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1

Colour Guided Colour Image Steganography  

E-print Network

Information security has become a cause of concern because of the electronic eavesdropping. Capacity, robustness and invisibility are important parameters in information hiding and are quite difficult to achieve in a single algorithm. This paper proposes a novel steganography technique for digital color image which achieves the purported targets. The professed methodology employs a complete random scheme for pixel selection and embedding of data. Of the three colour channels (Red, Green, Blue) in a given colour image, the least two significant bits of any one of the channels of the color image is used to channelize the embedding capacity of the remaining two channels. We have devised three approaches to achieve various levels of our desired targets. In the first approach, Red is the default guide but it results in localization of MSE in the remaining two channels, which makes it slightly vulnerable. In the second approach, user gets the liberty to select the guiding channel (Red, Green or Blue) to guide the r...

Amirtharajan, R; Swarup, Motamarri Abhilash; K, Mohamed Ashfaaq; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

2010-01-01

2

Automated image analysis as a tool to quantify the colour and composition of rainbow trout  

E-print Network

scanned images of trout cutlets, and included quality traits such as fat percentage, flesh colour.08.009 #12;of fish for quality traits. Automated image analysis, also called machine vision, is an efficient and non-invasive tool for measuring quality traits in fish and other food products (Brosnan and Sun, 2004

Manne, Fredrik

3

Quantitative spore colour measurement using colour image analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colour changes that spores exhibit, with increasing depth of burial, are used as a thermal maturity indicator for evaluating hydrocarbon source rocks. Spore colour is determined visually leading to an intrinsic difficulty of unequivocally assessing and recording their colour. Quantitative scales using photometers are available, but are not widely applied. Colour Image Analysis (CIA) is presented here as an

B Yule; S Roberts; J. E. A Marshall; J. A Milton

1998-01-01

4

Colour Image Segmentation: A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image segmentation, i.e., identi#cation of homogeneous regions in the image, hasbeen the subject of considerable research activityover the last three decades. Manyalgorithms have been elaborated for gray scale images. However, the problem ofsegmentation for colour images, which convey much more information about objectsin scenes, has received much less attention of scienti#c community. While severalsurveys of monochrome image segmentation techniques were

Wladyslaw Skarbek; Andreas Koschan

1994-01-01

5

Quaternionic wavelet transform for colour images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quaternionic Wavelet Transform (QWT) already exist but it dealt with greyscale images. In this paper we propose a quaternionic wavelet transform aimed to colour image processing. To encode colour information in our new transformation, a pixel in the spatial domain is represented by a quaternion as described by Sangwine. First, we propose to use the discrete quaternionic Fourier transform to

Philippe Carré; Patrice Denis

2006-01-01

6

Geometric algebra colour image representations and derived total orderings for morphological operators Part I: Colour quaternions  

E-print Network

Geometric algebra colour image representations and derived total orderings for morphological is the first part of a series of studies which focus on defining colour total orderings based on geometric algebra represen- tations of colour images. In particular, in this article we focus on real quaternions

Angulo,Jesús

7

Performance Characterization of Clustering Algorithms for Colour Image Segmentation  

E-print Network

Performance Characterization of Clustering Algorithms for Colour Image Segmentation Dana Elena Ilea to extract the colour information that is used in the image segmentation process. The aim of this paper on a large suite of mosaic images. Index terms: Colour image segmentation, Fuzzy clustering, Competitive

Whelan, Paul F.

8

Quantifying Plant Colour and Colour Difference as Perceived by Humans Using Digital Images  

PubMed Central

Human perception of plant leaf and flower colour can influence species management. Colour and colour contrast may influence the detectability of invasive or rare species during surveys. Quantitative, repeatable measures of plant colour are required for comparison across studies and generalisation across species. We present a standard method for measuring plant leaf and flower colour traits using images taken with digital cameras. We demonstrate the method by quantifying the colour of and colour difference between the flowers of eleven grassland species near Falls Creek, Australia, as part of an invasive species detection experiment. The reliability of the method was tested by measuring the leaf colour of five residential garden shrub species in Ballarat, Australia using five different types of digital camera. Flowers and leaves had overlapping but distinct colour distributions. Calculated colour differences corresponded well with qualitative comparisons. Estimates of proportional cover of yellow flowers identified using colour measurements correlated well with estimates obtained by measuring and counting individual flowers. Digital SLR and mirrorless cameras were superior to phone cameras and point-and-shoot cameras for producing reliable measurements, particularly under variable lighting conditions. The analysis of digital images taken with digital cameras is a practicable method for quantifying plant flower and leaf colour in the field or lab. Quantitative, repeatable measurements allow for comparisons between species and generalisations across species and studies. This allows plant colour to be related to human perception and preferences and, ultimately, species management. PMID:23977275

Kendal, Dave; Hauser, Cindy E.; Garrard, Georgia E.; Jellinek, Sacha; Giljohann, Katherine M.; Moore, Joslin L.

2013-01-01

9

Colour image retrieval based on DCT-domain vector quantisation  

E-print Network

Colour image retrieval based on DCT-domain vector quantisation index histograms Z.-M. Lu and H. Burkhardt A new kind of feature for colour image retrieval based on DCT-domain vector quantisation (VQ for each colour component) are calculated from 12 DCT-VQ index sequences, respectively. The retrieval

10

Colour naturalness metric for evaluating image quality of mobile displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of psychophysical experiments using categorical judgment method was carried out to develop a colour naturalness metric (CNM) for evaluating image quality of mobile displays. These experiments included colour naturalness judgment and image-quality difference judgment. Through the former one, CNMs were trained and the latter experiment tested the metrics. Two types of CNMs were newly proposed: nonlinearly decaying CNM and linearly decaying CNM. In the CNMs, it was assumed that one familiar object in an image played a critical role to judge the colour naturalness of the whole image. Through a performance comparison between objects' models, one critical object in a scene was selected and with the critical object's model, the whole scene's colour naturalness was predicted.

Yoo, Jang Jin; Cui, Guihua; Luo, M. Ronnier

2009-01-01

11

Improved image retrieval based on fuzzy colour feature vector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of Image indexing techniques is the Content-Based Image Retrieval which is an efficient way for retrieving images from the image database automatically based on their visual contents such as colour, texture, and shape. In this paper will be discuss how using content-based image retrieval (CBIR) method by colour feature extraction and similarity checking. By dividing the query image and all images in the database into pieces and extract the features of each part separately and comparing the corresponding portions in order to increase the accuracy in the retrieval. The proposed approach is based on the use of fuzzy sets, to overcome the problem of curse of dimensionality. The contribution of colour of each pixel is associated to all the bins in the histogram using fuzzy-set membership functions. As a result, the Fuzzy Colour Histogram (FCH), outperformed the Conventional Colour Histogram (CCH) in image retrieving, due to its speedy results, where were images represented as signatures that took less size of memory, depending on the number of divisions. The results also showed that FCH is less sensitive and more robust to brightness changes than the CCH with better retrieval recall values.

Ben-Ahmeida, Ahlam M.; Ben Sasi, Ahmed Y.

2013-03-01

12

Ultra-realistic 3-D imaging based on colour holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of recent progress in colour holography is provided with new applications. Colour holography recording techniques in silver-halide emulsions are discussed. Both analogue, mainly Denisyuk colour holograms, and digitally-printed colour holograms are described and their recent improvements. An alternative to silver-halide materials are the panchromatic photopolymer materials such as the DuPont and Bayer photopolymers which are covered. The light sources used to illuminate the recorded holograms are very important to obtain ultra-realistic 3-D images. In particular the new light sources based on RGB LEDs are described. They show improved image quality over today's commonly used halogen lights. Recent work in colour holography by holographers and companies in different countries around the world are included. To record and display ultra-realistic 3-D images with perfect colour rendering are highly dependent on the correct recording technique using the optimal recording laser wavelengths, the availability of improved panchromatic recording materials and combined with new display light sources.

Bjelkhagen, H. I.

2013-02-01

13

Simple colour image segmentation of bicolour food products for quality measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a colour image segmentation algorithm for bicolour food products. The algorithm has been developed for colour quality measurement in manufacturing processes. a? and b? components of CIE L?a?b? colour space are sampled from pixels in the food product region in an image. A polynomial equation is obtained from this colour data by using a least square fitting

S. P. Kang; H. T. Sabarez

2009-01-01

14

Design and VLSI implementation of an ASK for real-time manipulation of digital colour images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and VLSI implementation, on a single chip, of a new real-time colour space converter, which performs the transformation of the RCB colour coordinates to the intensity, hue and saturation (IHS) colour space. This high speed VLSI chip is designed to work at 13.3 MHz and can process high resolution colour images of up to 697

I. Andreadis; K. Stavroglou; Ph. Tsalides

1995-01-01

15

Deepest Wide-Field Colour Image in the Southern Sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LA SILLA CAMERA OBSERVES CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH ESO PR Photo 02a/03 ESO PR Photo 02a/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 437 pix - 95k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 873 pix - 904k] [HiRes - JPEG: 4000 x 4366 pix - 23.1M] Caption : PR Photo 02a/03 shows a three-colour composite image of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S) , obtained with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) camera on the 2.2-m MPG/ESO telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile). It was produced by the combination of about 450 images with a total exposure time of nearly 50 hours. The field measures 36 x 34 arcmin 2 ; North is up and East is left. Technical information is available below. The combined efforts of three European teams of astronomers, targeting the same sky field in the southern constellation Fornax (The Oven) have enabled them to construct a very deep, true-colour image - opening an exceptionally clear view towards the distant universe . The image ( PR Photo 02a/03 ) covers an area somewhat larger than the full moon. It displays more than 100,000 galaxies, several thousand stars and hundreds of quasars. It is based on images with a total exposure time of nearly 50 hours, collected under good observing conditions with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile) - many of them extracted from the ESO Science Data Archive . The position of this southern sky field was chosen by Riccardo Giacconi (Nobel Laureate in Physics 2002) at a time when he was Director General of ESO, together with Piero Rosati (ESO). It was selected as a sky region towards which the NASA Chandra X-ray satellite observatory , launched in July 1999, would be pointed while carrying out a very long exposure (lasting a total of 1 million seconds, or 278 hours) in order to detect the faintest possible X-ray sources. The field is now known as the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S) . The new WFI photo of CDF-S does not reach quite as deep as the available images of the "Hubble Deep Fields" (HDF-N in the northern and HDF-S in the southern sky, cf. e.g. ESO PR Photo 35a/98 ), but the field-of-view is about 200 times larger. The present image displays about 50 times more galaxies than the HDF images, and therefore provides a more representative view of the universe . The WFI CDF-S image will now form a most useful basis for the very extensive and systematic census of the population of distant galaxies and quasars, allowing at once a detailed study of all evolutionary stages of the universe since it was about 2 billion years old . These investigations have started and are expected to provide information about the evolution of galaxies in unprecedented detail. They will offer insights into the history of star formation and how the internal structure of galaxies changes with time and, not least, throw light on how these two evolutionary aspects are interconnected. GALAXIES IN THE WFI IMAGE ESO PR Photo 02b/03 ESO PR Photo 02b/03 [Preview - JPEG: 488 x 400 pix - 112k] [Normal - JPEG: 896 x 800 pix - 1.0M] [Full-Res - JPEG: 2591 x 2313 pix - 8.6M] Caption : PR Photo 02b/03 contains a collection of twelve subfields from the full WFI Chandra Deep Field South (WFI CDF-S), centred on (pairs or groups of) galaxies. Each of the subfields measures 2.5 x 2.5 arcmin 2 (635 x 658 pix 2 ; 1 pixel = 0.238 arcsec). North is up and East is left. Technical information is available below. The WFI CDF-S colour image - of which the full field is shown in PR Photo 02a/03 - was constructed from all available observations in the optical B- ,V- and R-bands obtained under good conditions with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the 2.2-m MPG/ESO telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile), and now stored in the ESO Science Data Archive. It is the "deepest" image ever taken with this instrument. It covers a sky field measuring 36 x 34 arcmin 2 , i.e., an area somewhat larger than that of the full moon. The observations were collected during a period of nearly four years, beginning in January 1999 when the WFI instrument was first installed (cf. ESO PR 02/99

2003-01-01

16

Robust colour calibration of an imaging system using a colour space transform and advanced regression modelling.  

PubMed

A new algorithm for the conversion of device dependent RGB colour data into device independent L*a*b* colour data without introducing noticeable error has been developed. By combining a linear colour space transform and advanced multiple regression methodologies it was possible to predict L*a*b* colour data with less than 2.2 colour units of error (CIE 1976). By transforming the red, green and blue colour components into new variables that better reflect the structure of the L*a*b* colour space, a low colour calibration error was immediately achieved (?E(CAL) = 14.1). Application of a range of regression models on the data further reduced the colour calibration error substantially (multilinear regression ?E(CAL) = 5.4; response surface ?E(CAL) = 2.9; PLSR ?E(CAL) = 2.6; LASSO regression ?E(CAL) = 2.1). Only the PLSR models deteriorated substantially under cross validation. The algorithm is adaptable and can be easily recalibrated to any working computer vision system. The algorithm was tested on a typical working laboratory computer vision system and delivered only a very marginal loss of colour information ?E(CAL) = 2.35. Colour features derived on this system were able to safely discriminate between three classes of ham with 100% correct classification whereas colour features measured on a conventional colourimeter were not. PMID:22464923

Jackman, Patrick; Sun, Da-Wen; Elmasry, Gamal

2012-08-01

17

A Basin Morphology Approach to Colour Image Segmentation by Region Merging  

E-print Network

A Basin Morphology Approach to Colour Image Segmentation by Region Merging Erchan Aptoula and S of the Berkeley segmentation dataset. 1 Introduction Automatic, robust and efficient colour image segmentation auxiliary component when it comes to image segmentation and generally object recognition. The problem of its

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

18

Liquid crystal thermography and true-colour digital image processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade thermochromic liquid crystals (TLC) and true-colour digital image processing have been successfully used in non-intrusive technical, industrial and biomedical studies and applications. Thin coatings of TLCs at surfaces are utilized to obtain detailed temperature distributions and heat transfer rates for steady or transient processes. Liquid crystals also can be used to make visible the temperature and velocity fields in liquids by the simple expedient of directly mixing the liquid crystal material into the liquid (water, glycerol, glycol, and silicone oils) in very small quantities to use as thermal and hydrodynamic tracers. In biomedical situations e.g., skin diseases, breast cancer, blood circulation and other medical application, TLC and image processing are successfully used as an additional non-invasive diagnostic method especially useful for screening large groups of potential patients. The history of this technique is reviewed, principal methods and tools are described and some examples are also presented.

Stasiek, J.; Stasiek, A.; Jewartowski, M.; Collins, M. W.

2006-06-01

19

Effect of fining on the colour and pigment composition of young red wines.  

PubMed

This work aimed to evaluate the effect of four fining agents on the colour and pigment composition of red wines of Tannat. The wines were analysed 15 days after fining and immediately after separation of sediments and bottling. Colour was evaluated by spectrophotometry and polyphenols were analysed by spectrophotometry and HPLC-DAD. The colour intensity of wine was significantly decreased by bentonite and egg albumin. The most remarkable effects on wine phenolic composition were produced by bentonite and gelatin, which significantly decreased anthocyanin and tannin concentrations, respectively. Results show that each fining agent has very different impact on the wine attributes, and their effects depended as well on the composition of the clarified wine. The use of non-traditional agents of fining, as vegetable proteins, may have less impact on the colour and anthocyanin content of red wines. PMID:24679795

González-Neves, Gustavo; Favre, Guzmán; Gil, Graciela

2014-08-15

20

Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colour and spectral imaging systems typically use filters and glass prisms to disperse light of different wavelengths. With the miniaturization of integrated devices, current research on imaging sensors focuses on novel designs aiming at high efficiency, low power consumption and slim dimension, which poses great challenges to the traditional colourant-based filtering and prism-based spectral splitting techniques. In this context, surface

Ting Xu; Yi-Kuei Wu; Xiangang Luo; L. Jay Guo

2010-01-01

21

SNAKE CONTOURS IN THREE-DIMENSIONS FROM COLOUR STEREO IMAGE PAIRS  

E-print Network

SNAKE CONTOURS IN THREE-DIMENSIONS FROM COLOUR STEREO IMAGE PAIRS by Roozbeh Ghaffari B.Sc., Sharif of Science Title of thesis: Snake contours in three-dimensions from colour stereo image pairs Examining, External Examiner Date Approved: ii #12;Abstract Snakes (active contour models) are extended to segment

Funt, Brian

22

Ripening of salami: Assessment of colour and aspect evolution using image analysis and multivariate image analysis.  

