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Sample records for colorectal cancer survivors

  1. Survivorship Care Plan in Promoting Physical Activity in Breast or Colorectal Cancer Survivors in Wisconsin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-19

    Cancer Survivor; Healthy Subject; Stage I Colorectal Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer

  2. Association of health beliefs and colonoscopy use among survivors of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Salz, Talya; Brewer, Noel T.; Sandler, Robert S.; Weiner, Bryan J.; Martin, Christopher F.; Weinberger, Morris

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Clinical practice guidelines recommend ongoing testing (surveillance) for colorectal cancer survivors because they remain at risk for both local recurrences and second primary tumors. However, survivors often do not receive colorectal cancer surveillance. We used the Health Belief Model (HBM) to identify health beliefs that predict intentions to obtain routine colonoscopies among colorectal cancer survivors. Methods We completed telephone interviews with 277 colorectal cancer survivors who were diagnosed four years earlier, between 2003 and 2005, in North Carolina. The interview measured health beliefs, past preventive behaviors, and intentions to have a routine colonoscopy in the next five years. Results In bivariate analyses, most HBM constructs were associated with intentions. In multivariable analyses, greater perceived likelihood of colorectal cancer (OR=2.00, 95% CI=1.16–3.44) was associated with greater intention to have a colonoscopy. Survivors who already had a colonoscopy since diagnosis also had greater intentions of having a colonoscopy in the future (OR=9.47, 95% CI=2.08–43.16). Conclusions Perceived likelihood of colorectal cancer is an important target for further study and intervention to increase colorectal cancer surveillance among survivors. Other health beliefs were unrelated to intentions, suggesting that the health beliefs of colorectal cancer survivors and asymptomatic adults may differ due to the experience of cancer. PMID:19760152

  3. Colorectal cancer survivors undergoing genetic testing for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer: motivational factors and psychosocial functioning.

    PubMed

    Esplen, M J; Madlensky, L; Aronson, M; Rothenmund, H; Gallinger, S; Butler, K; Toner, B; Wong, J; Manno, M; McLaughlin, J

    2007-11-01

    Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) represents about 1-3% of all cases of colorectal cancer (CRC). The objectives of the study were to examine motivational factors, expectations and psychosocial functioning in a sample of CRC survivors undergoing genetic testing for HNPCC. A cross-sectional survey of 314 colorectal cancer patients recruited through a population-based colon cancer family registry was conducted. Motivations for genetic testing for hereditary cancer were similar to those of clinic-based samples of CRC patients and included learning of the increased risk to offspring and finding out if additional screening was needed. While age at diagnosis and sex were associated with psychological functioning, significant predictors of post-counseling distress were perceived lower satisfaction with social support, an escape-avoidant coping style and the anticipation of becoming depressed if a mutation was present. Most cancer survivors anticipated disclosing test results to relatives and physicians. Cancer survivors reported several motivations for genetic testing for HNPCC that varied by sex. A subgroup of survivors with lower satisfaction with social support and an escape-avoidant coping style were worried about the potential impact of genetic test results and demonstrated more distress following counseling. Findings have implications for future research and potential support needs during the genetic counseling and testing process. PMID:17892499

  4. Quality of Life and Mortality of Long-Term Colorectal Cancer Survivors in the Seattle Colorectal Cancer Family Registry

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Scott V.; Ceballos, Rachel; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Because most colorectal cancer patients survive beyond five years, understanding quality of life among these long-term survivors is essential to providing comprehensive survivor care. We sought to identify personal characteristics associated with reported quality of life in colorectal cancer survivors, and sub-groups of survivors potentially vulnerable to very low quality of life. Methods We assessed quality of life using the Veterans RAND 12-item Health Survey within a population-based sample of 1,021 colorectal cancer survivors in the Seattle Colorectal Cancer Family Registry, approximately 5 years post-diagnosis. In this case-only study, mean physical component summary scores and mental component summary scores were examined with linear regression. To identify survivors with substantially reduced ability to complete daily tasks, logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for “very low” summary scores, defined as a score in the lowest decile of the reference US population. All cases were followed for vital status following QoL assessment, and mortality was analyzed with Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Lower mean physical component summary score was associated with older age, female sex, obesity, smoking, and diabetes or other co-morbidity; lower mean mental component summary score was associated with younger age and female sex. Higher odds of very low physical component summary score was associated with older age, obesity, less education, smoking, co-morbidities, and later stage at diagnosis; smoking was associated with higher odds of very low mental component summary score. A very low physical component score was associated with higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 3.97 (2.95–5.34)). Conclusions Our results suggest that identifiable sub-groups of survivors are vulnerable to very low physical components of quality of life, decrements that may represent meaningful impairment in completing

  5. Adverse health behaviours among colorectal cancer survivors: a case study from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Aminisani, Nayyereh; Nikbakht, Hosseinali A.; Hosseinei, Seidreza R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer survivors are at greater risk of developing secondary tumours, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis. A part of this is because they share the similar lifestyle factors. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of adverse health behaviours and its determinants among colorectal survivors. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in Babol city located in North of Iran. The pathologic information and demographic characteristics were collected from the population based-cancer registry. Colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors between 2007–2013 were included in this study. A questionnaire includes socioeconomic status, lifestyle behaviours [smoking, physical activity (PA), fruit & vegetable consumption], and clinical factors were completed via home visit by trained interviewers. Results The majority of CRC survivors were male and were more than 50 years of age, more than half of them resided in urban areas. About 67% of survivors had at least one comorbid condition. In general, the majority of them were not meeting the recommendation for PA (89%), about 87% of them consumed less than 5 daily serving of fruit & vegetable and 14.6% of participants were smoke either cigarette or hookah. Female genders, illiteracy, comorbidities, and place of residency were the most important determinants of having adverse health behaviours. Conclusions The minority of people with CRC were not meeting the PA or 5-A-day recommendations. It is important to notify the health policy makers and to develop a comprehensive educational program to enhance the adherence to healthy lifestyle recommendation among CRC survivors. PMID:27284469

  6. Physical Activity and Function in Older, Long-term Colorectal Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brent L.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Koltyn, Kelli F.; Colbert, Lisa H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Increasing age and cancer history are related to impaired physical function. Since physical activity has been shown to ameliorate age-related functional declines, we evaluated the association between physical activity and function in older, long-term colorectal cancer survivors. Methods In 2006–2007, mailed surveys were sent to colorectal cancer survivors, aged ≥65 years when diagnosed during 1995 – 2000, and identified through a state cancer registry. Information on physical activity, physical function and relevant covariates was obtained and matched to registry data. Analysis of covariance and linear regression were used to compare means and trends in physical function across levels of activity in the final analytic sample of 843 cases. Results A direct, dose-dependent association between physical activity and function was observed (ptrend <.001), with higher SF-36 physical function subscores in those reporting high vs. low activity levels (65.0 ± 1.7 vs. 42.7 ± 1.7 (mean ± standard error)). Walking, gardening, housework, and exercise activities were all independently related to better physical function. Moderate-vigorous intensity activity (ptrend <.001) was associated with function, but light activity (ptrend =0.39) was not. Conclusion Results from this cross-sectional study indicate significant associations between physical activity and physical function in older, long-term colorectal cancer survivors. PMID:19123055

  7. Variation in use of surveillance colonoscopy among colorectal cancer survivors in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines recommend colonoscopies at regular intervals for colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. Using data from a large, multi-regional, population-based cohort, we describe the rate of surveillance colonoscopy and its association with geographic, sociodemographic, clinical, and health services characteristics. Methods We studied CRC survivors enrolled in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance (CanCORS) study. Eligible survivors were diagnosed between 2003 and 2005, had curative surgery for CRC, and were alive without recurrences 14 months after surgery with curative intent. Data came from patient interviews and medical record abstraction. We used a multivariate logit model to identify predictors of colonoscopy use. Results Despite guidelines recommending surveillance, only 49% of the 1423 eligible survivors received a colonoscopy within 14 months after surgery. We observed large regional differences (38% to 57%) across regions. Survivors who received screening colonoscopy were more likely to: have colon cancer than rectal cancer (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.05-1.90); have visited a primary care physician (OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.14-1.82); and received adjuvant chemotherapy (OR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.27-2.41). Compared to survivors with no comorbidities, survivors with moderate or severe comorbidities were less likely to receive surveillance colonoscopy (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49-0.98 and OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.29-0.66, respectively). Conclusions Despite guidelines, more than half of CRC survivors did not receive surveillance colonoscopy within 14 months of surgery, with substantial variation by site of care. The association of primary care visits and adjuvant chemotherapy use suggests that access to care following surgery affects cancer surveillance. PMID:20809966

  8. Illness perceptions in relation to experiences of contemporary cancer care settings among colorectal cancer survivors and their partners

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Ann-Caroline; Axelsson, Malin; Berndtsson, Ina; Brink, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Illness is constituted by subjective experiences of symptoms and their psychosocial consequences. Illness perceptions concern people's lay beliefs about understandings and interpretation of a disease and expectations as to disease outcome. Our knowledge about illness perceptions and coping in relation to the cancer care context among persons with colorectal cancer (CRC) and their partners is incomplete. The aim of the present study was to explore illness perceptions in relation to contemporary cancer care settings among CRC survivors and partners. The present research focused on illness rather than disease, implying that personal experiences are central to the methodology. The grounded theory method used is that presented by Kathy Charmaz. The present results explore illness perceptions in the early recovery phase after being diagnosed and treated for cancer in a contemporary cancer care setting. The core category outlook on the cancer diagnosis when quickly informed, treated, and discharged illustrates the illness perceptions of survivors and partners as well as the environment in which they were found. The cancer care environment is presented in the conceptual category experiencing contemporary cancer care settings. Receiving treatment quickly and without waiting was a positive experience for both partners and survivors; however partners experienced the information as massive and as causing concern. The period after discharge was being marked by uncertainty and loneliness, and partners tended to experience non-continuity in care as more problematic than the survivor did. The results showed different illness perceptions and a mismatch between illness perceptions among survivors and partners, presented in the conceptual category outlook on the cancer diagnosis. One illness perception, here presented among partners, focused on seeing the cancer diagnosis as a permanent life-changing event. The other illness perception, here presented among survivors, concentrated on

  9. A randomised controlled trial of a tele-based lifestyle intervention for colorectal cancer survivors ('CanChange'): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer survivors may suffer from a range of ongoing psychosocial and physical problems that negatively impact on quality of life. This paper presents the study protocol for a novel telephone-delivered intervention to improve lifestyle factors and health outcomes for colorectal cancer survivors. Methods/Design Approximately 350 recently diagnosed colorectal cancer survivors will be recruited through the Queensland Cancer Registry and randomised to the intervention or control condition. The intervention focuses on symptom management, lifestyle and psychosocial support to assist participants to make improvements in lifestyle factors (physical activity, healthy diet, weight management, and smoking cessation) and health outcomes. Participants will receive up to 11 telephone-delivered sessions over a 6 month period from a qualified health professional or 'health coach'. Data collection will occur at baseline (Time 1), post-intervention or six months follow-up (Time 2), and at 12 months follow-up for longer term effects (Time 3). Primary outcome measures will include physical activity, cancer-related fatigue and quality of life. A cost-effective analysis of the costs and outcomes for survivors in the intervention and control conditions will be conducted from the perspective of health care costs to the government. Discussion The study will provide valuable information about an innovative intervention to improve lifestyle factors and health outcomes for colorectal cancer survivors. Trial Registration ACTRN12608000399392 PMID:19689801

  10. Examining Adherence With Recommendations for Follow-Up in the Prevention Among Colorectal Cancer Survivors Study

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Nikki A.; Berkowitz, Zahava; Rodriguez, Juan L.; Miller, Jacqueline W.; Sabatino, Susan A.; Pollack, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To explore the impact of health professionals’ recommendations for medical follow-up among colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Mailed surveys and telephone interviews with CRC survivors in California. Sample 593 adults diagnosed with a primary CRC six to seven years before the time of the study. Methods Participants were identified through California Cancer Registry records and invited to take part in a survey delivered via mail or through telephone interview. Main Research Variables The survey assessed cancer history, current preventive health practices, health status, demographics, and other cancer-related experiences. Findings More than 70% of CRC survivors received recommendations for routine checkups, surveillance colonoscopy, or other cancer screenings after completing CRC treatment, and 18%–22% received no such recommendations. Recommendations were sometimes given in writing. Receiving a recommendation for a specific type of follow-up was associated with greater adherence to corresponding guidelines for routine checkups, colonoscopy, mammography, and Papanicolaou testing. Receiving written (versus unwritten) recommendations led to greater adherence only for colonoscopy. Conclusions Most CRC survivors reported receiving recommendations for long-term medical follow-up and largely adhered to guidelines for follow-up. Receiving a health professional’s recommendation for follow-up was consistently associated with patient adherence, and limited evidence showed that recommendations in written form led to greater adherence than unwritten recommendations. Implications for Nursing Given the increasingly important role of the oncology nurse in survivorship care, nurses can be instrumental in ensuring appropriate surveillance and follow-up care among CRC survivors. Conveying recommendations in written form, as is done in survivorship care plans, may be particularly effective. PMID:25901375

  11. Long-term health outcomes in a British cohort of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer survivors: a database study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, N F; Mant, D; Carpenter, L; Forman, D; Rose, P W

    2011-01-01

    Background: The community-based incidence of cancer treatment-related long-term consequences is uncertain. We sought to establish the burden of health outcomes that have been associated with treatment among British long-term cancer survivors. Methods: We identified 26 213 adults from the General Practice Research Database who have survived 5 years or more following breast, colorectal or prostate cancer. Four age-, sex- and general practice-matched non-cancer controls were selected for each survivor. We considered the incidence of treatment-associated health outcomes using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Breast cancer survivors had an elevated incidence of heart failure (hazards ratio (HR) 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27–3.01), coronary artery disease (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.11–1.44), hypothyroidism (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.02–1.56) and osteoporosis (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.13–1.40). Among colorectal cancer survivors, there was increased incidence of dementia (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.20–2.35), diabetes (HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.12–1.72) and osteoporosis (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.15–1.73). Prostate cancer survivors had the highest risk of osteoporosis (HR 2.49, 95% CI 1.93–3.22). Conclusions: The study confirms the occurrence of increased incidence of chronic illnesses in long-term cancer survivors attributable to underlying lifestyle and/or cancer treatments. Although the absolute risk of the majority of late effects in the cancer survivors cohort is low, identifying prior risk of osteoporosis by bone mineral density scanning for prostate survivors should be considered. There is an urgent need to improve primary care recording of cancer treatment. PMID:22048030

  12. Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... both men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  13. Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  14. Cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, I.; Kagan, A.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: sampling of atomic bomb survivors and method of cancer detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; tumor and tissue registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the cancer registry in Nagasaki, with atomic bomb survivor data, 1973-1977; cancer mortality; methods for study of delayed health effects of a-bomb radiation; experimental radiation carcinogenesis in rodents; leukemia, multiple myeloma, and malignant lymphoma; cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands; malignant tumors in atomic bomb survivors with special reference to the pathology of stomach and lung cancer; colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors; breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors; and ovarian neoplasms in atomic bomb survirors.

  15. Reach Out to Enhance Wellness in Older Cancer Survivors (RENEW): Design, Methods and Recruitment Challenges of a Home-based Exercise and Diet Intervention to Improve Physical Function among Long-term Survivors of Breast, Prostate, and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Denise Clutter; Morey, Miriam C.; Sloane, Richard; Stull, Valeda; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Peterson, Bercedis; Pieper, Carl; Hartman, Terryl J.; Miller, Paige E.; Mitchell, Diane C.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Objective Cure rates for cancer are increasing, especially for breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. Despite positive trends in survivorship, a cancer diagnosis can trigger accelerated functional decline that can threaten independence, reduce quality-of-life and increase health care costs, especially among the elderly who comprise the majority of survivors. Lifestyle interventions may hold promise in reorienting functional decline in older cancer survivors, but few studies have been conducted. Method We describe the design and methods of a randomized controlled trial, RENEW (Reach out to ENhancE Wellness), that tests whether a home-based multi-behavior intervention focused on exercise, and including a low-saturated fat, plant-based diet, would improve physical functioning among 641 older, long-term (≥5 years post-diagnosis) survivors of breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer. Challenges to recruitment are examined. Results 20,015 cases were approached, and screened using a two-step screening process to assure eligibility. This population of long-term, elderly cancer survivors had lower rates of response (∼11%) and higher rates of ineligibility (∼70%) than our previous intervention studies conducted on adults with newly diagnosed cancer. Significantly higher response rates were noted among survivors who were white, younger, and more proximal to diagnosis and breast cancer survivors (p-values < 0.001). Conclusions Older cancer survivors represent a vulnerable population for whom lifestyle interventions may hold promise. RENEW may provide guidance in allocating limited resources in order to maximize recruitment efforts aimed at this needy, but hard-to-reach population. PMID:19117329

  16. Prospective relationships of physical activity with quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity can enhance quality of life for cancer survivors. However, few longitudinal studies have examined whether physical activity has a sustained effect on improvements in quality of life. The present study aims to examine the relationships between physical activity and quality of life o...

  17. CD14 and IL18 gene polymorphisms associated with colorectal cancer subsite risks among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yiqun; Yoshida, Kengo; Cologne, John B; Maki, Mayumi; Morishita, Yukari; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Nakachi, Kei; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy worldwide, and chronic inflammation is a risk factor for CRC. In this study, we carried out a cohort study among the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivor population to investigate any association between immune- and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms and CRC. We examined the effects of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CD14 and IL18 on relative risks (RRs) of CRC. Results showed that RRs of CRC, overall and by anatomic subsite, significantly increased with increasing radiation dose. The CD14-911A/A genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for all CRC and distal CRC compared with the other two genotypes. In addition, the IL18-137 G/G genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for proximal colon cancer compared with the other two genotypes. In phenotype-genotype analyses, the CD14-911A/A genotype presented significantly higher levels of membrane and soluble CD14 compared with the other two genotypes, and the IL18-137 G/G genotype tended to be lower levels of plasma interleukin (IL)-18 compared with the other two genotypes. These results suggest the potential involvement of a CD14-mediated inflammatory response in the development of distal CRC and an IL18-mediated inflammatory response in the development of proximal colon cancer among A-bomb survivors. PMID:27081544

  18. CD14 and IL18 gene polymorphisms associated with colorectal cancer subsite risks among atomic bomb survivors

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yiqun; Yoshida, Kengo; Cologne, John B; Maki, Mayumi; Morishita, Yukari; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Nakachi, Kei; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy worldwide, and chronic inflammation is a risk factor for CRC. In this study, we carried out a cohort study among the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivor population to investigate any association between immune- and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms and CRC. We examined the effects of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CD14 and IL18 on relative risks (RRs) of CRC. Results showed that RRs of CRC, overall and by anatomic subsite, significantly increased with increasing radiation dose. The CD14–911A/A genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for all CRC and distal CRC compared with the other two genotypes. In addition, the IL18–137 G/G genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for proximal colon cancer compared with the other two genotypes. In phenotype–genotype analyses, the CD14–911A/A genotype presented significantly higher levels of membrane and soluble CD14 compared with the other two genotypes, and the IL18–137 G/G genotype tended to be lower levels of plasma interleukin (IL)-18 compared with the other two genotypes. These results suggest the potential involvement of a CD14-mediated inflammatory response in the development of distal CRC and an IL18-mediated inflammatory response in the development of proximal colon cancer among A-bomb survivors. PMID:27081544

  19. The Effect of Oncologists’ Exercise Recommendation on the Level of Exercise and Quality of Life in Breast and Colorectal Cancer Survivors: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Hye; Lee, Junga; Oh, Minsuk; Park, Hyuna; Chae, Jisuk; Kim, Dong-Il; Lee, Mikyoung; Yoon, Yong Jin; Lee, Chulwon; Kim, Nam Kyu; Jones, Lee W.; Kim, Seung Il; Park, Se Ho; Jeon, Justin Y.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an oncologists’ exercise recommendation with and without exercise motivation package on the amount of exercise participation and quality of life (QOL) in breast and colon cancer survivors. Methods A total of 162 early stage breast and colorectal cancer survivors who completed primary and adjuvant treatments were recruited for this study. Participants were randomly assigned into one of three groups: 1) control (N=59), 2) Oncologists’ exercise recommendation (N=53), and 3) Oncologists’ exercise recommendation with exercise motivation package (N=50). At baseline and after 4 weeks, the level of exercise participation and QOL were assessed. Results A total of 130 (80.7%) participants completed the 4-week assessment. The result showed that participants who only received oncologists’ exercise recommendation did not increase their exercise participation level. But participants who received oncologist’s exercise recommendation with motivation package significantly increased the level of exercise participation [4.30±7.84 Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) hour per week, p<001] compared with that of the control group and significantly improved role functioning, pain and diarrhea. Conclusion Oncologists’ exercise recommendation may not be enough to increase exercise participation.. Exercise motivation package with oncologists’ exercise recommendation may be ideal to increase exercise participation to cancer survivor Implications of cancer survivors The providence of exercise motivation package in addition to oncologists’ exercise recommendation to increase the level of exercise among breast and colorectal cancer survivors should be considered. PMID:25965782

  20. Randomised controlled trial of a supervised exercise rehabilitation program for colorectal cancer survivors immediately after chemotherapy: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Rosalind R; Heesch, Kristiann C; Eakin, Elizabeth G; Brown, Wendy J

    2007-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis and the ensuing treatments can have a substantial impact on the physical and psychological health of survivors. As the number of CRC survivors increases, so too does the need to develop viable rehabilitation programs to help these survivors return to good health as quickly as possible. Exercise has the potential to address many of the adverse effects of CRC treatment; however, to date, the role of exercise in the rehabilitation of cancer patients immediately after the completion of treatment has received limited research attention. This paper presents the design of a randomised controlled trial which will evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise program (ImPACT Program) on the physiological and psychological markers of rehabilitation, in addition to biomarkers of standard haematological outcomes and the IGF axis. Methods/Design Forty CRC patients will be recruited through oncology clinics and randomised to an exercise group or a usual care control group. Baseline assessment will take place within 4 weeks of the patient completing adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. The exercise program for patients in the intervention group will commence a week after the baseline assessment. The program consists of three supervised moderate-intensity aerobic exercise sessions per week for 12 weeks. All participants will have assessments at baseline (0 wks), mid-intervention (6 wks), post-intervention (12 wks) and at a 6-week follow-up (18 wks). Outcome measures include cardio-respiratory fitness, biomarkers associated with health and survival, and indices of fatigue and quality of life. Process measures are participants' acceptability of, adherence to, and compliance with the exercise program, in addition to the safety of the program. Discussion The results of this study will provide valuable insight into the role of supervised exercise in improving life after CRC. Additionally, process analyses will

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Post-Traumatic Growth and Psychological Distress in Colorectal Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Occhipinti, Stefano; Chambers, Suzanne K; Lepore, Stephen; Aitken, Joanne; Dunn, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The stability of post-traumatic growth over time and the relationship between post-traumatic growth and traditional distress outcomes remains unclear. We tracked post-traumatic growth in a population-based sample of colorectal cancer patients from soon after diagnosis to five years subsequently to assess the heterogeneity of a post-traumatic growth response to cancer over time and describe the simultaneous and longitudinal relationships between post-traumatic growth and psychological distress. 1966 colorectal patients who were five months post diagnosis were assessed six times over a five year period. There was considerable heterogeneity associated with both psychological distress and benefit finding scores over time. However, both for benefit finding and psychological distress, the variation in individual scores suggested an underlying positive linear trend and both lagged and lagged change components. Specifically, benefit finding and psychological distress are mutual leading indicators of each other. First, benefit finding served as a leading indicator of distress, in that increases in reported benefit finding from year to year predicted higher future increases in psychological distress. As well, in an inverse relationship, psychological distress served as a leading indicator of benefit finding, such that increases in reported distress from year to year predicted lower future increases in benefit finding. Post-traumatic growth may reflect patients coping efforts to enhance perceptions of wellbeing in response to escalating cancer-related threats, acting as harbinger of increasing trajectories of psychological distress. This explanation is consistent with a cognitive dissonance response in which threats to the integrity of the self then lead to a tendency to accentuate positive aspects of the self. PMID:26418357

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Post-Traumatic Growth and Psychological Distress in Colorectal Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Occhipinti, Stefano; Chambers, Suzanne K.; Lepore, Stephen; Aitken, Joanne; Dunn, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The stability of post-traumatic growth over time and the relationship between post-traumatic growth and traditional distress outcomes remains unclear. We tracked post-traumatic growth in a population-based sample of colorectal cancer patients from soon after diagnosis to five years subsequently to assess the heterogeneity of a post-traumatic growth response to cancer over time and describe the simultaneous and longitudinal relationships between post-traumatic growth and psychological distress. 1966 colorectal patients who were five months post diagnosis were assessed six times over a five year period. There was considerable heterogeneity associated with both psychological distress and benefit finding scores over time. However, both for benefit finding and psychological distress, the variation in individual scores suggested an underlying positive linear trend and both lagged and lagged change components. Specifically, benefit finding and psychological distress are mutual leading indicators of each other. First, benefit finding served as a leading indicator of distress, in that increases in reported benefit finding from year to year predicted higher future increases in psychological distress. As well, in an inverse relationship, psychological distress served as a leading indicator of benefit finding, such that increases in reported distress from year to year predicted lower future increases in benefit finding. Post-traumatic growth may reflect patients coping efforts to enhance perceptions of wellbeing in response to escalating cancer–related threats, acting as harbinger of increasing trajectories of psychological distress. This explanation is consistent with a cognitive dissonance response in which threats to the integrity of the self then lead to a tendency to accentuate positive aspects of the self. PMID:26418357

  3. What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Colorectal Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... colorectal cancer survivor What should you ask your doctor about colorectal cancer? It’s important to have frank, ... treatment? Do I need to see any other doctors or health professionals? If I’m concerned about ...

  4. Is referral of postsurgical colorectal cancer survivors to cardiac rehabilitation feasible and acceptable? A pragmatic pilot randomised controlled trial with embedded qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Gill; Adams, Richard; Campbell, Anna; Kidd, Lisa; Leslie, Stephen J; Munro, Julie; Watson, Angus

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) Assess whether cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a feasible and acceptable model of rehabilitation for postsurgical colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors, (2) evaluate trial procedures. This article reports the results of the first objective. Design and setting A pragmatic pilot randomised controlled trial with embedded qualitative study was conducted in 3 UK hospitals with CR facilities. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise trial parameters indicative of intervention feasibility and acceptability. Interviews and focus groups were conducted and data analysed thematically. Participants People with CRC were considered for inclusion in the trial if they were ≥18 years old, diagnosed with primary CRC and in the recovery period postsurgery (they could still be receiving adjuvant therapy). 31% (n=41) of all eligible CRC survivors consented to participate in the trial. 22 of these CRC survivors, and 8 people with cardiovascular disease (CVD), 5 CRC nurses and 6 CR clinicians participated in the qualitative study. Intervention Referral of postsurgical CRC survivors to weekly CR exercise classes and information sessions. Classes included CRC survivors and people with CVD. CR nurses and physiotherapists were given training about cancer and exercise. Results Barriers to CR were protracted recoveries from surgery, ongoing treatments and poor mobility. No adverse events were reported during the trial, suggesting that CR is safe. 62% of participants completed the intervention as per protocol and had high levels of attendance. 20 health professionals attended the cancer and exercise training course, rating it as excellent. Participants perceived that CR increased CRC survivors’ confidence and motivation to exercise, and offered peer support. CR professionals were concerned about CR capacity to accommodate cancer survivors and their ability to provide psychosocial support to this group of patients. Conclusions CR is feasible and acceptable for postsurgical

  5. Dietary Patterns Differ between Urban and Rural Older, Long-Term Survivors of Breast, Prostate, and Colorectal Cancer and Are Associated with Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Morey, Miriam C.; Hartman, Terry J.; Snyder, Denise C.; Sloane, Richard; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Background Older adult cancer survivors are at great er risk of cancer recurrence and other comorbidities that may be prevented through improved diet and weight management. The tertiary prevention needs of rural-dwelling survivors may be even greater, yet little is known about rural and urban differences in lifestyle factors among this high risk population. Objectives To compare dietary patterns of urban and rural cancer survivors and to examine associations of dietary patterns with BMI. Design A secondary analysis was performed of baseline data from the Reach Out to Enhance Wellness (RENEW) trial, a diet and exercise intervention among overweight, long-term (> 5y) older survivors of colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer. Survivors in the present analysis (n = 729) underwent two 45–60 minute telephone surveys, which included two 24-hour dietary recalls. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and multivariable general linear models were used to derive dietary patterns and to evaluate associations between dietary patterns and BMI, respectively. Results PCA identified three primary dietary patter ns among rural dwellers (“high sweets and starches”, “high reduced-fat dairy, cereal, nuts, and fruits”, and “mixed”) and three among urban dwellers (“high fruits and vegetables”, “high meat and refined grains”, and “high sugar-sweetened beverages”). Among rural survivors, greater adherence to the “high reduced-fat dairy, cereal, nuts, and fruits” pattern was positively associated with lower BMI (p-trend < 0.05) whereas higher scores on the “mixed” pattern was associated with greater BMI (p-trend < 0.05). Greater adherence to the “high fruits and vegetables” pattern among urban survivors was inversely associated with BMI (p-trend < 0.05). Conclusions Urban and rural differences in dietary intake behavior should be considered in designing public health interventions among the increasing population of older cancer survivors. Furthermore

  6. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... of colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  7. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  8. Pain in cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Juan D; Farquhar-Smith, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Cancer and its treatment exert a heavy psychological and physical toll. Of the myriad symptoms which result, pain is common, encountered in between 30% and 60% of cancer survivors. Pain in cancer survivors is a major and growing problem, impeding the recovery and rehabilitation of patients who have beaten cancer and negatively impacting on cancer patients’ quality of life, work prospects and mental health. Persistent pain in cancer survivors remains challenging to treat successfully. Pain can arise both due to the underlying disease and the various treatments the patient has been subjected to. Chemotherapy causes painful chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), radiotherapy can produce late effect radiation toxicity and surgery may lead to the development of persistent post-surgical pain syndromes. This review explores a selection of the common causes of persistent pain in cancer survivors, detailing our current understanding of the pathophysiology and outlining both the clinical manifestations of individual pain states and the treatment options available. PMID:26516548

  9. Pain in Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Glare, Paul A.; Davies, Pamela S.; Finlay, Esmé; Gulati, Amitabh; Lemanne, Dawn; Moryl, Natalie; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Paice, Judith A.; Stubblefield, Michael D.; Syrjala, Karen L.

