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1

Optimisation of colour schemes to accurately display mass spectrometry imaging data based on human colour perception.  

PubMed

The choice of colour scheme used to present data can have a dramatic effect on the perceived structure present within the data. This is of particular significance in mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), where ion images that provide 2D distributions of a wide range of analytes are used to draw conclusions about the observed system. Commonly employed colour schemes are generally suboptimal for providing an accurate representation of the maximum amount of data. Rainbow-based colour schemes are extremely popular within the community, but they introduce well-documented artefacts which can be actively misleading in the interpretation of the data. In this article, we consider the suitability of colour schemes and composite image formation found in MSI literature in the context of human colour perception. We also discuss recommendations of rules for colour scheme selection for ion composites and multivariate analysis techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA). PMID:25649999

Race, Alan M; Bunch, Josephine

2015-03-01

2

From colour to tissue histology: Physics-based interpretation of images of pigmented skin lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through an understanding of the image formation process, diagnostically important facts about the internal structure and composition of pigmented skin lesions can be derived from their colour images. A physics-based model of tissue colouration provides a cross-reference between image colours and the underlying histological parameters. It is constructed by computing the spectral composition of light remitted from the skin given

Ela Claridge; Symon Cotton; Per Hall; Marc Moncrieff

2003-01-01

3

Colour model analysis for microscopic image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This article presents a comparative study between different colour models (RGB, HSI and CIEL*a*b*) applied to very large microscopic image analysis. Such analysis of different colour models is needed in order to carry out a successful detection and therefore a classification of different regions of interest (ROIs) with- in the image. Methods: All colour models have their advantages and

Gloria Bueno; Roberto González; Oscar Déniz; Jesús González; Marcial García-Rojo

2000-01-01

4

RGB-NDVI colour composites for visualizing forest change dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and logical technique was developed to display and quantify forest change using three dates of satellite imagery. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was computed for each date of imagery to define high and low vegetation biomass. Colour composites were generated by combining each date of NDVI with either the red, green, or blue (RGB) image planes in

S. A. SADER; J. C. WINNE

1992-01-01

5

From colour to tissue histology: Physics-based interpretation of images of pigmented skin lesions.  

PubMed

Through an understanding of the image formation process, diagnostically important facts about the internal structure and composition of pigmented skin lesions can be derived from their colour images. A physics-based model of tissue colouration provides a cross-reference between image colours and the underlying histological parameters. It is constructed by computing the spectral composition of light remitted from the skin given parameters specifying its structure and optical properties. The model is representative of all the normal human skin colours, irrespective of racial origin, age or gender. Abnormal skin colours do not conform to this model and thus can be detected. Once the model is constructed, for each pixel in a colour image its histological parameters are computed from the model. Represented as images, these 'parametric maps' show the concentration of dermal and epidermal melanin, blood and collagen thickness across the imaged skin as well as locations where abnormal colouration exists. In a clinical study the parametric maps were used by a clinician to detect the presence of malignant melanoma in a set of 348 pigmented lesions imaged using a commercial device, the SIAscope. Logistic regression identified the presence of melanin in the dermis, the abnormal distribution of blood within the lesion and the lesion size as the most diagnostically informative features. Classification based on these features showed 80.1% sensitivity and 82.7% specificity in melanoma detection. PMID:14561553

Claridge, Ela; Cotton, Symon; Hall, Per; Moncrieff, Marc

2003-12-01

6

Application of HSV colour system in identification by colour of biological objects on the basis of microscopic images.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates preliminary image processing with the aim of obtaining invariant signs for identification by colour. For this purpose we have used microscopic images of cell structures in coloured peripheral blood smears. The main parameter for the identification is the colouring of the respective cell structures on the basis of which we have created histograms by hue for the available cell types. PMID:9007363

Pavlova, P E; Cyrrilov, K P; Moumdjiev, I N

1996-01-01

7

Colour coding of intensity levels in CCD images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present methods of displaying electronic images from Charge Coupled Device (CCD) cameras often fall short of ideal. The production of hard copy from computer printers or by the photography of monitors frequently limits the quantity and quality of information available. One way to improve the transfer of information from electronic files to human eye and brain is to see a spectrum of colours in addition to the usual brightness variations. The addition of colour gives an added dimension to the images and enables subtle variations in intensity to be more readily perceived.

Neville, R. J.

1995-06-01

8

Colour Parametrization in a Multiparametric Image Interface  

E-print Network

of electromagnetic energy, such as X-ray or otherwise to form images. In remote sensing, Multispectral Scanners (MSS kinds of images are formed using electromagnetic energy, images are also created from sources other than electromagnetic energy. Geographers use aerial photographs, ground surveys, water quality assessments and other

Oldford, R.W.

9

Deepest Wide-Field Colour Image in the Southern Sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LA SILLA CAMERA OBSERVES CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH ESO PR Photo 02a/03 ESO PR Photo 02a/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 437 pix - 95k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 873 pix - 904k] [HiRes - JPEG: 4000 x 4366 pix - 23.1M] Caption : PR Photo 02a/03 shows a three-colour composite image of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S) , obtained with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) camera on the 2.2-m MPG/ESO telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile). It was produced by the combination of about 450 images with a total exposure time of nearly 50 hours. The field measures 36 x 34 arcmin 2 ; North is up and East is left. Technical information is available below. The combined efforts of three European teams of astronomers, targeting the same sky field in the southern constellation Fornax (The Oven) have enabled them to construct a very deep, true-colour image - opening an exceptionally clear view towards the distant universe . The image ( PR Photo 02a/03 ) covers an area somewhat larger than the full moon. It displays more than 100,000 galaxies, several thousand stars and hundreds of quasars. It is based on images with a total exposure time of nearly 50 hours, collected under good observing conditions with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile) - many of them extracted from the ESO Science Data Archive . The position of this southern sky field was chosen by Riccardo Giacconi (Nobel Laureate in Physics 2002) at a time when he was Director General of ESO, together with Piero Rosati (ESO). It was selected as a sky region towards which the NASA Chandra X-ray satellite observatory , launched in July 1999, would be pointed while carrying out a very long exposure (lasting a total of 1 million seconds, or 278 hours) in order to detect the faintest possible X-ray sources. The field is now known as the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S) . The new WFI photo of CDF-S does not reach quite as deep as the available images of the "Hubble Deep Fields" (HDF-N in the northern and HDF-S in the southern sky, cf. e.g. ESO PR Photo 35a/98 ), but the field-of-view is about 200 times larger. The present image displays about 50 times more galaxies than the HDF images, and therefore provides a more representative view of the universe . The WFI CDF-S image will now form a most useful basis for the very extensive and systematic census of the population of distant galaxies and quasars, allowing at once a detailed study of all evolutionary stages of the universe since it was about 2 billion years old . These investigations have started and are expected to provide information about the evolution of galaxies in unprecedented detail. They will offer insights into the history of star formation and how the internal structure of galaxies changes with time and, not least, throw light on how these two evolutionary aspects are interconnected. GALAXIES IN THE WFI IMAGE ESO PR Photo 02b/03 ESO PR Photo 02b/03 [Preview - JPEG: 488 x 400 pix - 112k] [Normal - JPEG: 896 x 800 pix - 1.0M] [Full-Res - JPEG: 2591 x 2313 pix - 8.6M] Caption : PR Photo 02b/03 contains a collection of twelve subfields from the full WFI Chandra Deep Field South (WFI CDF-S), centred on (pairs or groups of) galaxies. Each of the subfields measures 2.5 x 2.5 arcmin 2 (635 x 658 pix 2 ; 1 pixel = 0.238 arcsec). North is up and East is left. Technical information is available below. The WFI CDF-S colour image - of which the full field is shown in PR Photo 02a/03 - was constructed from all available observations in the optical B- ,V- and R-bands obtained under good conditions with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the 2.2-m MPG/ESO telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile), and now stored in the ESO Science Data Archive. It is the "deepest" image ever taken with this instrument. It covers a sky field measuring 36 x 34 arcmin 2 , i.e., an area somewhat larger than that of the full moon. The observations were collected during a period of nearly four years, beginning in January 1999 when the WFI instrument was first installed (cf. ESO PR 02/99

2003-01-01

10

Molecular imaging true-colour spectroscopic optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular imaging holds a pivotal role in medicine due to its ability to provide invaluable insight into disease mechanisms at molecular and cellular levels. To this end, various techniques have been developed for molecular imaging, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. For example, fluorescence imaging achieves micrometre-scale resolution, but has low penetration depths and is mostly limited to exogenous agents. Here, we demonstrate molecular imaging of endogenous and exogenous chromophores using a novel form of spectroscopic optical coherence tomography. Our approach consists of using a wide spectral bandwidth laser source centred in the visible spectrum, thereby allowing facile assessment of haemoglobin oxygen levels, providing contrast from readily available absorbers, and enabling true-colour representation of samples. This approach provides high spectral fidelity while imaging at the micrometre scale in three dimensions. Molecular imaging true-colour spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (METRiCS OCT) has significant implications for many biomedical applications including ophthalmology, early cancer detection, and understanding fundamental disease mechanisms such as hypoxia and angiogenesis.

Robles, Francisco E.; Wilson, Christy; Grant, Gerald; Wax, Adam

2011-12-01

11

Egg Yolk Colour Depending upon the Composition of the Feeding Mixture for Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dvofiák P., E. Straková, J. Kunová, V. Kunová: Egg Yolk Colour Dependis upon the Composition of the Feeding Mixture for Laying Hens. Acta Vet Brno 2007, 76: 121-127. The aim of this study was to verify the possibility of replacement of fish meal by specially treated meal made of yellow lupin seed in relation to the yolk colour. The experiment

P. Dvo?ák; E. Straková; J. Kunová; V. Kunová

2007-01-01

12

RGB-NDVI colour composites for visualizing forest change dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study presents a simple and logical technique to display and quantify forest change using three dates of satellite imagery. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was computed for each date of imagery to define high and low vegetation biomass. Color composites were generated by combining each date of NDVI with either the red, green, or blue (RGB) image planes in an image display monitor. Harvest and regeneration areas were quantified by applying a modified parallelepiped classification creating an RGB-NDVI image with 27 classes that were grouped into nine major forest change categories. Aerial photographs and stand history maps are compared with the forest changes indicated by the RGB-NDVI image. The utility of the RGB-NDVI technique for supporting forest inventories and updating forest resource information systems are presented and discussed.

Sader, S. A.; Winne, J. C.

1992-01-01

13

Deep UV imaging by spectrometric full-colour cathodoluminescence microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new deep-UV cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy is tried on studying design and fabrication of recent solid-state light-emitting (LE) devices that emit near 200 nm light. CL microscopy has enough energy for electronic excitation of deep-UV emitting devices and visualizes distribution map of their electronic structures. The deep-UV imaging system is constructed on our own spectrometric full-colour CL microscope that collects CL spectra at all pixel points of the specimen during regular SEM observation, and at the end of one frame scan, a set of CL spectra is accumulated in the control computer. One frame scan of 512x512 pixels needs 8 to 80 sec, which is unbeatable by any other commercial CL microscopes. Full-colour CL micrograph is constructed using the spectra. The detector, a 32-channel photoelectron multiplier array, has higher sensitivity in UV region than any solidstate linear sensors, and a grating of 300-nm blaze wavelength instead of one at 500-nm blaze wavelength for visible lights, provide CL micrographs of 180-700 nm lights for recent deep-UV LE devices. Some unforeseen light emissions between 200-350 nm regions are observed on various materials and they are discussed correlating with the structure observed in SEM micrographs.

Saijo, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Shiojiri, M.

2010-07-01

14

Effect of fining on the colour and pigment composition of young red wines.  

PubMed

This work aimed to evaluate the effect of four fining agents on the colour and pigment composition of red wines of Tannat. The wines were analysed 15 days after fining and immediately after separation of sediments and bottling. Colour was evaluated by spectrophotometry and polyphenols were analysed by spectrophotometry and HPLC-DAD. The colour intensity of wine was significantly decreased by bentonite and egg albumin. The most remarkable effects on wine phenolic composition were produced by bentonite and gelatin, which significantly decreased anthocyanin and tannin concentrations, respectively. Results show that each fining agent has very different impact on the wine attributes, and their effects depended as well on the composition of the clarified wine. The use of non-traditional agents of fining, as vegetable proteins, may have less impact on the colour and anthocyanin content of red wines. PMID:24679795

González-Neves, Gustavo; Favre, Guzmán; Gil, Graciela

2014-08-15

15

SNAKE CONTOURS IN THREE-DIMENSIONS FROM COLOUR STEREO IMAGE PAIRS  

E-print Network

SNAKE CONTOURS IN THREE-DIMENSIONS FROM COLOUR STEREO IMAGE PAIRS by Roozbeh Ghaffari B.Sc., Sharif of Science Title of thesis: Snake contours in three-dimensions from colour stereo image pairs Examining, External Examiner Date Approved: ii #12;Abstract Snakes (active contour models) are extended to segment

Funt, Brian

16

Quaternion Potential Functions for a Colour Image Completion Method Using Markov Random Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exemplar-based algorithm has been proposed re- cently to solve the image completion problem by using a discrete global optimisation strategy based on Markov Ran- dom Fields. We can apply this algorithm to the task of completing colour images by processing the three colour channels separately and combining the results. However, this approach does not capture the correlations across the

Huy Tho Ho; Roland Goecke

2007-01-01

17

Making colourful sense of Raman images of single cells.  

PubMed

In order to understand biological systems it is important to gain pertinent information on the spatial localisation of chemicals within cells. With the relatively recent advent of high-resolution chemical imaging this is being realised and one rapidly developing area of research is the Raman mapping of single cells, an approach whose success has vast potential for numerous areas of biomedical research. However, there is a danger of undermining the potential routine use of Raman mapping due to a lack of consistency and transparency in the way false-shaded Raman images are constructed. In this study we demonstrate, through the use of simulated data and real Raman maps of single human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells, how changes in the application of colour shading can dramatically alter the final Raman images. In order to avoid ambiguity and potential subjectivity in image interpretation we suggest that data distribution plots are used to aid shading approaches and that extreme care is taken to use the most appropriate false-shading for the biomedical question under investigation. PMID:25666258

Ashton, Lorna; Hollywood, Katherine A; Goodacre, Royston

2015-03-01

18

Composition of pigments and colour changes in green table olives related to processing type.  

PubMed

Brownish colourations in Natural green table olives (non-treated with alkali) make this product less attractive to consumers than Spanish-style green table olives (treated with alkali), which develop a more appreciated bright golden-yellow colour. These colour differences were studied in relation to changes in the composition of chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments, as well as polyphenolic compounds and polyphenol oxidase enzyme (PPO) activity. Natural green olives showed a different chlorophyll profile than Spanish-style. However, all the chlorophyll pigments formed in both processing types were Mg-free derivatives (mostly pheophytins) with similar colourations, ranging from grey to green brownish. In the carotenoid fraction no appreciable differences were found between both processing types. The fruit's brownish colour was mainly due to polymeric substances with a size of >1000 daltons and polyphenolic nature, resulting from an enzymatic oxidation by PPO of the o-diphenolic compounds present in the fresh fruits. PMID:25053036

Ramírez, Eva; Gandul-Rojas, Beatriz; Romero, Concepción; Brenes, Manuel; Gallardo-Guerrero, Lourdes

2015-01-01

19

Ripening of salami: assessment of colour and aspect evolution using image analysis and multivariate image analysis.  

PubMed

During ripening of salami, colour changes occur due to oxidation phenomena involving myoglobin. Moreover, shrinkage due to dehydration results in aspect modifications, mainly ascribable to fat aggregation. The aim of this work was the application of image analysis (IA) and multivariate image analysis (MIA) techniques to the study of colour and aspect changes occurring in salami during ripening. IA results showed that red, green, blue, and intensity parameters decreased due to the development of a global darker colour, while Heterogeneity increased due to fat aggregation. By applying MIA, different salami slice areas corresponding to fat and three different degrees of oxidised meat were identified and quantified. It was thus possible to study the trend of these different areas as a function of ripening, making objective an evaluation usually performed by subjective visual inspection. PMID:25437453

Fongaro, Lorenzo; Alamprese, Cristina; Casiraghi, Ernestina

2015-03-01

20

Feeding efficiency of planktivores under disturbance, the effect of water colour, predation threat and shoal composition.  

PubMed

The consumption of phantom midge Chaoborus flavicans larvae by Perca fluviatilis showed clear response to water colour, predation threat and shoal composition with the most significant negative effect for water colour. In the case of Rutilus rutilus, no similar combined response was observed and the total prey consumption was significantly negatively affected by predation threat of Esox lucius. The results suggest that differences in life-history traits may result in disparity in species-specific responses to disturbance. PMID:24689675

Nurminen, L; Estlander, S; Olin, M; Lehtonen, H

2014-04-01

21

A Markov Random Field Framework for Finding Shadows in a Single Colour Image  

E-print Network

, and for a given Lambertian surface imaged by a camera whose sensors are fairly narrowband (as for an ideal delta moves along a straight line. It follows that if a target consisting of different colour surfaces

Drew, Mark S.

22

Organic-on-silicon complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor colour image sensors  

PubMed Central

Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) colour image sensors are representative examples of light-detection devices. To achieve extremely high resolutions, the pixel sizes of the CMOS image sensors must be reduced to less than a micron, which in turn significantly limits the number of photons that can be captured by each pixel using silicon (Si)-based technology (i.e., this reduction in pixel size results in a loss of sensitivity). Here, we demonstrate a novel and efficient method of increasing the sensitivity and resolution of the CMOS image sensors by superposing an organic photodiode (OPD) onto a CMOS circuit with Si photodiodes, which consequently doubles the light-input surface area of each pixel. To realise this concept, we developed organic semiconductor materials with absorption properties selective to green light and successfully fabricated highly efficient green-light-sensitive OPDs without colour filters. We found that such a top light-receiving OPD, which is selective to specific green wavelengths, demonstrates great potential when combined with a newly designed Si-based CMOS circuit containing only blue and red colour filters. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this state-of-the-art hybrid colour image sensor, we acquired a real full-colour image using a camera that contained the organic-on-Si hybrid CMOS colour image sensor. PMID:25578322

Lim, Seon-Jeong; Leem, Dong-Seok; Park, Kyung-Bae; Kim, Kyu-Sik; Sul, Sangchul; Na, Kyoungwon; Lee, Gae Hwang; Heo, Chul-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Bulliard, Xavier; Satoh, Ryu-Ichi; Yagi, Tadao; Ro, Takkyun; Im, Dongmo; Jung, Jungkyu; Lee, Myungwon; Lee, Tae-Yon; Han, Moon Gyu; Jin, Yong Wan; Lee, Sangyoon

2015-01-01

23

Organic-on-silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor colour image sensors.  

PubMed

Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) colour image sensors are representative examples of light-detection devices. To achieve extremely high resolutions, the pixel sizes of the CMOS image sensors must be reduced to less than a micron, which in turn significantly limits the number of photons that can be captured by each pixel using silicon (Si)-based technology (i.e., this reduction in pixel size results in a loss of sensitivity). Here, we demonstrate a novel and efficient method of increasing the sensitivity and resolution of the CMOS image sensors by superposing an organic photodiode (OPD) onto a CMOS circuit with Si photodiodes, which consequently doubles the light-input surface area of each pixel. To realise this concept, we developed organic semiconductor materials with absorption properties selective to green light and successfully fabricated highly efficient green-light-sensitive OPDs without colour filters. We found that such a top light-receiving OPD, which is selective to specific green wavelengths, demonstrates great potential when combined with a newly designed Si-based CMOS circuit containing only blue and red colour filters. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this state-of-the-art hybrid colour image sensor, we acquired a real full-colour image using a camera that contained the organic-on-Si hybrid CMOS colour image sensor. PMID:25578322

Lim, Seon-Jeong; Leem, Dong-Seok; Park, Kyung-Bae; Kim, Kyu-Sik; Sul, Sangchul; Na, Kyoungwon; Lee, Gae Hwang; Heo, Chul-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Bulliard, Xavier; Satoh, Ryu-Ichi; Yagi, Tadao; Ro, Takkyun; Im, Dongmo; Jung, Jungkyu; Lee, Myungwon; Lee, Tae-Yon; Han, Moon Gyu; Jin, Yong Wan; Lee, Sangyoon

2015-01-01

24

Organic-on-silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor colour image sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) colour image sensors are representative examples of light-detection devices. To achieve extremely high resolutions, the pixel sizes of the CMOS image sensors must be reduced to less than a micron, which in turn significantly limits the number of photons that can be captured by each pixel using silicon (Si)-based technology (i.e., this reduction in pixel size results in a loss of sensitivity). Here, we demonstrate a novel and efficient method of increasing the sensitivity and resolution of the CMOS image sensors by superposing an organic photodiode (OPD) onto a CMOS circuit with Si photodiodes, which consequently doubles the light-input surface area of each pixel. To realise this concept, we developed organic semiconductor materials with absorption properties selective to green light and successfully fabricated highly efficient green-light-sensitive OPDs without colour filters. We found that such a top light-receiving OPD, which is selective to specific green wavelengths, demonstrates great potential when combined with a newly designed Si-based CMOS circuit containing only blue and red colour filters. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this state-of-the-art hybrid colour image sensor, we acquired a real full-colour image using a camera that contained the organic-on-Si hybrid CMOS colour image sensor.

Lim, Seon-Jeong; Leem, Dong-Seok; Park, Kyung-Bae; Kim, Kyu-Sik; Sul, Sangchul; Na, Kyoungwon; Lee, Gae Hwang; Heo, Chul-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Bulliard, Xavier; Satoh, Ryu-Ichi; Yagi, Tadao; Ro, Takkyun; Im, Dongmo; Jung, Jungkyu; Lee, Myungwon; Lee, Tae-Yon; Han, Moon Gyu; Jin, Yong Wan; Lee, Sangyoon

2015-01-01

25

Compositing digital images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most computer graphics pictures have been computed all at once, so that the rendering program takes care of all computations relating to the overlap of objects. There are several applications, however, where elements must be rendered separately, relying on compositing techniques for the anti-aliased accumulation of the full image. This paper presents the case for four-channel pictures, demonstrating that a

Thomas Porter; Tom Duff

1984-01-01

26

Optimal Learning High-Order Markov Random Fields Priors of Colour Image  

E-print Network

to use sparse coding approaches to address the modeling of complex image structure. Based on a variety for monochromatic image denoising and inpainting. Based on the work of Roth and Black [3], McAuley et al. [1Optimal Learning High-Order Markov Random Fields Priors of Colour Image Ke Zhang1,2 , Huidong Jin1

Jin, Huidong "Warren"

27

Generalized Wiener Reconstruction of Images from Colour Sensor Data Using a Scale Invariant Prior  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm is described for reconstructing images from colour sensor samples, which need not be aligned nor conform to a rect- angular sampling geometry. The algorithm has applications in de- mosaicing digital camera CFA data, and processing other imag- ing modalities such as scanned images and captured video. A unique scale invariant WSS prior model is described for the un-

David Taubman

2000-01-01

28

Colour space influence for vegetation image classification application to Caribbean forest and agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with a comparison of different colour space in order to improve high resolution images classification. The background of this study is the measure of the agriculture impact on the environment in islander context. Biodiversity is particularly sensitive and relevant in such areas and the follow-up of the forest front is a way to ensure its preservation. Very high resolution satellite images are used such as QuickBird and IKONOS scenes. In order to segment the images into forest and agriculture areas, we characterize both ground covers with colour and texture features. A classical unsupervised classifier is then used to obtain labelled areas. As features are computed on coloured images, we can wonder if the colour space choice is relevant. This study has been made considering more than fourteen colour spaces (RGB, YUV, Lab, YIQ, YCrCs, XYZ, CMY, LMS, HSL, KLT, IHS, I1I2I3, HSV, HSI, etc.) and shows the visual and quantitative superiority of IHS on all others. For conciseness reasons, results only show RGB, I1I2I3 and IHS colour spaces.

Abadi, M.; Grandchamp, E.

2008-10-01

29

Image Size Scalable Full-parallax Coloured Three-dimensional Video by Electronic Holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In electronic holography, various methods have been considered for using multiple spatial light modulators (SLM) to increase the image size. In a previous work, we used a monochrome light source for a method that located an optical system containing lens arrays and other components in front of multiple SLMs. This paper proposes a colourization technique for that system based on time division multiplexing using laser light sources of three colours (red, green, and blue). The experimental device we constructed was able to perform video playback (20 fps) in colour of full parallax holographic three-dimensional (3D) images with an image size of 63 mm and a viewing-zone angle of 5.6 degrees without losing any part of the 3D image.

Sasaki, Hisayuki; Yamamoto, Kenji; Ichihashi, Yasuyuki; Senoh, Takanori

2014-02-01

30

From colour to tissue histology: Physics based interpretation of images of pigmented skin lesions  

E-print Network

From colour to tissue histology: Physics based interpretation of images of pigmented skin lesions histological parameters. This approach was successfully applied to the analysis of images of pigmented skin lesions. Histological parametric maps showing the concentration of dermal and epidermal melanin, blood

Claridge, Ela

31

Artistic Composition for Image Creation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altering the viewing parameters of a 3D object results in computer graphics images of varying quality. One aspect of image quality is the composi- tion of the image. While the esthetic properties of an image are subjective, some heuristics used by artists to create images can be approximated quantitatively. We present an algorithm based on heuristic compositional rules for finding

Bruce Gooch; Erik Reinhard; Chris Moulding; Peter Shirley

2001-01-01

32

Modelling of Camera Phone Capture Channel for JPEG Colour Barcode Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As camera phones have permeated into our everyday lives, two dimensional (2D) barcode has attracted researchers and developers as a cost-effective ubiquitous computing tool. A variety of 2D barcodes and their applications have been developed. Often, only monochrome 2D barcodes are used due to their robustness in an uncontrolled operating environment of camera phones. However, we are seeing an emerging use of colour 2D barcodes for camera phones. Nonetheless, using a greater multitude of colours introduces errors that can negatively affect the robustness of barcode reading. This is especially true when developing a 2D barcode for camera phones which capture and store these barcode images in the baseline JPEG format. This paper present one aspect of the errors introduced by such camera phones by modelling the camera phone capture channel for JPEG colour barcode images.

Tan, Keng T.; Ong, Siong Khai; Chai, Douglas

33

ILLUMINATION-INVARIANT REPRESENTATION FOR NATURAL COLOUR IMAGES THROUGH SIFT MATCHING  

E-print Network

- sentation from a colour image is therefore of great interest. Assuming that two views of a scene points, within a Lambertian reflectance / Planckian lighting model. An application to shadow removal, Planckian lighting, shadows, SIFT. 1. INTRODUCTION This article explains how to derive illumination

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

34

A Basin Morphology Approach to Colour Image Segmentation by Region Merging  

E-print Network

A Basin Morphology Approach to Colour Image Segmentation by Region Merging Erchan Aptoula and S by region merging, with the procedure being formalized as a basin morphology, where regions are "eroded" in order to form greater catchment basins. The result is a fully automated processing chain, with multiple

Lefèvre, Sébastien

35

Detection of composite forged image  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of digital technology, original analog photograph has been increasingly replaced by digital image, and the forgery of digital image has become more and more easy and diversiform. For the most common blur operations of composite forged image, this paper presents a localization approach of forged region based on detection of image edge. First of all, we process

Zhen Zhang; Zhou Yu; BaiNa Su

2010-01-01

36

ICL: The Image Composition Language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Image Composition Language (ICL) provides a convenient way for programmers of interactive graphics application programs to define how the video look-up table of a raster display system is to be loaded. The ICL allows one or several images stored in the frame buffer to be combined in a variety of ways. The ICL treats these images as variables, and provides arithematic, relational, and conditional operators to combine the images, scalar variables, and constants in image composition expressions. The objective of ICL is to provide programmers with a simple way to compose images, to relieve the tedium usually associated with loading the video look-up table to obtain desired results.

Foley, James D.; Kim, Won Chul

1986-01-01

37

Influence of microflora composition on safety and colour parameters of "kumpia wieprzowa" during ripening.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to define the influence of microbiological activity on the safety (microflora composition, biogenic amine amount) and colour of "kumpia wieprzowa" during the 3-month ripening period. The study included the amount of aerobic bacteria, yeast, lactobacilli rods, coagulase-negative cocci, pH and colour parameters as well as the content of nitrates (V) and (III), biogenic amines and amino acids. The lactobacilli and cocci constituted the predominant microflora of the ready-to-eat product (4.9-5.2 and 5.2-5.4 log cfu/g, respectively), although further mesophilic bacteria identification revealed the presence of numerous aerobic, aerotolerant and anaerobic species, mostly gram-positive, spore- and non-spore-forming. The absence of 2-phenylethylamine and putrescine and the low level of tryptamine (2.5 mg/kg) at the beginning of the ripening as well as the increase of tyramine and spermine amounts from 11.5 and 2.7 to 21.9 and 4.0 mg/kg, respectively during the treatment, denoted the good quality of raw meat used and dynamic growth of the desired acidifying and denitrifying microorganisms. The development of the coagulase-negative cocci population corresponded with the a* and C* colour parameters and the nitrate (III) content increase, the final result of which was 26.9, 27.5 as well as 19.4 mg/kg. The content of nitrates (V) and (III) was optimal to obtain a non-cured, safe and suitably coloured, long-term ripened meat product. PMID:23971198

Wesierska, E; Korzekwa, K; Foks, S; Mickowska, B

2013-01-01

38

Two-Dimensional Windowing in the Structural Similarity Index for the Colour Image Quality Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the analysis of the usage of the Structural Similarity (SSIM) index for the quality assessment of the colour images with variable size of the sliding window. The experiments have been performed using the LIVE Image Quality Assessment Database in order to compare the linear correlation of achieved results with the Differential Mean Opinion Score (DMOS) values. The calculations have been done using the value (brightness) channel from the HSV (HSB) colour space as well as commonly used YUV/YIQ luminance channel and the average of the RGB channels. The analysis of the image resolution’s influence on the correlation between the SSIM and DMOS values for varying size of the sliding window is also presented as well as some results obtained using the nonlinear mapping based on the logistic function.

Okarma, Krzysztof

39

NON-MELANOMA SKIN LESION CLASSIFICATION USING COLOUR IMAGE DATA IN A HIERARCHICAL K-NN CLASSIFIER  

E-print Network

NON-MELANOMA SKIN LESION CLASSIFICATION USING COLOUR IMAGE DATA IN A HIERARCHICAL K-NN CLASSIFIER an algorithm for classification of non- melanoma skin lesions based on a novel hierarchical K- Nearest at each node of the hierarchy. Colour and texture features are extracted from skin lesions. The accuracy

Fisher, Bob

40

Quantitative phase imaging of human red blood cells using phase-shifting white light interference microscopy with colour fringe analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report quantitative phase imaging of human red blood cells (RBCs) using phase-shifting interference microscopy. Five phase-shifted white light interferograms are recorded using colour charge coupled device camera. White light interferograms were decomposed into red, green, and blue colour components. The phase-shifted interferograms of each colour were then processed by phase-shifting analysis and phase maps for red, green, and blue colours were reconstructed. Wavelength dependent refractive index profiles of RBCs were computed from the single set of white light interferogram. The present technique has great potential for non-invasive determination of refractive index variation and morphological features of cells and tissues.

Singh Mehta, Dalip; Srivastava, Vishal

2012-11-01

41

How Bees Discriminate a Pattern of Two Colours from Its Mirror Image  

PubMed Central

A century ago, in his study of colour vision in the honeybee (Apis mellifera), Karl von Frisch showed that bees distinguish between a disc that is half yellow, half blue, and a mirror image of the same. Although his inference of colour vision in this example has been accepted, some discrepancies have prompted a new investigation of the detection of polarity in coloured patterns. In new experiments, bees restricted to their blue and green receptors by exclusion of ultraviolet could learn patterns of this type if they displayed a difference in green contrast between the two colours. Patterns with no green contrast required an additional vertical black line as a landmark. Tests of the trained bees revealed that they had learned two inputs; a measure and the retinotopic position of blue with large field tonic detectors, and the measure and position of a vertical edge or line with small-field phasic green detectors. The angle between these two was measured. This simple combination was detected wherever it occurred in many patterns, fitting the definition of an algorithm, which is defined as a method of processing data. As long as they excited blue receptors, colours could be any colour to human eyes, even white. The blue area cue could be separated from the green receptor modulation by as much as 50°. When some blue content was not available, the bees learned two measures of the modulation of the green receptors at widely separated vertical edges, and the angle between them. There was no evidence that the bees reconstructed the lay-out of the pattern or detected a tonic input to the green receptors. PMID:25617892

Horridge, Adrian

2015-01-01

42

How bees discriminate a pattern of two colours from its mirror image.  

PubMed

A century ago, in his study of colour vision in the honeybee (Apis mellifera), Karl von Frisch showed that bees distinguish between a disc that is half yellow, half blue, and a mirror image of the same. Although his inference of colour vision in this example has been accepted, some discrepancies have prompted a new investigation of the detection of polarity in coloured patterns. In new experiments, bees restricted to their blue and green receptors by exclusion of ultraviolet could learn patterns of this type if they displayed a difference in green contrast between the two colours. Patterns with no green contrast required an additional vertical black line as a landmark. Tests of the trained bees revealed that they had learned two inputs; a measure and the retinotopic position of blue with large field tonic detectors, and the measure and position of a vertical edge or line with small-field phasic green detectors. The angle between these two was measured. This simple combination was detected wherever it occurred in many patterns, fitting the definition of an algorithm, which is defined as a method of processing data. As long as they excited blue receptors, colours could be any colour to human eyes, even white. The blue area cue could be separated from the green receptor modulation by as much as 50°. When some blue content was not available, the bees learned two measures of the modulation of the green receptors at widely separated vertical edges, and the angle between them. There was no evidence that the bees reconstructed the lay-out of the pattern or detected a tonic input to the green receptors. PMID:25617892

Horridge, Adrian

2015-01-01

43

reconstruction of high resolution ocean colour images under clouds using neuronal methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoscale and sub-mesoscale phytoplankton variability significantly contributes to global primary production budgets. High-resolution modelling studies suggest that incorrect representation of mesoscale and sub-mesoscale variability in ocean global circulation models (OGCM) can result in errors of about 30% in primary production estimations. Thus, characterizing mesoscale and sub-mesoscale phytoplankton variability is important for the parameterization and validation of the OGCM. Ocean colour sensors allow a global observation of small scale chlorophyll variability patterns. However, the frequent presence of clouds in ocean colour remotely sensed imagery, prevents space and time continuity and limits its exploitation. The aim of this study is to propose a new statistical processing approach for the reconstruction of areas covered by clouds in a time sequence ocean colour images. We used a classification methodology consisting in a neural network topological map. Considering a cloud-contaminated image of the sequence, missing data are reconstructed through an unsupervised statistical process that reproduces the local spatio temporal relationships of the cloudy image. The unsupervised process is trained with a selected subset of ocean colour temporal images surrounding the cloudy images. As phytoplankton variability is partly driven by oceanic dynamics, we added a set of satellite-derived dynamic ocean products (sea surface temperature, altimetry, ocean waves) influencing strongly the phytoplankton production. To develop the under cloud reconstruction method, we began by using high resolution (about 2 Km) simulated data (output of the OPA OGCM coupled with the Lobster biogechemical model). We focused on the North Atlantic ocean which is characterized by a strong mesoscale and sub-mesoscale phytoplankton variability. When applied over two seasons(spring and winter),the method was able to reproduce the statistical characteristics of the missing data with a good accuracy. We then tried to assess the ability of the method for reconstructing high resolution real data.

Manel, J.; Thiria, S.; Lévy, M.

2009-04-01

44

Recontruction of high resolution ocean colour images under clouds using neuronal methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoscale and sub-mesoscale phytoplankton variability significantly contributes to global primary production budgets. High-resolution modelling studies suggest that incorrect representation of mesoscale and sub-mesoscale variability in ocean global circulation models (OGCM) can result in errors of about 30% in primary production estimations. Thus, characterizing mesoscale and sub-mesoscale phytoplankton variability is important for the parameterization and validation of the OGCM. Ocean colour sensors allow a global observation of small scale chlorophyll variability patterns. However, the frequent presence of clouds in ocean colour remotely sensed imagery, prevents space and time continuity and limits its exploitation. The aim of this study is to propose a new statistical processing approach for the reconstruction of areas covered by clouds in a time sequence ocean colour images. We used a classification methodology consisting in a neural network topological map. Considering a cloud-contaminated image of the sequence, missing data are reconstructed through an unsupervised statistical process that reproduces the local spatio temporal relationships of the cloudy image. The unsupervised process is trained with a selected subset of ocean colour temporal images surrounding the cloudy images. As phytoplankton variability is partly driven by oceanic dynamics, we added a set of satellite-derived dynamic ocean products (sea surface temperature, altimetry, ocean waves) influencing strongly the phytoplankton production. To develop the under cloud reconstruction method, we began by using high resolution (about 2 Km) simulated data (output of the OPA OGCM coupled with the Lobster biogechemical model). We focused on the North Atlantic ocean which is characterized by a strong mesoscale and sub-mesoscale phytoplankton variability. When applied over two seasons(spring and winter),the method was able to reproduce the statistical characteristics of the missing data with a good accuracy. We then tried to assess the ability of the method for reconstructing high resolution real data.

Manel, J.; Thiria, S.; Lévy, M.

2009-04-01

45

Digital image processing versus visual assessment of chewed two-colour wax in mixing ability tests.  

PubMed

Two-colour chewing gum and wax have been widely used as test foods to evaluate the ability to mix and knead a food bolus. The mixing of the colours has been assessed by computer analysis or by visual inspection. Reports contradict each other about whether computer analysis and visual assessment could equally well discriminate between the masticatory performances of groups of participants with different dental status. This study compares the results of computer analysis of digital images of chewed two-colour wax with the results of visual assessment of these images. Sixty healthy subjects participated and chewed on red-blue wax for 5, 10, 15 and 20 chewing strokes. The subjects were divided into three groups of 20, matched for age and gender, according to their dental status: natural dentition, full dentures and maxillary denture plus implant-supported mandibular overdenture. Mixing of the chewed wax was determined by computer analysis of images of the wax and by visual assessment of the images by five examiners. Both the computer method and the observers were able to distinguish the mixing abilities of the dentate subjects from the two denture wearer groups. Computer analysis could also discriminate the mixing abilities of the two denture groups. However, observers were not able to distinguish the mixing abilities of the two denture groups after 5, 10 and 15 chewing strokes. Only after 20 chewing strokes, they could detect a significant difference in mixing ability. PMID:21707695

van der Bilt, A; Speksnijder, C M; de Liz Pocztaruk, R; Abbink, J H

2012-01-01

46

Complete acute gallbladder torsion diagnosed with abdominal ultrasonography and colour Doppler imaging  

PubMed Central

An 82-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a provisional diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Abdominal ultrasonography and colour Doppler imaging played the most important role in confirming a diagnosis of gallbladder torsion preoperatively, and we decided to treat it laparoscopically. Operative findings showed that gallbladder was rotated 360° counterclockwise around the cystic duct and artery. This was a complete torsion of a gross type I wandering gallbladder. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and was discharged. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has recently been recommended for treating gallbladder torsion. Because the gallbladder is typically minimally adherent to the liver bed, cholecystectomy can be performed easily with minimal invasion. Gallbladder torsion is a relatively rare cause of an acute abdomen and is difficult to diagnose preoperatively, but we could diagnose complete, acute gallbladder torsion preoperatively with ultrasonography and colour Doppler imaging in this case, allowing for safe and completely curative laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:23505084

Ohkura, Yu; Hashimoto, Masaji; Sasaki, Kazunari; Watanabe, Goro

2013-01-01

47

Colour atlas of first pass functional imaging of the heart  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 21 chapters. Some of the titles are: Functional imaging; Fist pass radionuclide studies in evaluation of mitral valve replacement in chronic insufficiency using Bjork-Shiley tilting disc valves; First pass radionuclide studies in evaluation of left and right ventricular function in patients with bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement after 9-11 years; and First pass radionuclide studies in the evaluation of long term (up to about 15 years) follow up of aortic valve replacement using Starr-Edwards ball prosthesis.

Schad, N.; Andrews, E.J.; Fleming, J.W.

1985-01-01

48

Intelligent scissors for image composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new, interactive tool called Intelligent Scissors which we use for image segmentation and composition. Fully auto- mated segmentation is an unsolved problem, while manual tracing is inaccurate and laboriously unacceptable. However, Intelligent Scissors allow objects within digital images to be extracted quickly and accurately using simple gesture motions with a mouse. When the gestured mouse position comes

Eric N. Mortensen; William A. Barrett

1995-01-01

49

The influence of the microscope lamp filament colour temperature on the process of digital images of histological slides acquisition standardization  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study is to compare the digital images of the tissue biopsy captured with optical microscope using bright field technique under various light conditions. The range of colour's variation in immunohistochemically stained with 3,3'-Diaminobenzidine and Haematoxylin tissue samples is immense and coming from various sources. One of them is inadequate setting of camera's white balance to microscope's light colour temperature. Although this type of error can be easily handled during the stage of image acquisition, it can be eliminated with use of colour adjustment algorithms. The examination of the dependence of colour variation from microscope's light temperature and settings of the camera is done as an introductory research to the process of automatic colour standardization. Methods Six fields of view with empty space among the tissue samples have been selected for analysis. Each field of view has been acquired 225 times with various microscope light temperature and camera white balance settings. The fourteen randomly chosen images have been corrected and compared, with the reference image, by the following methods: Mean Square Error, Structural SIMilarity and visual assessment of viewer. Results For two types of backgrounds and two types of objects, the statistical image descriptors: range, median, mean and its standard deviation of chromaticity on a and b channels from CIELab colour space, and luminance L, and local colour variability for objects' specific area have been calculated. The results have been averaged for 6 images acquired in the same light conditions and camera settings for each sample. Conclusions The analysis of the results leads to the following conclusions: (1) the images collected with white balance setting adjusted to light colour temperature clusters in certain area of chromatic space, (2) the process of white balance correction for images collected with white balance camera settings not matched to the light temperature moves image descriptors into proper chromatic space but simultaneously the value of luminance changes. So the process of the image unification in a sense of colour fidelity can be solved in separate introductory stage before the automatic image analysis. PMID:25565329

2014-01-01

50

Colour and pigment composition of red wines obtained from co-maceration of Tempranillo and Graciano varieties.  

PubMed

The Vitis vinifera L. cv Graciano is often used as an integral component of Rioja wines because it is considered to contribute significantly to the quality of Tempranillo based wines. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of the incorporation of the Graciano variety on the colour and pigment composition of Tempranillo based wine and to evaluate the possible differences between blending Tempranillo with Graciano varietal wine (W wine) in contrast to a wine obtained by mixing these two grape varieties in the prefermentative maceration step (M wine). Results indicated that pigment extraction and retention in M wine was higher than in Tempranillo (T) wine. Colour differences (DeltaE(ab)(*)) between wines at the end of the study (after 12 months in bottles) were detectable by the human eye (DeltaE(ab)(*) > or = 3) in all cases except for T and W. These wines have indistinguishable colours even when using analytical methods (DeltaE(ab)(*) < or = 1). Regarding hue h(ab), T and W presented higher values (more orange-red) than Graciano (G) and M (more blue-red). PCA allowed the colour and composition analytical data to be reduced to a small number of principal components that could separate successfully between T and G wines and between the different steps of the winemaking process. PMID:20103154

García-Marino, Matilde; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

2010-02-15

51

Multivariate mathematical morphology and Bayesian classifier application to colour and medical images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multivariate images are now commonly produced in many applications. If their process is possible due to computers power and new programming languages, theoretical difficulties have still to be solved. Standard image analysis operators are defined for scalars rather than for vectors and their extension is not immediate. Several solutions exist but their pertinence is hardly linked to context. In the present paper we are going to get interested in segmentation of vector images also including a priori knowledge. The proposed strategy combines a decision procedure (where points are classified) and an automatic segmentation scheme (where regions are properly extracted). The classification is made using a Bayesian classifier. The segmentation is computed via a region growing method: the morphological Watershed transform. A direct computation of the Watershed transform on vector images is not possible since vector sets are not ordered. So, the Bayesian classifier is used for computing a scalar distance map where regions are enhanced or attenuated depending on their similitude to a reference shape: the current distance is the Mahalanobis distance. This combination allows to transfer the decision function from pixels to regions and to preserve the advantages of the original Watershed transform defined for scalar functions. The algorithm is applied for segmenting colour images (with a priori) and medical images, especially dermatology images where skin lesions have to be detected.

Garcia, Arnaud; Vachier, Corinne; Vallée, Jean-Paul

2008-02-01

52

Effect of imposed retinal image movements on colour vision at a heterochromatic boundary in a stabilized retinal image.  

PubMed

A stabilized image, including a straight-line boundary between two areas of different colour was displayed. Movements normal to itself were imposed on this boundary while other boundaries remained stabilized. Broad band filters giving red, yellow, green and blue were used in various pairs. Step movements, pulse movements and oscillatory movements (including sinusoidal, triangular and square wave forms) were applied in turn. Threshold movements to give perception of hue were measured for steps and pulses and signal/photon-noise ratios were calculated for a red/blue boundary. The ratio was found to be constant at a value of about 20 when the retinal illuminance (ER) varied between 5 td and 60 td. When ER was increased (up to 2000 td) the ratio increased rapidly. None of the colour appearances produced by moving the boundary exactly matched the corresponding appearances in an unstabilized image, though the nearest matches were obtained with oscillatory movements of frequency 2 Hz and displacement greater than 5'. PMID:3627797

Foley-Fisher, J A; Ditchburn, R W

1986-01-01

53

Abstract--Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a non-invasive colour imaging technique that has been introduced for  

E-print Network

Abstract--Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a non- invasive colour imaging technique that has is performed by a wireless swallowable endoscopic capsule that transmits more than 50,000 video frames per Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) was introduced [1]. This method represents a major departure from conventional

Athens, University of

54

Localisation of ventricular septal defects by simultaneous display of superimposed colour Doppler and cross sectional echocardiographic images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precise non-invasive localisation of the site of a small ventricular septal defect was attempted using a new technique that simultaneously combines conventional cross sectional echocardiography with a Doppler system by superimposing the colour coded direction and velocity of blood flow directly on to real time ultrasound images. Twenty three patients with unoperated ventricular septal defects and a further eight after

E Ortiz; P J Robinson; J E Deanfield; R Franklin; F J Macartney; R K Wyse

1985-01-01

55

A SURVEY OF METHODS FOR COLOUR IMAGE INDEXING AND RETRIEVAL IN IMAGE DATABASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color is a feature of the great majority of content-based image retrieval systems. However the robustness, effectiveness, and efficiency of its use in image indexing are still open issues. This paper provides a comprehensive survey of the methods for color image indexing and retrieval described in the literature. In particular, image preprocessing, the features used to represent color information, and

Raimondo SCHETTINI; Gianluigi CIOCCA; Silvia ZUFFI

2001-01-01

56

Fungal Damage Detection in Wheat Using Short-Wave Near-Infrared Hyperspectral and Digital Colour Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healthy and fungal-damaged wheat kernels infected by the species of storage fungi, namely Penicillium spp., Aspergillus glaucus, and A. niger, were scanned using a short-wave near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system in the 700–1100 nm wavelength range and an area scan colour camera. A multivariate image analysis was used to reduce the dimensionality of the hyperspectral data and to select the significant

C. B. Singh; D. S. Jayas; J. Paliwal; N. D. G. White

2012-01-01

57

FUNGAL DAMAGE DETECTION IN WHEAT USING SHORT-WAVE NEAR-INFRARED HYPERSPECTRAL AND DIGITAL COLOUR IMAGING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healthy and fungal-damaged wheat kernels infected by the species of storage fungi namely Penicillium spp., Aspergillus glaucus, and A. niger were scanned using short-wave near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system in the 700–1100 nm wavelength range and an area scan colour camera. Multivariate image (MVI) analysis was used to reduce the dimensionality of the hyperspectral data and to select the significant wavelength

C. B. Singh; D. S. Jayas; J. Paliwal; N. D. G. White

2010-01-01

58

Composite ultrasound imaging apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An imaging apparatus and method for use in presenting composite two dimensional and three dimensional images from individual ultrasonic frames. A cross-sectional reconstruction is applied by using digital ultrasound frames, transducer orientation and a known center. Motion compensation, rank value filtering, noise suppression and tissue classification are utilized to optimize the composite image.

Morimoto, Alan K. (Albuquerque, NM); Bow, Jr., Wallace J. (Albuquerque, NM); Strong, David Scott (Albuquerque, NM); Dickey, Fred M. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

59

Composite ultrasound imaging apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An imaging apparatus and method for use in presenting composite two dimensional and three dimensional images from individual ultrasonic frames. A cross-sectional reconstruction is applied by using digital ultrasound frames, transducer orientation and a known center. Motion compensation, rank value filtering, noise suppression and tissue classification are utilized to optimize the composite image. 37 figs.

Morimoto, A.K.; Bow, W.J. Jr.; Strong, D.S.; Dickey, F.M.

1998-09-15

60

Storage at low temperature differentially affects the colour and carotenoid composition of two cultivars of banana.  