PubMed

During ripening of salami, colour changes occur due to oxidation phenomena involving myoglobin. Moreover, shrinkage due to dehydration results in aspect modifications, mainly ascribable to fat aggregation. The aim of this work was the application of image analysis (IA) and multivariate image analysis (MIA) techniques to the study of colour and aspect changes occurring in salami during ripening. IA results showed that red, green, blue, and intensity parameters decreased due to the development of a global darker colour, while Heterogeneity increased due to fat aggregation. By applying MIA, different salami slice areas corresponding to fat and three different degrees of oxidised meat were identified and quantified. It was thus possible to study the trend of these different areas as a function of ripening, making objective an evaluation usually performed by subjective visual inspection. PMID:25437453

Fongaro, Lorenzo; Alamprese, Cristina; Casiraghi, Ernestina

2015-03-01

23

Using Colour for Image Indexing Graham D. Finlayson Bernt Schiele James L. Crowley  

E-print Network

& Imaging Institute Media Lab Laboratoire GRAVIR The University of Derby MIT I.N.P.G Britannia Mills 20 Ames­annotated images. In contrast in order to query by shape (e.g. find `fish', in images) all images in a given for a variety of image datasets. In each case the database comprised images of colourful objects and the query

24

Organic-on-silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor colour image sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) colour image sensors are representative examples of light-detection devices. To achieve extremely high resolutions, the pixel sizes of the CMOS image sensors must be reduced to less than a micron, which in turn significantly limits the number of photons that can be captured by each pixel using silicon (Si)-based technology (i.e., this reduction in pixel size results in a loss of sensitivity). Here, we demonstrate a novel and efficient method of increasing the sensitivity and resolution of the CMOS image sensors by superposing an organic photodiode (OPD) onto a CMOS circuit with Si photodiodes, which consequently doubles the light-input surface area of each pixel. To realise this concept, we developed organic semiconductor materials with absorption properties selective to green light and successfully fabricated highly efficient green-light-sensitive OPDs without colour filters. We found that such a top light-receiving OPD, which is selective to specific green wavelengths, demonstrates great potential when combined with a newly designed Si-based CMOS circuit containing only blue and red colour filters. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this state-of-the-art hybrid colour image sensor, we acquired a real full-colour image using a camera that contained the organic-on-Si hybrid CMOS colour image sensor.

Lim, Seon-Jeong; Leem, Dong-Seok; Park, Kyung-Bae; Kim, Kyu-Sik; Sul, Sangchul; Na, Kyoungwon; Lee, Gae Hwang; Heo, Chul-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Bulliard, Xavier; Satoh, Ryu-Ichi; Yagi, Tadao; Ro, Takkyun; Im, Dongmo; Jung, Jungkyu; Lee, Myungwon; Lee, Tae-Yon; Han, Moon Gyu; Jin, Yong Wan; Lee, Sangyoon

2015-01-01

25

Organic-on-silicon complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor colour image sensors  

PubMed Central

Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) colour image sensors are representative examples of light-detection devices. To achieve extremely high resolutions, the pixel sizes of the CMOS image sensors must be reduced to less than a micron, which in turn significantly limits the number of photons that can be captured by each pixel using silicon (Si)-based technology (i.e., this reduction in pixel size results in a loss of sensitivity). Here, we demonstrate a novel and efficient method of increasing the sensitivity and resolution of the CMOS image sensors by superposing an organic photodiode (OPD) onto a CMOS circuit with Si photodiodes, which consequently doubles the light-input surface area of each pixel. To realise this concept, we developed organic semiconductor materials with absorption properties selective to green light and successfully fabricated highly efficient green-light-sensitive OPDs without colour filters. We found that such a top light-receiving OPD, which is selective to specific green wavelengths, demonstrates great potential when combined with a newly designed Si-based CMOS circuit containing only blue and red colour filters. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this state-of-the-art hybrid colour image sensor, we acquired a real full-colour image using a camera that contained the organic-on-Si hybrid CMOS colour image sensor. PMID:25578322

Lim, Seon-Jeong; Leem, Dong-Seok; Park, Kyung-Bae; Kim, Kyu-Sik; Sul, Sangchul; Na, Kyoungwon; Lee, Gae Hwang; Heo, Chul-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Bulliard, Xavier; Satoh, Ryu-Ichi; Yagi, Tadao; Ro, Takkyun; Im, Dongmo; Jung, Jungkyu; Lee, Myungwon; Lee, Tae-Yon; Han, Moon Gyu; Jin, Yong Wan; Lee, Sangyoon

2015-01-01

26

Hundred metre virtual telescope captures unique detailed colour image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A team of French astronomers has captured one of the sharpest colour images ever made. They observed the star T Leporis, which appears, on the sky, as small as a two-storey house on the Moon [1]. The image was taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), emulating a virtual telescope about 100 metres across and reveals a spherical molecular shell around an aged star. ESO PR Photo 06a/09 The star T Leporis as seen with VLTI ESO PR Photo 06b/09 The star T Leporis to scale ESO PR Photo 06c/09 A virtual 100-metre telescope ESO PR Photo 06d/09 The orbit of Theta1 Orionis C ESO PR Video 06a/09 Zoom-in onto T Leporis "This is one of the first images made using near-infrared interferometry," says lead author Jean-Baptiste Le Bouquin. Interferometry is a technique that combines the light from several telescopes, resulting in a vision as sharp as that of a giant telescope with a diameter equal to the largest separation between the telescopes used. Achieving this requires the VLTI system components to be positioned to an accuracy of a fraction of a micrometre over about 100 metres and maintained so throughout the observations -- a formidable technical challenge. When doing interferometry, astronomers must often content themselves with fringes, the characteristic pattern of dark and bright lines produced when two beams of light combine, from which they can model the physical properties of the object studied. But, if an object is observed on several runs with different combinations and configurations of telescopes, it is possible to put these results together to reconstruct an image of the object. This is what has now been done with ESO's VLTI, using the 1.8-metre Auxiliary Telescopes. "We were able to construct an amazing image, and reveal the onion-like structure of the atmosphere of a giant star at a late stage of its life for the first time," says Antoine Mérand, member of the team. "Numerical models and indirect data have allowed us to imagine the appearance of the star before, but it is quite astounding that we can now see it, and in colour." Although it is only 15 by 15 pixel across, the reconstructed image shows an extreme close-up of a star 100 times larger than the Sun, a diameter corresponding roughly to the distance between the Earth and the Sun. This star is, in turn, surrounded by a sphere of molecular gas, which is about three times as large again. T Leporis, in the constellation of Lepus (the Hare), is located 500 light-years away. It belongs to the family of Mira stars, well known to amateur astronomers. These are giant variable stars that have almost extinguished their nuclear fuel and are losing mass. They are nearing the end of their lives as stars, and will soon die, becoming white dwarfs. The Sun will become a Mira star in a few billion years, engulfing the Earth in the dust and gas expelled in its final throes. Mira stars are among the biggest factories of molecules and dust in the Universe, and T Leporis is no exception. It pulsates with a period of 380 days and loses the equivalent of the Earth's mass every year. Since the molecules and dust are formed in the layers of atmosphere surrounding the central star, astronomers would like to be able to see these layers. But this is no easy task, given that the stars themselves are so far away -- despite their huge intrinsic size, their apparent radius on the sky can be just half a millionth that of the Sun. "T Leporis looks so small from the Earth that only an interferometric facility, such as the VLTI at Paranal, can take an image of it. VLTI can resolve stars 15 times smaller than those resolved by the Hubble Space Telescope," says Le Bouquin. To create this image with the VLTI astronomers had to observe the star for several consecutive nights, using all the four movable 1.8-metre VLT Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs). The ATs were combined in different groups of three, and were also moved to different positions, creating more new interferometric configurations, so that astronomers could emulate a virtual telescope

2009-02-01

27

Evaluation of Colour Image Segmentation Hierarchies Darren MacDonald Jochen Lang  

E-print Network

Evaluation of Colour Image Segmentation Hierarchies Darren MacDonald Jochen Lang SITE, University, Dalhousie University Halifax, N.S., Canada E-mail: mcallist@cs.dal.ca Abstract Image segmentation is a key the objects in a scene. Many equally valid segmentations exist for most images depending on the context

Lang, Jochen

28

From colour to tissue histology: Physics based interpretation of images of pigmented skin lesions  

E-print Network

From colour to tissue histology: Physics based interpretation of images of pigmented skin lesions histological parameters. This approach was successfully applied to the analysis of images of pigmented skin study on a set of 348 pigmented lesions showed 80.1% sensitivity and 82.7% specificity. 1 Introduction

Claridge, Ela

29

Pseudo colour visualization of fused multispectral laser scattering images for optical diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations on the application of optical procedures for the diagnosis of rheumatism using scattered light images are only at the beginning both in terms of new image-processing methods and subsequent clinical application. For semi-automatic diagnosis using laser light, the multispectral scattered light images are registered and overlapped to pseudo-coloured images, which depict diagnostically essential contents by visually highlighting pathological changes.

Zabarylo, U.; Minet, O.

2010-01-01

30

Composite imaging method for histological image analysis.  

PubMed

A composite imaging method has been developed that enables the user to directly capture a composite image by one-image capturing. It was experimentally verified that the composite images of bright-field, dark-field, and phase-contrast images can be captured with an arbitrary composition ratio. The difference in pixel values between the captured composite image and the computer composite image was small. This imaging method is realized only by placing below the condenser a masking plate, which can easily be made using Neutral Density filters. Therefore, little additional time and cost are needed. The composite imaging method was applied for extracting Helicobacter pylori in microscopic images of HE-stained gastric histological sections. H. pylori is difficult to extract because the colors in H. pylori are similar to those in other areas. It is experimentally shown that a composite image of phase-contrast and dark-field images captured using the proposed method improves the accuracy for extracting H. pylori. PMID:24110455

Imai, Mizuho; Takei, Akane; Miyamoto, Keita; Takahashi, Masanobu; Nakano, Masayuki

2013-01-01

31

IMPROVED COLOUR DECORRELATION FOR LOSSLESS COLOUR IMAGE COMPRESSION USING THE LAR CODEC  

E-print Network

have to be efficient in terms of compression ratio, but also propose other functionalities in this paper is based on the Interleaved S+P scheme and has been designed to produce a better compression ratio these requirements. In particular, the Interleaved S+P scheme offers an efficient mean to compress images

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

32

Colour measurement of colostrum for estimation of colostral IgG and colostrum composition in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Instruments for on-farm determination of colostrum quality such as refractometers and densimeters are increasingly used in dairy farms. The colour of colostrum is also supposed to reflect its quality. A paler or mature milk-like colour is associated with a lower colostrum value in terms of its general composition compared with a more yellowish and darker colour. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between colour measurement of colostrum using the CIELAB colour space (CIE L*=from white to black, a*=from red to green, b*=from yellow to blue, chroma value G=visual perceived colourfulness) and its composition. Dairy cow colostrum samples (n=117) obtained at 4·7±1·5 h after parturition were analysed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) by ELISA and for fat, protein and lactose by infrared spectroscopy. For colour measurements, a calibrated spectrophotometer was used. At a cut-off value of 50 mg IgG/ml, colour measurement had a sensitivity of 50·0%, a specificity of 49·5%, and a negative predictive value of 87·9%. Colostral IgG concentration was not correlated with the chroma value G, but with relative lightness L*. While milk fat content showed a relationship to the parameters L*, a*, b* and G from the colour measurement, milk protein content was not correlated with a*, but with L*, b*, and G. Lactose concentration in colostrum showed only a relationship with b* and G. In conclusion, parameters of the colour measurement showed clear relationships to colostral IgG, fat, protein and lactose concentration in dairy cows. Implementation of colour measuring devices in automatic milking systems and milking parlours might be a potential instrument to access colostrum quality as well as detecting abnormal milk. PMID:25226021

Gross, Josef J; Kessler, Evelyne C; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

2014-11-01

33

Phylogeographic structure, demographic history and morph composition in a colour polymorphic lizard.  

PubMed

In polymorphic species, population divergence in morph composition and frequency has the potential to promote speciation. We assessed the relationship between geographic variation in male throat colour polymorphism and phylogeographic structure in the tawny dragon lizard, Ctenophorus decresii. We identified four genetically distinct lineages, corresponding to two polymorphic lineages in the Northern Flinders Ranges and Southern Flinders Ranges/Olary Ranges regions respectively, and a monomorphic lineage in the Mt Lofty Ranges/Kangaroo Island region. The degree of divergence between these three lineages was consistent with isolation to multiple refugia during Pleistocene glacial cycles, whereas a fourth, deeply divergent (at the interspecific level) and monomorphic lineage was restricted to western New South Wales. The same four morphs occurred in both polymorphic lineages, although populations exhibited considerable variation in the frequency of morphs. By contrast, male throat coloration in the monomorphic lineages differed from each other and from the polymorphic lineages. Our results suggest that colour polymorphism has evolved once in the C. decresii species complex, with subsequent loss of polymorphism in the Mt Lofty Ranges/Kangaroo Island lineage. However, an equally parsimonious scenario, that polymorphism arose independently twice within C. decresii, could not be ruled out. We also detected evidence of a narrow contact zone with limited genotypic admixture between the polymorphic Olary Ranges and monomorphic Mt Lofty Ranges regions, yet no individuals of intermediate colour phenotype. Such genetic divergence and evidence for barriers to gene flow between lineages suggest incipient speciation between populations that differ in morph composition. PMID:25146412

McLean, C A; Stuart-Fox, D; Moussalli, A

2014-10-01

34

Photo Company: Powerful Colour Image Website: http://www.pcimagehk.com/index.php  

E-print Network

Photo Company: Powerful Colour Image Website: http://www.pcimagehk.com/index.php Address: 36: pcimagejc@pcimagejc.com.hk http://www.pcimagehk.com/index.php Photos will be available at the website http://www.pcimagehk.com/index.php for viewing over the following period: Faculty Date of the Ceremony Available period for viewing photos

Huang, Jianwei

35

Novel and adaptive contribution of the red channel in pre-processing of colour fundus images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new pre-processing method for colour fundus images with adaptive contribution of the red channel is proposed. Based on a condition that is developed in this paper, this method utilises the intensity information from both red and green channels instead of using only the green channel as in the usual practice. The histogram matching is used to modify the histogram

Nancy M. Salem; Asoke K. Nandi

2006-01-01

36

Neural migration disorders studied by cerebral ultrasound and colour Doppler flow imaging.  

PubMed Central

Cerebral ultrasound and colour Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) were used to diagnose a wide spectrum of anomalies of cell migration (17 patients): presumed lissencephaly (n = 12); schizencephaly of both fused (n = 2) and open lips (n = 2); hemimegalencephaly (n = 1); and subependymal type grey matter heterotopia (n = 12). The patients with grey matter heterotopia had irregular ventricular margins (n = 10), periventricular hyperechogenic bands (n = 12), and/or periventricular hyperechogenic nodules (n = 7). Some patients had more than one type of migration disorder as well as other central nervous system malformations. Cerebral ultrasound diagnoses were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or necropsy. It is concluded that colour Doppler flow imaging is a worthwhile addition to the assessment of brain surface anomalies. Images Figure 7 Figure 1 Figures 5 and 6 Figures 3 and 4 Figure 2 PMID:7583607

Pellicer, A.; Cabañas, F.; Pérez-Higueras, A.; García-Alix, A.; Quero, J.

1995-01-01

37

Minimally invasive use of coloured composite resin in aesthetic restoration of periodontially involved teeth: Case report  

PubMed Central

Gingival recession causes not only aesthetic problems, but problems with oral hygiene, plaque accumulation, speech, and tooth sensitivity. Replacing the missing gingival tissue with composite resin, when indicated, can be a time- and cost-effective solution. Here we report the case of a 25-year-old female who presented with generalized gingival recession. Black triangles were present between the maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth due to loss of interdental tissues, caused by recent periodontal surgery. She also had slightly malposed maxillary anterior teeth. The patient elected to replace gingival tissue with pink composite resin and to alter the midline with composite resin veneers. The first treatment phase involved placement of pink gingival composite to restore the appearance of interdental papilla to her upper (16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 21, 22, 23, and 24) and lower (34, 33, 32, 31, 41, 42, 43, and 44) teeth. Phase two was to place direct composite resin bonded veneers on her upper (16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 21, 22, 23, and 24) teeth to alter the midline and achieve desired colour. The third treatment phase was to level the lower incisal edge shape by enameloplasty (31, 32, 41, and 42) to produce a more youthful and attractive smile. This case report and brief review attempt to describe the clinical obstacles and the current treatment options along with a suggested protocol. Use of contemporary materials such as gingival coloured composite to restore lost gingival tissue and improve aesthetics can be a simple and cost-effective way to manage patients affected by generalized aggressive periodontitis (AgP). PMID:23960560

Wahbi, M.A.; Al Sharief, H.S.; Tayeb, H.; Bokhari, A.

2013-01-01

38

Minimally invasive use of coloured composite resin in aesthetic restoration of periodontially involved teeth: Case report.  

PubMed

Gingival recession causes not only aesthetic problems, but problems with oral hygiene, plaque accumulation, speech, and tooth sensitivity. Replacing the missing gingival tissue with composite resin, when indicated, can be a time- and cost-effective solution. Here we report the case of a 25-year-old female who presented with generalized gingival recession. Black triangles were present between the maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth due to loss of interdental tissues, caused by recent periodontal surgery. She also had slightly malposed maxillary anterior teeth. The patient elected to replace gingival tissue with pink composite resin and to alter the midline with composite resin veneers. The first treatment phase involved placement of pink gingival composite to restore the appearance of interdental papilla to her upper (16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 21, 22, 23, and 24) and lower (34, 33, 32, 31, 41, 42, 43, and 44) teeth. Phase two was to place direct composite resin bonded veneers on her upper (16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 21, 22, 23, and 24) teeth to alter the midline and achieve desired colour. The third treatment phase was to level the lower incisal edge shape by enameloplasty (31, 32, 41, and 42) to produce a more youthful and attractive smile. This case report and brief review attempt to describe the clinical obstacles and the current treatment options along with a suggested protocol. Use of contemporary materials such as gingival coloured composite to restore lost gingival tissue and improve aesthetics can be a simple and cost-effective way to manage patients affected by generalized aggressive periodontitis (AgP). PMID:23960560

Wahbi, M A; Al Sharief, H S; Tayeb, H; Bokhari, A

2013-04-01

39

How bees discriminate a pattern of two colours from its mirror image.  

