah, Edward D; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B; Adjei, Andrew A; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokołorczyk, Dominika; Kluźniak, Wojciech; Park, Jong; Sellers, Thomas; Lin, Hui-Yi; Isaacs, William B; Partin, Alan W; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Stegmaier, Christa; Chen, Constance; Giovannucci, Edward L; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir; Penney, Kathryn L; Mucci, Lorelei; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue A; Kittles, Rick A; Murphy, Adam B; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Kierzek, Andrzej M; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Nemesure, Barbara; Carpten, John; Leske, Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anselm; Kibel, Adam S; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J; Klein, Eric A; Zheng, S Lilly; Batra, Jyotsna; Clements, Judith; Spurdle, Amanda; Teixeira, Manuel R; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Witte, John S; Casey, Graham; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Seminara, Daniella; Riboli, Elio; Hamdy, Freddie C; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Li, Qiyuan; Freedman, Matthew L; Hunter, David J; Muir, Kenneth; Gronberg, Henrik; Neal, David E; Southey, Melissa; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Cook, Michael B; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Wiklund, Fredrik; Kraft, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J; Henderson, Brian E; Easton, Douglas F; Eeles, Rosalind A; Haiman, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 76 variants associated with prostate cancer risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify additional susceptibility loci for this common cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of > 10 million SNPs in 43,303 prostate cancer cases and 43,737 controls from studies in populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry. Twenty-three new susceptibility loci were identified at association P < 5 × 10(-8); 15 variants were identified among men of European ancestry, 7 were identified in multi-ancestry analyses and 1 was associated with early-onset prostate cancer. These 23 variants, in combination with known prostate cancer risk variants, explain 33% of the familial risk for this disease in European-ancestry populations. These findings provide new regions for investigation into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and demonstrate the usefulness of combining ancestrally diverse populations to discover risk loci for disease. PMID:25217961

  5. A meta-analysis of 87,040 individuals identifies 23 new susceptibility loci for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Al Olama, Ali Amin; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Berndt, Sonja I.; Conti, David V.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Han, Ying; Benlloch, Sara; Hazelett, Dennis J.; Wang, Zhaoming; Saunders, Ed; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Lindstrom, Sara; Jugurnauth-Little, Sara; Dadaev, Tokhir; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Stram, Daniel O.; Rand, Kristin; Wan, Peggy; Stram, Alex; Sheng, Xin; Pooler, Loreall C.; Park, Karen; Xia, Lucy; Tyrer, Jonathan; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Hoover, Robert N.; Machiela, Mitchell J.; Yeager, Merideth; Burdette, Laurie; Chung, Charles C.; Hutchinson, Amy; Yu, Kai; Goh, Chee; Ahmed, Mahbubl; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Tammela, Teuvo L.J.; Auvinen, Anssi; Wahlfors, Tiina; Schleutker, Johanna; Visakorpi, Tapio; Leinonen, Katri A.; Xu, Jianfeng; Aly, Markus; Donovan, Jenny; Travis, Ruth C.; Key, Tim J.; Siddiq, Afshan; Canzian, Federico; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Weischer, Maren; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Klarskov, Peter; Røder, Martin Andreas; Iversen, Peter; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; McDonnell, Shannon K; Schaid, Daniel J; Stanford, Janet L.; Kolb, Suzanne; Holt, Sarah; Knudsen, Beatrice; Coll, Antonio Hurtado; Gapstur, Susan M.; Diver, W. Ryan; Stevens, Victoria L.; Maier, Christiane; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Rinckleb, Antje E.; Strom, Sara S.; Pettaway, Curtis; Yeboah, Edward D.; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B.; Adjei, Andrew A.; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokołorczyk, Dominika; Kluźniak, Wojciech; Park, Jong; Sellers, Thomas; Lin, Hui-Yi; Isaacs, William B.; Partin, Alan W.; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Stegmaier, Christa; Chen, Constance; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir; Penney, Kathryn L.; Mucci, Lorelei; John, Esther M.; Ingles, Sue A.; Kittles, Rick A.; Murphy, Adam B.; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Kierzek, Andrzej M.; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B.; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Nemesure, Barbara; Carpten, John; Leske, Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anselm; Kibel, Adam S.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W.; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Klein, Eric A; Zheng, S. Lilly; Batra, Jyotsna; Clements, Judith; Spurdle, Amanda; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Witte, John S.; Casey, Graham; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Seminara, Daniella; Riboli, Elio; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Li, Qiyuan; Freedman, Matthew L.; Hunter, David J.; Muir, Kenneth; Gronberg, Henrik; Neal, David E.; Southey, Melissa; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Cook, Michael B.; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Wiklund, Fredrik; Kraft, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J.; Henderson, Brian E.; Easton, Douglas F.; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 76 variants associated with prostate cancer risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify additional susceptibility loci for this common cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of >10 million SNPs in 43,303prostate cancer cases and 43,737 controls from studies in populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry. Twenty-three novel susceptibility loci were revealed at P<5×10-8; 15 variants were identified among men of European ancestry, 7 from multiethnic analyses and one was associated with early-onset prostate cancer. These 23 variants, in combination with the known prostate cancer risk variants, explain 33% of the familial risk of the disease in European ancestry populations. These findings provide new regions for investigation into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and demonstrate the utility of combining ancestrally diverse populations to discover risk loci for disease. PMID:25217961