    2014-01-01

    Pain is a common problem in cancer survivors, especially in the first few years after treatment. In the longer term, approximately 5% to 10% of survivors have chronic severe pain that interferes with functioning. The prevalence is much higher in certain subpopulations, such as breast cancer survivors. All cancer treatment modalities have the potential to cause pain. Currently, the approach to managing pain in cancer survivors is similar to that for chronic cancer-related pain, pharmacotherapy being the principal treatment modality. Although it may be appropriate to continue strong opioids in survivors with moderate to severe pain, most pain problems in cancer survivors will not require them. Moreover, because more than 40% of cancer survivors now live longer than 10 years, there is growing concern about the long-term adverse effects of opioids and the risks of misuse, abuse, and overdose in the nonpatient population. As with chronic nonmalignant pain, multimodal interventions that incorporate nonpharmacologic therapies should be part of the treatment strategy for pain in cancer survivors, prescribed with the aim of restoring functionality, not just providing comfort. For patients with complex pain issues, multidisciplinary programs should be used, if available. New or worsening pain in a cancer survivor must be evaluated to determine whether the cause is recurrent disease or a second malignancy. This article focuses on patients with a history of cancer who are beyond the acute diagnosis and treatment phase and on common treatment-related pain etiologies. The benefits and harms of the various pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic options for pain management in this setting are reviewed. PMID:24799477

  10. Pain in cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Glare, Paul A; Davies, Pamela S; Finlay, Esmé; Gulati, Amitabh; Lemanne, Dawn; Moryl, Natalie; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Paice, Judith A; Stubblefield, Michael D; Syrjala, Karen L

    2014-06-01

    Pain is a common problem in cancer survivors, especially in the first few years after treatment. In the longer term, approximately 5% to 10% of survivors have chronic severe pain that interferes with functioning. The prevalence is much higher in certain subpopulations, such as breast cancer survivors. All cancer treatment modalities have the potential to cause pain. Currently, the approach to managing pain in cancer survivors is similar to that for chronic cancer-related pain, pharmacotherapy being the principal treatment modality. Although it may be appropriate to continue strong opioids in survivors with moderate to severe pain, most pain problems in cancer survivors will not require them. Moreover, because more than 40% of cancer survivors now live longer than 10 years, there is growing concern about the long-term adverse effects of opioids and the risks of misuse, abuse, and overdose in the nonpatient population. As with chronic nonmalignant pain, multimodal interventions that incorporate nonpharmacologic therapies should be part of the treatment strategy for pain in cancer survivors, prescribed with the aim of restoring functionality, not just providing comfort. For patients with complex pain issues, multidisciplinary programs should be used, if available. New or worsening pain in a cancer survivor must be evaluated to determine whether the cause is recurrent disease or a second malignancy. This article focuses on patients with a history of cancer who are beyond the acute diagnosis and treatment phase and on common treatment-related pain etiologies. The benefits and harms of the various pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic options for pain management in this setting are reviewed. PMID:24799477

  11. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the ... professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to- ...

  12. Associations of sedentary time and patterns of sedentary time accumulation with health-related quality of life in colorectal cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    van Roekel, Eline H; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Bours, Martijn J L; Lynch, Brigid M; Willems, Paul J B; Meijer, Kenneth; Kant, Ijmert; Beets, Geerard L; Sanduleanu, Silvia; Healy, Genevieve N; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2016-12-01

    Sedentary behavior (sitting/lying at low energy expenditure while awake) is emerging as an important risk factor that may compromise the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. We examined associations of sedentary time with HRQoL in CRC survivors, 2-10 years post-diagnosis. In a cross-sectional study, stage I-III CRC survivors (n = 145) diagnosed (2002-2010) at Maastricht University Medical Center+, the Netherlands, wore the thigh-mounted MOX activity monitor 24 h/day for seven consecutive days. HRQoL outcomes were assessed by validated questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30, WHODAS II, Checklist Individual Strength, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Confounder-adjusted linear regression models were used to estimate associations with HRQoL outcomes of MOX-derived total and prolonged sedentary time (in prolonged sedentary bouts ≥ 30 min), and usual sedentary bout duration, corrected for waking wear time. On average, participants spent 10.2 h/day sedentary (SD, 1.6), and 4.5 h/day in prolonged sedentary time (2.3). Mean usual sedentary bout duration was 27.3 min (SD, 16.8). Greater total and prolonged sedentary time, and longer usual sedentary bout duration were associated with significantly (P < 0.05) lower physical functioning, and higher disability and fatigue scores. Greater prolonged sedentary time and longer usual sedentary bout duration also showed significant associations with lower global quality of life and role functioning. Associations with distress and social functioning were non-significant. Sedentary time was cross-sectionally associated with poorer HRQoL outcomes in CRC survivors. Prospective studies are needed to investigate whether sedentary time reduction is a potential target for lifestyle interventions aiming to improve the HRQoL of CRC survivors. PMID:27419042

  13. Five Myths about Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACS » Your Local Offices Close + - Text Size Five Myths About Colorectal Cancer In many cases, colorectal cancer ... screening tests you need, when you need them. Myth: Colorectal cancer is a man’s disease. Truth: Colorectal ...

  14. The association between comorbidities and the quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors in the People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ji-Wei; Sun, Li; Ding, Ning; Li, Jiang; Gong, Xiao-Huan; Chen, Xue-Fen; Yu, Dong-Hui; Luo, Zheng-Nian; Yuan, Zheng-Ping; Yu, Jin-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer survivors with certain comorbidities had lower quality of life (QOL). This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of comorbidities and the association between comorbidities and the QOL among Chinese colorectal cancer survivors (CCS). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,398 CCS between April and July 2013 in Shanghai, People’s Republic of China. All the participants were asked to complete a simplified Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment quality of life version 3 questionnaire and questions on sociodemographic characteristics and comorbidities. In order to mitigate the bias caused by confounding factors, multiple linear regression models were employed to calculate the adjusted means of QOL scores. Results The proportion of participants without any comorbidity was only 20.2%. The CCS with comorbidities except hypertension scored significantly lower on the European Organization for Research and Treatment quality of life version 3 questionnaire global health and functioning scales and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General scales but higher on the European Organization for Research and Treatment quality of life version 3 questionnaire symptom scores, indicating that they had poorer QOL, particularly for cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, and musculoskeletal diseases. Conclusion There exists a significant association between comorbidities and QOL among Chinese CCS, and participants with comorbidities generally reported lower QOL scores. These findings suggested comprehensive care for CCS. PMID:27366053

  15. Survivorship care planning and its influence on long-term patient-reported outcomes among colorectal and lung cancer survivors: The CanCORS disease-free survivor follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Chrischilles, Elizabeth A.; McDowell, Bradley D.; Rubenstein, Linda; Charlton, Mary; Pendergast, Jane; Juarez, Grelda Yazmin; Arora, Neeraj K.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Evaluate the relationship between survivorship care planning (SCP) and survivorship care and health outcomes reported by long-term lung and colorectal cancer survivors. METHODS Participants (n=832) were diagnosed and enrolled during 2003-2005. In 2012, patient-reported outcomes (survivorship care and health outcomes) and two patient-reported SCP measures (receipt of written summary of cancer treatment and receipt of instructions on who to see for routine cancer follow-up) were collected. Analyses controlled for SCP predictors collected from medical records and an interview 1 year after diagnosis. RESULTS One-in-four survivors reported receiving both SCP elements. Those receiving both were more certain which doctor was in charge (OR 7.0; 95% CI 3.9-12.5), more likely to report follow-up check-ups (OR 5.1; 95% CI 3.3-8.0) and had an MRI/PET/CT scan in the past 2 years (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.7-4.7) compared to those receiving neither. Physician communication experiences were significantly more positive and having physical exams (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.4) and meeting exercise guidelines (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.004-2.4) more likely. Physical health (p=0.012) and good-to-excellent self-perceived health status (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.3-3.9) were better for those receiving both elements. CONCLUSION SCP may lead to better cancer follow-up care, long-term physical health, and physician/patient communication experiences. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS The positive association between outcomes and SCP suggest that efforts to implement SCP should be fruitful. PMID:25354481

  16. Survivors of childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Bradwell, Moira

    2009-05-01

    Treatment of childhood cancer aims to cure with minimum risk to the patient's subsequent health. Monitoring the long-term effects of treatment on children and young adults is now an essential part of the continued care of survivors. Late effects include: impact on growth, development and intellectual function; organ system impairment; the development of second malignancies; and psychosocial problems. These can adversely affect long-term survival and the quality of life. In the UK, models of long-term follow up for survivors of childhood cancer vary from centre to centre but nurses have a significant role to play. Combining the nurse specialist role with that of the advanced practitioner ensures that the goals of improving the quality of nursing care to the survivors of childhood cancer are achieved and maximises the nursing contribution to their follow up. With the number of childhood cancer survivors increasing, providing holistic, health promotional care, tailored to the specific needs of survivors will be crucial for their future. PMID:19505060

  17. [A long-term survivor of colorectal cancer associated with multiple liver metastases and peritoneal carcinomatosis treated through a multidisciplinary approach].

    PubMed

    Tajima, Yusuke; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Matsuzawa, Takeaki; Ishiguro, Toru; Ohsawa, Tomonori; Okada, Norimichi; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Kumagai, Youichi; Baba, Hiroyuki; Haga, Norihiro; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2012-11-01

    Even in the era of new anticancer drugs, an optimal treatment strategy for colorectal cancer associated with liver metastasis and peritoneal carcinomatosis has yet to be established. Here we report the case of a long-term survivor with very advanced colon cancer who underwent repeated resective surgery and chemotherapy. This 69-year-old man underwent a Hartmann's procedure and the resection of peritoneal metastases of cancer of the rectosigmoid, which had infiltrated the retroperitoneum giving rise to multiple liver metastases and peritoneal carcinomatosis. The resection margin was positive for cancer. After 14 courses of a modified FOLFOX6 (mFOLFOX6) regimen, a partial response with no development of new lesions was obtained. Multiple partial hepatectomies were subsequently performed. After the completion of an additional 6 courses of mFOLFOX6, a positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) examination demonstrated a hot spot in segment 4. This hot deposit disappeared after a further 8 courses of mFOLFOX6. The patient then underwent a left lateral segmentectomy for a newly developed lesion in segment 3, which was detected 2 years and 7 months after the first operation. The patient has remained free from recurrence for 2 years since his last operation. PMID:23268036

  18. Association between body mass index and mortality for colorectal cancer survivors: overall and by tumor molecular phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Peter T.; Newton, Christina C.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Phipps, Amanda I.; Ahnen, Dennis J.; Baron, John A.; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Casey, Graham; Cleary, Sean P.; Cotterchio, Michelle; Farris, Alton B.; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Gallinger, Steven; Green, Roger C.; Haile, Robert W.; Hopper, John L.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Le Marchand, Loïc; Makar, Karen W.; McLaughlin, John R.; Potter, John D.; Renehan, Andrew G.; Sinicrope, Frank A.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Win, Aung Ko; Lindor, Noralane M.; Limburg, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Microsatellite instability (MSI) and BRAF-mutation status are associated with colorectal cancer survival whereas the role of body mass index (BMI) is less clear. We evaluated the association between BMI and colorectal cancer survival, overall and by strata of MSI, BRAF-mutation, sex, and other factors. Methods This study included 5,615 men and women diagnosed with invasive colorectal cancer who were followed for mortality (maximum: 14.7 years; mean: 5.9 years). Pre-diagnosis BMI was derived from self-reported weight approximately 1-year before diagnosis and height. Tumor MSI and BRAF-mutation status were available for 4,131 and 4,414 persons, respectively. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from delayed-entry Cox proportional hazards models. Results In multivariable models, high pre-diagnosis BMI was associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality in both sexes (per 5-kg/m2, HR = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.15), with similar associations stratified by sex (p-interaction: 0.41), colon vs rectum (p-interaction: 0.86), MSI status (p-interaction: 0.84), and BRAF-mutation status (p-interaction: 0.28). In joint models, with MS-stable/MSI-low and normal BMI as the reference group, risk of death was higher for MS-stable/MSI-low and obese BMI (HR: 1.32; p-value: 0.0002), not statistically significantly lower for MSI-high and normal BMI (HR: 0.86; p-value: 0.29), and approximately the same for MSI-high and obese BMI (HR: 1.00; p-value: 0.98). Conclusions High pre-diagnosis BMI was associated with increased mortality; this association was consistent across participant subgroups, including strata of tumor molecular phenotype. Impact High BMI may attenuate the survival benefit otherwise observed with MSI-high tumors. PMID:26038390

  19. Siblings of Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogan, Janis L.

    This paper reports on a long term follow up study of siblings of childhood cancer survivors. Seventy siblings of childhood cancer survivors in 37 families were interviewed using a semi-structured format which included both forced choice and open ended questions. The children discussed their memories of the sibling's cancer diagnosis and treatment…

  20. What Is Colorectal Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... on staging, see “ Colorectal cancer stages ” The normal colon and rectum The colon and rectum are parts ... through the anus . Types of cancer in the colon and rectum Adenocarcinomas make up more than 95% ...

  1. [Epidemiology of colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Launoy, Guy

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer increased in France until the 2000s' then decreased. Time trends in incidence for this cancer varied according to its sublocation along the gut. Incidence increased for right and left colon cancers, whereas it remained stable for sigmoid cancers in males and decreased in females. Incidence decreased over time for rectal cancers. The proportion of colorectal cancer in the overall French cancer prevalence is 12%. In 2008, 121,000 patients had a colorectal cancer diagnosed in the 5 previous years. The cumulative risk of colorectal cancer increased from 3.9% for males born around 1900 to 4.9% for those born around 1930 and then slightly decreased, being 4.5% among those born around 1950. It remained at the same level for females and was 2.9% for those born around 1950. The prognosis of colorectal cancer improved over time. Net 5-year survival increased in males from 53% for cancers diagnosed between 1989 and 1991 to 58% for those diagnosed between 2001 and 2004. The highest improvement of 10 year survival rates concerned left colon and rectosigmoid junction (+19% in a decade). The progressive set up of national colorectal screening since the early 2000's and the introduction of recent immunological tests in 2015 should decrease the mortality for this cancer and, at term, should decrease its incidence too. PMID:26298897

  2. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michaela; Gasche, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has become one of the most prevalent malignant diseases for both men and women. Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases or certain inherited cancer syndromes are at high risk of developing colorectal cancer and have naturally the highest need for cancer prevention. In familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and Lynch syndrome, most of the underlying germline mutations can be detected by DNA sequencing, and medical counselling of affected individuals involves both surveillance tests and chemopreventive measures. However, as the mechanisms leading to colorectal cancer differ in these high-risk groups, the molecular action of chemopreventive drugs needs to be adjusted to the certain pathway of carcinogenesis. In the last decades, a number of drugs have been tested, including sulindac, aspirin, celecoxib, and mesalazine, but some of them are still controversially discussed. This review summarizes the advances and current standards of colorectal cancer prevention in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, FAP and Lynch syndrome. PMID:25531498

  3. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Peter; Leon, Maria Elena

    2002-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a important public health problem: there are nearly one million new cases of colorectal cancer diagnosed world-wide each year and half a million deaths. Recent reports show that, in the US, it was the most frequent form of cancer among persons aged 75 years and older. Given that the majority of cancers occur in elder people and with the ageing of the population in mind, this observation gives further impetus to investigating prevention and treatment strategies among this subgroup of the population. Screening research, recommendations and implementation is an obvious priority. While there are many questions to be resolved, it is apparent that many facets of colorectal cancer are becoming increasingly understood and prospects for prevention are becoming apparent. Achieving colorectal cancer control is the immediate challenge. PMID:12421722

  4. Study protocol for “Moving Bright, Eating Smart”– A phase 2 clinical trial on the acceptability and feasibility of a diet and physical activity intervention to prevent recurrence in colorectal cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer and cancer-killer in Hong Kong with an alarming increasing incidence in recent years. The latest World Cancer Research Fund report concluded that foods low in fibre, and high in red and processed meat cause colorectal cancer whereas physical activity protects against colon cancer. Yet, the influence of these lifestyle factors on cancer outcome is largely unknown even though cancer survivors are eager for lifestyle modifications. Observational studies suggested that low intake of a Western-pattern diet and high physical activity level reduced colorectal cancer mortality. The Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Health Action Process Approach have guided the design of intervention models targeting a wide range of health-related behaviours. Methods/design We aim to demonstrate the feasibility of two behavioural interventions intended to improve colorectal cancer outcome and which are designed to increase physical activity level and reduce consumption of a Western-pattern diet. This three year study will be a multicentre, randomised controlled trial in a 2x2 factorial design comparing the “Moving Bright, Eating Smart” (physical activity and diet) programme against usual care. Subjects will be recruited over a 12-month period, undertake intervention for 12 months and followed up for a further 12 months. Baseline, interim and three post-intervention assessments will be conducted. Two hundred and twenty-two colorectal cancer patients who completed curative treatment without evidence of recurrence will be recruited into the study. Primary outcome measure will be whether physical activity and dietary targets are met at the end of the 12-month intervention. Secondary outcome measures include the magnitude and mechanism of behavioural change, the degree and determinants of compliance, and the additional health benefits and side effects of the intervention. Discussion The results of this study will establish

  5. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the ... professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to- ...

  6. Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening Summer 2016 Table of Contents Dr. Asad Umar, ... know to help determine the best colon cancer screening test for them? Colonoscopy is considered the gold ...

  7. Tests for Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... to look for colorectal cancer Imaging tests use sound waves, x-rays, magnetic fields, or radioactive substances to ... has spread to the liver. Ultrasound Ultrasound uses sound waves and their echoes to create images of the ...

  8. Colorectal cancer in adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, A.; Renaut, A. J.; Whelan, J.; Taylor, I.

    1999-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, one of the most common malignancies among adults, is rare in adolescence. This low incidence coupled with non-specific symptoms and aggressive natural history leads to a poorer prognosis than in reported adult series. This article describes two cases of colorectal cancer in adolescents and reviews the literature regarding this rare condition. Earlier diagnosis and a greater understanding of the natural history may lead to improved treatment with concomitant improvements in survival. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10364965

  9. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test. PMID:21954677

  10. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, W. J.; Moorehead, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma represents a major cause of cancer deaths in the United Kingdom. Tumours detected at an early or even premalignant stage have a better prognosis. In this review we consider the argument for screening for colorectal carcinomas and discuss the means available and the implications of implementing screening programmes using some of these methods. A suggestion is made for the more rational use of limited resources to target those at greatest risk. PMID:9185482

  11. Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... section Colorectal Cancer 4 of 6 sections Take Action! Take Action: Get Tested The best way to prevent colorectal ... I at Risk? 5 of 6 sections Take Action: Healthy Habits Quit smoking. People who smoke are ...

  12. Endobronchial metastases of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Rosado Dawid, Natalia-Zuberoa; Villegas Fernández, Francisco Ramón; Rodríguez Cruz, María Del Mar; Ramos Meca, Asunción

    2016-04-01

    Colorectal metastases affecting trachea or bronchi are highly unusual. Up to 26% of endotracheal/endobronchial metastases are due to colorectal cancer. Treatment and palliative management rely on a multidisciplinary team to improve their quality of life. PMID:26856850

  13. [Nutrition and colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Alexander; Maike, Wolters; Hahn, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Diet plays an important role in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. Current prospective cohort studies and metaanalysis enable a reevaluation of how food or nutrients such as fiber and fat influence cancer risk. Based on the evidence criteria of the WHO/FAD, risk reduction by a high intake of fruit is assessed as possible, while a lowered risk by a high vegetable intake is probable. Especially raw vegetables and fruits seem to exert anticancer properties. The evidence of a risk reducing effect of whole grain relating to colorectal cancer is assessed as probable whereas the evidence of an increased risk by high consumption of refined white flour products and sweets is (still) insufficient despite some evidences. There is a probable risk reducing effect of milk and dairy products. e available data on eggs and red meat indicate a possible risk increasing influence. Stronger clues for a risk increasing effect have been shown for meat products leading to an evidence assessed as probable. Owing to varied interpretations of the data on fiber, the evidence of a risk reducing effect relating to colorectal cancer is assessed as possible or insufficient. The available data on alcohol consumption indicate a possible risk increasing effect. In contrast to former evaluations, diets rich in fat seem to increase colorectal cancer risk only indirectly as part of a hypercaloric diet by advancing the obesity risk. Thus, the evidence of obesity, especially visceral obesity, as a risk of colorectal cancer is judged as convincing today. Prospective cohort studies suggest that people who get higher than average amounts of folic acid from multivitamin supplements have lower risks of colorectal cancer. The evidence for a risk reducing effect of calcium, selenium, vitamin D and vitamin E on colorectal cancer is insufficient. As primary prevention, a diet rich in vegetables, fruits, whole grain products, and legumes added by low-fat dairy products, fish, and poultry can be recommended. In

  14. Radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Deland, F.H.; Casper, S.; Corgan, R.L.; Primus, F.J.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1980-03-15

    This study examines the accuracy of colorectal cancer radioimmunodetection. Twenty-seven patients with a history of histologically-confirmed colonic or rectal carcinoma received a high-titer, purified goat anti-CEA IgG labelled with /sup 131/I at a total dose of at least 1.0 ..mu..Ci. Various body views were scanned at 24 and 48 hours after administration of the radioantibody. Three additional cases were evaluated; one had a villous adenoma in the rectum and received the /sup 131/I-labeled anti-CEA IgG, while two colonic carcinoma patients received normal goat IgG labelled with /sup 131/I. All of the 7 cases with primary colorectal cancer showed true-positive tumor localization, while 20 of 25 sites of metastatic colorectal cancer detected by immune scintigraphy were corroborated by other detection measures. The sensitivity of the radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancers (primary and metastatic) was found to be 90% (true-positive rate), the putative specificity (true-negative rate) was 94%, and the apparent overall accuracy of the technique was 93%. Neither the case of a villous adenoma receiving the anti-CEA IgG nor the two cases of colonic cancer receiving normal goat IgG showed tumor radiolocalization. Very high circulating CEA titers did not appear to hinder successful tumor radiolocalization. These findings suggest that in colorectal cancers the method of CEA radioimmunodetection may be of value in preoperatively determining the location and extent of disease, in assessing possible recurrence or spread postoperatively, and in localizing the source of CEA production in patients with rising or elevated CEA titers. An ancilliary benefit could be a more tumor-specific detection test for confirming the findings of other, more conventional diagnostic measures.

  15. Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159781.html Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise Moderate physical activity can ease ... Excessive stress can lead to memory problems among breast cancer survivors, but exercise can help, according to new ...

  16. Exercise Training in Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Chyu, Christopher; Halnon, Nancy

    2016-06-01

    Numerous observational reports suggesting the positive benefits of physical activity in patients diagnosed with cancer have prompted multiple investigative studies involving exercise training for patients throughout the continuum of a cancer diagnosis. Physicians and primary caregivers struggle to find clearly defined guidelines or recommendations for exercise prescriptions that are specific to their widely variable cancer patient populations. Although there continues to be emerging evidence supporting physical activity in cancer survivors, further research is required to investigate new and existing outcomes, methods to sustain positive effects of exercise over time, and to better define guidelines for exercise interventions that include exercise type, frequency, intensity, duration, and timing. Studies of exercise interventions on patients with a range of cancer diagnoses and differing cancer treatments, and involving the pediatric population should be further investigated to document benefit and develop more refined recommendations for physical activity in all cancer survivors. PMID:27155861

  17. Worldwide variations in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Center, Melissa M; Jemal, Ahmedin; Smith, Robert A; Ward, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have documented significant international variations in colorectal cancer rates. However, these studies were limited because they were based on old data or examined only incidence or mortality data. In this article, the colorectal cancer burden and patterns worldwide are described using the most recently updated cancer incidence and mortality data available from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The authors provide 5-year (1998-2002), age-standardized colorectal cancer incidence rates for select cancer registries in IARC's Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, and trends in age-standardized death rates by single calendar year for select countries in the World Health Organization mortality database. In addition, available information regarding worldwide colorectal cancer screening initiatives are presented. The highest colorectal cancer incidence rates in 1998-2002 were observed in registries from North America, Oceania, and Europe, including Eastern European countries. These high rates are most likely the result of increases in risk factors associated with "Westernization," such as obesity and physical inactivity. In contrast, the lowest colorectal cancer incidence rates were observed from registries in Asia, Africa, and South America. Colorectal cancer mortality rates have declined in many longstanding as well as newly economically developed countries; however, they continue to increase in some low-resource countries of South America and Eastern Europe. Various screening options for colorectal cancer are available and further international consideration of targeted screening programs and/or recommendations could help alleviate the burden of colorectal cancer worldwide. PMID:19897840

  18. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  19. Breast Cancer Survivorship Care: Targeting a Colorectal Cancer Education Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Homan, Sherri G.; Yun, Shumei; Stewart, Bob R.; Armer, Jane M.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer survivors are at risk of developing a second primary cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading second primary cancers, and it is often preventable. We developed a multi-component educational tool to inform and encourage women breast cancer survivors to engage in CRC screening. To assess the strengths and weakness of the tool and to improve the relevancy to the target audience, we convened four focus groups of women breast cancer survivors in Missouri. We also assessed the potential impact of the tool on the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding CRC and collected information on the barriers to CRC screening through pre- and post-focus groups’ questionnaires. A total of 43 women breast cancer survivors participated and provided very valuable suggestions on design and content to update the tool. Through the process and comparing pre- and post-focus group assessments, a significantly higher proportion of breast cancer survivors strongly agreed or agreed that CRC is preventable (78.6% vs. 96.9%, p = 0.02) and became aware that they were at a slightly increased risk for CRC (18.6% vs. 51.7%, p = 0.003). The most cited barrier was the complexity of preparation for colonoscopy. PMID:26258794

  20. Understanding topics and sentiment in an online cancer survivor community.

    PubMed

    Portier, Kenneth; Greer, Greta E; Rokach, Lior; Ofek, Nir; Wang, Yafei; Biyani, Prakhar; Yu, Mo; Banerjee, Siddhartha; Zhao, Kang; Mitra, Prasenjit; Yen, John

    2013-12-01

    Online cancer communities help members support one another, provide new perspectives about living with cancer, normalize experiences, and reduce isolation. The American Cancer Society's 166000-member Cancer Survivors Network (CSN) is the largest online peer support community for cancer patients, survivors, and caregivers. Sentiment analysis and topic modeling were applied to CSN breast and colorectal cancer discussion posts from 2005 to 2010 to examine how sentiment change of thread initiators, a measure of social support, varies by discussion topic. The support provided in CSN is highest for medical, lifestyle, and treatment issues. Threads related to 1) treatments and side effects, surgery, mastectomy and reconstruction, and decision making for breast cancer, 2) lung scans, and 3) treatment drugs in colon cancer initiate with high negative sentiment and produce high average sentiment change. Using text mining tools to assess sentiment, sentiment change, and thread topics provides new insights that community managers can use to facilitate member interactions and enhance support outcomes. PMID:24395991

  1. Health Behaviors of Childhood Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jennifer S.; Barnett, Marie; Werk, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the number of childhood cancer survivors living to an old age due to improved cancer treatments. However, these survivors are at risk of numerous late effects as a result of their cancer therapy. Engaging in protective health behaviors and limiting health damaging behaviors are vitally important for these survivors given their increased risks. We reviewed the literature on childhood cancer survivors’ health behaviors by searching for published data and conference proceedings. We examine the prevalence of a variety of health behaviors among childhood cancer survivors, identify significant risk factors, and describe health behavior interventions for survivors.

  2. Living as a Breast Cancer Survivor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emotional aspects of breast cancer Living as a breast cancer survivor For many women with breast cancer, treatment ... making some new choices. Follow-up care after breast cancer treatment Even after you have completed breast cancer ...