PubMed

A century ago, in his study of colour vision in the honeybee (Apis mellifera), Karl von Frisch showed that bees distinguish between a disc that is half yellow, half blue, and a mirror image of the same. Although his inference of colour vision in this example has been accepted, some discrepancies have prompted a new investigation of the detection of polarity in coloured patterns. In new experiments, bees restricted to their blue and green receptors by exclusion of ultraviolet could learn patterns of this type if they displayed a difference in green contrast between the two colours. Patterns with no green contrast required an additional vertical black line as a landmark. Tests of the trained bees revealed that they had learned two inputs; a measure and the retinotopic position of blue with large field tonic detectors, and the measure and position of a vertical edge or line with small-field phasic green detectors. The angle between these two was measured. This simple combination was detected wherever it occurred in many patterns, fitting the definition of an algorithm, which is defined as a method of processing data. As long as they excited blue receptors, colours could be any colour to human eyes, even white. The blue area cue could be separated from the green receptor modulation by as much as 50°. When some blue content was not available, the bees learned two measures of the modulation of the green receptors at widely separated vertical edges, and the angle between them. There was no evidence that the bees reconstructed the lay-out of the pattern or detected a tonic input to the green receptors. PMID:25617892

Horridge, Adrian

2015-01-01

40

How Bees Discriminate a Pattern of Two Colours from Its Mirror Image  

PubMed Central

A century ago, in his study of colour vision in the honeybee (Apis mellifera), Karl von Frisch showed that bees distinguish between a disc that is half yellow, half blue, and a mirror image of the same. Although his inference of colour vision in this example has been accepted, some discrepancies have prompted a new investigation of the detection of polarity in coloured patterns. In new experiments, bees restricted to their blue and green receptors by exclusion of ultraviolet could learn patterns of this type if they displayed a difference in green contrast between the two colours. Patterns with no green contrast required an additional vertical black line as a landmark. Tests of the trained bees revealed that they had learned two inputs; a measure and the retinotopic position of blue with large field tonic detectors, and the measure and position of a vertical edge or line with small-field phasic green detectors. The angle between these two was measured. This simple combination was detected wherever it occurred in many patterns, fitting the definition of an algorithm, which is defined as a method of processing data. As long as they excited blue receptors, colours could be any colour to human eyes, even white. The blue area cue could be separated from the green receptor modulation by as much as 50°. When some blue content was not available, the bees learned two measures of the modulation of the green receptors at widely separated vertical edges, and the angle between them. There was no evidence that the bees reconstructed the lay-out of the pattern or detected a tonic input to the green receptors. PMID:25617892

Horridge, Adrian

2015-01-01

41

Recontruction of high resolution ocean colour images under clouds using neuronal methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoscale and sub-mesoscale phytoplankton variability significantly contributes to global primary production budgets. High-resolution modelling studies suggest that incorrect representation of mesoscale and sub-mesoscale variability in ocean global circulation models (OGCM) can result in errors of about 30% in primary production estimations. Thus, characterizing mesoscale and sub-mesoscale phytoplankton variability is important for the parameterization and validation of the OGCM. Ocean colour sensors allow a global observation of small scale chlorophyll variability patterns. However, the frequent presence of clouds in ocean colour remotely sensed imagery, prevents space and time continuity and limits its exploitation. The aim of this study is to propose a new statistical processing approach for the reconstruction of areas covered by clouds in a time sequence ocean colour images. We used a classification methodology consisting in a neural network topological map. Considering a cloud-contaminated image of the sequence, missing data are reconstructed through an unsupervised statistical process that reproduces the local spatio temporal relationships of the cloudy image. The unsupervised process is trained with a selected subset of ocean colour temporal images surrounding the cloudy images. As phytoplankton variability is partly driven by oceanic dynamics, we added a set of satellite-derived dynamic ocean products (sea surface temperature, altimetry, ocean waves) influencing strongly the phytoplankton production. To develop the under cloud reconstruction method, we began by using high resolution (about 2 Km) simulated data (output of the OPA OGCM coupled with the Lobster biogechemical model). We focused on the North Atlantic ocean which is characterized by a strong mesoscale and sub-mesoscale phytoplankton variability. When applied over two seasons(spring and winter),the method was able to reproduce the statistical characteristics of the missing data with a good accuracy. We then tried to assess the ability of the method for reconstructing high resolution real data.

Manel, J.; Thiria, S.; Lévy, M.

2009-04-01

42

reconstruction of high resolution ocean colour images under clouds using neuronal methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoscale and sub-mesoscale phytoplankton variability significantly contributes to global primary production budgets. High-resolution modelling studies suggest that incorrect representation of mesoscale and sub-mesoscale variability in ocean global circulation models (OGCM) can result in errors of about 30% in primary production estimations. Thus, characterizing mesoscale and sub-mesoscale phytoplankton variability is important for the parameterization and validation of the OGCM. Ocean colour sensors allow a global observation of small scale chlorophyll variability patterns. However, the frequent presence of clouds in ocean colour remotely sensed imagery, prevents space and time continuity and limits its exploitation. The aim of this study is to propose a new statistical processing approach for the reconstruction of areas covered by clouds in a time sequence ocean colour images. We used a classification methodology consisting in a neural network topological map. Considering a cloud-contaminated image of the sequence, missing data are reconstructed through an unsupervised statistical process that reproduces the local spatio temporal relationships of the cloudy image. The unsupervised process is trained with a selected subset of ocean colour temporal images surrounding the cloudy images. As phytoplankton variability is partly driven by oceanic dynamics, we added a set of satellite-derived dynamic ocean products (sea surface temperature, altimetry, ocean waves) influencing strongly the phytoplankton production. To develop the under cloud reconstruction method, we began by using high resolution (about 2 Km) simulated data (output of the OPA OGCM coupled with the Lobster biogechemical model). We focused on the North Atlantic ocean which is characterized by a strong mesoscale and sub-mesoscale phytoplankton variability. When applied over two seasons(spring and winter),the method was able to reproduce the statistical characteristics of the missing data with a good accuracy. We then tried to assess the ability of the method for reconstructing high resolution real data.

Manel, J.; Thiria, S.; Lévy, M.

2009-04-01

43

A Hybrid top-down\\/bottom-up approach for image segmentation incorporating colour and texture with prior shape knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image segmentation is maybe one of the most fundamental topics in image processing. Among numerous methods for segmentation, blind (bottom-up) algorithms, which are based on intrinsic image features, e.g. intensity, colour and texture, have been used extensively. However, there are some situations such as poor image contrast, noise, and also occlusion that result in failure for blind segmentation methods. Therefore,

Mehryar Emambakhsh; Hossein Ebrahimnezhad; Mohammad Hossein Sedaaghi

2010-01-01

44

Identification and localization of fovea on colour fundus images using blur scales.  

PubMed

Identification of retinal landmarks is an important step in the extraction of anomalies in retinal fundus images. In the current study, we propose a technique to identify and localize the position of macula and hence the fovea avascular zone, in colour fundus images. The proposed method, based on varying blur scales in images, is independent of the location of other anatomical landmarks present in the fundus images. Experimental results have been provided using the open database MESSIDOR by validating our segmented regions using the dice coefficient, with ground truth segmentation provided by a human expert. Apart from testing the images on the entire MESSIDOR database, the proposed technique was also validated using 50 normal and 50 diabetic retinopathy chosen digital fundus images from the same database. A maximum overlap accuracy of 89.6%-93.8% and locational accuracy of 94.7%-98.9% was obtained for identification and localization of the fovea. PMID:25234036

Ganesan, Karthikeyan; Acharya, Rajendra U; Chua, Chua Kuang; Laude, Augustinus

2014-09-01

45

Optimisation of ozone treatment for colour and COD removal of acid dye effluent using central composite design experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central composite design experiment is used to study the effect of ozone treatment for acid dye effluents and to optimise the variables such as salt concentration, pH and time, which influence the efficiency of colour and COD removal of dye effluents. Acid Red 88 dye is used for this study and the salt additive sodium sulphate is varied between 5

M. Muthukumar; D. Sargunamani; N. Selvakumar; J. Venkata Rao

2004-01-01

46

GalSOM - Colour-Based Image Browsing and Retrieval with Tree-Structured Self-Organising Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an image browsing and retrieval application called GalSOM. Bitmap images are described by their colour histograms and sorted using an improved variant of the tree-structured self-organising map (TS-SOM) algorithm. The advantages of using such a system are discussed in detail, and their application to the problem of image theft detection is proposed.

Philip Prentis

2007-01-01

47

Colour Reflection Holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The fidelity of colour reproduction achievable in reflection holograms is analysed by an in depth experimental and theoretical treatment. The experimental work consists of a comparison of materials and development of techniques for producing colour reflection holograms. Colour reflection holograms were recorded using a suitable material and various types of three-band laser illumination. Holograms recorded with the combinations 458, 529, and 633 nm or 458, 529, and 647 nm reproduced a full range of colours accurately, including yellow, dark blue, and purple images, which was impossible by previous methods. A theoretical model of the colour reproduction by holograms incorporates colour rendering analysis, effects of bandwidth, a new definition of signal to noise ratio, wavelength shifting, and colour balance. The model compares octagons formed by points on a CIE diagram corresponding to eight Munsell coloured chips when reproduced by the holographic image and when illuminated by a standard light source. Figures of merit of average vector length between image and object colours and gamut area size are considered. The theory compares well with holograms recorded of the Munsell chips using eight different sets of recording wavelengths. Holographic image colour reproduction for all possible recording wavelengths is predicted by the model. From this analysis, optimum wavelength combinations are obtained that support experimental results. In conclusion, a new definition of true colour holography is suggested that considers the quality of colour reproduction of a holographic image compared to colours viewed under normal conditions.

Hubel, Paul Matthew

1990-01-01

48

The influence of the microscope lamp filament colour temperature on the process of digital images of histological slides acquisition standardization  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study is to compare the digital images of the tissue biopsy captured with optical microscope using bright field technique under various light conditions. The range of colour's variation in immunohistochemically stained with 3,3'-Diaminobenzidine and Haematoxylin tissue samples is immense and coming from various sources. One of them is inadequate setting of camera's white balance to microscope's light colour temperature. Although this type of error can be easily handled during the stage of image acquisition, it can be eliminated with use of colour adjustment algorithms. The examination of the dependence of colour variation from microscope's light temperature and settings of the camera is done as an introductory research to the process of automatic colour standardization. Methods Six fields of view with empty space among the tissue samples have been selected for analysis. Each field of view has been acquired 225 times with various microscope light temperature and camera white balance settings. The fourteen randomly chosen images have been corrected and compared, with the reference image, by the following methods: Mean Square Error, Structural SIMilarity and visual assessment of viewer. Results For two types of backgrounds and two types of objects, the statistical image descriptors: range, median, mean and its standard deviation of chromaticity on a and b channels from CIELab colour space, and luminance L, and local colour variability for objects' specific area have been calculated. The results have been averaged for 6 images acquired in the same light conditions and camera settings for each sample. Conclusions The analysis of the results leads to the following conclusions: (1) the images collected with white balance setting adjusted to light colour temperature clusters in certain area of chromatic space, (2) the process of white balance correction for images collected with white balance camera settings not matched to the light temperature moves image descriptors into proper chromatic space but simultaneously the value of luminance changes. So the process of the image unification in a sense of colour fidelity can be solved in separate introductory stage before the automatic image analysis. PMID:25565329

2014-01-01

49

3D intraventricular flow mapping from colour Doppler images and wall motion.  

PubMed

We propose a new method to recover 3D time-resolved velocity vectors within the left ventricle (LV) using a combination of multiple registered 3D colour Doppler images and LV wall motion. Incorporation of wall motion, calculated from 3D B-Mode images, and the use of a multi-scale reconstruction framework allow recovery of 3D velocity over the entire ventricle, even in regions where there is little or no Doppler data. Our method is tested on the LV of a paediatric patient and is compared to 2D and 3D flow Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Use of wall motion information increased stroke volume accuracy by 14%, and enabled full 3D velocity mapping within the ventricle. Velocity distribution showed good agreement with respect to MRI, and vortex formation during diastole was successfully reconstructed. PMID:24579175

Gómez, Alberto; de Vecchi, Adelaide; Pushparajah, Kuberan; Simpson, John; Giese, Daniel; Schaeffter, Tobias; Penney, Graeme

2013-01-01

50

Automatic seamless mosaicing of microscopic images: enhancing appearance with colour degradation compensation and wavelet-based blending.  

PubMed

In order to observe the fine details of biomedical specimens, various kinds of high-magnification microscopes are used. However, they suffer from a limited field of view when visualizing highly magnified specimens. Image mosaicing techniques are necessary to integrate two or more partially overlapping images into one and make the whole specimen visible. In this study, we propose a new system that automatically creates panoramic images by mosaicing all the microscopic images acquired from a specimen. Not only does it effectively compensate for the congenital narrowness in microscopic views, but it also results in the mosaiced image containing as little distortion with respect to the originals as possible. The system consists of four main steps: (1) feature point extraction using multiscale wavelet analysis, (2) image matching based on feature points or by projection profile alignment, (3) colour difference adjustment and optical degradation compensation with a Gaussian-like model and (4) wavelet-based image blending. In addition to providing a precise alignment, the proposed system also takes into account the colour deviations and degradation in image mosaicing. The visible seam lines are eliminated after image blending. The experimental results show that the system performs well on differently stained image sequences and is effective on acquired images with large colour variations and degradation. It is expected to be a practical tool for microscopic image mosaicing. PMID:18754995

Hsu, W-Y; Poon, W-F Paul; Sun, Y-N

2008-09-01

51

No role for colour in symmetry perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilateral colour symmetry, such as that evident in a Siberian tiger's face (Fig. 1a), is relevant to many animals,, including humans,. We examined the role of colour in symmetry perception by asking observers to detect colour symmetry in regular grids of coloured squares (a colour-symmetrical image has regions of the same colour located equidistantly from a vertical axis). Our results

Dawn Morales; Harold Pashler

1999-01-01

52

ColourVis: exploring colour usage in paintings over time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colour palette of painters over history has been of interest to many, including: art historians, archeologists, and art lovers. Colour usage in art changes from culture to culture and season to season and is often thought of as reflecting or inspiring mood and ambience. We present ColourVis: a visualization that supports exploration of colour usage in digital images. In

Jonathan Haber; Sean Lynch; Sheelagh Carpendale

2011-01-01

53

Digital enhancement of haematoxylin- and eosin-stained histological images for red-green colour-blind observers.  

PubMed

Individuals with red-green colour-blindness (CB) commonly experience great difficulty differentiating between certain histological stain pairs, notably haematoxylin-eosin (H&E). The prevalence of red-green CB is high (6-10% of males), including among medical and laboratory personnel, and raises two major concerns: first, accessibility and equity issues during the education and training of individuals with this disability, and second, the likelihood of errors in critical tasks such as interpreting histological images. Here we show two methods to enhance images of H&E-stained samples so the differently stained tissues can be well discriminated by red-green CBs while remaining usable by people with normal vision. Method 1 involves rotating and stretching the range of H&E hues in the image to span the perceptual range of the CB observers. Method 2 digitally unmixes the original dyes using colour deconvolution into two separate images and repositions the information into hues that are more distinctly perceived. The benefits of these methods were tested in 36 volunteers with normal vision and 11 with red-green CB using a variety of H&E stained tissue sections paired with their enhanced versions. CB subjects reported they could better perceive the different stains using the enhanced images for 85% of preparations (method 1: 90%, method 2: 73%), compared to the H&E-stained original images. Many subjects with normal vision also preferred the enhanced images to the original H&E. The results suggest that these colour manipulations confer considerable advantage for those with red-green colour vision deficiency while not disadvantaging people with normal colour vision. PMID:19493108

Landini, G; Perryer, G

2009-06-01

54

A set of high quality colour images with Spanish norms for seven relevant psycholinguistic variables: The Nombela naming test  

E-print Network

-1- A set of high quality colour images with Spanish norms for seven relevant psycholinguistic hundred and six Spanish speakers named the items and provided data for several psycholinguistic variables. Reliability and validity indexes showed that our items display similar psycholinguistic characteristics

Kaye, Paul

55

A set of high quality colour images with Spanish norms for seven relevant psycholinguistic variables: The Nombela naming test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new corpus of 140 high quality colour images belonging to 14 subcategories and covering a range of naming difficulty. One hundred and six Spanish speakers named the items and provided data for several psycholinguistic variables: age of acquisition, familiarity, manipulability, name agreement, typicality and visual complexity. Furthermore, we also present lexical frequency data derived internet search

Francisco Javier Moreno-Martínez; Pedro R. Montoro; Keith R. Laws

2011-01-01

56

Identification of insect-damaged wheat kernels using short-wave near-infrared hyperspectral and digital colour imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healthy wheat kernels and wheat kernels damaged by the feeding of the insects: rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae), lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica), rusty grain beetle (Cryptolestes ferrugineus), and red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) were scanned using a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspecrtal imaging system (700–1100nm wavelength range) and a colour imaging system. Dimensionality of hyperspectral data was reduced and statistical and histogram

Chandra B. Singh; Digvir S. Jayas; Jitendra Paliwal; Noel D. G. White

2010-01-01

57

Composite ultrasound imaging apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An imaging apparatus and method for use in presenting composite two dimensional and three dimensional images from individual ultrasonic frames. A cross-sectional reconstruction is applied by using digital ultrasound frames, transducer orientation and a known center. Motion compensation, rank value filtering, noise suppression and tissue classification are utilized to optimize the composite image. 37 figs.