PubMed

Different storage conditions can induce changes in the colour and carotenoid profiles and levels in some fruits. The goal of this work was to evaluate the influence of low temperature storage on the colour and carotenoid synthesis in two banana cultivars: Prata and Nanicão. For this purpose, the carotenoids from the banana pulp were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS, and the colour of the banana skin was determined by a colorimeter method. Ten carotenoids were identified, of which the major carotenoids were all-trans-lutein, all-trans-?-carotene and all-trans-?-carotene in both cultivars. The effect of the low temperatures was subjected to linear regression analysis. In cv. Prata, all-trans-?-carotene and all-trans-?-carotene were significantly affected by low temperature (p<0.01), with negative estimated values (? coefficients) indicating that during cold storage conditions, the concentrations of these carotenoids tended to decrease. In cv. Nanicão, no carotenoid was significantly affected by cold storage (p>0.05). The accumulation of carotenoids in this group may be because the metabolic pathways using these carotenoids were affected by storage at low temperatures. The colour of the fruits was not negatively affected by the low temperatures (p>0.05). PMID:25306323

Facundo, Heliofabia Virginia De Vasconcelos; Gurak, Poliana Deyse; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

2015-03-01

61

Colour constancy in insects.  

PubMed

Colour constancy is the perceptual phenomenon that the colour of an object appears largely unchanged, even if the spectral composition of the illuminating light changes. Colour constancy has been found in all insect species so far tested. Especially the pollinating insects offer a remarkable opportunity to study the ecological significance of colour constancy since they spend much of their adult lives identifying and choosing between colour targets (flowers) under continuously changing ambient lighting conditions. In bees, whose colour vision is best studied among the insects, the compensation provided by colour constancy is only partial and its efficiency depends on the area of colour space. There is no evidence for complete 'discounting' of the illuminant in bees, and the spectral composition of the light can itself be used as adaptive information. In patchy illumination, bees adjust their spatial foraging to minimise transitions between variously illuminated zones. Modelling allows the quantification of the adaptive benefits of various colour constancy mechanisms in the economy of nature. We also discuss the neural mechanisms and cognitive operations that might underpin colour constancy in insects. PMID:24647930

Chittka, Lars; Faruq, Samia; Skorupski, Peter; Werner, Annette

2014-06-01

62

A Comparative Study on Diagnostic Accuracy of Colour Coded Digital Images, Direct Digital Images and Conventional Radiographs for Periapical Lesions – An In Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The identification and radiographic interpretation of periapical bone lesions is important for accurate diagnosis and treatment. The present study was undertaken to study the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of colour coded digital radiographs in terms of presence and size of lesion and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of colour coded digital images with direct digital images and conventional radiographs for assessing periapical lesions. Materials and Methods: Sixty human dry cadaver hemimandibles were obtained and periapical lesions were created in first and second premolar teeth at the junction of cancellous and cortical bone using a micromotor handpiece and carbide burs of sizes 2, 4 and 6. After each successive use of round burs, a conventional, RVG and colour coded image was taken for each specimen. All the images were evaluated by three observers. The diagnostic accuracy for each bur and image mode was calculated statistically. Results: Our results showed good interobserver (kappa > 0.61) agreement for the different radiographic techniques and for the different bur sizes. Conventional Radiography outperformed Digital Radiography in diagnosing periapical lesions made with Size two bur. Both were equally diagnostic for lesions made with larger bur sizes. Colour coding method was least accurate among all the techniques. Conclusion: Conventional radiography traditionally forms the backbone in the diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of periapical lesions. Direct digital imaging is an efficient technique, in diagnostic sense. Colour coding of digital radiography was feasible but less accurate however, this imaging technique, like any other, needs to be studied continuously with the emphasis on safety of patients and diagnostic quality of images. PMID:25584318

Mubeen; K.R., Vijayalakshmi; Bhuyan, Sanat Kumar; Panigrahi, Rajat G; Priyadarshini, Smita R; Misra, Satyaranjan; Singh, Chandravir

2014-01-01

63

Analysis of foveal avascular zone in colour fundus images for grading of diabetic retinopathy severity.  

PubMed

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a sight threatening complication due to diabetes mellitus that affects the retina. At present, the classification of DR is based on the International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Severity. In this paper, FAZ enlargement with DR progression is investigated to enable a new and an effective grading protocol DR severity in an observational clinical study. The performance of a computerised DR monitoring and grading system that digitally analyses colour fundus image to measure the enlargement of FAZ and grade DR is evaluated. The range of FAZ area is optimised to accurately determine DR severity stage and progression stages using a Gaussian Bayes classifier. The system achieves high accuracies of above 96%, sensitivities higher than 88% and specificities higher than 96%, in grading of DR severity. In particular, high sensitivity (100%), specificity (>98%) and accuracy (99%) values are obtained for No DR (normal) and Severe NPDR/PDR stages. The system performance indicates that the DR system is suitable for early detection of DR and for effective treatment of severe cases. PMID:21097305

Ahmad Fadzil, M; Ngah, Nor Fariza; George, Tara M; Izhar, Lila I; Nugroho, Hermawan; Adi Nugroho, Hanung

2010-01-01

64

Coloured plastinates.  

PubMed

To obtain coloured plastinates by colouring anatomical structures in e.g. red, blue and yellow we used different types of chemical reagents. The colours remained stable during dehydration, degreasing and impregnation of specimen with silicone resin. The colours, which penetrated into the specimen, appeared to be included in the plastination process. To prove their stability, the coloured plastinates were exposed to light and heat for more than 5 years. A permanent colouration remained. The coloured plastinates are dry and flexible, odourless and robust. They are instructive and can be used in tutorials, examinations and seminars. PMID:16551016

Steinke, Hanno; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

2006-03-01

65

Atmospheric correction for ocean colour images using a classification and a neuro-variational algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiometers on board satellite measure the solar radiation reflected by both ocean and atmosphere at several wavelengths. One difficulty is that the signal is strongly polluted by the contribution of the atmosphere. An important step in the processing of ocean colour images is the so-called "atmospheric correction" that consists in removing the contribution of the atmospheric signal to solely retrieve the ocean contribution. Due to the presence of aerosols in the atmosphere, this contribution cannot be predicted a priori. Thus, standard algorithms use a part of the signal, generally the near-infrared bands, to deduce the contribution of aerosols to the signal. It is necessary to make some assumptions on the contribution of the ocean for these bands. Most of the time this contribution is determined a priori. In some situations, this approach is not relevant. Two main problems can occur: (1) The ocean contribution can not be determined a priori in the near-infrared bands; it is the case of most of the coastal waters where the content of the water is complex and not be predicted. (2) The near-infrared part of the signal is not enough to entirely deduce the aerosol contribution; it is the case of absorbing aerosol. To solve this problem, a methodology was proposed: NeuroVaria. It was based on the spectral matching principle: instead of making strong hypothesis on the oceanic contribution, a multispectral optimization is made on both oceanic and atmospheric signal. NeuroVaria alone was already validated in several cases. To improve the accuracy of the results and to process more situations, NeuroVaria was combined with a classification procedure in order to constrain the inversion. The classification was done with neuronal classifier (SOM map). The method was applied to the daily MODIS images off the Senegal coast. The resulting oceanic products were validated and a data archive of the daily MODIS data of the region is under construction. This database comprises the Chla-a concentration, the water leaving reflectance spectrum, the aerosol parameters.

Brajard, Julien; Diouf, Daouda; Crépon, Michel; Thiria, Sylvie

2013-04-01

66

Composite structures for magnetosphere imager spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a trade study addressing the issues and benefits in using carbon fiber reinforced composites for the Magnetosphere Imager (MI) spacecraft are presented. The MI mission is now part of the Sun/Earth Connection Program. To qualify for this category, new technology and innovative methods to reduce the cost and size have to be considered. Topics addressed cover: (1) what is a composite, including advantages and disadvantages of composites and carbon/graphite fibers; and (2) structural design for MI, including composite design configuration, material selection, and analysis of composite structures.

Chu, Tsuchin

1994-01-01

67

Effects of Dietary Chromium Methionine on Growth Performance, Carcass Composition, Meat Colour and Expression of the Colour-related Gene Myoglobin of Growing-finishing Pigs  

PubMed Central

To investigate the effect of dietary chromium (Cr) as Cr methionine (CrMet) on growth performance, carcass traits, pork quality, meat colour and expression of meat colour-related genes in growing-finishing pigs, 189 crossbred Duroc×(Landrace×Yorkshire) growing-finishing pigs (male, castrated, average initial BW 74.58±1.52 kg) were selected and randomly allocated into four groups. Dietary treatments per kg of feed were as follows: 0 (CT), 0.3 mg/kg (T1), 0.6 mg/kg (T2) and 0.9 mg/kg (T3) Cr (in the form of CrMet; as-fed basis), and each treatment was replicated five times with 8 to 10 pigs per replicate pen. During the 28 d of the experiment, both the ADG and the ADFI increased linearly (p<0.05) as the level of dietary Cr increased. The F/G ratio decreased linearly (p<0.05). As dietary Cr increased, loin muscle areas (linear, p = 0.013) and average backfat thickness (linear, p = 0.072) decreased. Shear force (linear, p = 0.070) and Commission Internationale de I’Éclairage (CIE) redness (quadratic, p = 0.028) were increased. In addition, CIE Lightness (quadratic, p = 0.053) were decreased as dietary Cr increased. As dietary Cr increased, total myglobin (Mb) content (quadratic, p = 0.015) and the mb mRNA levels (quadratic, p = 0.046) in longissimus muscles of pigs were up-regulated. In conclusion, supplementation of dietary Cr improved growth and meat colour, but increased shear force and decreased IMF reduced palatability of longissimus muscles. Moreover, the increasing total Mb content and mb mRNA levels indicated that CrMet dietary supplementation may improve meat colour via up-regulating expression of the mb gene. PMID:25049881

Li, Y. S.; Zhu, N. H.; Niu, P. P.; Shi, F. X.; Hughes, C. L.; Tian, G. X.; Huang, R. H.

2013-01-01

68

Enhancement of the resolution of full-field optical coherence tomography by using a colour image sensor  

SciTech Connect

The influence of white balance in a colour image detector on the resolution of a full-field optical coherence tomograph (FFOCT) is studied. The change in the interference pulse width depending on the white balance tuning is estimated in the cases of a thermal radiation source (incandescent lamp) and a white light emitting diode. It is shown that by tuning white balance of the detector in a certain range, the FFOCT resolution can be increased by 20 % as compared to the resolution, attained with the use of a monochrome detector. (optical coherence tomography)

Kalyanov, A L; Lychagov, V V; Smirnov, I V; Ryabukho, V P [N.G. Chernyshevsky Saratov State University, Saratov (Russian Federation)

2013-08-31

69

Enhancement of the resolution of full-field optical coherence tomography by using a colour image sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of white balance in a colour image detector on the resolution of a full-field optical coherence tomograph (FFOCT) is studied. The change in the interference pulse width depending on the white balance tuning is estimated in the cases of a thermal radiation source (incandescent lamp) and a white light emitting diode. It is shown that by tuning white balance of the detector in a certain range, the FFOCT resolution can be increased by 20 % as compared to the resolution, attained with the use of a monochrome detector.

Kalyanov, A. L.; Lychagov, V. V.; Smirnov, I. V.; Ryabukho, V. P.

2013-08-01

70

An Ecological Alternative to Snodgrass & Vanderwart: 360 High Quality Colour Images with Norms for Seven Psycholinguistic Variables  

PubMed Central

This work presents a new set of 360 high quality colour images belonging to 23 semantic subcategories. Two hundred and thirty-six Spanish speakers named the items and also provided data from seven relevant psycholinguistic variables: age of acquisition, familiarity, manipulability, name agreement, typicality and visual complexity. Furthermore, we also present lexical frequency data derived from Internet search hits. Apart from the high number of variables evaluated, knowing that it affects the processing of stimuli, this new set presents important advantages over other similar image corpi: (a) this corpus presents a broad number of subcategories and images; for example, this will permit researchers to select stimuli of appropriate difficulty as required, (e.g., to deal with problems derived from ceiling effects); (b) the fact of using coloured stimuli provides a more realistic, ecologically-valid, representation of real life objects. In sum, this set of stimuli provides a useful tool for research on visual object-and word- processing, both in neurological patients and in healthy controls. PMID:22662166

Moreno-Martínez, Francisco Javier; Montoro, Pedro R.

2012-01-01

71

A Robust Method for Data Hiding via Combination of Colour Images and PDF Files  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a methodology for embedding a color image data into a PDF file and vice versa. At the transmitter, the signature image is encoded by encryption algorithm. When host file is an image, the information is embedded in the host image in the red components. Furthermore, this scheme requires no knowledge of the original image for

Debnath Bhattacharyya; Asmita Haveliya

2012-01-01

72

Colour map design through optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Often in engineering systems, full-colour images have to be displayed on limited hardware, for example on mobile devices or embedded systems that can only handle a limited number of colours. Therefore an image is converted into an indexed map from where the indices point to specific colours in a fixed-size colour map generated for that image. The choice of an optimal colour map, or palette, is therefore crucial as it directly determines the quality of the resulting image. Typically, standard quantization algorithms are used to create colour maps. Whereas these algorithms employ domain specific knowledge, in this work a variant of simulated annealing (SA) was employed as a standard black-box optimization algorithm for colour map generation. The main advantage of black-box optimization algorithms is that they do not require any domain specific knowledge yet are able to provide a near optimal solution. The effectiveness of the approach is evaluated by comparing its performance with several specialized colour quantization algorithms. The results obtained show that even without any domain specific knowledge the SA based algorithm is able to outperform standard quantization algorithms. To further improve the performance of the algorithm the SA technique was combined with a standard k-means clustering technique. This hybrid quantization algorithm is shown to outperform all other algorithms and hence to provide images with superior image quality.

Nolle, Lars; Schaefer, Gerald

2007-04-01

73

Please cite this article in press as: Haleem MS, et al. Automatic extraction of retinal features from colour retinal images for glaucoma diagnosis: A review. Comput Med Imaging Graph (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compmedimag.2013.09.005  

E-print Network

from colour retinal images for glaucoma diagnosis: A review. Comput Med Imaging Graph (2013), http extraction of retinal features from colour retinal images for glaucoma diagnosis: A review Muhammad Salman 2013 Accepted 16 September 2013 Keywords: Automatic feature detection Retinal image analysis Glaucoma

Li, Baihua

74

Making Art and Understanding Images Utilizing sketchbooks, collage, colour exercises and cre-  

E-print Network

2NEW ART COURSES OPEN to ALL McMaster Students ART 1UI3 Making Art and Understanding Images, 2014-15 Thursday evenings 7 pm ­ 10pm 3 hours per week in a continuous block ART 1TI3 Making Art and Understanding Images & Technology Creating art utilizing a range of media, including digital tools and creative

Haykin, Simon

75

Collinear two colour Kerr effect based time-gate for ballistic imaging  

E-print Network

A novel setup is presented for ballistic imaging using an efficient ultrafast Kerr effect based optical time-gate with gating times of the order of ~0.8 picoseconds. At first, the major drawbacks of the classical non-collinear optical setup are discussed. Then, the new collinear arrangement is proposed, which overcomes these issues and improves the achievable imaging spatial resolution and gate timings. Few preliminary results for ballistic imaging of liquid sprays/jets are presented for this arrangement. It is shown that using a solid state Kerr medium (GGG crystal), instead of the classical liquid CS$_2$, allows reduction in the opening time of the optical gate.

Purwar, Harsh; Rozé, Claude; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard

2015-01-01

76

A comparative analysis of pre-processing techniques in colour retinal images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a chronic disease of the ocular retina, which most of the times is only discovered when the disease is on an advanced stage and most of the damage is irreversible. For that reason, early diagnosis is paramount for avoiding the most severe consequences of the DR, of which complete blindness is not uncommon. Unsupervised or supervised image processing of retinal images emerges as a feasible tool for this diagnosis. The preprocessing stages are the key for any further assessment, since these images exhibit several defects, including non uniform illumination, sampling noise, uneven contrast due to pigmentation loss during sampling, and many others. Any feasible diagnosis system should work with images where these defects were compensated. In this work we analyze and test several correction techniques. Non uniform illumination is compensated using morphology and homomorphic filtering; uneven contrast is compensated using morphology and local enhancement. We tested our processing stages using Fuzzy C-Means, and local Hurst (self correlation) coefficient for unsupervised segmentation of the abnormal blood vessels. The results over a standard set of DR images are more than promising.

Salvatelli, A.; Bizai, G.; Barbosa, G.; Drozdowicz, B.; Delrieux, C.

2007-11-01

77

Rejuvenating the appearance of Seurat's A Sunday on La Grande Jatte - 1884 using colour and imaging science techniques: a simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Georges Seurat first used his divisionist painting technique on A Sunday on La Grande Jatte - 1884 beginning in October 1885. Painting with pigments representing colours seen in the visible spectrum that were minimally mixed on the palette and using divided brushstrokes, he aimed to impart luminosity to the surface and to explore 19th century ideas of colour theory, such

Roy S Berns; Francisco H Imai; Lawrence A Taplin; Siobhan Byrns; Francesca Casadio; Inge Fiedler; Christopher Gallagher; Alan Newman

78

Bright Retinal Lesions Detection using Colour Fundus Images Containing Reflective Features  

SciTech Connect

In the last years the research community has developed many techniques to detect and diagnose diabetic retinopathy with retinal fundus images. This is a necessary step for the implementation of a large scale screening effort in rural areas where ophthalmologists are not available. In the United States of America, the incidence of diabetes is worryingly increasing among the young population. Retina fundus images of patients younger than 20 years old present a high amount of reflection due to the Nerve Fibre Layer (NFL), the younger the patient the more these reflections are visible. To our knowledge we are not aware of algorithms able to explicitly deal with this type of reflection artefact. This paper presents a technique to detect bright lesions also in patients with a high degree of reflective NFL. First, the candidate bright lesions are detected using image equalization and relatively simple histogram analysis. Then, a classifier is trained using texture descriptor (Multi-scale Local Binary Patterns) and other features in order to remove the false positives in the lesion detection. Finally, the area of the lesions is used to diagnose diabetic retinopathy. Our database consists of 33 images from a telemedicine network currently developed. When determining moderate to high diabetic retinopathy using the bright lesions detected the algorithm achieves a sensitivity of 100% at a specificity of 100% using hold-one-out testing.

Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2009-01-01

79

BUILDING ROOF RECONSTRUCTION FROM LIDAR DATA AND AERIAL IMAGES THROUGH PLANE EXTRACTION AND COLOUR EDGE DETECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a strategy for 3D reconstruction of building roofs from airborne laser scanning and aerial images is discussed. In order to keep it as general as possible, no predefined primitives or ground plans are required. The processing is done directly on the raw LiDAR point cloud, so as to avoid any loss of information due to interpolation. Computations

Angelina Novacheva

80

Digital colour management system for colour parameters reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital Colour Management System (DCMS) and its application to new adaptive camouflage system are presented in this paper. The DCMS is a digital colour rendering method which would allow for transformation of a real image into a set of colour pixels displayed on a computer monitor. Consequently, it can analyse pixels' colour which comprise images of the environment such as desert, semi-desert, jungle, farmland or rocky mountain in order to prepare an adaptive camouflage pattern most suited for the terrain. This system is described in present work as well as the use the subtractive colours mixing method to construct the real time colour changing electrochromic window/pixel (ECD) for camouflage purpose. The ECD with glass/ITO/Prussian Blue(PB)/electrolyte/CeO2-TiO2/ITO/glass configuration was assembled and characterized. The ECD switched between green and yellow after +/-1.5 V application and the colours have been controlled by Digital Colour Management System and described by CIE LAB parameters.

Grudzinski, Karol; Lasmanowicz, Piotr; Assis, Lucas M. N.; Pawlicka, Agnieszka; Januszko, Adam

2013-10-01

81

AMS Composite GOES Image Viewer and Data Lister  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Meteorological Society (AMS) Composite Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Image Viewer and Data Lister is a small Java applet composite infrared (IR) image viewer that uses a near real-time composite infrared satellite picture of the U.S. to interactively explore the temperature as seen from space. The images are created every three hours from GOES-east and GOES-west by the McIDAS system. The composite IR image allows you to move the mouse pointer over the image while the temperature (degrees C), latitude and longitude are listed.

Tom Whittaker

82

A new reliable approach for Persian license plate detection on colour images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new approach for car license plate detection will be presented. The proposed method is faster than previous methods as it avoids time-consuming image transformations suchas Hough transform, Fourier transform, wavelet transform, etc.The suggested method is based on modified mathematical template matching and colouranalysis to detectthe location of the carsplate.This new method detects all plates in a

Amir Hossein Ashtari; Seyed Mostafa Mousavi Kahaki

2011-01-01

83

The use of digital imaging for colour matching and communication in restorative dentistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To develop a shade matching method based on digital imaging and to compare observers' ability using this method with the conventional one set against a spectrophotometric 'gold standard'.Methods Two Vita Lumin shade guides were used in this study, nine shades being selected from the first Vita Lumin shade guide, A2, A3, A3.5, B2, B3, B4, C1, C2 and C3.

M D Russell; B W Moss; F D Jarad

2005-01-01

84

Millimeter-wave imaging of composite materials  

SciTech Connect

This work addresses the application and evaluates the potential of mm-wave imaging in the W-band (75-110 GHz) using samples of low-loss dielectric and composite materials with artificial defects. The initial focus is on the measurement of amplitude changes in the back scattered and forward-scattered fields. The c-scan system employs a focused beam antenna to provide spatial resolution of about one wavelength. A plane-wave model is used to calculate the effective reflection (or transmission) coefficient of multilayer test sample geometry. Theoretical analysis is used to optimize the measurement frequency for higher image contrast and to interpret the experimental results. Both reflection and transmission images, based on back scattered and forward-scattered powers, were made with Plexiglas and Kevlar/epoxy samples containing artificially introduced defects such as subsurface voids and disbonds. The results clearly indicate that mm-wave imaging has high potential for non-contact interrogation of low-loss materials.

Gopalsami, N.; Bakhtiari, S.; Dieckman, S.L.; Raptis, A.C.; Lepper, M.J.

1993-09-01

85

Thermographic Imaging of Defects in Anisotropic Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite materials are of increasing interest to the aerospace industry as a result of their weight versus performance characteristics. One of the disadvantages of composites is the high cost of fabrication and post inspection with conventional ultrasonic scanning systems. The high cost of inspection is driven by the need for scanning systems which can follow large curve surfaces. Additionally, either large water tanks or water squirters are required to couple the ultrasonics into the part. Thermographic techniques offer significant advantages over conventional ultrasonics by not requiring physical coupling between the part and sensor. The thermographic system can easily inspect large curved surface without requiring a surface following scanner. However, implementation of Thermal Nondestructive Evaluations (TNDE) for flaw detection in composite materials and structures requires determining its limit. Advanced algorithms have been developed to enable locating and sizing defects in carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Thermal Tomography is a very promising method for visualizing the size and location of defects in materials such as CFRP. However, further investigations are required to determine its capabilities for inspection of thick composites. In present work we have studied influence of the anisotropy on the reconstructed image of a defect generated by an inversion technique. The composite material is considered as homogeneous with macro properties: thermal conductivity K, specific heat c, and density rho. The simulation process involves two sequential steps: solving the three dimensional transient heat diffusion equation for a sample with a defect, then estimating the defect location and size from the surface spatial and temporal thermal distributions (inverse problem), calculated from the simulations.

Plotnikov, Y. A.; Winfree, W. P.

2000-01-01

86

Segmentation of Colour Layers in Historical Maps Based on Hierarchical Colour Sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A colour image segmentation (CIS) process for scanned historical maps is presented to overcome common problems associated with segmentation of old documents such as (1) variation in colour values of the same colour layer within one map page, (2) differences in typical colour values between homogeneous areas and thin line-work, which belong both to the same colour layer, and (3) extensive parameterization that results in a lack of robustness. The described approach is based on a two-stage colour layer prototype search using a constrained sampling design. Global colour layer prototypes for the identification of homogeneous regions are derived based on colour similarity to the most extreme colour layer values identified in the map page. These global colour layer prototypes are continuously adjusted using relative distances between prototype positions in colour space until a reliable sample is collected. Based on this sample colour layer seeds and directly connected neighbors of the same colour layer are determined resulting in the extraction of homogeneous colour layer regions. In the next step the global colour layer prototypes are recomputed using a new sample of colour values along the margins of identified homogeneous coloured regions. This sampling step derives representative prototypes of map layer sections that deviate significantly from homogeneous regions of the same layers due to bleaching, mixed or false colouring and ageing of the original scanned documents. A spatial expansion process uses these adjusted prototypes as start criterion to assign the remaining colour layer parts. The approach shows high robustness for map documents that suffer from low graphical quality indicating some potential for general applicability due to its simplicity and the limited need for preliminary information. The only input required is the colours and number of colour layers present in the map.

Leyk, Stefan

87

Carotenoid compositions of coloured tomato cultivars and contribution to antioxidant activities and protection against H(2)O(2)-induced cell death in H9c2.  

PubMed

The carotenoid compositions, antioxidant activities and the potential cardio-protective role of 13 tomato cultivars with distinct colour were studied. Colour coordinates were evaluated by colorimeter and the carotenoid compositions were analysed by UPLC. Red tomatoes had the highest total carotenoid contents (TCC) and antioxidant activities, followed by purple, orange, pink and yellow ones. The TCC were 120.5-278.0 ?g/gDW, and the antioxidant activities were 21.32-40.07 ?molTE/gDW (PCL), 64.42-89.98% (DPPH) and 10.47-13.76 ?molTE/g DW (ORAC), respectively. The lipophilic extracts were also found to prevent cell death in a cell-based model system using cardiac H9c2 cells and H(2)O(2), via attenuation of the caspase-3 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 activities. The extracts of different tomatoes showed strong but different antioxidant activities. Roles of total and individual carotenoids in the antioxidant activities were studied and lycopene showed the highest correlation. Results of this study can be used to guide the development of new tomato cultivars and functional foods, and benefit the consumers. PMID:23122140

Li, Hongyan; Deng, Zeyuan; Liu, Ronghua; Loewen, Steven; Tsao, Rong

2013-01-15

88

What Colour Is a Shadow?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What colour is a shadow? Black, grey, or some other colour? This article describes how to use a digital camera to test the hypothesis that a shadow under a clear blue sky has a blue tint. A white sheet of A4 paper was photographed in full sunlight and in shadow under a clear blue sky. The images were analysed using a shareware program called…

Hughes, S. W.

2009-01-01

89

Snap Image Composition Yael Pritch, Yair Poleg, and Shmuel Peleg  

E-print Network

Snap Image Composition Yael Pritch, Yair Poleg, and Shmuel Peleg School of Computer Science, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel Abstract. Snap Composition broadens the applicability of interactive the background can be aligned and objects have limited motion. Snap Composition works well even when the input

Peleg, Shmuel

90

The colour wheels of art, perception, science and physiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colour is not the domain of any one discipline be it art, philosophy, psychology or science. Each discipline has its own colour wheel and this presentation examines the origins and philosophies behind the colour circles of Art, Perception, Science and Physiology (after image) with reference to Aristotle, Robert Boyle, Leonardo da Vinci, Goethe, Ewald Hering and Albert Munsell. The paper analyses and discusses the differences between the four colour wheels using the Natural Colour System® notation as the reference for hue (the position of colours within each of the colour wheels). Examination of the colour wheels shows the dominance of blue in the wheels of art, science and physiology particularly at the expense of green. This paper does not consider the three-dimensionality of colour space its goal was to review the hue of a colour with regard to its position on the respective colour wheels.

Harkness, Nick

2006-06-01

91

Colour Spaces for Colour Transfer Erik Reinhard and Tania Pouli  

E-print Network

, Correlation 1 Introduction Colour is one of the main image attributes used in art, photography and visuali of that reference. In essence this operation can be seen as a function that, given two images, produces a third to decorrelate its input. Wh

Reinhard, Erik

92

Automated image analysis as a tool to quantify the colour and composition of rainbow trout  

E-print Network

, Krisna Rungruangsak-Torrissen b , Anders Kiessling b,1 a Department of Biology, University of Bergen. P Department of Informatics, University of Bergen. Thormøhlensgt. 55. NO-5020 Bergen, Norway d Finnish Game MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Animal Production Research, Animal Breeding, FIN-31600 Jokioinen

Manne, Fredrik

93

Methods, advantages, and limitations of compositing photographic images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic procedures used in compositing photographic images to increase their information content are briefly discussed. A new method for calculating exposure time for each image is presented. A portion of the density coordinate of the characteristic curve of the film on which the exposures are to be made is divided into as many divisions as there are images to be superimposed. Lines are drawn from the intersections of these density increments with the characteristic curve to the log exposure for each image. A study of the ability of workers to superimpose plant images with a projected scale of one arcsec per millimeter has shown that image smearing due to alignment errors in a composite will not exceed about 0.15 arcseconds if images are composited by an adept operator.

Jones, S. E.

1976-01-01

94

Deep near-infrared imaging of RDCS J1252.9-2927 at z=1.237: The colour-magnitude diagram  

E-print Network

We present deep SofI and ISAAC near-infrared imaging data of the X-ray luminous galaxy cluster RDCS J1252.9-2927. The ISAAC data were taken at the ESO Very Large Telescope under very good seeing conditions and reach limiting Vega magnitudes of 25.6 and 24.1 in the J- and Ks-bands respectively. The image quality is 0.45 arc seconds in both passbands. We use these data to construct a colour-magnitude (C-M) diagram of galaxies that are within 20 arc seconds of the cluster center and brighter than Ks=24, which is five magnitudes fainter than the apparent magnitude of a L* galaxy in this cluster. The C-M relation is clearly identified as an over-density of galaxies with colours near J-Ks=1.85. The slope of the relation is -0.05 and the intrinsic scatter is 0.06 magnitudes. Both the slope and the scatter are consistent with the values measured for clusters at lower redshifts. These quantities have not evolved from z=0 to z=1.24. However, significant evolution in the mean J-Ks colour is detected. On average, the galaxies in RDCS J1252.9-2927 are 0.25 magnitudes bluer than early-type galaxies in the Coma cluster. Using instantaneous single-burst solar-metallicity models, the average age of galaxies in the center of RDCS J1252.9-2927 is 2.7 Gyrs.

C. Lidman; P. Rosati; R. Demarco; M. Nonino; V. Mainieri; S. A. Stanford; S. Toft

2003-10-20

95

Colour Lovers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The endless hues and shades of colors fascinate many persons, including interior-designers, fashionistas, and those who study the workings of the human eye. This particular site is "a place to view, rate and review some lovely colours & palettes." The site contains a number of user forums where people may gather around the electronic glow of the screen to discuss and debate the merits of different colors, along with a place for users to submit their own fanciful and innovative colors. On the right-hand side of the home page, visitors can browse through the top-rated colors, newly added colors, and new palettes. Many of the colors have rather curious names, such as "wegobysundawn" and "victory or ignorance." Of course, there is space provided for visitors to give their own opinions on each color or palette. Overall, a compelling site, and one that will delight those with a penchant for the uses of color.

96

LASER ULTRASONIC IMAGING FOR IMPACT DAMAGE VISUALIZATION IN COMPOSITE STRUCTURE  

E-print Network

LASER ULTRASONIC IMAGING FOR IMPACT DAMAGE VISUALIZATION IN COMPOSITE STRUCTURE Chao Zhang1 ultrasonic scanning technique has great potential for damage evaluation in various applications. In order evaluation. KEYWORDS : impact damage, CFRP laminated plate, laser ultrasonic scanning technique, dmage

Boyer, Edmond

97

Massive star formation in Wolf-Rayet galaxies. IV. Colours, chemical-composition analysis and metallicity-luminosity relations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We have performed a comprehensive multiwavelength analysis of a sample of 20 starburst galaxies that show a substantial population of very young massive stars, most of them classified as Wolf-Rayet (WR) galaxies. In this paper, the forth of the series, we present the global analysis of the derived photometric and chemical properties. Methods: We compare optical/NIR colours and the physical properties (reddening coefficient, equivalent widths of the emission and underlying absorption lines, ionization degree, electron density, and electron temperature) and chemical properties (oxygen abundances and N/O, S/O, Ne/O, Ar/O, and Fe/O ratios) with previous observations and galaxy evolution models. We compile 41 independent star-forming regions - with oxygen abundances between 12 + log(O/H) = 7.58 and 8.75 - , of which 31 have a direct estimate of the electron temperature of the ionized gas. Results: According to their absolute B-magnitude, many of them are not dwarf galaxies, but they should be during their quiescent phase. We found that both c(H?) and Wabs increase with increasing metallicity. The differences in the N/O ratio is explained assuming differences in the star formation histories. We detected a high N/O ratio in objects showing strong WR features (HCG 31 AC, UM 420, IRAS 0828+2816, III Zw 107, ESO 566-8 and NGC 5253). The ejecta of the WR stars may be the origin of the N enrichment in these galaxies. We compared the abundances provided by the direct method with those obtained through empirical calibrations, finding that (i) the Pilyugin method is the best suited empirical calibration for these star-forming galaxies; (ii) the relations provided by Pettini & Pagel (2004, MNRAS, 348, 59) give acceptable results for objects with 12 + log(O/H) > 8.0; and (iii) the results provided by empirical calibrations based on photoionization models are systematically 0.2-0.3 dex higher than the values derived from the direct method. The O and N abundances and the N/O ratios are clearly related to the optical/NIR luminosity; the dispersion of the data is a consequence of the differences in the star-formation histories. The L-Z relations tend to be tighter when using NIR luminosities, which facilitates distinguishing tidal dwarf galaxies candidates and pre-existing dwarf objects. Galaxies with redder colours tend to have higher oxygen and nitrogen abundances. Conclusions: Our detailed analysis is fundamental to understand the nature of galaxies that show strong starbursts, as well as to know their star formation history and the relationships with the environment. This study is complementary -but usually more powerful- to the less detailed analysis of large galaxy samples that are very common nowadays. Based on observations made with NOT (Nordic Optical Telescope), INT (Isaac Newton Telescope) and WHT (William Herschel Telescope) operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden (NOT) or the Isaac Newton Group (INT, WHT) in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Based on observations made at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).Appendices are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Esteban, C.

2010-07-01

98

Automatically Compositing Still Images and Landscape Video Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an approach to deliver high-quality composites of panned, tilted, and zoomed landscape video sequences with computer-generated still images, targeted at large-scale construction projects. We propose a fully automatic camera-tracking algorithm to accurately composite computer-generated still images into panned, tilted, and zoomed video-sequence frames taken by hand or from a tripod. It provides an excellent means for a visual

Xueying Qin; Eihachiro Nakamae; Katsumi Tadamura

2002-01-01

99

[Studies on the metabolism of ketocarotenoids in species of Adonis : I. Composition of pigments in abnormally coloured petals].  

PubMed

The composition of carotenoids in yellow flowers of Adonis aestivalis, A. annua, and A. flammeus has been determined (see Table). In contrast to the pattern of pigments in normally red flowers, these petals are free of ketocarotenoids but rich in oxipolyenes. The role of these compounds as precursors of the ketocarotenoids has been discussed and summarized in a hypothetical scheme (Fig. 1). PMID:24515554

Czygan, F C

1969-03-01

100

Composition-Aware Scene Optimization for Product Images Tianqiang Liu  

E-print Network

Composition-Aware Scene Optimization for Product Images Tianqiang Liu Princeton University and Jim are creating product advertisements and catalog images using computer renderings of 3D scenes. A common goal by possible camera parameters, object placement, material choices, etc. Previous methods have investigated

Singh, Jaswinder Pal

101

Colour Perception in ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children…

Banaschewski, Tobias; Ruppert, Sinje; Tannock, Rosemary; Albrecht, Bjorn; Becker, Andreas; Uebel, Henrik; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Rothenberger, Aribert

2006-01-01

102

Single shot white light interference microscopy with colour fringe analysis for quantitative phase imaging of biological cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To quantitatively obtain the phase map of Onion and human red blood cell (RBC) from white light interferogram we used Hilbert transform color fringe analysis technique. The three Red, Blue and Green color components are decomposed from single white light interferogram and Refractive index profile for Red, Blue and Green colour were computed in a completely non-invasive manner for Onion and human RBC. The present technique might be useful for non-invasive determination of the refractive index variation within cells and tissues and morphological features of sample with ease of operation and low cost.

Srivastava, Vishal; Mehta, D. S.

2013-02-01

103

Animation of Archived Composite Infrared Satellite Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this tool, users can build their own animations from infrared satellite imagery superimposed on a world map. Animations are constructed by selecting year, month, date, and time for the archived images. Users can also adjust the animation length, interval between images, and speed of the animation.

104

INFRARED IMAGING OF CARBON AND CERAMIC COMPOSITES: DATA REPRODUCIBILITY  

SciTech Connect

Infrared NDE techniques have proven to be superior for imaging of flaws in ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and carbon silicon carbide composites (C/SiC). Not only can one obtain accurate depth gauging of flaws such as delaminations and layered porosity in complex-shaped components such as airfoils and other aeronautical components, but also excellent reproducibility of image data is obtainable using the STTOF (Synthetic Thermal Time-of-Flight) methodology. The imaging of large complex shapes is fast and reliable. This methodology as applied to large C/SiC flight components at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center will be described.

Knight, B.; Howard, D. R.; Ringermacher, H. I. [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States); Hudson, L. D. [NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards AFB, CA (United States)

2010-02-22

105

On Representation and Matching of MultiColoured Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new representation for objects with multiple colours-the colour adjacency graph (CAG)-is proposed. Each node of the CAG represents a single chromatic component of the image defined as a set of pixels forming a unimodal cluster in the chromatic scattergram. Edges encode information about adjacency of colour components and their reflectance ratio. The CAG is related to both the histogram

Jiri Matas; R. Marik; Josef Kittler

1995-01-01

106

Compositional breast imaging using a dual-energy mammography protocol  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Mammography has a low sensitivity in dense breasts due to low contrast between malignant and normal tissue confounded by the predominant water density of the breast. Water is found in both adipose and fibroglandular tissue and constitutes most of the mass of a breast. However, significant protein mass is mainly found in the fibroglandular tissue where most cancers originate. If the protein compartment in a mammogram could be imaged without the influence of water, the sensitivity and specificity of the mammogram may be improved. This article describes a novel approach to dual-energy mammography, full-field digital compositional mammography (FFDCM), which can independently image the three compositional components of breast tissue: water, lipid, and protein. Methods: Dual-energy attenuation and breast shape measures are used together to solve for the three compositional thicknesses. Dual-energy measurements were performed on breast-mimicking phantoms using a full-field digital mammography unit. The phantoms were made of materials shown to have similar x-ray attenuation properties of the compositional compartments. They were made of two main stacks of thicknesses around 2 and 4 cm. Twenty-six thickness and composition combinations were used to derive the compositional calibration using a least-squares fitting approach. Results: Very high accuracy was achieved with a simple cubic fitting function with root mean square errors of 0.023, 0.011, and 0.012 cm for the water, lipid, and protein thicknesses, respectively. The repeatability (percent coefficient of variation) of these measures was tested using sequential images and was found to be 0.5%, 0.5%, and 3.3% for water, lipid, and protein, respectively. However, swapping the location of the two stacks of the phantom on the imaging plate introduced further errors showing the need for more complete system uniformity corrections. Finally, a preliminary breast image is presented of each of the compositional compartments separately. Conclusions: FFDCM has been derived and exhibited good compositional thickness accuracy on phantoms. Preliminary breast images demonstrated the feasibility of creating individual compositional diagnostic images in a clinical environment.

Laidevant, Aurelie D.; Malkov, Serghei; Flowers, Chris I.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John A. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Department of Medicine and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

2010-01-15

107

Compositional breast imaging using a dual-energy mammography protocol  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Mammography has a low sensitivity in dense breasts due to low contrast between malignant and normal tissue confounded by the predominant water density of the breast. Water is found in both adipose and fibroglandular tissue and constitutes most of the mass of a breast. However, significant protein mass is mainly found in the fibroglandular tissue where most cancers originate. If the protein compartment in a mammogram could be imaged without the influence of water, the sensitivity and specificity of the mammogram may be improved. This article describes a novel approach to dual-energy mammography, full-field digital compositional mammography (FFDCM), which can independently image the three compositional components of breast tissue: water, lipid, and protein. Methods: Dual-energy attenuation and breast shape measures are used together to solve for the three compositional thicknesses. Dual-energy measurements were performed on breast-mimicking phantoms using a full-field digital mammography unit. The phantoms were made of materials shown to have similar x-ray attenuation properties of the compositional compartments. They were made of two main stacks of thicknesses around 2 and 4 cm. Twenty-six thickness and composition combinations were used to derive the compositional calibration using a least-squares fitting approach. Results: Very high accuracy was achieved with a simple cubic fitting function with root mean square errors of 0.023, 0.011, and 0.012 cm for the water, lipid, and protein thicknesses, respectively. The repeatability (percent coefficient of variation) of these measures was tested using sequential images and was found to be 0.5%, 0.5%, and 3.3% for water, lipid, and protein, respectively. However, swapping the location of the two stacks of the phantom on the imaging plate introduced further errors showing the need for more complete system uniformity corrections. Finally, a preliminary breast image is presented of each of the compositional compartments separately. Conclusions: FFDCM has been derived and exhibited good compositional thickness accuracy on phantoms. Preliminary breast images demonstrated the feasibility of creating individual compositional diagnostic images in a clinical environment. PMID:20175478

Laidevant, Aurelie D.; Malkov, Serghei; Flowers, Chris I.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John A.

2010-01-01

108

"Clustering by Composition" - Unsupervised Discovery of Image Categories.  

PubMed

We define a "good image cluster" as one in which images can be easily composed (like a puzzle) using pieces from each other, while are difficult to compose from images outside the cluster. The larger and more statistically significant the pieces are, the stronger the affinity between the images. This gives rise to unsupervised discovery of very challenging image categories. We further show how multiple images can be composed from each other simultaneously and efficiently using a collaborative randomized search algorithm. This collaborative process exploits the "wisdom of crowds of images", to obtain a sparse yet meaningful set of image affinities, and in time which is almost linear in the size of the image collection. "Clustering-by-Composition" yields state-of-the-art results on current benchmark evaluation datasets. It further yields promising results on new challenging datasets, such as datasets with very few images (where a 'cluster model' cannot be 'learned' by current methods), and a subset of the PASCAL VOC dataset (with huge variability in scale and appearance). PMID:24344078

Faktor, Alon; Irani, Michal

2013-12-13

109

Quickly updatable hologram images with high performance photorefractive polymer composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here quickly updatable hologram images using high performance photorefractive (PR) polymer composite based on poly(N-vinyl carbazole) (PVCz). PVCz is one of the pioneer materials for photoconductive polymer. PVCz/7- DCST/CzEPA/TNF (44/35/20/1 by wt) gives high diffraction efficiency of 68 % at E = 45 V/?m with fast response speed. Response speed of optical diffraction is the key parameter for real-time 3D holographic display. Key parameter for obtaining quickly updatable hologram images is to control the glass transition temperature lower enough to enhance chromophore orientation. Object image of the reflected coin surface recorded with reference beam at 532 nm (green beam) in the PR polymer composite is simultaneously reconstructed using a red probe beam at 642 nm. Instead of using coin object, object image produced by a computer was displayed on a spatial light modulator (SLM) is used as an object for hologram. Reflected object beam from a SLM interfered with reference beam on PR polymer composite to record a hologram and simultaneously reconstructed by a red probe beam. Movie produced in a computer was recorded as a realtime hologram in the PR polymer composite and simultaneously clearly reconstructed with a video rate.

Tsutsumi, Naoto; Kinashi, Kenji; Nonomura, Asato; Sakai, Wataru

2012-02-01

110

Hyperspectral Imaging of Structure and Composition in Atomically Thin Heterostructures  

E-print Network

V, depending on its twist angle ().19-22 However, previous studies could not distinguish these optical microscope that provides imaging and spectroscopy at energies of up to 6.2 eV, allowing comprehensive, all-optical mapping of chemical composition in graphene/h-BN lateral heterojunctions and interlayer rotations

McEuen, Paul L.

111

Prostate Mechanical Imaging: 3-D Image Composition and Feature Calculations  

PubMed Central

We have developed a method and a device entitled prostate mechanical imager (PMI) for the real-time imaging of prostate using a transrectal probe equipped with a pressure sensor array and position tracking sensor. PMI operation is based on measurement of the stress pattern on the rectal wall when the probe is pressed against the prostate. Temporal and spatial changes in the stress pattern provide information on the elastic structure of the gland and allow two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of prostate anatomy and assessment of prostate mechanical properties. The data acquired allow the calculation of prostate features such as size, shape, nodularity, consistency/hardness, and mobility. The PMI prototype has been validated in laboratory experiments on prostate phantoms and in a clinical study. The results obtained on model systems and in vivo images from patients prove that PMI has potential to become a diagnostic tool that could largely supplant DRE through its higher sensitivity, quantitative record storage, ease-of-use and inherent low cost. PMID:17024836

Egorov, Vladimir; Ayrapetyan, Suren; Sarvazyan, Armen P.

2008-01-01

112

False-color composite image of Prince Albert, Canada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a false color composite of Prince Albert, Canada, centered at 53.91 north latitude and 104.69 west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on the 20th orbit of the Shuttle Endeavour. The area is located 40 km north and 30 km east of the town of Prince Albert in the Saskatchewan province of Canada. The image covers the area east of the Candle Lake, between gravel surface highways 120 and 106 and west of 106. The area in the middle of the image covers the entire Nipawin (Narrow Hills) provincial park. The look angle of the radar is 30 degrees and the size of the image is approximately 20 kilometers by 50 kilometers (12 by 30 miles). Most of the dark areas in the image are the ice-covered lakes in the region. The dark area on the top right corner of the image is the White Gull Lake north of the intersection of Highway 120 and 913. The right middle part of the image shows Lake Ispuchaw and Lower Fishing Lake

1994-01-01

113

False-color composite image of Raco, Michigan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a false color composite of Raco, Michigan, centered at 46.39 north latitude and 84.88 east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on the 20th orbit of the Shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is approximately 20 kilometers by 50 kilometers. Raco is located at the eastern end of Michigan's upper peninsula, west of Sault Ste. Marie and south of Whitefish Bay on Lake Superior. In this color representation, darker areas in the image are smooth surfaces such as frozen lakes and other non-forested areas. The colors are related to the types of trees and the brightness is related to the amount of plant material covering the surface, called forest biomass. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43882.

1994-01-01

114

Loss of connectivity in Alzheimer's disease: an evaluation of white matter tract integrity with colour coded MR diffusion tensor imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A NOVEL MRI METHODdiffusion tensor imaging—was used to compare the integrity of several white matter fibre tracts in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. Relative to normal controls, patients with probable Alzheimer's disease showed a highly significant reduction in the integrity of the association white matter fibre tracts, such as the splenium of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and cingulum.

Stephen E Rose; Fang Chen; Jonathan B Chalk; Fernando O Zelaya; Wendy E Strugnell; Mark Benson; James Semple; David M Doddrell

2000-01-01

115

Composition of weakly altered Martian crust: Clues from imaging spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two of the fundamental questions regarding chemical weathering on Mars concern the following topics: the chemical pathways by which pristine crustal rocks are altered to produce observed ferric ironbearing assemblages and inferred clay silicate, sulfate, and magnetic oxide phases; and the timing of the oxidative weathering. High spatial- and spectral-resolution imaging spectrometer data provide a tool to investigate aspects of these questions for material exposed on the surface of Mars. In this study, ISM imaging spectrometer data are used to develop an inventory of least-altered crustal materials and to quantitatively model the mineralogic composition of the weakly altered crustal rocks.

Mustard, John F.; Murchie, Scott L.; Erard, Stephane; Head, James W.

1992-01-01

116

Colour harmony of two colour combinations in clothes matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many definitions and theories about colour harmony. But no consistent rules and definitions can be determined. Some previous researches show that there are many factors that influence the colour harmony. Colour harmony is highly depends on the external factors, including the context of colour besides their colour combinations. In the current research an experiment conducted by observing two colour combinations which applied in shirt and trousers. Twenty observers involved in the experiment, consist of ten male and ten female. Each observer predict colour harmony score in 58 samples of shirt and trouser pairs, the colour combination then applied upside down. Based on the experimental results, male and female group has similar tendency in colour harmony score prediction in the same colour samples (correlation coefficient, r=0.84). Upside down colour combinations will change the impression of observer about colour harmony and yields a different value of colour harmony prediction score which indicated from correlation coefficient results of 0.53.