  3. Biology of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a serious health problem, a challenge for research, and a model for studying the molecular mechanisms involved in its development. According to its incidence, this pathology manifests itself in three forms: family, hereditary, and most commonly sporadic, apparently not associated with any hereditary or familial factor. For the types having inheritance patterns and a family predisposition, the tumours develop through defined stages ranging from adenomatous lesions to the manifestation of a malignant tumour. It has been established that environmental and hereditary factors contribute to the development of colorectal cancer, as indicated by the accumulation of mutations in oncogenes, genes which suppress and repair DNA, signaling the existence of various pathways through which the appearance of tumours may occur. In the case of the suppressive and mutating tracks, these are characterised by genetic disorders related to the phenotypical changes of the morphological progression sequence in the adenoma/carcinoma. Moreover, alternate pathways through mutation in BRAF and KRAS genes are associated with the progression of polyps to cancer. This review surveys the research done at the cellular and molecular level aimed at finding specific alternative therapeutic targets for fighting colorectal cancer. PMID:25932044

  4. [Epigenetics and colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Pablo; Villarejo, Pedro; Padilla, David; Menéndez, José María; Rodríguez Montes, José Antonio

    2012-05-01

    The epigenetic and physiological mechanisms that alter the structure of chromatin include the methylation of DNA, changes in the histones, and changes in RNA. A literature review has been carried out using PubMed on the evidence published on the association between epigenetics and colorectal cancer. The scientific literature shows that epigenetic changes, such as genetic modifications may be very significant in the origin of neoplastic disease, contributing both to the development and progression of the disease. PMID:22425513

  5. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    LANGMAN, M; BOYLE, P

    1998-01-01

    Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK P BOYLE Colorectal cancer is the fourth commonest form of cancer in men with 678 000 estimated new cases per year worldwide, representing 8.9% of all new cancers. The disease is most frequent in Occidental countries and particularly so in North America, Australia, New Zealand, and parts of Europe. Prospects for colorectal cancer control are bright and a number of possible approaches could prove fruitful. Among these, pharmaceutical measures seem to be valid and logical approaches to the prevention of colorectal cancer and diminishing its impact. Such approaches could concentrate in primary prevention in at-risk subjects or be applied in altering the course of precursor or established disease. Treatments used must fulfil basic requirements of biological plausibility and safety in continued use in large numbers of subjects. Those available include vitamins and minerals, and other drugs with potential as antioxidants, immune modulators or promoters of cell differentiation or apoptosis. Of the various regimens suggested, vitamin A supplementation may even predispose to adverse outcomes, and antioxidant vitamins in general have no coherent body of evidence to support their use. N-acetylcysteine and ursodeoxycholic acid have promising characteristics but there are as yet no clinical data to support the use of the former in gut epithelial cancer, and formal dose ranging studies must be carried out before the latter is submitted to large scale trial. Folate shows promising characteristics but non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and vitamin D seem the most promising agents. Both seem to reduce the incidence of disease, and to reduce growth rates and/or induce differentiation or apoptosis in gut epithelial cancer cells. Both are also well understood pharmacologically. They may be preferred to newer selective compounds in the same class until these newer compounds are confirmed as safe for widespread

  6. Familial colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lung, M S; Trainer, A H; Campbell, I; Lipton, L

    2015-05-01

    Identifying individuals with a genetic predisposition to developing familial colorectal cancer (CRC) is crucial to the management of the affected individual and their family. In order to do so, the physician requires an understanding of the different gene mutations and clinical manifestations of familial CRC. This review summarises the genetics, clinical manifestations and management of the known familial CRC syndromes, specifically Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH-associated neoplasia, juvenile polyposis syndrome and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. An individual suspected of having a familial CRC with an underlying genetic predisposition should be referred to a familial cancer centre to enable pre-test counselling and appropriate follow up. PMID:25955461

  7. Adherence to Survivorship Care Guidelines in Health Care Providers for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Colorectal Cancer Survivor Care

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Colon Cancer; Stage I Rectal Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  8. [Colorectal cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Castells, Antoni

    2013-10-01

    Colorectal cancer is the paradigm of tumoral growth that is susceptible to preventive measures, especially screening. Various screening strategies with demonstrated efficacy and efficiency are currently available, notable examples being the fecal occult blood test and endoscopic tests. In addition, new modalities have appeared in the last few years that could become viable alternatives in the near future. The present article reviews the most important presentations on colorectal screening at the annual congress of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Orlando in May 2013, with special emphasis on the medium- and long-term results of strategies using the fecal occult blood test and flexible sigmoidoscopy, as well as initial experiences with the use of new biomarkers. PMID:24160954

  9. Employment discrimination against cancer survivors: multidisciplinary interventions.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, B

    1989-01-01

    Approximately 25% of the five million cancer survivors in the United States encounter barriers to employment solely because of their cancer histories. This discrimination is primarily rooted in erroneous stereotypes about cancer. Because cancer-based employment discrimination has legal, social, emotional, and economic impact on survivors, interventions must encompass legal and psychosocial resources. While state and federal laws prohibit certain actions that deprive survivors of job opportunities and health insurance, legal and psychosocial resources must be developed and made available to cancer survivors to help them overcome barriers to equal employment opportunities. PMID:10293296

  10. Primary Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Andrew T.; Giovannucci, Edward L.

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has been strongly associated with a Western lifestyle. In the past several decades, much has been learned about the dietary, lifestyle, and medication risk factors for this malignancy. Although there is controversy about the role of specific nutritional factors, consideration of the dietary pattern as a whole appears useful for formulating recommendations. For example, several studies have shown that high intake of red and processed meats, highly refined grains and starches, and sugars is related to increased risk of colorectal cancer. Replacing these factors with poultry, fish, and plant sources as the primary source of protein; unsaturated fats as the primary source of fat; and unrefined grains, legumes and fruits as the primary source of carbohydrates is likely to lower risk of colorectal cancer. Although a role for supplements, including vitamin D, folate, and vitamin B6, remains uncertain, calcium supplementation is likely to be at least modestly beneficial. With respect to lifestyle, compelling evidence indicates that avoidance of smoking and heavy alcohol use, prevention of weight gain, and the maintenance of a reasonable level of physical activity are associated with markedly lower risks of colorectal cancer. Medications such as aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and post-menopausal hormones for women are associated with significant reductions in colorectal cancer risk, though their utility is affected by associated risks. Taken together, modifications in diet and lifestyle should substantially reduce the risk of colorectal cancer and could complement screening in reducing colorectal cancer incidence. PMID:20420944

  11. A person-time analysis of hospital activity among cancer survivors in England

    PubMed Central

    Maddams, J; Utley, M; Møller, H

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are around 2 million cancer survivors in the UK. This study describes the inpatient and day case hospital activity among the population of cancer survivors in England. This is one measure of the burden of cancer on the individual and the health service. Methods: The national cancer registry data set for England (1990–2006) is linked to the NHS Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database. Cohorts of survivors were defined as those people recorded in the cancer registry data with a diagnosis of breast, colorectal, lung or prostate cancer before 2007. The person-time of prevalence in 2006 for each cohort of survivors was calculated according to the cancer type, sex, age and time since diagnosis. The corresponding HES episodes of care in 2006 were used to calculate the person-time of admitted hospital care for each cohort of survivors. The average proportion of time spent in hospital by survivors in each cohort was calculated as the summed person-time of hospital activity divided by the summed person-time of prevalence. The analysis was conducted separately for cancer-related episodes and non-cancer-related episodes. Results: Lung cancer survivors had the highest intensity of cancer-related hospital activity. For all cancers, cancer-related hospital activity was highest in the first year following diagnosis. Breast and prostate cancer survivors had peaks of cancer-related hospital activity in the relatively young and relatively old age groups. The proportion of time spent in hospital for non-cancer-related care was much lower than that for cancer-related care and increased gradually with age but was generally constant regardless of time since diagnosis. Conclusion: The person-time approach used in this study is more revealing than a simple enumeration of cancer survivors and hospital admissions. Hospital activity among cancer survivors is highest soon after diagnosis. The effect of age on the amount of hospital activity is different for each type of

  12. Animal Models of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Robert L.; Fleet, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that afflicts a large number of people in the United States. The use of animal models has the potential to increase our understanding of carcinogenesis, tumor biology, and the impact of specific molecular events on colon biology. In addition, animal models with features of specific human colorectal cancers can be used to test strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. In this review we provide an overview of the mechanisms driving human cancer, we discuss the approaches one can take to model colon cancer in animals, and we describe a number of specific animal models that have been developed for the study of colon cancer. We believe that there are many valuable animal models to study various aspects of human colorectal cancer. However, opportunities for improving upon these models exist. PMID:23076650

  13. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview

    Cancer.gov

    Health problems that develop years later as a result of a cancer treatment are known as late effects. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) was started in 1994 to better understand these late effects.

  14. Xenovaccinotherapy for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Seledtsov, Victor I; Niza, Natalya A; Felde, Mariya A; Shishkov, Alexey A; Samarin, Denis M; Seledtsova, Galina V; Seledtsov, Dmitriy V

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this phase I-II trial were to assess the toxicity, immunological and clinical responses induced in 37 patients with stage IV colorectal cancer by the subcutaneous administration of a xenogenic polyantigenic vaccine (XPV) prepared from disrupted murine melanoma (B16) and carcinoma (LLC) cells. An inducing course of vaccinotherapy consisted of 10 immunizations (5 at weekly and 5 at fortnight intervals). Twenty-four hours later each of first 5 vaccinations the patient was subcutaneously given a low dose of the recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2). A consolidating course of vaccinotherapy consisted of monthly vaccinations. No grade III or IV toxicities, but also laboratory and clinical signs of developing systemic autoimmune disorders were noted in any XPV-treated patient. A significant increase in cell-mediated immunoreactivity to both LLC and B16 antigens (Ags) occurred in the patients after inducing vaccinations, as determined by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reactions, as well as by blood lymphocyte proliferation responses. Vaccinations also led to increased cell-mediated reactivity to murine non-tumor, spleen cell (SC)-associated Ags. This reactivity, however, was not as significant as that to tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). XPV was also found to capable of generating IgG antibody-mediated responses. With immunotherapy concentrations of both interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) detectably elevated in patients' sera, suggesting intensification of T helper 1-/T helper 2-mediated responses in the XPV-treated patients. The average survival of the XPV-treated patients was noticeably superior than was that of the clinically comparable control patients (17 vs 7 months). Collectively the results suggest that xenogenic TAAs are safe to use, able to induce measurable cellular and humoral immune responses, and may be clinically effective in certain colorectal cancer patients. PMID:17258887

  15. Molecular genetics of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Julie; Prenen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 90% of colorectal cancer cases are sporadic without family history or genetic predisposition, while in less than 10% a causative genetic event has been identified. Historically, colorectal cancer classification was only based on clinical and pathological features. Many efforts have been made to discover the genetic and molecular features of colorectal cancer, and there is more and more evidence that these features determine the prognosis and response to (targeted) treatment. Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease, with three known major molecular groups. The most common is the chromosomal instable group, characterized by an accumulation of mutations in specific oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. The second is the microsatellite instable group, caused by dysfunction of DNA mismatch repair genes leading to genetic hypermutability. The CpG Island Methylation phenotype is the third group, distinguished by hypermethylation. Colorectal cancer subtyping has also been addressed using genome-wide gene expression profiling in large patient cohorts and recently several molecular classification systems have been proposed. In this review we would like to provide an up-to-date overview of the genetic aspects of colorectal cancer. PMID:24714764

  16. Weight Management and Exercise for Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, Laura; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-04-01

    Obesity may contribute to development and recurrence of cancer, as well as cancer-related and all-cause mortality. This risk factor is also among the most preventable causes of cancer. This article describes current evidence-based guidelines for weight management and physical activity for cancer survivors. The authors also discuss practical interventions to help survivors undertake behavioral changes to manage their weight. PMID:26991704

  17. [Tumor markers for colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, H; Miyake, Y; Noura, S; Ogawa, M; Yasui, M; Ikenaga, M; Sekimoto, M; Monden, M

    2001-09-01

    CEA and CA19-9 are the two most common tumor markers for colorectal cancer that are currently utilized clinically. The positive rate of CEA is 40-60% and that of CA19-9 is 30-50%. Simultaneous use of the two markers is useful in evaluating the therapeutic effect and monitoring the recurrence of advanced colorectal cancer. Surgical specimens may also provide useful information for the appropriate treatment of patients. Using surgically resected lymph nodes, we examined micrometastasis to assess the spread of the cancer cells and the malignant potential of colorectal cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis using anti-cytokeratin antibody revealed no significant impact of micrometastasis on patient prognosis, while RT-PCR assay using CEA as a genetic marker suggested a positive value in predicting a rapid recurrence. Among various molecular markers, we found that CDC25B phosphatase was a powerful prognostic factor for colorectal cancer. Diagnosis of the existence and malignant potential of cancer cells, together with serum tumor marker levels, may help to construct a more useful system for the better treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:11579645

  18. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda; Møller, Henrik; Johansen, Christoffer; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2011-10-01

    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cancer was diagnosed between 1965 and 1996 before they were 20 years of age. A sex-matched and age-matched population-based control cohort was used for comparison (n=45,449). Demographic and socioeconomic data were obtained from national registers and explored by discrete-time Cox regression analyses. Childhood cancer survivors had a reduced rate of cohabitation [rate ratio (RR) 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.83], owing to lower rates among survivors of both noncentral nervous system (CNS) tumors (RR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.95) and CNS tumors (RR 0.52; 95% CI: 0.45-0.59). Male CNS tumor survivors had a nonsignificantly lower rate (RR 0.47; 95% CI: 0.38-0.58) than females (RR 0.56; 95% CI: 0.47-0.68). The rates of separation were almost identical to those of controls. In conclusion, the rate of cohabitation was lower for all childhood cancer survivors than for the population-based controls, with the most pronounced reduction among survivors of CNS tumors. Mental deficits after cranial irradiation are likely to be the major risk factor. PMID:21941142

  19. Colorectal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing colorectal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  20. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Joo; Hahn, Seung Min; Jin, Song Lee; Shin, Yoon Jung; Kim, Sun Hee; Lee, Yoon Sun; Kim, Hyo Sun; Lyu, Chuhl Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In childhood cancer survivors, the most common late effect is thyroid dysfunction, most notably subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). Our study evaluated the risk factors for persistent SCH in survivors. Materials and Methods Survivors (n=423) were defined as patients who survived at least 2 years after cancer treatment completion. Thyroid function was assessed at this time and several years thereafter. Two groups of survivors with SCH were compared: those who regained normal thyroid function during the follow-up period (normalized group) and those who did not (persistent group). Results Overall, 104 of the 423 survivors had SCH. SCH was observed in 26% of brain or nasopharyngeal cancer survivors (11 of 43) and 21.6% of leukemia survivors (35 of 162). Sixty-two survivors regained normal thyroid function, 30 remained as persistent SCH, and 12 were lost to follow-up. The follow-up duration was 4.03 (2.15–5.78) years. Brain or nasopharyngeal cancer and Hodgkin disease were more common in the persistent group than in the normalized group (p=0.002). More patients in the persistent group received radiation (p=0.008). Radiation to the head region was higher in this group (2394±2469 cGy) than in the normalized group (894±1591 cGy; p=0.003). On multivariable analysis, lymphoma (p=0.011), brain or nasopharyngeal cancer (p=0.039), and head radiation dose ≥1800 cGy (p=0.039) were significant risk factors for persistent SCH. Conclusion SCH was common in childhood cancer survivors. Brain or nasopharyngeal cancer, lymphoma, and head radiation ≥1800 cGy were significant risk factors for persistent SCH. PMID:27189285

  1. Sam Donaldson: Tips From a Cancer Survivor

    MedlinePlus

    ... up on my own specialty of the "Cancer Club, Melanoma Division." Although I am not an oncologist, ... people several things when talking about the survivors club and what we can do. First, we all ...

  2. Utilizing Data from Cancer Patient & Survivor Studies

    Cancer.gov

    Utilizing Data from Cancer Patient & Survivor Studies and Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2011 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  3. Adherence to Surveillance Care Guidelines after Breast and Colorectal Cancer Treatment with Curative Intent

    PubMed Central

    Salloum, Ramzi G.; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Fishman, Paul A.; Ritzwoller, Debra P.; Rossetti, Maureen C. O’Keeffe; Lafata, Jennifer Elston

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence-based guidelines recommend routine surveillance, including office visits and testing, to detect new and recurrent disease among breast and colorectal cancer survivors. The extent to which surveillance practice is consistent with guideline recommendations or may vary by age is not known. Methods Cohorts of adult patients diagnosed with breast (n=6,205) and colorectal (n=2,297) cancer between 2000 and 2008 and treated with curative intent in four, geographically diverse, managed care environments were identified via tumor registries. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to describe time to initial and subsequent surveillance service receipt. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the relationship between patient characteristics and receipt of metastatic screening. Results Within 18-months of treatment, 87.2% of breast cancer survivors received recommended mammograms, with significantly higher rates for patients aged 50–65. Among colorectal cancer survivors, only 55.0% received recommended colon examinations, with significantly lower rates for those ≥ aged 75. Most breast (64.7%) and colorectal (73.3%) cancer survivors received non-recommended metastatic disease testing. In breast cancer, factors associated with metastatic disease testing include white race (HR=1.13), comorbidities (HR=1.17), and younger age. In colorectal cancer, these factors included younger age and comorbidities (HR=1.10). Conclusions Among an insured population, we found wide variation in the use of surveillance care by age and relative to guideline recommendations. Breast cancer survivors have high rates of both guideline recommended recurrence testing and non-guideline recommended metastatic testing. Only about half of colorectal cancer survivors receive recommended tests but over two thirds received metastatic testing. PMID:22434568

  4. Colorectal cancers and chlorinated water

    PubMed Central

    El-Tawil, Ahmed Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Published reports have revealed increased risk of colorectal cancers in people exposed to chlorinated drinking water or chemical derivatives of chlorination. Oestrogen plays a dual positive functions for diminishing the possibilities of such risk by reducing the entrance, and increasing the excretion, of these chemicals. In addition, there are supplementary measures that could be employed in order to reduce this risk further, such as boiling the drinking water, revising the standard concentrations of calcium, magnesium and iron in the public drinking water and prescribing oestrogen in susceptible individuals. Hypo-methylation of genomic DNA could be used as a biological marker for screening for the potential development of colorectal cancers. PMID:27096035

  5. Colorectal Cancer Coalition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Million Strong Shop Join the Movement Share Your Story Check our Calendar Colorectal Support Community Latest News Help Wanted Read Blogs Get Social Free Printable Coloring Sheets Action Alerts About Our ...

  6. Income in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wengenroth, Laura; Sommer, Grit; Schindler, Matthias; Spycher, Ben D.; von der Weid, Nicolas X.; Stutz-Grunder, Eveline; Michel, Gisela; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the impact of childhood cancer on the personal income of survivors. We compared income between survivors and siblings, and determined factors associated with income. Methods As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS), a questionnaire was sent to survivors, aged ≥18 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry (SCCR), diagnosed at age <21 years, who had survived ≥5 years after diagnosis of the primary tumor. Siblings were used as a comparison group. We asked questions about education, profession and income and retrieved clinical data from the SCCR. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify characteristics associated with income. Results We analyzed data from 1’506 survivors and 598 siblings. Survivors were less likely than siblings to have a high monthly income (>4’500 CHF), even after we adjusted for socio-demographic and educational factors (OR = 0.46, p<0.001). Older age, male sex, personal and parental education, and number of working hours were associated with high income. Survivors of leukemia (OR = 0.40, p<0.001), lymphoma (OR = 0.63, p = 0.040), CNS tumors (OR = 0.22, p<0.001), bone tumors (OR = 0.24, p = 0.003) had a lower income than siblings. Survivors who had cranial irradiation, had a lower income than survivors who had no cranial irradiation (OR = 0.48, p = 0.006). Discussion Even after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, education and working hours, survivors of various diagnostic groups have lower incomes than siblings. Further research needs to identify the underlying causes. PMID:27213682

  7. Health Behaviors of Minority Childhood Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Stolley, Melinda R.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Tangney, Christy; Schiffer, Linda; Arroyo, Claudia; Kim, Yoonsang; Campbell, Richard; Schmidt, Mary Lou; Breen, Kathleen; Kinahan, Karen E.; Dilley, Kim; Henderson, Tara; Korenblit, Allen D.; Seligman, Katya

    2015-01-01

    Background Available data suggest that childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) are comparable to the general population on many lifestyle parameters. However, little is known about minority CCSs. This cross-sectional study describes and compares the body mass index (BMI) and health behaviors of African-American, Hispanic and White survivors to each other and to non-cancer controls. Methods Participants included 452 adult CCS (150 African-American, 152 Hispanic, 150 white) recruited through four childhood cancer treating institutions and 375 ethnically-matched non-cancer controls (125 in each racial/ethnic group) recruited via targeted digit dial. All participants completed a 2-hour in-person interview. Results Survivors and non-cancer controls reported similar health behaviors. Within survivors, smoking and physical activity were similar across racial/ethnic groups. African-American and Hispanic survivors reported lower daily alcohol use than whites, but consumed unhealthy diets and were more likely to be obese. Conclusions This unique study highlights that many minority CCSs exhibit lifestyle profiles that contribute to increased risk for chronic diseases and late effects. Recommendations for behavior changes must consider the social and cultural context in which minority survivors may live. PMID:25564774

  8. Nutrients, Foods, and Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S.; Chan, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigation have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grain have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, folate, fruits and vegetables. Nutrients and foods may also interact, as a dietary pattern, to influence colorectal cancer risk. Diet likely influences colorectal carcinogenesis through several interacting mechanisms. These include the direct effects on immune responsiveness and inflammation, and the indirect effects of over-nutrition and obesity—risk factors for colorectal cancer. Emerging evidence also implicates the gut microbiota as an important effector in the relationship between diet and cancer. Dietary modification therefore has the promise of reducing colorectal cancer incidence. PMID:25575572

  9. Telomere function in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Frías, Cristina; Morán, Alberto; de Juan, Carmen; Ortega, Paloma; Fernández-Marcelo, Tamara; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Torres, Antonio José; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo; Benito, Manuel; Iniesta, Pilar

    2009-10-15

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the western world. Tumour cells acquire the hallmarks of cancer during the carcinogenic selection process. Cell immortality is one of the principal features acquired during this process which involves the stabilization of telomere length. It is achieved mainly, by telomerase activation. Thus, the discovery of telomeres and telomerase allowed an understanding of the mechanisms by which cells can become immortalized. Different studies have shown that tumour cells have shorter telomeres than nontumour cells and have detected telomerase activity in the majority of tumours. Survival studies have determined that telomere maintenance and telomerase activity are associated with poor prognosis. Taking into account all the results achieved by different groups, quantification and evaluation of telomerase activity and measurement of telomere length may be useful methods for additional biologic and prognostic staging of colorectal carcinoma. PMID:21160767

  10. Exercise, inflammation, and fatigue in cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    LaVoy, Emily C.P.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Dantzer, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-related fatigue significantly disrupts normal functioning and quality of life for a substantial portion of cancer survivors, and may persist for years following cancer treatment. While the causes of persistent fatigue among cancer survivors are not yet fully understood, accumulating evidence suggests that several pathways, including chronic inflammation, autonomic imbalance, HPA-axis dysfunction, and/or mitochondrial damage, could contribute towards the disruption of normal neuronal function and result in the symptom of cancer-related fatigue. Exercise training interventions have been shown to be some of the more successful treatment options to address cancer-related fatigue. In this review, we discuss the literature regarding the causes of persistent fatigue in cancer survivors and the mechanisms by which exercise may relieve this symptom. There is still much work to be done until the prescription of exercise becomes standard practice for cancer survivors. With improvements in the quality of studies, evidenced-based exercise interventions will allow exercise scientists and oncologists to work together to treat cancer-related fatigue. PMID:26853557

  11. ADAMTS Expression in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Filou, Serafula; Korpetinou, Aggeliki; Kyriakopoulou, Dora; Bounias, Dimitrios; Stavropoulos, Michael; Ravazoula, Panagiota; Papachristou, Dionysios J.; Theocharis, Achilleas D.; Vynios, Demitrios H.

    2015-01-01

    ADAMTSs are a family of secreted proteinases that share the metalloproteinase domain with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). By acting on a large panel of extracellular substrates, they control several cell functions such as fusion, adhesion, proliferation and migration. Through their thrombospondin motifs they also possess anti-angiogenic properties. We investigated whether ADAMTSs participate in colorectal cancer progression and invasion. Their expression was investigated at both mRNA and protein levels. Using RT-PCR, the expression of ADAMTS-1, -4, -5 and ADAMTS-20 was estimated in colorectal tumors of different cancer stage and anatomic site and 3 cell lines of different aggressiveness. An overexpression of ADAMTS-4 and -5 was observed, especially in tissue samples, whereas ADAMTS-1 and -20 were found to be down-regulated. Western blot analysis further supported the RT-PCR findings, revealing in addition the degradation of ADAMTS-1 and -20 in cancer. In situ expression and localization of ADAMTS-1, -4, -5 and -20 was also investigated by immunohistochemical analysis. Our data suggest a positive correlation between ADAMTS-4 and -5 expression and cancer progression, in contrast with the anti-angiogenic members of the family, ADAMTS-1 and -20, which were found to be down-regulated. Our findings support the notion that overexpression of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 in colorectal cancer might be a possible invasive mechanism of cancer cells in order to degrade proteoglycans of ECM. PMID:25786261

  12. Systemic Treatment of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wolpin, Brian M.; Mayer, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common non-cutaneous malignancy in the United States and the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death. Over the past 12 years, significant progress has been made in the systemic treatment of this malignant condition. Six new chemotherapeutic agents have been introduced, increasing median overall survival for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer from less than 9 months with no treatment to approximately 24 months. For patients with stage III (lymph node positive) colon cancer, an overall survival benefit for fluorouracil-based chemotherapy has been firmly established, and recent data have shown further efficacy for the inclusion of oxaliplatin in such adjuvant treatment programs. For patients with stage II colon cancer, the use of adjuvant chemotherapy remains controversial, but may be appropriate in a subset of individuals at higher risk for disease recurrence. Ongoing randomized clinical trials are evaluating how best to combine currently available therapies, while smaller studies are evaluating new agents, with the goal of continued progress in prolonging life among patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and increasing cure rates among those with resectable disease. PMID:18471507

  13. What's New in Colorectal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Additional resources for colorectal cancer What’s new in colorectal cancer research? Research is always going ... ways to find colorectal cancer early by studying new types of screening tests and improving the ones ...

  14. Percentage of Adults Who Receive Colorectal Cancer Screening as Appropriate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Appropriate Percentage of Adults Who Receive Colorectal Cancer Screening as Appropriate Colorectal cancer is the second leading ... Percentage of Adults Who Receive Recommended Colorectal Cancer Screening by Age Group 78pm-ubty Download these data » ...

  15. Primary Care of the Prostate Cancer Survivor.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Erika M; Farrell, Timothy W

    2016-05-01

    This summary of the American Cancer Society Prostate Cancer Survivorship Care Guidelines targets primary care physicians who coordinate care of prostate cancer survivors with subspecialists. Prostate cancer survivors should undergo prostate-specific antigen screening every six to 12 months and digital rectal examination annually. Surveillance of patients who choose watchful waiting for their prostate cancer should be conducted by a subspecialist. Any hematuria or rectal bleeding must be thoroughly evaluated. Prostate cancer survivors should be screened regularly for urinary incontinence and sexual dysfunction. Patients with predominant urge incontinence symptoms, which can occur after surgical and radiation treatments, may benefit from an anticholinergic agent. If there is difficulty with bladder emptying, a trial of an alpha blocker may be considered. A phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor can effectively treat sexual dysfunction following treatment for prostate cancer. Osteoporosis screening should occur before initiation of androgen deprivation therapy, and patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy should be monitored for anemia, metabolic syndrome, and vasomotor symptoms. Healthy lifestyle choices should be encouraged, including weight management, regular physical activity, proper nutrition, and smoking cessation. Primary care physicians should be vigilant for psychosocial distress, including depression, among prostate cancer survivors, as well as the potential impact of this distress on patients' family members and partners. PMID:27175954

  16. Ovarian metastasis from colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Birnkrant, A; Sampson, J; Sugarbaker, P H

    1986-11-01

    Controversies exist regarding the surgical treatment of the ovaries in women with primary colorectal cancer. A review of the authors' experience and the surgical literature reveals an incidence of ovarian metastases from colorectal cancer of approximately 6 percent. This problem may occur somewhat more frequently in premenopausal women. Resection of the ovaries at the time of colectomy is unlikely to affect survival. Removal of the ovaries at the time of bowel resection will prevent repeat laparotomy to resect an ovarian mass in approximately 2 percent of women with large bowel cancer. Oophorectomy should be performed in all postmenopausal females at the time of primary resection. Oophorectomy should be performed in premenopausal women if any gross abnormality of the ovary is detected or if peritoneal implants are seen at the time of primary resection. PMID:3533472

  17. Cancer Survivors More Prone to Obesity, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160399.html Cancer Survivors More Prone to Obesity, Study Finds Risk appears to be particularly high ... 12, 2016 FRIDAY, Aug. 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Obesity is more common among cancer survivors in the ...