Morimoto, A.K.; Bow, W.J. Jr.; Strong, D.S.; Dickey, F.M.

1998-09-15

58

Composite ultrasound imaging apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An imaging apparatus and method for use in presenting composite two dimensional and three dimensional images from individual ultrasonic frames. A cross-sectional reconstruction is applied by using digital ultrasound frames, transducer orientation and a known center. Motion compensation, rank value filtering, noise suppression and tissue classification are utilized to optimize the composite image.

Morimoto, Alan K. (Albuquerque, NM); Bow, Jr., Wallace J. (Albuquerque, NM); Strong, David Scott (Albuquerque, NM); Dickey, Fred M. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

59

Identification of important image features for pork and turkey ham classification using colour and wavelet texture features and genetic selection.  

PubMed

A method to discriminate between various grades of pork and turkey ham was developed using colour and wavelet texture features. Image analysis methods originally developed for predicting the palatability of beef were applied to rapidly identify the ham grade. With high quality digital images of 50-94 slices per ham it was possible to identify the greyscale that best expressed the differences between the various ham grades. The best 10 discriminating image features were then found with a genetic algorithm. Using the best 10 image features, simple linear discriminant analysis models produced 100% correct classifications for both pork and turkey on both calibration and validation sets. PMID:20374847

Jackman, Patrick; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul; Valous, Nektarios A; Mendoza, Fernando; Ward, Paddy

2010-04-01

60

Colour constancy in insects.  

PubMed

Colour constancy is the perceptual phenomenon that the colour of an object appears largely unchanged, even if the spectral composition of the illuminating light changes. Colour constancy has been found in all insect species so far tested. Especially the pollinating insects offer a remarkable opportunity to study the ecological significance of colour constancy since they spend much of their adult lives identifying and choosing between colour targets (flowers) under continuously changing ambient lighting conditions. In bees, whose colour vision is best studied among the insects, the compensation provided by colour constancy is only partial and its efficiency depends on the area of colour space. There is no evidence for complete 'discounting' of the illuminant in bees, and the spectral composition of the light can itself be used as adaptive information. In patchy illumination, bees adjust their spatial foraging to minimise transitions between variously illuminated zones. Modelling allows the quantification of the adaptive benefits of various colour constancy mechanisms in the economy of nature. We also discuss the neural mechanisms and cognitive operations that might underpin colour constancy in insects. PMID:24647930

Chittka, Lars; Faruq, Samia; Skorupski, Peter; Werner, Annette

2014-06-01

61

A Comparative Study on Diagnostic Accuracy of Colour Coded Digital Images, Direct Digital Images and Conventional Radiographs for Periapical Lesions – An In Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The identification and radiographic interpretation of periapical bone lesions is important for accurate diagnosis and treatment. The present study was undertaken to study the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of colour coded digital radiographs in terms of presence and size of lesion and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of colour coded digital images with direct digital images and conventional radiographs for assessing periapical lesions. Materials and Methods: Sixty human dry cadaver hemimandibles were obtained and periapical lesions were created in first and second premolar teeth at the junction of cancellous and cortical bone using a micromotor handpiece and carbide burs of sizes 2, 4 and 6. After each successive use of round burs, a conventional, RVG and colour coded image was taken for each specimen. All the images were evaluated by three observers. The diagnostic accuracy for each bur and image mode was calculated statistically. Results: Our results showed good interobserver (kappa > 0.61) agreement for the different radiographic techniques and for the different bur sizes. Conventional Radiography outperformed Digital Radiography in diagnosing periapical lesions made with Size two bur. Both were equally diagnostic for lesions made with larger bur sizes. Colour coding method was least accurate among all the techniques. Conclusion: Conventional radiography traditionally forms the backbone in the diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of periapical lesions. Direct digital imaging is an efficient technique, in diagnostic sense. Colour coding of digital radiography was feasible but less accurate however, this imaging technique, like any other, needs to be studied continuously with the emphasis on safety of patients and diagnostic quality of images. PMID:25584318

Mubeen; K.R., Vijayalakshmi; Bhuyan, Sanat Kumar; Panigrahi, Rajat G; Priyadarshini, Smita R; Misra, Satyaranjan; Singh, Chandravir

2014-01-01

62

Is colour cognitive?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, colour-vision abilities have been rather generously ascribed to various invertebrates and even bacteria. This uncertainty of when to diagnose colour vision stems in part from confusing what colour vision can do with what it is. What colour vision can do is discriminate wavelength independent of intensity. However, if we take this as a definition of what colour vision is, then we might be obliged to conclude that some plants and bacteria have colour vision. Moreover, there is a similar confusion of what are necessary and what are sufficient mechanisms and behavioural abilities for colour vision. To humans, seeing in colour means seeing an image in which objects/lights have chromatic attributes—in contrast to the sensation that we have when viewing monochrome movies, or our experience in dim light when only rod vision is possible. The necessary basic equipment for this is to have at least two types of photoreceptors that differ in spectral sensitivity, and at least one type of spectrally opponent cell to compare the signals from the photoreceptors. Clearly, however, a necessary additional prerequisite for colour vision is to have vision, which entails the identification of shapes, sizes and locations of objects in the world. Thus, if an animal has colour vision, it should see an image in which distinct objects/lights have colour attributes. This distinguishes colour vision from wavelength discrimination, but also from what has historically been called wavelength-specific behaviour: a type of behaviour triggered by fixed configurations of spectral receptor signals; however, we discuss difficulties in diagnosing wavelength-specific behaviour as an indicator of the absence of colour vision. Finally, we discuss whether colour vision, by definition, contains a cognitive dimension for ordering and classifying perceptual experience.

Skorupski, Peter; Chittka, Lars

2011-03-01

63

Classification of pre-sliced pork and Turkey ham qualities based on image colour and textural features and their relationships with consumer responses.  

PubMed

Images of three qualities of pre-sliced pork and Turkey hams were evaluated for colour and textural features to characterize and classify them, and to model the ham appearance grading and preference responses of a group of consumers. A total of 26 colour features and 40 textural features were extracted for analysis. Using Mahalanobis distance and feature inter-correlation analyses, two best colour [mean of S (saturation in HSV colour space), std. deviation of b*, which indicates blue to yellow in L*a*b* colour space] and three textural features [entropy of b*, contrast of H (hue of HSV colour space), entropy of R (red of RGB colour space)] for pork, and three colour (mean of R, mean of H, std. deviation of a*, which indicates green to red in L*a*b* colour space) and two textural features [contrast of B, contrast of L* (luminance or lightness in L*a*b* colour space)] for Turkey hams were selected as features with the highest discriminant power. High classification performances were reached for both types of hams (>99.5% for pork and >90.5% for Turkey) using the best selected features or combinations of them. In spite of the poor/fair agreement among ham consumers as determined by Kappa analysis (Kappa-value<0.4) for sensory grading (surface colour, colour uniformity, bitonality, texture appearance and acceptability), a dichotomous logistic regression model using the best image features was able to explain the variability of consumers' responses for all sensorial attributes with accuracies higher than 74.1% for pork hams and 83.3% for Turkey hams. PMID:20374810

Iqbal, Abdullah; Valous, Nektarios A; Mendoza, Fernando; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul

2010-03-01

64

Analysis of foveal avascular zone in colour fundus images for grading of diabetic retinopathy severity.  

PubMed

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a sight threatening complication due to diabetes mellitus that affects the retina. At present, the classification of DR is based on the International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Severity. In this paper, FAZ enlargement with DR progression is investigated to enable a new and an effective grading protocol DR severity in an observational clinical study. The performance of a computerised DR monitoring and grading system that digitally analyses colour fundus image to measure the enlargement of FAZ and grade DR is evaluated. The range of FAZ area is optimised to accurately determine DR severity stage and progression stages using a Gaussian Bayes classifier. The system achieves high accuracies of above 96%, sensitivities higher than 88% and specificities higher than 96%, in grading of DR severity. In particular, high sensitivity (100%), specificity (>98%) and accuracy (99%) values are obtained for No DR (normal) and Severe NPDR/PDR stages. The system performance indicates that the DR system is suitable for early detection of DR and for effective treatment of severe cases. PMID:21097305

Ahmad Fadzil, M; Ngah, Nor Fariza; George, Tara M; Izhar, Lila I; Nugroho, Hermawan; Adi Nugroho, Hanung

2010-01-01

65

Grey-scale and colour Doppler ultrasound versus Magnetic resonance imaging for the prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: to assess the effectiveness of grey-scale and colour Doppler ultrasound (US) versus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta. Methods: A prospective observational study including a total of 74 patients with placenta previa and previous uterine scar (n = 74). Gray-scale and colour Doppler US was done followed by MRI by different observers to diagnose adherent placenta. Test validity of of US and MRI were calculated. Maternal morbidity and mortality were also assessed. Results: 53 patients confirmed to have placenta accreta at operation. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of US was 94.34 %, 91.67 %, 96.15% and 88 % compared to 96.08 %, 87.50 %, 94.23 % and 91.3% for MRI respectively. The most relevant US sign was turbulent blood flow by colour Doppler while dark intra-placental band was the most sensitive MRI sign. Venous thromboembolism (1.3%), bladder injury (29.7%), ureteric injury (18.9%), post-operative fever (10.8%), Admission to ICU (50%) and re-operation (31.1%). Conclusion: Placenta accreta can be successfully diagnosed by grey scale and colour Doppler ultrasound. MRI would be more likely suggested for either posteriorly or laterally situated placenta previa in order to exclude placental invasion. PMID:25434644

Rezk, Mohamed; Shawky, Mohamed

2014-12-01

66

Atmospheric correction for ocean colour images using a classification and a neuro-variational algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiometers on board satellite measure the solar radiation reflected by both ocean and atmosphere at several wavelengths. One difficulty is that the signal is strongly polluted by the contribution of the atmosphere. An important step in the processing of ocean colour images is the so-called "atmospheric correction" that consists in removing the contribution of the atmospheric signal to solely retrieve the ocean contribution. Due to the presence of aerosols in the atmosphere, this contribution cannot be predicted a priori. Thus, standard algorithms use a part of the signal, generally the near-infrared bands, to deduce the contribution of aerosols to the signal. It is necessary to make some assumptions on the contribution of the ocean for these bands. Most of the time this contribution is determined a priori. In some situations, this approach is not relevant. Two main problems can occur: (1) The ocean contribution can not be determined a priori in the near-infrared bands; it is the case of most of the coastal waters where the content of the water is complex and not be predicted. (2) The near-infrared part of the signal is not enough to entirely deduce the aerosol contribution; it is the case of absorbing aerosol. To solve this problem, a methodology was proposed: NeuroVaria. It was based on the spectral matching principle: instead of making strong hypothesis on the oceanic contribution, a multispectral optimization is made on both oceanic and atmospheric signal. NeuroVaria alone was already validated in several cases. To improve the accuracy of the results and to process more situations, NeuroVaria was combined with a classification procedure in order to constrain the inversion. The classification was done with neuronal classifier (SOM map). The method was applied to the daily MODIS images off the Senegal coast. The resulting oceanic products were validated and a data archive of the daily MODIS data of the region is under construction. This database comprises the Chla-a concentration, the water leaving reflectance spectrum, the aerosol parameters.

Brajard, Julien; Diouf, Daouda; Crépon, Michel; Thiria, Sylvie

2013-04-01

67

Effects of Dietary Chromium Methionine on Growth Performance, Carcass Composition, Meat Colour and Expression of the Colour-related Gene Myoglobin of Growing-finishing Pigs  

PubMed Central

To investigate the effect of dietary chromium (Cr) as Cr methionine (CrMet) on growth performance, carcass traits, pork quality, meat colour and expression of meat colour-related genes in growing-finishing pigs, 189 crossbred Duroc×(Landrace×Yorkshire) growing-finishing pigs (male, castrated, average initial BW 74.58±1.52 kg) were selected and randomly allocated into four groups. Dietary treatments per kg of feed were as follows: 0 (CT), 0.3 mg/kg (T1), 0.6 mg/kg (T2) and 0.9 mg/kg (T3) Cr (in the form of CrMet; as-fed basis), and each treatment was replicated five times with 8 to 10 pigs per replicate pen. During the 28 d of the experiment, both the ADG and the ADFI increased linearly (p<0.05) as the level of dietary Cr increased. The F/G ratio decreased linearly (p<0.05). As dietary Cr increased, loin muscle areas (linear, p = 0.013) and average backfat thickness (linear, p = 0.072) decreased. Shear force (linear, p = 0.070) and Commission Internationale de I’Éclairage (CIE) redness (quadratic, p = 0.028) were increased. In addition, CIE Lightness (quadratic, p = 0.053) were decreased as dietary Cr increased. As dietary Cr increased, total myglobin (Mb) content (quadratic, p = 0.015) and the mb mRNA levels (quadratic, p = 0.046) in longissimus muscles of pigs were up-regulated. In conclusion, supplementation of dietary Cr improved growth and meat colour, but increased shear force and decreased IMF reduced palatability of longissimus muscles. Moreover, the increasing total Mb content and mb mRNA levels indicated that CrMet dietary supplementation may improve meat colour via up-regulating expression of the mb gene. PMID:25049881

Li, Y. S.; Zhu, N. H.; Niu, P. P.; Shi, F. X.; Hughes, C. L.; Tian, G. X.; Huang, R. H.

2013-01-01

68

A new algorithm for automatic Rumex obtusifolius detection in digital images using colour and texture features and the influence of image resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Gebhardt et al. (2006) an object-oriented image classification algorithm was introduced for detecting Rumex obtusifolius (RUMOB) and other weeds in mixed grassland swards, based on shape, colour and texture features. This paper describes a new\\u000a algorithm that improves classification accuracy. The leaves of the typical grassland weeds (RUMOB, Taraxacum officinale, Plantago major) and other homogeneous regions were segmented automatically in

Steffen Gebhardt; Walter Kühbauch

2007-01-01

69

An Ecological Alternative to Snodgrass & Vanderwart: 360 High Quality Colour Images with Norms for Seven Psycholinguistic Variables  

PubMed Central

This work presents a new set of 360 high quality colour images belonging to 23 semantic subcategories. Two hundred and thirty-six Spanish speakers named the items and also provided data from seven relevant psycholinguistic variables: age of acquisition, familiarity, manipulability, name agreement, typicality and visual complexity. Furthermore, we also present lexical frequency data derived from Internet search hits. Apart from the high number of variables evaluated, knowing that it affects the processing of stimuli, this new set presents important advantages over other similar image corpi: (a) this corpus presents a broad number of subcategories and images; for example, this will permit researchers to select stimuli of appropriate difficulty as required, (e.g., to deal with problems derived from ceiling effects); (b) the fact of using coloured stimuli provides a more realistic, ecologically-valid, representation of real life objects. In sum, this set of stimuli provides a useful tool for research on visual object-and word- processing, both in neurological patients and in healthy controls. PMID:22662166

Moreno-Martínez, Francisco Javier; Montoro, Pedro R.

2012-01-01

70

Low cost referenced luminescent imaging of oxygen and pH with a 2-CCD colour near infrared camera.  