Wicaksono, Sungging Haryo; Fu, Tzu-Hao; Chen, Liang-Ya; Hou, Chien-Yu; Ou, Li-Chen

2015-01-01

117

Remotely sensed image processing service composition based on heuristic search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As remote sensing technology become ever more powerful with multi-platform and multi-sensor, it has been widely recognized for contributing to geospatial information efforts. Because the remotely sensed image processing demands large-scale, collaborative processing and massive storage capabilities to satisfy the increasing demands of various applications, the effect and efficiency of the remotely sensed image processing is far from the user's expectation. The emergence of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) may make this challenge manageable. It encapsulate all processing function into services and recombine them with service chain. The service composition on demand has become a hot topic. Aiming at the success rate, quality and efficiency of processing service composition for remote sensing application, a remote sensed image processing service composition method is proposed in this paper. It composes services for a user requirement through two steps: 1) dynamically constructs a complete service dependency graph for user requirement on-line; 2) AO* based heuristic searches for optimal valid path in service dependency graph. These services within the service dependency graph are considered relevant to the specific request, instead of overall registered services. The second step, heuristic search is a promising approach for automated planning. Starting with the initial state, AO* uses a heuristic function to select states until the user requirement is reached. Experimental results show that this method has a good performance even the repository has a large number of processing services.

Yang, Xiaoxia; Zhu, Qing; Li, Hai-feng; Zhao, Wen-hao

2008-12-01

118

Loss of connectivity in Alzheimer's disease: an evaluation of white matter tract integrity with colour coded MR diffusion tensor imaging  

PubMed Central

A NOVEL MRI METHOD—diffusion tensor imaging—was used to compare the integrity of several white matter fibre tracts in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. Relative to normal controls, patients with probable Alzheimer's disease showed a highly significant reduction in the integrity of the association white matter fibre tracts, such as the splenium of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and cingulum. By contrast, pyramidal tract integrity seemed unchanged. This novel finding is consistent with the clinical presentation of probable Alzheimer's disease, in which global cognitive decline is a more prominent feature than motor disturbance.?? PMID:10990518

Rose, S.; Chen, F.; Chalk, J.; Zelaya, F.; Strugnell, W.; Benson, M.; Semple, J.; Doddrell, D.

2000-01-01

119

Comment on 'Aerosol and Rayleigh radiance contributions to Coastal Zone Colour Scanner images' by Eckstein and Simpson  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a recent paper Eckstein and Simpson describe what they believe to be serious difficulties and/or errors with the CZCS (Coastal Zone Color Scanner) processing algorithms based on their analysis of seven images. Here we point out that portions of their analysis, particularly those dealing with multiple scattered Rayleigh radiance, are incorrect. We also argue that other problems they discuss have already been addressed in the literature. Finally, we suggest that many apparent artifacts in CZCS-derived pigment fields are likely to be due to inadequacies in the sensor band set or to poor radiometric stability, both of which will be remedied with the next generation of ocean color sensors.

Gordon, H. R.; Evans, R. H.

1993-01-01

120

Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours  

PubMed Central

Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

2013-01-01

121

Wire Structure Pattern Extraction and Tracking From X-Ray Images of composite Mechanisms  

E-print Network

Wire Structure Pattern Extraction and Tracking From X-Ray Images of composite Mechanisms D). Figure 1. One of the acquired X-ray image of a composite sample. The analysis of acquired X-ray images in the acquired 1French Atomic Energy Comission (CEA). 1 #12;image. This is due to the fact that the X-ray system

Tschumperlé, David

122

Image processing for the laser spot thermography of composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes an image processing algorithm in support of infrared based nondestructive testing. The algorithm aims at analyzing the raw thermal infrared images obtained by using the nondestructive evaluation method of the laser spot thermography. In the study presented in this paper, a laser was used to scan a test specimen through the generation of single pulses. The temperature distribution produced by this thermoelastic source was measured by an infrared camera and processed with a two-stage algorithm. In the first stage few statistical parameters were used to flag the presence of damage. In the second stage the images that revealed the presence of damage were processed computing the first and second spatial derivative. Two spatial filters were also used to enhance contrast, and to locate and size the defect. The algorithm was experimentally validated by scanning the surface of a CFRP and a GFRP composite plate with induced defects.

Vandone, Ambra; Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Vanali, Marcello

2012-04-01

123

Field-Portable Pixel Super-Resolution Colour Microscope  

PubMed Central

Based on partially-coherent digital in-line holography, we report a field-portable microscope that can render lensfree colour images over a wide field-of-view of e.g., >20 mm2. This computational holographic microscope weighs less than 145 grams with dimensions smaller than 17×6×5 cm, making it especially suitable for field settings and point-of-care use. In this lensfree imaging design, we merged a colorization algorithm with a source shifting based multi-height pixel super-resolution technique to mitigate ‘rainbow’ like colour artefacts that are typical in holographic imaging. This image processing scheme is based on transforming the colour components of an RGB image into YUV colour space, which separates colour information from brightness component of an image. The resolution of our super-resolution colour microscope was characterized using a USAF test chart to confirm sub-micron spatial resolution, even for reconstructions that employ multi-height phase recovery to handle dense and connected objects. To further demonstrate the performance of this colour microscope Papanicolaou (Pap) smears were also successfully imaged. This field-portable and wide-field computational colour microscope could be useful for tele-medicine applications in resource poor settings. PMID:24086742

Greenbaum, Alon; Akbari, Najva; Feizi, Alborz; Luo, Wei; Ozcan, Aydogan

2013-01-01

124

Floral colour diversity in plant communities, bee colour space and a null model  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary biologists have long hypothesized that the diversity of flower colours we see is in part a strategy to promote memorization by pollinators, pollinator constancy, and therefore, a directed and efficient pollen transfer between plants. However, this hypothesis has never been tested against a biologically realistic null model, nor were colours assessed in the way pollinators see them. Our intent here is to fill these gaps. Throughout one year, we sampled floral species compositions at five ecologically distinct sites near Berlin, Germany. Bee-subjective colours were quantified for all 168 species. A model of colour vision was used to predict how similar the colours of sympatric and simultaneously blooming flowers were for bees. We then compared flower colour differences in the real habitats with those of random plant communities. We did not find pronounced deviations from chance when we considered common plants. When we examined rare plants, however, we found significant divergence in two of the five plant communities. At one site, similarly coloured species were found to be more frequent than expected, and at the other two locations, flower colours were indistinguishable from a random distribution. These results fit theoretical considerations that rare plants are under stronger selective pressure to secure pollination than common plants. Our study illustrates the power of linking such distinct biological traditions as community ecology and the neuroethology of bee vision.

Gumbert, A.; Kunze, J.; Chittka, L.

1999-01-01

125

Simulation of ultrasonic array imaging of composite materials with defects.  

PubMed

Ultrasonic transducer arrays are extensively used for the nondestructive evaluation of materials for aerospace and other applications. However, their use with composites requires some technique development because of reflections at the layer boundaries and the effects of attenuation. When used in full matrix capture mode, algorithms such as the total focusing method (TFM) must be applied to obtain the image. In composite materials, improvement to the algorithm is required to include the effects of material anisotropy (affecting wave speed) and optimum aperture limits to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio and location detection for a defect in the material. This paper presents simulations of the ultrasonic array signals in multilayer anisotropic materials with and without a simulated defect. A kernel model for plane wave propagation in the material is combined with an angular spectrum decomposition (for finite transducer elements) and transducer frequency response, to model the full array signals. Inclusion of the defect is through its far-field scattering response. The model facilitates the study of imaging algorithm development by identification of the effects of anisotropy, signal-to-noise ratio, and aperture limit. An analytical method for the calculation of the effective group velocity in the composite at low frequency is demonstrated, permitting rapid calculation of time delay laws in practice. PMID:24658724

Humeida, Yousif; Pinfield, Valerie J; Challis, Richard E; Wilcox, Paul D; Li, Chuan

2013-09-01

126

The Colour of Words.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students from the ages of 13 or 14 onward need to know the "colours of words" which can let them live fully in the rainbow of life, thus eliminating student fears associated with written language and of being pawns of those who have the power of words, especially written words. Colour coding the eight basic types of work that words can do in a…

Farrar, Bernice Lever

127

Brand Guidelines Colour version  

E-print Network

reverse on red Reverse Brand Overview 1.2 The Signature Our signature system is comprised of two elements forbidden. The signature must be inserted into documents from official artwork files only. The full colour, photographic or blended background. This will ensure the wordmark remains legible. Colour reverse on red

Shoubridge, Eric

128

Document Image Processing: Going beyond the Black-and-White Barrier. Progress, Issues and Options with Greyscale and Colour Image Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of digital document image processing focuses on issues and options associated with greyscale and color image processing. Topics include speed; size of original document; scanning resolution; markets for different categories of scanners, including photographic libraries, publishing, and office applications; hybrid systems; data…

Hendley, Tom

1995-01-01

129

Mid- to Late-Holocene climate variability inferred from XRF and image colour analyses of laminated lake sediment near Kangerlussuaq, South-west Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The area of southern West Greenland between 66°N and 68°N contains approximately 20000 lakes. There is a strong climatic gradient between the present day ice sheet margin and the coast. The zone immediately adjacent to the ice sheet is continental with low precipitation (<170 mm) and a mean annual temperature of -6°C. There are often large areas of bare rock, as well as aeolian deposits on the drier, south-facing slopes, and more luxuriant vegetation is associated with damper hollows and lake outflows. The rocks are dominantly gneisses and granites. Lake G (SS1220) is located 20 km northeast of Kangerlussuaq (lat. 67°03', long. 51°13', altitude 338 masl, maximum lake depth 17 m). The lake is an oligotrophic, dimictic freshwater (conductivity ~230 ?S cm-1) system due to an outflow that drains the lake on the north side. The lake sediment consists of tightly laminated calcareous gyttja. Dating control is provided by 10 AMS 14C dates. Here we present XRF data and colour information extracted from digital images and provide a preliminary interpretation of their palaeoenvironmental significance. The sediment sequence was divided into three zones: Zone 3 c. 5200 - 2450 cal. yr BP, Zone 2 c. 2450 - 840 cal. yr BP and Zone 1 c. 840 - 280 cal. yr BP. Zone 3 is characterised by a high organic content and elevated conductivity* (until 4300 cal. yr BP) and a low detrital minerogenic content probably suggesting warm and dry conditions prevailed to about 4300 cal. yr BP. From 4300 yr BP, locally wetter conditions may have prevailed. Zone 2 shows periodically changing redox conditions, low detrital minerogenic content and increased conductivity suggesting variable thermal straitification, intensity of hypolimnetic anoxia driven by greater climate variability. Zone 1 coincides with the onset of the Little Ice Age and is characterised by increased detrital minerogenic matter, decreasing organic matter and increased salinity likely suggesting drier and colder conditions reflecting changing regional aeolian activity.

Olsen, J.; Anderson, N. J.

2009-04-01

130

Effects of memory colour on colour constancy for unknown coloured objects  

PubMed Central

The perception of an object's colour remains constant despite large variations in the chromaticity of the illumination—colour constancy. Hering suggested that memory colours, the typical colours of objects, could help in estimating the illuminant's colour and therefore be an important factor in establishing colour constancy. Here we test whether the presence of objects with diagnostical colours (fruits, vegetables, etc) within a scene influence colour constancy for unknown coloured objects in the scene. Subjects matched one of four Munsell papers placed in a scene illuminated under either a reddish or a greenish lamp with the Munsell book of colour illuminated by a neutral lamp. The Munsell papers were embedded in four different scenes—one scene containing diagnostically coloured objects, one scene containing incongruent coloured objects, a third scene with geometrical objects of the same colour as the diagnostically coloured objects, and one scene containing non-diagnostically coloured objects (eg, a yellow coffee mug). All objects were placed against a black background. Colour constancy was on average significantly higher for the scene containing the diagnostically coloured objects compared with the other scenes tested. We conclude that the colours of familiar objects help in obtaining colour constancy for unknown objects. PMID:23145282

Granzier, Jeroen J M; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

2012-01-01

131

Adaptive plasticity during the development of colour vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colour vision greatly enhances the discriminatory and cognitive capabilities of visual systems and is found in a great majority of vertebrates and many invertebrates. However, colour coding visual systems are confronted with the fact that the external stimuli are ambiguous because they are subject to constant variations of luminance and spectral composition. Furthermore, the transmittance of the ocular media, the

Hans-Joachim Wagner; Ronald H. H. Kröger

2005-01-01

132

Ultrasonic scanning system for imaging flaw growth in composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for measuring and visually representing damage in composite specimens while they are being loaded was demonstrated. It uses a hobbiest grade microcomputer system to control data taking and image processing. The system scans operator selected regions of the specimen while it is under load in a tensile test machine and measures internal damage by the attenuation of a 2.5 MHz ultrasonic beam passed through the specimen. The microcomputer dynamically controls the position of ultrasonic transducers mounted on a two axis motor driven carriage. As many as 65,536 samples can be taken and filed on a floppy disk system in less than four minutes.

Kiraly, L. J.; Meyn, E. H.

1982-01-01

133

Optimality of the basic colour categories for classification  

PubMed Central

Categorization of colour has been widely studied as a window into human language and cognition, and quite separately has been used pragmatically in image-database retrieval systems. This suggests the hypothesis that the best category system for pragmatic purposes coincides with human categories (i.e. the basic colours). We have tested this hypothesis by assessing the performance of different category systems in a machine-vision task. The task was the identification of the odd-one-out from triples of images obtained using a web-based image-search service. In each triple, two of the images had been retrieved using the same search term, the other a different term. The terms were simple concrete nouns. The results were as follows: (i) the odd-one-out task can be performed better than chance using colour alone; (ii) basic colour categorization performs better than random systems of categories; (iii) a category system that performs better than the basic colours could not be found; and (iv) it is not just the general layout of the basic colours that is important, but also the detail. We conclude that (i) the results support the plausibility of an explanation for the basic colours as a result of a pressure-to-optimality and (ii) the basic colours are good categories for machine vision image-retrieval systems. PMID:16849219

Griffin, Lewis D

2005-01-01

134

Taylor impact tests on PBX composites: imaging and analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of Taylor impact tests were performed on three plastic bonded explosive (PBX) formulations: PBX 9501, PBXN-9 and HPP (propellant). The first two formulations are HMX-based, and all three have been characterized quasi-statically in tension and compression. The Taylor impact tests use a 500 psi gas gun to launch PBX projectiles (approximately 30 grams, 16 mm diameter, 76 mm long), velocities as high as 215 m/s, at a steel anvil. Tests were performed remotely and no sign of ignition/reaction have been observed to date. Highspeed imaging was used to capture the impact of the specimen onto anvil surface. Side-view contour images have been analyzed using dynamic stress equations from the literature, and additionally, front-view images have been used to estimate a tensile strain failure criterion for initial specimen fracture. Post-test sieve analysis of specimen debris correlates fragmentation with projectile velocity, and these data show interesting differences between composites. Along with other quasi-static and dynamic measurements, Taylor impact images and fragmentation data provide a useful metric for the calibration or evaluation of intermediate-rate model predictions of PBX constituitive response and failure/fragmentation. Intermediate-rate tests involving other impact configurations are being considered.

Graff Thompson, Daria; DeLuca, Racci; Archuleta, Jose; Brown, Geoff W.; Koby, Joseph

2014-05-01

135

Unconventional colour vision.  

PubMed

Butterflies and stomatopods are certainly outliers in their unconventional colour sense and despite some similarities at first glance, in fact sample the world of colour very differently. In one way, butterflies are relatively conventional, possessing either tri-or tetrachromatic colour vision, then just adding one or several task-specific sub-mechanisms onto this. It is the stomatopods so far that have really pushed the boat out into a different colour vision mechanism. Over 400 million years of independent evolution they have arrived at a solution with more in common with the way a satellite sensor examines the colours of the earth than other animals. Remember, however, that unconventional colour vision is not just the realm of the serially polychromatic. Apparently waterfleas with four classes of spectral receptors living in ponds operate a task-specific spectral sense with no need, or indeed neural processing power, to construct a complex discriminatory mechanism. It seems they have the butterfly added-extra set without the more complex comparative chromatic mechanisms, although in truth, conclusive behavioural proof is lacking. Behavioural observation of colour vision in the ecological context of each animal is vital before making the distinction between conventional and unconventional. Just counting spectral sensitivities is never enough. PMID:25514002

Marshall, Justin; Arikawa, Kentaro

2014-12-15

136

Adaptive colouration in amphibians.  

PubMed

Amphibians, i.e. salamanders, frogs and caecilians show a wide range of bright colours in combination with contrasting patterns. There is variation among species, populations and also within species and populations. Furthermore, individuals often change colours during developmental stages or in response to environmental factors. This extraordinary variation means that there are excellent opportunities to test hypotheses of the adaptive significance of colours using amphibian species as models. We review the present view of functions of colouration in amphibians with the main focus on relatively unexplored topics. Variation in colouration has been found to play a role in thermoregulation, UV protection, predator avoidance and sexual signalling. However, many proposed cases of adaptive functions of colouration in amphibians remain virtually scientifically unexplored and surprisingly few genes influencing pigmentation or patterning have been detected. We would like to especially encourage more studies that take advantage of recent developments in measurement of visual properties of several possible signalling receivers (e.g. predators, competitors or mates). Future investigations on interactions between behaviour, ecology and vision have the potential to challenge our current view of the adaptive function of colouration in amphibians. PMID:23664831

Rudh, Andreas; Qvarnström, Anna

2013-01-01

137

Content-Based Image Retrieval Using a Composite Color-Shape Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a composite feature measure which combines the shape and color features of an image based on a clustering technique. A similarity measure computes the degree of match between a given pair of images; this technique can be used for content-based image retrieval of images using shape and/or color. Tests the technique on two image databases;…

Mehtre, Babu M.; Kankanhalli, Mohan S.; Lee, Wing Foon

1998-01-01

138

Damage Assessment of Composite Structures Using Digital Image Correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The steady increase of Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Structures in modern aircraft will reach a new dimension with the entry into service of the Boeing 787 and Airbus 350. Replacement of damaged parts will not be a preferable solution due to the high level of integration and the large size of the components involved. Consequently the need to develop repair techniques and processes for composite components is readily apparent. Bonded patch repair technologies provide an alternative to mechanically fastened repairs with significantly higher performance, especially for relatively thin skins. Carefully designed adhesively bonded patches can lead to cost effective and highly efficient repairs in comparison with conventional riveted patch repairs that cut fibers and introduce highly strained regions. In this work, the assessment of the damage process taking place in notched (open-hole) specimens under uniaxial tensile loading was studied. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) Digital Image Correlation (DIC) techniques were employed to obtain full-field surface strain measurements in carbon-fiber/epoxy T700/M21 composite plates with different stacking sequences in the presence of an open circular hole. Penetrant enhanced X-ray radiographs were taken to identify damage location and extent after loading around the hole. DIC strain fields were compared to finite element predictions. In addition, DIC techniques were used to characterise damage and performance of adhesively bonded patch repairs in composite panels under tensile loading. This part of work relates to strength/stiffness restoration of damaged composite aircraft that becomes more important as composites are used more extensively in the construction of modern jet airliners. The behaviour of bonded patches under loading was monitored using DIC full-field strain measurements. Location and extent of damage identified by X-ray radiography correlates well with DIC strain results giving confidence to the technique for structural health monitoring of bonded patches.

Caminero, M. A.; Lopez-Pedrosa, M.; Pinna, C.; Soutis, C.

2014-02-01

139

Object knowledge modulates colour appearance  

PubMed Central

We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective) colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis. PMID:23145224

Witzel, Christoph; Valkova, Hanna; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

2011-01-01

140

Rockpool Gobies Change Colour for Camouflage  

PubMed Central

Camouflage is found in a wide range of species living in numerous habitat types, offering protection from visually guided predators. This includes many species from the intertidal zone, which must cope with background types diverse in appearance and with multiple predator groups foraging at high and low tide. Many animals are capable of either relatively slow (hours, days, weeks) or rapid (seconds and minutes) colour change in order to better resemble the background against which they are found, but most work has been restricted to a few species or taxa. It is often suggested that many small intertidal fish are capable of colour change for camouflage, yet little experimental work has addressed this. Here, we test rock gobies (Gobius paganellus) for colour change abilities, and whether they can tune their appearance to match the background. In two experiments, we place gobies on backgrounds of different brightness (black or white), and of different colours (red and blue) and use digital image analysis and modelling of predator (avian) vision to quantify colour and luminance (perceived lightness) changes and camouflage. We find that gobies are capable of rapid colour change (occurring within one minute), and that they can change their luminance on lighter or darker backgrounds. When presented on backgrounds of different colours, gobies also change their colour (hue and saturation) while keeping luminance the same. These changes lead to predicted improvements in camouflage match to the background. Our study shows that small rockpool fish are capable of rapid visual change for concealment, and that this may be an important mechanism in many species to avoid predation, especially in complex heterogeneous environments. PMID:25333382

Stevens, Martin; Lown, Alice E.; Denton, Alexander M.

2014-01-01

141

Rockpool gobies change colour for camouflage.  

PubMed

Camouflage is found in a wide range of species living in numerous habitat types, offering protection from visually guided predators. This includes many species from the intertidal zone, which must cope with background types diverse in appearance and with multiple predator groups foraging at high and low tide. Many animals are capable of either relatively slow (hours, days, weeks) or rapid (seconds and minutes) colour change in order to better resemble the background against which they are found, but most work has been restricted to a few species or taxa. It is often suggested that many small intertidal fish are capable of colour change for camouflage, yet little experimental work has addressed this. Here, we test rock gobies (Gobius paganellus) for colour change abilities, and whether they can tune their appearance to match the background. In two experiments, we place gobies on backgrounds of different brightness (black or white), and of different colours (red and blue) and use digital image analysis and modelling of predator (avian) vision to quantify colour and luminance (perceived lightness) changes and camouflage. We find that gobies are capable of rapid colour change (occurring within one minute), and that they can change their luminance on lighter or darker backgrounds. When presented on backgrounds of different colours, gobies also change their colour (hue and saturation) while keeping luminance the same. These changes lead to predicted improvements in camouflage match to the background. Our study shows that small rockpool fish are capable of rapid visual change for concealment, and that this may be an important mechanism in many species to avoid predation, especially in complex heterogeneous environments. PMID:25333382

Stevens, Martin; Lown, Alice E; Denton, Alexander M

2014-01-01

142

Proceedings of Medical Image Understanding and Analysis 99, Oxford: BMVA, 49-52. A skin imaging method based on a colour formation model  

E-print Network

images showing the presence of melanin in the dermis. This information can help in lesion discrimination there is excessive melanin concentration in the skin. In benign lesions, melanin deposits are normally found of the skin - reproduce at the high, abnormal rate. Whilst they (and their associated melanin) remain

Claridge, Ela

143

Colour Mixing Based on Daylight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large…

Meyn, Jan-Peter

2008-01-01

144

Illumination Invariant Colour Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article describes a colour based recognition system with three novelfeatures. Firstly, the proposed system can operate in environments wherespectral characteristics of illumination change in both space and time. Secondly,benefits in terms of speed and quality of output are gained by focusingprocessing to areas of salient colour. Finally, an automatic model acquisitionprocedure allows rapid creation of the model database.1 IntroductionIn

J. Matas; R. Marik; J. Kittler

1994-01-01

145

Evaluation of colour properties and chemical quality parameters of cactus juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition and visual appearance of cactus fruits from the genera Opuntia and Hylocereus were investigated. Colour properties were assessed in solutions with pH ranging from 1 to 8 and expressed as chroma, hue and colour shade. Between pH 3 and 7, all samples were stable as indicated by hue and chroma values. The colour shade of the red

Florian C. Stintzing; Andreas Schieber; Reinhold Carle

2003-01-01

146

Temporal full-colour tuning through non-steady-state upconversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing light-harvesting materials with tunable emission colours has always been at the forefront of colour display technologies. The variation in materials composition, phase and structure can provide a useful tool for producing a wide range of emission colours, but controlling the colour gamut in a material with a fixed composition remains a daunting challenge. Here, we demonstrate a convenient, versatile approach to dynamically fine-tuning emission in the full colour range from a new class of core–shell upconversion nanocrystals by adjusting the pulse width of infrared laser beams. Our mechanistic investigations suggest that the unprecedented colour tunability from these nanocrystals is governed by a non-steady-state upconversion process. These findings provide keen insights into controlling energy transfer in out-of-equilibrium optical processes, while offering the possibility for the construction of true three-dimensional, full-colour display systems with high spatial resolution and locally addressable colour gamut.

Deng, Renren; Qin, Fei; Chen, Runfeng; Huang, Wei; Hong, Minghui; Liu, Xiaogang

2015-03-01

147

Mammographic quantitative image analysis and biologic image composition for breast lesion characterization and classification  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To investigate whether biologic image composition of mammographic lesions can improve upon existing mammographic quantitative image analysis (QIA) in estimating the probability of malignancy. Methods: The study population consisted of 45 breast lesions imaged with dual-energy mammography prior to breast biopsy with final diagnosis resulting in 10 invasive ductal carcinomas, 5 ductal carcinoma in situ, 11 fibroadenomas, and 19 other benign diagnoses. Analysis was threefold: (1) The raw low-energy mammographic images were analyzed with an established in-house QIA method, “QIA alone,” (2) the three-compartment breast (3CB) composition measure—derived from the dual-energy mammography—of water, lipid, and protein thickness were assessed, “3CB alone”, and (3) information from QIA and 3CB was combined, “QIA + 3CB.” Analysis was initiated from radiologist-indicated lesion centers and was otherwise fully automated. Steps of the QIA and 3CB methods were lesion segmentation, characterization, and subsequent classification for malignancy in leave-one-case-out cross-validation. Performance assessment included box plots, Bland–Altman plots, and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions (invasive and DCIS) was 0.81 (standard error 0.07) for the “QIA alone” method, 0.72 (0.07) for “3CB alone” method, and 0.86 (0.04) for “QIA+3CB” combined. The difference in AUC was 0.043 between “QIA + 3CB” and “QIA alone” but failed to reach statistical significance (95% confidence interval [–0.17 to + 0.26]). Conclusions: In this pilot study analyzing the new 3CB imaging modality, knowledge of the composition of breast lesions and their periphery appeared additive in combination with existing mammographic QIA methods for the distinction between different benign and malignant lesion types. PMID:24593733

Drukker, Karen; Duewer, Fred; Giger, Maryellen L.; Malkov, Serghei; Flowers, Chris I.; Joe, Bonnie; Kerlikowske, Karla; Drukteinis, Jennifer S.; Li, Hui; Shepherd, John A.

2014-01-01

148

Mammographic quantitative image analysis and biologic image composition for breast lesion characterization and classification  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate whether biologic image composition of mammographic lesions can improve upon existing mammographic quantitative image analysis (QIA) in estimating the probability of malignancy. Methods: The study population consisted of 45 breast lesions imaged with dual-energy mammography prior to breast biopsy with final diagnosis resulting in 10 invasive ductal carcinomas, 5 ductal carcinomain situ, 11 fibroadenomas, and 19 other benign diagnoses. Analysis was threefold: (1) The raw low-energy mammographic images were analyzed with an established in-house QIA method, “QIA alone,” (2) the three-compartment breast (3CB) composition measure—derived from the dual-energy mammography—of water, lipid, and protein thickness were assessed, “3CB alone”, and (3) information from QIA and 3CB was combined, “QIA + 3CB.” Analysis was initiated from radiologist-indicated lesion centers and was otherwise fully automated. Steps of the QIA and 3CB methods were lesion segmentation, characterization, and subsequent classification for malignancy in leave-one-case-out cross-validation. Performance assessment included box plots, Bland–Altman plots, and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions (invasive and DCIS) was 0.81 (standard error 0.07) for the “QIA alone” method, 0.72 (0.07) for “3CB alone” method, and 0.86 (0.04) for “QIA+3CB” combined. The difference in AUC was 0.043 between “QIA + 3CB” and “QIA alone” but failed to reach statistical significance (95% confidence interval [–0.17 to + 0.26]). Conclusions: In this pilot study analyzing the new 3CB imaging modality, knowledge of the composition of breast lesions and their periphery appeared additive in combination with existing mammographic QIA methods for the distinction between different benign and malignant lesion types.

Drukker, Karen, E-mail: kdrukker@uchicago.edu; Giger, Maryellen L.; Li, Hui [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Duewer, Fred; Malkov, Serghei; Joe, Bonnie; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John A. [Radiology Department, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)] [Radiology Department, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Flowers, Chris I. [Department of Radiology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Drukteinis, Jennifer S. [Department of Radiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)

2014-03-15

149

Compositional maps of Saturn's moon Phoebe from imaging spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The origin of Phoebe, which is the outermost large satellite of Saturn, is of particular interest because its inclined, retrograde orbit suggests that it was gravitationally captured by Saturn, having accreted outside the region of the solar nebula in which Saturn formed. By contrast, Saturn's regular satellites (with prograde, low-inclination, circular orbits) probably accreted within the sub-nebula in which Saturn itself formed. Here we report imaging spectroscopy of Phoebe resulting from the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft encounter on 11 June 2004. We mapped ferrous-iron-bearing minerals, bound water, trapped CO2, probable phyllosilicates, organics, nitriles and cyanide compounds. Detection of these compounds on Phoebe makes it one of the most compositionally diverse objects yet observed in our Solar System. It is likely that Phoebe's surface contains primitive materials from the outer Solar System, indicating a surface of cometary origin. PMID:15875014

Clark, Roger N; Brown, Robert H; Jaumann, Ralf; Cruikshank, Dale P; Nelson, Robert M; Buratti, Bonnie J; McCord, Thomas B; Lunine, J; Baines, K H; Bellucci, G; Bibring, J-P; Capaccioni, F; Cerroni, P; Coradini, A; Formisano, V; Langevin, Y; Matson, D L; Mennella, V; Nicholson, P D; Sicardy, B; Sotin, C; Hoefen, Todd M; Curchin, John M; Hansen, Gary; Hibbits, Karl; Matz, K-D

2005-05-01

150

Compositional maps of Saturn's moon Phoebe from imaging spectroscopy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The origin of Phoebe, which is the outermost large satellite of Saturn, is of particular interest because its inclined, retrograde orbit suggests that it was gravitationally captured by Saturn, having accreted outside the region of the solar nebula in which Saturn formed. By contrast, Saturn's regular satellites (with prograde, low-inclination, circular orbits) probably accreted within the sub-nebula in which Saturn itself formed. Here we report imaging spectroscopy of Phoebe resulting from the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft encounter on 11 June 2004. We mapped ferrous-iron-bearing minerals, bound water, trapped CO2, probable phyllosilicates, organics, nitriles and cyanide compounds. Detection of these compounds on Phoebe makes it one of the most compositionally diverse objects yet observed in our Solar System. It is likely that Phoebe's surface contains primitive materials from the outer Solar System, indicating a surface of cometary origin.

Clark, R.N.; Brown, R.H.; Jaumann, R.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Nelson, R.M.; Buratti, B.J.; McCord, T.B.; Lunine, J.; Baines, K.H.; Bellucci, G.; Bibring, J.-P.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Coradini, A.; Formisano, V.; Langevin, Y.; Matson, D.L.; Mennella, V.; Nicholson, P.D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, C.; Hoefen, T.M.; Curchin, J.M.; Hansen, G.; Hibbits, K.; Matz, K.-D.

2005-01-01

151

Radiopacity evaluation of contemporary resin composites by digitization of images  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of different composite resins and compare the values to those of human enamel and dentine. Materials and Methods: Five specimens of each material with thicknesses of 2 mm were prepared and radiographed alongside aluminum step wedge and human enamel and dentin. Three occlusal radiographs for each material were taken and digitized using a desktop scanner. Mean gray values of the test materials were measured using Image J software. Then a conversion was performed according to establish the radiopacity of the test materials, in millimeters of equivalent Al. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Duncan multiple range tests (P < 0.05). Results: The radiopacity values varied among the restorative materials (P < 0.05). The radiopacity values of the materials tested were, in decreasing order: Enamel Plus HRI > Z250 > Filtek Ultimate ? Z550 > Nexcomp ? Nanoceram Bright > enamel ? Estelite Sigma Quick > Clearfil Majesty Esthetic ? Reflexions XLS ? Aelite LS Posterior ? dentin ? 2 mm Al. Conclusion: All resin composite materials investigated in this study presented different radiopacity values. However, all materials had radiopacity values greater than dentin and had sufficient radiopacity to meet International Organization for Standardization 4049 standard. PMID:25202214

Ermis, R. Banu; Yildirim, Derya; Yildiz, Gul; Gormez, Ozlem

2014-01-01

152

Colour in flux: describing and printing colour in art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will describe artists, practitioners and scientists, who were interested in developing a deeper psychological, emotional and practical understanding of the human visual system who were working with wavelength, paint and other materials. From a selection of prints at The Prints and Drawings Department at Tate London, the presentation will refer to artists who were motivated by issues relating to how colour pigment was mixed and printed, to interrogate and explain colour perception and colour science, and in art, how artists have used colour to challenge the viewer and how a viewer might describe their experience of colour. The title Colour in Flux refers, not only to the perceptual effect of the juxtaposition of one colour pigment with another, but also to the changes and challenges for the print industry. In the light of screenprinted examples from the 60s and 70s, the presentation will discuss 21 st century ideas on colour and how these notions have informed the Centre for Fine Print Research's (CFPR) practical research in colour printing. The latter part of this presentation will discuss the implications for the need to change methods in mixing inks that moves away from existing colour spaces, from non intuitive colour mixing to bespoke ink sets, colour mixing approaches and colour mixing methods that are not reliant on RGB or CMYK.

Parraman, Carinna

2008-01-01

153

Medical Image Analysis 7 (2003) 489502 www.elsevier.com/locate/media  

E-print Network

histology: Physics-based interpretation of images of pigmented skin lesions a , b c d *Ela Claridge , Symon Abstract Through an understanding of the image formation process, diagnostically important facts about the internal structure and composition of pigmented skin lesions can be derived from their colour images

Claridge, Ela

2003-01-01

154

Colour-scent associations in a tropical orchid: three colours but two odours.  

PubMed

Colour and scent are the major pollinator attractants to flowers, and their production may be linked by shared biosynthetic pathways. Species with polymorphic floral traits are particularly relevant to study the joint evolution of floral traits. We used in this study the tropical orchid Calanthe sylvatica from Réunion Island. Three distinct colour varieties are observed, presenting lilac, white or purple flowers, and named respectively C. sylvaticavar.lilacina (hereafter referred as var. lilacina), C. sylvaticavar. alba (var. alba) and C. sylvatica var. purpurea (var. purpurea). We investigated the composition of the floral scent produced by these colour varieties using the non-invasive SPME technique in the wild. Scent emissions are dominated by aromatic compounds. Nevertheless, the presence of the terpenoid (E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triène (DMNT) is diagnostic of var. purpurea, with the volatile organic compounds (VOC) produced by some individuals containing up to 60% of DMNT. We evidence specific colour-scent associations in C. sylvatica, with two distinct scent profiles in the three colour varieties: the lilacina-like profile containing no or very little DMNT (<2%) and the purpurea-like profile containing DMNT (>2%). Calanthe sylvatica var. alba individuals group with one or the other scent profile independently of their population of origin. We suggest that white-flowered individuals have evolved at least twice, once from var. lilacina and at least once from var. purpurea after the colonisation of la Réunion. White-flowered individuals may have been favoured by the particular pollinator fauna characterising the island. These flowering varieties of C. sylvatica, which display three colours but two scents profiles prove that colour is not always a good indicator of odour and that colour-scent associations may be complex, depending on pollination ecology of the populations concerned. PMID:21377705

Delle-Vedove, Roxane; Juillet, Nicolas; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Grison, Claude; Barthes, Nicolas; Pailler, Thierry; Dormont, Laurent; Schatz, Bertrand

2011-06-01

155

Correlative light and electron microscopy using cathodoluminescence from nanoparticles with distinguishable colours  

PubMed Central

Correlative light and electron microscopy promises to combine molecular specificity with nanoscale imaging resolution. However, there are substantial technical challenges including reliable co-registration of optical and electron images, and rapid optical signal degradation under electron beam irradiation. Here, we introduce a new approach to solve these problems: imaging of stable optical cathodoluminescence emitted in a scanning electron microscope by nanoparticles with controllable surface chemistry. We demonstrate well-correlated cathodoluminescence and secondary electron images using three species of semiconductor nanoparticles that contain defects providing stable, spectrally-distinguishable cathodoluminescence. We also demonstrate reliable surface functionalization of the particles. The results pave the way for the use of such nanoparticles for targeted labeling of surfaces to provide nanoscale mapping of molecular composition, indicated by cathodoluminescence colour, simultaneously acquired with structural electron images in a single instrument. PMID:23155483

Glenn, D. R.; Zhang, H.; Kasthuri, N.; Schalek, R.; Lo, P. K.; Trifonov, A. S.; Park, H.; Lichtman, J. W.; Walsworth, R. L.

2012-01-01

156

Colour: A Computer Program for QCD Colour Factor Calculations  

E-print Network

A computer program for evaluating colour factors of QCD Feynman diagrams is presented, and illustrative examples on how to use the program to calculate non trivial colour factors are given. The program and the discussion in this paper is based on a diagrammatic approach to colour factors.

Jari Hakkinen; Hamid Kharraziha

1996-03-04

157

Prediction of compositional and sensory characteristics using RGB digital images and multivariate calibration techniques.  

PubMed

In the present paper, the possibility to use the information contained in RGB digital images to gain a fast and inexpensive quantification of colour-related properties of food is explored. To this aim, we present an approach which consists, as first step, in condensing the colour related information contained in RGB digital images of the analysed samples in one-dimensional signals, named colourgrams. These signals are then used as descriptor variables in multivariate calibration models. The feasibility of this approach has been tested using as a benchmark a series of samples of pesto sauce, whose RGB images have been used to predict both visual attributes defined by a panel test and the content of various pigments (chlorophylls a and b, pheophytins a and b, ?-carotene and lutein). The possibility to predict correctly the values of some of the studied parameters suggests the feasibility of this approach for fast monitoring of the main aspect-related properties of a food matrix. The values of the squared correlation coefficient computed in prediction on a test set (R(Pred)(2)) for green and yellow hues were greater than 0.75, while R(Pred)(2) values greater than 0.85 were obtained for the prediction of total chlorophylls content and of chlorophylls/pheophytins ratio. The great flexibility of this blind analysis method for the quantitative evaluation of colour related features of matrices with an inhomogeneous aspect suggests that it is possible to implement automated, objective, and transferable systems for fast monitoring of raw materials, different stages of the manufacture and end products, not necessarily for the food industry only. PMID:22023857

Foca, Giorgia; Masino, Francesca; Antonelli, Andrea; Ulrici, Alessandro

2011-11-14

158

Colour, vision and ergonomics.  

PubMed

This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age. PMID:22317623

Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

2012-01-01

159

Measuring the colour of rendering mortars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When restoring decorative mortar layers on historic façades, professionals need to determine the colour of these finishes in order to select an appropriate repair mortar. Currently, the appearance of these renders is only assessed from a subjective point of view. To match with the aesthetic aspects of the façade, contractors must constantly adjust their repair mortar composition to avoid a patchwork of different colours, which is detrimental for heritage. This time-consuming (trial-and-error) methodology can be excluded by evaluating `colour' with an objective numerical approach. The challenge of the research was to define and evaluate optimal material dependent boundary conditions for measuring the colour of nonhomogeneous mortars. Four samples with different scale of heterogeneity were measured by two spectrocolorimeters, both with a diffuse illumination geometry. The results were plotted in CIE-L*a*b* colour space. By calculating the colour difference (?E*), the influence of measuring with or without specular component was evaluated. We discovered the minimal number of measuring points depends on the scale of heterogeneity and the aperture area. The less homogeneous the mortar sample is and the smaller the aperture area, the more unique measuring points are required. Therefore, it is recommended to choose an aperture head of 25 mm or more to reduce the number of measurements, making your work time-efficient. However, in order to obtain accurate measurements on site, a portable optical spectrum analyser can be used with a 6 mm-diameter aperture, a viewing angle of 10°, SCI mode, illumination source D65, considering a minimum of 15 unique measuring points.

Govaerts, Yves; Meulebroeck, Wendy; Verdonck, Ann; de Bouw, Michael

2014-05-01

160

Colour thresholding and objective quantification in bioimaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer imaging is rapidly becoming an indispensable tool for the quantification of variables in research and medicine. Whilst its use in medicine has largely been limited to qualitative observations, imaging in applied basic sciences, medical research and biotechnology demands objective quantification of the variables in question. In black and white densitometry (0-256 levels of intensity) the separation of subtle differences between closely related hues from stains is sometimes very difficult. True-colour and real-time video microscopy analysis offer choices not previously available with monochrome systems. In this paper we demonstrate the usefulness of colour thresholding, which has so far proven indispensable for proper objective quantification of the products of histochemical reactions and/or subtle differences in tissue and cells. In addition, we provide interested, but untrained readers with basic information that may assist decisions regarding the most suitable set-up for a project under consideration. Data from projects in progress at Tulane are shown to illustrate the advantage of colour thresholding over monochrome densitometry and for objective quantification of subtle colour differences between experimental and control samples.

Fermin, C. D.; Gerber, M. A.; Torre-Bueno, J. R.

1992-01-01

161

Tests of commercial colour CMOS cameras for astronomical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present some results of testing commercial colour CMOS cameras for astronomical applications. Colour CMOS sensors allow to perform photometry in three filters simultaneously that gives a great advantage compared with monochrome CCD detectors. The Bayer BGR colour system realized in colour CMOS sensors is close to the astronomical Johnson BVR system. The basic camera characteristics: read noise (e^{-}/pix), thermal noise (e^{-}/pix/sec) and electronic gain (e^{-}/ADU) for the commercial digital camera Canon 5D MarkIII are presented. We give the same characteristics for the scientific high performance cooled CCD camera system ALTA E47. Comparing results for tests of Canon 5D MarkIII and CCD ALTA E47 show that present-day commercial colour CMOS cameras can seriously compete with the scientific CCD cameras in deep astronomical imaging.

Pokhvala, S. M.; Reshetnyk, V. M.; Zhilyaev, B. E.

2013-12-01

162

Segmenting Scenes by Matching Image Composites Bryan C. Russell1  

E-print Network

is painfully under-constrained ­ given a single image, it is extremely difficult to parti- tion. With the increasing availability of Internet- scale image collections (in the millions of images!), this idea of data using a low-dimentinal descriptor and transfering any associated labels onto the input image, impressive

Freeman, William T.

163

Hyperbolic geometry for colour metrics.  

PubMed

It is well established from both colour difference and colour order perpectives that the colour space cannot be Euclidean. In spite of this, most colour spaces still in use today are Euclidean, and the best Euclidean colour metrics are performing comparably to state-of-the-art non-Euclidean metrics. In this paper, it is shown that a transformation from Euclidean to hyperbolic geometry (i.e., constant negative curvature) for the chromatic plane can significantly improve the performance of Euclidean colour metrics to the point where they are statistically significantly better than state-of-the-art non-Euclidean metrics on standard data sets. The resulting hyperbolic geometry nicely models both qualitatively and quantitatively the hue super-importance phenomenon observed in colour order systems. PMID:24921355

Farup, Ivar

2014-05-19

164

Artist: Ken Hodges Composite image explaining Objective and Motivation for Galileo Probe Heat Loads:  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artist: Ken Hodges Composite image explaining Objective and Motivation for Galileo Probe Heat Loads: Galileo Probe descending into Jupiters Atmosphere shows heat shield separation with parachute deployed. (Ref. JPL P-19180)

1981-01-01

165

Segmenting Scenes by Matching Image Composites Bryan C. Russell1  

E-print Network

, is a fundamentally challenging prob- lem. The task is painfully under-constrained ­ given a single image that are visually similar to the given one. With the increasing availability of Internet- scale image collections for a variety of tasks. Simply by finding matching images using a low-dimentinal descriptor and transfering any

Sivic, Josef

166

An imaging technique using rotational polarization microscopy for the microstructure analysis of carbon/carbon composites.  

PubMed

A novel image analysis technique was proposed for microstructure investigation of carbon/carbon (C/C) composites. The rotational polarization microscopy was developed to meet the special imaging requirements. The samples of C/C composites were observed in reflection polarized light microscope, where the analyzer was rotated instead of the stage, and the polarizer was taken out. The bireflectance of like-graphite negative uniaxial crystal was analyzed. It was the theoretic foundation of image collection and data processing. The analyzer was rotated through 36 × 10° intervals without any movement of the specimen. The polished cross-section of C/C composites took micrographs at each analyzer orientation. All image data collected from the same field of view were processed by image registration and image fusion. The synthesized images were obtained by calculating the maximum and minimum gray values and their differences at each point of the million pixels at 18 orientations of the analyzer. They are unique and quite reliable to be applied to analyze the microstructure of C/C composites. Subsequently, image segmentation was performed, and the feature parameters of each component were calculated. Good agreement was found between the results from image analysis and experimental data. PMID:21618657

Miaoling, Li; Lehua, Qi; Hejun, Li

2012-01-01

167

Specifying colour and maintaining colour accuracy for 3D printing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in rapid prototyping technologies have led to the emergence of three-dimensional printers which can fabricate physical artefacts, including the application of surface colours. In light of these developments, this paper asserts that the need to print colour accurately is just as important for designers using three-dimensional colour printing as it is for two-dimensional inkjet printing. Parallels can be made

Carinna Parraman; Peter Walters; Brendan Reid; David Huson

2008-01-01

168

An IHS and wavelet integrated approach to improve pan-sharpening visual quality of natural colour IKONOS and QuickBird images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image fusion is an important tool in remote sensing, as many Earth observation satellites provide both high-resolution panchromatic and low-resolution multispectral images. To date, many image fusion techniques have been developed. However, the available algorithms can hardly produce a satisfactory fusion result for IKONOS and QuickBird images. Among the existing fusion algorithms, the IHS technique is the most widely used

Yun Zhang; Gang Hong

2005-01-01

169

Intrinsic Melanin and Hemoglobin Colour Components for Skin Lesion Malignancy Detection  

E-print Network

Intrinsic Melanin and Hemoglobin Colour Components for Skin Lesion Malignancy Detection Ali Madooei of the underlying colour, we arrive at intrinsic melanin and hemoglobin images, whose properties are then used modelling to generate images disambiguating dermal and epidermal melanin, thickness of collagen, and blood

Drew, Mark S.

170

NATURAL COLOUR URBAN 3D MODELLING A STEREOSCOPIC APPROACH WITH IKONOS MULTISPECTRSAL AND PANCHROMATIC DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach for generating urban 3D colour models using a stereoscopic technique and the commercial high- resolution satellite image data. The concept and result of the approach is presented. The paper demonstrates that it is possible to model an urban environment in natural colour 3D using the new commercial high-resolution satellite image data. The approach is fast

Yun Zhang

2002-01-01

171

Influence of dental resin material composition on cross-polarization-optical coherence tomography imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate cross-polarization-optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) signal attenuation through different resin material compositions. Four distinct composite systems were used: Filtek supreme ultra (FSU) (3M ESPE), IPS empress direct (EMD) (Ivoclar Vivadent), estelite sigma quick (SQK) (Tokuyama Dental), and Z100 (3M ESPE). Cross-sectional images of different composite-demineralized phantoms (n=108) were collected using a 1310-nm intraoral cross-polarization swept source OCT (CP-OCT) imaging system. %T quantified the CP-OCT signal attenuation. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer chemical analysis was utilized to determine how different matrix/filler compositions affected attenuation of the near infrared (NIR) signal. CP-OCT imaging of dental resin composites showed enormous variation in signal attenuation. For each of our composite systems, there was not a consistent attenuation difference in the NIR signal for A to D shades. The four composites had similar measured backscattering values but attenuated the overall signal to different degrees. When comparing the A2 shades between the four different composite systems, the order of highest to lowest of %T was EMD>Z100, FSU>SQK (ANOVA, Tukey, p<0.0001). As a result, we demonstrate the importance of understanding how the constituents of composite materials affect CP-OCT signal attenuation.

Lammeier, Carmen; Li, YuPing; Lunos, Scott; Fok, Alex; Rudney, Joel; Jones, Robert S.

2012-10-01

172

Influence of dental resin material composition on cross-polarization-optical coherence tomography imaging  

PubMed Central

Abstract. The purpose of this study was to investigate cross-polarization-optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) signal attenuation through different resin material compositions. Four distinct composite systems were used: Filtek supreme ultra (FSU) (3M ESPE), IPS empress direct (EMD) (Ivoclar Vivadent), estelite sigma quick (SQK) (Tokuyama Dental), and Z100 (3M ESPE). Cross-sectional images of different composite-demineralized phantoms (n=108) were collected using a 1310-nm intraoral cross-polarization swept source OCT (CP-OCT) imaging system. %T quantified the CP-OCT signal attenuation. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer chemical analysis was utilized to determine how different matrix/filler compositions affected attenuation of the near infrared (NIR) signal. CP-OCT imaging of dental resin composites showed enormous variation in signal attenuation. For each of our composite systems, there was not a consistent attenuation difference in the NIR signal for A to D shades. The four composites had similar measured backscattering values but attenuated the overall signal to different degrees. When comparing the A2 shades between the four different composite systems, the order of highest to lowest of %T was EMD>Z100, FSU>SQK (ANOVA, Tukey, p<0.0001). As a result, we demonstrate the importance of understanding how the constituents of composite materials affect CP-OCT signal attenuation. PMID:23224001

Lammeier, Carmen; Li, YuPing; Lunos, Scott; Fok, Alex; Rudney, Joel; Jones, Robert S.