  18. [Treatment outcome of peptide vaccination for advanced colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Fumiaki; Inoue, Keisuke; Kogita, Akihiro; Yoshioka, Yasumasa; Hida, Jinichi; Okuno, Kiyotaka; Sukegawa, Yasushi

    2013-11-01

    Complementary DNA( cDNA) microarray technology coupled with laser microdissection has been used to identify human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A24-restricted epitope peptides as potential targets for cancer vaccination in colorectal cancer patients. These antigenic peptides were derived from 2 different cancer-testis antigens, ring finger protein 43 (RNF43) and translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 34( TOMM34). We conducted a clinical trial of colorectal cancer-specific peptide( RNF43, TOMM34) vaccines with uracil/tegafur( UFT)+Leucovorin( LV) for the treatment of advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer. The vaccinations were well tolerated without any serious adverse events. There were long-term survivors in the group showing cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against both RNF43 and TOMM34, as well as in the group showing CTL responses against either RNF43 or TOMM34. A new study has been planned to obtain more immunological responses. We started a clinical trial of vaccines against multiple peptides (RNF43, TOMM34, forkhead box protein M1 [FOXM1], maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase [MELK], holliday junction recognition protein[HJURP], vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1[VEGFR1], and VEGFR2) for the treatment of advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer. PMID:24393856

  19. Preventive Care in Older Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Lowenstein, Lisa M.; Ouellet, Jennifer Andreozzi; Dale, William; Fan, Lin; Mohile, Supriya Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study factors that influence receipt of preventive care in older cancer survivors. Methods We analyzed a nationally representative sample of 12,458 older adults from the 2003 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Factors associated with non-receipt of preventive care were explored among cancer and non-cancer survivors, using logistic regression. Results Among cancer survivors, 1,883 were diagnosed >one year at survey completion. A cancer history was independently associated with receipt of mammogram (AOR=1.57, 95%CI=1.34–1.85), flu shot (AOR=1.33, 95%CI=1.16–1.53), measurement of total cholesterol in the previous six months (AOR=1.20, 95%CI=1.07–1.34), pneumonia vaccination (AOR=1.33, 95%CI=1.18–1.49), bone mineral density (BMD) testing (AOR=1.38, 95%CI=1.21–1.56) and lower endoscopy (AOR=1.46, 95%CI=1.29–1.65). However, receipt of preventive care was not optimal among older cancer survivors with only 51.2% of female cancer survivors received a mammogram, 63.8% of all cancer survivors received colonoscopy, and 42.5% had BMD testing. Among cancer survivors, factors associated with non-receipt of mammogram included age ≥85 years (AOR=0.43, 95%CI=0.26–0.74) and scoring ≥three points on the Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 (AOR=0.94, 95%CI=0.80–1.00). Factors associated with non-receipt of colonoscopy included low education (AOR=0.43, 95%CI=0.27–0.68) and rural residence (AOR=0.51, 95%CI=0.34–0.77). Factors associated with non-receipt of BMD testing included age ≥70 (AOR=0.59, 95%CI=0.39–0.90), African American race (AOR=0.51, 95%CI=0.27–0.95), low education (AOR=0.23, 95%CI=0.14–0.38) and rural residence (AOR=0.43, 95%CI=0.27–0.70). Conclusion Although older cancer survivors are more likely to receive preventive care services than other older adults, the prevalence of receipt of preventive care services is low. PMID:25547206

  20. Fertility treatment in male cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kirsten Louise Tryde; Carlsen, Elisabeth; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2007-08-01

    The present study reviews the use of assisted reproductive technology in male cancer survivors and their partners. As antineoplastic treatment with chemotherapy or radiation therapy, has the potential of inducing impairment of spermatogenesis through damage of the germinal epithelium, many male cancer survivors experience difficulties in impregnating their partners after treatment. The impairment can be temporary or permanent. While many cancer survivors regain spermatogenesis months to years after treatment, some become infertile with a-, oligo- or azoospermia. An option to secure the fertility potential of young cancer patients is to cryopreserve semen before cancer treatment for later use. A desired pregnancy may be obtained in couples where the husband has a history of cancer, using assisted reproductive technology with either fresh or cryopreserved/thawed semen. Successful outcomes have been obtained with intrauterine insemination (IUI) as well as in vitro fertilization (IVF) with or without the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In conclusion, male cancer survivors and their partners who have failed to obtain a pregnancy naturally within a reasonable time frame after end of treatment should be referred to a fertility clinic. PMID:17573855

  1. Colorectal Cancer Screening, Version 1.2015.

    PubMed

    Provenzale, Dawn; Jasperson, Kory; Ahnen, Dennis J; Aslanian, Harry; Bray, Travis; Cannon, Jamie A; David, Donald S; Early, Dayna S; Erwin, Deborah; Ford, James M; Giardiello, Francis M; Gupta, Samir; Halverson, Amy L; Hamilton, Stanley R; Hampel, Heather; Ismail, Mohammad K; Klapman, Jason B; Larson, David W; Lazenby, Audrey J; Lynch, Patrick M; Mayer, Robert J; Ness, Reid M; Rao, M Sambasiva; Regenbogen, Scott E; Shike, Moshe; Steinbach, Gideon; Weinberg, David; Dwyer, Mary A; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A; Darlow, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Colorectal Cancer Screening provide recommendations for selecting individuals for colorectal cancer screening, and for evaluation and follow-up of colon polyps. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize major discussion points of the 2015 NCCN Colorectal Cancer Screening panel meeting. Major discussion topics this year were the state of evidence for CT colonography and stool DNA testing, bowel preparation procedures for colonoscopy, and guidelines for patients with a positive family history of colorectal cancer. PMID:26285241

  2. Subnuclear Proteomics in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Knol, Jaco C.; Piersma, Sander R.; Pham, Thang V.; de Wit, Meike; Mongera, Sandra; Carvalho, Beatriz; Verheul, Henk M. W.; Fijneman, Remond J. A.; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Jimenez, Connie R.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormalities in nuclear phenotype and chromosome structure are key features of cancer cells. Investigation of the protein determinants of nuclear subfractions in cancer may yield molecular insights into aberrant chromosome function and chromatin organization and in addition may yield biomarkers for early cancer detection. Here we evaluate a proteomics work flow for profiling protein constituents in subnuclear domains in colorectal cancer tissues and apply this work flow to a comparative analysis of the nuclear matrix fraction in colorectal adenoma and carcinoma tissue samples. First, we established the reproducibility of the entire work flow. In a reproducibility analysis of three nuclear matrix fractions independently isolated from the same colon tumor homogenate, 889 of 1,047 proteins (85%) were reproducibly identified at high confidence (minimally two peptides per protein at 99% confidence interval at the protein level) with an average coefficient of variance for the number of normalized spectral counts per protein of 30%. This indicates a good reproducibility of the entire work flow from biochemical isolation to nano-LC-MS/MS analysis. Second, using spectral counting combined with statistics, we identified proteins that are significantly enriched in the nuclear matrix fraction relative to two earlier fractions (the chromatin-binding and intermediate filament fractions) isolated from six colorectal tissue samples. The total data set contained 2,059 non-redundant proteins. Gene ontology mining and protein network analysis of nuclear matrix-enriched proteins revealed enrichment for proteins implicated in “RNA processing” and “mRNA metabolic process.” Finally, an explorative comparison of the nuclear matrix proteome in colorectal adenoma and carcinoma tissues revealed many proteins previously implicated in oncogenesis as well as new candidates. A subset of these differentially expressed proteins also exhibited a corresponding change at the mRNA level

  3. [Maintenance therapy for colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Kato, Shunsuke

    2014-08-01

    Some trials have demonstrated the benefits of maintenance chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer. In chemotherapeutic strategies for advanced colorectal cancer, chemotherapy-related toxicity prevention and quality of life(QOL)maintenance are more important than the introduction of a strong regimen, especially when additional surgery is not possible. In Japan, the combination of a folinic acid/5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin(FOLFOX)regimen and bevacizumab is a popular first-line chemotherapy regimen. However, despite its effectiveness, neuropathy or hand-foot syndrome after 5 or 6 cycles tends to lead to chemotherapy withdrawal. CAIRO3 trial reported the effectiveness of capecitabine and bevacizumab as a maintenance chemotherapy regimen. Additionally, the ML18147 trial demonstrated that bevacizumab beyond progression(BBP)prolonged overall survival(OS)and progression free survival(PFS)in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Although those trials demonstrated the effectiveness of continuous or maintenance bevacizumab administration, no trials have compared the effectiveness of cytotoxic drugs with bevacizumab as maintenance therapies. Moreover, controversy exists regarding the selection of drugs as a maintenance therapy and the identification of patients who would benefit from maintenance therapy. PMID:25132024

  4. Genetic counseling of the cancer survivor

    SciTech Connect

    Mulvihill, J.J.; Byrne, J.

    1989-02-01

    Each year, tens of thousands of persons are diagnosed with cancer, are treated, and become survivors while still in their reproductive years. Their concerns about possible germ-cell damage as a result of life-saving radiation, chemotherapy, or both are plausible, based on evidence from animal models and from somatic cell mutations in human beings. A 40-year follow-up of survivors of the atomic bomb blasts in Japan showed no detectable genetic damage and suggested that the human gonad is more resistant to radiogenic mutation than the laboratory mouse. The pooled results of studying 12 series of offspring of cancer patients showed a 4% rate of major birth defects (similar to that of the general population) and an excess of fetal loss and low birth weight in offspring of women who received abdominal radiotherapy. According to preliminary evaluation of a new National Cancer Institute collaboration with five cancer registries, offspring of survivors of childhood cancers had no more birth defects than expected and, beyond an increase in probably familial cancers in children younger than 5, no overall increase in childhood cancer. Ideally, genetic and reproductive counseling should take place as soon as cancer is diagnosed (before therapy starts) and again when pregnancy is contemplated. 28 references.

  5. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  6. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Nuri Faruk

    2015-02-10

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  7. Cancer survivor identity shared in a social media intervention.

    PubMed

    Song, Hayeon; Nam, Yujung; Gould, Jessica; Sanders, W Scott; McLaughlin, Margaret; Fulk, Janet; Meeske, Kathleen A; Ruccione, Kathleen S

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how cancer survivors construct their identities and the impact on their psychological health, as measured by depression and survivor self-efficacy. Fourteen young adult survivors of pediatric cancer participated in a customized social networking and video blog intervention program, the LIFECommunity, over a 6-month period. Survivors were asked to share their stories on various topics by posting video messages. Those video blog postings, along with survey data collected from participants, were analyzed to see how cancer survivors expressed their identities, and how these identities are associated with survivors' psychosocial outcomes. In survivors who held negative stereotypes about cancer survivors, there was a positive relationship with depression while positive stereotypes had a marginal association with cancer survivor efficacy. Findings indicate that although pediatric cancer survivors often do not publicly discuss a "cancer survivor identity," they do internalize both positive and negative stereotypes about cancer survivorship. It is important for practitioners to be aware of the long-term implications of cancer survivor identity and stereotypes. PMID:22472482

  8. Molecular Diagnostic Applications in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huth, Laura; Jäkel, Jörg; Dahl, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, a clinically diverse disease, is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Application of novel molecular diagnostic tests, which are summarized in this article, may lead to an improved survival of colorectal cancer patients. Distinction of these applications is based on the different molecular principles found in colorectal cancer (CRC). Strategies for molecular analysis of single genes (as KRAS or TP53) as well as microarray based techniques are discussed. Moreover, in addition to the fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) and colonoscopy some novel assays offer approaches for early detection of colorectal cancer like the multitarget stool DNA test or the blood-based Septin 9 DNA methylation test. Liquid biopsy analysis may also exhibit great diagnostic potential in CRC for monitoring developing resistance to treatment. These new diagnostic tools and the definition of molecular biomarkers in CRC will improve early detection and targeted therapy of colorectal cancer.

  9. Liver Metastases in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Folprecht, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Resection of colorectal liver metastases is a treatment standard because patients experience long-term disease-free survival or are even cured after undergoing this procedure. Improved surgical techniques for liver resection in combination with downsizing liver metastases by chemotherapy, interventions to induce liver hypertrophy before resection, and the use of ablative techniques have allowed us to expand the indications for liver surgery and local treatment in situations with limited metastatic colorectal cancer. Resectability and identification of patients who might benefit from liver surgery and local ablative techniques are key factors for the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. Despite the wide acceptance of liver surgery and ablative techniques, there are many open questions on the management of limited metastatic disease, such as which patients benefit from an aggressive surgical approach, what the indications for ablative and other local techniques are, and what the role of chemotherapy is for patients with resectable or resected disease. Unfortunately, results of randomized trials are only available for a limited number of these questions. PMID:27249722

  10. Economic Burden of Colorectal Cancer in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Ju-Young; Oh, In-Hwan; Kim, Young Ae; Seo, Hye-Young; Lee, Yo-Han

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The incidence and survival rate of colorectal cancer in Korea are increasing because of improved screening, treatment technologies, and lifestyle changes. In this aging population, increases in economic cost result. This study was conducted to estimate the economic burden of colorectal cancer utilizing claims data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Methods Economic burdens of colorectal cancer were estimated using prevalence data and patients were defined as those who received ambulatory treatment from medical institutions or who had been hospitalized due to colorectal cancer under the International Classification of Disease 10th revision codes from C18-C21. The economic burdens of colorectal cancer were calculated as direct costs and indirect costs. Results The prevalence rate (per 100 000 people) of those who were treated for colorectal cancer during 2010 was 165.48. The economic burdens of colorectal cancer in 2010 were 3 trillion and 100 billion Korean won (KRW), respectively. Direct costs included 1 trillion and 960 billion KRW (62.85%), respectively and indirect costs were 1 trillion and 160 billion (37.15%), respectively. Conclusions Colorectal cancer has a large economic burden. Efforts should be made to reduce the economic burden of the disease through primary and secondary prevention. PMID:24744825

  11. Tailored Telephone Counseling Increases Colorectal Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawl, Susan M.; Christy, Shannon M.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Ding, Yan; Krier, Connie; Champion, Victoria L.; Rex, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of two interventions to promote colorectal cancer screening participation and forward stage movement of colorectal cancer screening adoption among first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps. One hundred fifty-eight first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps were…

  12. DNA Methylation and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ashktorab, Hassan; Brim, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major cancers in the world and second death-causing cancer in the US. CRC development involves genetic and epigenetic alterations. Changes in DNA methylation status are believed to be involved at different stages of CRC. Promoter silencing via DNA methylation and hypomethylation of oncogenes alter genes’ expression, and can be used as a tool for the early detection of colonic lesions. DNA methylation use as diagnostic and prognostic marker has been described for many cancers including CRC. CpG Islands Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) is one of the underlying CRC mechanisms. This review aims to define methylation signatures in CRC. The analysis of DNA methylation profile in combination with the pathological diagnosis would be useful in predicting CRC tumors’ evolution and their prognostic behavior. PMID:25580099

  13. Risk of cancer among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Y; Kato, H; Schull, W J

    1991-12-01

    This report describes the risk of cancer and in particular cancers other than leukemia among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Attention focuses primarily on the risk of death from cancer among individuals in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effect Research Foundation in the period 1950-1985 based on the recently revised dosimetry, termed the DS86 doses. Mortality from malignant tumors is increased among A-bomb survivors as a late effect of A-bomb radiation. Besides the well-known increase of leukemia, there also has been demonstrated increase of cancer of the lung, breast, esophagus, stomach, colon, ovary, urinary bladder, thyroid, and of multiple myeloma, but no increase has yet been observed in mortality from cancer of the rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, prostate and uterus, and of malignant lymphoma. The pattern of appearance over time of radiation-induced cancer other than leukemia differs from that of leukemia. In general, radiation-induced solid cancer begins to appear after attaining the age at which the cancer is normally prone to develop (so-called cancer age), and continues to increase proportionately with the increase in mortality of the control group as it ages. Sensitivity to radiation, in terms of cancer induction, is higher for persons who were young at the time of the bomb (ATB) in general than for those who were older ATB. Furthermore, susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer tends to be higher in pre- than in post-natally exposed survivors (at least those exposed as adults). Other radiation effect modifiers and the shape of the dose response curve will also be discussed. PMID:1823367

  14. New registry: National Cancer Patient Registry--Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wendy, L; Radzi, M

    2008-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is emerging as one of the commonest cancers in Malaysia. Data on colorectal cancer from the National Cancer Registry is very limited. Comprehensive information on all aspects of colorectal cancer, including demographic details, pathology and treatment outcome are needed as the management of colorectal cancer has evolved rapidly over the years involving several disciplines including gastroenterology, surgery, radiology, pathology and oncology. This registry will be an important source of information that can help the development of guidelines to improve colorectal cancer care relevant to this country. The database will initially recruit all colorectal cancer cases from eight hospitals. The data will be stored on a customized web-based case report form. The database has begun collecting data from 1 October 2007 and will report on its first year findings at the end of 2008. PMID:19230248

  15. What Breast Cancer Survivors Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... browser. Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Other Conditions What Breast Cancer Survivors Need to Know About Osteoporosis Publication available ... Print-Friendly Page April 2016 The Impact of Breast Cancer Other than skin cancer, breast cancer is the ...

  16. Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minhhuyen T; Weinberg, David S

    2016-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. The main goals of screening are to prevent carcinogenesis (via adenoma detection and removal) and detect cancer at an early, curable stage. CRC mortality is steadily dropping in the United States, partly because of greater screening utilization. However, nearly 1 in 3 average-risk people are not up to date with standard CRC screening recommendations. This review surveys a wide range of CRC biomarkers in various stages of development, which may offer attractive risk stratification tools; a few have reached the commercial stage. If widely accepted, these tools may contribute to shift CRC screening practices away from 1-step colonoscopy to a 2-step risk stratification process of predictive biomarker measurements followed by colonoscopy for lower-risk patients with a positive result. Such strategies could potentially increase the rate of CRC screening. PMID:27496118

  17. Translation initiation in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Parsyan, Armen; Hernández, Greco; Meterissian, Sarkis

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancers (CRC) are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in high-income countries. Targeted screening programs have resulted in early treatment and a substantial decrease in mortality. However, treatment strategies for CRC still require improvement. Understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of CRC would provide tools for improving treatment of patients with this disease. It is only recently that deregulation of the protein synthesis apparatus has begun to gain attention as a major player in cancer development and progression. Among the numerous steps of protein synthesis, deregulation of the process of translation initiation appears to play a key role in cancer growth and proliferation. This manuscript discusses a fascinating and rapidly growing field exploring translation initiation as a fundamental component in CRC development and progression and summarizing CRC treatment perspectives based on agents targeting translation initiation. PMID:22418835

  18. Smoking and risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Knekt, P.; Hakama, M.; Järvinen, R.; Pukkala, E.; Heliövaara, M.

    1998-01-01

    Tobacco smoking was studied in relation to colorectal cancer in 56 973 Finnish men and women initially free from cancer. Smoking status was determined by a health questionnaire. During a follow-up period of 28 years, from the baseline in 1966-72 to the end of 1994, 457 cases of colorectal cancer occurred. There was no significant association between baseline smoking status and colorectal cancer risk over the total follow-up period. The sex- and age-adjusted relative risk of colorectal cancer between smokers and non-smokers was 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.33). For follow-up periods of 11-20 years, however, the relative risk was 1.57 (95% confidence interval 1.09-2.24). In a subgroup in which smoking habits were assessed twice, the relative risk of colorectal cancer among persistent smokers was 1.71 (95% confidence interval 1.09-2.68) compared with others. The results of the present prospective study are consistent with the possibility that smoking increases the risk of colorectal cancer after a relatively long induction period. To clarify the role of smoking in colorectal cancer development, further cohort studies are needed with long follow-up periods and allowing for control of dietary and other potential confounding factors. PMID:9662264

  19. Cancer-Related Worry in Canadian Thyroid Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Bresner, Lauren; Banach, Rita; Rodin, Gary; Thabane, Lehana; Ezzat, Shereen

    2015-01-01

    Context: Little is known about cancer-related worry in thyroid cancer survivors. Objectives: We quantified cancer-related worry in Canadian thyroid cancer survivors and explored associated factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: We performed a cross-sectional, self-administered, written survey of thyroid cancer survivor members of the Thyroid Cancer Canada support group. Independent factors associated with cancer-related worry were identified using a multivariable linear regression analysis. Main Outcome Measure: We used the Assessment of Survivor Concerns (ASC) questionnaire, which includes questions on worry about diagnostic tests, second primary malignancy, recurrence, dying, health, and children's health. Results: The response rate for eligible members was 60.1% (941 of 1567). Most respondents were women (89.0%; 837 of 940), and the age was < 50 years in 54.0% of participants (508 of 941). Thyroid cancer was diagnosed within ≤ 5 years in 66.1% of participants (622 of 940). The mean overall ASC score was 15.34 (SD, 4.7) (on a scale from 6 [least worry] to 24 [most worry]). Factors associated with increased ASC score included: younger age (P < .001), current suspected or proven recurrent/persistent disease (ie, current proven active disease or abnormal diagnostic tests) (P < .001), partnered marital status (P = .021), having children (P = .029), and ≤5 years since thyroid cancer diagnosis (P = .017). Conclusions: In a population of Canadian thyroid cancer survivors, cancer-related worry was greatest in younger survivors and those with either confirmed or suspected disease activity. Family status and time since thyroid cancer diagnosis were also associated with increased worry. More research is needed to confirm these findings and to develop effective preventative and supportive strategies for those at risk. PMID:25393643

  20. Sexual dysfunction in female cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    DeSimone, Michael; Spriggs, Elizabeth; Gass, Jennifer S; Carson, Sandra A; Krychman, Michael L; Dizon, Don S

    2014-02-01

    Cancer survivors face a myriad of long-term effects of their disease, diagnosis, and treatment, and chief among many are problems associated with sexual dysfunction. Yet despite their frequency and the degree of distress they cause patients, sexual dysfunction is not effectively screened for or treated, and this is particularly true in female survivors. Inconsistently performed general sexual health screening at all facets of cancer care and survivorship ultimately translates into missed attempts to identify and treat dysfunction when it does arise. In this paper, we will review the current research and clinical practices addressing sexual dysfunction in female cancer survivors and propose questions in need of future research attention. This article will review the phases of sexual response and how each may be affected by the physical and emotional stress of cancer diagnosis and treatment. We will then discuss existing tools for assessment of sexual function and approaches to their treatment. Finally, we will conclude with advice to health care professionals based on current research and suggest questions for future study. PMID:22643563

  1. One-Year Experience Managing a Cancer Survivorship Clinic Using a Shared-Care Model for Gastric Cancer Survivors in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Eun; Shin, Dong Wook; Lee, Hyejin; Son, Ki Young; Kim, Warrick Junsuk; Suh, Yun-Suhk; Kong, Seong-Ho; Lee, Hyuk Joon; Cho, Belong; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2016-06-01

    Given the rapid growth of the population of cancer survivors, increased attention has been paid to their health problems. Although gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers, empirical evidence of survivorship care is limited. The objectives of this study were to describe the health care status of gastric cancer survivors and to report the experience of using the shared-care model during a one-year experience at the cancer survivorship clinic in Seoul National University Hospital. This is a descriptive, single-center study of 250 long-term gastric cancer survivors who were referred to the survivorship clinic. The status of their health behaviors, comorbid conditions, secondary cancer screenings, and survivorship care status were investigated through questionnaires and examining the medical records. Among the survivors, 7.2% were current smokers, 8.8% were at-risk drinkers, and 32.4% were physically inactive. Among the patients who did not know their bone density status, the majority were in the osteopenic (37.1%) or osteoporotic range (24.1%). Screening among the eligible population within the recommended time intervals were 76.3% for colorectal cancer, but only 13.6% for lung cancer. All of the survivors were provided with counseling and medical management at the survivorship clinic, as appropriate. In conclusion, Long-term gastric cancer survivors have various unmet needs. Shared-care through survivorship clinics can be an effective solution for providing comprehensive care to cancer survivors. PMID:27247493

  2. One-Year Experience Managing a Cancer Survivorship Clinic Using a Shared-Care Model for Gastric Cancer Survivors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Given the rapid growth of the population of cancer survivors, increased attention has been paid to their health problems. Although gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers, empirical evidence of survivorship care is limited. The objectives of this study were to describe the health care status of gastric cancer survivors and to report the experience of using the shared-care model during a one-year experience at the cancer survivorship clinic in Seoul National University Hospital. This is a descriptive, single-center study of 250 long-term gastric cancer survivors who were referred to the survivorship clinic. The status of their health behaviors, comorbid conditions, secondary cancer screenings, and survivorship care status were investigated through questionnaires and examining the medical records. Among the survivors, 7.2% were current smokers, 8.8% were at-risk drinkers, and 32.4% were physically inactive. Among the patients who did not know their bone density status, the majority were in the osteopenic (37.1%) or osteoporotic range (24.1%). Screening among the eligible population within the recommended time intervals were 76.3% for colorectal cancer, but only 13.6% for lung cancer. All of the survivors were provided with counseling and medical management at the survivorship clinic, as appropriate. In conclusion, Long-term gastric cancer survivors have various unmet needs. Shared-care through survivorship clinics can be an effective solution for providing comprehensive care to cancer survivors. PMID:27247493

  3. Targeted nanoparticles for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Cisterna, Bruno A; Kamaly, Nazila; Choi, Won Il; Tavakkoli, Ali; Farokhzad, Omid C; Vilos, Cristian

    2016-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly prevalent worldwide, and despite notable progress in treatment still leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The use of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has become one of the most promising strategies for cancer therapy. Targeted nanoparticles could take advantage of differentially expressed molecules on the surface of tumor cells, providing effective release of cytotoxic drugs. Several efforts have recently reported the use of diverse molecules as ligands on the surface of nanoparticles to interact with the tumor cells, enabling the effective delivery of antitumor agents. Here, we present recent advances in targeted nanoparticles against CRC and discuss the promising use of ligands and cellular targets in potential strategies for the treatment of CRCs. PMID:27529192

  4. Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stay Informed Cancer Home Questions to Ask Your Doctor About Colorectal Cancer Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... helps pay for colorectal cancer screening. Ask Your Doctor Do I need to get a screening test ...

  5. TAS-102 for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from an international phase III trial that compared TAS-102 with placebo in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer whose disease progressed following prior treatments or who had health conditions that prevented the re-administrati

  6. Tests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and Polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... be acceptable screening tests for colorectal cancer: High-sensitivity fecal occult blood tests (FOBT). Both polyps and ... higher than that of gFOBT or FIT. Test sensitivity for adenomas is low. False-positive test results ...

  7. The stability of colorectal cancer mathematical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairudin, Nur Izzati; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2013-04-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. To better understand about the kinetics of cancer growth, mathematical models are used to provide insight into the progression of this natural process which enables physicians and oncologists to determine optimal radiation and chemotherapy schedules and develop a prognosis, both of which are indispensable for treating cancer. This thesis investigates the stability of colorectal cancer mathematical models. We found that continuous saturating feedback is the best available model of colorectal cancer growth. We also performed stability analysis. The result shows that cancer progress in sequence of genetic mutations or epigenetic which lead to a very large number of cells population until become unbounded. The cell population growth initiate and its saturating feedback is overcome when mutation changes causing the net per-capita growth rate of stem or transit cells exceed critical threshold.

  8. Abdominal metastases from colorectal cancer: intraperitoneal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guend, Hamza; Patel, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Patients with peritoneal metastasis from colorectal cancer represent a distinct subset with regional disease rather than systemic disease. They often have poorer survival outcomes with systemic chemotherapy. Optimal cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC) offers such patients a more directed therapy with improved survival. In this review, we discuss the diagnosis, evaluation and classification, as well as rational for treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) secondary to colorectal cancer. PMID:26697203

  9. Psychosocial issues in colorectal cancer survivorship: the top ten questions patients may not be asking

    PubMed Central

    Averyt, Jennifer C.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in colorectal cancer screening and treatment have increased survivorship significantly in recent years. This has led to an increased emphasis on the need for continuing patient care long after cancer treatment is completed. Colorectal cancer survivors may face a number of psychosocial issues following treatment, including cancer-related distress, adjustment to physical changes following treatment, and challenges related to returning to work. Although there are many resources available to assist with these challenges, many patients may not seek this information from their providers during follow-up care visits. This article highlights some of the most common patient concerns related to survivorship in colorectal cancer and serves as a reminder to ask about these concerns throughout the course of treatment and follow-up care. PMID:25276412

  10. Industrial risk factors for colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lashner, B.A.; Epstein, S.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references.

  11. Medical hospitalizations in prostate cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Gnanaraj, Jerome; Balakrishnan, Shobana; Umar, Zarish; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S; Pavlovich, Christian P; Wright, Scott M; Khaliq, Waseem

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of the study were to explore the context and reasons for medical hospitalizations among prostate cancer survivors and to study their relationship with obesity and the type of prostate cancer treatment. A retrospective review of medical records was performed at an academic institution for male patients aged 40 years and older who were diagnosed and/or treated for prostate cancer 2 years prior to the study's observation period from January 2008 to December 2010. Unpaired t test, ANOVA, and Chi-square tests were used to compare patients' characteristics, admission types, and medical comorbidities by body mass index (BMI) and prostate cancer treatment. Mean age for the study population was 76 years (SD = 9.2). Two hundred and forty-five prostate cancer survivors were stratified into two groups: non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m(2)) and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)). The study population's characteristics analyzed by BMI were similar including Gleason score, presence of metastatic disease and genitourinary-related side effects. Only 13 % of admissions were for complaints related to their genitourinary system. Neither the specific treatment that the patients had received for their prostate cancer, nor obesity was associated with the reasons for their medical admission. Survivorship after having a diagnosis of prostate cancer is often lengthy, and these men are at risk of being hospitalized, as they get older. From this inquiry, it has become clear that neither body mass index nor prior therapy is associated with specific admission characteristics, and only a minority of such admissions was directly related to prostate cancer or the genitourinary tract. PMID:27324503

  12. Precancerous Lesions in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sandouk, Fayez; Al Jerf, Feras; Al-Halabi, M. H. D. Bassel

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer death in the world. The incidence rate (ASR) and age distribution of this disease differ between most of African-Middle-Eastern (AMAGE) and North America and Europe for many reasons. However, in all areas, “CRC” is considered as one of the most preventable cancers, because it might develop from variant processes like polyps and IBD in addition to the genetic pathogenesis which became very well known in this disease. We tried in this paper to review all the possible reasons of the differences in incidence and age between the west and AMAGE. Also we reviewed all the mutations that lead to the hereditary and familiar clustering of this disease with the correlations with the surrounding food and environment of different areas. Then, we focused on the precancerous pathology of this disease with special focusing on early detection depending on new endoscopy technology and most important genetic studies. We lastly reviewed the evidence of some of the surveillance and put suggestions about future surveillance programs and how important those programs are on the psychological aspect of the patients and their families. PMID:23737765

  13. Impact of Preoperative Radiotherapy on General and Disease-Specific Health Status of Rectal Cancer Survivors: A Population-Based Study

    SciTech Connect

    Thong, Melissa S.Y.; Mols, Floortje; Lemmens, Valery E.P.P.; Rutten, Harm J.T.; Roukema, Jan A.; Martijn, Hendrik; Poll-Franse, Lonneke V. van de

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To date, few studies have evaluated the impact of preoperative radiotherapy (pRT) on long-term health status of rectal cancer survivors. Using a population-based sample, we assessed the impact of pRT on general and disease-specific health status of rectal cancer survivors up to 10 years postdiagnosis. The health status of older ({>=}75 years old at diagnosis) pRT survivors was also compared with that of younger survivors. Methods and Materials: Survivors identified from the Eindhoven Cancer Registry treated with surgery only (SU) or with pRT between 1998 and 2007 were included. Survivors completed the Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaire and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Colorectal 38 (EORTC QLQ-CR38) questionnaire. The SF-36 and EORTC QLQ-CR38 (sexuality subscale) scores of the survivors were compared to an age- and sex-matched Dutch normal population. Results: A total of 340 survivors (response, 85%; pRT survivors, 71%) were analyzed. Overall, survivors had similar general health status. Both short-term (<5 years) and long-term ({>=}5 years) pRT survivors had significantly poorer body image and more problems with gastrointestinal function, male sexual dysfunction, and defecation than SU survivors. Survivors had comparable general health status but greater sexual dysfunction than the normal population. Older pRT survivors had general and disease-specific health status comparable to that of younger pRT survivors. Conclusions: For better survivorship care, rectal cancer survivors could benefit from increased clinical and psychological focus on the possible long-term morbidity of treatment and its effects on health status.