PubMed

A low cost imaging set-up for optical chemical sensors based on NIR-emitting dyes is presented. It is based on a commercially available 2-CCD colour near infrared camera, LEDs and tailor-made optical sensing materials for oxygen and pH. The set-up extends common ratiometric RGB imaging based on the red, green and blue channels of colour cameras by an additional NIR channel. The hardware and software of the camera were adapted to perform ratiometric imaging. A series of new planar sensing foils were introduced to image oxygen, pH and both parameters simultaneously. The used NIR-emitting indicators are based on benzoporphyrins and aza-BODIPYs for oxygen and pH, respectively. Moreover, a wide dynamic range oxygen sensor is presented. It allows accurate imaging of oxygen from trace levels up to ambient air concentrations. The imaging set-up in combination with the normal range ratiometric oxygen sensor showed a resolution of 4-5 hPa at low oxygen concentrations (<50 hPa) and 10-15 hPa at ambient air oxygen concentrations; the trace range oxygen sensor (<20 hPa) revealed a resolution of about 0.5-1.8 hPa. The working range of the pH-sensor was in the physiological region from pH 6.0 up to pH 8.0 and showed an apparent pKa-value of 7.3 with a resolution of about 0.1 pH units. The performance of the dual parameter oxygen/pH sensor was comparable to the single analyte pH and normal range oxygen sensors. PMID:25096329

Ehgartner, Josef; Wiltsche, Helmar; Borisov, Sergey M; Mayr, Torsten

2014-10-01

71

Modification to the atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS ocean colour images over turbid waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful exploitation of remotely sensed observations of water colour in the coastal zone requires atmospheric correction methods that can determine water reflectance from top-of-atmosphere radiometric measurements over waters containing significant non-phytoplanktonic particulate material. These so-called Case II waters often have significant water leaving radiance at near infra-red (NIR) wavelengths which invalidates conventional “dark pixel” atmospheric correction procedures, including those

S. J. Lavender; M. H. Pinkerton; G. F. Moore; J. Aiken; D. Blondeau-Patissier

2005-01-01

72

Generalized satellite image processing: eight years of ocean colour data for any region on earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past decade, the world's oceans have been systematically observed by orbiting spectroradiometers such as MODIS and MERIS. These sensors have generated a huge amount of data with unprecedented temporal and spatial coverage. The data is freely available, but not always accessible for marine researchers with no image processing experience. In order to provide historical and current oceanographic parameters for the jellyfish forecasting in the JELLYFOR project, a tool for the generalized processing and archiving of satellite data was created (GRIMAS). Using this generalized software, the large amount of remote sensing data can be accessed, and parameters such as chlorophyll a concentration (CHL), sea surface temperature (SST) and total suspended matter concentration (TSM) can be extracted and gridded for any region on earth. Time-series and climatologies can be easily extracted from this data archive. The products generated can be based on the standard products, as supplied by space agencies, or can be new or regionally calibrated products. All available MODIS and MERIS L2 images from an eight year period (2003-2010) were processed in order to create a gridded dataset of CHL, SST (MODIS only) and of TSM for the three JELLYFOR regions. For two of the regions, data for an extended region was also processed. Multi-year composites (climatologies) of satellite data and time-series can provide a wealth of information for different projects in any region. Climatologies from the two sensors are in good agreement, while significant differences can occur on a scene per scene basis. Total suspended matter concentrations match favourably with in situ data derived from sensors on autonomous buoys. MODIS sea surface temperature corresponds closely to temperature continuously measured underway on research vessels.

Vanhellemont, Quinten; Ruddick, Kevin

2011-11-01

73

Blocked recursive image composition with exclusion zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photo collages are a popular and powerful storytelling mechanism. They are often enhanced with background artwork that sets the theme for the story. However, layout algorithms for photo collage creation typically do not take this artwork into account, which can result in collages where photos overlay important artwork elements. To address this, we extend our previous Blocked Recursive Image Composition

Hui Chao; Daniel R. Tretter; Xuemei Zhang; Clayton Brian Atkins

2010-01-01

74

Pre-bottling use of dehydrated waste grape skins to improve colour, phenolic and aroma composition of red wines.  

PubMed

Different dehydrated waste grape skins from the juice industry were added into aged and young red wines as an innovative way of compensating for colour loss before bottling. After addition of grape skins, colour intensity of wines increased a mean 11% and a maximum of 31% with predominance of the red component. Total polyphenols mean increase was 10% with a maximum value of 20%. Analysis of low molecular weight phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD showed a significant (p<0.05) content increase of the bioactive compounds gallic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and (E)-resveratrol. Anthocyanins content also increased at an average of 50mg/l. The volatile profile of wines analysed by SBSE-GC-MS was only moderately influenced by the treatments. Mixtures of dehydrated waste grape skins were useful to improve the colour and polyphenol profile of red wines, considering them a useful tool for correcting colour loss before bottling. PMID:23017417

Pedroza, Miguel Angel; Carmona, Manuel; Alonso, Gonzalo Luis; Salinas, Maria Rosario; Zalacain, Amaya

2013-01-01

75

Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Composite (Dual) Gradients  

PubMed Central

The tradeoff between gradient performance factors, size of the imaging region, and physiological factors such as nerve stimulation typically leads to compromises in gradient design and ultimately suboptimal imaging performance. Local gradient systems can add some performance flexibility, but are cumbersome to set up and remove. In nearly all conventional MRI systems, the use of local gradients precludes the use of the more homogeneous whole body gradients. This paper presents the concept of dynamically selectable composite gradient systems where local gradients and whole body gradients can be selected independently and simultaneously. The relative performance of whole body, insert, and composite gradients is predicted for echoplanar (EPI), turbo spin echo (TSE), and steady state free precession (SSFP). A realization of the concept is presented. PMID:20160925

Parker, Dennis L.; Goodrich, K. Craig; Hadley, J. Rock; Kim, Seong-Eun; Moon, Sung M.; Chronik, Blaine A.; Fontius, Ulrich; Schmitt, Franz

2009-01-01

76

Making Art and Understanding Images Utilizing sketchbooks, collage, colour exercises and cre-  

E-print Network

2NEW ART COURSES OPEN to ALL McMaster Students ART 1UI3 Making Art and Understanding Images, 2014-15 Thursday evenings 7 pm ­ 10pm 3 hours per week in a continuous block ART 1TI3 Making Art and Understanding Images & Technology Creating art utilizing a range of media, including digital tools and creative

Haykin, Simon

77

Colouring fabrics with excimer lasers to simulate encoded images: the case of the Shroud of Turin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The faint body image embedded into the Turin Shroud has not yet explained by traditional science. We present experimental results of excimer laser irradiation (wavelengths 308 nm and 193 nm) of a raw linen fabric and of a linen cloth, seeking for a possible mechanism of image formation. The permanent coloration of both linens is a threshold effect on the laser beam intensity and it can be achieved only in a surprisingly narrow range of irradiation parameters: the shorter the wavelength, the narrower the range. We also obtained the first direct evidence of latent images impressed on linen that appear in a relatively long period (one year) after a laser irradiation that at first did not generate a clear image. The results are compared to the characteristics of the Turin Shroud, commenting the possibility that a burst of directional ultraviolet radiation may have played a role in the formation of the Shroud image.

Di Lazzaro, P.; Baldacchini, G.; Fanti, G.; Murra, D.; Santoni, A.

2008-10-01

78

Colour and urban landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colour regards urban landscape of important elements, it can reflect a city's history, local features and cultural tradition. This paper discusses to colour aesthetic application in urban landscape design, namely how to play a landscape of natural colour and artificial colour features and create urban landscape beauty of colours. Keywords-colour; urban landscape; urban colour \\

Xueping Wu; Shicheng Xu

2011-01-01

79

Bright Retinal Lesions Detection using Colour Fundus Images Containing Reflective Features  

SciTech Connect

In the last years the research community has developed many techniques to detect and diagnose diabetic retinopathy with retinal fundus images. This is a necessary step for the implementation of a large scale screening effort in rural areas where ophthalmologists are not available. In the United States of America, the incidence of diabetes is worryingly increasing among the young population. Retina fundus images of patients younger than 20 years old present a high amount of reflection due to the Nerve Fibre Layer (NFL), the younger the patient the more these reflections are visible. To our knowledge we are not aware of algorithms able to explicitly deal with this type of reflection artefact. This paper presents a technique to detect bright lesions also in patients with a high degree of reflective NFL. First, the candidate bright lesions are detected using image equalization and relatively simple histogram analysis. Then, a classifier is trained using texture descriptor (Multi-scale Local Binary Patterns) and other features in order to remove the false positives in the lesion detection. Finally, the area of the lesions is used to diagnose diabetic retinopathy. Our database consists of 33 images from a telemedicine network currently developed. When determining moderate to high diabetic retinopathy using the bright lesions detected the algorithm achieves a sensitivity of 100% at a specificity of 100% using hold-one-out testing.

Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2009-01-01

80

Digital colour management system for colour parameters reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital Colour Management System (DCMS) and its application to new adaptive camouflage system are presented in this paper. The DCMS is a digital colour rendering method which would allow for transformation of a real image into a set of colour pixels displayed on a computer monitor. Consequently, it can analyse pixels' colour which comprise images of the environment such as desert, semi-desert, jungle, farmland or rocky mountain in order to prepare an adaptive camouflage pattern most suited for the terrain. This system is described in present work as well as the use the subtractive colours mixing method to construct the real time colour changing electrochromic window/pixel (ECD) for camouflage purpose. The ECD with glass/ITO/Prussian Blue(PB)/electrolyte/CeO2-TiO2/ITO/glass configuration was assembled and characterized. The ECD switched between green and yellow after +/-1.5 V application and the colours have been controlled by Digital Colour Management System and described by CIE LAB parameters.

Grudzinski, Karol; Lasmanowicz, Piotr; Assis, Lucas M. N.; Pawlicka, Agnieszka; Januszko, Adam

2013-10-01

81

A colour 3200fps high-speed CMOS imager for endoscopy in bio-medical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-speed, high-sensitivity sensor was developed in a standard 0.5 ?m CMOS mixed-signal technology for the use in endoscopes. The full frame rate in excess of 3200 frames per second enables the imaging of transient events in biomedical samples. The sensor is organized as a 512×192 pixel array with additional RGB dye filters. Data are transferred from the sensor on

F. Lustenberger; M. Lehmann; L. Cavalier; N. Blanc; W. Heppnerl; J. Ernst; S. Gick; H. Bloss

2004-01-01

82

Re-imagining painting in digital fiction time, colour, and space in recent experimental moving images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In my experience in digital practice, the ‘artist animation’ is fundamentally related to photography and painting, which find a continuous surface, having a sense of ‘time’, in the images in fictional motion. This paper focuses on my creative methodologies of ‘time-based paintings’, associated with my current solo show entitled–Any-Space-Whatever (2010); it presents my selected works (2007?2009). My practice deals with

Vinci M. Weng

2011-01-01

83

The use of digital imaging for colour matching and communication in restorative dentistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To develop a shade matching method based on digital imaging and to compare observers' ability using this method with the conventional one set against a spectrophotometric 'gold standard'.Methods Two Vita Lumin shade guides were used in this study, nine shades being selected from the first Vita Lumin shade guide, A2, A3, A3.5, B2, B3, B4, C1, C2 and C3.

M D Russell; B W Moss; F D Jarad

2005-01-01

84

Automatic Segmentation of Blood Vessels in Colour Retinal Images using Spatial Gabor Filter and Multiscale Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinal blood vessels are significant anatomical structures in ophthalmic images. Automatic segmentation of blood vessels\\u000a is one of the important steps in computer aided diagnosis system for the detection of diseases such as Diabetic Retinopathy\\u000a that affect human retina. We propose a method for the segmentation of retinal blood vessels using Spatial Gabor filters as\\u000a they can be tuned to

P. C. Siddalingaswamy; K. Gopalakrishna Prabhu

85

Thermographic Imaging of Defects in Anisotropic Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite materials are of increasing interest to the aerospace industry as a result of their weight versus performance characteristics. One of the disadvantages of composites is the high cost of fabrication and post inspection with conventional ultrasonic scanning systems. The high cost of inspection is driven by the need for scanning systems which can follow large curve surfaces. Additionally, either large water tanks or water squirters are required to couple the ultrasonics into the part. Thermographic techniques offer significant advantages over conventional ultrasonics by not requiring physical coupling between the part and sensor. The thermographic system can easily inspect large curved surface without requiring a surface following scanner. However, implementation of Thermal Nondestructive Evaluations (TNDE) for flaw detection in composite materials and structures requires determining its limit. Advanced algorithms have been developed to enable locating and sizing defects in carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Thermal Tomography is a very promising method for visualizing the size and location of defects in materials such as CFRP. However, further investigations are required to determine its capabilities for inspection of thick composites. In present work we have studied influence of the anisotropy on the reconstructed image of a defect generated by an inversion technique. The composite material is considered as homogeneous with macro properties: thermal conductivity K, specific heat c, and density rho. The simulation process involves two sequential steps: solving the three dimensional transient heat diffusion equation for a sample with a defect, then estimating the defect location and size from the surface spatial and temporal thermal distributions (inverse problem), calculated from the simulations.

Plotnikov, Y. A.; Winfree, W. P.

2000-01-01

86

Segmentation of Colour Layers in Historical Maps Based on Hierarchical Colour Sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A colour image segmentation (CIS) process for scanned historical maps is presented to overcome common problems associated with segmentation of old documents such as (1) variation in colour values of the same colour layer within one map page, (2) differences in typical colour values between homogeneous areas and thin line-work, which belong both to the same colour layer, and (3) extensive parameterization that results in a lack of robustness. The described approach is based on a two-stage colour layer prototype search using a constrained sampling design. Global colour layer prototypes for the identification of homogeneous regions are derived based on colour similarity to the most extreme colour layer values identified in the map page. These global colour layer prototypes are continuously adjusted using relative distances between prototype positions in colour space until a reliable sample is collected. Based on this sample colour layer seeds and directly connected neighbors of the same colour layer are determined resulting in the extraction of homogeneous colour layer regions. In the next step the global colour layer prototypes are recomputed using a new sample of colour values along the margins of identified homogeneous coloured regions. This sampling step derives representative prototypes of map layer sections that deviate significantly from homogeneous regions of the same layers due to bleaching, mixed or false colouring and ageing of the original scanned documents. A spatial expansion process uses these adjusted prototypes as start criterion to assign the remaining colour layer parts. The approach shows high robustness for map documents that suffer from low graphical quality indicating some potential for general applicability due to its simplicity and the limited need for preliminary information. The only input required is the colours and number of colour layers present in the map.

Leyk, Stefan

87

Colour, composition and quality of M. longissimus dorsi and M. extensor carpi radialis of steers housed on straw or concrete slats or accommodated outdoors on wood-chips.  

PubMed

Forty-five Charolais crossbred steers were offered a common diet and accommodated either outside on wood-chips (OWP, 18m(2)/head) or in a naturally-ventilated building in slatted-floor pens (SLA, 2.5m(2)/500kg bodyweight) or in straw-bedded pens (STR, 4m(2)/head) for 132 days. Carcass weight averaged 351, 362, and 372 (sed 6.63)kg (P<0.05), for SLA, STR and OWP, respectively. Accommodation system did not affect the colour, drip loss, shear force or composition of Musculus longissimus dorsi (LD) or Musculus extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscles or the sensory characteristics of LD. The ultimate pH of ECR was highest (P<0.05) for OWP steers, while their LD was darker at 2 days post-mortem than LD from STR steers. It is concluded that accommodating cattle on OWP had a minor transient effect on beef colour and no impact on beef composition or eating quality. PMID:22063032

Dunne, P G; Rogalski, J; Moreno, T; Monahan, F J; French, P; Moloney, A P

2008-08-01

88

Automatic thermographic image defect detection of composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting defects, and especially reliably measuring defect sizes, are critical objectives in automatic NDT defect detection applications. In this work, the Sentence software is proposed for the analysis of pulsed thermography and near IR images of composite materials. Furthermore, the Sentence software delivers an end-to-end, user friendly platform for engineers to perform complete manual inspections, as well as tools that allow senior engineers to develop inspection templates and profiles, reducing the requisite thermographic skill level of the operating engineer. Finally, the Sentence software can also offer complete independence of operator decisions by the fully automated "Beep on Defect" detection functionality. The end-to-end automatic inspection system includes sub-systems for defining a panel profile, generating an inspection plan, controlling a robot-arm and capturing thermographic images to detect defects. A statistical model has been built to analyze the entire image, evaluate grey-scale ranges, import sentencing criteria and automatically detect impact damage defects. A full width half maximum algorithm has been used to quantify the flaw sizes. The identified defects are imported into the sentencing engine which then sentences (automatically compares analysis results against acceptance criteria) the inspection by comparing the most significant defect or group of defects against the inspection standards.

Luo, Bin; Liebenberg, Bjorn; Raymont, Jeff; Santospirito, SP

2011-05-01

89

Deep optical imaging of the field of PC1643+4631A&B, II: Estimating the colours and redshifts of faint galaxies  

E-print Network

In an investigation of the cause of the cosmic microwave background decrement in the field of the z = 3.8 quasar pair PC1643+4631, we have carried out a study to photometrically estimate the redshifts of galaxies in deep multi-colour optical images of the field taken with the WHT. To examine the possibility that a massive cluster of galaxies lies in the field, we have attempted to recover simulated galaxies with intrinsic colours matching those of the model galaxies used in the photometric redshift estimation. We find that when such model galaxies are added to our images, there is considerable scatter of the recovered galaxy redshifts away from the model value; this scatter is larger than that expected from photometric errors and is the result of confusion, simply due to ground-based seeing, between objects in the field. We have also compared the likely efficiency of the photometric redshift technique against the colour criteria used to select z>3 galaxies via the strong colour signature of the Lyman-limit break. We find that these techniques may significantly underestimate the true surface density of z>3, due to confusion between the high-redshift galaxies and other objects near the line of sight. We argue that the actual surface density of z=3 galaxies may be as much as 6 times greater than that estimated by previous ground-based studies, and note that this conclusion is consistent with the surface density of high-redshift objects found in the HDF. Finally, we conclude that all ground-based deep field surveys are inevitably affected by confusion, and note that reducing the effective seeing in ground-based images will be of paramount importance in observing the distant universe.

Garret Cotter; Toby Haynes; Joanne C. Baker; Michael E. Jones; Richard Saunders

1998-11-18

90

Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit.  