2012-01-01

173

The colours of the Sun  

E-print Network

We compile a sample of Sun-like stars with accurate effective temperatures, metallicities and colours (from the UV to the near-IR). A crucial improvement is that the effective temperature scale of the stars has recently been established as both accurate and precise through direct measurement of angular diameters obtained with stellar interferometers. We fit the colours as a function of effective temperature and metallicity, and derive colour estimates for the Sun in the Johnson/Cousins, Tycho, Stromgren, 2MASS and SDSS photometric systems. For (B-V)_Sun, we favour the ``red'' colour 0.64 versus the ``blue'' colour 0.62 of other recent papers, but both values are consistent within the errors; we ascribe the difference to the selection of Sun-like stars versus interpolation of wider colour-Teff-metallicity relations.

Johan Holmberg; Chris Flynn; Laura Portinari

2005-11-06

174

Image analysis as a tool to facilitate selective breeding of quality traits in rainbow trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative genetic analysis was performed to assess the suitability of automated image analysis of cutlets as a selection tool to genetically improve flesh composition and colour in large rainbow trout. Fish were reared on two diets with different lipid and protein content to assess the robustness of the image analysis method across different nutritional environments, and the strength of

A. Kause; L. H. Stien; K. Rungruangsak-Torrissen; O. Ritola; K. Ruohonen; A. Kiessling

2008-01-01

175

Music\\/Lyrics Composition System Considering User's Image and Music Genre  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a music\\/lyrics composition system consisting of two sections, a lyric composing section and a music composing section, which considers user's image of a song and music genre. First of all, a user has an image of music\\/lyrics to compose. The lyric composing section presents initial lyrics chosen at random from database that is constructed using Markov chain

Takehisa Onisawa; Chisa Nakamura

2009-01-01

176

Imaging Mass Spectrometry Based Exploration of Biochemical Tissue Composition using Peak Intensity Weighted PCA  

E-print Network

Imaging Mass Spectrometry Based Exploration of Biochemical Tissue Composition using Peak Intensity Kortrijk, E. Sabbelaan 53, B-8500 Kortrijk, Belgium. Abstract-- Imaging mass spectrometry or mass spectral dimension to mass spectrometry and biomarker-oriented studies without the requirement for labels

177

Monitoring of wildfires in boreal forests using large area AVHRR NDVI composite image data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composite image data, produced from AVHRR data collected in 1990, were evaluated for locating and mapping the areal extent of wildfires in the boreal forests of Alaska during that year. A technique was developed to map forest fire boundaries by subtracting a late-summer AVHRR NDVI image from an early summer scene. The locations and boundaries

E. S. Kasischke; N. H. F. French; P. Harrell; N. L. Jr. Christensen; S. L. Ustin; D. Barry

1993-01-01

178

Measuring colour rivalry suppression in amblyopia  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To determine if the colour rivalry suppression is an index of the visual impairment in amblyopia and if the stereopsis and fusion evaluator (SAFE) instrument is a reliable indicator of the difference in visual input from the two eyes.?METHODS—To test the accuracy of the SAFE instrument for measuring the visual input from the two eyes, colour rivalry suppression was measured in six normal subjects. A test neutral density filter (NDF) was placed before one eye to induce a temporary relative afferent defect and the subject selected the NDF before the fellow eye to neutralise the test NDF. In a non-paediatric private practice, 24 consecutive patients diagnosed with unilateral amblyopia were tested with the SAFE. Of the 24 amblyopes, 14 qualified for the study because they were able to fuse images and had no comorbid disease. The relation between depth of colour rivalry suppression, stereoacuity, and interocular difference in logMAR acuity was analysed.?RESULTS—In normal subjects, the SAFE instrument reversed temporary defects of 0.3 to 1.8 log units to within 0.6 log units. In amblyopes, the NDF to reverse colour rivalry suppression was positively related to interocular difference in logMAR acuity (?=1.21, p<0.0001), and negatively related to stereoacuity (?=?0.16, p=0.019). The interocular difference in logMAR acuity was negatively related to stereoacuity (?=?0.13, p=0.009).?CONCLUSIONS—Colour rivalry suppression as measured with the SAFE was found to agree closely with the degree of visual acuity impairment in non-paediatric patients with amblyopia.?? PMID:10535858

Hofeldt, T.; Hofeldt, A.

1999-01-01

179

Effect of vitamin E supplementation and diet on fatty acid composition and on meat colour and lipid oxidation of lamb leg steaks displayed in modified atmosphere packs.  

PubMed

Groups of 8 lambs were allocated to one of five concentrate diets supplemented with all-rac-?-tocopheryl acetate containing 30 (C30), 60 (C60), 120 (C120), 250 (C250) and 500 (C500) mg/kg dry matter. Two other groups were fed grass silage and 400 g/day concentrate with 60 (S60) or 500 (S500) mg ?-tocopheryl acetate/kg dry matter. Within diet, vitamin E level did not affect growth performance or carcass characteristics. Basal diet did not affect final live weight, conformation and fatness scores. M. semimembranosus from S lambs contained more ?-tocopherol than that of C lambs on the same intake and by day 6 in MAP (75%O2/25%CO2) chroma and a* were below acceptable levels in C30 lambs. TBARS were higher in C30 and C60 muscle than in other treatments (P<0.001) after 3 and 6 days display. Muscle fatty acid composition varied with basal diet but lipid oxidation depended more on vitamin E concentration with an initial concentration of 1.9 ?g/g muscle preventing significant lipid oxidation. PMID:22177553

Kasapidou, E; Wood, J D; Richardson, R I; Sinclair, L A; Wilkinson, R G; Enser, M

2012-04-01

180

Transformation of colour space dedicated to an experimental analysis fulfilling the applicability criteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The choice of colour space is very important in the digital image analysis by reason of accuracy and computational time. Particle Image Velocimetry and Particle Image Thermometry are the optical methods commonly applied in the fluid dynamics and heat transfer. Especially in PIT method, the analysis of colour images is significant. In this paper, transformation of RGB to HSI colour space dedicated to PIT will be presented. Derivation of formulas together with its graphical representation will be discussed. Fulfilment of applicability criteria will be shown. This theoretical approach to digital image processing supplements the knowledge about the optical experimental methods.

Ziemba, A.; Fornalik-Wajs, E.

2014-08-01

181

Three-dimensional plasmonic stereoscopic prints in full colour.  

PubMed

Metal nanostructures can be designed to scatter different colours depending on the polarization of the incident light. Such spectral control is attractive for applications such as high-density optical storage, but challenges remain in creating microprints with a single-layer architecture that simultaneously enables full-spectral and polarization control of the scattered light. Here we demonstrate independently tunable biaxial colour pixels composed of isolated nanoellipses or nanosquare dimers that can exhibit a full range of colours in reflection mode with linear polarization dependence. Effective polarization-sensitive full-colour prints are realized. With this, we encoded two colour images within the same area and further use this to achieve depth perception by realizing three-dimensional stereoscopic colour microprint. Coupled with the low cost and durability of aluminium as the functional material in our pixel design, such polarization-sensitive encoding can realize a wide spectrum of applications in colour displays, data storage and anti-counterfeiting technologies. PMID:25369035

Goh, Xiao Ming; Zheng, Yihan; Tan, Shawn J; Zhang, Lei; Kumar, Karthik; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Yang, Joel K W

2014-01-01

182

An electrically tunable imaging system with separable focus and zoom functions using composite liquid crystal lenses.  

PubMed

We demonstrated an electrically tunable optical image system with separable focus function and zoom function based on three tunable focusing composite liquid crystal (LC) lenses. One LC lens in charge of the focus function helps to maintain the formed image at the same position and the other two LC lenses in charge of zoom function assist to continuously form an image at image sensor with tunable magnification of image size. The detail optical mechanism is investigated and the concept is demonstrated experimentally. The magnifications of the images can be switched continuously for the target in a range between 10 cm and 100 cm. The optical zoom ratio of this system maintains a constant~6.5:1 independent of the object distance. This study provides not only a guideline to design the image system with an electrically optical zoom, but also provide an experimental process to show how to operate the tunable focusing lenses in such an image system. PMID:24921264

Chen, Ming-Syuan; Chen, Po-Ju; Chen, Michael; Lin, Yi-Hsin

2014-05-19

183

Disruptive Colouration and Perceptual Grouping  

PubMed Central

Camouflage is the primary defence of many animals and includes multiple strategies that interfere with figure-ground segmentation and object recognition. While matching background colours and textures is widespread and conceptually straightforward, less well explored are the optical ‘tricks’, collectively called disruptive colouration, that exploit perceptual grouping mechanisms. Adjacent high contrast colours create false edges, but this is not sufficient for an object’s shape to be broken up; some colours must blend with the background. We test the novel hypothesis that this will be particularly effective when the colour patches on the animal appear to belong to, not merely different background colours, but different background objects. We used computer-based experiments where human participants had to find cryptic targets on artificial backgrounds. Creating what appeared to be bi-coloured foreground objects on bi-coloured backgrounds, we generated colour boundaries that had identical local contrast but either lay within or between (illusory) objects. As predicted, error rates for targets matching what appeared to be different background objects were higher than for targets which had otherwise identical local contrast to the background but appeared to belong to single background objects. This provides evidence for disruptive colouration interfering with higher-level feature integration in addition to previously demonstrated low-level effects involving contour detection. In addition, detection was impeded in treatments where targets were on or in close proximity to multiple background colour or tone boundaries. This is consistent with other studies which show a deleterious influence of visual ‘clutter’ or background complexity on search. PMID:24466337

Espinosa, Irene; Cuthill, Innes C.

2014-01-01

184

The clinical measurement of tooth colour and stain.  

PubMed

There are many contributory factors to tooth colour and different techniques for its measurement. The aim of this paper is to evaluate methods of tooth colour and stain measurement, with an emphasis on recent advances in objective clinical measurement techniques. The overall colour effect of natural teeth is created by a combination of light which is reflected and scattered by tooth enamel and the underlying dentine. Developmental defects of the dentition can affect the intrinsic discolouration of teeth, for example, amelogenesis imperfecta and dentinogenesis imperfecta. Extrinsic discolouration is predominantly caused by stain build up on a tooth surface from bacteria, foodstuffs or metalic compounds. Tooth colour and stain measurement are currently assessed using a wide range of measurement methods divided into subjective (visual shade matching) and objective instrumental assessment such as by colourimetry, spectrophotometry and digital image analysis. The most popular method of assessing tooth colour clinically is visual shade matching, as this approach is quick and simple to use. However, variation in results can occur as a consequence of the subjective nature of this method. The instrumental approaches including quantitative light-induced fluorescence remove or significantly reduce the subjective component. Image analysis appears to be the most suitable method for tooth colour measurement and further work is being carried out to establish this approach. PMID:17992918

Brook, A H; Smith, R N; Lath, D J

2007-10-01

185

Philosophy for the Creation of Astronomical Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality of modern astronomical data, the power of modern computers and the agility of current image-processing software enable the creation of high-quality images in a purely digital form. The combination of these technological advancements has created a new ability to make colour astronomical images. These programs use a layering metaphor that allows for an unlimited number of astronomical datasets to be combined in any desired colour scheme, creating an immense parameter space to be explored. A philosophy is presented on how to use scaling, colour and composition to create images that simultaneously highlight scientific detail and are aesthetically appealing. This philosophy is necessary because most datasets do not correspond to the wavelength range of sensitivity of the human eye. The use of visual grammar, defined as the elements that affect the interpretation of an image, can maximize the richness and detail in an image while maintaining scientific accuracy. By properly using visual grammar, one can imply qualities that a two-dimensional image cannot show intrinsically, such as depth, motion and energy. In addition, composition can be used to engage viewers and keep them interested for a longer period of time. The use of these techniques can result in a striking image that will effectively convey the science within the image to scientists and to the public. Details of the pictorial examples used are presented in the conference web-proceedings and webcast.

Rector, T.; Levay, Z. G.; Frattare, L. M.; English, J.; Pu'Uohau-Pummill, K.

2005-12-01

186

Reversible colour change in Arthropoda.  

PubMed

The mechanisms and functions of reversible colour change in arthropods are highly diverse despite, or perhaps due to, the presence of an exoskeleton. Physiological colour changes, which have been recorded in 90 arthropod species, are rapid and are the result of changes in the positioning of microstructures or pigments, or in the refractive index of layers in the integument. By contrast, morphological colour changes, documented in 31 species, involve the anabolism or catabolism of components (e.g. pigments) directly related to the observable colour. In this review we highlight the diversity of mechanisms by which reversible colour change occurs and the evolutionary context and diversity of arthropod taxa in which it has been observed. Further, we discuss the functions of reversible colour change so far proposed, review the limited behavioural and ecological data, and argue that the field requires phylogenetically controlled approaches to understanding the evolution of reversible colour change. Finally, we encourage biologists to explore new model systems for colour change and to engage scientists from other disciplines; continued cross-disciplinary collaboration is the most promising approach to this nexus of biology, physics, and chemistry. PMID:24495279

Umbers, Kate D L; Fabricant, Scott A; Gawryszewski, Felipe M; Seago, Ainsley E; Herberstein, Marie E

2014-11-01

187

Multispectral near-infrared imaging of composite restorations in extracted teeth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One major advantage of composite restoration materials is that they can be color matched to the tooth. However, this presents a challenge when composites fail and they need to be replaced. Dentists typically spend more time repairing and replacing composites than placing new restorations. Previous studies have shown that near-infrared imaging can be used to distinguish between sound enamel and decay due to the differences in light scattering. The purpose of this study was to use a similar approach and exploit differences in light scattering to attain high contrast between composite and tooth structure. Extracted human teeth with composites (n=16) were imaged in occlusal transmission mode at wavelengths of 1300-nm, 1460-nm and 1550-nm using an InGaAs image sensor with a tungsten halogen light source with spectral filters. All samples were also imaged in the visible range using a high definition 3D digital microscope. Our results indicate that NIR wavelengths at 1460-nm and 1550-nm, coincident with higher water absorption yield the highest contrast between dental composites and tooth structure.

Logan, Cooper M.; Co, Katrina U.; Fried, William A.; Simon, Jacob C.; Staninec, Michal; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.

2014-02-01

188

Multispectral Near-Infrared Imaging of Composite Restorations in Extracted Teeth.  

PubMed

One major advantage of composite restoration materials is that they can be color matched to the tooth. However, this presents a challenge when composites fail and they need to be replaced. Dentists typically spend more time repairing and replacing composites than placing new restorations. Previous studies have shown that near-infrared imaging can be used to distinguish between sound enamel and decay due to the differences in light scattering. The purpose of this study was to use a similar approach and exploit differences in light scattering to attain high contrast between composite and tooth structure. Extracted human teeth with composites (n=16) were imaged in occlusal transmission mode at wavelengths of 1300-nm, 1460-nm and 1550-nm using an InGaAs image sensor with a tungsten halogen light source with spectral filters. All samples were also imaged in the visible range using a high definition 3D digital microscope. Our results indicate that NIR wavelengths at 1460-nm and 1550-nm, coincident with higher water absorption yield the highest contrast between dental composites and tooth structure. PMID:25309098

Logan, Cooper M; Co, Katrina U; Fried, William A; Simon, Jacob C; Staninec, Michal; And, Daniel Fried; Darling, Cynthia L

2014-02-20

189

Multispectral Near-Infrared Imaging of Composite Restorations in Extracted Teeth  

PubMed Central

One major advantage of composite restoration materials is that they can be color matched to the tooth. However, this presents a challenge when composites fail and they need to be replaced. Dentists typically spend more time repairing and replacing composites than placing new restorations. Previous studies have shown that near-infrared imaging can be used to distinguish between sound enamel and decay due to the differences in light scattering. The purpose of this study was to use a similar approach and exploit differences in light scattering to attain high contrast between composite and tooth structure. Extracted human teeth with composites (n=16) were imaged in occlusal transmission mode at wavelengths of 1300-nm, 1460-nm and 1550-nm using an InGaAs image sensor with a tungsten halogen light source with spectral filters. All samples were also imaged in the visible range using a high definition 3D digital microscope. Our results indicate that NIR wavelengths at 1460-nm and 1550-nm, coincident with higher water absorption yield the highest contrast between dental composites and tooth structure. PMID:25309098

Logan, Cooper M.; Co, Katrina U.; Fried, William A.; Simon, Jacob C.; Staninec, Michal; and, Daniel Fried; Darling, Cynthia L.

2014-01-01

190

Confocal Time Lapse Imaging as an Efficient Method for the Cytocompatibility Evaluation of Dental Composites  

PubMed Central

It is generally accepted that in vitro cell material interaction is a useful criterion in the evaluation of dental material biocompatibility. The objective of this study was to use 3D CLSM time lapse confocal imaging to assess the in vitro biocompatibility of dental composites. This method provides an accurate and sensitive indication of viable cell rate in contact with dental composite extracts. The ELS extra low shrinkage, a dental composite used for direct restoration, has been taken as example. In vitro assessment was performed on cultured primary human gingival fibroblast cells using Live/Dead staining. Images were obtained with the FV10i confocal biological inverted system and analyzed with the FV10-ASW 3.1 Software. Image analysis showed a very slight cytotoxicity in the presence of the tested composite after 5 hours of time lapse. A slight decrease of cell viability was shown in contact with the tested composite extracts compared to control cells. The findings highlighted the use of 3D CLSM time lapse imaging as a sensitive method to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the biocompatibility behavior of dental composites. PMID:25406737

Attik, Ghania Nina; Gritsch, Kerstin; Colon, Pierre; Grosgogeat, Brigitte

2014-01-01

191

CHARACTERIZING LANDSCAPE COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE WITH IMAGE TEXTURE PARAMETERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is a need to characterize landscapes using parameters that contain information beyond that of traditional land cover/land use categories. Surface composition and structure are desirable factors for applications such as modeling soil-plant-atmosphere interactions, understanding watershed hydro...

192

Going Beyond RGB: How to Create Color Composite Images that Convey the Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality of modern astronomical data and the agility of current image-processing software enable new ways to visualize data as images. Two developments in particular have led to a fundamental change in how astronomical images may be assembled. First, the availability of high-quality multiwavelength and narrowband data allow for images that do not correspond to the wavelength sensitivity of the human eye, thereby introducing ambiguity in the usage and interpretation of color. Second, many image-processing software packages now use a layering metaphor that allows for any number of astronomical datasets to be combined into a color composite image. Furthermore, any color may be assigned to each dataset, not just red, green or blue. With this technique, images with as many as eight datasets have been produced. Each dataset is intensity scaled and colorized independently, creating an immense parameter space that may be used to assemble the image. Since such images are intended for data visualization, scaling and color schemes must be chosen that best illustrate the science. I will demonstrate how color composite images can be assembled in Photoshow and GIMP. I will also give examples of how color can be effectively used to convey the science of interest.

Rector, Travis A.; Levay, Z. G.; Frattare, L. M.; English, J.; Pu'uohau-Pummill, K.

2010-01-01

193

High-resolution monochrome liquid crystal display versus efficient household colour liquid crystal display: comparison of their diagnostic performance with unenhanced CT images in focal liver lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the ability of an efficient household liquid crystal display (LCD) and a medical high-resolution LCD to\\u000a detect small hepatic lesions on unenhanced computed tomography (CT) images. We obtained the images from 100 subjects who had\\u000a undergone abdominal CT. They consisted of 41 patients with a single space-occupying lesion (SOL) in the liver and 59 control\\u000a subjects with

Yusuke Kawasumi; Takayuki Yamada; Hideki Ota; Masahiro Tsuboi; Kei Takase; Akihiro Sato; Shuichi Higano; Tadashi Ishibashi; Shoki Takahashi

2008-01-01

194

Genetics of colouration in birds.  

PubMed

Establishing the links between phenotype and genotype is of great importance for resolving key questions about the evolution, maintenance and adaptive function of phenotypic variation. Bird colouration is one of the most studied systems to investigate the role of natural and sexual selection in the evolution of phenotypic diversity. Given the recent advances in molecular tools that allow discovering genetic polymorphisms and measuring gene and protein expression levels, it is timely to review the literature on the genetics of bird colouration. The present study shows that melanin-based colour phenotypes are often associated with mutations at melanogenic genes. Differences in melanin-based colouration are caused by switches of eumelanin to pheomelanin production or by changes in feather keratin structure, melanoblast migration and differentiation, as well as melanosome structure. Similar associations with other types of colourations are difficult to establish, because our knowledge about the molecular genetics of carotenoid-based and structural colouration is quasi inexistent. This discrepancy stems from the fact that only melanin-based colouration shows pronounced heritability estimates, i.e. the resemblance between related individuals is usually mainly explained by genetic factors. In contrast, the expression of carotenoid-based colouration is phenotypically plastic with a high sensitivity to variation in environmental conditions. It therefore appears that melanin-based colour traits are prime systems to understand the genetic basis of phenotypic variation. In this context, birds have a great potential to bring us to new frontiers where many exciting discoveries will be made on the genetics of phenotypic traits, such as colouration. In this context, a major goal of our review is to suggest a number of exciting future avenues. PMID:23665152

Roulin, Alexandre; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse

2013-01-01

195

Review of thermal imaging systems in composite defect detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal imaging technologies are widely used at present in many industrial areas, while being nowadays more and more employed in R&D&i activities. This article focuses on the comparison of the results obtained with commercially available non-experimental infrared (IR) cameras in the field of non-destructive defect detection. One of the cameras belongs to the FLIR SC5000 series, which is a Medium Wavelength Infrared (MWIR) camera, and the other two cameras are from the high-end ImageIR series manufactured by InfraTec GmbH: the ImageIR 8300 also belongs to the class of MWIR cameras and the ImageIR 8800 is a Long Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) camera. The comparative study is carried out by means of inspecting three different calibrated and induced defect samples with these three cameras using similar excitation sources, so that the configuration and lay out of the tests are comparable with each other. Additionally, after every inspection, a mathematical post-processing is applied to the resulting raw thermal images in order to enhance the detection of defects present in the samples.

Jorge Aldave, I.; Venegas Bosom, P.; Vega González, L.; López de Santiago, I.; Vollheim, B.; Krausz, L.; Georges, M.

2013-11-01

196

Spectroscopic thermoacoustic imaging of water and fat composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During clinical studies, thermoacoustic imaging (TAI) failed to reliably identify malignant breast tissue. To increase detection capability, we propose spectroscopic TAI to differentiate samples based on the slope of their dielectric absorption. Phantoms composed of different ratios of water and fat were imaged using excitation frequencies between 2.7 and 3.1 GHz. The frequency-dependent slope of the TA signal was highly correlated with that of its absorption coefficient (R2 = 0.98 and p < 0.01), indicating spectroscopic TAI can distinguish materials based on their intrinsic dielectric properties. This approach potentially enhances cancer detection due to the increased water content of many tumors.

Bauer, Daniel R.; Wang, Xiong; Vollin, Jeff; Xin, Hao; Witte, Russell S.

2012-07-01

197

Meaning-Making with Colour in Multimodal Texts: An 11-Year-Old Student's Purposeful "Doing"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colour, a visual element of art and design, is a semiotic mode that is used strategically by sign-makers to communicate meaning. Understanding the meaning-making potential of colour can enhance students' understanding, appreciation, interpretation and composition of multimodal texts. This article features a case study of Anya, an 11-year-old…

Pantaleo, Sylvia

2012-01-01

198

High Frequency PMN-PT 1–3 Composite Transducer for Ultrasonic Imaging Application  

PubMed Central

Development of PMN-PT single crystal/epoxy 1–3 composites for high-frequency ultrasonic transducers application is presented. The composite was fabricated by using a DRIE dry etching process with a 45% volume fraction of PMN-PT. A 35 MHz ultrasound flat transducer was fabricated with the composite, which was found to have an effective electromechanical coupling coefficient of 0.81, an insertion loss of 18 db, and a –6 dB bandwidth as high as 100%. Tungsten wire phantom image shows that the transducer had an axial resolution of 30 ?m, which was in good agreement with the theoretical expectation. The initial results showed that the PMN-PT/epoxy 1–3 composite has many attractive properties over conventional piezoelectric materials for medical imaging applications. PMID:21869845

SUN, PING; WANG, GAOFENG; WU, DAWEI; ZHU, BENPENG; HU, CHANGHONG; LIU, CHANGGENG; DJUTH, FRANK T.; ZHOU, QIFA; SHUNG, K. KIRK

2011-01-01

199

A universal ultraviolet-optical colour-colour-magnitude relation of galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bimodal galaxy distribution in the optical colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) comprises a narrow 'red sequence' populated mostly by early-type galaxies and a broad 'blue cloud' dominated by star-forming systems. Although the optical CMD allows one to select red sequence objects, neither can it be used for galaxy classification without additional observational data such as spectra or high-resolution images, nor to

Igor V. Chilingarian; Ivan Yu. Zolotukhin

2012-01-01

200

Experimental verification of SNR and parallel imaging improvements using composite arrays.  

PubMed

Composite MRI arrays consist of triplets where two orthogonal upright loops are placed over the same imaging area as a standard surface coil. The optimal height of the upright coils is approximately half the width for the 7?cm coils used in this work. Resistive and magnetic coupling is shown to be negligible within each coil triplet. Experimental evaluation of imaging performance was carried out on a Philips 3?T Achieva scanner using an eight-coil composite array consisting of three surface coils and five upright loops, as well as an array of eight surface coils for comparison. The composite array offers lower overall coupling than the traditional array. The sensitivities of upright coils are complementary to those of the surface coils and therefore provide SNR gains in regions where surface coil sensitivity is low, and additional spatial information for improved parallel imaging performance. Near the surface of the phantom the eight-channel surface coil array provides higher overall SNR than the composite array, but this advantage disappears beyond a depth of approximately one coil diameter, where it is typically more challenging to improve SNR. Furthermore, parallel imaging performance is better with the composite array compared with the surface coil array, especially at high accelerations and in locations deep in the phantom. Composite arrays offer an attractive means of improving imaging performance and channel density without reducing the size, and therefore the loading regime, of surface coil elements. Additional advantages of composite arrays include minimal SNR loss using root-sum-of-squares combination compared with optimal, and the ability to switch from high to low channel density by merely selecting only the surface elements, unlike surface coil arrays, which require additional hardware. PMID:25388793

Maunder, Adam; Fallone, B Gino; Daneshmand, Mojgan; De Zanche, Nicola

2015-02-01

201

Floral scent emitted by white and coloured morphs in orchids.  

PubMed

Polymorphism of floral signals, such as colour and odour, is widespread in flowering plants and often considered to be adaptive, reflecting various pollinator preferences for particular floral traits. Several authors have recently hypothesized that particular associations exist between floral colour and scent, which would result from shared biochemistry between these two floral traits. In this study, we compared the chemical composition of floral volatiles emitted by white- and purple-flowered morphs of three different orchid species, including two food-deceptive species (Orchis mascula and Orchis simia) and a food-rewarding species (Anacamptis coriophora fragrans). We found clear interspecific differences in floral odours. As expected from their pollination strategy, the two deceptive orchids showed high inter-individual variation of floral volatiles, whereas the food-rewarding A. c. fragrans showed low variation of floral scent. Floral volatiles did not differ overall between white- and coloured-flowered morphs in O. mascula and A. c. fragrans, while O. simia exhibited different volatile profiles between the two colour morphs. However, a detailed analysis restricted to benzenoid compounds (which are associated with the production of floral anthocyanin pigments) showed that white inflorescences emitted more volatiles of the shikimic pathway than coloured ones, both for O. mascula and O. simia. These results are consistent with the current hypothesis that shared biochemistry creates pleiotropic links between floral colour and scent. Whether intraspecific variation of floral signals actually affects pollinator attraction and influences the reproductive success of these orchids remains to be determined. PMID:24525191

Dormont, L; Delle-Vedove, R; Bessière, J-M; Schatz, B

2014-04-01

202

Ultrasonic camera automatic image depth and stitching modifications for monitoring aerospace composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two modifications to an ultrasonic camera system have been performed in an effort to reduce setup time and post inspection image processing. Current production ultrasonic cameras have image gates that are adjusted manually. The process to adjust them prior to each inspection consumes large amounts of time and requires a skilled operator. The authors have overcome this by integrating the A-Scan and image together such that the image gating is automatically adjusted using the A-Scan data. The system monitors the A-scan signal which is in the center of the camera's field of view (FOV) and adjusts the image gating accordingly. This integration will allow for defect detection at any depth of the inspected area. Ultrasonic camera operation requires the inspector to scan the surface manually while observing the cameras FOV in the monitor. If the monitor image indicates a defect the operator then stores that image manually and marks an index on the surface as to where the image has been acquired. The second modification automates this effort by employing a digital encoder and image capture card. The encoder is used to track movement of the camera on the structures surface, record positions, and trigger the image capture device. The images are stored real time in the buffer memory rather than on the hard drive. The storing of images in the buffer enables for a more rapid acquisition time compared to storing the images individually to the hard drive. Once the images are stored, an algorithm tracks the movement of the camera through the encoder and accordingly displays the image to the inspector. Upon completion of the scan, an algorithm digitally stitches all the images to create a single full field image. The modifications were tested on a aerospace composite laminate with known defects and the results are discussed.

Regez, Brad; Kirikera, Goutham; Yuen, Martin Tan Hwai; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar; Lasser, Bob

2009-03-01

203

One-sided infrared thermal imaging for flaw characterization of ceramic matrix composites  

SciTech Connect

One-sided infrared thermal imaging is being used to characterize voids and delamination in SiC/SiC composites. Flaw depth is estimated by examining the decay of surface temperature after application of a thermal pulse. Digital analysis of the surface temperature/time relationship allows characterization of the sizes and positions of defects. Results show that defects of various sizes and depths can be characterized in SiC/SiC composites with the technique.

Deemer, C.; Sun, J. G.; Ellingson, W. A.

2000-05-16

204

Characterization of delamination and disbonding in stratified dielectric composites by millimeter wave imaging  

SciTech Connect

Electromagnetic radiation at microwave frequencies has been in use for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of various low-loss and generally lossy dielectric materials. A monostatic backscatter millimeter wave imaging system was utilized for non-destructive characterization of defects in low-loss composites of Kevlar/epoxy. Defects consisting of subsurface delamination and disbonding defects were successfully detected and characterized. Images are constructed by measuring the relative amplitude and phase of the reflected radiation. The results clearly indicate the potential of such high-frequency systems for nondestructive characterization of small defects in low-loss dielectric composite materials.

Bakhtiari, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Raptis, A.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Division

1995-04-01

205

A novel Bayesian imaging method for probabilistic delamination detection of composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A probabilistic framework for location and size determination for delamination in carbon-carbon composites is proposed in this paper. A probability image of delaminated area using Lamb wave-based damage detection features is constructed with the Bayesian updating technique. First, the algorithm for the probabilistic delamination detection framework using the proposed Bayesian imaging method (BIM) is presented. Next, a fatigue testing setup for carbon-carbon composite coupons is described. The Lamb wave-based diagnostic signal is then interpreted and processed. Next, the obtained signal features are incorporated in the Bayesian imaging method for delamination size and location detection, as well as the corresponding uncertainty bounds prediction. The damage detection results using the proposed methodology are compared with x-ray images for verification and validation. Finally, some conclusions are drawn and suggestions made for future works based on the study presented in this paper.

Peng, Tishun; Saxena, Abhinav; Goebel, Kai; Xiang, Yibing; Sankararaman, Shankar; Liu, Yongming

2013-12-01

206

Pseudo color image encryption based on three-beams interference principle and common vector composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a new method for optical image encryption based on three-beams interference principle and common vector composition is proposed. An original gray image is divided into three parts of amplitude information and three parts of phase information by a common vector composition. We can put the three parts of amplitude information together to form a color image which is regarded as a ciphertext. And the keys of the encryption system are the three phase information. In the decryption process, three beams of coherent light illuminate at the three parts of the ciphertext, pass through the corresponding phase only masks respectively, and finally the decrypted gray image would be obtained at the output plane after Fourier transform and three-beams interference. Computer simulations are presented to verify the possibility of the proposed method.

Chen, Linfei; Liu, Jingyu; Wen, Jisen; Mao, Haidan; Ge, Fan; Zhao, Daomu

2015-03-01

207

The colours of extant mammals.  

PubMed

In this review I survey pelage and skin colouration patterns of the 29 orders of extant mammals and assess their functional significance. The vast majority of mammals are shades of grey or brown. Concealment is probably the principal evolutionary driver of pelage colouration in this Class likely through background matching and self-shadow concealment. A small minority of species are aposematic while many others have distinctive markings used in intraspecific and interspecific communication although the meaning of these markings is unclear. Colouration in mammals also has physiological consequences but these are barely understood as yet. PMID:23567208

Caro, Tim

2013-01-01

208

The VRI colours of H II galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a high spatial resolution CCD surface photometry study in the optical V, R and I broad-band filters of a sample of 15 H II galaxies. Narrow-band imaging allows the separation of the emission-line region from the extended parts of the galaxy. The latter are assumed to represent the underlying galaxy in H II galaxies; thus the colours of the underlying galaxy are measured. The colours of the underlying stellar continuum within the starburst are also derived by subtracting the contribution of the emission lines falling in the broad-band filters. The distribution of colours of the underlying galaxy in H II galaxies is similar to the colours of other late-type low surface brightness galaxies, which suggests a close kinship of these with the quiescent phases of H II galaxies. However, comparison wtih recent evolutionary population synthesis models shows that the observational errors and the uncertainties in the models are still too large to put strict constraints on their past star formation history. Our analysis of the morphology and structural properties, from contour maps and luminosity profiles, of this sample of 15 H II galaxies agrees with what has been found by Telles and Telles, Melnick & Terlevich, namely that H II galaxies comprise two broad classes segregated by their luminosity; Type I H II galaxies are luminous and have disturbed and irregular outer shapes, while Type II H II galaxies are less luminous and have regular shapes. The outer parts of their profiles are well represented by an exponential, as in other types of known dwarf galaxy.

Telles, Eduardo; Terlevich, Roberto

1997-03-01

209

Tomographic Imaging of Glass/Epoxy Composite with a Laser Based Ultrasonics Setup  

SciTech Connect

The present work is an attempt to augment the classical laser-based-ultrasonics setup for tomographic imaging purposes. A Glass/epoxy composite with steel insert is the test specimen and time-of-flight data has been used for tomographic reconstruction. Multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique is used for this limited-view experiment. The resulting image is able to bring out the strong metal features.

Khanna, N.; Raghuram, V.; Munshi, P.; Kishore, N. N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur 208016 (India); Arnold, W. [Fraunhofer Institute of Nondestructive Testing Saarbruecken 66123 (Germany)

2008-09-26

210

Image correlation nondestructive evaluation of impact damage in a glass fiber composite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented in viewgraph format, digital image correlation, damage in fibrous composites, and damaged coupons (cross-ply scotchply GI-Ep laminate) are outlined. It was concluded that the image correlation accuracy was 0.03 percent; strains can be processed through Tsai-Hill failure criteria to qualify the damage; the statistical data base must be generated to evaluate certainty of the damage estimate; size effects need consideration; and better numerical techniques are needed.

Russell, Samuel S.

1990-01-01

211

Beyond a Dichotomic Approach, the Case of Colour Phenomena  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research documents the aims and the impact of a teaching experiment concerning colour phenomena. This teaching experiment is designed in order to make students consider not only the spectral composition of light but also its intensity, and to consider the absorption of light by a pigment as relative, instead of as total or zero. Eight…

Viennot, L.; de Hosson, C.

2012-01-01

212

Strange Quark Matter and Colour Superconducting Phases of QCD  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the evolution of the bubbles of quark matter which survive from the first-order confinement phase transition till the increase of the internal pressure stops their contraction. We also show that at low temperature and high pressure a quark matter composition u d s is preferred to u d d. We finally describe the different colour superconducting phases which

Luis Masperi

2003-01-01

213

Roles of biologic breast tissue composition and quantitative image analysis of mammographic images in breast tumor characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose. Investigate whether knowledge of the biologic image composition of mammographic lesions provides imagebased biomarkers above and beyond those obtainable from quantitative image analysis (QIA) of X-ray mammography. Methods. The dataset consisted of 45 in vivo breast lesions imaged with the novel 3-component breast (3CB) imaging technique based on dual-energy mammography (15 malignant, 30 benign diagnoses). The 3CB composition measures of water, lipid, and protein thicknesses were assessed and mathematical descriptors, `3CB features', were obtained for the lesions and their periphery. The raw low-energy mammographic images were analyzed with an established in-house QIA method obtaining `QIA features' describing morphology and texture. We investigated the correlation within the `3CB features', within the `QIA features', and between the two. In addition, the merit of individual features in the distinction between malignant and benign lesions was assessed. Results. Whereas many descriptors within the `3CB features' and `QIA features' were, often by design, highly correlated, correlation between descriptors of the two feature groups was much weaker (maximum absolute correlation coefficient 0.58, p<0.001) indicating that 3CB and QIA-based biomarkers provided potentially complementary information. Single descriptors from 3CB and QIA appeared equally well-suited for the distinction between malignant and benign lesions, with maximum area under the ROC curve 0.71 for a protein feature (3CB) and 0.71 for a texture feature (QIA). Conclusions. In this pilot study analyzing the new 3CB imaging modality, knowledge of breast tissue composition appeared additive in combination with existing mammographic QIA methods for the distinction between benign and malignant lesions.

Drukker, Karen; Giger, Maryellen L.; Duewer, Fred; Malkov, Serghei; Flowers, Christopher I.; Joe, Bonnie; Kerlikowske, Karla; Drukteinis, Jennifer S.; Shepherd, John

2014-03-01

214

Functional measurements of human ventral occipital cortex: retinotopy and colour.  

PubMed Central

Human colour vision originates in the cone photoreceptors, whose spatial density peaks in the fovea and declines rapidly into the periphery. For this reason, one expects to find a large representation of the cone-rich fovea in those cortical locations that support colour perception. Human occipital cortex contains several distinct foveal representations including at least two that extend onto the ventral surface: a region thought to be critical for colour vision. To learn more about these ventral signals, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify visual field maps and colour responsivity on the ventral surface. We found a visual map of the complete contralateral hemifield in a 4 cm(2) region adjacent to ventral V3; the foveal representation of this map is confluent with that of areas V1/2/3. Additionally, a distinct foveal representation is present on the ventral surface situated 3-5 cm anterior from the confluent V1/2/3 foveal representations. This organization is not consistent with the definition of area V8, which assumes the presence of a quarter field representation adjacent to V3v. Comparisons of responses to luminance-matched coloured and achromatic patterns show increased activity to the coloured stimuli beginning in area V1 and extending through the new hemifield representation and further anterior in the ventral occipital lobe. PMID:12217168

Wade, Alex R; Brewer, Alyssa A; Rieger, Jochem W; Wandell, Brian A

2002-01-01

215

Imaging and Electrical Characterization of Nanotube Networks in SWNT/Polymer Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In addition to enhanced mechanical properties, interconnected networks of carbon nanotubes are envisioned to provide directional thermal and electrical conductivity paths within multifunctional polymer composites. Their sensitivity to the surrounding polymer matrix and environment are envisioned as the basis for novel electronic devices as well as chemical, biological and photonic sensor arrays. Advancement in these areas requires fundamental understanding of the conduction within nanotube bundles and their junctions which form the composite network. To this end, we have investigated the current-voltage response of 100 nm - 800 nm thick SWNT/PMMA composite films using arrays of lithographically patterned electrodes of various geometries. SEM and AFM images of the composite/electrode configuration revealed the structure of the conductive network within the polymer matrix. Voltage contrast and EBIC (electron beam induced current) scanning electron microscopy are used to map paths of current flow through the composite. In addition, potential maps of charged composites are generated using atomic force microscopy. Image analysis of microscopy data was used to determine the number of connections, the distances between connections, and the connectivity of the network. Correlation of network geometry, current-voltage response, and node-voltage analysis was used to estimate the average resistivity of nanotube bundles and their interconnections. The nature and cause of non-ohmic responses measured in the composites of various nanotube weight loadings will be discussed.

Jesse, Stephen

2003-03-01

216

New insights into subsurface imaging of carbon nanotubes in polymer composites via scanning electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Despite many studies of subsurface imaging of carbon nanotube (CNT)-polymer composites via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), significant controversy exists concerning the imaging depth and contrast mechanisms. We studied CNT-polyimide composites and, by three-dimensional reconstructions of captured stereo-pair images, determined that the maximum SEM imaging depth was typically hundreds of nanometers. The contrast mechanisms were investigated over a broad range of beam accelerating voltages from 0.3 to 30 kV, and ascribed to modulation by embedded CNTs of the effective secondary electron (SE) emission yield at the polymer surface. This modulation of the SE yield is due to non-uniform surface potential distribution resulting from current flows due to leakage and electron beam induced current. The importance of an external electric field on SEM subsurface imaging was also demonstrated. The insights gained from this study can be generally applied to SEM nondestructive subsurface imaging of conducting nanostructures embedded in dielectric matrices such as graphene-polymer composites, silicon-based single electron transistors, high resolution SEM overlay metrology or e-beam lithography, and have significant implications in nanotechnology. PMID:25649345

Zhao, Minhua; Ming, Bin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Gibbons, Luke J; Gu, Xiaohong; Nguyen, Tinh; Park, Cheol; Lillehei, Peter T; Villarrubia, J S; Vladár, András E; Alexander Liddle, J

2015-02-27

217

New insights into subsurface imaging of carbon nanotubes in polymer composites via scanning electron microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite many studies of subsurface imaging of carbon nanotube (CNT)-polymer composites via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), significant controversy exists concerning the imaging depth and contrast mechanisms. We studied CNT-polyimide composites and, by three-dimensional reconstructions of captured stereo-pair images, determined that the maximum SEM imaging depth was typically hundreds of nanometers. The contrast mechanisms were investigated over a broad range of beam accelerating voltages from 0.3 to 30 kV, and ascribed to modulation by embedded CNTs of the effective secondary electron (SE) emission yield at the polymer surface. This modulation of the SE yield is due to non-uniform surface potential distribution resulting from current flows due to leakage and electron beam induced current. The importance of an external electric field on SEM subsurface imaging was also demonstrated. The insights gained from this study can be generally applied to SEM nondestructive subsurface imaging of conducting nanostructures embedded in dielectric matrices such as graphene-polymer composites, silicon-based single electron transistors, high resolution SEM overlay metrology or e-beam lithography, and have significant implications in nanotechnology.

Zhao, Minhua; Ming, Bin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Gibbons, Luke J.; Gu, Xiaohong; Nguyen, Tinh; Park, Cheol; Lillehei, Peter T.; Villarrubia, J. S.; Vladár, András E.; Liddle, J. Alexander

2015-02-01

218

Dual-colour imaging of membrane protein targeting directed by poa semilatent virus movement protein TGBp3 in plant and mammalian cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movement function of poa semilatent hordeivirus (PSLV) is mediated by the triple gene block (TGB) proteins, of which two, TGBp2 and TGBp3, are membrane proteins. TGBp3 is localized to peripheral bodies in the vicinity of the plasma membrane and is able to re-direct TGBp2 from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the peripheral bodies. For imaging of TGBp3-mediated protein targeting,

A. A. Zamyatnin; A. G. Solovyev; A. A. Sablina; A. A. Agranovsky; L. Katul; H. J. Vetten; J. Schiemann; A. E. Hinkkanen; K. Lehto; S. Yu. Morozov

219

Upconversion nanocrystals: Bright colours ahead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Full-colour displays with high spatial resolution can be produced with properly designed upconversion nanocrystals that emit light at different wavelengths, depending on the properties of the excitation pulses.

Bettinelli, Marco

2015-03-01

220

Developing a predictive model of human skin colouring Symon D'Oyly Cotton  

E-print Network

Developing a predictive model of human skin colouring Symon D'Oyly Cotton Ela Claridge School Imaging 1996, 814 ­ 825. #12;Developing a predictive model of human skin colouring Symon D'Oyly Cotton Ela exist an extremely useful transformation which will allow a dimensional reduction from a three

Claridge, Ela

221

Colour as visual rhetoric in financial reporting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual rhetoric within communication seeks to persuade through the use of picturing and encompasses words and colour. Visual rhetoric is present within annual reports. The specific role of colour in financial reporting is a neglected field of enquiry. A survey of 100 Hong Kong annual reports related colour usage to profitability change and found companies used more colour when profitability

John K. Courtis

2004-01-01

222

Colour preferences of flower-naive honeybees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flower-naive honeybees Apis mellifera L. flying in an enclosure were tested for their colour preferences. Bees were rewarded once on an achromatic (grey, aluminium or hardboard), or on a chromatic (ultraviolet) disk. Since naive bees never alighted on colour stimuli alone, a scent was given in combination with colour. Their landings on twelve colour stimuli were recorded. Results after one

M. Giurfa; J. Núñez; L. Chittka; R. Menzel

1995-01-01

223

Sexual colouration and sperm traits in guppies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships among the area, hue, saturation and brightness of orange colouration and sperm traits in the guppy Poecilia reticulata were investigated. Males with greater areas of orange colouration had significantly larger sperm loads, more motile sperm and longer sperm relative to males with relatively little orange colouration. Males with greater areas of orange colouration did not possess more viable

T. E. Pitcher; F. H. Rodd; L. Rowe

2007-01-01

224

Colour variability of asteroids in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Moving Object Catalog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a detection of statistically significant colour variations for a sample of 7531 multiply observed asteroids that are listed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Moving Object Catalog. Using five-band photometric observations accurate to ~0.02 mag, we detect colour variations in the range 0.06-0.11 mag (rms). These variations appear to be uncorrelated with the physical characteristics of the asteroids, such as diameter (in the probed 1-10 km range), taxonomic class and family membership. Despite this lack of correlation, which implies a random nature for the cause of colour variability, a suite of tests suggest that the detected variations are not instrumental effects. In particular, the observed colour variations are incompatible with photometric errors, and, for objects observed at least four times, the colour change in the first pair of observations is correlated with the colour change in the second pair. These facts strongly suggest that the observed effect is real, and also indicate that colour variations are larger for some asteroids than for others. The detected colour variations can be explained as being due to inhomogeneous albedo distribution over an asteroid's surface. Although relatively small, these variations suggest that fairly large patches with different colour than their surroundings exist on a significant fraction of asteroids. This conclusion is in agreement with spatially resolved colour images of several large asteroids obtained by the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST).

Szabó, Gy. M.; Ivezi?, Ž.; Juri?, M.; Lupton, R.; Kiss, L. L.

2004-03-01

225

Novel volume fraction gradient and oriented piezoelectric composites for medical imaging applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ultrasonic medical imaging it is desirable to have the maximum beam sensitivity along the transmission axis. However, the presence of gratin and side lobes greatly affects the transducer performance. It is known that the grating lobes can be reduced by non-uniform spacing of elements in the composite. In spite of this knowledge, it has been found to be difficult

Rajesh K. Panda; T. Raj Gururaja; Stephen C. Danforth; Ahmad Safari

1998-01-01

226

Can Imageability Help Us Draw the Line between Storage and Composition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language requires both storage and composition. However, exactly what is retrieved from memory and what is assembled remains controversial, especially for inflected words. Here, "imageability effects" is introduced as a new diagnostic of storage and a complement to frequency effects. In 2 studies of past-tense morphology, more reliable…

Prado, Elizabeth L.; Ullman, Michael T.

2009-01-01

227

Automatic mapping of surfaces affected by forest fires in Spain using AVHRR NDVI composite image data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we describe the statistical techniques used to analyze images from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's advanced very high resolution radiometer for the calculation and mapping of surfaces affected by large forest fires in Spain in 1993 and 1994. Maximum value normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composites (MVCs) were generated for every ten-day period over the two

Alberto Fernández; Pilar Illera; Jose Luis Casanova

1997-01-01

228

Thermal imaging and air-coupled ultrasound characterization of a continuous-fiber ceramic composite panels.  

SciTech Connect

SYLRAMIC{trademark} continuous fiber ceramic-matrix composites (Nicalon{trademark} fiber/SiNC matrix) were fabricated by Dow Corning Corporation with the polymer-impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) process. The composite microstructure and its uniformity, and the completeness of infiltration during processing were studied as a function of number of PIP cycles. Two nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods, i.e., infrared thermal imaging and air-coupled ultrasound (UT), were used to investigate flat composite panels of two thicknesses and various sizes. The thermal imaging method provided two-dimensional (2D) images of through-thickness thermal diffusivity distributions, and the air-coupled UT method provided 2D images of through-thickness ultrasonic transmission of the panel components. Results from both types of NDEs were compared at various PIP cycles during fabrication of the composites. A delaminated region was clearly detected and its progressive repair was monitored during processing. The NDE data were also correlated to results obtained from destructive characterization.

Sun, J. G.; Easler, T. E.; Szweda, A.; Pillai, T. A. K.; Deemer, C.; Ellingson, W. A.

1998-04-01

229

Class separation improvements in pixel classification using colour injection.  