  14. Genetics of Colorectal Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of colorectal cancer, including information about specific genes and family cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about screening for colorectal cancer and research aimed at prevention of this disease. Psychosocial issues associated with genetic testing and counseling of individuals who may have hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome are also discussed.

  15. Fear of cancer recurrence in prostate cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    van de Wal, Marieke; van Oort, Inge; Schouten, Joost; Thewes, Belinda; Gielissen, Marieke; Prins, Judith

    2016-07-01

    Background High fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is an understudied topic in prostate cancer (PCa) survivors. This study aimed to detect the prevalence, consequences and characteristics associated with high FCR in PCa survivors. Material and methods This cross-sectional study included patients diagnosed with localized PCa and treated with curative radical prostatectomy between 1992 and 2012. We administered the Cancer Worry Scale (CWS) to assess FCR severity (primary outcome measure). Secondary outcomes included distress, quality of life (QOL), post-traumatic symptoms, and multidimensional aspects of FCR. χ(2)-tests, t-tests and Pearson's correlations examined the relationship between FCR and medical/demographic characteristics. MANOVA analyses and χ2-tests identified differences between PCa survivors with high and low FCR. Results Two hundred eighty-three PCa survivors (median age of 70.0 years) completed the questionnaires a median time of 7.1 years after surgery. About a third (36%) of all PCa survivors experienced high FCR. High FCR was associated with lower QOL, more physical problems, higher distress and more post-traumatic stress symptoms. PCa survivors with high FCR reported disease-related triggers (especially medical examinations), felt helpless and experienced problems in social relationships. High FCR was associated with a younger age and having received adjuvant radiotherapy. Conclusions Results illustrate that FCR is a significant problem in PCa survivors. Younger men and those treated with adjuvant radiotherapy are especially at risk. Those with high FCR experience worse QOL and higher symptom burden. Health care providers should pay specific attention to this problem and provide appropriate psychosocial care when needed. PMID:26935517

  16. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-In; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Seong-Eun; Kim, Se Hyung; Hong, Sung Noh; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Sung Jae; Lee, Suck-Ho; Park, Dong Il; Kim, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyun Jung; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Hyo Jong; Jeon, Hae Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Now colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in males and the fourth most common cancer in females in Korea. Since most of colorectal cancers occur after the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are one of the most effective methods to prevent colorectal cancer. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish Korean guideline for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The guideline was developed by the Korean Multi-Society Take Force and we tried to establish the guideline by evidence-based methods. Parts of the statements were draw by systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Herein we discussed epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea and optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations. PMID:22741131

  17. Depression in older breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among U.S. women .The 5-year survival rate for this tumour is nowadays 85%, and the 61% of these women are still alive at 15 years. When depression symptoms are present as a consequence of breast cancer treatments, they may interfere negatively with patients’ quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of breast cancer treatment on the quality of life and the impact of depression on the health-related life. Methods We enrolled 173 women aged 65-75 years with early stage breast cancer diagnosed over the last 10 years, initially recruited to participate in a study examining heath-related quality of life in the first 5 years after breast cancer diagnosis. Participants were divided into four groups: 1) 46 breast cancer survivors (aged 65-70); 2) 62 women diagnosed with breast cancer (aged 65-69); 3) 32 women with recurrent breast cancer after 10 years (aged 66-75); 4) 30 women in good health status (aged 60-70). The Geriatric Depression Scale was used as a routine part of a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Collection of data for the application of instruments, such as sociodemographic variables (age, educational level, social state) and clinical date (stage and time of the disease and treatment), was carried out by trained researcher assistants. Results Our results demonstrated the correlation between depression and previous cancer experiences. In fact, in patients with cancer experience, the grade of depression was significantly higher compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the patients with recurrent breast cancer were severely depressed compared to other groups. Conclusions A high percentage of participants were identified as having emotional and/or well being problems. Further investigations on the cause of depression problems cancer-related are needed. PMID:23173836

  18. US cancer survivors grows to nearly 12 million

    Cancer.gov

    The number of cancer survivors in the United States increased to 11.7 million in 2007, according to a report released by NCI and CDC. There were 3 million cancer survivors in 1971 and 9.8 million in 2001.

  19. Intestinal Obstruction in Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Madenci, Arin L.; Fisher, Stacey; Diller, Lisa R.; Goldsby, Robert E.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Robison, Leslie L.; Sklar, Charles A.; Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita E.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Yasui, Yutaka; Weldon, Christopher B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose For adult survivors of childhood cancer, knowledge about the long-term risk of intestinal obstruction from surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy is limited. Methods Intestinal obstruction requiring surgery (IOS) occurring 5 or more years after cancer diagnosis was evaluated in 12,316 5-year survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (2,002 with and 10,314 without abdominopelvic tumors) and 4,023 sibling participants. Cumulative incidence of IOS was calculated with second malignant neoplasm, late recurrence, and death as competing risks. Using piecewise exponential models, we assessed the associations of clinical and demographic factors with rate of IOS. Results Late IOS was reported by 165 survivors (median age at IOS, 19 years; range, 5 to 50 years; median time from diagnosis to IOS, 13 years) and 14 siblings. The cumulative incidence of late IOS at 35 years was 5.8% (95% CI, 4.4% to 7.3%) among survivors with abdominopelvic tumors, 1.0% (95% CI, 0.7% to 1.4%) among those without abdominopelvic tumors, and 0.3% (95% CI, 0.1% to 0.5%) among siblings. Among survivors, abdominopelvic tumor (adjusted rate ratio [ARR], 3.6; 95% CI, 1.9 to 6.8; P < .001) and abdominal/pelvic radiotherapy within 5 years of cancer diagnosis (ARR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6 to 3.7; P < .001) increased the rate of late IOS, adjusting for diagnosis year; sex; race/ethnicity; age at diagnosis; age during follow-up (as natural cubic spline); cancer type; and chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery within 5 years of cancer diagnosis. Developing late IOS increased subsequent mortality among survivors (ARR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.9; P = .016), adjusting for the same factors. Conclusion The long-term risk of IOS and its association with subsequent mortality underscore the need to promote awareness of this complication among patients and providers. PMID:26261256

  20. Health Behaviors Among Cancer Survivors Receiving Screening Mammography

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Sarah M.; Millay, Shannon; Scott, Chris; Pruthi, Sandhya; Clark, Matthew M.; Patten, Christi; Stan, Daniela; Sellers, Thomas; Vachon, Celine

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cancer-related behavioral risk factors among female cancer survivors, relative to women without a previous diagnosis of cancer. Methods In a large cohort of 19,948 women presenting for screening mammography, questionnaires on health behaviors were administered. Results 18,510 had detailed history on health behaviors and previous cancer history. Overall 2,713 (14.7%) reported a previous cancer history. We found statistically significant results indicating cancer survivors were less likely than those with no cancer history to: report their overall health as “excellent” (13.6% vs. 21.5%), to engage in moderate or strenuous exercise (56.5% vs. 63.3%), and to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) (57.4% vs. 60.2%). Conversely, cancer survivors were more likely to be current smokers (6.3% vs. 5.5%) rate their overall health as “poor” (15.8% vs. 9.1%), and to report more weight gain over time. Among cancer survivors, differences also emerged by type of primary cancer. For example, cervical cancer survivors (n=370) were most likely to report being current smokers (15.7%) and regular alcohol users (71.7%) compared to other survivors. Ovarian (n=185) and uterine (n=262) cancer survivors most frequently reported being obese (41% and 34.4% respectively). Cervical cancer survivors reported the largest weight gain (4.9 lbs at 5 yrs and 13.4 lbs at 10 yrs). Conclusions These results suggest opportunities for tailored behavioral health risk factor interventions for specific populations of cancer survivors. PMID:21293247

  1. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bardhan, Kankana; Liu, Kebin

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy. PMID:24216997

  2. Mindfulness Meditation Seems to Soothe Breast Cancer Survivors

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159172.html Mindfulness Meditation Seems to Soothe Breast Cancer Survivors Six-week class reduced fear of recurrence, ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Mindfulness meditation seems to help breast cancer patients better manage symptoms of fatigue, anxiety and ...

  3. The Right Balance: Helping Cancer Survivors Achieve a Healthy Weight

    Cancer.gov

    An article about interventions that aim to help survivors maintain a healthy weight to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence and death and decrease the likelihood of chronic and late effects of cancer treatment.

  4. Colorectal Cancer Screening in Vietnamese Americans

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Bang H.

    2008-01-01

    Background Rates of colorectal cancer screening in Vietnamese Americans are lower than those in non-Hispanic whites. This paper describes rates of colorectal screening, identifies determinants, and recommends educational strategies to improve screening. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 867 Vietnamese aged 50 to 74 drawn from a sampling frame of individuals in the Alameda and Santa Clara Counties, California and Harris County, Texas area telephone directories with Vietnamese surnames were interviewed in 2004. Results Colorectal screening recognition, receipt, currency, and intention rates were low. Conclusions: While the screening rates are low, Vietnamese are receptive to screening if providers recommend it. PMID:18444045

  5. Tissue Specific Promoters in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rama, A. R.; Aguilera, A.; Melguizo, C.; Caba, O.; Prados, J.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. In the most advanced stages, the use of chemotherapy induces a poor response and is usually accompanied by other tissue damage. Significant progress based on suicide gene therapy has demonstrated that it may potentiate the classical cytotoxic effects in colorectal cancer. The inconvenience still rests with the targeting and the specificity efficiency. The main target of gene therapy is to achieve an effective vehicle to hand over therapeutic genes safely into specific cells. One possibility is the use of tumor-specific promoters overexpressed in cancers. They could induce a specific expression of therapeutic genes in a given tumor, increasing their localized activity. Several promoters have been assayed into direct suicide genes to cancer cells. This review discusses the current status of specific tumor-promoters and their great potential in colorectal carcinoma treatment. PMID:26648599

  6. Gut microbiota imbalance and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gagnière, Johan; Raisch, Jennifer; Veziant, Julie; Barnich, Nicolas; Bonnet, Richard; Buc, Emmanuel; Bringer, Marie-Agnès; Pezet, Denis; Bonnet, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota acts as a real organ. The symbiotic interactions between resident micro-organisms and the digestive tract highly contribute to maintain the gut homeostasis. However, alterations to the microbiome caused by environmental changes (e.g., infection, diet and/or lifestyle) can disturb this symbiotic relationship and promote disease, such as inflammatory bowel diseases and cancer. Colorectal cancer is a complex association of tumoral cells, non-neoplastic cells and a large amount of micro-organisms, and the involvement of the microbiota in colorectal carcinogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Indeed, many changes in the bacterial composition of the gut microbiota have been reported in colorectal cancer, suggesting a major role of dysbiosis in colorectal carcinogenesis. Some bacterial species have been identified and suspected to play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis, such as Streptococcus bovis, Helicobacter pylori, Bacteroides fragilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium septicum, Fusobacterium spp. and Escherichia coli. The potential pro-carcinogenic effects of these bacteria are now better understood. In this review, we discuss the possible links between the bacterial microbiota and colorectal carcinogenesis, focusing on dysbiosis and the potential pro-carcinogenic properties of bacteria, such as genotoxicity and other virulence factors, inflammation, host defenses modulation, bacterial-derived metabolism, oxidative stress and anti-oxidative defenses modulation. We lastly describe how bacterial microbiota modifications could represent novel prognosis markers and/or targets for innovative therapeutic strategies. PMID:26811603

  7. Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... getting colorectal cancer, followed by white, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI), and American Indian/Alaska Native ( ... white, Hispanic, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Asian/Pacific Islander women. Sources: CDC’s National Program of Cancer ...

  8. Surveillance and Care of the Gynecologic Cancer Survivor

    PubMed Central

    MacLaughlin, Kathy L.; Long, Margaret E.; Pruthi, Sandhya; Casey, Petra M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Care of the gynecologic cancer survivor extends beyond cancer treatment to encompass promotion of sexual, cardiovascular, bone, and brain health; management of fertility, contraception, and vasomotor symptoms; and genetic counseling. Methods: This is a narrative review of the data and guidelines regarding care and surveillance of the gynecologic cancer survivor. We searched databases including PubMed, Cochrane, and Scopus using the search terms gynecologic cancer, cancer surveillance, and cancer survivor and reached a consensus for articles chosen for inclusion in the review based on availability in the English language and publication since 2001, as well as key older articles, consensus statements, and practice guidelines from professional societies. However, we did not undertake an extensive systematic search of the literature to identify all potentially relevant studies, nor did we utilize statistical methods to summarize data. We offer clinical recommendations for the management of gynecologic cancer survivors based on review of evidence and our collective clinical experience. Results: Key messages include the limitations of laboratory studies, including CA-125, and imaging in the setting of gynecologic cancer surveillance, hormonal and non-hormonal management of treatment-related vasomotor symptoms and genitourinary syndrome of menopause, as well as recommendations for general health screening, fertility preservation, and contraception. Conclusions: A holistic approach to care extending beyond cancer treatment alone benefits gynecologic cancer survivors. In addition to surveillance for cancer recurrence and late treatment side effects, survivors benefit from guidance on hormonal, contraceptive, and fertility management and promotion of cardiovascular, bone, brain, and sexual health. PMID:26208166

  9. Menopausal hormone therapy in cancer survivors: A narrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kuhle, Carol L; Kapoor, Ekta; Sood, Richa; Thielen, Jacqueline M; Jatoi, Aminah; Faubion, Stephanie S

    2016-10-01

    Decision making regarding the use of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) for the treatment of bothersome menopausal symptoms in a cancer survivor can be complex, and includes assessment of its impact on disease-free or overall survival. Estrogen receptors are present in several cancer types, but this does not always result in estrogen-mediated tumor proliferation and adverse cancer-related outcomes. Estrogen may even be protective against certain cancers. Menopausal hormone therapy is associated with an increased risk of recurrence and mortality after diagnosis of some cancer types, but not others. We provide a narrative review of the medical literature regarding the risk of cancer recurrence and associated mortality with initiation of MHT after the diagnosis of breast, gynecologic, lung, colorectal, hematologic cancers, and melanoma. Menopausal hormone therapy may be considered for management of bothersome menopausal symptoms in women with some cancer types (e.g., colorectal and hematologic cancer, localized melanoma, and most cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancers), while nonhormonal treatment options may be preferred for others (e.g., breast cancer). In women with other cancer types, recommendations are less straightforward, and the use of MHT must be individualized. PMID:27621244

  10. An international review of the patterns and determinants of health service utilisation by adult cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a need to review factors related to health service utilisation by the increasing number of cancer survivors in order to inform care planning and the organisation and delivery of services. Methods Studies were identified via systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index and the SEER-MEDICARE library. Methodological quality was assessed using STROBE; and the Andersen Behavioural Model was used as a framework to structure, organise and analyse the results of the review. Results Younger, white cancer survivors were most likely to receive follow-up screening, preventive care, visit their physician, utilise professional mental health services and least likely to be hospitalised. Utilisation rates of other health professionals such as physiotherapists were low. Only studies of health service use conducted in the USA investigated the role of type of health insurance and ethnicity. There appeared to be disparate service use among US samples in terms of ethnicity and socio-demographic status, regardless of type of health insurance provision s- this may be explained by underlying differences in health-seeking behaviours. Overall, use of follow-up care appeared to be lower than expected and barriers existed for particular groups of cancer survivors. Conclusions Studies focussed on the use of a specific type of service rather than adopting a whole-system approach and future health services research should address this shortcoming. Overall, there is a need to improve access to care for all cancer survivors. Studies were predominantly US-based focussing mainly on breast or colorectal cancer. Thus, the generalisability of findings to other health-care systems and cancer sites is unclear. The Andersen Behavioural Model provided an appropriate framework for studying and understanding health service use among cancer survivors. The active involvement of physicians and use of personalised care plans are required in order to ensure

  11. Penile Rehabilitation Strategies Among Prostate Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in technical and surgical approaches, erectile dysfunction (ED) remains the most common complication among prostate cancer survivors, adversely impacting quality of life. This article analyzes the concept and rationale of ED rehabilitation programs in prostate cancer patients. Emphasis is placed on the pathophysiology of ED after diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer to understand the efficacy of rehabilitation programs in clinical practice. Available evidence shows that ED is a transient complication following prostate biopsy and cancer diagnosis, with no evidence to support rehabilitation programs in these patients. A small increase in ED and in the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors was reported in patients under active surveillance. Patients should be advised that active surveillance is unlikely to severely affect erectile function, but clinically significant changes in sexual function are possible. Focal therapy could be an intermediate option for patients demanding treatment/refusing active surveillance and invested in maintaining sexual activity. Unlike radical prostatectomy, there is no support for PDE5 inhibitor use to prevent ED after highly conformal external radiotherapy or low-dose rate brachytherapy. Despite progress in the understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for ED in prostate cancer patients, the success rates of rehabilitation programs remain low in clinical practice. Alternative strategies to prevent ED appear warranted, with attention toward neuromodulation, nerve grafting, nerve preservation, stem cell therapy, investigation of neuroprotective interventions, and further refinements of radiotherapy dosing and delivery methods. PMID:27222641

  12. Penile Rehabilitation Strategies Among Prostate Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in technical and surgical approaches, erectile dysfunction (ED) remains the most common complication among prostate cancer survivors, adversely impacting quality of life. This article analyzes the concept and rationale of ED rehabilitation programs in prostate cancer patients. Emphasis is placed on the pathophysiology of ED after diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer to understand the efficacy of rehabilitation programs in clinical practice. Available evidence shows that ED is a transient complication following prostate biopsy and cancer diagnosis, with no evidence to support rehabilitation programs in these patients. A small increase in ED and in the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors was reported in patients under active surveillance. Patients should be advised that active surveillance is unlikely to severely affect erectile function, but clinically significant changes in sexual function are possible. Focal therapy could be an intermediate option for patients demanding treatment/refusing active surveillance and invested in maintaining sexual activity. Unlike radical prostatectomy, there is no support for PDE5 inhibitor use to prevent ED after highly conformal external radiotherapy or low-dose rate brachytherapy. Despite progress in the understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for ED in prostate cancer patients, the success rates of rehabilitation programs remain low in clinical practice. Alternative strategies to prevent ED appear warranted, with attention toward neuromodulation, nerve grafting, nerve preservation, stem cell therapy, investigation of neuroprotective interventions, and further refinements of radiotherapy dosing and delivery methods. PMID:27222641

  13. Long-term cognitive function change among breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ying; Luo, Jianfeng; Bao, Pingping; Cai, Hui; Hong, Zhen; Ding, Ding; Jackson, James C.; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline is a common health problem among breast cancer patients and understanding trajectories of cognitive change following among breast cancer survivors is an important public health goal. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the cognitive function changes from 18 month to 3 years after breast cancer diagnosis among participants of the Shanghai Breast cancer survivor study, a population-based cohort study of breast cancer survivors. In our study, we completed cognitive function evaluation for 1,300 breast cancer survivors at the 18th month’s survey and 1,059 at 36th month’s survey, respectively, using a battery of cognitive function measurements. We found the scores in attention and executive function, immediate memory and delayed memory significantly improved from 18 to 36 months after breast cancer diagnosis. The improvements appeared in breast cancer survivors receiving treatments (i.e., surgery, radiotherapy, tamoxifen, or chemotherapy combined with or without tamoxifen), but not in those who received neither chemotherapy nor tamoxifen treatment. The results indicate that cognitive functions, particularly immediate verbal episodic memory, and delayed memory significantly improved among breast cancer survivors from 18 to 36 months after cancer diagnosis. In general, comorbidity was inversely associated with the improvements. PMID:25005574

  14. Relationship between intestinal microbiota and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cipe, Gokhan; Idiz, Ufuk Oguz; Firat, Deniz; Bektasoglu, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract hosts a complex and vast microbial community with up to 1011-1012 microorganisms colonizing the colon. The gut microbiota has a serious effect on homeostasis and pathogenesis through a number of mechanisms. In recent years, the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and sporadic colorectal cancer has attracted much scientific interest. Mechanisms underlying colonic carcinogenesis include the conversion of procarcinogenic diet-related factors to carcinogens and the stimulation of procarcinogenic signaling pathways in luminal epithelial cells. Understanding each of these mechanisms will facilitate future studies, leading to the development of novel strategies for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of colorectal cancer. In this review, we discuss the relationship between colorectal cancer and the intestinal microbiota. PMID:26483877

  15. Mini-invasive surgery for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wei-Gen; Zhou, Zhi-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic techniques have been extensively used for the surgical management of colorectal cancer during the last two decades. Accumulating data have demonstrated that laparoscopic colectomy is associated with better short-term outcomes and equivalent oncologic outcomes when compared with open surgery. However, some controversies regarding the oncologic quality of mini-invasive surgery for rectal cancer exist. Meanwhile, some progresses in colorectal surgery, such as robotic technology, single-incision laparoscopic surgery, natural orifice specimen extraction, and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, have been made in recent years. In this article, we review the published data and mainly focus on the current status and latest advances of mini-invasive surgery for colorectal cancer. PMID:24589210

  16. Iron Overload in Survivors of Childhood Cancer.

    PubMed

    Schempp, Ashley; Lee, Jill; Kearney, Susan; Mulrooney, Daniel A; Smith, Angela R

    2016-01-01

    Iron overload is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for patients who require frequent transfusions. We completed a prospective, cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of iron overload in previously transfused childhood cancer survivors. Survivors recruited from the University of Minnesota Long-Term Follow-Up Clinic were stratified into 3 groups: oncology patients not treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) (n=27), patients treated with allogeneic HSCT (n=27), and patients treated with autologous HSCT (n=9). Serum ferritin was collected and hepatic magnetic resonance imaging (FerriScan) was obtained for those with iron overload (defined as ferritin ≥1000 ng/mL). The prevalence of iron overload in subjects with a history of allogeneic HSCT was 25.9% (95% CI, 9.4%-42.5%) compared with only 3.7% (95% CI, 0%-10.8%) in subjects treated without HSCT and 0% in subjects treated with autologous HSCT. No association was found between serum ferritin levels and the presence of cardiac, liver, or endocrine dysfunction. The prevalence of iron overload in subjects who received no HSCT or autologous HSCT is low in our study. A higher prevalence was found in patients receiving allogeneic HSCT, reiterating the importance of screening these patients for iron overload in accordance with the current Children's Oncology Group Long Term Follow-Up Guidelines. PMID:26422286

  17. Advanced endoscopic technologies for colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Obstein, Keith L; Valdastri, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in men and the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Diagnosing colorectal has been increasingly successful due to advances in technology. Flexible endoscopy is considered to be an effective method for early diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, making it a popular choice for screening programs. However, millions of people who may benefit from endoscopic colorectal cancer screening fail to have the procedure performed. Main reasons include psychological barriers due to the indignity of the procedure, fear of procedure related pain, bowel preparation discomfort, and potential need for sedation. Therefore, an urgent need for new technologies addressing these issues clearly exists. In this review, we discuss a set of advanced endoscopic technologies for colorectal cancer screening that are either already available or close to clinical trial. In particular, we focus on visual-inspection-only advanced flexible colonoscopes, interventional colonoscopes with alternative propulsion mechanisms, wireless capsule colonoscopy, and technologies for intraprocedural bowel cleansing. Many of these devices have the potential to reduce exam related patient discomfort, obviate the need for sedation, increase diagnostic yield, reduce learning curves, improve access to screening, and possibly avert the need for a bowel preparation. PMID:23382621

  18. Local inflammatory response in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Łaskowski, P; Klim, B; Ostrowski, K; Szkudlarek, M; Litwiejko-Pietryńczak, E; Kitlas, K; Nienartowicz, S; Dzięcioł, J

    2016-06-01

    Type and intensity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in close proximity to the primary tumor are prognostically significant in postoperative patients. High intensity of TILs is considered to be a prognostically beneficial factor. The research included 66 postoperative colorectal cancer patients. The control group comprised 20 colon segments. Monoclonal antibodies LCA, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD20, CD23 and CD138 were used to differentiate between T and B lymphocytes. Types of cells in the infiltrate were defined. We found greater numbers of T and B lymphocytes located in close proximity to the cancerous tissue when compared to the control group. T lymphocyte intensity in the inflammatory infiltrations was directly correlated with the size of resected tumors, presence of regional lymphatic node metastases and histological grade of malignancy. Lymphocytic infiltrations of greater intensity located in close proximity to the primary tumor were found in subjects with less advanced colorectal cancer. The research presented here proves direct dependence between the immune system and colorectal cancer. The presence of lymphocytes in the inflammatory infiltrations located in close proximity to the cancerous tissue has been proved to be prognostically beneficial. The obtained results support the application of immunotherapy in colorectal cancer treatment. PMID:27543872

  19. Surgical quality in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Plummer, Joseph M.; Williams, Nadia; Leake, Pierre-Anthony; Ferron-Boothe, Doreen; Meeks-Aitken, Nicola; Mitchell, Derek I.; McFarlane, Michael E.; East, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the quality of surgical management offered to patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) as measured by adequacy of nodal resections and compare variations across the major hospitals in Jamaica. Method Data was obtained from the CRC Registry of patients diagnosed and treated surgically for CRC during the 3-year period commencing January 1, 2011. Variables analyzed included tumor site, stage and number of lymph nodes resected across hospitals. Results During the period under review 60% (349) of 586 patients had resections and formed the basis of this study. Of these 49% were treated at the UHWI, 27% from the KPH and STH, 15% from CRH and MRH and 8% from a private laboratory (DPS). Patient distribution was similar at UHWI compared to the others with mean age (61 vs 62) and with slightly more women having surgery (53% Vs 54%) (UHWI vs Others). For tumor grade, margin status, lymphovascular and depth of invasion (majority T3) there was no difference between UHWI and the other sites, although a smaller percentage of tumors treated at UHWI had Crohn's like reaction (p = 0.01). There was a larger proportion of sigmoid cancer at UHWI while the reverse trend was seen in cancers of the rectum (p = 0.027). The tumors treated at UHWI have a larger median number of regional nodes when compared to the other facilities (14 vs 10; p < 0.001) and also more likely to have positive nodes, as were women and younger patients. Comparison across facilities revealed that the proportion of tumors classed as well differentiated, circumferential margin involvement, and having lymphovascular invasion were higher for specimens processed at the private facility (p = 0.021, 0.035, 0.01 respectively). Histopathology reports of tumors treated at UHWI and DPS had median 14 and 18 nodes respectively while at NPH laboratory and CRH they were 9 and 10 respectively (p < 0.001), whilst those of the ascending, descending, sigmoid colon and rectum had median 15, 11, 13, 11

  20. Preventing Second Cancers in Colon Cancer Survivors

    Cancer.gov

    In this phase III trial, people who have had curative surgery for colon cancer will be randomly assigned to take sulindac and a placebo, eflornithine and a placebo, both sulindac and eflornithine, or two placebo pills for 36 months.

  1. Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fiber . Talk with your doctor about taking aspirin every day. Taking aspirin every day can lower your risk of colorectal ... 50 to 59, ask your doctor if daily aspirin is right for you . Previous section Get Tested ...