PubMed

The highest possible resolution for printed colour images is determined by the diffraction limit of visible light. To achieve this limit, individual colour elements (or pixels) with a pitch of 250 nm are required, translating into printed images at a resolution of ?100,000 dots per inch (d.p.i.). However, methods for dispensing multiple colourants or fabricating structural colour through plasmonic structures have insufficient resolution and limited scalability. Here, we present a non-colourant method that achieves bright-field colour prints with resolutions up to the optical diffraction limit. Colour information is encoded in the dimensional parameters of metal nanostructures, so that tuning their plasmon resonance determines the colours of the individual pixels. Our colour-mapping strategy produces images with both sharp colour changes and fine tonal variations, is amenable to large-volume colour printing via nanoimprint lithography, and could be useful in making microimages for security, steganography, nanoscale optical filters and high-density spectrally encoded optical data storage. PMID:22886173

Kumar, Karthik; Duan, Huigao; Hegde, Ravi S; Koh, Samuel C W; Wei, Jennifer N; Yang, Joel K W

2012-09-01

91

'Unnatural Colours': An introduction to colouring techniques in silent era movies  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Natural colour' was the term coined for genuine colour photography to separate it from colouring or 'painting' monochrome images, hence the use of the contrasting term 'unnatural'. The intention of this paper is to provide a guide to the technical literature on the subject. It reviews where the technologies originated, the principle literature of the time, and later, that describes

Paul Read

2009-01-01

92

Stamping colloidal photonic crystals: a facile way towards complex pixel colour patterns for sensing and displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patterning of colloidal photonic crystals (CPCs) has been strongly investigated in recent years for sensing and image displays. Rather than using traditional template-directed approaches, here microimprint lithography along with convective self-assembly is applied to generate complex CPC patterns that can be adjusted to show single- or dual-colour patterns or composite CPC patterns possessing two different colours. These composite CPC patterns show different wettability with water because of the surface chemistry of the polymers and silica used. This dramatically transforms the structural colours upon liquid infiltration. By mixing different ethanol concentrations with water, the infiltration efficiency can be further improved and easily read out from changes in reflection intensity and spectral peak shifts. Integrating these nano-architectures into devices can thus yield function as image displays and as sensors for solvents.Patterning of colloidal photonic crystals (CPCs) has been strongly investigated in recent years for sensing and image displays. Rather than using traditional template-directed approaches, here microimprint lithography along with convective self-assembly is applied to generate complex CPC patterns that can be adjusted to show single- or dual-colour patterns or composite CPC patterns possessing two different colours. These composite CPC patterns show different wettability with water because of the surface chemistry of the polymers and silica used. This dramatically transforms the structural colours upon liquid infiltration. By mixing different ethanol concentrations with water, the infiltration efficiency can be further improved and easily read out from changes in reflection intensity and spectral peak shifts. Integrating these nano-architectures into devices can thus yield function as image displays and as sensors for solvents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images of the stamps, optical image, reflection spectra, and table of peak wavelength and intensity. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05934d

Ding, Tao; Smoukov, Stoyan K.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

2015-01-01

93

What Colour Is a Shadow?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What colour is a shadow? Black, grey, or some other colour? This article describes how to use a digital camera to test the hypothesis that a shadow under a clear blue sky has a blue tint. A white sheet of A4 paper was photographed in full sunlight and in shadow under a clear blue sky. The images were analysed using a shareware program called…

Hughes, S. W.

2009-01-01

94

The colour wheels of art, perception, science and physiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colour is not the domain of any one discipline be it art, philosophy, psychology or science. Each discipline has its own colour wheel and this presentation examines the origins and philosophies behind the colour circles of Art, Perception, Science and Physiology (after image) with reference to Aristotle, Robert Boyle, Leonardo da Vinci, Goethe, Ewald Hering and Albert Munsell. The paper analyses and discusses the differences between the four colour wheels using the Natural Colour System® notation as the reference for hue (the position of colours within each of the colour wheels). Examination of the colour wheels shows the dominance of blue in the wheels of art, science and physiology particularly at the expense of green. This paper does not consider the three-dimensionality of colour space its goal was to review the hue of a colour with regard to its position on the respective colour wheels.

Harkness, Nick

2006-06-01

95

Stamping colloidal photonic crystals: a facile way towards complex pixel colour patterns for sensing and displays.  

PubMed

Patterning of colloidal photonic crystals (CPCs) has been strongly investigated in recent years for sensing and image displays. Rather than using traditional template-directed approaches, here microimprint lithography along with convective self-assembly is applied to generate complex CPC patterns that can be adjusted to show single- or dual-colour patterns or composite CPC patterns possessing two different colours. These composite CPC patterns show different wettability with water because of the surface chemistry of the polymers and silica used. This dramatically transforms the structural colours upon liquid infiltration. By mixing different ethanol concentrations with water, the infiltration efficiency can be further improved and easily read out from changes in reflection intensity and spectral peak shifts. Integrating these nano-architectures into devices can thus yield function as image displays and as sensors for solvents. PMID:25522262

Ding, Tao; Smoukov, Stoyan K; Baumberg, Jeremy J

2015-01-22

96

Colour Lovers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The endless hues and shades of colors fascinate many persons, including interior-designers, fashionistas, and those who study the workings of the human eye. This particular site is "a place to view, rate and review some lovely colours & palettes." The site contains a number of user forums where people may gather around the electronic glow of the screen to discuss and debate the merits of different colors, along with a place for users to submit their own fanciful and innovative colors. On the right-hand side of the home page, visitors can browse through the top-rated colors, newly added colors, and new palettes. Many of the colors have rather curious names, such as "wegobysundawn" and "victory or ignorance." Of course, there is space provided for visitors to give their own opinions on each color or palette. Overall, a compelling site, and one that will delight those with a penchant for the uses of color.

97

Colloidal approach to prepare colour blends from colourants with different solubility profiles.  

PubMed

Food colouring plays a vital and a determining role in the processing and the manufacturing of food products because the appearance of products is critical for attracting consumers and influencing their food choices. However, factors such as legislative restrictions, limited number of approved colourants and the processing, formulation and stability issues of the natural colourants severely limits the application of food colouring in actual product formats. Hence, finding alternatives to the currently utilised formulation practises, represents an important area of research. Here, we report a simple colloidal approach to prepare colour blends by co-incorporating colourants with contrasting aqueous solubility profiles in composite colloidal particles. Curcumin and indigocarmine were selected as water insoluble and water soluble food-grade colourants respectively and incorporated in the colloidal particles prepared from food protein-zein. Composite particles obtained by loading of curcumin and indigocarmine (at different ratios) had mean particle size ranging from 76 to 300nm. The spherical shape of the colloidal particles was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and the colloidal dispersions were further characterised using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The incorporation of colourants in colloidal particles led to the generation of different shade of colour in yellow-green-blue range. The encapsulation also led to the stabilization of individual pigments against photodegradation. Such composite colloidal particles could potentially serve as an approach for developing tuneable colouring system for food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:23790940

Patel, A R; Heussen, P C M; Dorst, E; Hazekamp, J; Velikov, K P

2013-11-15

98

Massive star formation in Wolf-Rayet galaxies. IV. Colours, chemical-composition analysis and metallicity-luminosity relations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We have performed a comprehensive multiwavelength analysis of a sample of 20 starburst galaxies that show a substantial population of very young massive stars, most of them classified as Wolf-Rayet (WR) galaxies. In this paper, the forth of the series, we present the global analysis of the derived photometric and chemical properties. Methods: We compare optical/NIR colours and the physical properties (reddening coefficient, equivalent widths of the emission and underlying absorption lines, ionization degree, electron density, and electron temperature) and chemical properties (oxygen abundances and N/O, S/O, Ne/O, Ar/O, and Fe/O ratios) with previous observations and galaxy evolution models. We compile 41 independent star-forming regions - with oxygen abundances between 12 + log(O/H) = 7.58 and 8.75 - , of which 31 have a direct estimate of the electron temperature of the ionized gas. Results: According to their absolute B-magnitude, many of them are not dwarf galaxies, but they should be during their quiescent phase. We found that both c(H?) and Wabs increase with increasing metallicity. The differences in the N/O ratio is explained assuming differences in the star formation histories. We detected a high N/O ratio in objects showing strong WR features (HCG 31 AC, UM 420, IRAS 0828+2816, III Zw 107, ESO 566-8 and NGC 5253). The ejecta of the WR stars may be the origin of the N enrichment in these galaxies. We compared the abundances provided by the direct method with those obtained through empirical calibrations, finding that (i) the Pilyugin method is the best suited empirical calibration for these star-forming galaxies; (ii) the relations provided by Pettini & Pagel (2004, MNRAS, 348, 59) give acceptable results for objects with 12 + log(O/H) > 8.0; and (iii) the results provided by empirical calibrations based on photoionization models are systematically 0.2-0.3 dex higher than the values derived from the direct method. The O and N abundances and the N/O ratios are clearly related to the optical/NIR luminosity; the dispersion of the data is a consequence of the differences in the star-formation histories. The L-Z relations tend to be tighter when using NIR luminosities, which facilitates distinguishing tidal dwarf galaxies candidates and pre-existing dwarf objects. Galaxies with redder colours tend to have higher oxygen and nitrogen abundances. Conclusions: Our detailed analysis is fundamental to understand the nature of galaxies that show strong starbursts, as well as to know their star formation history and the relationships with the environment. This study is complementary -but usually more powerful- to the less detailed analysis of large galaxy samples that are very common nowadays. Based on observations made with NOT (Nordic Optical Telescope), INT (Isaac Newton Telescope) and WHT (William Herschel Telescope) operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden (NOT) or the Isaac Newton Group (INT, WHT) in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Based on observations made at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).Appendices are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Esteban, C.

2010-07-01

99

Configural and featural information in facial-composite images.  

PubMed

Eyewitnesses are often invited to construct a facial composite, an image created of the person they saw commit a crime that is used by law enforcement to locate criminal suspects. In the current paper, the effectiveness of composite images was investigated from traditional feature systems (E-FIT and PRO-fit), where participants (face constructors) selected individual features to build the face, and a more recent holistic system (EvoFIT), where they 'evolved' a composite by repeatedly selecting from arrays of complete faces. Further participants attempted to name these composites when seen as an unaltered image, or when blurred, rotated, linearly stretched or converted to a photographic negative. All of the manipulations tested reduced correct naming of the composites overall except (i) for a low level of blur, for which naming improved for holistic composites but reduced for feature composites, and (ii) for 100% linear stretch, for which a substantial naming advantage was observed. Results also indicated that both featural (facial elements) and configural (feature spacing) information were useful for recognition in both types of composite system, but highly-detailed information was more accurate in the feature-based than in the holistic method. The naming advantage of linear stretch was replicated using a forensically more-practical procedure with observers viewing an unaltered composite sideways. The work is valuable to police practitioners and designers of facial-composite systems. PMID:24796951

Frowd, Charlie D; Jones, Sharrome; Fodarella, Cristina; Skelton, Faye; Fields, Steve; Williams, Anna; Marsh, John E; Thorley, Rachel; Nelson, Laura; Greenwood, Leah; Date, Louisa; Kearley, Kevin; McIntyre, Alex H; Hancock, Peter J B

2014-05-01

100

Quark interactions and colour chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between quarks, according to the current theory of quantum chromo-dynamics, is formally rather similar to the electromagnetic interaction between electrons and nucleons, both being governed by locally gauge-invariant field theories. It is tempting therefore to discuss the spectroscopy of hadrons, which are quark composites bound by colour forces, in the same language as the spectroscopy of atoms and

Chan Hong-Mo

1982-01-01

101

Coloured oil droplets enhance colour discrimination.  

PubMed

The eyes of most diurnal reptiles and birds contain coloured retinal filters-oil droplets. Although these filters are widespread, their adaptive advantage remains uncertain. To understand why coloured oil droplets appeared and were retained during evolution, I consider both the benefits and the costs of light filtering in the retina. Oil droplets decrease cone quantum catch and reduce the overlap in sensitivity between spectrally adjacent cones. The reduction of spectral overlap increases the volume occupied by object colours in a cone space, whereas the decrease in quantum catch increases noise, and thus reduces the discriminability of similar colours. The trade-off between these two effects determines the total benefit of oil droplets. Calculations show that coloured oil droplets increase the number of object colours that can be discriminated, and thus are beneficial for colour vision. PMID:12816638

Vorobyev, Misha

2003-06-22

102

Colour Perception in ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children…

Banaschewski, Tobias; Ruppert, Sinje; Tannock, Rosemary; Albrecht, Bjorn; Becker, Andreas; Uebel, Henrik; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Rothenberger, Aribert

2006-01-01

103

Synaesthesia and colour constancy.  

PubMed

Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is an atypical condition characterized by the perception of colours when reading achromatic text. We investigated the level of colour processing responsible for these experiences. To do so, we tapped a central characteristic of colour perception. In different lighting conditions the same wavelength of light can prompt the perception of different colours. This helps humans recognize distinctive coloured objects despite changes in illumination. We wanted to see if synaesthetic colours were generated at a neural locus that was susceptible to colour constancy analyses. We used colour matching and naming tasks to examine interactions between simulated coloured illuminants and synaesthetic colours. Neither synaesthetic colour matching or naming was impacted. This contrasted with non-synaesthetic control participants, who performed the colour-matching task with graphemes physically coloured to mimic synaesthesia. Our data suggest that synaesthetic colour signals are not generated at lower-levels of colour processing, but are introduced at higher levels of analysis and are therefore not impacted by the processes responsible for perceptual constancy. PMID:22487049

Erskine, Holly; Mattingley, Jason B; Arnold, Derek H

2013-04-01

104

Across light: through colour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The speed at which our world is changing is reflected in the shifting way artistic images are created and produced. Holography can be used as a medium to express the perception of space with light and colour and to make the material and the immaterial experiments with optical and digital holography. This paper intends to be a reflection on the final product of that process surrounding a debate of ideas for new experimental methodologies applied to holographic images. Holography is a time-based medium and the irretrievable linear flow of time is responsible for a drama, unique to traditional cinematography. If the viewers move to left or right, they see glimpses of the next scene or the previous one perceived a second ago. This interaction of synthetic space arises questions such as: can we see, in "reality", two forms in the same space? Trying to answer this question, a series of works has been created. These concepts are embryonic to a series of digital art holograms and lenticulars technique's titled "Across Light: Through Colour". They required some technical research and comparison between effects from different camera types, using Canon IS3 and Sony HDR CX105.

Azevedo, Isabel; Richardson, Martin; Bernardo, Luis Miguel

2012-03-01

105

Scene Tagging: Image-Based CAPTCHA Using Image Composition and Object Relationships  

E-print Network

345 Scene Tagging: Image-Based CAPTCHA Using Image Composition and Object Relationships Peter@eecs.ucf.edu ABSTRACT In this paper, we propose a new form of image-based CAPTCHA we term "scene tagging". It tests and Information Systems]: Security and Protection General Terms Security Keywords CAPTCHA, HIP, access control

Zou, Cliff C.

106

Correlation of consumer assessment of longissimus dorsi beef palatability with image colour, marbling and surface texture features.  

PubMed

A new study was conducted to apply computer vision methods successfully developed using trained sensory panel palatability data to new samples with consumer panel palatability data. The computer vision methodology utilized the traditional approach of using beef muscle colour, marbling and surface texture as palatability indicators. These features were linked to corresponding consumer panel palatability data with the traditional approach of partial least squares regression (PLSR). Best subsets were selected by genetic algorithms. Results indicate that accurate modelling of likeability with regression models was possible (r(2)=0.86). Modelling of other important palatability attributes proved encouraging (tenderness r(2)=0.76, juiciness r(2)=0.69, flavour r(2)=0.78). Therefore, the current study provides a basis for further expanding computer vision methodology to correlate with consumer panel palatability data. PMID:20374825

Jackman, Patrick; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul; Brandon, Karen; White, Anna-Marie

2010-03-01

107

Compositional breast imaging using a dual-energy mammography protocol  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Mammography has a low sensitivity in dense breasts due to low contrast between malignant and normal tissue confounded by the predominant water density of the breast. Water is found in both adipose and fibroglandular tissue and constitutes most of the mass of a breast. However, significant protein mass is mainly found in the fibroglandular tissue where most cancers originate. If the protein compartment in a mammogram could be imaged without the influence of water, the sensitivity and specificity of the mammogram may be improved. This article describes a novel approach to dual-energy mammography, full-field digital compositional mammography (FFDCM), which can independently image the three compositional components of breast tissue: water, lipid, and protein. Methods: Dual-energy attenuation and breast shape measures are used together to solve for the three compositional thicknesses. Dual-energy measurements were performed on breast-mimicking phantoms using a full-field digital mammography unit. The phantoms were made of materials shown to have similar x-ray attenuation properties of the compositional compartments. They were made of two main stacks of thicknesses around 2 and 4 cm. Twenty-six thickness and composition combinations were used to derive the compositional calibration using a least-squares fitting approach. Results: Very high accuracy was achieved with a simple cubic fitting function with root mean square errors of 0.023, 0.011, and 0.012 cm for the water, lipid, and protein thicknesses, respectively. The repeatability (percent coefficient of variation) of these measures was tested using sequential images and was found to be 0.5%, 0.5%, and 3.3% for water, lipid, and protein, respectively. However, swapping the location of the two stacks of the phantom on the imaging plate introduced further errors showing the need for more complete system uniformity corrections. Finally, a preliminary breast image is presented of each of the compositional compartments separately. Conclusions: FFDCM has been derived and exhibited good compositional thickness accuracy on phantoms. Preliminary breast images demonstrated the feasibility of creating individual compositional diagnostic images in a clinical environment. PMID:20175478

Laidevant, Aurelie D.; Malkov, Serghei; Flowers, Chris I.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John A.