PubMed

This paper presents an improvement in the colour image segmentation in the Hue Saturation (HS) sub-space. The authors propose to inject (add) a colour vector in the Red Green Blue (RGB) space to increase the class separation in the HS plane. The goal of the work is the development of an algorithm to obtain the optimal colour vector for injection that maximizes the separation between the classes in the HS plane. The chromatic Chrominace-1 Chrominance-2 sub-space (of the Luminance Chrominace-1 Chrominance-2 (YC(1)C(2)) space) is used to obtain the optimal vector to add. The proposal is applied on each frame of a colour image sequence in real-time. It has been tested in applications with reduced contrast between the colours of the background and the object, and particularly when the size of the object is very small in comparison with the size of the captured scene. Numerous tests have confirmed that this proposal improves the segmentation process, considerably reducing the effects of the variation of the light intensity of the scene. Several tests have been made in skin segmentation in applications for sign language recognition via computer vision, where an accurate segmentation of hands and face is required. PMID:22163628

Blanco, Edward; Mazo, Manuel; Bergasa, Luis; Palazuelos, Sira; Rodríguez, Jose; Losada, Cristina; Martín, Jose

2010-01-01

230

A new "hidden colour hypothesis" in hadron physics  

E-print Network

A new "Hidden Colour Hypothesis" within the framework of QCD, as an extension of and in keeping with the spirit of the "Colour Singlet Hypothesis" is hereby proposed As such it should play a role in a consistent description of exotic hadrons, like the diquonia, pentaquarks, dibaryon$ etc. How these exotic hadrons are affected by this new hypothesis is discussed here. This new hypothesis suggests that the experimentalists may not be looking for single exotics but for composites of two or more of the same.

Afsar Abbas

2005-12-05

231

BOREAS RSS-7 Regional LAI and FPAR Images From 10-Day AVHRR-LAC Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Remote Sensing Science (BOREAS RSS-7) team collected various data sets to develop and validate an algorithm to allow the retrieval of the spatial distribution of Leaf Area Index (LAI) from remotely sensed images. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) level-4c 10-day composite Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images produced at CCRS were used to produce images of LAI and the Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) absorbed by plant canopies for the three summer IFCs in 1994 across the BOREAS region. The algorithms were developed based on ground measurements and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images. The data are stored in binary image format files.

Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Chen, Jing; Cihlar, Josef

2000-01-01

232

Feature’s Extraction of Human Body Composition in Images by Segmentation Method  

E-print Network

Abstract—Detection and recognition of the Human Body Composition and extraction their measures (width and length of human body) in images are a major issue in detecting objects and the important field in Image, Signal and Vision Computing in recent years. Finding people and extraction their features in Images are particularly important problem of object recognition, because people can have high variability in the appearance. This variability may be due to the configuration of a person (e.g., standing vs. sitting vs. jogging), the pose (e.g. frontal vs. lateral view), clothing, and variations in illumination. In this study, first, Human Body is being recognized in image then the measures of Human Body extract from the image.

Mousa Mojarrad; Mashallah Abbasi Dezfouli; Amir Masoud Rahmani

233

Flaw Detection for Composite Materials Improved by Advanced Thermal Image Reconstruction Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of advanced composite materials for use in space and propulsion components has seen considerable growth over the past few years. In addition to improvements that have been made in material properties and processing techniques, similar growth must be seen in the development of methods for the detection of flaws, either generated in service or during manufacturing. Thermal imaging techniques have proven to be successful for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of composite materials, but their detection capabilities decrease as flaw depth increases. The purpose of this research is to investigate advanced thermal imaging methods and thermal image processing technologies to increase the maximum depth below surface that a flaw can be detected and improve the contrast between flawed regions and sound regions.

Martin, Richard E.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.

2003-01-01

234

Development of a 35-MHz piezo-composite ultrasound array for medical imaging.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the development of a 64-element 35-MHz composite ultrasonic array. This array was designed primarily for ocular imaging applications, and features 2-2 composite elements mechanically diced out of a fine-grain high-density Navy Type VI ceramic. Array elements were spaced at a 50-micron pitch, interconnected via a custom flexible circuit and matched to the 50-ohm system electronics via a 75-ohm transmission line coaxial cable. Elevation focusing was achieved using a cylindrically shaped epoxy lens. One functional 64-element array was fabricated and tested. Bandwidths averaging 55%, 23-dB insertion loss, and crosstalk less than -24 dB were measured. An image of a tungsten wire target phantom was acquired using a synthetic aperture reconstruction algorithm. The results from this imaging test demonstrate resolution exceeding 50 microm axially and 100 microm laterally. PMID:16471449

Cannata, Jonathan M; Williams, Jay A; Zhou, Qifa; Ritter, Timothy A; Shung, K Kirk

2006-01-01

235

A 30-MHz piezo-composite ultrasound array for medical imaging applications.  

PubMed

Ultrasound imaging at frequencies above 20 MHz is capable of achieving improved resolution in clinical applications requiring limited penetration depth. High frequency arrays that allow real-time imaging are desired for these applications but are not yet currently available. In this work, a method for fabricating fine-scale 2-2 composites suitable for 30-MHz linear array transducers was successfully demonstrated. High thickness coupling, low mechanical loss, and moderate electrical loss were achieved. This piezo-composite was incorporated into a 30-MHz array that included acoustic matching, an elevation focusing lens, electrical matching, and an air-filled kerf between elements. Bandwidths near 60%, 15-dB insertion loss, and crosstalk less than -30 dB were measured. Images of both a phantom and an ex vivo human eye were acquired using a synthetic aperture reconstruction method, resulting in measured lateral and axial resolutions of approximately 100 microm. PMID:11885679

Ritter, Timothy A; Shrout, Thomas R; Tutwiler, Rick; Shung, K Kirk

2002-02-01

236

Increasing land-use intensity decreases floral colour diversity of plant communities in temperate grasslands.  

PubMed

To preserve biodiversity and ecosystem functions in a globally changing world it is crucial to understand the effect of land use on ecosystem processes such as pollination. Floral colouration is known to be central in plant-pollinator interactions. To date, it is still unknown whether land use affects the colouration of flowering plant communities. To assess the effect of land use on the diversity and composition of flower colours in temperate grasslands, we collected data on the number of flowering plant species, blossom cover and flower reflectance spectra from 69 plant communities in two German regions, Schwäbische Alb (SA) and Hainich-Dün (HD). We analysed reflectance data of flower colours as they are perceived by honeybees and studied floral colour diversity based upon spectral loci of each flowering plant species in the Maxwell triangle. Before the first mowing, flower colour diversity decreased with increasing land-use intensity in SA, accompanied by a shift of mean flower colours of communities towards an increasing proportion of white blossom cover in both regions. By changing colour characteristics of grasslands, we suggest that increasing land-use intensity can affect the flower visitor fauna in terms of visitor behaviour and diversity. These changes may in turn influence plant reproduction in grassland plant communities. Our results indicate that land use is likely to affect communication processes between plants and flower visitors by altering flower colour traits. PMID:23568710

Binkenstein, Julia; Renoult, Julien P; Schaefer, H Martin

2013-10-01

237

Absolute phase calculation from one composite RGB fringe pattern image by wavelet transform algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an absolute phase calculation method from one composite RGB fringe pattern image by using Wavelet transform algorithm and the optimum fringe number selection. Three fringe patterns having optimum fringe numbers are projected simultaneously onto an object surface via the red, green and blue channels of a DLP (Digital Light Processing) projector. From a different viewpoint, a CCD camera captures the deformed fringe patterns with respect to the object shape to get a composite RGB image. After compensating for the crosstalk and chromatic aberration between color channels, three fringe patterns are extracted from the composite color image. Wavelet Transform algorithm is studied to calculate wrapped phase from one fringe pattern. Therefore, three wrapped maps are obtained from the three extracted fringe patterns. An absolute phase map is calculated pixel by pixel after applying the optimum three-fringe numbers selection method to the three obtained wrapped phase maps. Simulated and experimental data demonstrate the algorithm's validity of calculating the absolute phase and shape information. The proposed method can measure 3D shape information of moving objects since the system needs only one RGB fringe pattern image.

Wang, Zhaohui; Jing, Zhao; Zhang, Zonghua; Guo, Tong; Zhang, Sixiang; Hu, Xiaotang

2011-11-01

238

The Colours of HII Galaxies  

E-print Network

We present high spatial resolution CCD surface photometry study in the optical V, R and I filters of 15 HII galaxies from the Nordic Optical Telescope and the Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope at Canary Islands. The colours of the starburst continuum and of the underlying galaxy are measured. The distribution of colours of the underlying galaxy in HII galaxies is similar to the colours of other late type low surface brightness galaxies which suggests a close kinship of these with the quiescent phases of HII galaxies. However, comparison with recent evolutionary population synthesis models show that the observational errors and the uncertainties in the models are still too large to put strict constraints on their past star formation history.

Eduardo Telles; Roberto Terlevich

1995-11-21

239

Methods for describing illumination colour uniformities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimizing angular or spatial colour homogeneity has become an important task in many general lighting applications and first requires a valid description of illumination colour homogeneity. We analyse different frequently used methods to describe colour distributions in theory and with measurement data. It is described why information about chromaticity coordinates, correlated colour temperature and global chromaticity coordinate distances are not sufficient for describing colour homogeneity perception of light distributions. We present local chromaticity coordinate distances as expandable and easy implementable method for describing colour homogeneity distributions that is adaptable to the field of view by only one intuitive, physiological meaningful parameter.

Rotscholl, Ingo; Trampert, Klaus; Herrmann, Franziska; Neumann, Cornelius

2015-02-01

240

Ecological genomics in full colour.  

PubMed

Colour patterns in animals have long offered an opportunity to observe adaptive traits in natural populations. Colour plays myriad roles in interactions within and among species, from reproductive signalling to predator avoidance, leading to multiple targets of natural and sexual selection and opportunities for diversification. Understanding the genetic and developmental underpinnings of variation in colour promises a fuller understanding of these evolutionary processes, but the path to unravelling these connections can be arduous. The advent of genomic techniques suitable for nonmodel organisms is now beginning to light the way. Two new studies in this issue of Molecular Ecology use genomic sequencing of laboratory crosses to map colour traits in cichlid fishes, a remarkably diverse group in which coloration has played a major role in diversification. They illustrate how genomic approaches, specifically RAD sequencing, can rapidly identify both simple and more complex genetic variation underlying ecologically important traits. In the first, Henning et al. () detect a single locus that appears to control in a Mendelian fashion the presence of horizontal stripes, a trait that has evolved in numerous cichlid lineages. In the second, Albertson et al. () identify several genes and epistatic interactions affecting multiple colour traits, as well as a novel metric describing integration across colour traits. Albertson et al. () go further, by quantifying differential expression of parental alleles at a candidate locus and by relating differentiation among natural populations at mapped loci to trait divergence. Herein lies the promise of ecological genomics - efficiently integrating genetic mapping of phenotypes with population genomic data to both identify functional genes and unravel their evolutionary history. These studies offer guidance on how genomic techniques can be tailored to a research question or study system, and they also add to the growing body of empirical examples addressing basic questions about how ecologically important traits evolve in natural populations. PMID:25330852

Hohenlohe, Paul A

2014-11-01

241

Texture Variations Suppress Suprathreshold Brightness and Colour Variations  

PubMed Central

Discriminating material changes from illumination changes is a key function of early vision. Luminance cues are ambiguous in this regard, but can be disambiguated by co-incident changes in colour and texture. Thus, colour and texture are likely to be given greater prominence than luminance for object segmentation, and better segmentation should in turn produce stronger grouping. We sought to measure the relative strengths of combined luminance, colour and texture contrast using a suprathreshhold, psychophysical grouping task. Stimuli comprised diagonal grids of circular patches bordered by a thin black line and contained combinations of luminance decrements with either violet, red, or texture increments. There were two tasks. In the Separate task the different cues were presented separately in a two-interval design, and participants indicated which interval contained the stronger orientation structure. In the Combined task the cues were combined to produce competing orientation structure in a single image. Participants had to indicate which orientation, and therefore which cue was dominant. Thus we established the relative grouping strength of each cue pair presented separately, and compared this to their relative grouping strength when combined. In this way we observed suprathreshold interactions between cues and were able to assess cue dominance at ecologically relevant signal levels. Participants required significantly more luminance and colour compared to texture contrast in the Combined compared to Separate conditions (contrast ratios differed by about 0.1 log units), showing that suprathreshold texture dominates colour and luminance when the different cues are presented in combination. PMID:25502555

Schofield, Andrew J.; Kingdom, Frederick A. A.

2014-01-01

242

Digital image correlation method for measuring thermal deformation of composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal deformation measurement of the high-speed aircrafts under the high temperature is significant for reliability assessment, life prediction, and safety design for the materials and structures. This paper presents a digital image correlation method to accurately measure the full-field thermal deformation of composites under the environment of high temperature. First, real-time deformation images of experimental objects under different loads are acquired with CCD cameral. Based on the digital speckle correlation theory, the bilinear interpolation algorithm is employed to measure the thermal deformation. Last, the comparative analyses on measurement results by the proposed and traditional methods are conducted, as well as factors impacting measurement errors are analyzed.

Jiang, Li; He, Yan; Wang, Dong-wei; Liu, Ke; Wu, Wei-ren

2013-10-01

243

Colour Appearance and Colour Rendering of HDR Scenes: An Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to gain a deeper understanding of the appearance of coloured objects in a three-dimensional scene, the research introduces a multidisciplinary experimental approach. The experiment employed two identical 3-D Mondrians, which were viewed and compared side by side. Each scene was subjected to different lighting conditions. First, we used an illumination cube to diffuse the light and illuminate all

Carinna Parraman; Alessandro Rizzi; John J. McCannc

244

BOREAS Level-4c AVHRR-LAC Ten-Day Composite Images: Surface Parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Satellite Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed satellite data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. Manitoba Remote Sensing Center (MRSC) and BOREAS Information System (BORIS) personnel acquired, processed, and archived data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instruments on the NOAA-11 and -14 satellites. The AVHRR data were acquired by CCRS and were provided to BORIS for use by BOREAS researchers. These AVHRR level-4c data are gridded, 10-day composites of surface parameters produced from sets of single-day images. Temporally, the 10-day compositing periods begin 11-Apr-1994 and end 10-Sep-1994. Spatially, the data cover the entire BOREAS region. The data are stored in binary image format files. Note: Some of the data files on the BOREAS CD-ROMs have been compressed using the Gzip program.

Cihlar, Josef; Chen, Jing; Huang, Fengting; Nickeson, Jaime; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

2000-01-01

245

Bidirectional composition on lie groups for gradient-based image alignment.  

PubMed

In this paper, a new formulation based on bidirectional composition on Lie groups (BCL) for parametric gradient-based image alignment is presented. Contrary to the conventional approaches, the BCL method takes advantage of the gradients of both template and current image without combining them a priori. Based on this bidirectional formulation, two methods are proposed and their relationship with state-of-the-art gradient based approaches is fully discussed. The first one, i.e., the BCL method, relies on the compositional framework to provide the minimization of the compensated error with respect to an augmented parameter vector. The second one, the projected BCL (PBCL), corresponds to a close approximation of the BCL approach. A comparative study is carried out dealing with computational complexity, convergence rate and frequence of convergence. Numerical experiments using a conventional benchmark show the performance improvement especially for asymmetric levels of noise, which is also discussed from a theoretical point of view. PMID:20403784

Mégret, Rémi; Authesserre, Jean-Baptiste; Berthoumieu, Yannick

2010-09-01

246

BOREAS Level-4b AVHRR-LAC Ten-Day Composite Images: At-sensor Radiance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Satellite Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed satellite data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. Manitoba Remote Sensing Center (MRSC) and BOREAS Information System (BORIS) personnel acquired, processed, and archived data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instruments on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-11) and -14 satellites. The AVHRR data were acquired by CCRS and were provided to BORIS for use by BOREAS researchers. These AVHRR level-4b data are gridded, 10-day composites of at-sensor radiance values produced from sets of single-day images. Temporally, the 10- day compositing periods begin 11-Apr-1994 and end 10-Sep-1994. Spatially, the data cover the entire BOREAS region. The data are stored in binary image format files.

Cihlar, Josef; Chen, Jing; Nickerson, Jaime; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Huang, Feng-Ting; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

2000-01-01

247

True Color Images of the Earth created with the Geostationary Satellite Instrument MSG SEVIRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most famous pictures ever taken was by the crew of Apollo 17 in 1972, showing our Earth from a distance of about 45000km. This picture was named 'Blue Marble' and it reminds us of the beauty and uniqueness of our home planet. With geostationary satellites, such views of the Earth are possible without the need to have a photographer in space. However, up to the present, the production of such Blue Marble type images from geostationary satellite data has been impaired by the lack of channels in the visible spectral region. A method for the generation of full disk MSG (METEOSAT Second Generation) SEVIRI (Scanning-Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) true colour composite images will be presented. The algorithm mainly uses the SEVIRI channels VIS006 (0.6?m), NIR008 (0.8?m) and NIR016 (1.6?m). The lack of information in the blue and green parts of the visible spectrum is compensated by using data from NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration's) Blue Marble next generation (BMNG) project to fill a look-up table (LUT) transforming RGB (red/green/blue) false colour composite images of VIS006/NIR008/NIR016 into true colour images. Tabulated radiative transfer calculations of a pure Rayleigh atmosphere are used to add an impression of Rayleigh scattering towards the sunlit horizon. The resulting images satisfy naive expectations: clouds are white or transparent, vegetated surfaces are greenish, deserts are sandy-coloured, the ocean is dark blue to black and a narrow halo due to Rayleigh scattering is visible at the sunlit horizon. Therefore, such images are easily interpretable also for inexperienced users not familiar with the characteristics of typical MSG false colour composite images. The images can be used for scientific applications to illustrate specific meteorological conditions or for non-scientific purposes, for example, for raising awareness in the public of the Earth's worthiness of protection.

Reuter, Maximilian

2013-04-01

248

Quantitative Multicolor Compositional Imaging Resolves Molecular Domains in Cell-Matrix Adhesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCellular processes occur within dynamic and multi-molecular compartments whose characterization requires analysis at high spatio-temporal resolution. Notable examples for such complexes are cell-matrix adhesion sites, consisting of numerous cytoskeletal and signaling proteins. These adhesions are highly variable in their morphology, dynamics, and apparent function, yet their molecular diversity is poorly defined.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe present here a compositional imaging approach for the

Eli Zamir; Benjamin Geiger; Zvi Kam; Neil Hotchin

2008-01-01

249

Automatic Mapping of Surfaces Affected by Forest Fires in Spain Using AVHRR NDVI Composite Image Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we describe the statistical techniques used to analyze images from the National Oceanic and Atmo- spheric Administration's' advanced ver~j high resolution radiometer for the calculation and mapping of surfaces affected by large fi)restfires in Spain in 1993 and 1994. Maximum value normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composites (MVCs) were generated for every ten-day period over the two

Alberto Ferndndez; Pilar Illera; Jose Luis Casanova

250

Frontal cortical tissue composition in abstinent cocaine abusers: a magnetic resonance imaging study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaine abusers exhibit impairment of executive cognitive functions that are mediated by the frontal cortex. This work tested for structural (i.e., tissue composition) abnormalities that may underlie such performance deficits. Research participants were cocaine abusers (n = 14) abstinent for 20 days and a non-drug-using comparison group (n = 11), who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (T1-weighted scans of the brain).

John A Matochik; Edythe D London; Dana A Eldreth; Jean-Lud Cadet; Karen I Bolla

2003-01-01

251

Comparison of spread spectrum and pulse signal excitation for split spectrum techniques composite imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic imaging of composites was investigated. Glass and carbon fiber reinforced plastic produced by resin transfer molding and prepreg forming were analyzed. In some of the samples air bubbles were trapped during RTM (resin transfer molding) process and interlayer gaps were present in prepreg technology samples. One of the most expected techniques to apply in such case is the Split Spectrum processing. On the other hand such signals require specific processing to reliably reconstruct the temporal position of the defect reflection. Correlation processing can be used for signal compression or Wiener filtering can be applied for spectral content equalisation. Pulse signals are simple to generate, but lack the possibility to alter the signal's spectrum shape. Spread spectrum signals offer a powerful tool for signal energy over frequency band increase and resolution enhancement. CW (continuous wave) burst has high energy but lacks the bandwidth needed for SSP (spread spectrum processing). The aim of the investigation was to compare the performance of the above signals in case of composite imaging, when various Split Spectrum Processing techniques are used with preceding Wiener processing for spectral content compensation. Resulting composite signals and images obtained are presented. Structural noise removal performance was evaluated as Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC).

Svilainis, L.; Kitov, S.; Rodríguez, A.; Vergara, L.; Dumbrava, V.; Chaziachmetovas, A.

2012-12-01

252

Biologically motivated composite image sensor for deep-field target tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work addresses the design of an image acquisition front-end for target detection and tracking within a wide range of distances. Inspired by raptor bird's vision, a novel design for a visual sensor is proposed. The sensor consists of two parts, each originating from the studies of biological vision systems of different species. The front end is comprised of a set of video cameras imitating a falconiform eye, in particular its optics and retina [1]. The back end is a software remapper that uses a popular in machine vision log-polar model of retino-cortical projection in primates [2], [3], [4]. The output of this sensor is a composite log-polar image incorporating both near and far visual fields into a single homogeneous image space. In such space it is easier to perform target detection and tracking for those applications that deal with targets moving along the camera axis. The target object preserves its shape and size being handled seamlessly between cameras regardless of distance to the composite sensor. The prototype of proposed composite sensor has been created and is used as a front-end in experimental mobile vehicle detection and tracking system. Its has been tested inside a driving simulator and results are presented.

Melnyk, Pavlo B.; Messner, Richard A.

2007-01-01

253

Multi-scale 3D image-based modelling of a carbon/carbon composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed thermal and mechanical finite element analyses of woven composites are computationally challenging due to the heterogeneous nature and the geometrical complexity of the composite. In this paper two finite element three-dimensional image-based models at different length scales are used to evaluate the thermal diffusivity and stiffness of a 2D carbon/carbon composite. The micro-scale model was developed from SEM micrographs of the carbon tow whereas the macro-scale model was derived from high resolution x-ray tomographic images of the composite. The micro-scale model predicts thermal conductivities and Young's modulus at the tow scale in the three orthogonal directions (x, y and z). The output results from the micro-scale model are then incorporated in the macro-scale model to obtain through-thickness thermal diffusivity and in-plane Young's modulus. The modelling results are in excellent agreement with the experimental results obtained from the laser flash and tensile tests and the deviations are within the bounds of numerical error of 5%.

Alghamdi, A.; Mummery, P.; Sheikh, M. A.

2013-12-01

254

The Colour of Butterflies' Wings  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN making some experiments a short time ago, I came across a fact of which I was hitherto ignorant. I wished to test the effect of acid on the colours of the wings of a butterfly or moth, and with this view applied muriatic acid to a dried and set specimen of the Six-spotted Burnet [Zygæna filipendulæ). The red parts

F. E. v

1870-01-01

255

Fabrication and characterization of medical grade polyurethane composite catheters for near-infrared imaging.  

PubMed

Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are hollow polymeric tubes that transport nutrients, blood and medications to neonates. To determine proper PICC placement, frequent X-ray imaging of neonates is performed. Because X-rays pose severe health risks to neonates, safer alternatives are needed. We hypothesize that near infrared (NIR) polymer composites can be fabricated into catheters by incorporating a fluorescent dye (IRDye 800CW) and visualized using NIR imaging. To fabricate catheters, polymer and dye are dry mixed and pressed, sectioned, and extruded to produce hollow tubes. We analyzed surface roughness, stiffness, dye retention, NIR contrast intensity, and biocompatibility. The extrusion process did not significantly alter the mechanical properties of the polymer composites. Over a period of 23 days, only 6.35 ± 5.08% dye leached out of catheters. The addition of 0.025 wt% dye resulted in a 14-fold contrast enhancement producing clear PICC images at 1 cm under a tissue equivalent. The addition of IRDye 800CW did not alter the biocompatibility of the polymer and did not increase adhesion of cells to the surface. We successfully demonstrated that catheters can be imaged without the use of harmful radiation and still maintain the same properties as the unaltered medical grade equivalent. PMID:25907050

Stevenson, André T; Reese, Laura M; Hill, Tanner K; McGuire, Jeffrey; Mohs, Aaron M; Shekhar, Raj; Bickford, Lissett R; Whittington, Abby R

2015-06-01

256

Composites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how composites work by creating and testing their own composite for an imaginary company. This activity shows learners that composites are simply materials that are made up of two or more visibly distinct substances. Use this activity to talk about how composites are everywhere in our lives.

Cornell Center for Materials Research

2003-01-01

257

Search for colour singlet and colour reconnection effects in hadronic Z decays at LEP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A search is performed in symmetric 3-jet hadronic Z-decay events for evidence of colour singlet production or colour reconnection effects. Asymmetries in the angular separation of particles are found to be sensitive indicators of such effects. Upper limits on the level of colour singlet production or of colour reconnection effects are established for a variety of models.

Achard, P.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, V. P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S. V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillère, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J. J.; Blyth, S. C.; Bobbink, G. J.; Böhm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J. G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; van Dalen, J. A.; de Asmundis, R.; Déglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degré, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M. A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J. H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P. H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z. F.; Grenier, G.; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M. W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L. J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hervé, A.; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S. R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B. N.; Jones, L. W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberr?´a, I.; Käfer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kim, J. K.; Kirkby, J.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; König, A. C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kräber, M.; Kraemer, R. W.; Krüger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J. M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lin, W. T.; Linde, F. L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z. A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y. S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W. G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J. P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R. R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G. B.; Muanza, G. S.; Muijs, A. J. M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Nowak, H.; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroué, P. A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofiev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M. A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P. G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, K.; Roe, B. P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, S.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rubio, J. A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schäfer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D. J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D. P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L. Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J. D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X. W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, C.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tonwar, S. C.; Tóth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K. L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R. T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Z. M.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B. Z.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S. C.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.

2004-02-01

258

Search for Colour Singlet and Colour Reconnection Effects in Hadronic Z Decays at LEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search is performed in symmetric 3-jet hadronic Z decay events for evidence of colour singlet production or colour reconnection effects. Asymmetries in the angular separation of particles are found to be sensitive indicators of such effects. Upper limits on the level of colour singlet production and colour reconnection effects are established for a variety of models.

P Achard; O Adriani; M Aguilar-Benítez; J Alcaraz; G Alemanni; James V Allaby; A Aloisio; M G Alviggi; H Anderhub; V P Andreev; F Anselmo; A Arefev; T Azemoon; T Aziz; P Bagnaia; A Bajo; G Baksay; L Baksay; S V Baldew; S Banerjee; A Barczyk; R Barillère; P Bartalini; M Basile; N Batalova; R Battiston; A Bay; F Becattini; U Becker; F Behner; L Bellucci; R Berbeco; J Berdugo; P Berges; B Bertucci; B L Betev; M Biasini; M Biglietti; A Biland; J J Blaising; S C Blyth; Gerjan J Bobbink; A Böhm; L Boldizsar; B Borgia; S Bottai; D Bourilkov; Maurice Bourquin; S Braccini; J G Branson; F Brochu; J D Burger; W J Burger; X D Cai; M Capell; G Cara Romeo; G Carlino; A M Cartacci; J Casaus; F Cavallari; N Cavallo; C Cecchi; M Cerrada; M Chamizo-Llatas; Y H Chang; M Chemarin; A Chen; G Chen; H F Chen; H S Chen; G Chiefari; Luisa Cifarelli; F Cindolo; I Clare; R Clare; G Coignet; N Colino; S Costantini; B de la Cruz; S Cucciarelli; J A van Dalen; R De Asmundis; P L Déglon; J Debreczeni; A Degré; K Dehmelt; K Deiters; D Della Volpe; E Delmeire; P Denes; F De Notaristefani; A De Salvo; M Diemoz; M Dierckxsens; C Dionisi; M Dittmar; A Doria; M T Dova; D Duchesneau; M Duda; B Echenard; A Eline; A El-Hage; H El-Mamouni; A Engler; F J Eppling; P Extermann; M A Falagán; S Falciano; A Favara; J Fay; O Fedin; M Felcini; T Ferguson; H S Fesefeldt; E Fiandrini; J H Field; F Filthaut; P H Fisher; W Fisher; I Fisk; G Forconi; Klaus Freudenreich; C Furetta; Yu Galaktionov; S N Ganguli; P García-Abia; M Gataullin; S Gentile; S Giagu; Z F Gong; G Grenier; O Grimm; M W Grünewald; M Guida; R van Gulik; V K Gupta; A Gurtu; L J Gutay; D Haas; D Hatzifotiadou; T Hebbeker; A Hervé; J Hirschfelder; H Hofer; M Hohlmann; G Holzner; S R Hou; Y Hu; B N Jin; L W Jones; P de Jong; I Josa-Mutuberria; D Käfer; M Kaur; M N Kienzle-Focacci; J K Kim; Jasper Kirkby; E W Kittel; A Klimentov; A C König; M Kopal; V F Koutsenko; M H Kräber; R W Krämer; A Krüger; A Kunin; P Ladrón de Guevara; I Laktineh; G Landi; M Lebeau; A Lebedev; P Lebrun; P Lecomte; P Lecoq; P Le Coultre; J M Le Goff; R Leiste; M Levtchenko; P M Levchenko; C Li; S Likhoded; C H Lin; W T Lin; Frank L Linde; L Lista; Z A Liu; W Lohmann; E Longo; Y S Lü; C Luci; L Luminari; W Lustermann; Ma Wen Gan; L Malgeri; A Malinin; C Maña; J Mans; J P Martin; F Marzano; K Mazumdar; R R McNeil; S Mele; L Merola; M Meschini; W J Metzger; A Mihul; H Milcent; G Mirabelli; J Mnich; G B Mohanty; G S Muanza; A J M Muijs; B Musicar; M Musy; S Nagy; S Natale; M Napolitano; F Nessi-Tedaldi; H Newman; A Nisati; T Novák; H Nowak; R A Ofierzynski; G Organtini; I Pal; C Palomares; P Paolucci; R Paramatti; G Passaleva; S Patricelli; T Paul; M Pauluzzi; C Paus; Felicitas Pauss; M Pedace; S Pensotti; D Perret-Gallix; B Petersen; D Piccolo; F Pierella; M Pioppi; P A Piroué; E Pistolesi; V Plyaskin; M Pohl; V Pozhidaev; J Pothier; D Prokofev; D O Prokofiev; J Quartieri; G Rahal-Callot; M A Rahaman; P Raics; N Raja; R Ramelli; P G Rancoita; R Ranieri; A V Raspereza; P A Razis; D Ren; M Rescigno; S Reucroft; S Riemann; K Riles; B P Roe; L Romero; A Rosca; S Rosier-Lees; S Roth; C Rosenbleck; J A Rubio; G Ruggiero; H Rykaczewski; A Sakharov; S Saremi; S Sarkar; J Salicio; E Sánchez; C Schäfer; V Shchegelskii; Herwig Franz Schopper; D J Schotanus; C Sciacca; L Servoli; S Shevchenko; N Shivarov; V Shoutko; E Shumilov; A V Shvorob; D Son; C Souga; P Spillantini; M Steuer; D P Stickland; B Stoyanov; A Strässner; K Sudhakar; G G Sultanov; L Z Sun; S Sushkov; H Suter; J D Swain; Z Szillási; X W Tang; P Tarjan; Ludwig Tauscher; L Taylor; B Tellili; D Teyssier; C Timmermans; Samuel C C Ting; S M Ting; S C Tonwar; J Tóth; C Tully; K L Tung; J Ulbricht; E Valente; R T Van de Walle; R Vásquez; V Veszpremi; G Vesztergombi; I Vetlitskii; D Vicinanza; Gert M Viertel; S Villa; M Vivargent; S Vlachos; I Vodopyanov; H Vogel; H Vogt; I Vorobev; A A Vorobyov; M Wadhwa; Q Wang; X L Wang; Z M Wang; M Weber; P Wienemann; H Wilkens; S Wynhoff; L Xia; Z Z Xu; J Yamamoto; B Z Yang; C G Yang; H J Yang; M Yang; S C Yeh; A Zalite; Yu Zalite; Z P Zhang; J Zhao; G Y Zhu; R Y Zhu; H L Zhuang; A Zichichi; B Zimmermann; M Zöller

2003-01-01

259

Multiple binary images hiding with bit-plane composition and jigsaw transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new scheme for multiple binary image hiding is proposed. The digital methods of the bit-plane composition and the jigsaw transform are both introduced into the double phase modulated system. By the combination of the digital and the optical methods, the direct superposition of multiple images in most of present techniques is easily avoided. As a result, the proposed scheme is available to hide sixteen binary images without any noises. It implies that a quite satisfactory trade-off between the fidelity and the multiplexing capacity is achieved. According to the results of computer simulations, we also analyze the performances of the proposed scheme including the security, the complexity and the flexibility.

Shi, Yishi; Wang, Yali; Yang, Yuhua; Zhang, Jingjuan

2010-11-01

260

1. Zool., Lond. (A) (1986) 209, 573-578 Inheritance of the king coat colour pattern in cheetahs Acinonyxjubatus  

E-print Network

' in thc Domestic cat Felis catus. This implies that thc king coat colour pattern results from a mutation of the Collowing mating season, thus ensuring the planned parentage of litters. Shelters within each maternityCparturition, and the dates, sex composition and coat colours of all litters were recorded where possible. Cheetahs

Pretoria, University of

1986-01-01

261

Biological Components of Colour Preference in Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult colour preference has been summarized quantitatively in terms of weights on the two fundamental neural processes that underlie early colour encoding: the S-(L+M) ("blue-yellow") and L-M ("red-green") cone-opponent contrast channels ( Ling, Hurlbert & Robinson, 2006; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007). Here, we investigate whether colour preference in…

Franklin, Anna; Bevis, Laura; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

2010-01-01

262

Ultraviolet Colour Vision and Ornamentation in Bluethroats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many birds see in the ultraviolet (300-400 nm), but there is limited evidence for colour communication (signalling by spectral shape independently of brightness) in this 'hidden' waveband. Such data are critical for the understanding of extravagant plumage colours, some of which show considerable UV reflectance. We investigated UV colour vision in female social responses to the male UV\\/violet ornament in

Staffan Andersson; Trond Amundsen

1997-01-01

263

Colour space models for soil science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil colour is an important soil property. It is frequently used by soil scientists for the identification and classification of soil. It is also used as an indicator of field soil physical, chemical and biological properties as well as of the occurrence of soil processes. Measurements of soil colour are commonly made using the Munsell soil colour charts. A number

R. A. Viscarra Rossel; B. Minasny; P. Roudier; A. B. McBratney

2006-01-01

264

Polymorphism and Adaptation of Primate Colour Vision  

E-print Network

Chapter 13 Polymorphism and Adaptation of Primate Colour Vision Amanda D. Melin, Chihiro Hiramatsu levels. Primates have evolved a unique ability for trichromatic colour vision from a dichromatic in extensive colour vision variability in New World monkeys, where trichromats and dichromats are found

Fedigan, Linda M.

265

An RGB Approach to Prismatic Colours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching prismatic colours usually boils down to establishing the take-home message that white light consists of "differently refrangible" coloured rays. This approach explains the classical spectrum of seven colours but has its limitations, e.g. in discussing spectra from setups with higher resolution or in understanding the well…

Theilmann, Florian; Grusche, Sascha

2013-01-01

266

Combining 3D optical imaging and dual energy absorptiometry to measure three compositional components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the design of the technique combining 3D optical imaging and dual-energy absorptiometry body scanning to estimate local body area compositions of three compartments. Dual-energy attenuation and body shape measures are used together to solve for the three compositional tissue thicknesses: water, lipid, and protein. We designed phantoms with tissue-like properties as our reference standards for calibration purposes. The calibration was created by fitting phantom values using non-linear regression of quadratic and truncated polynomials. Dual-energy measurements were performed on tissue-mimicking phantoms using a bone densitometer unit. The phantoms were made of materials shown to have similar x-ray attenuation properties of the biological compositional compartments. The components for the solid phantom were tested and their high energy/low energy attenuation ratios are in good correspondent to water, lipid, and protein for the densitometer x-ray region. The three-dimensional body shape was reconstructed from the depth maps generated by Microsoft Kinect for Windows. We used open-source Point Cloud Library and freeware software to produce dense point clouds. Accuracy and precision of compositional and thickness measures were calculated. The error contributions due to two modalities were estimated. The preliminary phantom composition and shape measurements are found to demonstrate the feasibility of the method proposed.

Malkov, Serghei; Shepherd, John

2014-02-01

267

Multilayer imaging and compositional analysis of human male breast by laser reflectometry and Monte Carlo simulation.  

PubMed

The laser backscattering from biological tissues depends on their composition and blood flow. The onset of abnormalities in tissues is associated with the change in composition at a specific location which may affect laser backscattering. The objective of this work is to study the point-to-point compositional variation of male breast tissues as this site has been prone to cancer development. The normalized backscattered intensity (NBI) profiles at various locations of human chest region of five subjects by multi-probe laser reflectometer are obtained. Based on these data the images of tissue composition, showing the point-to-point changes at various depths from the tissue surface, are reconstructed. The analysis of data shows that the maximum NBI variation is at the pectoralis major muscle and minimum variation is observed at the sternum. The optical parameters, based on the NBI data obtained for five human subjects, show the maximum increase in absorption (p < 0.0001) and minimum change in scattering (p < 0.0001) coefficients compared to that as observed at the sternum. Also the minimum absorption and maximum scattering coefficients are observed at the pectoralis major muscles. The regional variations of NBI and optical parameters further support these findings. The variations in the NBI and optical parameters may indicate the compositional change in tissues, which could be used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications of laser. PMID:19820979

Pandian, P S; Kumaravel, M; Singh, Megha

2009-11-01

268

Combining 3D optical imaging and dual energy absorptiometry to measure three compositional components  

PubMed Central

We report on the design of the technique combining 3D optical imaging and dual-energy absorptiometry body scanning to estimate local body area compositions of three compartments. Dual-energy attenuation and body shape measures are used together to solve for the three compositional tissue thicknesses: water, lipid, and protein. We designed phantoms with tissue-like properties as our reference standards for calibration purposes. The calibration was created by fitting phantom values using non-linear regression of quadratic and truncated polynomials. Dual-energy measurements were performed on tissue-mimicking phantoms using a bone densitometer unit. The phantoms were made of materials shown to have similar x-ray attenuation properties of the biological compositional compartments. The components for the solid phantom were tested and their high energy/low energy attenuation ratios are in good correspondent to water, lipid, and protein for the densitometer x-ray region. The three-dimensional body shape was reconstructed from the depth maps generated by Microsoft Kinect for Windows. We used open-source Point Cloud Library and freeware software to produce dense point clouds. Accuracy and precision of compositional and thickness measures were calculated. The error contributions due to two modalities were estimated. The preliminary phantom composition and shape measurements are found to demonstrate the feasibility of the method proposed. PMID:25083118

Malkov, Serghei; Shepherd, John

2014-01-01

269

Combining 3D optical imaging and dual energy absorptiometry to measure three compositional components.  

PubMed

We report on the design of the technique combining 3D optical imaging and dual-energy absorptiometry body scanning to estimate local body area compositions of three compartments. Dual-energy attenuation and body shape measures are used together to solve for the three compositional tissue thicknesses: water, lipid, and protein. We designed phantoms with tissue-like properties as our reference standards for calibration purposes. The calibration was created by fitting phantom values using non-linear regression of quadratic and truncated polynomials. Dual-energy measurements were performed on tissue-mimicking phantoms using a bone densitometer unit. The phantoms were made of materials shown to have similar x-ray attenuation properties of the biological compositional compartments. The components for the solid phantom were tested and their high energy/low energy attenuation ratios are in good correspondent to water, lipid, and protein for the densitometer x-ray region. The three-dimensional body shape was reconstructed from the depth maps generated by Microsoft Kinect for Windows. We used open-source Point Cloud Library and freeware software to produce dense point clouds. Accuracy and precision of compositional and thickness measures were calculated. The error contributions due to two modalities were estimated. The preliminary phantom composition and shape measurements are found to demonstrate the feasibility of the method proposed. PMID:25083118

Malkov, Serghei; Shepherd, John

2014-02-17

270

Novel Recognition Method of Blast Furnace Dust Composition by Multifeature Analysis Based on Comprehensive Image-Processing Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional artificial recognition methods for the blast furnace dust composition have several disadvantages, including a great deal of information to dispose, complex operation, and low working efficiency. In this article, a multifeature analysis method based on comprehensive image-processing techniques was proposed to automatically recognize the blast furnace dust composition. First, the artificial recognition and feature analysis, which included image preprocessing, Harris corner feature, Canny edge feature, and Ruffle feature analysis, was designed to build the template image, so that any unknown dust digital image could be tested. Second, the composition of coke, microvariation pulverized coal, vitric, ash, and iron from dust would be distinguished according to their different range of values based on the multifeature analysis. The method is valid for recognizing the blast furnace dust composition automatically, and it is fast and has a high recognition accuracy.

Guo, Hongwei; Su, Buxin; Bai, Zhenlong; Zhang, Jianliang; Li, Xinyu

2014-09-01

271

Novel Recognition Method of Blast Furnace Dust Composition by Multifeature Analysis Based on Comprehensive Image-Processing Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional artificial recognition methods for the blast furnace dust composition have several disadvantages, including a great deal of information to dispose, complex operation, and low working efficiency. In this article, a multifeature analysis method based on comprehensive image-processing techniques was proposed to automatically recognize the blast furnace dust composition. First, the artificial recognition and feature analysis, which included image preprocessing, Harris corner feature, Canny edge feature, and Ruffle feature analysis, was designed to build the template image, so that any unknown dust digital image could be tested. Second, the composition of coke, microvariation pulverized coal, vitric, ash, and iron from dust would be distinguished according to their different range of values based on the multifeature analysis. The method is valid for recognizing the blast furnace dust composition automatically, and it is fast and has a high recognition accuracy.

Guo, Hongwei; Su, Buxin; Bai, Zhenlong; Zhang, Jianliang; Li, Xinyu

2014-11-01

272

Frequential versus spatial colour textons for breast TMA classification.  

PubMed

Advances in digital pathology are generating huge volumes of whole slide (WSI) and tissue microarray images (TMA) which are providing new insights into the causes of cancer. The challenge is to extract and process effectively all the information in order to characterize all the heterogeneous tissue-derived data. This study aims to identify an optimal set of features that best separates different classes in breast TMA. These classes are: stroma, adipose tissue, benign and benign anomalous structures and ductal and lobular carcinomas. To this end, we propose an exhaustive assessment on the utility of textons and colour for automatic classification of breast TMA. Frequential and spatial texton maps from eight different colour models were extracted and compared. Then, in a novel way, the TMA is characterized by the 1st and 2nd order Haralick statistical descriptors obtained from the texton maps with a total of 241×8 features for each original RGB image. Subsequently, a feature selection process is performed to remove redundant information and therefore to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector. Three methods were evaluated: linear discriminant analysis, correlation and sequential forward search. Finally, an extended bank of classifiers composed of six techniques was compared, but only three of them could significantly improve accuracy rates: Fisher, Bagging Trees and AdaBoost. Our results reveal that the combination of different colour models applied to spatial texton maps provides the most efficient representation of the breast TMA. Specifically, we found that the best colour model combination is Hb, Luv and SCT for all classifiers and the classifier that performs best for all colour model combinations is the AdaBoost. On a database comprising 628 TMA images, classification yields an accuracy of 98.1% and a precision of 96.2% with a total of 316 features on spatial textons maps. PMID:25499960

Fernández-Carrobles, M Milagro; Bueno, Gloria; Déniz, Oscar; Salido, Jesús; García-Rojo, Marcial; Gonzández-López, Lucía

2015-06-01

273

Strategies for prompt searches for GRB afterglows: the discovery of the GRB 001011 optical/near-infrared counterpart using colour-colour selection  

E-print Network

We report the discovery of the optical and near-infrared counterparts to GRB 001011. The GRB 001011 error box determined by Beppo-SAX was simultaneously imaged in the near-infrared by the 3.58-m New Technology Telescope and in the optical by the 1.54-m Danish Telescope ~8 hr after the gamma-ray event. Here we implement the colour-colour discrimination technique proposed by Rhoads (2001) and extend it using near-IR data as well. We present the results provided by an automatic colour-colour discrimination pipe-line developed to discern the different populations of objects present in the GRB 001011 error box. Our software revealed three candidates based on single-epoch images. Second-epoch observations carried out ~3.2 days after the burst revealed that the most likely candidate had faded, thus identifying it with the counterpart to the GRB. In deep R-band images obtained 7 months after the burst a faint (R=25.38+/-0.25) elongated object, presumably the host galaxy of GRB 001011, was detected at the position of the afterglow. The GRB 001011 afterglow is the first discovered with the assistance of colour-colour diagram techniques. We discuss the advantages of using this method and its application to error boxes determined by future missions.

J. Gorosabel; J. U. Fynbo; J. Hjorth; C. Wolf; M. I. Andersen; H. Pedersen; L. Christensen; B. L. Jensen; P. Moller; J. Afonso; M. A. Treyer; G. Mallen-Ornelas; A. J. Castro-Tirado; A. Fruchter; J. Greiner; E. Pian; P. M. Vreeswijk; F. Frontera; L. Kaper; S. Klose; C. Kouveliotou; N. Masetti; E. Palazzi; E. Rol; I. Salamanca; N. Tanvir; R. A. M. J. Wijers; E. van den Heuvel

2001-11-14

274

Strategies for Prompt Searches for GRB Afterglows: The Discovery of GRB 001011 Optical/Near-Infrared Counterpart Using Colour-Colour Selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the discovery of the optical and near-infrared counterpart to GRB 001011. The GRB 001011 error box determined by Beppo-SAX was simultaneously imaged in the near-infrared by the 3.58-m. New Technology Telescope and in the optical by the 1.54-m Danish Telescope - 8 hr after the gamma-ray event. We implement the colour-colour discrimination technique proposed by Rhoads (2001) and extend it using near-IR data as well. We present the results provided by an automatic colour-colour discrimination pipe-line developed to discern the different populations of objects present in the GRB 001011 error box. Our software revealed three candidates based on single-epoch images. Second-epoch observations carried out approx. 3.2 days after the burst revealed that the most likely candidate had faded thus identifying it with the counterpart to the GRB. In deep R-band images obtained 7 months after the burst a faint (R=25.38 plus or minus 0.25) elongated object, presumably the host galaxy of GRB 001011, was detected at the position of the afterglow. The GRB 001011 afterglow is the first discovered with the assistance of colour-colour diagram techniques. We discuss the advantages of using this method and its application to boxes determined by future missions.

Gorosabel, J.; Fynbo, J. U.; Hjorth, J.; Wolf, C.; Andersen, M. I.; Pedersen, H.; Christensen, L.; Jensen, B. L.; Moller, P.; Afonso, J.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

275

A composite six bp in-frame deletion in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene is associated with the Japanese brindling coat colour in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)  

PubMed Central

Background In the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), classical genetic studies have identified five alleles at the Extension locus: ED (dominant black), ES (steel, weaker version of ED), E (wild type, normal extension of black), eJ(Japanese brindling, mosaic distribution of black and yellow) and e (non-extension of black, yellow/red with white belly). Sequencing almost the complete coding sequence (CDS) of the rabbit MC1R gene, we recently identified two in-frame deletions associated with dominant black (c.280_285del6; alleles ED or ES) and recessive red (c.304_333del30; allele e) coat colours. It remained to characterize the eJallele whose phenotypic effect is similar to the Orange and Sex-linked yellow loci of cat and Syrian hamster. Results We sequenced the whole CDS in 25 rabbits of different coat colours including 10 Japanese and 10 Rhinelander (tricolour) rabbits and identified another 6 bp-in frame deletion flanked by a G > A transition in 5' (c.[124G>A;125_130del6]) that was present in all animals with Japanese brindling coat colour and pattern. These mutations eliminate two amino acids in the first transmembrane domain and, in addition, cause an amino acid substitution at position 44 of the wild type sequence. Genotyping 371 rabbits of 31 breeds with different coat colour this allele (eJ) was present in homozygous state in Japanese, Rhinelander and Dutch tricolour rabbits only (except one albino rabbit). Rabbits with eJ/eJ genotype were non fixed at the non-agouti mutation we previously identified in the ASIP gene. Segregation in F1 and F2 families confirmed the order of dominance already determined by classical genetic experiments with a possible dose effect evident comparing eJ/eJ and eJ/e animals. MC1R mRNA was expressed in black hair skin regions only. Conclusions The c.[124A;125_130del6] allele may be responsible for a MC1R variant determining eumelanin production in the black areas. However, the mechanism determining the presence of both red and black hairs in the same animal seems more complex. Expression analyses of the c.[124A;125_130del6] allele suggest that MC1R transcription may be regulated epigenetically in rabbits with the Japanese brindling phenotype. Further studies are needed to clarify this issue. PMID:20594318

2010-01-01

276

Applying an 8-bit multispectral color-composite image simulation technique to operational real-time AVHRR data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geophysics Directorate's 8-bit multispectral color-composite image display technique has been installed on the Satellite Data Processing System at the German Military Geophysical Office in Traben-Trarbach, Germany. The technique simulates 24-bit full-color composites on 8-bit color workstations, combining image data from the NOAA multispectral Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The real-time application of this technique to operational satellite data is discussed.