  2. Survival of patients with hereditary colorectal cancer: comparison of HNPCC and colorectal cancer in FAP patients with sporadic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bertario, L; Russo, A; Sala, P; Eboli, M; Radice, P; Presciuttini, S; Andreola, S; Rodriguez-Bigas, M A; Pizzetti, P; Spinelli, P

    1999-01-18

    Conflicting data exist on the prognosis of hereditary colorectal cancer. HNPCC patients, in particular, are often reported to have a better survival. We examined 2,340 colorectal-cancer patients treated in our Institution: 144 HNPCC patients (Amsterdam Criteria), 161 FAP patients and 2,035 patients with sporadic cancer. Data on hereditary-cancer patients treated between 1980 and 1995 was collected in a registry. The 2,035 sporadic colorectal-cancer patients (controls) included all new cases treated in the Department of Gastrointestinal-Tract Surgery during the same period. Observed survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cumulative survival probability was estimated at 5 years within each group and stratified by various clinical and pathological variables. The age distribution at diagnosis of sporadic patients was significantly higher than that of FAP and HNPCC patients (median 60 years vs. 43 and 49 years; p < 0.0001). In the HNPCC group, 40% had a right cancer location, vs. 14% in the FAP group and 13% in the sporadic-cancer group. In the sporadic group, 51% were early-stage cancers (Dukes A or B) vs. 48.4% and 52.1% in the FAP and HNPCC groups respectively. In the HNPCC, FAP and sporadic-cancer groups, the 5-year cumulative survival rate was 56.9%, 54.4% and 50.6% respectively. Survival analysis by the Cox proportional-hazards method revealed no substantial survival advantage for HNPCC and FAP patients compared with the sporadic group, after adjustment for age, gender, stage and tumor location. The hazard ratio for HNPCC was 1.01 (95% CI 0.72-1.39) and 1.27 (95% CI 0.95-1.7) for FAP patients compared with the sporadic-colorectal-cancer group. PMID:9935197

  3. Cancer risk-reduction behaviors of breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Ada M; Waltman, Nancy; Gross, Gloria; Ott, Carol D; Twiss, Jan

    2004-12-01

    Using secondary data analysis, the aim was to determine if postmenopausal women, who have survived breast cancer, have adopted healthy nutritional and physical activity behaviors recommended in the American Cancer Society guidelines as cancer risk-reduction strategies, and in guidelines for prevention of other chronic diseases or for improving general health. From their personal health history, women who have survived breast cancer would be likely candidates to adopt healthy behaviors recommended as cancer risk-reduction strategies or for prevention of other chronic diseases. A secondary aim was to determine the perceived general health and affective state of these women. These breast cancer survivors had a high perception of their general health, a positive affective state, and have adopted some healthy lifestyle behaviors, but they are not fully adhering to the ACS nutrition and physical activity guidelines or other health related guidelines for cancer risk reduction or prevention of other chronic diseases. PMID:15539533

  4. Promoting Colorectal Cancer Screening Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Christy, Shannon M.; Perkins, Susan M.; Tong, Yan; Krier, Connie; Champion, Victoria L.; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Springston, Jeffrey K.; Imperiale, Thomas F.; Rawl, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Provider recommendation is a predictor of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Purpose To compare the effects of two clinic-based interventions on patient–provider discussions about CRC screening. Design Two-group RCT with data collected at baseline and 1 week post-intervention. Participants/setting African-American patients that were non-adherent to CRC screening recommendations (n=693) with a primary care visit between 2008 and 2010 in one of 11 urban primary care clinics. Intervention Participants received either a computer-delivered tailored CRC screening intervention or a nontailored informational brochure about CRC screening immediately prior to their primary care visit. Main outcome measures Between-group differences in odds of having had a CRC screening discussion about a colon test, with and without adjusting for demographic, clinic, health literacy, health belief, and social support variables, were examined as predictors of a CRC screening discussion using logistic regression. Intervention effects on CRC screening test order by PCPs were examined using logistic regression. Analyses were conducted in 2011 and 2012. Results Compared to the brochure group, a greater proportions of those in the computer-delivered tailored intervention group reported having had a discussion with their provider about CRC screening (63% vs 48%, OR=1.81, p<0.001). Predictors of a discussion about CRC screening included computer group participation, younger age, reason for visit, being unmarried, colonoscopy self-efficacy, and family member/friend recommendation (all p-values <0.05). Conclusions The computer-delivered tailored intervention was more effective than a nontailored brochure at stimulating patient–provider discussions about CRC screening. Those who received the computer-delivered intervention also were more likely to have a CRC screening test (fecal occult blood test or colonoscopy) ordered by their PCP. Trial registration This study is registered at www

  5. Computerized Cognitive Retraining in Improving Cognitive Function in Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-26

    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  6. Gut Microbiota, Inflammation, and Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Caitlin A; Garrett, Wendy S

    2016-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and fourth-leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cancer is largely considered to be a disease of genetic and environmental factors, increasing evidence has demonstrated a role for the microbiota (the microorganisms associated with the human body) in shaping inflammatory environments and promoting tumor growth and spread. Herein, we discuss both human data from meta'omics analyses and data from mechanistic studies in cell culture and animal models that support specific bacterial agents as potentiators of tumorigenesis-including Fusobacterium nucleatum, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, and colibactin-producing Escherichia coli. Further, we consider how microbes can be used in diagnosing colorectal cancer and manipulating the tumor environment to encourage better patient outcomes in response to immunotherapy treatments. PMID:27607555

  7. Treatment of peritoneal metastases from colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    März, Loreen; Piso, Pompiliu

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal seedings of a colorectal tumor represent the second most frequent site of metastasis (after the liver). In the era of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-only chemotherapy, the prognosis was poor for colorectal cancer with peritoneal metastases. Within the last few years, new chemotherapeutic and targeted agents have improved the prognosis; however, the response to these treatments seems to be lower than that for liver metastases. The combination of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy have further improved both disease-free survival and overall survival. Keeping this in mind, every patient presenting with peritoneal metastases from colorectal cancer should be evaluated and receive adequate treatment, if possible in the above-mentioned combination. This paper reviews recent advancements in the therapy of peritoneal carcinomatosis. PMID:26424828

  8. Emerging role of vitamin D in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kang, Wonmo; Lee, Sujin; Jeon, Eunyi; Yun, Ye-Rang; Kim, Kook-Hyun; Jang, Jun-Hyeog

    2011-08-15

    Colorectal cancer is a common cancer and the fourth leading cause of death in Korea. The incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer varies according to risk factors, such as age, family history, genetic history, food habits, and physical activities. Some studies have focused on the association between vitamin D and colorectal cancer. Today, there is growing evidence that high vitamin D intake and a plasma level of 25(OH)D(3) reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer by modifying cancer angiogenesis, cell apoptosis, differentiation, and proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest that vitamin D supplementation alone, or in combination with anti-cancer agents, might reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer. In this review, we discuss the function and mechanism of vitamin D including the effect of vitamin D on colorectal cancer. PMID:22007275

  9. Emerging role of vitamin D in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Wonmo; Lee, Sujin; Jeon, Eunyi; Yun, Ye-Rang; Kim, Kook-Hyun; Jang, Jun-Hyeog

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a common cancer and the fourth leading cause of death in Korea. The incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer varies according to risk factors, such as age, family history, genetic history, food habits, and physical activities. Some studies have focused on the association between vitamin D and colorectal cancer. Today, there is growing evidence that high vitamin D intake and a plasma level of 25(OH)D3 reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer by modifying cancer angiogenesis, cell apoptosis, differentiation, and proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest that vitamin D supplementation alone, or in combination with anti-cancer agents, might reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer. In this review, we discuss the function and mechanism of vitamin D including the effect of vitamin D on colorectal cancer. PMID:22007275

  10. Survivorship Care in Reducing Symptoms in Young Adult Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-05

    Breast Carcinoma; Cancer Survivor; Depression; Fatigue; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Malignant Bone Neoplasm; Malignant Digestive System Neoplasm; Malignant Female Reproductive System Neoplasm; Malignant Male Reproductive System Neoplasm; Pain; Sleep Disorder; Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  11. Childhood Cancer Survivors Often Feel Older Than Their Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... Childhood Cancer Survivors Often Feel Older Than Their Years Treatment-related conditions may affect their long-term ... in the United States. Among 18- to 29-year-olds, overall health-related quality-of-life scores ...

  12. Mindfulness as an Intervention for Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Deirdre; Schwartz, Shira

    2016-08-01

    Breast cancer survivors often turn to complementary health approaches (CHAs) to address the effects of treatment. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a type of CHA that uses attentional and meditative exercises to minimize stress and increase awareness of the present. This article aims to determine whether adequate evidence-based research with uniform methodologies and outcomes to support MBSR as an intervention for breast cancer survivors exists. PMID:27441505

  13. BK polyomavirus association with colorectal cancer development.

    PubMed

    Khabaz, M N; Nedjadi, T; Gari, M A; Al-Maghrabi, J A; Atta, H M; Basuni, A A; Elderwi, D A

    2016-01-01

    The development of human neoplasms can be provoked by exposure to one of several viruses. Burkitt lymphoma, cervical carcinoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma are associated with Epstein-Barr, human papilloma, and hepatitis B virus infections, respectively. Over the past three decades, many studies have attempted to establish an association between colorectal cancer and viruses, with debatable results. The aim of the present research was to assess the presence of BK polyomavirus (BKV) DNA and protein in colorectal cancer samples from patients in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia. DNA extracted from archival samples of colorectal cancer tissues was analyzed for BKV sequences using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. In addition, expression of a BKV protein was assessed using immunohistochemical staining. None of the tumor and control samples examined tested positive for BKV DNA in PCR assays. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining failed to detect viral proteins in both cancer and control specimens. These results may indicate that BKV is not associated with the development of colorectal adenocarcinoma in patients in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia. PMID:27173319

  14. Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Lessons Learned, Future Possibilities.

    PubMed

    Venook, Alan P

    2016-05-01

    Survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer has dramatically improved over the past 20 years, primarily because physicians have become adept at using the many regimens approved for this patient population. Future advances may come from understanding molecular subtypes, finding and treating new actionable mutations, and harnessing the immune system. PMID:27226509

  15. Obesity in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Call for Early Weight Management.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K

    2015-09-01

    A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or delay the early onset of these chronic conditions. However, nutritional intake in childhood cancer survivors has not been adequately examined and the evidence is built on data from small cohorts of survivors. In addition, the long-term impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on survivors' nutritional intake as well as how survivors' nutritional intake is associated with chronic health conditions have not been well quantified in large-scale studies. Promoting family-based healthy lifestyles, preferably at a sensitive window of unhealthy weight gain, is a priority for preventing the early onset of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions in childhood cancer survivors. PMID:26374183

  16. Nutrients Impact the Pathogenesis and Development of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wan; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is a commonly diagnosed cancer and the cause of many cancer deaths worldwide. Nutrients might be crucial in the pathogenesis and development of colorectal cancer. Although a number of studies have demonstrated the potential effects of nutrients, many challenges still remain Summary A tremendous amount of research has emerged concerning the roles of nutrients in colorectal cancer during the past decades. Here, we review the latest research progress on nutrients, including vitamins, folic acid, calcium, selenium and dietary fiber, involved in colorectal cancer prevention Key Message Nutrients are commonly consumed in foods or dietary supplements. It is clear that nutrients could play an important role and influence colorectal cancer outcomes. The relationship between nutrients and colorectal risk is complex. Vitamins, folic acid, calcium, selenium and dietary fiber have been proposed as potential agents to prevent colorectal cancer. However, some studies found that these nutrients did not reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer Practical Implications The supplementary dose of nutrients, the length of time required to observe the effects and confounding factors during the study might influence the role of nutrients in the prevention of colorectal cancer. Therefore, more evidence from ongoing clinical trials with different population groups and longer follow-up periods is critical to determine the relationship between nutrients and colorectal cancer. PMID:27403415

  17. Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking among Adult Cancer Survivors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Joo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cigarette smoking is associated not only with increased risk of cancer incidence, but also influences prognosis, and the quality of life of the cancer survivors. Thus, smoking cessation after cancer diagnosis is necessary. However, smoking behavior among Korean cancer-survivors is yet unknown. Materials and Methods We investigated the smoking status of 23770 adults, aged 18 years or older, who participated in the Health Interview Survey of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2010. Data on the cancer diagnosis and smoking history were obtained from an interview conducted by trained personals. "Cancer-survivor" was defined as anyone who has been diagnosed with cancer by a physician regardless of time duration since diagnosis. Smoking status was classified into "never-smoker", "former-smoker", and "current-smoker". Former-smoker was further divided into "cessation before diagnosis" and "cessation after diagnosis". Results Overall, 2.1% of Korean adults were cancer-survivors. The smoking rate of Korean cancer-survivors was lower than that of non-cancer controls (7.8±1.3% vs. 26.4±0.4%, p<0.001). However, 53.4% of the cancer-survivors continued to smoke after their cancer diagnosis. In multivariate analysis, male gender [odds ratio (OR), 6.34; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.62-15.31], middle-aged group (OR, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.12-6.72), the lowest income (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.19-14.15), living with smoking family member(s) (OR, 5.49; 95% CI, 2.42-12.48), and the poor self-perceived health status (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.01-7.71) were independently associated with persistent smoking among Korean cancer-survivors. Conclusion The smoking rate among Korean cancer survivors is low. However, the smoking cessation rate after the cancer diagnosis is also low. This mandates comprehensive and systematic intervention for smoking cessation among cancer-survivors. PMID:25684009

  18. Toward Restored Bowel Health in Rectal Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Steineck, Gunnar; Schmidt, Heike; Alevronta, Eleftheria; Sjöberg, Fei; Bull, Cecilia Magdalena; Vordermark, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    As technology gets better and better, and as clinical research provides more and more knowledge, we can extend our ambition to cure patients from cancer with restored physical health among the survivors. This increased ambition requires attention to grade 1 toxicity that decreases quality of life. It forces us to document the details of grade 1 toxicity and improve our understanding of the mechanisms. Long-term toxicity scores, or adverse events as documented during clinical trials, may be regarded as symptoms or signs of underlying survivorship diseases. However, we lack a survivorship nosology for rectal cancer survivors. Primarily focusing on radiation-induced side effects, we highlight some important observations concerning late toxicity among rectal cancer survivors. With that and other data, we searched for a preliminary survivorship-disease nosology for rectal cancer survivors. We disentangled the following survivorship diseases among rectal cancer survivors: low anterior resection syndrome, radiation-induced anal sphincter dysfunction, gut wall inflammation and fibrosis, blood discharge, excessive gas discharge, excessive mucus discharge, constipation, bacterial overgrowth, and aberrant anatomical structures. The suggested survivorship nosology may form the basis for new instruments capturing long-term symptoms (patient-reported outcomes) and professional-reported signs. For some of the diseases, we can search for animal models. As an end result, the suggested survivorship nosology may accelerate our understanding on how to prevent, ameliorate, or eliminate manifestations of treatment-induced diseases among rectal cancer survivors. PMID:27238476

  19. Physical performance limitations in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Ness, Kirsten K; Hudson, Melissa M; Ginsberg, Jill P; Nagarajan, Rajaram; Kaste, Sue C; Marina, Neyssa; Whitton, John; Robison, Leslie L; Gurney, James G

    2009-05-10

    Physical performance limitations are one of the potential long-term consequences following diagnosis and treatment for childhood cancer. The purpose of this review is to describe the risk factors for and the participation restrictions that result from physical performance limitations among childhood cancer survivors who participated in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Articles previously published from the CCSS cohort related to physical performance limitations were reviewed and the results summarized. Our review showed that physical performance limitations are prevalent among childhood cancer survivors and may increase as they age. Host-based risk factors for physical disability include an original diagnosis of bone tumor, brain tumor, or Hodgkin's disease; female sex; and an income less than $20,000 per year. Treatment-based risk factors include radiation and treatment with a combination of alkylating agents and anthracyclines. Musculoskeletal, neurologic, cardiac, pulmonary, sensory, and endocrine organ system dysfunction also increase the risk of developing a physical performance limitation. In summary, monitoring of physical performance limitations in an aging cohort of childhood cancer survivors is important and will help determine the impact of physical performance limitations on morbidity, mortality, and caregiver burden. In addition, in developing restorative and preventive interventions for childhood cancer survivors, we must take into account the special needs of survivors with physical disability to optimize their health and enhance participation in daily living activities. PMID:19332713

  20. Access to Cancer Services for Rural Colorectal Cancer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Cai, Yong; Larson, Eric H.; Dobie, Sharon A.; Wright, George E.; Goodman, David C.; Matthews, Barbara; Hart, L. Gary

    2008-01-01

    Context: Cancer care requires specialty surgical and medical resources that are less likely to be found in rural areas. Purpose: To examine the travel patterns and distances of rural and urban colorectal cancer (CRC) patients to 3 types of specialty cancer care services--surgery, medical oncology consultation, and radiation oncology consultation.…

  1. Contraceptive Practices Among Female Cancer Survivors of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Dominick, Sally A.; McLean, Mamie R.; Whitcomb, Brian W.; Gorman, Jessica R.; Mersereau, Jennifer E.; Bouknight, Janet M.; Su, H. Irene

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare rates of contraception between reproductive-aged cancer survivors and women in the general U.S. population. Among survivors, the study examined factors associated with use of contraception and emergency contraception. Methods This study analyzed enrollment data from an ongoing national prospective cohort study on reproductive health after cancer entitled the Fertility Information Research Study. We compared current contraceptive use in survivors with that of the general population ascertained by the 2006–2010 National Survey for Family Growth. Log-binomial regression models estimated relative risks for characteristics associated with use of contraception, World Health Organization tiers I–II (sterilization and hormonal) contraceptive methods, and emergency contraception in survivors. Results Data from 295 survivors (mean age 31.6 ± 5.7 years, range 20–44 years) enrolled in this prospective study (85% response rate) were examined. Age-adjusted rates of using tiers I–II contraceptive methods were lower in survivors than the general population (34% [28.8–40.0] compared with 53% [51.5–54.5], P<.01). Only 56% of survivors reported receiving family planning services (counseling, prescription or procedure related to birth control) since cancer diagnosis. In adjusted analysis, receipt of family planning services was associated with both increased use of tiers I–II contraceptive methods (relative risk 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–1.5) and accessing emergency contraception (relative risk 5.0, 95% CI 1.6–16.3) in survivors. Conclusion Lower rates of using Tiers I–II contraceptive methods were found in reproductive-aged cancer survivors compared to the general population of U.S. women. Exposure to family planning services across the cancer care continuum may improve contraception utilization among these women. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01843140. PMID:26181090

  2. Virtual Weight Loss Program in Maintaining Weight in African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-01

    Cancer Survivor; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  3. Spatial Analysis of Colorectal Cancer in Iran.

    PubMed

    Pakzad, Reza; Moudi, Asieh; Pournamdar, Zahra; Pakzad, Iraj; Mohammadian-Hashejani, Abdollah; Momenimovahed, Zohre; Salehiniya, Hamid; Towhidi, Farhad; Makhsosi, Behnam Reza

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers. Due to demographic changes, it is predicted that the incidence of this cancer will increase. Variations of its incidence rate among geographical areas are due to various contributing factors. Since there have been a lack of studies on this topic in our country, the present assessment of spatial patterns of colorectal cancer incidence in Iran was performed. In this ecological study, the new cases of colon cancer were extracted from Cancer Registry Center report of the Health Deputy of Iran in 2009. The reported incidences of the disease were standardized on the basis of the World Health Organization population and the direct method. Then the data were inserted into the GIS software, and finally, using the analysis of hot spots (Getis-Ord Gi) high-risk areas were drawn. Provinces that are higher or lower than the national average (1.9 SD) were considered hot spots or cold spots, significant at the level of 0.05. A total of 6,210 cases of colorectal cancer were registered in Iran in 2009, of which 3,727 were in men and 2,783 in women (age-standardized rates of 11.3 and 10.9 per 100,000 population, respectively). The results showed that in central and northern Iran including Isfahan, Qom, Tehran, Qazvin and Mazandaran significant hot spots in men were present (p <0.05). In women also we have high incidence in northern and central states: Mazandaran province (p<0.01) and the province of Tehran (p<0.05) had higher incidences than the national average and were apparent as significant hot spots. Analysis of the spatial distribution of colorectal cancer showed significant differences between different areas pointing to the necessity for further epidemiological studies into the etiology and early detection. PMID:27165208

  4. Sexual Functioning in Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zebrack, Brad J.; Foley, Sallie; Wittmann, Daniela; Leonard, Marcia

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies of sexuality or sexual behavior in childhood cancer survivors tend to examine relationships or achievement of developmental milestones but not physiological response to cancer or treatment. The purpose of this study is to (1) identify prevalence and risk factors for sexual dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors, and (2) examine the extent to which sexual dysfunction may be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and psychosocial outcomes. Methods Five hundred ninety-nine survivors age 18-39 years completed standardized measures of sexual functioning, HRQOL, psychological distress and life satisfaction. Descriptive statistics assessed prevalence of sexual symptoms. Bivariate analyses identified correlates of sexual symptoms and examined associations between symptoms and HRQOL/psychosocial outcomes. Results Most survivors appear to be doing well, although 52% of female survivors and 32% of male survivors reported at least “a little of a problem” in one or more areas of sexual functioning. Mean symptom score for females was more than twice that of males. Sexual symptoms were associated with reporting health problems. Significant associations between sexual functioning and HRQOL outcomes were observed, with gender differences in strengths of association suggesting that males find sexual symptoms more distressing than do females. Conclusions While most survivors appear to be doing well in this important life domain, some young adult survivors report sexual concerns. While female survivors may report more sexual symptoms than male survivors, males may experience more distress associated with sexual difficulties. Better specified measures of sexual function, behavior and outcomes are needed for this young adult population. PMID:19862693

  5. Expressions of Generativity and Posttraumatic Growth in Adult Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellizzi, Keith M.

    2004-01-01

    Much of the psycho-oncology research that has been conducted to date has focused on understanding the negative psychological and psychosocial sequelae of cancer. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that many cancer survivors report psychological growth following a diagnosis of cancer. Further, there are few studies that examine the…

  6. Breast Cancer Survivors' Perceptions of Survivorship Care Options

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Erica L.; Gropper, Adrienne B.; Neville, Bridget A.; Partridge, Ann H.; Cameron, Danielle B.; Winer, Eric P.; Earle, Craig C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose As the number of breast cancer survivors increases, a durable model of comprehensive survivor care is needed, incorporating providers and/or visit types both within and outside of oncology. The objective of this study was to explore survivors' comfort with different clinician types or with a telephone/Internet-based virtual visit as components of survivorship care. Methods Breast cancer survivors participating in a general survivorship survey completed an additional breast cancer–specific questionnaire evaluating the self-perceived impact of follow-up visits to various clinician types, or follow-up by a virtual visit, on survival, worrying, and stress related to cancer. Results A total of 218 breast cancer survivors completed the questionnaire. Most favored medical oncologist follow-up visits over those with primary care physicians (PCPs) or nurse practitioners (NPs) in terms of reduced worrying about cancer (odds ratio [OR], 2.21; P < .001), reduced stress around the visit (OR, 1.40; P = .002), and improved effect on cancer survival (OR, 2.38; P < .001). However, the majority also displayed substantial comfort with both PCPs and NPs in the same domains. Patients rated a virtual visit as having a less favorable impact on cancer survival and cancer-related worrying compared with in-person visits with clinicians. Conclusion Breast cancer survivors are comfortable with both PCPs and NPs providing follow-up care, although they indicate a preference for medical oncologists. Given patients' negative impressions of a virtual visit, increased familiarity with and research investigating this emerging concept are needed. The NP-led survivorship clinic model, with increased guidance for PCPs, offers a promising route for improving quality of and satisfaction with survivor care. PMID:22162585

  7. N-glycosylation of Colorectal Cancer Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Balog, Crina I. A.; Stavenhagen, Kathrin; Fung, Wesley L. J.; Koeleman, Carolien A.; McDonnell, Liam A.; Verhoeven, Aswin; Mesker, Wilma E.; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Deelder, André M.; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide with an annual incidence of ∼1 million cases and an annual mortality rate of ∼655,000 individuals. There is an urgent need for identifying novel targets to develop more sensitive, reliable, and specific tests for early stage detection of colon cancer. Post-translational modifications are known to play an important role in cancer progression and immune surveillance of tumors. In the present study, we compared the N-glycan profiles from 13 colorectal cancer tumor tissues and corresponding control colon tissues. The N-glycans were enzymatically released, purified, and labeled with 2-aminobenzoic acid. Aliquots were profiled by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC-HPLC) with fluorescence detection and by negative mode MALDI-TOF-MS. Using partial least squares discriminant analysis to investigate the N-glycosylation changes in colorectal cancer, an excellent separation and prediction ability were observed for both HILIC-HPLC and MALDI-TOF-MS data. For structure elucidation, information from positive mode ESI-ion trap-MS/MS and negative mode MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS was combined. Among the features with a high separation power, structures containing a bisecting GlcNAc were found to be decreased in the tumor, whereas sulfated glycans, paucimannosidic glycans, and glycans containing a sialylated Lewis type epitope were shown to be increased in tumor tissues. In addition, core-fucosylated high mannose N-glycans were detected in tumor samples. In conclusion, the combination of HILIC and MALDI-TOF-MS profiling of N-glycans with multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated its potential for identifying N-glycosylation changes in colorectal cancer tissues and provided new leads that might be used as candidate biomarkers. PMID:22573871

  8. Adherence to Guidelines for Cancer Survivors and Health-Related Quality of Life among Korean Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sihan; Hwang, Eunkyung; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Noh, Dong-Young; Lee, Jung Eun

    2015-01-01

    There is limited evidence on the association between adherence to guidelines for cancer survivors and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In a cross-sectional study of Korean breast cancer survivors, we examined whether adherence to the guidelines of the American Cancer Society (ACS) and World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) for cancer survivors was related to levels of HRQoL, assessed by the Korean version of Core 30 (C30) and Breast cancer module 23 (BR23) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ). We included a total of 160 women aged 21 to 79 years who had been diagnosed with breast cancer according to American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stages I to III and had breast cancer surgery at least six months before the interview. Increasing adherence to ACS guidelines was associated with higher scores of social functioning (p for trend = 0.05), whereas increasing adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations was associated with higher scores of arm symptoms (p for trend = 0.01). These associations were limited to those with stage II or III cancer. Diet may be an important factor in relation to quality of life among Korean breast cancer survivors, however our findings warrant further prospective studies to evaluate whether healthy diet improves survivors’ quality of life. PMID:26690215

  9. BRAF mutation in multiple primary cancer with colorectal cancer and stomach cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Hyun; Ahn, Byung-Kwon; Baek, Sung-Uhn; Chang, Hee-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Recently, BRAF mutation testing has been introduced as a marker in differentiating Lynch syndrome from sporadic colorectal cancers or in predicting colorectal cancers with worse prognosis. Individuals with hereditary predisposition to cancer development are at an increased risk of developing multiple primary cancers. The purpose of this study is to identify mutation in the BRAF gene in multiple primary cancers with colorectal cancer and stomach cancer. Methods: BRAF mutation was analysed in 45 patients with colorectal cancer and stomach cancer, synchronously or metachronously. Results: Mean age was 64.07 years (range: 47–83 years). For the colorectal cancer, tumors were located at the sigmoid colon in eight patients (17.8%) and at the rectum in 22 patients (48.9%). Twenty-three patients (51.1%) had synchronous cancer. Four patients (8.9%) had family members with cancer. BRAF mutation was identified in three patients (6.7%). All three of these patients had metachronous cancers. The colorectal cancers were located in the sigmoid colon (1 patient) and the rectum (2 patients). Conclusions: BRAF mutation rate was low in the multiple primary cancer with colorectal cancer and stomach cancer. With only BRAF gene study, it was not possible to identify any correlation with family history of colorectal cancer. Further study means considering other genes – MSI, MSH2, MLH1, MSH6. PMID:24759670

  10. BRAF Mutation in Colorectal Cancer: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Barras, David

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is still one of the deadliest cancer-related diseases. About 10% of CRC patients are characterized by a mutation in the B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) gene resulting in a valine-to-glutamate change at the residue 600 (V600E). This mutation is also present in more than 60% of melanoma patients. BRAF inhibitors were developed and found to improve patient survival; however, most patients at the end of the track ultimately develop resistance to these inhibitors. Melanoma patients benefit from the combination of BRAF inhibitors with mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) inhibitors, among others. Unfortunately, colorectal patients do not respond much efficiently, which suggests different resistance mechanisms between the two cancer types. This review aims at shedding light on recent discoveries that improve our understanding of the BRAF mutation biology in CRC. PMID:26396549

  11. Meaning Making in Cancer Survivors: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Spek, Nadia; Vos, Joel; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F.; Breitbart, William; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Cuijpers, Pim; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Confrontation with a life-threatening disease like cancer can evoke existential distress, which can trigger a search for meaning in people after having survived this disease. Methods In an effort to gain more insight in the meaning making process, we conducted four focus groups with 23 cancer survivors on this topic. Participants responded to questions about experienced meaning making, perceived changes in meaning making after cancer and the perceived need for help in this area. Results Most frequently mentioned meaning making themes were relationships and experiences. We found that, in general, cancer survivors experienced enhanced meaning after cancer through relationships, experiences, resilience, goal-orientation and leaving a legacy. Some participants, however, also said to have (also) experienced a loss of meaning in their lives through experiences, social roles, relationships and uncertainties about the future. Conclusions The results indicated that there is a group of cancer survivors that has succeeded in meaning making efforts, and experienced sometimes even more meaning in life than before diagnosis, while there is also a considerable group of survivors that struggled with meaning making and has an unmet need for help with that. The results of this study contribute to develop a meaning centered intervention for cancer survivors. PMID:24086695

  12. Therapeutic strategy in unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tournigand, Christophe; André, Thierry; de Gramont, Aimery

    2012-01-01

    While surgery is the cornerstone treatment for early-stage colorectal cancer, chemotherapy is the first treatment option for metastatic disease when tumor lesions are frequently not fully resectable at presentation. Mortality from colon cancer has decreased over the past 30 years, but there is still a huge heterogeneity in survival rates that can be mainly explained by patient and tumor characteristics, host response factors, and treatment modalities. The management of unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer is a global treatment strategy, which applies several lines of therapy, salvage surgery, maintenance, and treatment-free intervals. The individualization of cancer treatment is based on the evaluation of prognostic factors for survival (serum lactate dehydrogenase level, performance status), and predictive factors for treatment efficacy [Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutation status]. The available treatment modalities for metastatic colorectal cancer are chemotherapy (fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, irinotecan), anti-angiogenic agents (e.g. bevacizumab), and anti-epidermal growth factor agents (cetuximab, panitumumab). The increasing number of active compounds dictates the strategy of trials evaluating these treatments either in combination or sequentially. Alternative outcomes that can be measured earlier than overall survival are needed to shorten the duration and reduce the size and cost of clinical trials. PMID:22423266

  13. A review of breast cancer survivorship issues from survivors' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jihyoung; Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Jung Eun; Shim, Eun-Jung; Kim, Nam Hyoung; Kim, Zisun; Sohn, Guiyun; Youn, Hyun Jo; Kim, Ku Sang; Kim, Hanna; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Min Hyuk

    2014-09-01

    Despite the fact that more breast cancer survivors are currently enjoying longer lifespans, there remains limited knowledge about the factors and issues that are of greatest significance for these survivors, particularly from their perspectives. This review was based on the concept that the topics addressed should focus on the perspectives of current survivors and should be extended to future modalities, which physicians will be able to use to gain a better understanding of the hidden needs of these patients. We intended to choose and review dimensions other than the pathology and the disease process that could have been overlooked during treatment. The eight topics upon which we focused included: delay of treatment and survival outcome; sexual well-being; concerns about childbearing; tailored follow-up; presence of a family history of breast cancer; diet and physical activity for survivors and their families; qualitative approach toward understanding of breast cancer survivorship, and; mobile health care for breast cancer survivors. Through this review, we aimed to examine the present clinical basis of the central issues noted from the survivors' perspectives and suggest a direction for future survivorship-related research. PMID:25320616

  14. Cardiovascular Effects in Childhood Cancer Survivors Treated with Anthracyclines

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Vivian I.; Henkel, Jacqueline M.; Miller, Tracie L.; Lipshultz, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    Anthracyclines are commonly used to treat childhood leukemias and lymphomas, as well as other malignancies, leading to a growing population of long-term childhood cancer survivors. However, their use is limited by cardiotoxicity, increasing survivors' vulnerability to treatment-related complications that can markedly affect their quality of life. Survivors are more likely to suffer from heart failure, coronary artery disease, and cerebrovascular accidents compared to the general population. The specific mechanisms of anthracycline cardiotoxicity are complex and remain unclear. Hence, determining the factors that may increase susceptibility to cardiotoxicity is of great importance, as is monitoring patients during and after treatment. Additionally, treatment and prevention options, such as limiting cumulative dosage, liposomal anthracyclines, and dexrazoxane, continue to be explored. Here, we review the cardiovascular complications associated with the use of anthracyclines in treating malignancies in children and discuss methods for preventing, screening, and treating such complications in childhood cancer survivors. PMID:21331374

  15. Colorectal cancer prognosis: is it all mutation, mutation, mutation?

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, A B; Paraskeva, C

    2005-01-01

    For the 500 000 new cases of colorectal cancer in the world each year, identification of patients with a worse prognosis and those who are more likely to respond to treatment is a challenge. There is an increasing body of evidence correlating genetic mutations with outcome in tumours derived from human colorectal cancer cohorts. K-ras, but not p53 or APC, mutations appear to be associated with poorer overall survival in colorectal cancer patients. PMID:16099785

  16. Circulating Non-coding RNA as Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferracin, Manuela; Lupini, Laura; Mangolini, Alessandra; Negrini, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that colorectal cancer influences the types and quantity of nucleic acids - especially microRNAs - detected in the bloodstream. Concentration of circulating (cell-free) microRNAs, and possibly of other non-coding RNAs, could therefore serve as valuable colorectal cancer biomarker and could deliver insight into the disease process. This chapter addresses the recent discoveries on circulating microRNA and long non-coding RNA as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers in colorectal cancer. PMID:27573900

  17. Valued life abilities among veteran cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Karel, Michele J.; Mulligan, Elizabeth A.; Walder, Annette; Martin, Lindsey A.; Moye, Jennifer; Naik, Aanand D.