  6. Computational Identification of Novel Stage-Specific Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Palaniappan, Ashok; Ramar, Karthick; Ramalingam, Satish

    2016-01-01

    It is well-known that the conversion of normal colon epithelium to adenoma and then to carcinoma stems from acquired molecular changes in the genome. The genetic basis of colorectal cancer has been elucidated to a certain extent, and much remains to be known about the identity of specific cancer genes that are associated with the advancement of colorectal cancer from one stage to the next. Here in this study we attempted to identify novel cancer genes that could underlie the stage-specific progression and metastasis of colorectal cancer. We conducted a stage-based meta-analysis of the voluminous tumor genome-sequencing data and mined using multiple approaches for novel genes driving the progression to stage-II, stage-III and stage-IV colorectal cancer. The consensus of these driver genes seeded the construction of stage-specific networks, which were then analyzed for the centrality of genes, clustering of subnetworks, and enrichment of gene-ontology processes. Our study identified three novel driver genes as hubs for stage-II progression: DYNC1H1, GRIN2A, GRM1. Four novel driver genes were identified as hubs for stage-III progression: IGF1R, CPS1, SPTA1, DSP. Three novel driver genes were identified as hubs for stage-IV progression: GSK3B, GGT1, EIF2B5. We also identified several non-driver genes that appeared to underscore the progression of colorectal cancer. Our study yielded potential diagnostic biomarkers for colorectal cancer as well as novel stage-specific drug targets for rational intervention. Our methodology is extendable to the analysis of other types of cancer to fill the gaps in our knowledge. PMID:27243824

  7. Association of osteopontin polymorphism with cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gang; Peng, Xiaoxing; Guo, Pengju; Yang, Ge

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association of osteopontin gene -443 C>T, -156 G>GG, and -1748 A>G polymorphisms with cancer risk. The Medline, PubMed, PUBMED, EMBASE and Web of Science databases were searched. Meta-analyses were conducted using RevMan 5.2 software. After searching and evaluating the included papers, total 10 documents involved in -443 C>T, 8 papers involved in four articles involved in -156 G>GG and -1748 A>G were included into this meta analysis. There were no significant differences in genotype osteopontin -443 C>T distribution between cancer cases and control (OR=0.98, 95% CI=0.68-1.40, P=0.90; OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.60-1.35, P=0.62; OR=0.98, 95% CI=0.59-1.64, P=0.94; OR=0.87, 95% CI=0.60-1.25, P=0.44, respectively). Meanwhile, no association between osteopontin -1748 A>G polymorphism and tumors under all genetic models. (OR=0.73, 95% CI=0.54-1.00, P=0.05; OR=0.95, 95% CI=0.82-1.10, P=0.48; OR=1.31, 95% CI=0.95-1.81, P=0.10; OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.77-1.06, P=0.20, respectively). However, osteopontin -156 G>GG polymorphism is only partly related to the tumor risk. (GGGG+GGG vs GG model, OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.01-1.46, P=0.04; GGG vs GG model: OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.05-1.35, P=0.008, respectively) osteopontin gene polymorphisms, -443 C>T and -1748 A>G was not associated with cancer risk, but partly associated to tumor risk for -156 G>GG gene polymorphism. PMID:26885018

  8. Association between BRIP1 (BACH1) polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pabalan, Noel; Jarjanazi, Hamdi; Ozcelik, Hilmi