Klaes, K. D.; D'Entremont, Robert P.; Thomason, Larry W.

1992-01-01

277

Colour vision in diurnal and nocturnal hawkmoths.  

PubMed

Diurnal and nocturnal hawkmoths (Sphingidae, Lepidoptera) have three spectral types of receptor sensitive to ultraviolet, blue and green light. As avid flower visitors and pollinators, they use olfactory and visual cues to find and recognise flowers. Moths of the diurnal species Macroglossum stellatarum and the nocturnal species Deilephila elpenor, Hyles lineata and Hyles gallii use and learn the colour of flowers. Nocturnal species can discriminate flowers at starlight intensities when humans and honeybees are colour-blind. M. stellatarum can use achromatic, intensity-related cues if colour cues are absent, and this is probably also true for D. elpenor. Both species can recognise colours even under a changed illumination colour. PMID:21680465

Kelber, Almut; Balkenius, Anna; Warrant, Eric J

2003-08-01

278

Progress on Developing Sonic Infrared Imaging for Defect Detection in Composite Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At last year's QNDE conference, we presented our development of Sonic IR imaging technology in metal structures, with results from both experimental studies and theoretical computing. In the latest aircraft designs, such as the B787 from Boeing, composites have become the major materials in structures such as the fuselage and wings. This is in contrast to composites' use only in auxiliary components such as flaps and spoilers in the past. With today's advanced technology of fabrication, it is expected the new materials can be put in use in even more aircraft structures due to its light weight and high strength (high strength-to-weight ratio), high specific stiffness, tailorability of properties, design flexibility etc. Especially, with increases in fuel cost, reducing the aircraft's body weight becomes more and more appealing. In this presentation, we describe the progress on our development of Sonic IR imaging for aircraft composite structures. In particular, we describe the some unexpected results discovered while modeling delaminations. These results were later experimentally verified with an engineered delamination.

Han, Xiaoyan; He, Qi; Li, Wei; Newaz, Golam; Favro, Lawrence D.; Thomas, Robert L.

2010-02-01

279

Arnheim's Gestalt theory of visual balance: Examining the compositional structure of art photographs and abstract images  

PubMed Central

In Art and Visual Perception, Rudolf Arnheim, following on from Denman Ross's A Theory of Pure Design, proposed a Gestalt theory of visual composition. The current paper assesses a physicalist interpretation of Arnheim's theory, calculating an image's centre of mass (CoM). Three types of data are used: a large, representative collection of art photographs of recognised quality; croppings by experts and non-experts of photographs; and Ross and Arnheim's procedure of placing a frame around objects such as Arnheim's two black disks. Compared with control images, the CoM of art photographs was closer to an axis (horizontal, vertical, or diagonal), as was the case for photographic croppings. However, stronger, within-image, paired comparison studies, comparing art photographs with the CoM moved on or off an axis (the ‘gamma-ramp study’), or comparing adjacent croppings on or off an axis (the ‘spider-web study’), showed no support for the Arnheim–Ross theory. Finally, studies moving a frame around two disks, of different size, greyness, or background, did not support Arnheim's Gestalt theory. Although the detailed results did not support the Arnheim–Ross theory, several significant results were found which clearly require explanation by any adequate theory of the aesthetics of visual composition. PMID:23145250

McManus, I C; Stöver, Katharina; Kim, Do

2011-01-01

280

Determining thermal diffusivity and defect attributes in ceramic matrix composites by infrared imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramic matrix composites are being developed for numerous high temperature applications, including rotors and combustors for advanced turbine engines, heat exchanger and hot-gas filters for coal gasification plants. Among the materials of interest are silicon-carbide-fiber- reinforced-silicon-carbide (SiC(f)/SiC), silicon-carbide-fiber-reinforced-silicon-nitride (SiC(f)/Si3N4), aluminum-oxide-reinforced-alumina (Al2O3(f)/Al2O3, etc. In the manufacturing of these ceramic composites, the conditions of the fiber/matrix interface are critical to the mechanical and thermal behavior of the component. Defects such as delaminations and non-uniform porosity can directly affect the performance. A nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method, developed at Argonne National Laboratory has proved beneficial in analyzing as-processed conditions and defect detection created during manufacturing. This NDE method uses infrared thermal imaging for full-field quantitative measurement of the distribution of thermal diffusivity in large components. Intensity transform algorithms have been used for contrast enhancement of the output image. Nonuniformity correction and automatic gain control are used to dynamically optimize video contrast and brightness, providing additional resolution in the acquired images. Digital filtering, interpolation, and least-squares-estimation techniques have been incorporated for noise reduction and data acquisition. The Argonne NDE system has been utilized to determine thermal shock damage, density variations, and variations in fiber coating in a full array of test specimens.

Ahuja, Sanjay; Ellingson, William A.; Stuckey, J. B.; Koehl, E. R.

1996-03-01

281

Colour dependence of zodiacal light models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Colour models of the zodiacal light in the ecliptic have been calculated for both dielectric and metallic particles in the sub-micron and micron size range. Two colour ratios were computed, a blue ratio and a red ratio. The models with a size distribution proportional to s to the -2.5 power ds (where s is the particle radius) generally show a colour close to the solar colour and almost independent of elongation. Especially in the blue colour ratio there is generally no significant dependence on the lower cutoff size (0.1-1 micron). The main feature of absorbing particles is a reddening at small elongations. The models for size distributions proportional to s to the -4 power ds show larger departures from solar colour and more variation with model parameters. Colour measurements, including red and near infra-red, therefore are useful to distinguish between flat and steep size spectra and to verify the presence of slightly absorbing particles.

Giese, R. H.; Hanner, M. S.; Leinert, C.

1973-01-01

282

Recognition of unresolved binaries on Gaia colour index diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of a composite flux in Gaia photometry can serve as an indication of a photometrically unresolved binarity and can allow us to contribute to the parameterization of the components of binary systems. A main goal of the present study is to develop a method of automatic photometric detection, based on theoretical stellar spectral energy distributions and general understanding of binary evolution. The following procedure is applied to achieve the declared goal. One can compose possible pairs of components, based on evolution concept, and using theoretical binary evolutionary tracks. This can be done for all stages of binary evolution, excluding perhaps the most marginal and rapid stages. Theoretical spectrophotometric spectral energy distributions and response functions of Gaia photometric bands allows us to compute colour-indices of such pairs, when they are unresolved, as well as of single stars. Usage of an interstellar extinction law gives us theoretical colour-indices of reddened objects, both single stars and unresolved binaries. When plotted on a multidimensional Gaia colour space, they allow us to indicate areas, where unresolved binaries can be easily separated from single stars. The procedure also indicates Gaia colour indices, suitable to distinguish those pairs from single stars. As an output of the procedure, a Gaia list of detected photometrically unresolved binaries with physical parameters can be compiled.

Malkov, O.; Mironov, A.; Sichevskij, S.

2011-02-01

283

Modeling dental composite shrinkage by digital image correlation and finite element methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dental composites are light-curable resin-based materials with an inherent defect of polymerization shrinkage which may cause tooth deflection and debonding of restorations. This study aimed to combine digital image correlation (DIC) and finite element analysis (FEA) to model the shrinkage behaviors under different light curing regimens. Extracted human molars were prepared with proximal cavities for composite restorations, and then divided into three groups to receive different light curing protocols: regular intensity, low intensity, and step-curing consisting of low and high intensities. For each tooth, the composite fillings were consecutively placed under both unbonded and bonded conditions. At first, the shrinkage of the unbonded restorations was analyzed by DIC and adopted as the setting of FEA. The simulated shrinkage behaviors obtained from FEA were further validated by the measurements in the bonded cases. The results showed that different light curing regimens affected the shrinkage in unbonded restorations, with regular intensity showing the greatest shrinkage strain on the top surface. The shrinkage centers in the bonded cases were located closer to the cavity floor than those in the unbonded cases, and were less affected by curing regimens. The FEA results showed that the stress was modulated by the accumulated light energy density, while step-curing may alleviate the tensile stress along the cavity walls. In this study, DIC provides a complete description of the polymerization shrinkage behaviors of dental composites, which may facilitate the stress analysis in the numerical investigation.

Chen, Terry Yuan-Fang; Huang, Pin-Sheng; Chuang, Shu-Fen

2014-10-01

284

Matrix models and graph colouring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study an edge-colouring problem on random planar graphs which is one of the simplest vertex models that may be analyzed by standard methods of large N matrix models. The main features of the saddle point solution and its critical behaviour are described. At the critical value of the coupling gcr the eigen value density u(?)M is found to vanish at the border of the support as ?-a2/3.

Cicuta, Giovanni M.; Molinari, Luca; Montaldi, Emilio

1993-06-01

285

Supersymmetric strings and colour confinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The (infinite-dimensional) supersymmetry algebra in 1 + 1 space-time dimension is extended in order to incorporate, in a non-trivial way, an internal symmetry. It turns out that this requirement implies that the internal symmetry is realized as a local gauge symmetry. Moreover, it is possible to construct string-like models with this underlying symmetry, where colour confinement is exactly realized as

M. Ademollo; L. Brink; A. D'Adda; R. D'Auria; E. Napolitano; S. Sciuto; E. del Giudice; P. di Vecchia; S. Ferrara; F. Gliozzi; R. Musto; R. Pettorino

1976-01-01

286

Colour Reconnections and Rapidity Gaps  

E-print Network

The success of recently proposed models for describing rapidity-gap events in DIS at HERA, in terms additional colour exchange between the struck system and the proton remnant in boson-gluon fusion events, are found to rely heavily on the absence or artificial suppression of perturbative gluon emission in the forward region. A model without such suppression is presented, which cannot describe the rapidity-gap events without a pomeron-inspired mechanism.

Leif Lonnblad

1995-12-20

287

MERIS-based ocean colour classification with the discrete Forel-Ule scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multispectral information from satellite borne ocean colour sensors is at present used to characterize natural waters via the retrieval of concentration of the three dominant optical constituents; pigments of phytoplankton, non-algal particles and coloured dissolved organic matter. A limitation of this approach is that accurate retrieval of these constituents requires detailed local knowledge of the specific absorption and scattering properties. In addition, the retrieval algorithms generally use only a limited part of the collected spectral information. In this paper we present an additional new algorithm that has the merit to use the full spectral information in the visible domain to characterize natural waters in a simple and globally valid way. This Forel-Ule MERIS (FUME) algorithm converts the normalized multi-band reflectance information into a discrete set of numbers using uniform colourimetric functions. The Forel-Ule scale is a sea colour comparator scale that has been developed to cover all possible natural sea colours, ranging from indigo blue (the open ocean) to brownish-green (coastal water) and even brown (humic-acid dominated) waters. Data using this scale have been collected since the late nineteenth century, and therefore, this algorithm creates the possibility to compare historic ocean colour data with present-day satellite ocean colour observations. The FUME algorithm was tested by transforming a number of MERIS satellite images into Forel-Ule colour index images and comparing in situ observed FU numbers with FU numbers modelled from in situ radiometer measurements.

Wernand, M. R.; Hommersom, A.; van der Woerd, H. J.

2012-08-01

288

Brilliant Star in a Colourful Neighbourhood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spectacular new image from ESO's Wide Field Imager at the La Silla Observatory in Chile shows the brilliant and unusual star WR 22 and its colourful surroundings. WR 22 is a very hot and bright star that is shedding its atmosphere into space at a rate many millions of times faster than the Sun. It lies in the outer part of the dramatic Carina Nebula from which it formed. Very massive stars live fast and die young. Some of these stellar beacons have such intense radiation passing through their thick atmospheres late in their lives that they shed material into space many millions of times more quickly than relatively sedate stars such as the Sun. These rare, very hot and massive objects are known as Wolf-Rayet stars [1], after the two French astronomers who first identified them in the mid-nineteenth century, and one of the most massive ones yet measured is known as WR 22. It appears at the centre of this picture, which was created from images taken through red, green and blue filters with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile. WR 22 is a member of a double star system and has been measured to have a mass at least 70 times that of the Sun. WR 22 lies in the southern constellation of Carina, the keel of Jason's ship Argo in Greek mythology. Although the star lies over 5000 light-years from the Earth it is so bright that it can just be faintly seen with the unaided eye under good conditions. WR 22 is one of many exceptionally brilliant stars associated with the beautiful Carina Nebula (also known as NGC 3372) and the outer part of this huge region of star formation in the southern Milky Way forms the colourful backdrop to this image. The subtle colours of the rich background tapestry are a result of the interactions between the intense ultraviolet radiation coming from hot massive stars, including WR 22, and the vast gas clouds, mostly hydrogen, from which they formed. The central part of this enormous complex of gas and dust lies off the left side of this picture as can be seen in image eso1031b. This area includes the remarkable star Eta Carinae and was featured in an earlier press release (eso0905). Notes [1] More information about Wolf-Rayet stars More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

2010-07-01

289

Nanoscale imaging of mineral crystals inside biological composite materials using X-ray diffraction microscopy.  

PubMed

We for the first time applied x-ray diffraction microscopy to the imaging of mineral crystals inside biological composite materials--intramuscular fish bone--at the nanometer scale resolution. We identified mineral crystals in collagen fibrils at different stages of mineralization. Based on the experimental results and biomineralization analyses, we suggested a dynamic model to account for the nucleation and growth of mineral crystals in the collagen matrix. The results obtained from this study not only further our understanding of the complex structure of bone, but also demonstrate that x-ray diffraction microscopy will become an important tool to study biological materials. PMID:18233041

Jiang, Huaidong; Ramunno-Johnson, Damien; Song, Changyong; Amirbekian, Bagrat; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Nishino, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Yukio; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Miao, Jianwei

2008-01-25

290

Nanoscale Imaging of Mineral Crystals inside Biological Composite Materials Using X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We for the first time applied x-ray diffraction microscopy to the imaging of mineral crystals inside biological composite materials—intramuscular fish bone—at the nanometer scale resolution. We identified mineral crystals in collagen fibrils at different stages of mineralization. Based on the experimental results and biomineralization analyses, we suggested a dynamic model to account for the nucleation and growth of mineral crystals in the collagen matrix. The results obtained from this study not only further our understanding of the complex structure of bone, but also demonstrate that x-ray diffraction microscopy will become an important tool to study biological materials.

Jiang, Huaidong; Ramunno-Johnson, Damien; Song, Changyong; Amirbekian, Bagrat; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Nishino, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Yukio; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Miao, Jianwei

2008-01-01

291

Three-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation of a Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel During Hydrostatic Pressure Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ambient temperature hydrostatic pressurization tests were conducted on a composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV) to understand the fiber stresses in COPV components. Two three-dimensional digital image correlation systems with high speed cameras were used in the evaluation to provide full field displacement and strain data for each pressurization test. A few of the key findings will be discussed including how the principal strains provided better insight into system behavior than traditional gauges, a high localized strain that was measured where gages were not present and the challenges of measuring curved surfaces with the use of a 1.25 in. thick layered polycarbonate panel that protected the cameras.

Revilock, Duane M., Jr.; Thesken, John C.; Schmidt, Timothy E.

2007-01-01

292

Application of Image And X-Ray Microtomography Technique To Quantify Filler Distribution In Thermoplastic-Natural Rubber Blend Composites  

SciTech Connect

X-ray microtomography and ImageJ 1.39 u is used as a tool to quantify volume percentage of B{sub 4}C as fillers in thermoplastic-natural rubber blend composites. The use of percentage of area occupied by fillers as obtain from ImageJ from the microtomography sliced images enables the proposed technique to easily obtain the amount volume percentage of B{sub 4}C in the composite non-destructively. Comparison with other technique such as density measurement and chemical analysis proves the proposed technique as one of the promising approach.

Ahmad, Sahrim; Rasid, Rozaidi; Mouad, A. T. [Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Aziz Mohamed, A.; Abdullah, Jaafar; Dahlan, M.; Mohamad, Mahathir; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Hamzah Harun, M. [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Yazid, Hafizal [Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Hafizal Yazid, Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Abdullah, W. Saffiey W.

2010-01-05

293

The use of image analysis in the characterization of partially oriented ceramic matrix composites  

SciTech Connect

Two methods were used to determine the in-plane orientation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} platelets in slip-cast ceramic composites relative to the casting surface. The first used the ferrets applied to the platelets by an image analyzer, and the second involved a manually applied direction for the platelet axes. Most platelets were oriented more closely to the plane of the casting surface than to the casting direction. The manual method suggested much greater orientation of the platelets parallel to the casting surface. Further analysis of the image analysis results, in terms of aspect ratio, suggested that this was due to the fact that the manual method could not assign an orientation direction for platelet sections with small aspect ratios. This was further compounded by an aspect ratio dependence of platelet orientation.

Patel, A.; Nettleship, I.; Palmiere, E.J. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering] [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1997-07-01

294

Opening up a Colourful Cosmic Jewel Box  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of images taken by three exceptional telescopes, the ESO Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal , the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla observatory and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, has allowed the stunning Jewel Box star cluster to be seen in a whole new light. Star clusters are among the most visually alluring and astrophysically fascinating objects in the sky. One of the most spectacular nestles deep in the southern skies near the Southern Cross in the constellation of Crux. The Kappa Crucis Cluster, also known as NGC 4755 or simply the "Jewel Box" is just bright enough to be seen with the unaided eye. It was given its nickname by the English astronomer John Herschel in the 1830s because the striking colour contrasts of its pale blue and orange stars seen through a telescope reminded Herschel of a piece of exotic jewellery. Open clusters [1] such as NGC 4755 typically contain anything from a few to thousands of stars that are loosely bound together by gravity. Because the stars all formed together from the same cloud of gas and dust their ages and chemical makeup are similar, which makes them ideal laboratories for studying how stars evolve. The position of the cluster amongst the rich star fields and dust clouds of the southern Milky Way is shown in the very wide field view generated from the Digitized Sky Survey 2 data. This image also includes one of the stars of the Southern Cross as well as part of the huge dark cloud of the Coal Sack [2]. A new image taken with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile shows the cluster and its rich surroundings in all their multicoloured glory. The large field of view of the WFI shows a vast number of stars. Many are located behind the dusty clouds of the Milky Way and therefore appear red [3]. The FORS1 instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) allows a much closer look at the cluster itself. The telescope's huge mirror and exquisite image quality have resulted in a brand-new, very sharp view despite a total exposure time of just 5 seconds. This new image is one of the best ever taken of this cluster from the ground. The Jewel Box may be visually colourful in images taken on Earth, but observing from space allows the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope to capture light of shorter wavelengths than can not be seen by telescopes on the ground. This new Hubble image of the core of the cluster represents the first comprehensive far ultraviolet to near-infrared image of an open galactic cluster. It was created from images taken through seven filters, allowing viewers to see details never seen before. It was taken near the end of the long life of the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 ? Hubble's workhorse camera up until the recent Servicing Mission, when it was removed and brought back to Earth. Several very bright, pale blue supergiant stars, a solitary ruby-red supergiant and a variety of other brilliantly coloured stars are visible in the Hubble image, as well as many much fainter ones. The intriguing colours of many of the stars result from their differing intensities at different ultraviolet wavelengths. The huge variety in brightness of the stars in the cluster exists because the brighter stars are 15 to 20 times the mass of the Sun, while the dimmest stars in the Hubble image are less than half the mass of the Sun. More massive stars shine much more brilliantly. They also age faster and make the transition to giant stars much more quickly than their faint, less-massive siblings. The Jewel Box cluster is about 6400 light-years away and is approximately 16 million years old. Notes [1] Open, or galactic, star clusters are not to be confused with globular clusters ? huge balls of tens of thousands of ancient stars in orbit around our galaxy and others. It seems that most stars, including our Sun, formed in open clusters. [2] The Coal Sack is a dark nebula in the Southern Hemisphere, near the Southern Cross, that can be seen with the unaided eye. A dark nebula is not the compl

2009-10-01

295

Evaluation of the quality of image for various breast composition and exposure conditions in digital mammography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breast density has a close relationship with breast cancer risk. The exposure parameters must be appropriately chosen for each breast. However, the optimal exposure conditions for digital mammography are uncertain in clinical. The exposure parameters in digital mammography must be optimized with maximization of image quality and minimization of radiation dose. We evaluated image quality under different exposure conditions to investigate the most advantageous tube voltage. For different compressed breast phantom thicknesses and compositions, we measured the Wiener spectrum (WS), noise-equivalent number of quanta (NEQ), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). In this study, the signal-to-noise ratios were derived from a perceived statistical decision theory model with the internal noise of eye-brain system (SNRi), contrived and studied by Loo et al.1 and Ishida et al.2 These were calculated under a fixed average glandular dose. The WS values were obtained with a fixed image contrast. For 4-cm-thick and 50% glandular breast phantoms, the NEQ showed that high voltages gave a superior noise property of images, especially for thick breasts, but the improvement in the NEQ by tube voltage was not so remarkable. On the other hand, the SNRi value with a Mo filter was larger than that with a Rh filter. The SNRi increased when the tube voltage decreased. The result differed from those of WS and NEQ. In this study, the SNRi depended on the contrast of signal. Accuracy should be high with an intense, low-contrast object.

Yamada, Maki; Kato, Yuri; Fujita, Naotoshi; Kodera, Yoshie

2011-03-01

296

An efficient DCT-based image compression system based on laplacian transparent composite model.  

PubMed

Recently, a new probability model dubbed the Laplacian transparent composite model (LPTCM) was developed for DCT coefficients, which could identify outlier coefficients in addition to providing superior modeling accuracy. In this paper, we aim at exploring its applications to image compression. To this end, we propose an efficient nonpredictive image compression system, where quantization (including both hard-decision quantization (HDQ) and soft-decision quantization (SDQ)) and entropy coding are completely redesigned based on the LPTCM. When tested over standard test images, the proposed system achieves overall coding results that are among the best and similar to those of H.264 or HEVC intra (predictive) coding, in terms of rate versus visual quality. On the other hand, in terms of rate versus objective quality, it significantly outperforms baseline JPEG by more than 4.3 dB in PSNR on average, with a moderate increase on complexity, and ECEB, the state-of-the-art nonpredictive image coding, by 0.75 dB when SDQ is OFF (i.e., HDQ case), with the same level of computational complexity, and by 1 dB when SDQ is ON, at the cost of slight increase in complexity. In comparison with H.264 intracoding, our system provides an overall 0.4-dB gain or so, with dramatically reduced computational complexity; in comparison with HEVC intracoding, it offers comparable coding performance in the high-rate region or for complicated images, but with only less than 5% of the HEVC intracoding complexity. In addition, our proposed system also offers multiresolution capability, which, together with its comparatively high coding efficiency and low complexity, makes it a good alternative for real-time image processing applications. PMID:25532182

Sun, Chang; Yang, En-Hui

2015-03-01

297

The original colours of fossil beetles  

PubMed Central

Structural colours, the most intense, reflective and pure colours in nature, are generated when light is scattered by complex nanostructures. Metallic structural colours are widespread among modern insects and can be preserved in their fossil counterparts, but it is unclear whether the colours have been altered during fossilization, and whether the absence of colours is always real. To resolve these issues, we investigated fossil beetles from five Cenozoic biotas. Metallic colours in these specimens are generated by an epicuticular multi-layer reflector; the fidelity of its preservation correlates with that of other key cuticular ultrastructures. Where these other ultrastructures are well preserved in non-metallic fossil specimens, we can infer that the original cuticle lacked a multi-layer reflector; its absence in the fossil is not a preservational artefact. Reconstructions of the original colours of the fossils based on the structure of the multi-layer reflector show that the preserved colours are offset systematically to longer wavelengths; this probably reflects alteration of the refractive index of the epicuticle during fossilization. These findings will allow the former presence, and original hue, of metallic structural colours to be identified in diverse fossil insects, thus providing critical evidence of the evolution of structural colour in this group. PMID:21957131

McNamara, Maria E.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Orr, Patrick J.; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui

2012-01-01

298

Shrinkage of dental composite in simulated cavity measured with digital image correlation.  

PubMed

Polymerization shrinkage of dental resin composites can lead to restoration debonding or cracked tooth tissues in composite-restored teeth. In order to understand where and how shrinkage strain and stress develop in such restored teeth, Digital Image Correlation (DIC) was used to provide a comprehensive view of the displacement and strain distributions within model restorations that had undergone polymerization shrinkage. Specimens with model cavities were made of cylindrical glass rods with both diameter and length being 10 mm. The dimensions of the mesial-occlusal-distal (MOD) cavity prepared in each specimen measured 3 mm and 2 mm in width and depth, respectively. After filling the cavity with resin composite, the surface under observation was sprayed with first a thin layer of white paint and then fine black charcoal powder to create high-contrast speckles. Pictures of that surface were then taken before curing and 5 min after. Finally, the two pictures were correlated using DIC software to calculate the displacement and strain distributions. The resin composite shrunk vertically towards the bottom of the cavity, with the top center portion of the restoration having the largest downward displacement. At the same time, it shrunk horizontally towards its vertical midline. Shrinkage of the composite stretched the material in the vicinity of the "tooth-restoration" interface, resulting in cuspal deflections and high tensile strains around the restoration. Material close to the cavity walls or floor had direct strains mostly in the directions perpendicular to the interfaces. Summation of the two direct strain components showed a relatively uniform distribution around the restoration and its magnitude equaled approximately to the volumetric shrinkage strain of the material. PMID:25079865

Li, Jianying; Thakur, Preetanjali; Fok, Alex S L

2014-01-01

299

High-speed hyperspectral Raman imaging for label-free compositional microanalysis  

PubMed Central

We present high-speed hyperspectral Raman imaging with integrated active-illumination for label-free compositional microanalysis. We show that high-quality Raman spectra can be acquired from as many as ~1,000 spots/sec semi-randomly distributed among a ~100x100 ?m2 area without mechanical scanning. We demonstrate rapid data acquisition from three types of samples: 1) uniform, strong Raman scatterers, e.g., silicon substrates; 2) non-uniform, medium-strength Raman scatterers, e.g., polymer microparticles; and, 3) non-uniform, relatively weak Raman scatterers, e.g., bacterial spores. We compare the system performance to that of point-scan with an electron-multiplied CCD camera, as implemented in some commercial systems. The results suggest that our system not only provides significant imaging speed advantage for various types of samples, but also permits substantially longer integration time per spot, leading to superior signal-to-noise ratio data. Our system enables the rapid collection of high quality Raman spectra for reliable and robust compositional microanalysis that are potentially transformative in applications such as semiconductor material and device, polymer blend and biomedicine. PMID:24298401

Qi, Ji; Li, Jingting; Shih, Wei-Chuan

2013-01-01

300

Fruit over sunbed: carotenoid skin colouration is found more attractive than melanin colouration.  

PubMed

Skin colouration appears to play a pivotal part in facial attractiveness. Skin yellowness contributes to an attractive appearance and is influenced both by dietary carotenoids and by melanin. While both increased carotenoid colouration and increased melanin colouration enhance apparent health in Caucasian faces by increasing skin yellowness, it remains unclear, firstly, whether both pigments contribute to attractiveness judgements, secondly, whether one pigment is clearly preferred over the other, and thirdly, whether these effects depend on the sex of the face. Here, in three studies, we examine these questions using controlled facial stimuli transformed to be either high or low in (a) carotenoid colouration, or (b) melanin colouration. We show, firstly, that both increased carotenoid colouration and increased melanin colouration are found attractive compared to lower levels of these pigments. Secondly, we show that carotenoid colouration is consistently preferred over melanin colouration when levels of colouration are matched. In addition, we find an effect of the sex of stimuli with stronger preferences for carotenoids over melanin in female compared to male faces, irrespective of the sex of the observer. These results are interpreted as reflecting preferences for sex-typical skin colouration: men have darker skin than women and high melanization in male faces may further enhance this masculine trait, thus carotenoid colouration is not less desirable, but melanin colouration is relatively more desirable in males compared to females. Taken together, our findings provide further support for a carotenoid-linked health-signalling system that is highly important in mate choice. PMID:25014019

Lefevre, Carmen E; Perrett, David I

2015-02-01

301

Magnetite/CdTe magnetic-fluorescent composite nanosystem for magnetic separation and bio-imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new synthesis protocol is described to obtain a CdTe decorated magnetite bifunctional nanosystem via dodecylamine (DDA) as cross linker. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and fluorescence microscopy are used to characterize the constitution, size, composition and physical properties of these superparamagnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles. These CdTe decorated magnetite nanoparticles were then functionalized with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody to specifically target cells expressing this receptor. The EGFR is a transmembrane glycoprotein and is expressed on tumor cells from different tissue origins including human leukemic cell line Molt-4 cells. The magnetite-CdTe composite nanosystem is shown to perform excellently for specific selection, magnetic separation and fluorescent detection of EGFR positive Molt-4 cells from a mixed population. Flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy results show that this composite nanosystem has great potential in antibody functionalized magnetic separation and imaging of cells using cell surface receptor antibody.

Kale, Anup; Kale, Sonia; Yadav, Prasad; Gholap, Haribhau; Pasricha, Renu; Jog, J. P.; Lefez, Benoit; Hannoyer, Béatrice; Shastry, Padma; Ogale, Satishchandra

2011-06-01

302

Micro-measurements of mechanical properties for adhesives and composites using digital imaging technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for a constituent based durability or accelerated life prediction procedure to be used for the engineering design of polymer matrix composites is discussed in the light of current plans for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) concerns about the U.S. infrastructure (bridges, pipelines, etc.) and other technological considerations of national concern. It is pointed out that good measurement procedures for insitu resin properties are needed for both adhesives and composites. A double cantilever beam (DCB) specimen which shows promise for the easy determination of adhesive shear properties is presented and compared with measurements of strains within the bondline using a new optical digital imaging micro-measurement system (DIMMS). The DCB specimen is also used to assess damage in a bonded joint using a dynamic mechanical thermal analysis system (DMTA). The possible utilization of the same DIMMS and DMTA procedures to determine the insitu properties of the resin in a composite specimen are discussed as well as the use of the procedures to evaluate long term mechanical and physical aging. Finally, a discussion on the state-of-the art of the measurement of strains in micron and sub-micron domains is given.

Brinson, Hal F.

1994-01-01

303

Correlative nanoscale 3D imaging of structure and composition in extended objects.  

PubMed

Structure and composition at the nanoscale determine the behavior of biological systems and engineered materials. The drive to understand and control this behavior has placed strong demands on developing methods for high resolution imaging. In general, the improvement of three-dimensional (3D) resolution is accomplished by tightening constraints: reduced manageable specimen sizes, decreasing analyzable volumes, degrading contrasts, and increasing sample preparation efforts. Aiming to overcome these limitations, we present a non-destructive and multiple-contrast imaging technique, using principles of X-ray laminography, thus generalizing tomography towards laterally extended objects. We retain advantages that are usually restricted to 2D microscopic imaging, such as scanning of large areas and subsequent zooming-in towards a region of interest at the highest possible resolution. Our technique permits correlating the 3D structure and the elemental distribution yielding a high sensitivity to variations of the electron density via coherent imaging and to local trace element quantification through X-ray fluorescence. We demonstrate the method by imaging a lithographic nanostructure and an aluminum alloy. Analyzing a biological system, we visualize in lung tissue the subcellular response to toxic stress after exposure to nanotubes. We show that most of the nanotubes are trapped inside alveolar macrophages, while a small portion of the nanotubes has crossed the barrier to the cellular space of the alveolar wall. In general, our method is non-destructive and can be combined with different sample environmental or loading conditions. We therefore anticipate that correlative X-ray nano-laminography will enable a variety of in situ and in operando 3D studies. PMID:23185554

Xu, Feng; Helfen, Lukas; Suhonen, Heikki; Elgrabli, Dan; Bayat, Sam; Reischig, Péter; Baumbach, Tilo; Cloetens, Peter

2012-01-01

304

Prediction of lean and fat composition in swine carcasses from ham area measurements with image analysis.  

PubMed

Video images of ham cross-sections were recorded from 71 pork carcasses (ranging in weight from 72 to 119kg). Three sets of prediction equations were developed to estimate pork carcass lean and fat composition from video image analysis (VIA) of ham cross-sectional area measurements, 10th rib back fat depth (TENFAT) and hot carcass weight (HCKg). Carcass data of dissected lean and fat in the four primal cuts (ham, loin, Boston button and picnic shoulder) were used as dependent variables in establishing regression equations. The first set of equations combined VIA ham measurements and total ham weight (HTKg). Regression models containing the single variable HTKg times ham percentage lean area (Vol. 1) or HTKg times ham percentage fat area (Vol. 2) accounted for 88% and 68% of the variation in total carcass lean weight (CLKg) and total carcass fat weight (CFKg) from the right side of each carcass, respectively. The second set of equations combined VIA ham measurements and TENFAT (cm). Multiple regression models involving TENFAT, Vol. 1, and Vol. 2 accounted for 91% and 90% of the variation in CLKg and CFKg. The third set of equations used VIA ham measurements, TENFAT and HCKg. Carcass lean weight was best predicted by HCKg, TENFAT, and ham lean area (HLA) (R(2)=.92). Carcass fat weight was best predicted by HCKg, TENFAT, and Vol. 2 (R(2)=.91). Overall correlations showed a high association between Vol. 1 and CLKg (r=.94, P<.0001) and Vol. 2 and CFKg (r=.83, P<.0001). Ham lean area was related to CLKg (r=.74, P<.0001) and ham fat area to CFKg (r=.81, P<.0001). The results of this study indicated video image analysis of ham cross-section slices combined with backfat depth at the 10th rib can be used for accurate estimation of total carcass lean or fat composition. PMID:20374892

Jia, Jiancheng; Schinckel, Allan P; Forrest, John C; Chen, Way; Wagner, Jeffrey R

2010-06-01

305

The Impact of Biochemistry vs. Population Membership on Floral Scent Profiles in Colour Polymorphic Hesperis matronalis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Studies of floral scent evolution often attribute variation in floral scent to differences in pollinator behaviour, ignoring the potential for shared biochemistry between floral scent and floral colour to dictate patterns of phenotypic variation in scent production. To determine the relative effects of shared biochemistry and/or localized population-level phenomena on floral scent phenotype, floral scent composition and emission rate were examined in five wild populations of colour polymorphic Hesperis matronalis (Brassicaceae). Methods Floral scent was collected by in situ dynamic headspace extraction on purple and white colour morphs in each of five wild populations. Gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy of extracts allowed determination of floral scent composition and emission rate for all individuals, which were examined by non-metric multidimensional scaling and analysis of variance (ANOVA), respectively, to determine the contributions of floral colour and population membership to scent profile variation. Key Results Despite the fact that colour morph means were very similar in some populations and quite different in other populations, colour morphs within populations did not differ from each other in terms of scent composition or emission rate. Populations differed significantly from one another in terms of both floral scent composition and emission rate. Conclusions Shared biochemistry alone cannot explain the variation in floral scent phenotype found for H. matronalis. Such a result may suggest that the biochemical association between floral scent and floral colour is complex or dependent on genetic background. Floral scent does vary significantly with population membership; several factors, including environmental conditions, founder effects and genetics, may account for this differentiation and should be considered in future studies. PMID:18819948

Majetic, Cassie J.; Raguso, Robert A.; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

2008-01-01

306

Why colour in subterranean vertebrates? Exploring the evolution of colour patterns in caecilian amphibians  

Microsoft Academic Search

aposematism; caecilians; colour; crypsis; evolution; Gymnophiona; independent contrasts; pattern; selection. Abstract The proximate functions of animal skin colour are difficult to assign as they can result from natural selection, sexual selection or neutral evolution under genetic drift. Most often colour patterns are thought to signal visual stimuli; so, their presence in subterranean taxa is perplexing. We evaluate the adaptive nature

K. C. WOLLENBERG; G. JOHN MEASEY

2009-01-01

307

The Aesthetic Is Relevant The Colour Calculator is a regular, internet-based calculator, 'regular' in that it  

E-print Network

' in that it provides numerical results to computations, but it also offers its results in a colour-coded table student image taken from: http://hydra.educ.queensu.ca/Maths/beast.html MathCentral.uregina.ca/careers NN

Argerami, Martin

308

Digital colour tone for fluorescence sensing: a direct comparison of intensity, ratiometric and hue based quantification.  

PubMed

The hue parameter of HSV colour-space for digital imaging is shown to be accessible for convenient quantitative fluorescence imaging. A commercially available pH probe was utilized in solution and incorporated into optical ?-sensors for microscopy applications. PMID:24603672

Hakonen, Aron; Beves, Jonathon E; Strömberg, Niklas

2014-07-21

309

Use of magnetic resonance imaging to predict the body composition of pigs in vivo.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the opportunity to reliably analyze body composition of pigs in vivo. Therefore, the relation between areas of loin eye muscle and its back fat based on MRI images were used to predict body composition values measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). During the study, a total of 77 pigs were studied by MRI and DXA, with a BW ranging between 42 and 102 kg. The pigs originated from different extensive or conventional breeds or crossbreds such as Cerdo Iberico, Duroc, German Landrace, German Large White, Hampshire and Pietrain. A Siemens Magnetom Open was used for MRI in the thorax region between 13th and 14th vertebrae in order to measure the loin eye area (MRI-LA) and the above back fat area (MRI-FA) of both body sides, whereas a whole body scan was performed by DXA with a GE Lunar DPX-IQ in order to measure the amount and percentage of fat tissue (DXA-FM; DXA-%FM) and lean tissue mass (DXA-LM; DXA-%LM). A linear single regression analysis was performed to quantify the linear relationships between MRI- and DXA-derived traits. In addition, a stepwise regression procedure was carried out to calculate (multiple) regression equations between MRI and DXA variables (including BW). Single regression analyses showed high relationships between DXA-%FM and MRI-FA (R 2 = 0.89, ?MSE = 2.39%), DXA-FM and MRI-FA (R 2 = 0.82, ?MSE = 2757 g) and DXA-LM and MRI-LA (R 2 = 0.82, ?MSE = 4018 g). Only DXA-%LM and MRI-LA did not show any relationship (R 2 = 0). As a result of the multiple regression analysis, DXA-LM and DXA-FM were both highly related to MRI-LA, MRI-FA and BW (R 2 = 0.96; ?MSE = 1784 g, and R 2 = 0.95, ?MSE = 1496 g). Therefore, it can be concluded that the use of MRI-derived images provides exact information about important 'carcass-traits' in pigs and may be used to reliably predict the body composition in vivo. PMID:23228200

Kremer, P V; Förster, M; Scholz, A M

2013-06-01

310

The colour distribution of galaxies at redshift five  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a study investigating the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectral slopes of redshift z ? 5 Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs). By combining deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey and Hubble Ultra-Deep Field with ground-based imaging from the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey Ultra Deep Survey, we have produced a large sample of z ? 5 LBGs spanning an unprecedented factor of >100 in UV luminosity. Based on this sample we find a clear colour-magnitude relation (CMR) at z ? 5, such that the rest-frame UV slopes (?) of brighter galaxies are notably redder than their fainter counterparts. We determine that the z ? 5 CMR is well described by a linear relationship of the form: d? = (-0.12 ± 0.02)dMUV, with no clear evidence for a change in CMR slope at faint magnitudes (i.e. MUV ? -18.9). Using the results of detailed simulations we are able, for the first time, to infer the intrinsic (i.e. free from noise) variation of galaxy colours around the CMR at z ? 5. We find significant (12?) evidence for intrinsic colour variation in the sample as a whole. Our results also demonstrate that the width of the intrinsic UV slope distribution of z ? 5 galaxies increases from ?? ? 0.1 at MUV = -18 to ?? ? 0.4 at MUV = -21. We suggest that the increasing width of the intrinsic galaxy colour distribution and the CMR itself are both plausibly explained by a luminosity-independent lower limit of ? ? -2.1, combined with an increase in the fraction of red galaxies in brighter UV-luminosity bins.

Rogers, A. B.; McLure, R. J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Bowler, R. A. A.; Curtis-Lake, E. F.; Dayal, P.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, H. C.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Grogin, N. A.; Hathi, N. P.; Kocevski, D.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kurczynski, P.

2014-06-01

311

Should we use colours as symbolic representations of hot and cold?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

People usually talk about 'hot and cold' colours without really thinking of the impact these definitions may have on scientific understanding. These colours are associated with the human sensations of hot and cold, and this idea is consistent with commonsense and daily experience. Interacting with students, we detect conceptual conflicts when they have to interpret phenomena whose origin is the emission of radiation. The contradiction between the scientific explanation for blackbody radiation and their understanding of 'hot and cold' colours, reinforced by the coloured images in textbooks, leads frequently to misconceptions and to the remembering of facts and interpretations that are based on context and not on scientific knowledge. In this article we show the difficulties experienced by students with these concepts and make some suggestions of strategies that teachers should use when dealing with them.

Simeão Carvalho, Paulo; Sousa, Adriano Sampaio e.

2006-03-01

312

GrainScan: a low cost, fast method for grain size and colour measurements  

PubMed Central

Background Measuring grain characteristics is an integral component of cereal breeding and research into genetic control of seed development. Measures such as thousand grain weight are fast, but do not give an indication of variation within a sample. Other methods exist for detailed analysis of grain size, but are generally costly and very low throughput. Grain colour analysis is generally difficult to perform with accuracy, and existing methods are expensive and involved. Results We have developed a software method to measure grain size and colour from images captured with consumer level flatbed scanners, in a robust, standardised way. The accuracy and precision of the method have been demonstrated through screening wheat and Brachypodium distachyon populations for variation in size and colour. Conclusion By using GrainScan, cheap and fast measurement of grain colour and size will enable plant research programs to gain deeper understanding of material, where limited or no information is currently available. PMID:25050131

2014-01-01

313

Brilliant Colours from a White Snow Cover  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surprisingly colourful views are possible from sparkling white snow. It is well known that similarly colourful features can exist in the sky whenever appropriate ice crystals are around. However, the transition of light reflection and refraction from ice crystals in the air to reflection and refraction from those in snow on the ground is not…

Vollmer, Michael; Shaw, Joseph A

2013-01-01

314

Colour Mathematics: With Graphs and Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The different combinations involved in additive and subtractive colour mixing can often be difficult for students to remember. Using transmission graphs for filters of the primary colours and a numerical scheme to write out the relationships are good exercises in analytical thinking that can help students recall the combinations rather than just…

LoPresto, Michael C.

2009-01-01

315

Colour polymorphism in birds: causes and functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied polymorphism in all species of birds that are presently known to show intraspecific variation in plumage colour. At least three main mecha- nisms have been put forward to explain the maintenance of polymorphism: apostatic, disruptive and sexual selection. All of them make partly different predictions. Our aims were to investigate evolutionary causes and adaptive functions of colour polymorphism

P. Galeotti; D. Rubolini; P. O. Dunn; M. Fasola

2003-01-01

316

Prevalence of colour blindness in young Jordanians.  

PubMed

Colour blindness is one of the common genetic disorders observed in all human populations. It is a sex-linked recessive trait. The genes are located on the X chromosome within the Xq28 band. 1,418 university students (1,200 female and 218 male) from Zarka Private University and the Hashemite University were randomly selected and tested for congenital red/green colour blindness, by using Ishihara pseudo-isochromatic colour plates. A total of 23 individuals were found to be colour blind. In females, 4 students (0.33%) were colour blind: 1 of them showed protanomalia, 1 protanopia and 2 deuteranomalia. In males, 19 students (8.72%) were colour blind: 4 showed protanomalia, 3 protanopia, 8 deuteranomalia and 4 deuteranopia. The allelic frequencies of the colour vision gene were found to be 0.087 in males, 0.003 in females and 0.016 in the total population. Studies on colour blindness in Jordan are very few; this population-based investigation is meant to fill a gap in this field. PMID:11125268

Al-Aqtum, M T; Al-Qawasmeh, M H

2001-01-01

317

Skin colour and bilirubin in neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation between the yellow colour of the skin and serum bilirubin concentration, reserve albumin concentration, and pH was investigated in 76 icteric neonates. Significant linear correlation existed between yellow colour of the skin and serum bilirubin concentration, reciprocal of the reserve albumin concentration, and the squared hydrogen ion concentration. Furthermore, the basic yellowness of the skin at birth correlated

A Knudsen; R Brodersen

1989-01-01

318

Mineralization in Rust-coloured Acarospora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upper cortex and extracellular hyphal wall matrix are mineralized in both rust-coloured Acarospora sinopica and the paler A. smaragdula ‘f. subochracea’ in the form of microgranular or microbotryoidal phases. Analysis confirmed the distinctive colours are not simply due to hydrated iron oxides, as previously believed, and suggests mixed sulphide and oxide phases with little crystallinity, as well as other

O. William Purvis; Anton Kearsley; Gordon Cressey; Anna T. Crewe; Mats Wedin

2008-01-01

319

The Aurora Borealis and its Colours  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN reference to Mr. Backhouse's letter last week (p. 145) we have nowhere stated that ``similarity in colour in electric discharges is sufficient to indicate similarity of constitution, eyen when their spectra are quite unlike'' If Mr. Backhouse will again read our paper on the Auroræ, he will see that we say that in the same gas the colour of

Warren de La Rue; Hugo Müller

1880-01-01

320

Teaching Colour: From Canvas to Computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid basic knowledge on colour is important in various fields: art, physics, chemistry, biology, and technology. Even psychological aspects of colour perception should be considered when we approach this matter. This paper has the aim to help teachers to present science through an ITC approach that helps students to develop interest in science and to learn. We present a

Rosa Maria; Melià Avià; Sant Adrià del Besòs. Spain; Octavi Plana Cobeta

321

Rapidity gaps from colour string topologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffractive deep inelastic scattering at HERA and diffractive W and jet production at the Tevatron are well described by soft colour exchange models. Their essence is the variation of colour string-field topologies giving both gap and no-gap events, with a smooth transition and thereby a unified description of all final states.

G. Ingelman; A. Edin; R. Enberg; J. Rathsman; N. Timneanu

1999-01-01

322

Rapidity Gaps from Colour String Topologies  

E-print Network

Diffractive deep inelastic scattering at HERA and diffractive W and jet production at the Tevatron are well described by soft colour exchange models. Their essence is the variation of colour string-field topologies giving both gap and no-gap events, with a smooth transition and thereby a unified description of all final states.

G. Ingelman; A. Edin; R. Enberg; J. Rathsman; N. Timneanu

1999-12-29

323

Insights into the chemical composition of Equisetum hyemale by high resolution Raman imaging.  

PubMed

Equisetaceae has been of research interest for decades, as it is one of the oldest living plant families, and also due to its high accumulation of silica up to 25% dry wt. Aspects of silica deposition, its association with other biomolecules, as well as the chemical composition of the outer strengthening tissue still remain unclear. These questions were addressed by using high resolution (<1 microm) Confocal Raman microscopy. Two-dimensional spectral maps were acquired on cross sections of Equisetum hyemale and Raman images calculated by integrating over the intensity of characteristic spectral regions. This enabled direct visualization of differences in chemical composition and extraction of average spectra from defined regions for detailed analyses, including principal component analysis (PCA) and basis analysis (partial least square fit based on model spectra). Accumulation of silica was imaged in the knobs and in a thin layer below the cuticula. In the spectrum extracted from the knob region as main contributions, a broad band below 500 cm(-1) attributed to amorphous silica, and a band at 976 cm(-1) assigned to silanol groups, were found. From this, we concluded that these protrusions were almost pure amorphous, hydrated silica. No silanol group vibration was detected in the silicified epidermal layer below and association with pectin and hemicelluloses indicated. Pectin and hemicelluloses (glucomannan) were found in high levels in the epidermal layer and in a clearly distinguished outer part of the hypodermal sterome fibers. The inner part of the two-layered cells revealed as almost pure cellulose, oriented parallel along the fiber. PMID:18057960

Gierlinger, Notburga; Sapei, Lanny; Paris, Oskar

2008-04-01

324

Blue integumentary structural colours in dragonflies (Odonata) are not produced by incoherent Tyndall scattering.  

PubMed

For nearly 80 years, the non-iridescent, blue, integumentary structural colours of dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata) have been attributed to incoherent Tyndall or Rayleigh scattering. We investigated the production of the integumentary structural colours of a damselfly--the familiar bluet, Enallagma civile (Coenagrionidae)--and a dragonfly--the common green darner, Anax junius (Aeshnidae)--using fibre optic spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The reflectance spectra of both species showed discrete reflectance peaks of approximately 30% reflectance at 475 and 460 nm, respectively. These structural colours are produced by light scattering from closely packed arrays of spheres in the endoplasmic reticulum of box-shaped epidermal pigment cells underlying the cuticle. The observed reflectance spectra do not conform to the inverse fourth power relationship predicted for Tyndall/Rayleigh scattering. Two-dimensional (2-D) Fourier analysis of the TEM images of the colour-producing arrays reveals ring-shaped distributions of Fourier power at intermediate spatial frequencies, documenting a quasiordered nanostructure. The nanostructured Fourier power spectra falsify the assumption of spatial independence of scatterers that is required for incoherent scattering. Radial averages of the Fourier power spectrum indicate that the spheres are substantially nanostructured at the appropriate spatial scale to produce visible colours by coherent scattering. However, the spatial periodicity of the arrays is apparently too large to produce the observed colour by coherent scattering. The nanospheres could have expanded substantially (approximately 50%) during preparation for TEM. Alternatively, coherent light scattering could be occurring both from the surfaces and from structures at the centre of the spheres. These arrays of colour-producing spheres within pigment cells have convergently evolved at least 11-14 times independently within the Odonata. Structural colouration from arrays in living cells has also fostered the convergent evolution of temperature-dependent colour change in numerous odonate lineages. PMID:15472030

Prum, Richard O; Cole, Jeff A; Torres, Rodolfo H

2004-10-01

325

Three Dimensional Colour Pickers Yingxin Wu Masahiro Takatsuka  

E-print Network

and Munsell colour spaces. The colour palette is a slice cut off by a translucent plane from 3-D colour solids Council Copyright © 2005, Australian Computer Society, Inc. This paper appeared at the Asia Pacific

Hong,Seokhee

326

Colour in insect thermoregulation: empirical and theoretical tests in the colour-changing grasshopper, Kosciuscola tristis.  