    2016-01-01

    Background When patients have multiple chronic illnesses, it is not feasible to provide disease-based care when treatments for one condition adversely affect another. Instead, health-care delivery requires a broader person-centred treatment plan based on collaborative, patient-oriented values and goals. Objective We examined the individual variability, thematic content, and sociodemographic correlates of valued life abilities and activities among multimorbid veterans diagnosed with life-altering cancer. Setting and participants Participants were 144 veterans in the ‘Vet-Cares’ study who completed a health-care values and goals scale 12 months after diagnosis of head and neck, gastro-oesophageal, or colorectal cancer. They had mean age of 65 years and one quarter identified as Hispanic and/or African American. Design At twelve months post-diagnosis, participants rated 16 life abilities/activities in their importance to quality of life on a 10-point Likert scale, during an in-person interview. Scale themes were validated via exploratory factor analysis and examining associations with sociodemographic variables. Results Participants rated most life abilities/activities as extremely important. Variability in responses was sufficient to identify three underlying values themes in exploratory factor analysis: self-sufficiency, enjoyment/comfort, and connection to family, friends and spirituality. Veterans with a spouse/partner rated self-sufficiency as less important. African American veterans rated connection as more important than did White veterans. Conclusions It is feasible yet challenging to ask older, multimorbid patients to rate relative importance of values associated with life abilities/activities. Themes related to self-sufficiency, enjoyment/comfort in daily life and connection are salient and logically consistent with sociodemographic traits. Future studies should explore their role in goal-directed health care. PMID:25645124

  18. Patient Satisfaction With Breast and Colorectal Cancer Survivorship Care Plans

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Brian L.; Dittus, Kim L.; Pace, Claire M.; Dulko, Dorothy; Pollack, Lori A.; Hawkins, Nikki A.; Geller, Berta M.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer survivors face several challenges following the completion of active treatment, including uncertainty about late effects of treatment and confusion about coordination of follow-up care. The authors evaluated patient satisfaction with personalized survivorship care plans designed to clarify those issues. The authors enrolled 48 patients with breast cancer and 10 patients with colorectal cancer who had completed treatment in the previous two months from an urban academic medical center and a rural community hospital. Patient satisfaction with the care plan was assessed by telephone interview. Overall, about 80% of patients were very or completely satisfied with the care plan, and 90% or more agreed that it was useful, it was easy to understand, and the length was appropriate. Most patients reported that the care plan was very or critically important to understanding an array of survivorship issues. However, only about half felt that it helped them better understand the roles of primary care providers and oncologists in survivorship care. The results provide evidence that patients with cancer find high value in personalized survivorship care plans, but the plans do not eliminate confusion regarding the coordination of follow-up care. Future efforts to improve care plans should focus on better descriptions of how survivorship care will be coordinated. PMID:23722604

  19. microRNAs and Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ress, Anna Lena; Perakis, Samantha; Pichler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of human cancer with high cancer-related morbidity and mortality rates. The development and clinical validation of novel therapeutic avenues have improved the clinical outcome, but metastatic CRC still remains an incurable disease in most cases. The interest in discovering novel pathophysiological drivers in CRC is intensively ongoing and the search for novel biomarkers for early diagnosis, for patient's stratification for prognostic purposes or for predicting treatment response are warranted. microRNAs are small RNA molecules that regulate the expression of larger messenger RNA species by different mechanisms with the final consequence to provide a fine tuning tool for global gene expression patterns. First discovered in worms, around 15 years ago it became clear that microRNAs are also existing in humans and that they are widely involved in human carcinogenesis. Within the last years, tremendous progress in the understanding of microRNAs and their role in CRC carcinogenesis has been developed. In this book chapter, several examples of previously identified microRNAs and how they influence colorectal carcinogenesis will be discussed. The information starting at the underlying molecular mechanisms towards clinical applications will be depicted and an overview what great potential these small molecules might carry in future colorectal cancer medicine, will be discussed. PMID:26658998

  20. Colorectal cancer risk in hamartomatous polyposis syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme; Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world, and approximately 5% of them develop in a context of inherited mutations leading to some form of familial colon cancer syndromes. Recognition and characterization of these patients have contributed to elucidate the genetic basis of CRC. Polyposis Syndromes may be categorized by the predominant histological structure found within the polyps. The aim of the present paper is to review the most important clinical features of the Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes, a rare group of genetic disorders formed by the peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenil polyposis syndrome and PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome (Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalacaba and Cowden Syndromes). A literature search was performed in order to retrieve the most recent and important papers (articles, reviews, clinical cases and clinical guidelines) regarding the studied subject. We searched for terms such as “hamartomatous polyposis syndromes”, “Peutz-Jeghers syndrome”, “juvenile polyposis syndrome”, “juvenile polyp”, and “PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome” (Cowden syndrome, Bananyan-Riley-Ruvalcaba). The present article reports the wide spectrum of disease severity and extraintestinal manifestations, with a special focus on their potential to develop colorectal and other neoplasia. In the literature, the reported colorectal cancer risk for Juvenile Polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers and PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndromes are 39%-68%, 39%-57% and 18%, respectively. A review regarding cancer surveillance recommendations is also presented. PMID:25848489

  1. Treatment of colorectal cancer in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Millan, Monica; Merino, Sandra; Caro, Aleidis; Feliu, Francesc; Escuder, Jordi; Francesch, Tani

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has a high incidence, and approximately 60% of colorectal cancer patients are older than 70, with this incidence likely increasing in the near future. Elderly patients (> 70-75 years of age) are a very heterogeneous group, ranging from the very fit to the very frail. Traditionally, these patients have often been under-treated and recruited less frequently to clinical trials than younger patients, and thus are under-represented in publications about cancer treatment. Recent studies suggest that fit elderly patients can be treated in the same way as their younger counterparts, but the treatment of frail patients with comorbidities is still a matter of controversy. Many factors should be taken into account, including fitness for treatment, the wishes of the patient and family, and quality of life. This review will focus on the existing evidence for surgical, oncologic, and palliative treatment in patients over 70 years old with colorectal cancer. Careful patient assessment is necessary in order to individualize treatment approach, and this should rely on a multidisciplinary process. More well-designed controlled trials are needed in this patient population. PMID:26483875

  2. Diet and supplements and their impact on colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pericleous, Marinos; Mandair, Dalvinder

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third commonest cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death among men and women. It has been proposed that dietary factors are responsible for 70-90% of colorectal cancer and diet optimization may prevent most cases. Aim To evaluate the role of dietary components and supplements in colorectal cancer. Methods Bibliographical searches were performed in Pubmed for the terms “diet and colorectal cancer”, “diet and colon cancer”, “diet and rectal cancer”, “nutrition and colorectal cancer”, “probiotics and colorectal cancer”, “prebiotics and colorectal cancer”, “alcohol and cancer” and “colorectal cancer epidemiology”. Results Consumption of processed or red meat, especially when cooked at high temperatures may be associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer. The evidence for dietary fibre is unclear but foods that contain high amounts of fibre are usually rich in polyphenols which have been shown to alter molecular processes that can encourage colorectal carcinogenesis. Meta-analyses provide evidence on the benefits of circulating, diet-derived and supplemented, vitamin D and Calcium. We also found that diets rich in Folate may prevent colorectal carcinoma. The evidence on dietary micronutrients such as Zinc and Selenium in association with colorectal cancer is not conclusive. It has been suggested that there may be a direct association between alcohol intake and colorectal cancer. In vitro and in vivo studies have highlighted a possible protective role of prebiotics and probiotics. Conclusions The lack of randomized trials and the presence of confounding factors including smoking, physical activity, obesity and diabetes may often yield inconclusive results. Carefully designed randomized trials are recommended. PMID:24294513

  3. Aspects of mental health dysfunction among survivors of childhood cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, Miranda M; Ziff, Oliver J; Wang, Sarra; Cave, Joshua; Janardhanan, Pradeep; Winter, David L; Kelly, Julie; Mehta, Susan; Jenkinson, Helen; Frobisher, Clare; Reulen, Raoul C; Hawkins, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some previous studies have reported that survivors of childhood cancer are at an increased risk of developing long-term mental health morbidity, whilst others have reported that this is not the case. Therefore, we analysed 5-year survivors of childhood cancer using the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS) to determine the risks of aspects of long-term mental health dysfunction. Procedure: Within the BCCSS, 10 488 survivors completed a questionnaire that ascertained mental health-related information via 10 questions from the Short Form-36 survey. Internal analyses were conducted using multivariable logistic regression to determine risk factors for mental health dysfunction. External analyses were undertaken using direct standardisation to compare mental health dysfunction in survivors with UK norms. Results: This study has shown that overall, childhood cancer survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of mental health dysfunction for 6/10 questions analysed compared to UK norms. Central nervous system (CNS) and bone sarcoma survivors reported the greatest dysfunction, compared to expected, with significant excess dysfunction in 10 and 6 questions, respectively; the excess ranged from 4.4–22.3% in CNS survivors and 6.9–15.9% in bone sarcoma survivors. Compared to expected, excess mental health dysfunction increased with attained age; this increase was greatest for reporting ‘limitations in social activities due to health', where the excess rose from 4.5% to 12.8% in those aged 16–24 and 45+, respectively. Within the internal analyses, higher levels of educational attainment and socio-economic classification were protective against mental health dysfunction. Conclusions: Based upon the findings of this large population-based study, childhood cancer survivors report significantly higher levels of mental health dysfunction than those in the general population, where deficits were observed particularly among CNS and bone sarcoma

  4. COGENT (COlorectal cancer GENeTics) revisited

    PubMed Central

    Houlston, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Many colorectal cancers (CRCs) develop in genetically susceptible individuals most of whom are not carriers of germ line mismatch repair or APC gene mutations and much of the heritable risk of CRC appears to be attributable to the co-inheritance of multiple low-risk variants. The accumulated experience to date in identifying this class of susceptibility allele has highlighted the need to conduct statistically and methodologically rigorous studies and the need for the multi-centre collaboration. This has been the motivation for establishing the COGENT (COlorectal cancer GENeTics) consortium which now includes over 20 research groups in Europe, Australia, the Americas, China and Japan actively working on CRC genetics. Here, we review the rationale for identifying low-penetrance variants for CRC and the current and future challenges for COGENT. PMID:22294761

  5. Potential Targets for Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Temraz, Sally; Mukherji, Deborah; Shamseddine, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The step-wise development of colorectal neoplasia from adenoma to carcinoma suggests that specific interventions could delay or prevent the development of invasive cancer. Several key factors involved in colorectal cancer pathogenesis have already been identified including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), survivin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Clinical trials of COX-2 inhibitors have provided the “proof of principle” that inhibition of this enzyme can prevent the formation of colonic adenomas and potentially carcinomas, however concerns regarding the potential toxicity of these drugs have limited their use as a chemopreventative strategy. Curcumin, resveratrol and quercetin are chemopreventive agents that are able to suppress multiple signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis and hence are attractive candidates for further research. PMID:23975167

  6. Ziv-aflibercept in metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Anuj; Sun, Weijing

    2014-01-01

    The combination of cytotoxic chemotherapy and antiangiogenic agents has become a conventional treatment option for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Ziv-aflibercept is a fusion protein which acts as a decoy receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-B, and placental growth factor (PlGF); it was approved in combination with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer that is resistant to or has progressed after an oxaliplatin-containing fluoropyrimidine-based regimen. Herein we review the role of tumor angiogenesis as the rationale for antiangiogenic therapy, the clinical data associated with ziv-aflibercept, and its current role as a treatment option compared to other antiangiogenic agents, such as bevacizumab and regorafenib. PMID:24368879

  7. Improving colorectal cancer screening: fact and fantasy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dam, Jacques

    2008-02-01

    Premalignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, such as Barrett's esophagus, long-standing ulcerative colitis, and adenomatous polyps, have a significantly increased risk for development of adenocarcinoma, most often through an intermediate stage of dysplasia. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is the second most common cancer in the United States. Because patients with colorectal cancer often present with advanced disease, the outcomes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Effective methods of early detection are essential. As non-polypoid dysplasia is not visible using conventional endoscopy, surveillance of patients with Barrett's esophagus and ulcerative colitis is performed via a system in which multiple random biopsies are obtained at prescribed intervals. Sampling error and missed diagnoses occur frequently and render current screening methods inadequate. Also, the examination of a tissue biopsy is time consuming and costly, and significant intra- and inter-observer variation may occur. The newer methods discussed herein demonstrate the potential to solve these problems by early detection of disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Conventional endoscopy is based on the observation of white light reflected off the tissue surface. Subtle changes in color and shadow reveal structural changes. New developments in optical imaging go beyond white light, exploiting other properties of light. Several promising methods will be discussed at this meeting and shall be briefly discussed below. However, few such imaging modalities have arrived at our clinical practice. Some much more practical methods to improve colorectal cancer screening are currently being evaluated for their clinical impact. These methods seek to overcome limitations other than those of detecting dysplasia not visible under white light endoscopy. The current standard practice of colorectal cancer screening utilizes colonoscopy, an uncomfortable, sometimes difficult medical

  8. Efficacy of a tobacco quitline among adult cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Klesges, Robert C.; Krukowski, Rebecca A.; Klosky, James L.; Liu, Wei; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Boyett, James M.; Lanctot, Jennifer Q.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Folsom, Charla; Lando, Harry; Robison, Leslie L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the study (conducted 2010–2013) was to determine the efficacy of two common types of tobacco quitlines in adult cancer survivors who regularly smoked cigarettes. Method Adult onset cancer survivors in Memphis, Tennessee (n = 427, 67% female, 60% Caucasian) were randomized either to a Proactive (i.e., counselor-initiated calls) or Reactive (i.e., participant-initiated calls) quitline. Both conditions also received nicotine replacement therapy. The primary outcome was biochemically-verified (i.e., salivary cotinine) smoking cessation. Results While 12-month self-reported abstinence was consistent with other published studies of smoking cessation (22% and 26% point prevalence abstinence for Proactive and Reactive conditions, respectively), 48% of participants who were tested for cotinine failed biochemical verification, indicating a considerable falsification of self-reported cessation. Adjusted cessation rates were less than 5% in both intervention conditions. Conclusion Our results are consistent with other studies indicating that traditional smoking cessation interventions are ineffective among cancer survivors. Moreover, self-reports of cessation were unreliable in cancer survivors participating in a quitline intervention, indicating that future studies should include biochemical verification. Given the importance of smoking cessation among cancer survivors and low cessation rates in the current study, it may be necessary to design alternative interventions for this population. PMID:25572620

  9. Developmental Status and Intimacy in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevon, Michael A.; Corn, Barbara; Lowrie, Geoffrey; Green, Daniel M.

    Whereas aggressive multimodal therapies are responsible for improved survival rates of children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer, concern has grown regarding the potential for adverse and delayed developmental effects resulting from these treatments. In light of this concern, this study assessed 207 adult survivors of childhood cancer in…

  10. [Current strategy in colorectal cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Lefter, L P; Dajbog, Elena; Scripcariu, V; Dragomir, Cr

    2005-01-01

    Screening programs should begin by classifying the individual patient's level of risk based on personal, family, and medical history, which will determine the appropriate approach for each subject. The individual's risk status determines when screening should be initiated and what tests and frequency are appropriate. To achieve these aims, care systems should establish standards and operating procedures. This review focuses on colorectal cancer screening methodology highlighting the latest available strategies. PMID:16610172

  11. Colorectal Cancer with Uncommon Metastatic Spread

    PubMed Central

    Dellavedova, Luca; Calcagno, Anna; Roncoroni, Lucia; Maffioli, Lorenzo Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of bone metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) is quite low and the presence of isolated osseous metastases at the time of diagnosis or the onset of bone metastases without other organ involvement during follow-up is even lower. Here, we present an interesting case of diffuse skeletal metastases from CRC in which both the atypical presentation of the metastatic spread and the presence of infective comorbidities created some troubles in getting the final diagnosis. PMID:26420997

  12. Cancer Support Needs for African American Breast Cancer Survivors and Caregivers.

    PubMed

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Allicock, Marlyn; Johnson, La-Shell

    2016-03-01

    Improved cancer screening and treatment advances have led to higher cancer survival rates in the United States. However, racial disparities in breast cancer survival persist for African American women who experience lower survival rates than white women. These disparities suggest that unmet needs related to survivorship still exist. This study focuses on the challenges that both African American cancer survivors and caregivers face across the cancer continuum. Five African American focus groups examined cancer survivor and caregiver support needs. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, and uploaded into Atlas.ti. Thematic content analysis was applied to the text during the coding process. Themes were identified and emphasized based on the research team's integrated and unified final codes. Forty-one African Americans participated in five focus groups: 22 cancer survivors and 19 caregivers. Participants discussed five themes: (1) a culture that discourages the discussion of cancer; (2) lack of support services for African American cancer survivors; (3) lack of support services for cancer caregivers; (4) need for culturally appropriate cancer resources, including resources targeted at African American women; and (5) aspects that were helpful to cancer survivors and caregivers, including connecting with other survivors and caregivers, and having strong social support networks. We gained new insight into the unmet support needs for survivors and caregivers, especially when coping with the cancer experience continuum. While some cancer and caregiver support services exist, our study reveals a great need for services that incorporate the cultural differences that exist across races. PMID:25869580

  13. Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rectal Cancer Home Page Colon and Rectal Cancer: Prevention, Genetics, Causes Tests to ... corresponding to answers “medications that do not contain aspirin unknown" (page 4 of 7). Things to know ...

  14. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  15. Infertility Education: Experiences and Preferences of Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Cherven, Brooke O; Mertens, Ann; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Williamson, Rebecca; Meacham, Lillian R

    2016-07-01

    The majority of children diagnosed with cancer will become long-term survivors; however, many will suffer late effects of treatment, including infertility. Educating patients about potential risk for infertility is important, yet little is known regarding when patients would like to hear this information. The purpose of this study was to assess young adult survivors' previous experience in receiving education about their risk for infertility and determine their preferences for infertility education at various time points during and after treatment. Only 36% of survivors report receiving education about risk for infertility at diagnosis, 39% at end of therapy, and 72% in long-term follow-up/survivor clinic visits. Survivors consistently identified their oncologist as a preferred educator at each time point. Although almost all participants identified wanting education at diagnosis, this time point alone may not be sufficient. End of therapy and survivorship may be times this message should be repeated and adapted for the survivor's needs and developmental stage: conversations about the impact of cancer treatment on future fertility should be ongoing. PMID:26582171

  16. Variation in the Association Between Colorectal Cancer Susceptibility Loci and Colorectal Polyps by Polyp Type

    PubMed Central

    Burnett-Hartman, Andrea N.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Peters, Ulrike; Passarelli, Michael N.; Schwartz, Malaika R.; Upton, Melissa P.; Zhu, Lee-Ching; Potter, John D.; Makar, Karen W.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study of the association between subsets of colorectal polyps, including adenomas and serrated polyps, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to colorectal cancer through prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Participants were enrollees in the Group Health Cooperative (Seattle, Washington) aged 24–79 years who received a colonoscopy from 1998 to 2007, donated a buccal or blood sample, and completed a structured questionnaire. We performed genotyping of 13 colorectal cancer susceptibility SNPs. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations between polyps and the colorectal cancer risk allele for each SNP under a log-additive model. Analyses included 781 controls, 489 cases with adenoma, 401 cases with serrated polyps, and 188 cases with both polyp types. The following SNPs were associated with advanced adenomas: rs10936599, rs10795668, rs16892766, and rs9929218 (P < 0.05). For nonadvanced adenomas and for serrated polyps overall, only rs961253 was statistically significant (P < 0.05). These associations were in the same directions as those in prior colorectal cancer GWAS. No SNP was significantly associated with hyperplastic polyps, and only rs6983267 was significantly associated with sessile serrated polyps, but this association was opposite of that found in colorectal cancer GWAS. Our results suggest that the association between colorectal cancer susceptibility SNPs and colorectal polyps varies by polyp type. PMID:24875374

  17. Dendritic cell defects in the colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Legitimo, Annalisa; Consolini, Rita; Failli, Alessandra; Orsini, Giulia; Spisni, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) results from the accumulation of both genetic and epigenetic alterations of the genome. However, also the formation of an inflammatory milieu plays a pivotal role in tumor development and progression. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a relevant role in tumor by exerting differential pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic functions, depending on the local milieu. Quantitative and functional impairments of DCs have been widely observed in several types of cancer, including CRC, representing a tumor-escape mechanism employed by cancer cells to elude host immunosurveillance. Understanding the interactions between DCs and tumors is important for comprehending the mechanisms of tumor immune surveillance and escape, and provides novel approaches to therapy of cancer. This review summarizes updated information on the role of the DCs in colon cancer development and/or progression. PMID:25483675

  18. Immune cell interplay in colorectal cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Samuel E; Ward-Hartstonge, Kirsten A; Taylor, Edward S; Kemp, Roslyn A

    2015-01-01

    The immune response to colorectal cancer has proven to be a reliable measure of patient outcome in several studies. However, the complexity of the immune response in this disease is not well understood, particularly the interactions between tumour-associated cells and cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. This review will discuss the relationship between cancer associated fibroblasts and macrophages, as well as between macrophages and T cells, and demonstrate how each population may support or prevent tumour growth in a different immune environment. PMID:26483876

  19. Peer navigation in African American breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Mollica, Michelle A; Nemeth, Lynne S; Newman, Susan D; Mueller, Martina; Sterba, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and acceptability of a peer navigation survivorship program for African American (AA) breast cancer survivors (BCS) and its potential effects on selected short-term outcomes according to the Quality of Life Model Applied to Cancer Survivors. Methods An AA BCS who completed treatment over 1 year prior to the study was trained as a peer navigator (PN), and then paired with AA women completing primary breast cancer treatment (n=4) for 2 months. This mixed-methods, proof of concept study utilized a convergent parallel approach to explore feasibility and investigate whether changes in scores are favorable using interviews and self-administered questionnaires. Results Results indicate that the PN intervention was acceptable by both PN and BCS, and was feasible in outcomes of recruitment, cost, and time requirements. Improvements in symptom distress, perceived support from God, and preparedness for recovery outcomes were observed over time. Qualitative analysis revealed six themes emerging from BCS interviews: “learning to ask the right questions”, “start living life again”, “shifting my perspective”, “wanting to give back”, “home visits are powerful”, and “we both have a journey”: support from someone who has been there. Conclusion Results support current literature indicating that AA women who have survived breast cancer can be an important source of support, knowledge, and motivation for those completing breast cancer treatment. Areas for future research include standardization of training and larger randomized trials of PN intervention. Implications for cancer survivors The transition from breast cancer patient to survivor is a period when there can be a loss of safety net concurrent with persistent support needs. AA cancer survivors can benefit from culturally tailored support and services after treatment for breast cancer. With further testing, this PN intervention may aid in

  20. Exercise Preference Patterns, Resources, and Environment among Rural Breast Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Laura Q.; Markwell, Stephen J.; Courneya, Kerry S.; McAuley, Edward; Verhulst, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Context: Rural breast cancer survivors may be at increased risk for inadequate exercise participation. Purpose: To determine for rural breast cancer survivors: (1) exercise preference "patterns," (2) exercise resources and associated factors, and (3) exercise environment. Methods: A mail survey was sent to rural breast cancer survivors identified…

  1. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer. The WHO Collaborating Centre for the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Shike, M.; Winawer, S. J.; Greenwald, P. H.; Bloch, A.; Hill, M. J.; Swaroop, S. V.

    1990-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common malignant neoplasm worldwide. Epidemiological and laboratory animal studies have established a link between various nutritional factors and the etiology of this cancer. Recent studies in genetic epidemiology and molecular biology have shown that inherited genetic factors also play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Thus, genetic-nutritional interactions may form the basis for the development of this cancer. Nutritional factors that appear to promote or attenuate the carcinogenic process in the colon include fat, excess calories, fibre, calcium, selenium, and various vitamins. Strategies for primary prevention of colorectal cancer should therefore be targeted to all populations who are at risk because of dietary and hereditary predisposition. Based on current knowledge, recommended nutrition guidelines for reducing the risk of colon cancer include decreased fat consumption, adequate amounts of fruits, vegetables, and calcium, and avoidance of overweight. Research to further elucidate the role of diet in colorectal carcinogenesis should include randomized studies in humans, testing of various nutritional regimens, and the use of colonic adenomas and markers of cell proliferation and differentiation as end-points. PMID:2203551

  2. Perceived religiousness is protective for colorectal cancer: data from the Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study.