2010-01-01

108

Magnetic resonance imaging of gel-cast ceramic composites  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are being employed to aid in the development of advanced near-net-shape gel-cast ceramic composites. MRI is a unique nondestructive evaluation tool that provides information on both the chemical and physical properties of materials. In this effort, MRI imaging was performed to monitor the drying of porous green-state alumina - methacrylamide-N.N`-methylene bisacrylamide (MAM-MBAM) polymerized composite specimens. Studies were performed on several specimens as a function of humidity and time. The mass and shrinkage of the specimens were also monitored and correlated with the water content.

Dieckman, S.L.; Balss, K.M.; Waterfield, L.G. [and others

1997-04-01

109

Chemical imaging of wood-polypropylene composites.  

PubMed

Recent investigations of wood plastic composites have revealed a detrimental effect of using lubricant systems in production. This includes nullifying part or all of the mechanical benefit of using a polar compatibilizer, maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP), in the composite formulation. This investigation utilizes lubricants labeled with deuterium in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to allow for the separation of individual lubricants from all other material constituents. All of the deuterium labeled lubricants, used without MAPP, revealed their expulsion from the wood interface during crystallization. MAPP coupling agent was found to exist near the wood, but it is unclear if any covalent bonding with the hydroxyl functionality on the wood surface occurred. The addition of zinc stearate lubricants appears to nullify the activity of the anhydride functionality near the wood surface as evidenced by a shift in the FT-IR spectra to the hydrolyzed form of the coupling agent. Most of the additives collect at the edges of the spherulites in mostly amorphous regions of the material. The consequence of this morphology may be a weak interface between crystallites. PMID:16925926

Harper, David P; Wolcott, Michael P

2006-08-01

110

Does Colour Preference Have a Role in Colour Term Acquisition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A developmental association exists between colour preference and emerging colour term acquisition in young children. Colour preference might influence colour term acquisition by directing attention towards or away from a particular colour, making it more or less memorable. To investigate the role that colour preference may have in the acquisition…

Pitchford, Nicola J.; Davis, Emma E.; Scerif, Gaia

2009-01-01

111

Distribution of UV-shielding of the epidermis of sun and shade leaves of the beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) as monitored by multi-colour fluorescence imaging.  

PubMed

Plants can protect against damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation by accumulating UV-absorbing substances in the epidermis of the leaves. Sun and shade leaves of a free standing beech tree (Fagus sylvatica L.) were studied for the differences in UV-shielding of the epidermis by means of multi-colour fluorescence images taken with UV and blue excitation. The distribution of the fluorescence intensity was detected over intact leaves in the emission maxima in the blue at 440 nm (F440), in the green at 520 nm (F520), in the red at 690 nm (F690) and in the far red at 740 nm (F740). Images of the logarithmic ratio between F690 excited in the blue and the UV (log ((B)F690/(UV)F690)) were calculated representing the relative absorption of UV in the epidermis and thus the degree of UV-shielding. It was found that UV-shielding is stronger for sun leaves than for shade leaves and better for the upper (adaxial) leaf side than for the lower (abaxial) leaf side of both leaf types. Within one leaf the highest value for the ratio log ((B)F690/(UV)F690) and thus the highest UV-shielding was found at the leaf rim which in broad leaves contains young tissue. PMID:17126731

Lenk, Sándor; Buschmann, Claus

2006-12-01

112

Colour-coded echographic flow imaging and spectral analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in infants. Part II. CSF-dynamics.  

PubMed

41 comprehensive colour Doppler studies (including spectral analysis) of the ventricular system were performed in 6 infants with CSF-flow (age range: 2 to 27 days). Two premature infants showed no evidence of disease related to the central nervous system (CNS). Overt intraventricular hemorrhage or CNS-infection were present in the other infants. All children were examined several times until CSF-flow was no longer visible. The entire ventricular system, including the fourth ventricular outlet, was investigated for the presence of CSF-flow signals. Dynamic CSF-flow studies consisted of scanning during typical infant activity (crying, sucking, leg movement) and with external manoeuvres (abdominal or fontanellar palpation). CSF-flow was found to be: 1. synchronous with respiration 2. induced by rising intraabdominal (retrograde CSF-pulse) and transfontanellar pressure (orthograde CSF-pulse) 3. predominantly within the cerebral aqueduct, but also found at the foramina of Monro, within the third and fourth ventricles and at the foramen of Magendie. CSF-flow was not detected at the foramina of Luschka or within the lateral ventricles, except adjacent to the foramina of Monro. Dynamic CSF-flow as observed in infants may have important clinical and scientific implications. Examples of this are activity-related ventricular "reflux" of bacteria, erythrocytes, drugs, radionuclides or contrast; the importance of CSF-flow pulses for the development or progression of hydrocephalus; flow dynamics at the fourth ventricular outlet foramina and the study of CSF-pulse wave velocity and regional compliance. These issues are discussed and the new diagnostic approach is compared with other methods of CSF-investigation. PMID:1594307

Winkler, P

1992-01-01

113

Colour Measurements and Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most common property to measure quality of any material is its appearance. Appearance includes colour, shape, size and surface conditions. The analysis of colour is especially an important consideration when determining the efficacy of variety of postharvest treatments. Consumers can easily be influenced by preconceived ideas of how a particular fruit or vegetable or a processed food should appear, and marketers often attempt to improve upon what nature has painted. Recently colour measurements have also been used as quality parameters and indicator of some inner constituents of the material. In spite of the significance of colour in food industries, many continue to analyze it inadequately. This chapter deals with theory of colour, colour scales and its measurement, sampling techniques, and modeling of colour values for correlating them with some internal quality parameters of selected fruits.

Jha, Shyam N.

114

Loss of connectivity in Alzheimer's disease: an evaluation of white matter tract integrity with colour coded MR diffusion tensor imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A NOVEL MRI METHODdiffusion tensor imaging—was used to compare the integrity of several white matter fibre tracts in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. Relative to normal controls, patients with probable Alzheimer's disease showed a highly significant reduction in the integrity of the association white matter fibre tracts, such as the splenium of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and cingulum.

Stephen E Rose; Fang Chen; Jonathan B Chalk; Fernando O Zelaya; Wendy E Strugnell; Mark Benson; James Semple; David M Doddrell

2000-01-01

115

False-color composite image of Raco, Michigan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a false color composite of Raco, Michigan, centered at 46.39 north latitude and 84.88 east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on the 20th orbit of the Shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is approximately 20 kilometers by 50 kilometers. Raco is located at the eastern end of Michigan's upper peninsula, west of Sault Ste. Marie and south of Whitefish Bay on Lake Superior. In this color representation, darker areas in the image are smooth surfaces such as frozen lakes and other non-forested areas. The colors are related to the types of trees and the brightness is related to the amount of plant material covering the surface, called forest biomass. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43882.

1994-01-01

116

Composition of weakly altered Martian crust: Clues from imaging spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two of the fundamental questions regarding chemical weathering on Mars concern the following topics: the chemical pathways by which pristine crustal rocks are altered to produce observed ferric ironbearing assemblages and inferred clay silicate, sulfate, and magnetic oxide phases; and the timing of the oxidative weathering. High spatial- and spectral-resolution imaging spectrometer data provide a tool to investigate aspects of these questions for material exposed on the surface of Mars. In this study, ISM imaging spectrometer data are used to develop an inventory of least-altered crustal materials and to quantitatively model the mineralogic composition of the weakly altered crustal rocks.

Mustard, John F.; Murchie, Scott L.; Erard, Stephane; Head, James W.

1992-01-01

117

From spectral information to animal colour vision: experiments and concepts  

PubMed Central

Many animals use the spectral distribution of light to guide behaviour, but whether they have colour vision has been debated for over a century. Our strong subjective experience of colour and the fact that human vision is the paradigm for colour science inevitably raises the question of how we compare with other species. This article outlines four grades of ‘colour vision’ that can be related to the behavioural uses of spectral information, and perhaps to the underlying mechanisms. In the first, even without an (image-forming) eye, simple organisms can compare photoreceptor signals to locate a desired light environment. At the next grade, chromatic mechanisms along with spatial vision guide innate preferences for objects such as food or mates; this is sometimes described as wavelength-specific behaviour. Here, we compare the capabilities of di- and trichromatic vision, and ask why some animals have more than three spectral types of receptors. Behaviours guided by innate preferences are then distinguished from a grade that allows learning, in part because the ability to learn an arbitrary colour is evidence for a neural representation of colour. The fourth grade concerns colour appearance rather than colour difference: for instance, the distinction between hue and saturation, and colour categorization. These higher-level phenomena are essential to human colour perception but poorly known in animals, and we suggest how they can be studied. Finally, we observe that awareness of colour and colour qualia cannot be easily tested in animals. PMID:20164101

Kelber, Almut; Osorio, Daniel

2010-01-01

118

The application of digital image processing technology in studying composite insulator pollution flashover  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces the idea of utilizing computer-based image processing technology to conduct precise and objective composite insulator testing. The methods that are most commonly used in testing composite insulators are reviewed. Image-based analysis of hydrophobic insulator classification systems is explored. In conclusion, the author introduces image processing technology into the testing of hydrophobicity of composite insulators.

Hongqi Zhang; Chunguang Wang; Haizhen Kang

2010-01-01

119

Brand Guidelines Colour version  

E-print Network

Brand Guidelines Overview May 2012 #12;Colour version Shield alone Black Colour reverse Colour reverse on red Reverse Brand Overview 1.2 The Signature Our signature system is comprised of two elements and Reverse require special version of the shield, available upon request. #12;1x ¼x ¼x ¼x ¼x ¼x¼x Brand

Shoubridge, Eric

120

Quark interactions and colour chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between quarks, according to the current theory of quantum chromo-dynamics, is formally rather similar to the electromagnetic interaction between electrons and nucleons, both being governed by locally gauge-invariant field theories. It is tempting therefore to discuss the spectroscopy of hadrons, which are quark composites bound by colour forces, in the same language as the spectroscopy of atoms and molecules which are bound states of electrons and nucleons held together by e.m. forces. Because of the difference in gauge groups, however, the dynamics are very different. Nonetheless, it appears likely that metastable multiquark hadron states can exist which are analogous to atoms and molecules in QED. In these lectures, tentative steps are taken in developing the rudiments of a new ‘colour chemistry’ of these ‘atoms’ and ‘molecules’.

Hong-Mo, Chan

121

Colourful FKS subtraction  

E-print Network

I formulate in a colour-friendly way the FKS method for the computation of QCD cross sections at the next-to-leading order accuracy. This is achieved through the definition of subtraction terms for squared matrix elements, constructed with single colour-dressed or pairs of colour-ordered amplitudes. The latter approach relies on the use of colour flows, is exact to all orders in $N$, and is thus particularly suited to being organized as a systematic expansion in 1/N.

Stefano Frixione

2011-06-01

122

Robert Grosseteste's colours  

E-print Network

Here I am proposing a translation and discussion of the De Colore, one of the short scientific treatises written by Robert Grosseteste. In this very short treatise of the mid-1220s, Grosseteste continued the discussion on light and colours he started in the De Iride. He describes two manners of counting colours: one gives an infinity of tones, the other counts seven colours. In both cases, colours are created by the purity or impurity of the transparent medium when light is passing through it. This medieval framework survived until Newton's experiments with prisms.

Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

2013-01-01

123

Three-dimensional plasmonic stereoscopic prints in full colour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal nanostructures can be designed to scatter different colours depending on the polarization of the incident light. Such spectral control is attractive for applications such as high-density optical storage, but challenges remain in creating microprints with a single-layer architecture that simultaneously enables full-spectral and polarization control of the scattered light. Here we demonstrate independently tunable biaxial colour pixels composed of isolated nanoellipses or nanosquare dimers that can exhibit a full range of colours in reflection mode with linear polarization dependence. Effective polarization-sensitive full-colour prints are realized. With this, we encoded two colour images within the same area and further use this to achieve depth perception by realizing three-dimensional stereoscopic colour microprint. Coupled with the low cost and durability of aluminium as the functional material in our pixel design, such polarization-sensitive encoding can realize a wide spectrum of applications in colour displays, data storage and anti-counterfeiting technologies.

Goh, Xiao Ming; Zheng, Yihan; Tan, Shawn J.; Zhang, Lei; Kumar, Karthik; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Yang, Joel K. W.

2014-11-01

124

Imaging Strategies for Assessing Cartilage Composition in Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Efforts to reduce the ever-increasing rates of osteoarthritis (OA) in the developed world require the ability to non-invasively detect the degradation of joint tissues before advanced damage has occurred. This is particularly relevant for damage to articular cartilage because this soft tissue lacks the capacity to repair itself following major damage and is essential to proper joint function. While conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides sufficient contrast to visualize articular cartilage morphology, more advanced imaging strategies are necessary for understanding the underlying biochemical composition of cartilage that begins to break down in the earliest stages of OA. This review discusses the biochemical basis and the advantages and disadvantages associated with each of these techniques. Recent implementations for these techniques are touched upon, and future considerations for improving the research and clinical power of these imaging technologies are also discussed. PMID:25218737

Matzat, Stephen J.; Kogan, Feliks; Fong, Grant W.; Gold, Garry E.

2015-01-01

125

Floral colour diversity in plant communities, bee colour space and a null model  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary biologists have long hypothesized that the diversity of flower colours we see is in part a strategy to promote memorization by pollinators, pollinator constancy, and therefore, a directed and efficient pollen transfer between plants. However, this hypothesis has never been tested against a biologically realistic null model, nor were colours assessed in the way pollinators see them. Our intent here is to fill these gaps. Throughout one year, we sampled floral species compositions at five ecologically distinct sites near Berlin, Germany. Bee-subjective colours were quantified for all 168 species. A model of colour vision was used to predict how similar the colours of sympatric and simultaneously blooming flowers were for bees. We then compared flower colour differences in the real habitats with those of random plant communities. We did not find pronounced deviations from chance when we considered common plants. When we examined rare plants, however, we found significant divergence in two of the five plant communities. At one site, similarly coloured species were found to be more frequent than expected, and at the other two locations, flower colours were indistinguishable from a random distribution. These results fit theoretical considerations that rare plants are under stronger selective pressure to secure pollination than common plants. Our study illustrates the power of linking such distinct biological traditions as community ecology and the neuroethology of bee vision.

Gumbert, A.; Kunze, J.; Chittka, L.

1999-01-01

126

Colour doppler valvar and subvalvar flow diameter imaging versus echo score in mitral stenosis: comparison with type of surgery.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To compare the value of echo score with that of Doppler subvalvar flow broadening in deciding the type of mitral stenosis surgery. PATIENTS: 30 patients, mean age 47 years, with severe stenosis undergoing surgery were divided into two groups according to type of surgery: open heart commissurotomy (group 1, n = 12), or prosthesis (group 2, n = 18). A control group of 10 patients with prosthesis served as reference, representing mild stenosis without subvalvar connection. METHODS: For echo, the score proposed by Wilkins for cross sectional imaging was used. For Doppler, the flow diameters were measured in cm by an independent examiner from the long axis view in early diastole at two levels: (1) at the level of the stenosis (origin flow diameter), and (2) 1.5 cm downstream from the stenosis in the left ventricle (subvalvar flow diameter) with calculation of a Doppler ratio relating these two measurements, expressed as a percentage of broadening. Diagnostic value was compared for both procedures. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in age, mitral valve areas, or haemodynamics for the two groups. Mean values (SD) were: echo score: group 1, 9.83 (1.26) v group 2, 10.8 (8.1), NS; Doppler ratio %: group 1, 44 (24) v group 2, 12 (21) (P < 0.001); control group: 69 (15). The per cent diagnostic value for an open heart commissurotomy of respective cut off points was: Doppler ratio > 25% (range 71% to 87%); echo score < 10 (range 50% to 75%). CONCLUSIONS: The new Doppler ratio diagnostic value agreed better with surgical management, repair or prosthesis, in this study. Thus, it appears to better reflect the subvalvar involvement and changes in kinetics than the echo score alone. This easy Doppler method might become a routine examination for follow up of patients with open heart commissurotomy, to avoid performing repeated transoesophageal echocardiography. Images PMID:8665342

Veyrat, C.; Pellerin, D.; Sainte Beuve, D.; Larrazet, F.; Kalmanson, D.; Witchitz, S.

1996-01-01

127

Document Image Processing: Going beyond the Black-and-White Barrier. Progress, Issues and Options with Greyscale and Colour Image Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of digital document image processing focuses on issues and options associated with greyscale and color image processing. Topics include speed; size of original document; scanning resolution; markets for different categories of scanners, including photographic libraries, publishing, and office applications; hybrid systems; data…

Hendley, Tom

1995-01-01

128

`Flight of colours' in lesions of the visual system 1  

PubMed Central

A bright pocket flashlight was directed into one eye for 10 seconds; the subject then closed the eyelids and reported the sequence of after-image colours observed. Lesions of the visual system which compromised bilateral central colour vision also reduced or abolished the `flight of colours'. This simple bedside test of each eye independently is of value in detecting mild defects of central vision. PMID:4457619

Feldman, Martin; Todman, Leo; Bender, Morris B.

1974-01-01

129

Ultrasonic scanning system for imaging flaw growth in composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for measuring and visually representing damage in composite specimens while they are being loaded was demonstrated. It uses a hobbiest grade microcomputer system to control data taking and image processing. The system scans operator selected regions of the specimen while it is under load in a tensile test machine and measures internal damage by the attenuation of a 2.5 MHz ultrasonic beam passed through the specimen. The microcomputer dynamically controls the position of ultrasonic transducers mounted on a two axis motor driven carriage. As many as 65,536 samples can be taken and filed on a floppy disk system in less than four minutes.