PubMed

Body colours can result in different internal body temperatures, but evidence for the biological significance of colour-induced temperature differences is inconsistent. We investigated the relationship between body colour and temperature in a model insect species that rapidly changes colour. We used an empirical approach and constructed a heat budget model to quantify whether a colour change from black to turquoise has a role in thermoregulation for the chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis). Our study shows that colour change in K. tristis provides relatively small temperature differences that vary greatly with wind speed (0.55 °C at ms(-1) to 0.05 °C at 10 ms(-1)). The biological significance of this difference is unclear and we discuss the requirement for more studies that directly test hypotheses regarding the fitness effects of colour in manipulating body temperature. PMID:23108152

Umbers, K D L; Herberstein, M E; Madin, J S

2013-01-01

327

MERIS-based ocean colour classification with the discrete Forel-Ule scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multispectral information from satellite borne ocean colour sensors is at present used to characterize natural waters via the retrieval of concentrations of the three dominant optical constituents; pigments of phytoplankton, non-algal particles and coloured dissolved organic matter. A limitation of this approach is that accurate retrieval of these constituents requires detailed local knowledge of the specific absorption and scattering properties. In addition, the retrieval algorithms generally use only a limited part of the collected spectral information. In this paper we present an additional new algorithm that has the merit of using the full spectral information in the visible domain to characterize natural waters in a simple and globally valid way. This Forel-Ule MERIS (FUME) algorithm converts the normalized multiband reflectance information into a discrete set of numbers using uniform colourimetric functions. The Forel-Ule (FU) scale is a sea colour comparator scale that has been developed to cover all possible natural sea colours, ranging from indigo blue (the open ocean) to brownish-green (coastal water) and even brown (humic-acid dominated) waters. Data using this scale have been collected since the late nineteenth century, and therefore, this algorithm creates the possibility to compare historic ocean colour data with present-day satellite ocean colour observations. The FUME algorithm was tested by transforming a number of MERIS satellite images into Forel-Ule colour index images and comparing in situ observed FU numbers with FU numbers modelled from in situ radiometer measurements. Similar patterns and FU numbers were observed when comparing MERIS ocean colour distribution maps with ground truth Forel-Ule observations. The FU numbers modelled from in situ radiometer measurements showed a good correlation with observed FU numbers (R2 = 0.81 when full spectra are used and R2 = 0.71 when MERIS bands are used).

Wernand, M. R.; Hommersom, A.; van der Woerd, H. J.

2013-05-01

328

Laser induced fluorescence imaging of thermal damage in polymer matrix composites  

SciTech Connect

A simple, fluorescence based imaging system has been developed that is capable of identifying regions of thermal damage in polymer matrix composites (PMCs). These materials are playing an increasingly important role in the production of high performance vehicles and aircraft, where their low weight and high mechanical strength, combined with advancements in manufacturing technology, ensure increased use for a variety of applications. Of particular concern in the aerospace industry is the tendency of some PMC materials to become irreversibly damaged when exposed to elevated temperatures. Traditional nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques are capable of detecting physical anomalies such as cracks and delaminations but cannot detect initial heat damage, which occurs on a molecular scale. Spectroscopic techniques such as laser induced fluorescence provide an attractive means for detecting this type of damage and are amenable to imaging large, irregularly shaped surfaces. In this report the authors describe instrumentation capable of rapidly detecting thermal damage in graphite epoxy components and suggest improvements which will enable this technology to make quantitative judgments concerning the mechanical strength properties of heat damaged specimens.

Fisher, W.G.; Meyer, K.E.; Wachter, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Perl, D.R. [N.A.S. North Island, San Diego, CA (United States). Naval Aviation Depot; Kulowitch, P.J. [Naval Air Warfare Center, Patuxent River, MD (United States). Aircraft Div.

1997-06-01

329

Monitoring of wildfires in boreal forests using large area AVHRR NDVI composite image data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composite image data, produced from AVHRR data collected in 1990, were evaluated for locating and mapping the areal extent of wildfires in the boreal forests of Alaska during that year. A technique was developed to map forest fire boundaries by subtracting a late-summer AVHRR NDVI image from an early summer scene. The locations and boundaries of wildfires within the interior region of Alaska were obtained from the Alaska Fire Service, and compared to the AVHRR-derived fire-boundary map. It was found that AVHRR detected 89.5 percent of all fires with sizes greater than 2000 ha with no false alarms and that, for most cases, the general shape of the fire boundary detected by AVHRR matched those mapped by field observers. However, the total area contained within the fire boundaries mapped by AVHRR were only 61 percent of those mapped by the field observers. However, the AVHRR data used in this study did not span the entire time period during which fires occurred, and it is believed the areal estimates could be improved significantly if an expanded AVHRR data set were used.

Kasischke, Eric S.; French, Nancy H. F.; Harrell, Peter; Christensen, Norman L., Jr.; Ustin, Susan L.; Barry, Donald

1993-01-01

330

Monitoring of wildfires in boreal forests using large area AVHRR NDVI composite image data  

SciTech Connect

Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composite image data, produced from AVHRR data collected in 1990, were evaluated for locating and mapping the areal extent of wildfires in the boreal forests of Alaska during that year. A technique was developed to map forest fire boundaries by subtracting a late-summer AVHRR NDVI image from an early summer scene. The locations and boundaries of wildfires within the interior region of Alaska were obtained from the Alaska Fire Service, and compared to the AVHRR-derived fire-boundary map. It was found that AVHRR detected 89.5% of all fires with sizes greater than 2,000ha with no false alarms and that, for most cases, the general shape of the fire boundary detected by AVHRR matched those mapped by field observers. However, the total area contained within the fire boundaries mapped by AVHRR were only 61% of those mapped by the field observers. However, the AVHRR data used in this study did not span the entire time period during which fires occurred, and it is believed the areal estimates could be improved significantly if an expanded AVHRR data set were used.

Kasischke, E.S.; French, N.H.F. (Environmental Research Inst. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States)); Harrell, P.; Christensen, N.L. Jr. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)); Ustin, S.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States)); Barry, D. (U.S. Bureau of Land Management, Fairbanks, AK (United States))

1993-06-01

331

Automated segmentation of muscle and adipose tissue on CT images for human body composition analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to compute body composition in cancer patients lends itself to determining the specific clinical outcomes associated with fat and lean tissue stores. For example, a wasting syndrome of advanced disease associates with shortened survival. Moreover, certain tissue compartments represent sites for drug distribution and are likely determinants of chemotherapy efficacy and toxicity. CT images are abundant, but these cannot be fully exploited unless there exist practical and fast approaches for tissue quantification. Here we propose a fully automated method for segmenting muscle, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, taking the approach of shape modeling for the analysis of skeletal muscle. Muscle shape is represented using PCA encoded Free Form Deformations with respect to a mean shape. The shape model is learned from manually segmented images and used in conjunction with a tissue appearance prior. VAT and SAT are segmented based on the final deformed muscle shape. In comparing the automatic and manual methods, coefficients of variation (COV) (1 - 2%), were similar to or smaller than inter- and intra-observer COVs reported for manual segmentation.

Chung, Howard; Cobzas, Dana; Birdsell, Laura; Lieffers, Jessica; Baracos, Vickie

2009-02-01

332

Colour As a Signal for Entraining the Mammalian Circadian Clock  

PubMed Central

Twilight is characterised by changes in both quantity (“irradiance”) and quality (“colour”) of light. Animals use the variation in irradiance to adjust their internal circadian clocks, aligning their behaviour and physiology with the solar cycle. However, it is currently unknown whether changes in colour also contribute to this entrainment process. Using environmental measurements, we show here that mammalian blue–yellow colour discrimination provides a more reliable method of tracking twilight progression than simply measuring irradiance. We next use electrophysiological recordings to demonstrate that neurons in the mouse suprachiasmatic circadian clock display the cone-dependent spectral opponency required to make use of this information. Thus, our data show that some clock neurons are highly sensitive to changes in spectral composition occurring over twilight and that this input dictates their response to changes in irradiance. Finally, using mice housed under photoperiods with simulated dawn/dusk transitions, we confirm that spectral changes occurring during twilight are required for appropriate circadian alignment under natural conditions. Together, these data reveal a new sensory mechanism for telling time of day that would be available to any mammalian species capable of chromatic vision. PMID:25884537

Walmsley, Lauren; Hanna, Lydia; Mouland, Josh; Martial, Franck; West, Alexander; Smedley, Andrew R.; Bechtold, David A.; Webb, Ann R.; Lucas, Robert J.; Brown, Timothy M.

2015-01-01

333

Colour as a signal for entraining the Mammalian circadian clock.  

PubMed

Twilight is characterised by changes in both quantity ("irradiance") and quality ("colour") of light. Animals use the variation in irradiance to adjust their internal circadian clocks, aligning their behaviour and physiology with the solar cycle. However, it is currently unknown whether changes in colour also contribute to this entrainment process. Using environmental measurements, we show here that mammalian blue-yellow colour discrimination provides a more reliable method of tracking twilight progression than simply measuring irradiance. We next use electrophysiological recordings to demonstrate that neurons in the mouse suprachiasmatic circadian clock display the cone-dependent spectral opponency required to make use of this information. Thus, our data show that some clock neurons are highly sensitive to changes in spectral composition occurring over twilight and that this input dictates their response to changes in irradiance. Finally, using mice housed under photoperiods with simulated dawn/dusk transitions, we confirm that spectral changes occurring during twilight are required for appropriate circadian alignment under natural conditions. Together, these data reveal a new sensory mechanism for telling time of day that would be available to any mammalian species capable of chromatic vision. PMID:25884537

Walmsley, Lauren; Hanna, Lydia; Mouland, Josh; Martial, Franck; West, Alexander; Smedley, Andrew R; Bechtold, David A; Webb, Ann R; Lucas, Robert J; Brown, Timothy M

2015-04-01

334

Bleeding detection in wireless capsule endoscopy using adaptive colour histogram model and support vector classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a colour imaging technology that enables detailed examination of the interior of the gastrointestinal tract. A typical WCE examination takes ~ 8 hours and captures ~ 40,000 useful images. After the examination, the images are viewed as a video sequence, which generally takes a clinician over an hour to analyse. The manufacturers of the WCE provide certain automatic image analysis functions e.g. Given Imaging offers in their Rapid Reader software: The Suspected Blood Indicator (SBI), which is designed to report the location in the video of areas of active bleeding. However, this tool has been reported to have insufficient specificity and sensitivity. Therefore it does not free the specialist from reviewing the entire footage and was suggested only to be used as a fast screening tool. In this paper we propose a method of bleeding detection that uses in its first stage Hue-Saturation-Intensity colour histograms to track a moving background and bleeding colour distributions over time. Such an approach addresses the problem caused by drastic changes in blood colour distribution that occur when it is altered by gastrointestinal fluids and allow detection of other red lesions, which although are usually "less red" than fresh bleeding, they can still be detected when the difference between their colour distributions and the background is large enough. In the second stage of our method, we analyse all candidate blood frames, by extracting colour (HSI) and texture (LBP) features from the suspicious image regions (obtained in the first stage) and their neighbourhoods and classifying them using Support Vector Classifier into Bleeding, Lesion and Normal classes. We show that our algorithm compares favourably with the SBI on the test set of 84 full length videos.

Mackiewicz, Michal W.; Fisher, Mark; Jamieson, Crawford

2008-03-01

335

Generation of Composite Dose and Biological Effective Dose (BED) Over Multiple Treatment Modalities and Multistage Planning Using Deformable Image Registration  

SciTech Connect

Currently there are no commercially available tools to generate composite plans across different treatment modalities and/or different planning image sets. Without a composite plan, it may be difficult to perform a meaningful dosimetric evaluation of the overall treatment course. In this paper, we introduce a method to generate composite biological effective dose (BED) plans over multiple radiotherapy treatment modalities and/or multistage plans, using deformable image registration. Two cases were used to demonstrate the method. Case I was prostate cancer treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and a permanent seed implant. Case II involved lung cancer treated with two treatment plans generated on two separate computed tomography image sets. Thin-plate spline or optical flow methods were used as appropriate to generate deformation matrices. The deformation matrices were then applied to the dose matrices and the resulting physical doses were converted to BED and added to yield the composite plan. Cell proliferation and sublethal repair were considered in the BED calculations. The difference in BED between normal tissues and tumor volumes was accounted for by using different BED models, {alpha}/{beta} values, and cell potential doubling times. The method to generate composite BED plans presented in this paper provides information not available with the traditional simple dose summation or physical dose summation. With the understanding of limitations and uncertainties of the algorithms involved, it may be valuable for the overall treatment plan evaluation.

Zhang, Geoffrey [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States) and Department of Medical Radiological Technology, China Medical University, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: geoffrey.zhang@moffitt.org; Huang, T-C; Feygelman, Vladimir; Stevens, Craig; Forster, Kenneth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States) and Department of Medical Radiological Technology, China Medical University, Taiwan (China)

2010-07-01

336

Sexual dimorphism in the human brain: evaluation of tissue volume, tissue composition and surface anatomy using magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate sex differences in brain morphology by comparing measures of brain tissue volume, brain tissue composition (proportions of gray and white matter), and measures of cortical surface anatomy. A large and well-matched sample of healthy women (n=42) and healthy men (n=42) were evaluated. There was a significant gender effect on intracranial volume, males

Peg Nopoulos; Michael Flaum; Dan O’Leary; Nancy C Andreasen

2000-01-01

337

Multimodality imaging of atherosclerotic plaque activity and composition using FDG-PET\\/CT and MRI in carotid and femoral arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo evaluate the relationship between atherosclerotic plaque inflammation, as assessed by FDG-Positron Emission Tomography\\/Computed Tomography (FDG-PET\\/CT), and plaque morphology and composition, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in the carotid and femoral arteries.

Stephane S. Silvera; Hamza el Aidi; James H. F. Rudd; Venkatesh Mani; Lingde Yang; Michael Farkouh; Valentin Fuster; Zahi A. Fayad

2009-01-01

338

Dark Nuclei II: Nuclear Spectroscopy in Two-Colour QCD  

E-print Network

We consider two-colour QCD with two flavours of quarks as a possible theory of composite dark matter and use lattice field theory methods to investigate nuclear spectroscopy in the spin $J=0$ and $J=1$ multi-baryon sectors. We find compelling evidence that $J=1$ systems with baryon number $B=2,3$ (and their mixed meson-baryon counterparts) are bound states - the analogues of nuclei in this theory. In addition, we estimate the $\\sigma$-terms of the $J=0$ and $J=1$ single baryon states which are important for the coupling of the theory to scalar currents that may mediate interactions with the visible sector.

William Detmold; Matthew McCullough; Andrew Pochinsky

2014-06-16

339

Intrinsic Images by Entropy Minimization Graham D. Finlayson1  

E-print Network

, approximately Planckian lighting, and fairly narrowband camera sensors. Nevertheless, the method works well when involved to capture images of a colour target under different lights. In this paper, we show that we can of calibration scheme for a particular colour camera. How one proceeds is by imaging a target composed of colour

Drew, Mark S.

340

MUNSELL COLOR ANALYSIS OF LANDSAT COLOR-RATIO-COMPOSITE IMAGES OF LIMONITIC AREAS IN SOUTHWEST NEW MEXICO.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Green areas on Landsat 4/5 - 4/6 - 6/7 (red - blue - green) color-ratio-composite (CRC) images represent limonite on the ground. Color variation on such images was analyzed to determine the causes of the color differences within and between the green areas. Digital transformation of the CRC data into the modified cylindrical Munsell color coordinates - hue, value, and saturation - was used to correlate image color characteristics with properties of surficial materials. The amount of limonite visible to the sensor is the primary cause of color differences in green areas on the CRCs. Vegetation density is a secondary cause of color variation of green areas on Landsat CRC images. Digital color analysis of Landsat CRC images can be used to map unknown areas. Color variations of green pixels allows discrimination among limonitic bedrock, nonlimonitic bedrock, nonlimonitic alluvium, and limonitic alluvium.

Kruse, Fred A.

1984-01-01

341

System and technique for retrieving depth information about a surface by projecting a composite image of modulated light patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique, associated system and program code, for retrieving depth information about at least one surface of an object. Core features include: projecting a composite image comprising a plurality of modulated structured light patterns, at the object; capturing an image reflected from the surface; and recovering pattern information from the reflected image, for each of the modulated structured light patterns. Pattern information is preferably recovered for each modulated structured light pattern used to create the composite, by performing a demodulation of the reflected image. Reconstruction of the surface can be accomplished by using depth information from the recovered patterns to produce a depth map/mapping thereof. Each signal waveform used for the modulation of a respective structured light pattern, is distinct from each of the other signal waveforms used for the modulation of other structured light patterns of a composite image; these signal waveforms may be selected from suitable types in any combination of distinct signal waveforms, provided the waveforms used are uncorrelated with respect to each other. The depth map/mapping to be utilized in a host of applications, for example: displaying a 3-D view of the object; virtual reality user-interaction interface with a computerized device; face--or other animal feature or inanimate object--recognition and comparison techniques for security or identification purposes; and 3-D video teleconferencing/telecollaboration.

Hassebrook, Laurence G. (Inventor); Lau, Daniel L. (Inventor); Guan, Chun (Inventor)

2008-01-01

342

System and technique for retrieving depth information about a surface by projecting a composite image of modulated light patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique, associated system and program code, for retrieving depth information about at least one surface of an object, such as an anatomical feature. Core features include: projecting a composite image comprising a plurality of modulated structured light patterns, at the anatomical feature; capturing an image reflected from the surface; and recovering pattern information from the reflected image, for each of the modulated structured light patterns. Pattern information is preferably recovered for each modulated structured light pattern used to create the composite, by performing a demodulation of the reflected image. Reconstruction of the surface can be accomplished by using depth information from the recovered patterns to produce a depth map/mapping thereof. Each signal waveform used for the modulation of a respective structured light pattern, is distinct from each of the other signal waveforms used for the modulation of other structured light patterns of a composite image; these signal waveforms may be selected from suitable types in any combination of distinct signal waveforms, provided the waveforms used are uncorrelated with respect to each other. The depth map/mapping to be utilized in a host of applications, for example: displaying a 3-D view of the object; virtual reality user-interaction interface with a computerized device; face--or other animal feature or inanimate object--recognition and comparison techniques for security or identification purposes; and 3-D video teleconferencing/telecollaboration.

Hassebrook, Laurence G. (Inventor); Lau, Daniel L. (Inventor); Guan, Chun (Inventor)

2010-01-01

343

Colour and lighting in hospital design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little information or guidance has been available to assist the development of a hospital's visual environment. A report on lighting and colour design schemes, accessible to non professionals with responsibility for refurbishment strategies, was required by NHS Estates. Firstly, 20 hospitals were audited to establish a picture of current practice and to identify key issues where colour design could broadly enhance the environment for patients, staff and visitors. Critical areas were outlined in this report, where colour design can be utilised and applied, for the benefit of all users, from ambience to essential legal requirements such as colour contrast for the visually impaired. Provision of staff relaxation rooms that are different in terms of colour and lux levels from immediate work spaces, or thoughtfully designed areas for patients awaiting intensive treatment, have been shown to have some beneficial effects on a sense of well being. Colour and design have not been established as a definite cure for sickness and ill health, but certainly monotony and poor conditions in premises that have not been refurbished with any care, have had a detrimental affect on recovery rates and staff morale. The realisation that a well balanced and attractive environment is of major importance to patients' health is, in no way new; Florence Nightingale observed that 'a variety of form and brilliance of colour in the objects presented to patients are an actual means of recovery'.

Dalke, Hilary; Little, Jenny; Niemann, Elga; Camgoz, Nilgun; Steadman, Guillaume; Hill, Sarah; Stott, Laura

2006-06-01

344

Artificial selection for food colour preferences.  

PubMed

Colour is an important factor in food detection and acquisition by animals using visually based foraging. Colour can be used to identify the suitability of a food source or improve the efficiency of food detection, and can even be linked to mate choice. Food colour preferences are known to exist, but whether these preferences are heritable and how these preferences evolve is unknown. Using the freshwater fish Poecilia reticulata, we artificially selected for chase behaviour towards two different-coloured moving stimuli: red and blue spots. A response to selection was only seen for chase behaviours towards the red, with realized heritabilities ranging from 0.25 to 0.30. Despite intense selection, no significant chase response was recorded for the blue-selected lines. This lack of response may be due to the motion-detection mechanism in the guppy visual system and may have novel implications for the evolvability of responses to colour-related signals. The behavioural response to several colours after five generations of selection suggests that the colour opponency system of the fish may regulate the response to selection. PMID:25740894

Cole, Gemma L; Endler, John A

2015-04-01

345

Ultraviolet colour vision and ornamentation in bluethroats  

PubMed Central

Many birds see in the ultraviolet (300–400 nm), but there is limited evidence for colour communication (signalling by spectral shape independently of brightness) in this 'hidden' waveband. Such data are critical for the understanding of extravagant plumage colours, some of which show considerable UV reflectance. We investigated UV colour vision in female social responses to the male UV/violet ornament in bluethroats, Luscinia s. svecica. In an outdoor aviary at the breeding grounds, 16 females were each presented with a unique pair of males of equal age. In UVR (UV reduction) males, sunblock chemicals reduced only the UV reflectance and thereby the spectral shape (colour) of the throat ornament. In NR (neutral reduction) males, an achromatic pigment in the same base solvent (preen gland fat) was used for a corresponding but uniform brightness reduction. Both colour and brightness effects were invisible to human eyes, and were monitored by spectrometry. In 13 of the 16 trials, the female associated most with the NR male, a preference that implies that UV colour vision is used in mate choice by female bluethroats. Reflectance differences between one-year-old and older males were significant only in UV, suggestive of a UV colour cue in age-related mate preferences.

Andersson, S.; Amundsen, T.

1997-01-01

346

Physicochemical and physiological basis of dichromatic colour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Out of three perceptual characteristics of the colour of any substance, the hue depends mostly on the spectral properties of a substance, while the brightness and saturation depend also on the concentration of a substance and its thickness. Here, we report that evident change of the hue of the colour (i.e., from green to red) is due to a change in concentration or the thickness of a layer in some exceptional substances such as pumpkin seed oil or an aqueous solution of bromophenol blue. In some regions of Central Europe, salad dressing is made preferably with the pumpkin seed oil, which has a strong characteristic nut-like taste and remarkable properties of the colour: it appears red in a bottle, but green when served as a salad dressing. The colour of the pumpkin seed oil was previously described as brownish yellow, dark green, dark green to red ochre or dark reddish brown to light yellow green. We elucidated the physicochemical and physiological basis of such dichromatism by Beer-Lambert law and by the characteristics of human colour perception. Our concept was corroborated by the outcome of calculations of colour from spectral properties using colour matching functions. We found that dichromatism is observed if the absorption spectrum of any substance has at least two local minima: one wide but shallow and one narrow but deep local minimum.

Kreft, Samo; Kreft, Marko

2007-11-01

347

Physicochemical and physiological basis of dichromatic colour.  

PubMed

Out of three perceptual characteristics of the colour of any substance, the hue depends mostly on the spectral properties of a substance, while the brightness and saturation depend also on the concentration of a substance and its thickness. Here, we report that evident change of the hue of the colour (i.e., from green to red) is due to a change in concentration or the thickness of a layer in some exceptional substances such as pumpkin seed oil or an aqueous solution of bromophenol blue. In some regions of Central Europe, salad dressing is made preferably with the pumpkin seed oil, which has a strong characteristic nut-like taste and remarkable properties of the colour: it appears red in a bottle, but green when served as a salad dressing. The colour of the pumpkin seed oil was previously described as brownish yellow, dark green, dark green to red ochre or dark reddish brown to light yellow green. We elucidated the physicochemical and physiological basis of such dichromatism by Beer-Lambert law and by the characteristics of human colour perception. Our concept was corroborated by the outcome of calculations of colour from spectral properties using colour matching functions. We found that dichromatism is observed if the absorption spectrum of any substance has at least two local minima: one wide but shallow and one narrow but deep local minimum. PMID:17534588

Kreft, Samo; Kreft, Marko

2007-11-01

348

Colouration and Colour Changes of the Fiddler Crab, Uca capricornis: A Descriptive Study  

PubMed Central

Colour changes in animals may be triggered by a variety of social and environmental factors and may occur over a matter of seconds or months. Crustaceans, like fiddler crabs (genus Uca), are particularly adept at changing their colour and have been the focus of numerous studies. However, few of these studies have attempted to quantitatively describe the individual variation in colour and pattern or their adaptive significance. This paper quantitatively describes the colour patterns of the fiddler crab Uca capricornis and their ability to change on a socially significant timescale. The most dramatic changes in colour pattern are associated with moulting. These ontogenetic changes result in a general reduction of the colour pattern with increasing size, although females are more colourful and variable than similarly-sized males. Uca capricornis are also capable of rapid colour changes in response to stress, but show no endogenous rhythms associated with the semilunar and tidal cycles commonly reported in other fiddler crabs. The extreme colour polymorphism and the relative stability of the colour patterns in Uca capricornis are consistent with their use in visually mediated mate recognition. PMID:18286186

Detto, Tanya; Hemmi, Jan M.; Backwell, Patricia R. Y.

2008-01-01

349

3D palmprint and hand imaging system based on full-field composite color sinusoidal fringe projection technique.  

PubMed

Palmprint and hand shape, as two kinds of important biometric characteristics, have been widely studied and applied to human identity recognition. The existing research is based mainly on 2D images, which lose the third-dimensional information. The biological features extracted from 2D images are distorted by pressure and rolling, so the subsequent feature matching and recognition are inaccurate. This paper presents a method to acquire accurate 3D shapes of palmprint and hand by projecting full-field composite color sinusoidal fringe patterns and the corresponding color texture information. A 3D imaging system is designed to capture and process the full-field composite color fringe patterns on hand surface. Composite color fringe patterns having the optimum three fringe numbers are generated by software and projected onto the surface of human hand by a digital light processing projector. From another viewpoint, a color CCD camera captures the deformed fringe patterns and saves them for postprocessing. After compensating for the cross talk and chromatic aberration between color channels, three fringe patterns are extracted from three color channels of a captured composite color image. Wrapped phase information can be calculated from the sinusoidal fringe patterns with high precision. At the same time, the absolute phase of each pixel is determined by the optimum three-fringe selection method. After building up the relationship between absolute phase map and 3D shape data, the 3D palmprint and hand are obtained. Color texture information can be directly captured or demodulated from the captured composite fringe pattern images. Experimental results show that the proposed method and system can yield accurate 3D shape and color texture information of the palmprint and hand shape. PMID:24085070

Zhang, Zonghua; Huang, Shujun; Xu, Yongjia; Chen, Chao; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Nan; Xiao, Yanjun

2013-09-01

350

Aluminum-free low-modulus Ti-C composites that exhibit reduced image artifacts during MRI.  

PubMed

Feasibility studies were performed to determine the suitability of a novel synthesis technique for fabricating multifunctional composite materials for orthopedic implants. By blending paramagnetic Ti powder with diamagnetic graphite and consolidating the resulting mixtures, Ti-C composites that cannot be feasibly obtained via conventional alloying techniques or ingot metallurgy were synthesized. The synthesized composite material exhibited extremely low magnetic susceptibility (?=67.6×10(-6)), and, as a result, exhibited fewer artifacts during magnetic resonance imaging. The strength of the composite material (?=770MPa) was such that it could support external loads to which the human body is subjected, but its Young's modulus was low (E=81.9 GPa) such that it could mitigate the stress-shielding effect. The material was also free from toxic elements such as Al and V and, thus, can be considered less harmful. PMID:25449916

Kim, Sung-Chul; Lee, Hong-Jun; Son, Seong-Guk; Seok, Hyun-Kwang; Lee, Kang-Sik; Shin, Seung-Young; Lee, Jae-Chul

2015-01-01

351

Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Composites market is arguably the most challenging and profitable market for phenolic resins aside from electronics. The variety of products and processes encountered creates the challenges, and the demand for high performance in critical operations brings value. Phenolic composite materials are rendered into a wide range of components to supply a diverse and fragmented commercial base that includes customers in aerospace (Space Shuttle), aircraft (interiors and brakes), mass transit (interiors), defense (blast protection), marine, mine ducting, off-shore (ducts and grating) and infrastructure (architectural) to name a few. For example, phenolic resin is a critical adhesive in the manufacture of honeycomb sandwich panels. Various solvent and water based resins are described along with resin characteristics and the role of metal ions for enhanced thermal stability of the resin used to coat the honeycomb. Featured new developments include pultrusion of phenolic grating, success in RTM/VARTM fabricated parts, new ballistic developments for military vehicles and high char yield carbon-carbon composites along with many others. Additionally, global regional market resin volumes and sales are presented and compared with other thermosetting resin systems.

Taylor, John G.

352

Geometry and Skin Color Based Hybrid Approach for Face Tracking in Colour Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Face detection and face tracking has been a fascinating problem for image processing researchers during the last decade because\\u000a of many important applications such as video face recognition at airports and security check-points, digital image archiving,\\u000a etc. In this paper, we attempt to detect faces in a digital image using skin colour segmentation, morphological processing\\u000a and acceptance\\/rejection based on face

Mahesh Goyani; Gitam Shikkenawis; Brijesh Joshi

353

Why colour in subterranean vertebrates? Exploring the evolution of colour patterns in caecilian amphibians.  

PubMed

The proximate functions of animal skin colour are difficult to assign as they can result from natural selection, sexual selection or neutral evolution under genetic drift. Most often colour patterns are thought to signal visual stimuli; so,their presence in subterranean taxa is perplexing. We evaluate the adaptive nature of colour patterns in nearly a third of all known species of caecilians, an order of amphibians most of which live in tropical soils and leaf litter. We found that certain colour pattern elements in caecilians can be explained based on characteristics concerning above-ground movement. Our study implies that certain caecilian colour patterns have convergently evolved under selection and we hypothesize their function most likely to be a synergy of aposematism and crypsis, related to periods when individuals move overground. In a wider context, our results suggest that very little exposure to daylight is required to evolve and maintain a varied array of colour patterns in animal skin. PMID:21462404

Wollenberg, K C; Measey, C John

2009-05-01

354

Interactions of near-coastal and basin-wide features of the Mediterranean Sea in the surface colour and temperature historical record  

SciTech Connect

Sea surface colour and temperature images, derived from time series of CZCS (1978-1986) and AVHRR (1982-1990) data, have been used to assess the interactions of near-coastal and basin-wide features in the Mediterranean basin. Individual images were processed to apply sensor(s) calibration, to correct for atmospheric contamination, and to estimate chlorophyll-like pigment concentration and surface temperature. Long-term composites show marked differences between western and eastern sub-basins, inshore and offshore domains, northern and southern near-coastal areas. Continental runoff and wind-driven mixing, as well as geomorphology and meteorology of the (northern) basin margins, appear to influence both water dynamics and bio-geo-chemistry. The major sub-basins present a distinct seasonality, superimposed to that of the basin.

Barale, V.; Filippi, P. [Space Applications Institute, Ispra (Italy)

1997-08-01

355

David R. Hilbert Colour, Theories of  

E-print Network

views as Democritus and Galileo. Although the metaphysics is no longer atomistic in a strict sense, many be a property of external objects as were Democritus and Galileo. Colours as perceived are commonly seen

Hilber, David

356

Colour vision: parallel pathways intersect in Drosophila.  

PubMed

In the last one hundred years, colour vision has been demonstrated in bees and many other insects. But the underlying neural wiring remained elusive. A new study on Drosophila melanogaster combining behavioural and genetic tools yields surprising insights. PMID:24309280

Kelber, Almut; Henze, Miriam J

2013-12-01

357

The Colour of the Young Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VLT study gives insight on the evolution of the star formation rate Summary An international team of astronomers [1] has determined the colour of the Universe when it was very young. While the Universe is now kind of beige, it was much bluer in the distant past , at a time when it was only 2,500 million years old. This is the outcome of an extensive and thorough analysis of more than 300 galaxies seen within a small southern sky area, the so-called Hubble Deep Field South. The main goal of this advanced study was to understand how the stellar content of the Universe was assembled and has changed over time. Dutch astronomer Marijn Franx , a team member from the Leiden Observatory (The Netherlands), explains: "The blue colour of the early Universe is caused by the predominantly blue light from young stars in the galaxies. The redder colour of the Universe today is caused by the relatively larger number of older, redder stars." The team leader, Gregory Rudnick from the Max-Planck Institut für Astrophysics (Garching, Germany) adds: "Since the total amount of light in the Universe in the past was about the same as today and a young blue star emits much more light than an old red star, there must have been significantly fewer stars in the young Universe than there is now. Our new findings imply that the majority of stars in the Universe were formed comparatively late, not so long before our Sun was born, at a moment when the Universe was around 7,000 million years old." These new results are based on unique data collected during more than 100 hours of observations with the ISAAC multi-mode instrument at ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), as part of a major research project, the Faint InfraRed Extragalactic Survey (FIRES) . The distances to the galaxies were estimated from their brightness in different optical near-infrared wavelength bands. PR Photo 34/03 : The Evolving Colour of the Universe . Observing the early Universe It is now well known that the Sun was formed some 4.5 billion years ago. But when did most of the other stars in our home Galaxy form? And what about stars in other galaxies? These are some of the key questions in present-day astronomy, but they can only be answered by means of observations with the world's largest telescopes. One way to address these issues is to observe the very young Universe directly - by looking back in time. For this, astronomers take advantage of the fact that light emitted by very distant galaxies travels a long time before reaching us. Thus, when astronomers look at such remote objects, they see them as they appeared long ago. Those remote galaxies are extremely faint, however, and these observations are therefore technically difficult. Another complication is that, due to the expansion of the Universe, light from those galaxies is shifted towards longer wavelengths [2], out of the optical wavelength range and into the infrared region. In order to study those early galaxies in some detail, astronomers must therefore use the largest ground-based telescopes, collecting their faint light during very long exposures. In addition they must use infrared-sensitive detectors. Telescopes as giant eyes The "Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S)" is a very small portion of the sky in the southern constellation Tucanae ( "the Toucan" ). It was selected for very detailed studies with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and other powerful telescopes. Optical images of this field obtained by the HST represent a total exposure time of 140 hours. Many ground-based telescopes have also obtained images and spectra of objects in this sky area, in particular the ESO telescopes in Chile. A sky area of 2.5 x 2.5 arcmin 2 in the direction of HDF-S was observed in the context of a thorough study (the Faint InfraRed Extragalactic Survey; FIRES, see ESO PR 23/02 ). It is slightly larger than the field covered by the WFPC2 camera on the HST, but still 100 times smaller than the area subtended by the full moon. Whenever this field was visible from the ESO Paranal Observatory and th

2003-12-01

358

Salience of Primary and Secondary Colours in Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primary colour terms ("black", "white", "red", "green", "yellow", and "blue") are more fundamental in colour language than secondary colour terms ("pink", "purple", "orange", "brown", and "grey"). Here, we assess whether this distinction exists in the absence of language, by investigating whether primary colours attract and sustain preverbal…

Franklin, Anna; Pitchford, Nicola; Hart, Lynsey; Davies, Ian R. L.; Clausse, Samantha; Jennings, Siobhan

2008-01-01

359

Inheritance of seed colour in turnip rape ( Brassica campestris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inheritance of seed colour was investigated in the progenies of crosses between seven yellow seeded forms and a brown seeded one of turnip rape (Brassica campestris L.). Seed colour differences were found to be determined in each case by one or two genes with epistatic effect. Moreover, independent inheritance of hilum colour was observed. Seed colour was predominantly but

A. Schwetka

1982-01-01

360

Fano colourings of cubic graphs and the Fulkerson Conjecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Fano colouring is a colouring of the edges of a cubic graph by points of the Fano plane such that the colours of any three mutually adjacent edges form a line of the Fano plane. It has recently been shown by Holroyd and Skoviera (J. Combin. Theory Ser. B, to appear) that a cubic graph has a Fano colouring

Edita Mácajová; Martin Skoviera

2005-01-01

361

INTRODUCTION Animal colouration depends on an interplay of selective forces.  

E-print Network

sensitivity, the spectral properties of the fish and its background, and the light which illuminates them­male competition, may have driven evolution of male nuptial colouration in these fish. In cichlids, male colour brightly coloured than the females of most Lake Malawi species. However, several factors affect how colour

Carleton, Karen L.

362

Rapidity Gaps in DIS through Soft Colour Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new mechanism for the creation of large rapidity gaps in DIS events at HERA. Soft colour interactions between perturbatively produced partons and colour-charges in the proton remnant, modifies the colour structure for hadronization giving colour singlet systems that are well separated in rapidity. An explicit model is presented that, although the detailed results depend on the initial

A. Edin; G. Ingelman; J. Rathsman

1995-01-01

363

Angle-Insensitive Structural Colours based on Metallic Nanocavities and Coloured Pixels beyond the Diffraction Limit  

PubMed Central

To move beyond colorant-based pigmentation display technologies, a variety of photonic and plasmonic crystal based structures have been designed and applied as colour filters. Nanostructure based colour filtering offers increased efficiencies, low power consumption, slim dimensions, and enhanced resolution. However, incident angle tolerance still needs to be improved. In this work, we propose a new scheme through localized resonance in metallic nanoslits by light funneling. Angle insensitive colour filters up to ±80 degrees have been achieved, capable of wide colour tunability across the entire visible band with pixel size beyond the diffraction limit (~?/2). This work opens the door to angle insensitive manipulation of light with structural filtering. PMID:23378925

Wu, Yi-Kuei Ryan; Hollowell, Andrew E.; Zhang, Cheng; Guo, L. Jay

2013-01-01

364

A novel segmentation method to identify left ventricular infarction in short-axis composite strain-encoded magnetic resonance images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composite Strain Encoding (CSENC) is a new Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique for simultaneously acquiring cardiac functional and viability images. It combines the use of Delayed Enhancement (DE) and the Strain Encoding (SENC) imaging techniques to identify the infracted (dead) tissue and to image the myocardial deformation inside the heart muscle. In this work, a new unsupervised segmentation method is proposed to identify infarcted left ventricular tissue in the images provided by CSENC MRI. The proposed method is based on the sequential application of Bayesian classifier, Otsu's thresholding, morphological opening, radial sweep boundary tracing and the fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering algorithm. This method is tested on images of twelve patients with and without myocardial infarction (MI) and on simulated heart images with various levels of superimposed noise. The resulting clustered images are compared with those marked up by an expert cardiologist who assisted in validating results coming from the proposed method. Infarcted myocardium is correctly identified using the proposed method with high levels of accuracy and precision.

Algohary, Ahmad O.; Metwally, Muhammad K.; El-Bialy, Ahmed M.; Kandil, Ahmed H.; Osman, Nael F.

2011-03-01

365

Colour Reagent for Paper Chromatography of Steroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

FOR the paper chromatography of steroids several colour reagents are used, such as 2,4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazine, Zimmermann's reagent, phosphomolybdic acid, antimony trichloride, etc. Their common defect is that the reagent gives some colour with the paper itself, and so the contrast between spot and paper is too small. We have found that acid aniline phthalate in alcoholic solution-the reagent Partridge used for

A. Bodánszky; J. Kollonitsch

1955-01-01

366

Caramel colours--a historical introduction.  

PubMed

Caramel colours used in the manufacture of a wide variety of foods and beverages have been an item of commerce for more than one hundred years. The regulatory history of these additives in the US, the UK, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the EC is reviewed, and an introduction to the safety studies of caramel colours in this issue of Food and Chemical Toxicology is provided. PMID:1644375

Chappel, C I; Howell, J C

1992-05-01

367

Performance evaluation of local colour invariants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we compare local colour descriptors to grey-value descriptors. We adopt the evaluation framework of Mikolayzcyk and Schmid. We modify the framework in several ways. We decompose the evaluation framework to the level of local grey-value invariants on which common region descriptors are based. We compare the discriminative power and invariance of grey-value invariants to that of colour

Gertjan J. Burghouts; Jan-mark Geusebroek

2009-01-01

368

Seasonal colour and antipredator behaviour in Etheostoma (Percidae).  

PubMed

This study examined how colour varies across season and sex in the fantail darter Etheostoma flabellare and the banded darter Etheostoma zonale. Etheostoma flabellare has male-only parental care and exhibited slight sexual dimorphism in overall colour, with no discernible effect of season on colour; whereas E. zonale does not have parental care and exhibited substantial sexual dimorphism in colour, but only in the breeding season. Additionally, antipredator behaviour of E. zonale was compared between males that were fully coloured during the breeding season and males that were partially coloured at that time, but the effects of colour and season were not consistent across males. PMID:24588710

Moran, R L; von Ende, C N; King, B H

2014-04-01

369

Composite Amplitude Modulated Phase Only Filter Based Detection and Tracking of the Back-Reflection of KDP Images  

SciTech Connect

An algorithm for determining the position of the KDP back-reflection image was developed. It was compared to a centroid-based algorithm. While the algorithm based on centroiding exhibited a radial standard deviation of 9 pixels, the newly proposed algorithm based on classical matched filtering (CMF) and a Gaussian fit to correlation peak provided a radial standard deviation of less than 1 pixel. The speed of the peak detection was improved from an average of 5.5 seconds for Gaussian fit to 0.022 seconds by using a polynomial fit. The performance was enhanced even further by utilizing a composite amplitude modulated phase only filter; producing a radial standard deviation of 0.27 pixels. The proposed technique was evaluated on 900+ images with varying degrees of noise and image amplitude as well as real National Ignition Facility (NIF) images.

Awwal, A S; McClay, W A; Ferguson, S W; Candy, J V; Salmon, J T; Wegner, P J

2004-08-26

370

Flower colour adaptation in a mimetic orchid  

PubMed Central

Although the tremendous variability in floral colour among angiosperms is often attributed to divergent selection by pollinators, it is usually difficult to preclude the possibility that floral colour shifts were driven by non-pollinator processes. Here, we examine the adaptive significance of flower colour in Disa ferruginea, a non-rewarding orchid that is thought to attract its butterfly pollinator by mimicking the flowers of sympatric nectar-producing species. Disa ferruginea has red flowers in the western part of its range and orange flowers in the eastern part—a colour shift that we hypothesized to be the outcome of selection for resemblance to different local nectar-producing plants. Using reciprocal translocations of red and orange phenotypes as well as arrays of artificial flowers, we found that the butterfly Aeropetes tulbaghia, the only pollinator of the orchid, preferred both the red phenotype and red artificial flowers in the west where its main nectar plant also has red flowers, and both the orange phenotype and orange artificial flowers in the east, where its main nectar plant has orange flowers. This phenotype by environment interaction demonstrates that the flower colour shift in D. ferruginea is adaptive and driven by local colour preference in its pollinator. PMID:22298842

Newman, Ethan; Anderson, Bruce; Johnson, Steven D.

2012-01-01

371

Colourful parrot feathers resist bacterial degradation  

PubMed Central

The brilliant red, orange and yellow colours of parrot feathers are the product of psittacofulvins, which are synthetic pigments known only from parrots. Recent evidence suggests that some pigments in bird feathers function not just as colour generators, but also preserve plumage integrity by increasing the resistance of feather keratin to bacterial degradation. We exposed a variety of colourful parrot feathers to feather-degrading Bacillus licheniformis and found that feathers with red psittacofulvins degraded at about the same rate as those with melanin and more slowly than white feathers, which lack pigments. Blue feathers, in which colour is based on the microstructural arrangement of keratin, air and melanin granules, and green feathers, which combine structural blue with yellow psittacofulvins, degraded at a rate similar to that of red and black feathers. These differences in resistance to bacterial degradation of differently coloured feathers suggest that colour patterns within the Psittaciformes may have evolved to resist bacterial degradation, in addition to their role in communication and camouflage. PMID:20926430

Burtt, Edward H.; Schroeder, Max R.; Smith, Lauren A.; Sroka, Jenna E.; McGraw, Kevin J.

2011-01-01

372

Colour-dependence of cone responses in the turtle retina  

PubMed Central

1. Responses to monochromatic lights were recorded intracellularly from red cones, green cones, and luminosity horizontal cells (L-cells) in the retinae of turtles. 2. Both types of cones responded to small fields of illumination with graded hyperpolarizations. Red cones were only moderately more sensitive to deep red (680 nm) than to green (550 nm) light while green cones were much more sensitive to the green light than to the red. L-cells produced small responses for flashes of either colour covering small fields. 3. Stimulation of large fields with monochromatic lights of moderate or high intensity evoked large L-cell responses and composite responses in cones. These latter include the hyperpolarizing action of the light absorbed by the cone itself (direct response), its enhancement by illumination of the near surround, and the depolarizing effects of L-cell feed-back. 4. L-cells respond primarily to the activity of red cones; with sufficient intensity of the light, however, their responses are influenced also by green cones. As a result, if a red and a green light stimulate red cones equally, the L-cell response is larger for the green stimulus. 5. Green cones were depolarized by deep red lights of moderate intensity applied over large fields. These depolarizing responses include oscillations which follow closely oscillations in L-cells. Green light applied to the same large fields produced hyperpolarization of green cones. 6. Red cones were hyperpolarized by red or green light covering large fields, but the time course of their responses differed for the two colours, reflecting a corresponding difference in L-cell activity. 7. Red light in the form of an annulus produced large responses in central L-cells without eliciting direct responses in central green cones. In these conditions green cones developed depolarizing waves which included a large, sharp transient. 8. It is concluded from these and other results that the direct response of each cone is modified by two interactions: enhancement only from nearby cones of the same colour and depression controlled (through L-cell feed-back) by cones of all colours. In this way the response of any cone will change as the proportion of responses in cones of different colours changes, this proportion being a function of the wave-length of the light. PMID:4766220

Fuortes, M. G. F.; Schwartz, E. A.; Simon, E. J.

1973-01-01

373

Identification of “ever-cropped” land (1984–2010) using Landsat annual maximum NDVI image composites: Southwestern Kansas case study  

PubMed Central

A time series of 230 intra- and inter-annual Landsat Thematic Mapper images was used to identify land that was ever cropped during the years 1984 through 2010 for a five county region in southwestern Kansas. Annual maximum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image composites (NDVIann-max) were used to evaluate the inter-annual dynamics of cropped and non-cropped land. Three feature images were derived from the 27-year NDVIann-max image time series and used in the classification: 1) maximum NDVI value that occurred over the entire 27 year time span (NDVImax), 2) standard deviation of the annual maximum NDVI values for all years (NDVIsd), and 3) standard deviation of the annual maximum NDVI values for years 1984–1986 (NDVIsd84-86) to improve Conservation Reserve Program land discrimination. Results of the classification were compared to three reference data sets: County-level USDA Census records (1982–2007) and two digital land cover maps (Kansas 2005 and USGS Trends Program maps (1986–2000)). Area of ever-cropped land for the five counties was on average 11.8 % higher than the area estimated from Census records. Overall agreement between the ever-cropped land map and the 2005 Kansas map was 91.9% and 97.2% for the Trends maps. Converting the intra-annual Landsat data set to a single annual maximum NDVI image composite considerably reduced the data set size, eliminated clouds and cloud-shadow affects, yet maintained information important for discriminating cropped land. Our results suggest that Landsat annual maximum NDVI image composites will be useful for characterizing land use and land cover change for many applications. PMID:22423150

Maxwell, Susan K.; Sylvester, Kenneth M.