    2013-01-01

    Inconsistency of reported associations between the Pro919Ser polymorphism in the BRCA1 interacting protein 1 (BRIP1) gene and breast cancer prompted us to undertake a meta-analysis. Although investigated by fewer studies, we have also studied the risk associated with the two additional BRIP1 polymorphisms, C47G and G64A, and breast cancer riskWe conducted searches of the published literature in MEDLINE through PubMed up to October 2012. Individual data on 5,122 cases and 5,735 controls from eight published case-control studies were evaluated for the Pro919Ser polymorphism. Accordingly, C47G and G64A polymorphisms were studied in 1,539 cases and 1,183 controls, and 667 and 782, respectively.In the overall analysis, association was lacking between the Pro919Ser polymorphism and breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] 0.98-1.02), materially unchanged when confined to subjects of European ancestry (OR 0.96-1.03) or even in the high-powered studies (OR 0.97-1.03). In the menopausal subgroups, premenopausal women followed the null pattern (OR 0.94-0.98) for the Pro and Ser allele contrasts, but not for the Pro-Ser genotype comparison where significant increased risk was observed (OR 1.39, P = 0.002). The postmenopausal women (>50 years) exhibited a range of pooled effects from protection (OR 0.83, P = 0.11) in the Pro-Ser genotype to slightly increased risk (OR 1.12-1.16, P = 0.28-0.42) in the Pro and Ser allele comparisons. The G64A polymorphism effects were essentially null (OR 0.90-0.98), but C47G was found to confer non-significantly increased risk under all genetic models (OR 1.27-1.40).Upon conclusion, overall summary estimates imply no associations but suggest susceptibility among carriers of the C47G polymorphism and Pro-Ser genotype in premenopausal women. The premenopausal findings and variable outcomes in postmenopausal women require more studies for confirmation. PMID:23225146

  9. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of sialyl Lewis X overexpression in patients with cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jin-xiao; Liang, Yong; Gao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that sialyl Lewis X (sLeX) is related to cancer prognosis and clinicopathology, but failed to provide conclusive results. We conducted the present meta-analysis to identify the association between sLeX overexpression and cancer prognosis. We searched studies in PubMed and Embase databases. Relative risk or hazard ratio with 95% confidence intervals were estimated with the Mantel–Haenszel random-effect method and 29 studies were included. Our meta-analysis showed that sLeX overexpression is significantly related to lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, T stage, N stage, M stage, tumor stage, recurrence, and overall survival. In subgroup analysis, we found that cancer type and ethnicity might be two major contributing factors to the possible presence of heterogeneity among the studies. In conclusion, sLeX overexpression is associated with tumor metastasis, recurrence, and overall survival in cancer patients, it plays an important role in cancer prognosis. PMID:27307752

  10. The 341C/T polymorphism in the GSTP1 gene and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, F; Wang, R; Geng, L

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have evaluated the association between the 341C/T polymorphism in glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) and lung cancer risk. However, there are conflicting results from previous studies. To derive a more precise estimation of the association, we conducted this meta-analysis. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify the eligible studies examining the GSTP1 341C/T polymorphism and lung cancer risk. We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the strength of the association. The meta-analysis results showed that the GSTP1 341C/T polymorphism was significantly associated with lung cancer risk (TT vs CC: OR = 3.33, 95%CI = 1.49-7.44; CT vs CC: OR = 1.35, 95%CI = 1.10-1.65; dominant model: OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.05-1.96; recessive model: OR = 0.31, 95%CI = 0.14-0.70). The results indicate that the GSTP1 341C/T polymorphism may contribute to lung cancer risk. Conclusive evidence on the effects of this variant in lung cancer should be addressed in further studies. PMID:27525882

  11. Fok1 polymorphism of vitamin D receptor gene contributes to breast cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chunbo; Chen, Ning; Wu, Mingyue; Yuan, Hua; Du, Yifei

    2009-09-01

    Several polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have been reported to influence breast cancer risk. However, the published findings have been conflicting. We conducted a meta-analysis of 21 case-control studies with Fok1 (eight studies with 5,284 cases and 7,500 controls), Bsm1 (14 studies with 5,498 cases and 7,943 controls), Apa1 (four studies with 1,138 cases and 7,943 controls), Taq1 (10 studies with 4,459 cases and 5,485 controls) polymorphisms. The results showed Fok1 polymorphism was associated with an overall significantly increased risk of breast cancer (ff vs. FF: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.03-1.28; the recessive model ff vs. Ff + FF: OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03-1.26). In subgroup analysis, a significant association was evident between Fok1 polymorphism and breast cancer in European population (ff vs. FF: OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.04-1.30; the recessive model ff vs. Ff + FF: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.04-1.28). There was no between-study heterogeneity in any of these analyses. No significant associations were observed between the Bsm1, Apa1 and Taq1 variants and breast cancer risk. So, the current meta-analysis shows that Fok1 may be a susceptibility biomarker for breast cancer especially in European population. PMID:19145484