    PubMed Central

    Kune, G A; Kune, S; Watson, L F

    1993-01-01

    The perceived or self-reported degree of 'religiousness' was obtained by interview from 715 colorectal cancer patients and 727 age/sex matched community controls, as part of a large, comprehensive population-based study of colorectal cancer incidence, aetiology and survival (The Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study) conducted in Melbourne, Australia. Self-reported or perceived 'religiousness', as defined in the study, was a statistically significant protective factor [relative risk (RR) = 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.6-0.9, P = 0.002]. This statistically significant protection remained after the previously determined major risk factors found in the study, namely a family history of colorectal cancer, dietary risk factors, beer consumption, number of children and age at birth of the first child, were statistically corrected for (P = 0.004). There was no association between Dukes' staging of the cancer and perceived degree of 'religiousness' (P = 0.42). Although self-reported or perceived 'religiousness' was associated with a median survival time of 62 months compared with 52 months in those self-reporting as being 'non-religious', this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.64). PMID:8258800

  3. Social outcomes in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Gurney, James G; Krull, Kevin R; Kadan-Lottick, Nina; Nicholson, H Stacy; Nathan, Paul C; Zebrack, Brad; Tersak, Jean M; Ness, Kirsten K

    2009-05-10

    Difficulties with negotiating and achieving desired social outcomes in life may be exacerbated by the experience of childhood cancer, including adverse effects from therapies used to achieve a cure. This review of previous publications from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) and other relevant literature provides insight into the prevalence of, and risk factors for, poor educational attainment, less than optimal employment status, and interpersonal relationship issues among long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The impacts of emotional health and physical disability on social outcomes are also examined. Study results suggest that childhood cancer survivors generally have similar high school graduation rates, but are more likely to require special education services than sibling comparison groups. Survivors are slightly less likely than expected to attend college, and are more likely to be unemployed and not married as young adults. Cancers and treatments that result in impairment to the CNS, particularly brain tumors, or that impact sensory functioning, such as hearing loss, are associated with greater risk for undesirable social outcomes, as are emotional health problems and physical disability. This review of relevant data from CCSS and other studies provides information on risk factors for social problems into adulthood. A greater understanding of the long-term social impacts from the diagnosis and treatment of childhood cancer is critically important for developing targeted interventions to prevent or ameliorate adverse psychosocial effects. PMID:19224833

  4. TNIK inhibition abrogates colorectal cancer stemness.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Mari; Uno, Yuko; Ohbayashi, Naomi; Ohata, Hirokazu; Mimata, Ayako; Kukimoto-Niino, Mutsuko; Moriyama, Hideki; Kashimoto, Shigeki; Inoue, Tomoko; Goto, Naoko; Okamoto, Koji; Shirouzu, Mikako; Sawa, Masaaki; Yamada, Tesshi

    2016-01-01

    Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signalling is essential for maintaining intestinal stem cells, and its constitutive activation has been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. We and others have previously identified Traf2- and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK) as an essential regulatory component of the T-cell factor-4 and β-catenin transcriptional complex. Consistent with this, Tnik-deficient mice are resistant to azoxymethane-induced colon tumorigenesis, and Tnik(-/-)/Apc(min/+) mutant mice develop significantly fewer intestinal tumours. Here we report the first orally available small-molecule TNIK inhibitor, NCB-0846, having anti-Wnt activity. X-ray co-crystal structure analysis reveals that NCB-0846 binds to TNIK in an inactive conformation, and this binding mode seems to be essential for Wnt inhibition. NCB-0846 suppresses Wnt-driven intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(min/+) mice and the sphere- and tumour-forming activities of colorectal cancer cells. TNIK is required for the tumour-initiating function of colorectal cancer stem cells. Its inhibition is a promising therapeutic approach. PMID:27562646

  5. TNIK inhibition abrogates colorectal cancer stemness

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Mari; Uno, Yuko; Ohbayashi, Naomi; Ohata, Hirokazu; Mimata, Ayako; Kukimoto-Niino, Mutsuko; Moriyama, Hideki; Kashimoto, Shigeki; Inoue, Tomoko; Goto, Naoko; Okamoto, Koji; Shirouzu, Mikako; Sawa, Masaaki; Yamada, Tesshi

    2016-01-01

    Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signalling is essential for maintaining intestinal stem cells, and its constitutive activation has been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. We and others have previously identified Traf2- and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK) as an essential regulatory component of the T-cell factor-4 and β-catenin transcriptional complex. Consistent with this, Tnik-deficient mice are resistant to azoxymethane-induced colon tumorigenesis, and Tnik−/−/Apcmin/+ mutant mice develop significantly fewer intestinal tumours. Here we report the first orally available small-molecule TNIK inhibitor, NCB-0846, having anti-Wnt activity. X-ray co-crystal structure analysis reveals that NCB-0846 binds to TNIK in an inactive conformation, and this binding mode seems to be essential for Wnt inhibition. NCB-0846 suppresses Wnt-driven intestinal tumorigenesis in Apcmin/+ mice and the sphere- and tumour-forming activities of colorectal cancer cells. TNIK is required for the tumour-initiating function of colorectal cancer stem cells. Its inhibition is a promising therapeutic approach. PMID:27562646

  6. Evaluation of the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS) scale for early post-treatment breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sohl, Stephanie J.; Levine, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The end of primary treatment for cancer patients is increasingly recognized as an important time of adjustment that may impact quality of life (QoL). A psychometrically sound QoL instrument that assesses the mix of acute and longer-term concerns present during this unique time has not yet been identified. This article evaluates the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS) scale, originally developed for long-term (≥5 years) cancer survivors, as an appropriate QoL measure for this transition period. Methods Psychometric properties of the QLACS were evaluated in a sample of post-treatment breast cancer survivors 18–24 months post-diagnosis. This observational study consisted of women (n = 552) aged 25 years and older (mean = 55.4 years) who were diagnosed with stage I, II, or III breast cancer. The 47 items of the QLACS comprise 12 domains: seven domains are generic, and five are cancer specific. Results The QLACS demonstrated adequate internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha for the 12 domains ranged from 0.79 to 0.91) and good convergent and divergent validity (assessed by comparison with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy and other measures). Conclusions The QLACS appears to be consistent with other widely accepted measures in capturing QoL, while also allowing for more inclusive measurement of specific issues relevant to post-treatment cancer survivors. These data, in addition to previous data supporting use of the QLACS across different cancer sites, suggest that the QLACS is a promising comprehensive QoL measure appropriate for breast cancer survivors transitioning off active treatment. PMID:24996392

  7. Bleomycin-associated Lung Toxicity in Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Zorzi, Alexandra P; Yang, Connie L; Dell, Sharon; Nathan, Paul C

    2015-11-01

    Pulmonary disease is a significant morbidity among childhood cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to characterize the pulmonary dysfunction experienced by childhood cancer survivors treated with bleomycin. A cross-sectional analysis of pulmonary function testing (PFT) in survivors treated with bleomycin was preformed. The most recent posttherapy PFT was assessed. Spirometry and lung volumes were categorized as normal, restrictive, obstructive, or mixed. Diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) was categorized as normal or abnormal. PFT data of 143 survivors was analyzed. PFTs were performed a median of 2.3 years (interquartile range, 1.4 to 4.9) from completion of therapy. Spirometry was abnormal in 58 (41%), only 5 (9%) had respiratory symptoms. Forty-two (70%) had obstructive, 11 (18%) restrictive, and 5 (9%) mixed ventilatory defects. The majority of abnormalities were mild (91%). DLCO was abnormal in 27. Reductions were mild in 96%. Patients with a history of relapse were more likely to develop abnormalities in spirometry and/or DLCO (odds ratio=5.02, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-19.4, P=0.01; odds ratio=3.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-11.9, P=0.03). Asymptomatic abnormalities of PFT are common among childhood cancer survivors treated with bleomycin and associated with a history of relapse. Research studying the risk for clinical progression of this dysfunction is warranted. PMID:26422284

  8. Blood Gene Expression Profiling of Breast Cancer Survivors Experiencing Fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Landmark-Hoyvik, Hege; Dumeaux, Vanessa; Reinertsen, Kristin V.; Edvardsen, Hege; Fossa, Sophie D.; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To extend knowledge on the mechanisms and pathways involved in maintenance of radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) by performing gene expression profiling of whole blood from breast cancer (BC) survivors with and without fibrosis 3-7 years after end of radiotherapy treatment. Methods and Materials: Gene expression profiles from blood were obtained for 254 BC survivors derived from a cohort of survivors, treated with adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer 3-7 years earlier. Analyses of transcriptional differences in blood gene expression between BC survivors with fibrosis (n = 31) and BC survivors without fibrosis (n = 223) were performed using R version 2.8.0 and tools from the Bioconductor project. Gene sets extracted through a literature search on fibrosis and breast cancer were subsequently used in gene set enrichment analysis. Results: Substantial differences in blood gene expression between BC survivors with and without fibrosis were observed, and 87 differentially expressed genes were identified through linear analysis. Transforming growth factor-{beta}1 signaling was identified as the most significant gene set, showing a down-regulation of most of the core genes, together with up-regulation of a transcriptional activator of the inhibitor of fibrinolysis, Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 in the BC survivors with fibrosis. Conclusion: Transforming growth factor-{beta}1 signaling was found down-regulated during the maintenance phase of fibrosis as opposed to the up-regulation reported during the early, initiating phase of fibrosis. Hence, once the fibrotic tissue has developed, the maintenance phase might rather involve a deregulation of fibrinolysis and altered degradation of extracellular matrix components.

  9. NIH study finds sigmoidoscopy reduces colorectal cancer rates

    Cancer.gov

    Study finds that flexible sigmoidoscopy is effective in reducing the rates of new cases and deaths due to colorectal cancer. Researchers found that overall colorectal cancer mortality was reduced by 26 percent and incidence was reduced by 21 percent as a

  10. Colorectal cancer screening awareness among physicians in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Xilomenos, Apostolos; Mauri, Davide; Kamposioras, Konstantinos; Gkinosati, Athanasia; Zacharias, Georgios; Sidiropoulou, Varvara; Papadopoulos, Panagiotis; Chatzimichalis, Georgios; Golfinopoulos, Vassilis; Peponi, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Background Data comparison between SEER and EUROCARE database provided evidence that colorectal cancer survival in USA is higher than in European countries. Since adjustment for stage at diagnosis markedly reduces the survival differences, a screening bias was hypothesized. Considering the important role of primary care in screening activities, the purpose of the study was to investigate the colorectal cancer screening awareness among Hellenic physicians. Methods 211 primary care physicians were surveyed by mean of a self-reported prescription-habits questionnaire. Both physicians' colorectal cancer screening behaviors and colorectal cancer screening recommendations during usual check-up visits were analyzed. Results Only 50% of physicians were found to recommend screening for colorectal cancer during usual check-up visits, and only 25% prescribed cost-effective procedures. The percentage of physicians recommending stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy was 24% and 4% respectively. Only 48% and 23% of physicians recognized a cancer screening value for stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy. Colorectal screening recommendations were statistically lower among physicians aged 30 or less (p = 0.012). No differences were found when gender, level and type of specialization were analyzed, even though specialists in general practice showed a trend for better prescription (p = 0.054). Conclusion Contemporary recommendations for colorectal cancer screening are not followed by implementation in primary care setting. Education on presymptomatic control and screening practice monitoring are required if primary care is to make a major impact on colorectal cancer mortality. PMID:16756674

  11. Colorectal cancer screening: The role of the noninvasive options.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Lisa; Varcak, Susan Combs

    2016-09-01

    Recommended screening options for colorectal cancer are divided into noninvasive stool-based options, and invasive procedure-based options. Because multiple screening strategies are effective, efforts to reduce deaths from colorectal cancer should focus on maximizing the number of patients who are screened. This article reviews noninvasive stool-based screening options. PMID:27575898

  12. Radiation, Atherosclerotic Risk Factors, and Stroke Risk in Survivors of Pediatric Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Sabine; Fullerton, Heather J.; Stratton, Kayla; Leisenring, Wendy; Weathers, Rita E.; Stovall, Marilyn; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Goldsby, Robert E.; Packer, Roger J.; Sklar, Charles A.; Bowers, Daniel C.; Robison, Leslie L.; Krull, Kevin R.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To test the hypotheses that (1) the increased risk of stroke conferred by childhood cranial radiation therapy (CRT) persists into adulthood; and (2) atherosclerotic risk factors further increase the stroke risk in cancer survivors. Methods and Materials: The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of 14,358 5-year survivors of childhood cancer and 4023 randomly selected sibling controls with longitudinal follow-up. Age-adjusted incidence rates of self-reported late-occurring (≥5 years after diagnosis) first stroke were calculated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify independent stroke predictors. Results: During a mean follow-up of 23.3 years, 292 survivors reported a late-occurring stroke. The age-adjusted stroke rate per 100,000 person-years was 77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 62-96), compared with 9.3 (95% CI 4-23) for siblings. Treatment with CRT increased stroke risk in a dose-dependent manner: hazard ratio 5.9 (95% CI 3.5-9.9) for 30-49 Gy CRT and 11.0 (7.4-17.0) for 50+ Gy CRT. The cumulative stroke incidence in survivors treated with 50+ Gy CRT was 1.1% (95% CI 0.4-1.8%) at 10 years after diagnosis and 12% (95% CI 8.9-15.0%) at 30 years. Hypertension increased stroke hazard by 4-fold (95% CI 2.8-5.5) and in black survivors by 16-fold (95% CI 6.9-36.6). Conclusion: Young adult pediatric cancer survivors have an increased stroke risk that is associated with CRT in a dose-dependent manner. Atherosclerotic risk factors enhanced this risk and should be treated aggressively.

  13. Perceived Positive Impact of Cancer Among Long-term Survivors of Childhood Cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Zebrack, Brad J.; Stuber, Margaret L.; Meeske, Kathleen A.; Phipps, Sean; Krull, Kevin R.; Liu, Qi; Parry, Carla; Hamilton, Rachel; Robison, Leslie L.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Investigations examining psychosocial adjustment among childhood cancer survivors have focused primarily on negative effects and psychopathology. Emergent literature suggests the existence of positive impact or adjustment experienced after cancer, as well. The purpose of this study is to examine the distribution of Perceived Positive Impact (PPI) and its correlates in young adult survivors of childhood cancer. Methods 6,425 survivors and 360 siblings completed a comprehensive health survey, inclusive of a modified version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) as a measure of PPI. Linear regression models were used to examine demographic, disease and treatment characteristics associated with PPI. Results Survivors were significantly more likely than siblings to report PPI. Endorsement of PPI was significantly greater among female and non-white survivors, and among survivors exposed to at least one intense therapy, a second malignancy or cancer recurrence. Survivors diagnosed at older ages and fewer years since diagnosis were more likely to report PPI. Income, education and marital/relationship status appeared to have varied relationships to PPI depending upon the subscale being evaluated. Conclusions The existence and variability of PPI in survivors in this study suggest that individual characteristics, inclusive of race, gender, cancer type, intensity of treatment, age at diagnosis and time since diagnosis, have unique and specific associations with different aspects of perceived positive outcomes of childhood cancer. PMID:21425388

  14. Cancer survivorship and identity among long-term survivors.

    PubMed

    Deimling, Gary T; Bowman, Karen F; Wagner, Louis J

    2007-12-01

    This article examines the concept of survivorship and the adoption of the "survivor identity" by those who have been treated for cancer. First, we review recent and growing theoretical and empirical literatures on cancer and identity and identity transformation. With that review as background, we present our own research findings from 2 separate studies on survivorship and identity. Our data suggest that most older adults who have survived cancer for at least 5 years, identify as cancer survivors and/or as ex-patients rather than as victims or patients. Most also view being a survivor as an important part of who they are, do not see themselves as less whole, and are not overly concerned about how others view them. To the degree that a survivor orientation is associated with better mental health outcomes and encourages health promotion and appropriate symptom monitoring, it can reinforce the effects of the quality medical care provided by clinical staff. The support of clinicians encouraging this orientation, where it is appropriate, may further enhance the quality of life of individuals who living with a history of cancer. PMID:17952742

  15. U.S. Cancer Survivors Living Longer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 27 percent had a history of other medical problems. Among survivors aged 85 and older, 47 percent had other chronic conditions, the researchers found. The findings were published in the July 1 ... other medical problems, as concerning. "There aren't many older adults ...

  16. Harvest for Health Gardening Intervention Feasibility Study in Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Cindy K.; Madan-Swain, Avi; Locher, Julie L.; Desmond, Renee A.; De Los Santos, Jennifer; Affuso, Olivia; Glover, Tony; Smith, Kerry; Carley, Joseph; Lipsitz, Mindy; Sharma, Ayushe; Krontiras, Helen; Cantor, Alan; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer survivors are at increased risk for second malignancies, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and functional decline. Evidence suggests that a healthful diet and physical activity may reduce the risk of chronic disease and improve health in this population. Methods We conducted a feasibility study to evaluate a vegetable gardening intervention that paired 12 adult and child cancer survivors with Master Gardeners to explore effects on fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, quality-of-life, and physical function. Throughout the year-long study period, the survivor-Master Gardener dyads worked together to plan/plant 3 gardens, harvest/rotate plantings, and troubleshoot/correct problems. Data on diet, physical activity, and quality-of-life were collected via surveys; anthropometrics and physical function were objectively measured. Acceptability of the intervention was assessed with a structured debriefing survey. Results The gardening intervention was feasible (robust enrollment; minimal attrition) and well-received by cancer survivors and Master Gardeners. Improvement in 3 of 4 objective measures of strength, agility, and endurance was observed in 90% of survivors, with the following change scores (median [interquartile range]) noted between baseline and 1-year follow-up: hand grip test (+4.8 [3.0, 6.7] kg), 8 foot Get-Up-and-Go (−1.0 [−1.8, −0.2] seconds), 30-second chair stand (+3.0 [−1.0, 5.0] stands), and 6-minute walk (+38 [20, 160] feet). Increases of ≥1 fruit and vegetable serving/ day and ≥30 minutes/week of physical activity were observed in 40% and 60%, respectively. Conclusion These preliminary results support the feasibility and acceptability of a mentored gardening intervention and suggest that it may offer a novel and promising strategy to improve fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and physical function in cancer survivors. A larger randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm our results. PMID

  17. Radiation and cancer risk in atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kodama, K; Ozasa, K; Okubo, T

    2012-03-01

    With the aim of accurately assessing the effects of radiation exposure in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has, over several decades, conducted studies of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, comprising 93 000 atomic-bomb survivors and 27 000 controls. Solid cancer: the recent report on solid cancer incidence found that at age 70 years following exposure at age 30 years, solid cancer rates increase by about 35%  Gy(-1) for men and 58% Gy(-1) for women. Age-at-exposure is an important risk modifier. In the case of lung cancer, cigarette smoking has been found to be an important risk modifier. Radiation has similar effects on first-primary and second-primary cancer risks. Finally, radiation-associated increases in cancer rates appear to persist throughout life. Leukaemia: the recent report on leukaemia mortality suggests that radiation effects on leukaemia mortality persisted for more than 50 years. Moreover, significant dose-response for myelodysplastic syndrome was observed in Nagasaki LSS members even 40-60 years after radiation exposure. Future perspective: given the continuing solid cancer increase in the survivor population, the LSS will likely continue to provide important new information on radiation exposure and solid cancer risks for another 15-20 years, especially for those exposed at a young age. PMID:22394591

  18. Sam Donaldson: Tips from A Cancer Survivor

    MedlinePlus

    ... little bit about the disease now and the survivability of various forms and stages. Klose: Do you ... More "Understanding Cancer" Articles Understanding Cancer / Cancer Today / Survivability and Hope / Sam Donaldson: Tips From a Cancer ...

  19. Colonoscopy as a screening test for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Schapira, M; Adler, M

    2005-01-01

    Colonoscopy is the current gold standard for the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal neoplasms. Several gastroenterological and/or endoscopical societies recommend screening by colonoscopy in high risk patients for colorectal cancer whilst for average risk patients colonoscopy remains a valid option. In some countries screening colonoscopy is now covered by medical insurance. It is also the final common pathway of all colorectal cancer screening methods. This paper addresses the advantages and also limitations of colonoscopy as the first procedure for colorectal screening and emphasizes the importance of organized training and continuous assessment of competence of gastroenterologists and the necessity to have quality control audits of the endoscopy units. PMID:16013645

  20. Anti-metastatic treatment in colorectal cancer: targeting signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Clara; Sack, Ulrike; Schmid, Felicitas; Juneja, Manisha; Stein, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the Western world. Tumor progression towards metastasis affects a large number of patients with colorectal cancer and seriously affects their clinical outcome. Therefore, considerable effort has been made towards the development of therapeutic strategies that can decrease or prevent colorectal cancer metastasis. Standard treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer with chemotherapy has been improved in the last 10 years by the addition of new targeted agents. The currently used antibodies bevacizumab, cetuximab and panitumumab target the VEGF and EGFR signaling pathways, which are crucial for tumor progression and metastasis. These antibodies have shown relevant efficacy in both first- and second-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Additionally, other signaling pathways, including the Wnt and HGF/Met pathways, have a well-established role in colorectal cancer progression and metastasis and constitute, therefore, promising targets for new therapeutic approaches. Several new drugs targeting these pathways, including different antibodies and small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, are currently being developed and tested in clinical trials. In this review, we summarize the new developments in this field, focusing on the inhibitors that show more promising results for use in colorectal cancer patients. PMID:22973955

  1. Polysomnographic Study of Sleep in Survivors of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reinsel, Ruth A.; Starr, Tatiana D.; O'Sullivan, Barbara; Passik, Steven D.; Kavey, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: Insomnia is a frequent complaint in breast cancer patients during and after treatment. Breast cancer survivors, 1–10 years posttreatment, underwent in-lab polysomnography (PSG) to objectively define the insomnia in those patients with such a complaint. Methods: Twenty-six breast cancer survivors (aged 39–80, mean 54.0 months posttreatment) spent 2 nights in the sleep laboratory. Sleep on Night 2 was scored for sleep stages, sleep onset latency, REM sleep onset latency, wake time, apneas and hypopneas, periodic limb movements and arousals. Subjects were allocated into 2 groups by their scores on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI): no/ mild sleep disturbance (PSQI score ≤ 9, n = 15) or moderate/ severe sleep disturbance (PSQI ≥ 10, n = 11). Results: Standard PSG/EEG parameters failed to differentiate insomniacs from non-insomniacs. The single variable that distinguished the insomnia group was periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS). PLMS were significantly correlated (r ≅ 0.7, p < 0.02) with subjective report of insomnia on PSQI and insomnia severity index. Log[Number of PLMS] was higher in the moderate/severe insomnia group (p = 0.008). Five of 11 patients in the moderate/severe insomnia group had a PLMS index ≥ 15, compared to only one of 15 patients in the none/mild insomnia group (p = 0.02). Menopausal symptoms and use of caffeine, hypnotics, and antidepressants were unrelated to insomnia severity or PLMS. Conclusions: PLMS was the sole PSG variable that separated breast cancer survivors with moderate/severe insomnia from those with no/mild sleep disturbance. Further study of the incidence and significance of PLMS in breast cancer survivors with the complaint of insomnia is merited. Citation: Reinsel RA, Starr TD, O'Sullivan B, Passik SD, Kavey NB. Polysomnographic study of sleep in survivors of breast cancer. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(12):1361–1370. PMID:26194735

  2. MTDH genetic variants in colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Gnosa, Sebastian; Ticha, Ivana; Haapaniemi, Staffan; Sun, Xiao-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The colorectal carcinogenesis is a complex process encompassing genetic alterations. The oncoprotein AEG-1, encoded by the MTDH gene, was shown previously to be involved in colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and the spectrum of MTDH variants in tumor tissue, and their relationship to clinicopathological variables in CRC patients. The study included tumors from 356 unselected CRC patients. Mutation analysis of the MTDH gene, including coding region and adjacent intronic sequences, was performed by direct DNA sequencing. The corresponding normal colorectal tissue was analyzed in the carriers of exonic variant to confirm germline or somatic origin. We detected 42 intronic variants, where 25 were novel. Furthermore, we found 8 exonic variants of which four, one missense (c.977C > G-germline) and three frameshift mutations (c.533delA-somatic, c.1340dupA-unknown origin, c.1731delA-unknown origin), were novel. In silico prediction analyses suggested four deleterious variants (c.232G > T, c.533delA, c.1340dupA, and c.1731delA). There were no correlations between the MTDH variants and tumor stage, differentiation or patient survival. We described several novel exonic and intronic variants of the MTDH gene. The detection of likely pathogenic truncating mutations and alterations in functional protein domains indicate their clinical significance, although none of the variants had prognostic potential. PMID:26983693

  3. Exercise for Breast Cancer Survivors: Research Evidence and Clinical Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courneya, Kerry S.; Mackey, John R.; McKenzie, Donald C.

    2002-01-01

    Exercise can significantly benefit breast cancer survivors during and after treatment. Moderate intensity aerobic exercise as well as resistance training are important. Psychological health is optimized by enjoyable exercise that develops new skills, incorporates social interaction, and occurs in a stimulating environment. Several conditions…

  4. The Effect of Cancer on Suicide among Elderly Holocaust Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakash, Ora; Liphshitz, Irena; Keinan-Boker, Lital; Levav, Itzhak

    2013-01-01

    Jewish-Israelis of European origin with cancer have higher suicide rates relative to their counterparts in the general population. We investigated whether this effect results from the high proportion of Holocaust survivors among them, due to vulnerabilities arising from the earlier traumas they sustained. The study was based on all Jewish-European…

  5. Colorectal cancer development and advances in screening.

    PubMed

    Simon, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Most colon tumors develop via a multistep process involving a series of histological, morphological, and genetic changes that accumulate over time. This has allowed for screening and detection of early-stage precancerous polyps before they become cancerous in individuals at average risk for colorectal cancer (CRC), which may lead to substantial decreases in the incidence of CRC. Despite the known benefits of early screening, CRC remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Hence, it is important for health care providers to have an understanding of the risk factors for CRC and various stages of disease development in order to recommend appropriate screening strategies. This article provides an overview of the histological/molecular changes that characterize the development of CRC. It describes the available CRC screening methods and their advantages and limitations and highlights the stages of CRC development in which each screening method is most effective. PMID:27486317

  6. Biomarkers of Angiogenesis in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Luay; Salem, Mohamed E.; Mikhail, Sameh

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and accounts for 10% of all new cancer diagnoses. Angiogenesis is a tightly regulated process that is mediated by a group of angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors. Given the widespread use of antiangiogenic agents in CRC, there has been considerable interest in the development of methods to identify novel markers that can predict outcome in the treatment of this disease with angiogenesis inhibitors. Multiple biomarkers are in various phases of development and include tissue, serum, and imaging biomarkers. The complexity of the angiogenesis pathway and the overlap between the various angiogenic factors present a significant challenge to biomarker discovery. In our review, we discuss the angiogenesis pathway and the most promising evolving concepts in biomarker discovery, as well as highlight the landmark studies that identify subgroups of patients with CRC who may preferentially benefit from angiogenesis inhibitors. PMID:26543385

  7. Targeting Notch Signaling in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suman, Suman; Das, Trinath P.; Ankem, Murali K.; Damodaran, Chendil

    2014-01-01

    The activation of Notch signaling is implicated in tumorigenesis in the colon due to the induction of pro-survival signaling in colonic epithelial cells. Chemoresistance is a major obstacle for treatment and for the complete eradication of colorectal cancer (CRC), hence, the inhibition of Notch is an attractive target for CRC and several groups are working to identify small molecules or monoclonal antibodies that inhibit Notch or its downstream events; however, toxicity profiles in normal cells and organs often impede the clinical translation of these molecules. Dietary agents have gained momentum for targeting several pro-survival signaling cascades, and recent studies demonstrated that agents that inhibit Notch signaling result in growth inhibition in preclinical models of CRC. In this review, we focus on the importance of Notch as a preventive and therapeutic target for colon cancer and on the effect of WA on this signaling pathway in the context of colon cancer. PMID:25395896

  8. Targeting Notch Signaling in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Suman, Suman; Das, Trinath P; Ankem, Murali K; Damodaran, Chendil

    2014-12-01

    The activation of Notch signaling is implicated in tumorigenesis in the colon due to the induction of pro-survival signaling in colonic epithelial cells. Chemoresistance is a major obstacle for treatment and for the complete eradication of colorectal cancer (CRC), hence, the inhibition of Notch is an attractive target for CRC and several groups are working to identify small molecules or monoclonal antibodies that inhibit Notch or its downstream events; however, toxicity profiles in normal cells and organs often impede the clinical translation of these molecules. Dietary agents have gained momentum for targeting several pro-survival signaling cascades, and recent studies demonstrated that agents that inhibit Notch signaling result in growth inhibition in preclinical models of CRC. In this review, we focus on the importance of Notch as a preventive and therapeutic target for colon cancer and on the effect of WA on this signaling pathway in the context of colon cancer. PMID:25395896

  9. Colorectal cancer development and advances in screening

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Most colon tumors develop via a multistep process involving a series of histological, morphological, and genetic changes that accumulate over time. This has allowed for screening and detection of early-stage precancerous polyps before they become cancerous in individuals at average risk for colorectal cancer (CRC), which may lead to substantial decreases in the incidence of CRC. Despite the known benefits of early screening, CRC remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Hence, it is important for health care providers to have an understanding of the risk factors for CRC and various stages of disease development in order to recommend appropriate screening strategies. This article provides an overview of the histological/molecular changes that characterize the development of CRC. It describes the available CRC screening methods and their advantages and limitations and highlights the stages of CRC development in which each screening method is most effective. PMID:27486317

  10. Biomechanical investigation of colorectal cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmieri, Valentina; Lucchetti, Donatella; Maiorana, Alessandro; Papi, Massimiliano; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Ciasca, Gabriele; Svelto, Maria; De Spirito, Marco; Sgambato, Alessandro

    2014-09-01

    The nanomechanical properties of SW480 colon cancer cells were investigated using Atomic Force Microscopy. SW480 cells are composed of two sub-populations with different shape and invasiveness. These two cells populations showed similar adhesion properties while appeared significantly different in term of cells stiffness. Since cell stiffness is related to invasiveness and growth, we suggest elasticity as a useful parameter to distinguish invasive cells inside the colorectal tumor bulk and the high-resolution mechanical mapping as a promising diagnostic tool for the identification of malignant cells.