2012-01-01

374

A Handheld LED Coloured-Light Mixer for Students to Learn Collaboratively the Primary Colours of Light  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To overcome students' inaccurate prior knowledge on primary additive colours, a coloured-light mixer has been constructed to enable students to observe directly the colours produced and reach the conclusion by themselves that the three primary colours of light are red, green, and blue (NOT red, yellow, and blue). Three closely packed tiny…

Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai; Chitaree, Ratchapak; Panijpan, Bhinyo

2009-01-01

375

Seasonal Changes in Colour: A Comparison of Structural, Melanin- and Carotenoid-Based Plumage Colours  

PubMed Central

Background Plumage coloration is important for bird communication, most notably in sexual signalling. Colour is often considered a good quality indicator, and the expression of exaggerated colours may depend on individual condition during moult. After moult, plumage coloration has been deemed fixed due to the fact that feathers are dead structures. Still, many plumage colours change after moult, although whether this affects signalling has not been sufficiently assessed. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied changes in coloration after moult in four passerine birds (robin, Erithacus rubecula; blackbird, Turdus merula; blue tit, Cyanistes caeruleus; and great tit, Parus major) displaying various coloration types (melanin-, carotenoid-based and structural). Birds were caught regularly during three years to measure plumage reflectance. We used models of avian colour vision to derive two variables, one describing chromatic and the other achromatic variation over the year that can be compared in magnitude among different colour types. All studied plumage patches but one (yellow breast of the blue tit) showed significant chromatic changes over the year, although these were smaller than for a typical dynamic trait (bill colour). Overall, structural colours showed a reduction in relative reflectance at shorter wavelengths, carotenoid-based colours the opposite pattern, while no general pattern was found for melanin-based colours. Achromatic changes were also common, but there were no consistent patterns of change for the different types of colours. Conclusions/Significance Changes of plumage coloration independent of moult are probably widespread; they should be perceivable by birds and have the potential to affect colour signalling. PMID:20644723

Delhey, Kaspar; Burger, Claudia; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Peters, Anne

2010-01-01

376

The Colour Group (Great Britain) presented Roy with the Newton Medal during his  

E-print Network

of a color-science educator. Roy S. Berns awarded the Newton Medal Lindsay MacDonald, Chairman of the Colour as create its infrastructure. Wish us luck! --Roy S. Berns Abhijit Sarkar, M.S. Color Science '08; Hongqin (Cathy) Zhang, Ph.D., Imaging Science '08; Stacey Casella, M.S. Color Science '08; Dr. Roy S. Berns

Zanibbi, Richard

377

Iron oxide nanoparticle-containing microbubble composites as contrast agents for MR and ultrasound dual-modality imaging.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance (MR) and ultrasound (US) imaging are widely used diagnostic modalities for various experimental and clinical applications. In this study, iron oxide nanoparticle-embedded polymeric microbubbles were designed as multi-modal contrast agents for hybrid MR-US imaging. These magnetic nano-in-micro imaging probes were prepared via a one-pot emulsion polymerization to form poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) microbubbles, along with the oil-in-water (O/W) encapsulation of iron oxide nanoparticles in the bubble shell. The nano-in-micro embedding strategy was validated using NMR and electron microscopy. These hybrid imaging agents exhibited strong contrast in US and an increased transversal relaxation rate in MR. Moreover, a significant increase in longitudinal and transversal relaxivities was observed after US-induced bubble destruction, which demonstrated triggerable MR imaging properties. Proof-of-principle in vivo experiments confirmed that these nanoparticle-embedded microbubble composites are suitable contrast agents for both MR and US imaging. In summary, these magnetic nano-in-micro hybrid materials are highly interesting systems for bimodal MR-US imaging, and their enhanced relaxivities upon US-induced destruction recommend them as potential vehicles for MR-guided US-mediated drug and gene delivery. PMID:21632103

Liu, Zhe; Lammers, Twan; Ehling, Josef; Fokong, Stanley; Bornemann, Jörg; Kiessling, Fabian; Gätjens, Jessica

2011-09-01

378

Compositional and physical results for Rosetta's new target Comet 67P\\/Churyumov–Gerasimenko from narrowband photometry and imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present compositional and physical results of Comet 67P\\/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, the new target of ESA's Rosetta mission. A total of 16 nights of narrowband photometry were obtained at Lowell Observatory during the 1982\\/83 and 1995\\/96 apparitions, along with one night of imaging near perihelion in 1996. These data encompass an interval of ?61 to +118 days from perihelion, corresponding to a

David G. Schleicher

2006-01-01

379

Compositional and physical results for Rosetta's new target Comet 67P\\/Churyumov Gerasimenko from narrowband photometry and imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present compositional and physical results of Comet 67P\\/Churyumov Gerasimenko, the new target of ESA's Rosetta mission. A total of 16 nights of narrowband photometry were obtained at Lowell Observatory during the 1982\\/83 and 1995\\/96 apparitions, along with one night of imaging near perihelion in 1996. These data encompass an interval of -61 to +118 days from perihelion, corresponding to

David G. Schleicher

2006-01-01

380

A new sample substrate for imaging and correlating organic and trace metal composition in biological cells and tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many disease processes involve alterations in the chemical makeup of tissue. Synchrotron-based infrared (IR) and X-ray fluorescence\\u000a (XRF) microscopes are becoming increasingly popular tools for imaging the organic and trace metal compositions of biological\\u000a materials, respectively, without the need for extrinsic labels or stains. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM)\\u000a provides chemical information on the organic components of a material at

Lisa M. Miller; Qi Wang; Randy J. Smith; Hui Zhong; Donald Elliott; John Warren

2007-01-01

381

X-ray tomographic imaging of Al/SiC p functionally graded composites fabricated by centrifugal casting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work refers to an X-ray microtomography experiment aiming at the elucidation of some aspects regarding particle distribution in SiC-particle-reinforced functionally graded aluminium composites. Precursor composites were produced by rheocasting. These were then molten and centrifugally cast to obtain the functionally graded composites. From these, cylindrical samples, around 1 mm in diameter, were extracted, which were then irradiated with a X-ray beam produced at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The 3-D images were obtained in edge-detection mode. A segmentation procedure has been adapted in order to separate the pores and SiC particles from the Al matrix. Preliminary results on the particle and pore distributions are presented.

Velhinho, A.; Sequeira, P. D.; Martins, Rui; Vignoles, G.; Braz Fernandes, F.; Botas, J. D.; Rocha, L. A.

2003-01-01

382

Structural colour and iridescence in plants: the poorly studied relations of pigment colour  

PubMed Central

Background Colour is a consequence of the optical properties of an object and the visual system of the animal perceiving it. Colour is produced through chemical and structural means, but structural colour has been relatively poorly studied in plants. Scope This Botanical Briefing describes the mechanisms by which structures can produce colour. In plants, as in animals, the most common mechanisms are multilayers and diffraction gratings. The functions of structural colour are then discussed. In animals, these colours act primarily as signals between members of the same species, although they can also play roles in camouflaging animals from their predators. In plants, multilayers are found predominantly in shade-plant leaves, suggesting a role either in photoprotection or in optimizing capture of photosynthetically active light. Diffraction gratings may be a surprisingly common feature of petals, and recent work has shown that they can be used by bees as cues to identify rewarding flowers. Conclusions Structural colour may be surprisingly frequent in the plant kingdom, playing important roles alongside pigment colour. Much remains to be discovered about its distribution, development and function. PMID:20142263

Glover, Beverley J.; Whitney, Heather M.

2010-01-01

383

Each sample was imaged before and after treat-  

E-print Network

, and chemical substances such as acid, alkaline, bleach, tea, black ink, red wine and human blood. Colour spectrum reconstructed for any pixel region. Blood affected the parchment colour, reducing reflectance, and secondary peaks caused by ink strokes. Blue dots are scores >0. False-colour composite of reference 600 nm

Weyrich, Tim

384

Design guidelines of 1-3 piezoelectric composites dedicated to ultrasound imaging transducers, based on frequency band-gap considerations.  

PubMed

Periodic piezoelectric composites are widely used for imaging applications such as biomedical imaging or nondestructive evaluation. In this paper such structures are considered as phononic crystals, and their properties are investigated with respect to periodicity. This approach is based on the investigation of band gaps, that strongly depend on the properties of the considered composites (geometry, size, nature of materials). It is motivated by the fact that band gaps in principle allow one to excite the thickness mode without exciting other parasitic propagating waves. The used plane-wave-expansion method has already been applied to periodic piezoelectric composites, but, in contrast to previous approaches, not only waves propagating in the symmetry plane of the composite are considered, but also waves propagating with a nonzero angle of incidence with this plane. The method is applied to a representative 1-3 connectivity piezocomposite in order to demonstrate its potentialities for design purposes. The evolution of band gaps is explored with respect to the wave vector component parallel to piezoelectric transducer-rod axis. All bulk waves that contribute to the setting up of plate modes in the vicinity of the thickness mode are found and identified. PMID:17672629

Wilm, M; Khelif, A; Laude, V; Ballandras, S

2007-08-01

385

Survey of colourings and preservatives in drugs.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To assess the prevalence of colourings and preservatives in drug formulations in the United Kingdom. DESIGN--Postal survey. PARTICIPANTS--All pharmaceutical manufacturers in the United Kingdom were requested to supply data on drug formulations with particular regard to the content of colourings and preservatives. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Prevalence in proprietary drugs of colourings or preservatives, or both, that have been implicated in adverse reactions. Computation of a list of formulations of bronchodilators, antihistamines, and antibiotics that are free of such additives. RESULTS--A total of 118 out of 120 pharmaceutical companies supplied the data requested. In all, 2204 drug formulations were analysed and found to contain 419 different additives, of which 52 were colourings and preservatives that have been implicated in adverse reactions; 930 formulations contained such an additive. Tartrazine was the fourth most commonly occurring colouring, being present in 124 drug formulations. CONCLUSION--Many drugs contain additives that help to identify them and prolong their shelf life but are implicated in adverse reactions in some people. Some form of labelling of drug additives would enable these people to avoid drugs containing such additives. PMID:2508849

Pollock, I.; Young, E.; Stoneham, M.; Slater, N.; Wilkinson, J. D.; Warner, J. O.

1989-01-01

386

Pushing the Limits on Quantitative Analysis and WDS/EDS Compositional Imaging with EPMA: Characterizing Apparent Microstructures in UHP Garnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WDS and EDS imaging of large (~1 cm) pyrope-rich garnets (94mol% prp, 5mol% alm, ~1mol% grs, essentially nil sps) from impure aluminous whiteschist in the Dora Maira massif, Italian Alps, has revealed apparent lamellar microstructures that reflect very small antithetical compositional fluctuations in Mg and Fe concentrations. They do not show up in optical examination (e.g., as pigeonite lamellae in augites do), but this is to be expected because of the limited compositional contrast across these structures. As far as we are aware, microstructures of this sort have not previously been reported in garnets formed at any P-T conditions. Thermodynamic modeling of this rock has shown that these garnets formed at 775°C and 3.5 GPa. The lamellar structures show best in Mg WDS images (TAP crystal and 1024 x 1024 resolution) made at 15 kV and 400 nA and appear in two orientations at about a 20 degree angle to each other. Most importantly, they are not horizontal and thus should not represent potential scan-line artifacts. Based on WDS image scales, the spacing appears to be between 5 and 10 microns. In order to demonstrate that these apparent compositional waves are real rather than some kind of unexpected imaging artifact, we performed quantitative analytical traverses (15 kV, 20 nA) at 2-micron point spacing across these structures. The traverses revealed nearly perfect antithetical compositional fluctuations of roughly 0.6 mol% alm and prp, with essentially constant grs content. The lateral spacing of amplitude maxima for these compositional fluctuations was quite constant, with an average of 7.5 micrometers. Because we are pushing both spatial and analytical resolution limits, we remain not totally convinced that these apparent lamellar microstructures are real. However, their pattern regularity, the fact that they definitely have a lamellar rather than spotty appearance, and that they are seen having consistent spacing with two essentially independent techniques (WDS stage-scan mapping and quantitative analysis) argues for their reality and indicates that they are likely not the result of random uncertainty. Acceptance of these microstructures has potential mineralogical and tectonic importance related to the UHP origin of the garnets. Our thermodynamic modeling and other work on the UHP massifs of the Alps suggests that these rocks underwent very rapid exhumation, probably at roughly isothermal conditions. If the microstructures formed post-growth, as seems likely, this extreme decompression might have imposed unusual amounts of short-range intracrystalline stress in the garnet lattice that could have resulted in compositional fluctuations driven by strain energy.

Tracy, R. J.; Caddick, M. J.

2013-12-01

387

Composite Match Index with Application of Interior Deformation Field Measurement from Magnetic Resonance Volumetric Images of Human Tissues  

PubMed Central

Whereas a variety of different feature-point matching approaches have been reported in computer vision, few feature-point matching approaches employed in images from nonrigid, nonuniform human tissues have been reported. The present work is concerned with interior deformation field measurement of complex human tissues from three-dimensional magnetic resonance (MR) volumetric images. To improve the reliability of matching results, this paper proposes composite match index (CMI) as the foundation of multimethod fusion methods to increase the reliability of these various methods. Thereinto, we discuss the definition, components, and weight determination of CMI. To test the validity of the proposed approach, it is applied to actual MR volumetric images obtained from a volunteer's calf. The main result is consistent with the actual condition. PMID:22991507

Zhang, Penglin; Zhang, Xubing; Chen, Jiangping

2012-01-01

388

Direct Numerical Simulation of Fracture Behaviour for Random Short Wood Fibres Reinforced Composites, Comparison with Digital Image Correlation Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work is to predict fracture behaviour of bio-composites from the tensile properties of its components. In this work, we have realized a direct numerical simulation of fracture behaviour for random short spruce fibers reinforced composites. For calculations, wood fibers have been considered as linear elastic bodies, polypropylene matrix as an elastic-plastic material. Then, numerical results have been compared with experimental results that have been obtained by digital image correlation. This comparison indicates that random fiber FE model of random short spruce fibers reinforced composites can be able to fairly reflect the influence of random fibers microstructure in the composite on its fracture behavior. The calculation of both random fiber and homogeneous FE model and their comparison with experiments show that the average values of J-integral in a region in the front of the crack tip from both numerical FE models are in good agreement with the average J value of DIC experiment in the same region when the numerical and experimental CT specimens of the short spruce fiber reinforced composite are subjected to the same extension at their loading point.

Shen, M.; Touchard, F.; Bezine, G.; Brillaud, J.

2010-06-01

389

Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging of Port Wine Stain Biochemical Composition in Response to Laser Therapy: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective Objective methods to assess port wine stain (PWS) response to laser treatment have been the subject of various research efforts for several years. Herein, we present a pilot study using a newly developed, light emitting diode (LED) based spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) device to record quantitatively biochemical compositional changes in PWS after laser therapy. Study Design/Patients and Methods A SFDI system was used to image before, and after, five PWS treatment sessions [n = 4 subjects (one subject was imaged before and after two consecutive laser treatments)]. SFDI derived wide-field optical properties (absorption and scattering) and tissue chromophore concentrations including oxy-hemoglobin (ctO2Hb), deoxy-hemoglobin (ctHHb), total hemoglobin (ctTHb), and tissue oxygen saturation (stO2) are presented for skin imaged prior to and immediately after laser treatment. The SFDI derived images were analyzed by comparing the above measurements in PWS to those of normal skin and tracking changes immediately after laser exposure. Results Elevated oxy-hemoglobin (>20%) and tissue oxygen saturation (>5%) were measured in all PWS lesions and compared to values for normal skin prior to treatment. Laser treatment resulted in an increase in deoxy-hemoglobin (>100%), decrease in tissue oxygen saturation (>10%), and reduced scattering (>15%) in all PWS lesions. One subject was followed before and after two consecutive laser treatments and the overall improvement in PWS lesion blanching was quantitatively assessed by measuring a 45% decrease in dermal blood volume. Conclusion SFDI is a rapid non-contact wide-field optical technique that shows potential as an imaging device that can be used to quantify biochemical compositional changes in PWS after laser therapy. Future work will investigate the potential of SFDI to provide intra-operative guidance for laser therapy of PWS lesions on an individual patient basis. PMID:22911574

Mazhar, Amaan; Sharif, Seyed A.; Cuccia, J. David; Nelson, J. Stuart; Kelly, Kristen M.; Durkin, Anthony J.

2012-01-01

390

The impact of color composition on X-ray image interpretation in aviation security screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve aviation security, many airports apply Threat Image Projection (TIP) and computer-based X-ray image interpretation training (CBT). One difference between TIP and CBT X-ray images is the algorithm used to merge virtual threat items into X-ray images of passenger bags, resulting in different color nuances. In this study, we tested the influence of merging algorithms on threat

Claudia C. von Bastian; Adrian Schwaninger; Stefan Michel

2009-01-01

391

Kinetics of the migration of lipids in composite chocolate measured by magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migration of hazelnut oil into chocolate was followed non-invasively by magnetic resonance imaging, using a spin echo pulse sequence to acquire images with a 5 ms echo time and a 2000 ms repetition time. A calibration curve was used to correlate the image intensity with the concentration of hazelnut oil. Two different degrees of chocolate temper, at three different storage

Marc E Miquel; Sophie Carli; Patrick J Couzens; Hans-J Wille; Laurance D Hall

2001-01-01

392

Application of colour magnification technique for revealing skin microcirculation changes under regional anaesthetic input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work the colour magnification technique was applied for monitoring of palm skin microcirculation changes under peripheral (Plexus Brachialis with axiliary access) Regional Anaesthesia (RA). During the RA procedure 20 minute video of patient's forearm was taken at steady light conditions. Video content was processed offline by custom developed Matlab software with build-in colour magnification algorithm that performs temporal filtering of video sequence near-heartbeat frequency, spatial decomposition of video and amplification of pulsatile signal in every pixel of skin image. Using this method, we are able to visualize the subcutaneous microcirculation changes in high spatial resolution. The results showed different blood pulse amplitude dynamics over the skin regions of palm and forearm during the RA. The colour magnification technique could be used for real-time monitoring of RA effect.

Rubins, Uldis; Spigulis, Janis; Miscuks, Aleksejs

2013-11-01

393

Multi-Colour Braid-Monoid Algebras  

E-print Network

We define multi-colour generalizations of braid-monoid algebras and present explicit matrix representations which are related to two-dimensional exactly solvable lattice models of statistical mechanics. In particular, we show that the two-colour braid-monoid algebra describes the Yang-Baxter algebra of the critical dilute A-D-E models which were recently introduced by Warnaar, Nienhuis, and Seaton as well as by Roche. These and other solvable models related to dense and dilute loop models are discussed in detail and it is shown that the solvability is a direct consequence of the algebraic structure. It is conjectured that the Yang-Baxterization of general multi-colour braid-monoid algebras will lead to the construction of further solvable lattice models.

Uwe Grimm; Paul A. Pearce

1993-03-30

394

Symphony of colours in the Tarantula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

hi-res Size hi-res: 1058 Kb Credits: ESA/NASA, ESO and Danny LaCrue Symphony of colours in the Tarantula The Tarantula is situated 170 000 light-years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) in the southern sky and is clearly visible to the naked eye as a large milky patch. Astronomers believe that this smallish irregular galaxy is currently going through a violent period in its life. It is orbiting around the Milky Way and has had several close encounters with it. It is believed that the interaction with the Milky Way has caused an episode of energetic star formation - part of which is visible as the Tarantula Nebula. Just above the centre of the image there is a huge cluster of very hot stars called R136. The stars in R136 are also among the most massive stars we know. R136 is also a very young cluster, its oldest stars being 'just' 5 million years old or so. Its smallest stars, however, are still forming, so astronomers observe R136 to try to understand the early stages of stellar evolution. Near the lower edge of the image we find the star cluster Hodge 301. Hodge 301 is almost 10 times older than R136. Some of the stars in Hodge 301 are so old that they have already exploded as supernovae. The shockwave from this explosion has compressed the gas in the Tarantula into the filaments and sheets that are seen around the cluster. This mosaic of the Tarantula Nebula consists of images from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope’s Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and was created by 23 year old amateur astronomer Danny LaCrue. The image was constructed by 15 individual exposures taken through three narrow-band filters allowing light from ionised oxygen (501 nm, shown as blue), hydrogen-alpha (656 nm, shown as green) and ionised sulphur (672 nm, shown as red). The exposure time for the individual WFPC2 images vary between 800 and 2800 seconds in each filter. The Hubble data have been superimposed onto images taken through matching narrow-band filters with the European Southern Observatory’s New Technology Telescope at the La Silla Observatory, Chile. The Tarantula Nebula, also known as 30 Doradus, is situated 170 000 light-years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) in the southern sky and is clearly visible to the naked eye as a large milky patch. Astronomers believe that this smallish, irregular galaxy is currently going through a violent period in its life cycle. It is orbiting the Milky Way and has had several close encounters with it. It is believed that the interaction with the Milky Way has caused an episode of energetic star formation - part of which is visible as the Tarantula Nebula. The Tarantula is the largest stellar nursery we know in the local universe. In fact if this enormous complex of stars, gas and dust were at the distance of the Orion Nebula it would be visible during the day and cover a quarter of the sky. Over the years the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has returned again and again to observe this interesting region of the sky and in this way Hubble has built up an archival treasure of more than a thousand images and spectra of the Tarantula. A few weeks ago, 23 year old amateur astronomer Danny LaCrue sifted through the data and found that 15 of the exposures made with Hubble’s Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 could be combined to create a beautiful mosaic of the central parts of the unique Tarantula. Danny submitted his image to the Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre in the hope that the image could be shared with a wider audience. “I always wondered what it would be like to create the pictures from Hubble, but I never imagined that I would one day actually get to make one myself”. Driven by his interest in astronomy and graphical design and excited at the prospect of processing real images taken by Hubble, Danny recently downloaded the ESA/ESO/NASA Photoshop FITS Liberator from the Spacetelescope.org website. The FITS Liberator is a software tool released six months ago that enables laypeople to work with the somewhat special format of astronomical images (called

2004-12-01

395

Multi-colour detection of gravitational arcs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong gravitational lensing provides fundamental insights into the understanding of the dark matter distribution in massive galaxies, galaxy clusters, and the background cosmology. Despite their importance, few gravitational arcs have been discovered so far. The urge for more complete, large samples and unbiased methods of selecting candidates increases. Several methods for the automatic detection of arcs have been proposed in the literature, but large amounts of spurious detections retrieved by these methods force observers to visually inspect thousands of candidates per square degree to clean the samples. This approach is largely subjective and requires a huge amount of checking by eye, especially considering the actual and upcoming wide-field surveys, which will cover thousands of square degrees. In this paper we study the statistical properties of the colours of gravitational arcs detected in the 37 deg2 of the CFHTLS-Archive-Research Survey (CARS). Most of them lie in a relatively small region of the (g' - r', r' - i') colour-colour diagram. To explain this property, we provide a model that includes the lensing optical depth expected in a ?CDM cosmology that, in combination with the sources' redshift distribution of a given survey, in our case CARS, peaks for sources at redshift z ~ 1. By furthermore modelling the colours derived from the spectral energy distribution of the galaxies that dominate the population at that redshift, the model reproduces the observed colours well. By taking advantage of the colour selection suggested by both data and model, we automatically detected 24 objects out of 90 detected by eye checking. Compared with the single-band arcfinder, this multi-band filtering returns a sample complete to 83% and a contamination reduced by a factor of ~6.5. New gravitational arc candidates are also proposed.

Maturi, Matteo; Mizera, Sebastian; Seidel, Gregor

2014-07-01

396

Colour-Temperature Correspondences: When Reactions to Thermal Stimuli Are Influenced by Colour  

PubMed Central

In our daily lives, information concerning temperature is often provided by means of colour cues, with red typically being associated with warm/hot, and blue with cold. While such correspondences have been known about for many years, they have primarily been studied using subjective report measures. Here we examined this correspondence using two more objective response measures. First, we used the Implicit Association Test (IAT), a test designed to assess the strength of automatic associations between different concepts in a given individual. Second, we used a priming task that involved speeded target discrimination in order to assess whether priming colour or thermal information could invoke the crossmodal association. The results of the IAT confirmed that the association exists at the level of response selection, thus indicating that a participant’s responses to colour or thermal stimuli are influenced by the colour-temperature correspondence. The results of the priming experiment revealed that priming a colour affected thermal discrimination reaction times (RTs), but thermal cues did not influence colour discrimination responses. These results may therefore provide important clues as to the level of processing at which such colour-temperature correspondences are represented. PMID:24618675

Ho, Hsin-Ni; Van Doorn, George H.; Kawabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Junji; Spence, Charles

2014-01-01

397

Writing with Visual Images: Examining the Video Composition Processes of High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher-researcher study explored the manner in which students created video compositions in a secondary English language arts media studies program. A review of research literature indicates fundamental differences between print and video compositions, which include modality of representation, task setting, and curricular role. Another…

Bruce, David L.

2009-01-01

398

The effect of atmospheric and topographic correction on pixel-based image composites: Improved forest cover detection in mountain environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of forest cover is essential as a tool to stimulate forest management and conservation. Image compositing techniques that sample the most suited pixel from multi-temporal image acquisitions, provide an important tool for forest cover detection as they provide alternatives for missing data due to cloud cover and data discontinuities. At present, however, it is not clear to which extent forest cover detection based on compositing can be improved if the source imagery is firstly corrected for topographic distortions on a pixel-basis. In this study, the results of a pixel compositing algorithm with and without preprocessing topographic correction are compared for a study area covering 9 Landsat footprints in the Romanian Carpathians based on two different classifiers: Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). Results show that classifier selection has a stronger impact on the classification accuracy than topographic correction. Finally, application of the optimal method (SVM classifier with topographic correction) on the Romanian Carpathian Ecoregion between 1985, 1995 and 2010 shows a steady greening due to more afforestation than deforestation.

Vanonckelen, Steven; Lhermitte, Stef; Van Rompaey, Anton

2015-03-01

399

Separating strain from composition in unit cell parameter maps obtained from aberration corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging  

SciTech Connect

Based on the evaluation of lattice parameter maps in aberration corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy images, we propose a simple method that allows quantifying the composition and disorder of a semiconductor alloy at the unit cell scale with high accuracy. This is realized by considering, next to the out-of-plane, also the in-plane lattice parameter component allowing to separate the chemical composition from the strain field. Considering only the out-of-plane lattice parameter component not only yields large deviations from the true local alloy content but also carries the risk of identifying false ordering phenomena like formations of chains or platelets. Our method is demonstrated on image simulations of relaxed supercells, as well as on experimental images of an In{sub 0.20}Ga{sub 0.80}N quantum well. Principally, our approach is applicable to all epitaxially strained compounds in the form of quantum wells, free standing islands, quantum dots, or wires.

Schulz, T.; Remmele, T.; Korytov, M.; Markurt, T.; Albrecht, M. [Leibniz-Institut für Kristallzüchtung, Max-Born-Straße 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Duff, A.; Lymperakis, L.; Neugebauer, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Straße 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Chèze, C. [TopGaN Sp. z o.o., Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Skierbiszewski, C. [TopGaN Sp. z o.o., Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland)

2014-01-21

400

An Evanescent Microwave Probe for Super-Resolution Nondestructive Imaging of Metals, Semiconductors, Dielectrics, Composites and Biological Specimens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using evanescent microwaves with decay lengths determined by a combination of microwave wavelength (lambda) and waveguide termination geometry, we have imaged and mapped material non-uniformities and defects with a resolving capability of lambda/3800=79 microns at 1 GHz. In our method a microstrip quarter wavelength resonator was used to generate evanescent microwaves. We imaged materials with a wide range of conductivities. Carbon composites, dielectrics (Duroid, polymers), semiconductors (3C-SiC, polysilicon, natural diamond), metals (tungsten alloys, copper, zinc, steel), high-temperature superconductors, and botanical samples were scanned for defects, residual stresses, integrity of brazed junctions, subsurface features, areas of different film thickness and moisture content. The evanescent microwave probe is a versatile tool and it can be used to perform very fast, large scale mapping of a wide range of materials. This method of characterization compares favorably with ultrasound testing, which has a resolution of about 0.1 mm and suffers from high absorption in composite materials and poor transmission across boundaries. Eddy current methods which can have a resolution on the order of 50 microns are restricted to evaluating conducting materials. Evanescent microwave imaging, with careful choice of operating frequency and probe geometry, can have a resolution of up to 1 micron. In this method we can scan hot and moving objects, sample preparation is not required, testing is non-destructive, non-invasive and non-contact, and can be done in air, in liquid or in vacuum.

Pathak, P. S.; Tabib-Azar, M.; Ponchak, G.

1998-01-01

401

Testing the AUDI2000 colour-difference formula for solid colours using some visual datasets with usefulness to automotive industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colour-difference formulas are tools employed in colour industries for objective pass/fail decisions of manufactured products. These objective decisions are based on instrumental colour measurements which must reliably predict the subjective colour-difference evaluations performed by observers' panels. In a previous paper we have tested the performance of different colour-difference formulas using the datasets employed at the development of the last CIErecommended colour-difference formula CIEDE2000, and we found that the AUDI2000 colour-difference formula for solid (homogeneous) colours performed reasonably well, despite the colour pairs in these datasets were not similar to those typically employed in the automotive industry (CIE Publication x038:2013, 465-469). Here we have tested again AUDI2000 together with 11 advanced colour-difference formulas (CIELUV, CIELAB, CMC, BFD, CIE94, CIEDE2000, CAM02-UCS, CAM02-SCD, DIN99d, DIN99b, OSA-GP-Euclidean) for three visual datasets we may consider particularly useful to the automotive industry because of different reasons: 1) 828 metallic colour pairs used to develop the highly reliable RIT-DuPont dataset (Color Res. Appl. 35, 274-283, 2010); 2) printed samples conforming 893 colour pairs with threshold colour differences (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 883-891, 2012); 3) 150 colour pairs in a tolerance dataset proposed by AUDI. To measure the relative merits of the different tested colour-difference formulas, we employed the STRESS index (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1823-1829, 2007), assuming a 95% confidence level. For datasets 1) and 2), AUDI2000 was in the group of the best colour-difference formulas with no significant differences with respect to CIE94, CIEDE2000, CAM02-UCS, DIN99b and DIN99d formulas. For dataset 3) AUDI2000 provided the best results, being statistically significantly better than all other tested colour-difference formulas.

Martínez-García, Juan; Melgosa, Manuel; Gómez-Robledo, Luis; Li, Changjun; Huang, Min; Liu, Haoxue; Cui, Guihua; Luo, M. Ronnier; Dauser, Thomas

2013-11-01

402

Spatially resolved colours and stellar population properties in early-type galaxies at z ˜ 1.5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present F850LP - F160W colour gradients for 11 early-type galaxies (ETGs) at 1.0 < zspec < 1.9 selected from the GOODS-South field. Significant negative F850LP - F160W colour gradients (core redder than the outskirts) have been detected in ˜70 per cent of our sample within the effective radius Re, the remaining 30 per cent having a flat colour profile consistent with a null gradient. Extending the analysis to R > Re, enclosing the whole galaxy, we have found that the fraction of high-z ETGs with negative F850LP - F160W colour gradients rises up to 100 per cent. For each galaxy, we investigate the origin of the radial colour variation with an innovative technique based on the matching of both the spatially resolved colour and the global spectral energy distribution (SED) to predictions of composite stellar population models. In fact, we find that the age of the stellar populations is the only parameter whose radial variation alone can fully account for the observed colour gradients and global SEDs for six ETGs in our sample, without the need of radial variation of any other stellar population property. For four out of these six ETGs, a pure metallicity variation can also reproduce the detected colour gradients. None the less, a minor contribution to the observed colour gradients from the radial variation of star formation time-scale, abundance of low- to high-mass stars and dust cannot be completely ruled out. For the rest of the sample, our analysis suggests a more complex scenario whereby more properties of the stellar populations need to simultaneously vary, likely with comparable weights, to generate the observed colour gradients and global SEDs. Our results show that, despite the young mean age of our galaxies (<3-4 Gyr), they already exhibit significant differences among their stellar content. We have discussed our results within the framework of the widest accepted scenarios of galaxy formation and conclude that none of them can satisfactorily account for the observed distribution of colour gradients and for the spatially resolved content of high-z ETGs. Our results suggest that the distribution of colour gradients may be due to different initial conditions in the formation mechanisms of ETGs.

Gargiulo, A.; Saracco, P.; Longhetti, M.; La Barbera, F.; Tamburri, S.

2012-10-01

403

New Evidence for Infant Colour Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bornstein, Kessen, and Weiskopf (1976) reported that pre-linguistic infants perceive colour categorically for primary boundaries: Following habituation, dishabituation only occurred if the test stimulus was from a different adult category to the original. Here, we replicated this important study and extended it to include secondary boundaries,…

Franklin, Anna; Davies, Ian R. L.

2004-01-01

404

Colour pattern modification by coldshock in Lepidoptera.  

PubMed

When young pupae of Vanessa cardui, V. virginiensis and Precis coenia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) are exposed to severe coldshock many develop aberrant adult wing patterns. For each species, a synchronous cohort of experimental animals always develops a broad range of aberrant pattern morphologies but these can always be arranged in a single unbranched morphological series. When such phenotypic series are compared, between species and between wing surfaces within a species (each wing surface usually bears a different colour pattern), many parallel modifications and trends become evident. These parallelisms reveal certain homologies of pattern elements and suggest that a common physiology underlies the development of a considerable diversity of normal and aberrant colour patterns. The case is made that the phenotypic series produced may represent either a series of sequential stages in colour pattern determination or, a series of quantitatively different 'interpretations' of an established gradient system. Colour pattern morphoclines reveal which patterns are developmentally 'adjacent' to one another and may therefore prove useful in elucidating the evolution of patterns. PMID:6470611

Nijhout, H F

1984-06-01

405

Dual string with U(1) colour symmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The string model with a U(1) colour symmetry is analyzed in detail. It is shown that the critical dimension of this model is D = 2. There are no tachyons in the U(1) string. Moreover the massless ground state is the only physical particle of the spectrum. All other states are decoupled because of the gauge conditions. The n-point amplitudes

M. Ademollo; L. Brink; A. D'Adda; R. D'Auria; E. Napolitano; S. Sciuto; E. del Giudice; P. di Vecchia; S. Ferrara; F. Gliozzi; R. Musto; R. Pettorino; J. H. Schwarz

1976-01-01

406

Colour Coherence in Photon Induced Reactions  

E-print Network

Colour coherence in hard photoproduction is considered using the Monte Carlo event generators PYTHIA and HERWIG. Significant effects in the parton shower are found using multijet observables for direct and resolved photon induced reactions. The particle flow in the interjet region of direct processes shows a strong influence of string fragmentation effects.

A. Lebedev; L. Sinclair; E. Strickland; J. Vazdik

1996-09-04

407

Colour-responsive fluorescent oxy radical sensors.  

PubMed

A series of fluorene-fused benzoquinones (Q1-Q5) were prepared by thermolysis of 4-fluorenyl-4-hydroxycyclobutenones. Red fluorescence observed for Q2 is switched by reduction to blue fluorescence by formation of the hydroquinone. Reaction with hydrogen peroxide restores the original fluorescence colour. The potential use of compound Q2 as a reactive oxygen species detector is discussed. PMID:22222712

Yucel, Baris; Sanli, Bahar; Akbulut, Huseyin; Ozbey, Suheyla; Benniston, Andrew C

2012-03-01

408

All the colours of the rainbow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our perception of colour has always been a source of fascination, so it's little wonder that studies of the phenomenon date back hundreds of years. What, though, can modern scientists learn from medieval literature -- and how do we go about it?

Smithson, Hannah E.; Gasper, Giles E. M.; McLeish, Tom C. B.

2014-08-01

409

Quantum entanglement of quark colour states  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of quantum entanglement between the states of static colour charges in the vacuum of pure Yang-Mills theory is carried out. Hilbert space of physical states of the fields and the charges is endowed with a direct product structure by attaching an infinite Dirac string to each charge.

Buividovich, P. V. [JIPNR, National Academy of Science, 220109 Belarus, Minsk, Acad. Krasin str. 99 (Belarus); ITEP, 117218 Russia, Moscow, B. Cheremushkinskaya str. 25 (Russian Federation); Kuvshinov, V. I. [JIPNR, National Academy of Science, 220109 Belarus, Minsk, Acad. Krasin str. 99 (Belarus)

2010-03-24

410

Spectral sensitivity of a colour changing spider.  

PubMed

Vision plays a paramount role in some spider families such as the Salticidae, Lycosidae and Thomisidae, as it is involved in prey hunting, orientation or choice of substrate. In the thomisid Misumena vatia, for which the substrate colour affects the body colour, vision seems to mediate morphological colour changes. However, nothing is known about which component of visual signals from the substrate might be perceived, nor whether M. vatia possesses the physiological basis for colour vision. The aim of this study is thus to investigate the vision of this spider species by measuring the spectral sensitivities of the different pairs of eyes using electrophysiological methods. Extra- and intracellular electrophysiological recordings combined with selective adaptation revealed the presence of two classes of photoreceptor cells, one sensitive in the UV region of the spectrum (around 340 nm) and one sensitive in the green (around 520 nm) regions in the four pairs of eyes. We conclude that M. vatia possesses the physiological potential to perceive both chromatic and achromatic components of the environment. PMID:21300067

Defrize, Jérémy; Lazzari, Claudio R; Warrant, Eric J; Casas, Jérôme

2011-04-01

411

Further success of the colour dipole model  

E-print Network

We confront a very wide body of HERA diffractive electroproduction data with the predictions of the colour dipole model. We focus upon three different parameterisations of the dipole scattering cross-section and find good agreement for all observables. There can be no doubting the success of the dipole scattering approach and more precise observations are needed in order to expose its limitations.

J. R. Forshaw; R. Sandapen; G. Shaw

2006-10-16

412

Tooth root colour as a measure of chronological age.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess a possible colour shift in the root surfaces of adult human teeth and if so, whether this colour change is related to chronological age. Teeth extracted from persons of known age and gender were obtained from Ontario dental practitioners and grouped into five-year age ranges. Three experiments were undertaken: (1) to identify a possible difference in yellow colouration between the four surfaces of tooth roots (mesial, distal, lingual, and buccal), (2) to investigate the difference in yellow colouration of tooth roots between non-molar teeth and molar teeth and (3) to assess the correlation between the age of teeth and root colour saturation for yellow, magenta, cyan and black. The teeth in all investigations were scanned by a flat-bed digital colour scanner with a Kodak colour scale control and viewed on a colour computer monitor. In the first two experiments the yellow colour saturation of the root surfaces was measured at six points on each root using Photoshop 5.0 software. A significant difference was observed in the percentage yellow colour saturation between the mesial and the other three anatomical surfaces (p < 0.01), and between the root surfaces of non-molar and molar teeth (p < 0.01) (ANOVA with Bonferroni post-test). The authors then randomly assigned tooth surfaces to select an equivalent number of posterior and anterior teeth in the study, assessing the relationship between age and root colouration. Four points of colour measurement on 40 teeth (sample size permitting, see Table 1) for each known age and gender were assessed for colour saturation (cyan, magenta, yellow and black). The correlation of chronological age to colour saturation was linear for all colours, with correlation coefficients ranging from r = 0.81 to r = 0.94. The high correlation values strongly support the conclusion that chronological age is related to increased root colouration. PMID:11324269

Lackovic, K P; Wood, R E

2000-12-01

413

The cause of 50 million-year-old colour.  

PubMed

Multilayer reflectors cause structural, 'metallic' colours in a diversity of animals today, yet are unknown in extinct species. We identify a multilayer reflector, causing structural colour, in a 50-million-year-old beetle from Messel, Germany. It is proposed that the original material of this reflector has been preserved, although this is not a precondition for determining original colours from ancient multilayer reflectors. Therefore, the potential exists to reveal the original colours of other (particularly arthropod) extinct species. PMID:14667366

Parker, Andrew R; McKenzie, David R

2003-11-01

414

Differentiation in a tropical deceptive orchid: colour polymorphism and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colour polymorphism has often been described among individuals of deceptive orchid species, and several studies have investigated\\u000a reproductive success variations among colour morphs. However, whether colour morphs differed in other traits has received\\u000a little attention in previous studies. Here, we report the case of a tropical deceptive orchid in Reunion Island that exhibits\\u000a three different colour varieties. We investigated patterns

Nicolas Juillet; Roxane Delle-Vedove; Laurent Dormont; Bertrand Schatz; Thierry Pailler

2010-01-01

415

What weta want: colour preferences of a frugivorous insect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants use colours as signals to attract mutualists and repel antagonists. Fleshy-fruits are often conspicuously coloured\\u000a to signal different types of information including fruit maturity and spatial location. Previous work on fruit colour selection\\u000a focus on large diurnal vertebrates, yet fruit colours are perceived differently by frugivores with different types of visual\\u000a systems. Here, we tested whether a nocturnal, frugivorous,

Nik Fadzly; K. C. Burns

2010-01-01

416

Evaluation of a Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging System for Whole Body Composition Analysis in Rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the EchoMRI-900 combination rat and mouse quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) body composition method in comparison to traditional whole-body chemical carcass composition analysis (CCA) for measurements of fat and fat-free mass in rodents. Live and postmortem (PM) QMR fat and lean mass measurements were obtained for lean, obese and outbred strains of rats and mice, and compared with measurements

Joshua P. Nixon; Minzhi Zhang; ChuanFeng Wang; Michael A. Kuskowski; Colleen M. Novak; James A. Levine; Charles J. Billington; Catherine M. Kotz

2010-01-01

417

The impact of the day of observation of image composites on adequate time series generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many remote sensing products that are useful for time series analysis and seasonal monitoring studies are offered in form of composites. A composite combines a number of observations of a defined period and selects or computes one value. This results in observations sampled at varying time intervals that rules out a high number of time series analysis techniques. This study investigates the impact of either using the actual day of observation to generate a time series from composites or assuming the starting or middle day of the compositing period. For this study 16-day MODIS VI composites of 1km spatial resolution from Terra and Aqua were employed. A 1100x500km region in central Mexico served as study site. Statistical measures including temporal cross-correlation and the root mean square error were used for time series analysis. A temporal shift of approximately seven days with a high variability is introduced when using the starting day of the compositing period. The middle day mitigates the mean error close to zero but still shows a high error variability. Only time series that take into account the day of observation and estimate from that samples at equidistant intervals can be used for a correct estimation of temporal characteristics.

Colditz, Rene R.; Ressl, Rainer A.

2013-10-01

418

Radiopacity measurements of direct and indirect resin composites at different thicknesses using digital image analysis.  

PubMed

Radiopacity is an important property of composite materials for clinical diagnosis. For seven direct composites (Aelite LS Posterior, Aelite All-Purpose Body, Quadrant Universal LC, Clearfil Majesty Posterior, Clearfil Majesty Esthetic, Filtek Ultimate Dentin, IPS Empress Direct Dentin) and six indirect composites (Ceromega, Epricord, Estenia C&B, Tescera, Signum Ceramis, Solidex), diskshaped specimens (N=260, n=10 per group) were fabricated for two thicknesses at 1 and 2 mm. Average radiographic density of each composite material was calculated. Radiopacity values of specimens were expressed in equivalent thickness of aluminum using the calibration curve. Data were analyzed using one-way and two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's HSD test (?=0.05). Radiopacity was significantly affected by resin composite type (p<0.05) and thickness (p<0.001). All composites, except Epricord (1.22-1.84), had higher radiopacity values than dentin (1.23-2.24). IPS Empress Direct (5.58-9.38) and Estenia C&B (5.49-9.16) showed significantly higher radiopacity (p<0.05) than the other materials including enamel and dentin. PMID:25748453

Saridag, Serkan; Helvacioglu-Yigit, Dilek; Alniacik, Gamze; Özcan, Mutlu

2015-02-01

419

Thermal structure and composition of Jupiter’s Great Red Spot from high-resolution thermal imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal-IR imaging from space-borne and ground-based observatories was used to investigate the temperature, composition and aerosol structure of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and its temporal variability between 1995 and 2008. An elliptical warm core, extending over 8° of longitude and 3° of latitude, was observed within the cold anticyclonic vortex at 21°S. The warm airmass is co-located with the deepest red coloration of the GRS interior. The maximum contrast between the core and the coldest regions of the GRS was 3.0-3.5 K in the north-south direction at 400 mbar atmospheric pressure, although the warmer temperatures are present throughout the 150-500 mbar range. The resulting thermal gradients cause counter-rotating flow in the GRS center to decay with altitude into the lower stratosphere. The elliptical warm airmass was too small to be observed in IRTF imaging prior to 2006, but was present throughout the 2006-2008 period in VLT, Subaru and Gemini imaging. Spatially-resolved maps of mid-IR tropospheric aerosol opacity revealed a well-defined lane of depleted aerosols around the GRS periphery, and a correlation with visibly-dark jovian clouds and bright 4.8-?m emission. Ammonia showed a similar but broader ring of depletion encircling the GRS. This narrow lane of subsidence keeps red aerosols physically separate from white aerosols external to the GRS. The visibility of the 4.8-?m bright periphery varies with the mid-IR aerosol opacity of the upper troposphere. Compositional maps of ammonia, phosphine and para-H 2 within the GRS interior all exhibit north-south asymmetries, with evidence for higher concentrations north of the warm central core and the strongest depletions in a symmetric arc near the southern periphery. Small-scale enhancements in temperature, NH 3 and aerosol opacity associated with localized convection are observed within the generally-warm and aerosol-free South Equatorial Belt (SEB) northwest of the GRS. The extent of 4.8-?m emission from the SEB varied as a part of the 2007 'global upheaval,' though changes during this period were restricted to pressures greater than 500 mbar. Finally, a region of enhanced temperatures extended southwest of the GRS during the survey, restricted to the 100-400 mbar range and with no counterpart in visible imaging or compositional mapping. The warm airmass was perturbed by frequent encounters with the cold airmass of Oval BA, but no internal thermal or compositional effects were noted in either vortex during the close encounters.

Fletcher, Leigh N.; Orton, G. S.; Mousis, O.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Parrish, P. D.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Fisher, B. M.; Vanzi, L.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Fuse, T.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Edkins, E.; Hayward, T. L.; De Buizer, J.

2010-07-01

420

A new architecture for hyperspectral image compression based on wavelets transformation and fractal composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fractal-based image compression algorithm under wavelet transformation for hyper-spectral remote sensing image was introduced in this paper (also named AWFC algorithm). With the development of the hyperspectral remote sensing we have to obtain more and more spectral bands and how to store and transmit the huge data measured by TB bits level becomes a disaster to the limited electrical bandwidth. It is important to compress the huge hyperspectral image data acquired by hyperspectral sensor such as MODIS, PHI, OMIS etc. Otherwise, conventional lossless compression algorithm couldn't reach satisfied compression ratio while other loss compression methods could get results of high compression ratio but no good image fidelity especially to the hyperspectral image data. As the third generation image compression algorithm-fractal image compression is superior than traditional compression methods with high compression ratio, good image fidelity and less time complexity. In order to keep the spectral dimension invariability, we have compared the results of two compression algorithms based on the outside storage file structure of BSQ and BIP separately. The HV and Quad-tree partitioning and the domain-range matching algorithms have also been improved to accelerate the encode/decode efficiency. The proposed method has been realized and obtained perfect experimental results. At last, the possible modifications algorithm and the limitations of the method are also analyzed and discussed in this paper.

Hu, Xingtang; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Xia; Hu, Fangchao; Wei, Zheng

2006-03-01

421

Visualization of magnetization processes of soft magnetic composites by the magneto-optical imaging technique  

E-print Network

to electromagnetic devices are increasing. The materials are made from iron powder coated with an insulating coating and continuous soft magnetic ma- terials, for example, soft iron metal, the flux density is in- tense inside of the image. The MOI technique can image magnetic properties in real time/space with microme- ter resolution

Johansen, Tom Henning

422

Multimodality Bayesian Algorithm for Image Reconstruction in Positron Emission Tomography: A Tissue Composition Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of anatomical information to improve the quality of reconstructed images in positron emission tomography (PET) has been extensively studied. A common strategy has been to include spatial smoothing within boundaries defined from the anatomical data. The authors present an alternative method for the incorporation of anatomical information into PET image reconstruction, in which they use segmented magnetic resonance

Srikanth Sastry; Richard E. Carson

1997-01-01

423

Ultrasonic camera automatic image depth and stitching modifications for monitoring aerospace composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two modifications to an ultrasonic camera system have been performed in an effort to reduce setup time and post inspection image processing. Current production ultrasonic cameras have image gates that are adjusted manually. The process to adjust them prior to each inspection consumes large amounts of time and requires a skilled operator. The authors have overcome this by integrating the

Brad Regez; Goutham Kirikera; Martin Tan Hwai Yuen; Sridhar Krishnaswamy; Bob Lasser

2009-01-01

424

Determination of pigments in colour layers on walls of some selected historical buildings using optical and scanning electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect

For successful restoration of painted walls and painted coloured finishing coats it is necessary to determine the composition of the original colour layers. Identification of the pigments used in The Cistercian Abbey of Sticna and The Manor of Novo Celje was carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Selected samples of wall paintings were inspected by the combined application of an optical microscope and a low-vacuum Scanning Electron Microscope to determine their colour and structural features and to identify the position of individual pigment grains. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to determine the elemental distribution on selected surfaces and elemental composition of individual pigments. It was found that the most abundantly used pigments were iron oxide red, cinnabar, green earth, umber, calcium carbonate white, ultramarine, yellow ochre and carbon black. These identifications have allowed us to compare the use of various pigments in buildings from different historical periods.

Skapin, A. Sever [Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Dimiceva 12, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: andrijana.skapin@zag.si; Ropret, P. [Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Restoration Center, Poljanska 40, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: polona.ropret@rescen.si; Bukovec, P. [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Askerceva 5, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: peter.bukovec@uni-lj.si

2007-11-15

425

Then and now: James Clerk Maxwell and colour  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the researches of James Clerk Maxwell into the production and perception of colour is presented, and links to a selection of present day applications of colour science are indicated. Although false colour photography was not known in Maxwell's time, aspects of his work, suitably interpreted, have a bearing on the wide applicability of the technique. An outline

Richard C. Dougal; Clive A. Greated; Alan E. Marson

2006-01-01

426