Kiraly, L. J.; Meyn, E. H.

1982-01-01

130

Unconventional colour vision.  

PubMed

Butterflies and stomatopods are certainly outliers in their unconventional colour sense and despite some similarities at first glance, in fact sample the world of colour very differently. In one way, butterflies are relatively conventional, possessing either tri-or tetrachromatic colour vision, then just adding one or several task-specific sub-mechanisms onto this. It is the stomatopods so far that have really pushed the boat out into a different colour vision mechanism. Over 400 million years of independent evolution they have arrived at a solution with more in common with the way a satellite sensor examines the colours of the earth than other animals. Remember, however, that unconventional colour vision is not just the realm of the serially polychromatic. Apparently waterfleas with four classes of spectral receptors living in ponds operate a task-specific spectral sense with no need, or indeed neural processing power, to construct a complex discriminatory mechanism. It seems they have the butterfly added-extra set without the more complex comparative chromatic mechanisms, although in truth, conclusive behavioural proof is lacking. Behavioural observation of colour vision in the ecological context of each animal is vital before making the distinction between conventional and unconventional. Just counting spectral sensitivities is never enough. PMID:25514002

Marshall, Justin; Arikawa, Kentaro

2014-12-15

131

Adaptive colouration in amphibians.  

PubMed

Amphibians, i.e. salamanders, frogs and caecilians show a wide range of bright colours in combination with contrasting patterns. There is variation among species, populations and also within species and populations. Furthermore, individuals often change colours during developmental stages or in response to environmental factors. This extraordinary variation means that there are excellent opportunities to test hypotheses of the adaptive significance of colours using amphibian species as models. We review the present view of functions of colouration in amphibians with the main focus on relatively unexplored topics. Variation in colouration has been found to play a role in thermoregulation, UV protection, predator avoidance and sexual signalling. However, many proposed cases of adaptive functions of colouration in amphibians remain virtually scientifically unexplored and surprisingly few genes influencing pigmentation or patterning have been detected. We would like to especially encourage more studies that take advantage of recent developments in measurement of visual properties of several possible signalling receivers (e.g. predators, competitors or mates). Future investigations on interactions between behaviour, ecology and vision have the potential to challenge our current view of the adaptive function of colouration in amphibians. PMID:23664831

Rudh, Andreas; Qvarnström, Anna

2013-01-01

132

Content-Based Image Retrieval Using a Composite Color-Shape Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a composite feature measure which combines the shape and color features of an image based on a clustering technique. A similarity measure computes the degree of match between a given pair of images; this technique can be used for content-based image retrieval of images using shape and/or color. Tests the technique on two image databases;…

Mehtre, Babu M.; Kankanhalli, Mohan S.; Lee, Wing Foon

1998-01-01

133

Quantitative Luminance And Colour Representation With CRT Displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colour displays in image processing admit grey scales as well as colour scales for the visual representation of image information. Pseudocolours can be used to enhance the discriminability of different parts of the image. Luminance scales, on the other hand, are preferred for representing fine detail as human colour vision is limited to relatively low spatial frequencies. In the present paper, the generation of quantitative luminance and colour scales with CRT displays is discussed. This includes the colour characteristics of CRTs as well as a recapitulation of the CIE 1931 (X, Y, Z) tristimulus colorimetry system. The CIE 1976 UCS diagram (u', v') is used as an approximation to a perceptually uniform representation of chromaticity. On this basis, it is shown how, for each pixel, luminance and colour (hue) can be chosen independently. In order to add colour as a further visual dimension to greyscale images, a set of equiluminant hues is proposed for each luminance level. The hues are chosen from equidistant steps around a circle in the (u', v') chromaticity diagram. This choice of colours is particularly suitable for the visual representation of a cyclic quantity like phase angle.

Brettel, Hans

1989-03-01

134

Colour Mixing Based on Daylight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large…

Meyn, Jan-Peter

2008-01-01

135

Signal functions of carotenoid colouration  

E-print Network

The importance of carotenoids for natural colouration, in relation to other classes of pigments and structural colours, has been outlined in Chapter 10. But colour only has significance if it is perceived, identified and interpreted by other organisms (animals). In other words, colour is a means of communication, a signal. Now, in this Chapter, this new direction for carotenoid

Jonathan D. Blount; Kevin J. Mcgraw

2008-01-01

136

Evaluation of colour properties and chemical quality parameters of cactus juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition and visual appearance of cactus fruits from the genera Opuntia and Hylocereus were investigated. Colour properties were assessed in solutions with pH ranging from 1 to 8 and expressed as chroma, hue and colour shade. Between pH 3 and 7, all samples were stable as indicated by hue and chroma values. The colour shade of the red

Florian C. Stintzing; Andreas Schieber; Reinhold Carle

2003-01-01

137

Medical Image Analysis 7 (2003) 489502 www.elsevier.com/locate/media  

E-print Network

) the spectral composition of the light skin cancer. 1 *Corresponding author. Tel.: 144-121-414-4778; fax: 144 histology: Physics-based interpretation of images of pigmented skin lesions a , b c d *Ela Claridge , Symon the internal structure and composition of pigmented skin lesions can be derived from their colour images

Claridge, Ela

138

Mammographic quantitative image analysis and biologic image composition for breast lesion characterization and classification  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate whether biologic image composition of mammographic lesions can improve upon existing mammographic quantitative image analysis (QIA) in estimating the probability of malignancy. Methods: The study population consisted of 45 breast lesions imaged with dual-energy mammography prior to breast biopsy with final diagnosis resulting in 10 invasive ductal carcinomas, 5 ductal carcinomain situ, 11 fibroadenomas, and 19 other benign diagnoses. Analysis was threefold: (1) The raw low-energy mammographic images were analyzed with an established in-house QIA method, “QIA alone,” (2) the three-compartment breast (3CB) composition measure—derived from the dual-energy mammography—of water, lipid, and protein thickness were assessed, “3CB alone”, and (3) information from QIA and 3CB was combined, “QIA + 3CB.” Analysis was initiated from radiologist-indicated lesion centers and was otherwise fully automated. Steps of the QIA and 3CB methods were lesion segmentation, characterization, and subsequent classification for malignancy in leave-one-case-out cross-validation. Performance assessment included box plots, Bland–Altman plots, and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions (invasive and DCIS) was 0.81 (standard error 0.07) for the “QIA alone” method, 0.72 (0.07) for “3CB alone” method, and 0.86 (0.04) for “QIA+3CB” combined. The difference in AUC was 0.043 between “QIA + 3CB” and “QIA alone” but failed to reach statistical significance (95% confidence interval [–0.17 to + 0.26]). Conclusions: In this pilot study analyzing the new 3CB imaging modality, knowledge of the composition of breast lesions and their periphery appeared additive in combination with existing mammographic QIA methods for the distinction between different benign and malignant lesion types.

Drukker, Karen, E-mail: kdrukker@uchicago.edu; Giger, Maryellen L.; Li, Hui [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Duewer, Fred; Malkov, Serghei; Joe, Bonnie; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John A. [Radiology Department, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)] [Radiology Department, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Flowers, Chris I. [Department of Radiology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Drukteinis, Jennifer S. [Department of Radiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)

2014-03-15

139

Computer analysis of Van Gogh's complementary colours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, the analysis of visual arts is performed by human art experts only. The availability of advanced artificial intelligence techniques makes it possible to support art experts in their judgement of visual art. In this article currently available image-analysis techniques are applied. Our aim is (1) to determine how successful the usage of complementary colours was in the oeuvre of

Igor Berezhnoy; Eric O. Postma; H. Jaap Van Den Herik

2007-01-01

140

Compositional maps of Saturn's moon Phoebe from imaging spectroscopy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The origin of Phoebe, which is the outermost large satellite of Saturn, is of particular interest because its inclined, retrograde orbit suggests that it was gravitationally captured by Saturn, having accreted outside the region of the solar nebula in which Saturn formed. By contrast, Saturn's regular satellites (with prograde, low-inclination, circular orbits) probably accreted within the sub-nebula in which Saturn itself formed. Here we report imaging spectroscopy of Phoebe resulting from the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft encounter on 11 June 2004. We mapped ferrous-iron-bearing minerals, bound water, trapped CO2, probable phyllosilicates, organics, nitriles and cyanide compounds. Detection of these compounds on Phoebe makes it one of the most compositionally diverse objects yet observed in our Solar System. It is likely that Phoebe's surface contains primitive materials from the outer Solar System, indicating a surface of cometary origin.

Clark, R.N.; Brown, R.H.; Jaumann, R.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Nelson, R.M.; Buratti, B.J.; McCord, T.B.; Lunine, J.; Baines, K.H.; Bellucci, G.; Bibring, J.-P.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Coradini, A.; Formisano, V.; Langevin, Y.; Matson, D.L.; Mennella, V.; Nicholson, P.D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, C.; Hoefen, T.M.; Curchin, J.M.; Hansen, G.; Hibbits, K.; Matz, K.-D.

2005-01-01

141

The architecture of the colour centre in the human visual brain: new results and a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used the technique of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a variety of colour paradigms to activate the human brain regions selective for colour. We show here that the region defined previously (Lueck et al., 1989; Zeki et al., 1991; McKeefry and Zeki, 1997) as the human colour centre consists of two subdivisions, a posterior one, which we

Andreas Bartels; Semir Zeki

2000-01-01

142

Radiopacity evaluation of contemporary resin composites by digitization of images  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of different composite resins and compare the values to those of human enamel and dentine. Materials and Methods: Five specimens of each material with thicknesses of 2 mm were prepared and radiographed alongside aluminum step wedge and human enamel and dentin. Three occlusal radiographs for each material were taken and digitized using a desktop scanner. Mean gray values of the test materials were measured using Image J software. Then a conversion was performed according to establish the radiopacity of the test materials, in millimeters of equivalent Al. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Duncan multiple range tests (P < 0.05). Results: The radiopacity values varied among the restorative materials (P < 0.05). The radiopacity values of the materials tested were, in decreasing order: Enamel Plus HRI > Z250 > Filtek Ultimate ? Z550 > Nexcomp ? Nanoceram Bright > enamel ? Estelite Sigma Quick > Clearfil Majesty Esthetic ? Reflexions XLS ? Aelite LS Posterior ? dentin ? 2 mm Al. Conclusion: All resin composite materials investigated in this study presented different radiopacity values. However, all materials had radiopacity values greater than dentin and had sufficient radiopacity to meet International Organization for Standardization 4049 standard. PMID:25202214

Ermis, R. Banu; Yildirim, Derya; Yildiz, Gul; Gormez, Ozlem

2014-01-01

143

A Method for Compositing Polar MODIS Satellite Images to Remove Cloud Cover for Landfast Sea-Ice Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents details of techniques for generating thermal infrared and visible composite images from the cloud-free portions of temporally closely spaced MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images, with a focus on studies of landfast sea ice along the East Antarctic coast. Composite image inclusion criteria are based on modified MODIS Earth Observing System cloud mask product results. The compositing

Alexander D. Fraser; Robert A. Massom; Kelvin J. Michael

2009-01-01

144

Compositional Factors in the Study of Visual Images and Their Application to Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the established principles of composition of visual images, discussing the application of those principles to moving visual images in general and television pictures in particular. Fundamental compositional principles of the visual communication media are explored in relation to television as an art form--namely, direction,…

Metallinos, Nikos

145

Visualization of magnetization processes of soft magnetic composites by the magneto-optical imaging technique  

E-print Network

Visualization of magnetization processes of soft magnetic composites by the magneto-optical imaging January 2007; published online 7 May 2007 Attractive features of soft magnetic composites SMCs are high of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2713706 I. INTRODUCTION The applications of soft magnetic composites SMCs

Johansen, Tom Henning

146

Colour, vision and ergonomics.  

PubMed

This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age. PMID:22317623

Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

2012-01-01

147

Coloured marking inside glass by laser radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser labelling inside glass induces micro-cracks by high energy densities in the focus. The micro-cracks reduce the mechanical stability of glass. Light scattering allows the observer to perceive the cracks as white pixels. Coloured marking of glass in this manner is not possible. Coloured marking inside glass by changing the oxidation state of the metal ions locally in the focus does not weaken the mechanical properties of the glass. Two kind of glass systems, lime-natron-silicate and borosilicate with 0.5 % mass-content of doping are investigated. The simultaneous presence of donators and acceptors allows a transition of electrons between polyvalent ions, and can lead to permanent colour-centres inside the glass, due to the fact that the absorption of the polyvalent ions is changed by the laser-induced conversion process. For this purpose a 3 ? Nd:YAG (wavelength ?L = 355 nm, pulse duration t = 10 to 80 ns) and a Ti:Sapphire solid-state laser (wavelength ?L = 810 nm, pulse duration t = 200 fs) are used. The radiation parameters and the chemical composition of the glass (mainly doping) are the dominant factors to generate coloured marking. The transmittance as a function of the fluence and the change of the absorption coefficient is measured and gives a statement of the colourshade. Further the difference between lime-natron-silicate and borosilicate glass (same doping variety) is examined. Actually mauve, yellow, red-brown an grey colouring can be produced. Cracks in the microstructure of glass can also be the cause for brown colour-centres generating.

Ligbado, Grace; Horn, Alexander; Kreutz, Ernst W.; Krauss, Manfred M.; Siedow, Norbert; Hensel, Hartmut

2005-11-01

148

Measuring the colour of rendering mortars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When restoring decorative mortar layers on historic façades, professionals need to determine the colour of these finishes in order to select an appropriate repair mortar. Currently, the appearance of these renders is only assessed from a subjective point of view. To match with the aesthetic aspects of the façade, contractors must constantly adjust their repair mortar composition to avoid a patchwork of different colours, which is detrimental for heritage. This time-consuming (trial-and-error) methodology can be excluded by evaluating `colour' with an objective numerical approach. The challenge of the research was to define and evaluate optimal material dependent boundary conditions for measuring the colour of nonhomogeneous mortars. Four samples with different scale of heterogeneity were measured by two spectrocolorimeters, both with a diffuse illumination geometry. The results were plotted in CIE-L*a*b* colour space. By calculating the colour difference (?E*), the influence of measuring with or without specular component was evaluated. We discovered the minimal number of measuring points depends on the scale of heterogeneity and the aperture area. The less homogeneous the mortar sample is and the smaller the aperture area, the more unique measuring points are required. Therefore, it is recommended to choose an aperture head of 25 mm or more to reduce the number of measurements, making your work time-efficient. However, in order to obtain accurate measurements on site, a portable optical spectrum analyser can be used with a 6 mm-diameter aperture, a viewing angle of 10°, SCI mode, illumination source D65, considering a minimum of 15 unique measuring points.

Govaerts, Yves; Meulebroeck, Wendy; Verdonck, Ann; de Bouw, Michael

2014-05-01

149

Colorimetric characterisation of flatbed scanners for rock/sediment imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colour is a physical property of rocks and sediments that has the potential to provide key insights into composition, and by extension the physical and chemical processes governing deposition. The rapid, non-destructive measurement of colour using spectrophotometers is an increasingly popular way of generating long datasets (i.e. >1000 data points) suitable for high-resolution palaeoclimate analysis. Digital image analysis of core photographs is another commonly applied method of extracting colour information, but the application of flatbed scanners for direct rock and sediment colour measurement has not received widespread attention. Here, a simple calibration methodology is presented that demonstrates how scanners can be colorimetrically characterised. The technique offers a quantitative approach to colour analysis that is superior to the subjective comparison of rocks/sediments to Munsell colour charts. Moreover, the accuracy of the method makes rock and sediment scanning a viable alternative to colour analysis using spectrophotometers. The technique is applied to Late Pleistocene sediment samples from the Canterbury Basin, New Zealand (IODP 317, Site U1352B) to emphasise the utility and precision of the method and the tight relationship between sediment colour and composition.

Kemp, David B.

2014-06-01

150

Thermographic Imaging for High-Temperature Composite Materials—A Defect Detection Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of a thermographic imaging technique for detecting flat-bottom hole defects of various diameters and depths was evaluated in four composite systems (two types of ceramic-matrix composites, one metal-matrix composite, and one polymer-matrix composite) of interest as high-temperature structural materials. The holes ranged from 1 to 13 mm in diameter and 0.1 to 2.5 mm in depth in samples

D. J. Roth; J. R. Bodis; C. Bishop

1997-01-01

151

Thermographic Imaging for High-Temperature Composite Materials—A Defect Detection Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

.    The ability of a thermographic imaging technique for detecting flat-bottom hole defects of various diameters and depths was\\u000a evaluated in four composite systems (two types of ceramic-matrix composites, one metal-matrix composite, and one polymer-matrix\\u000a composite) of interest as high-temperature structural materials. The holes ranged from 1 to 13 mm in diameter and 0.1 to 2.5\\u000a mm in depth

D. J. Roth; J. R. Bodis; C. Bishop

1997-01-01

152

Thermographic imaging for high-temperature composite materials: A defect detection study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of a thermographic imaging technique for detecting flat-bottom hole defects of various diameters and depths was evaluated in four composite systems (two types of ceramic matrix composites, one metal matrix composite, and one polymer matrix composite) of interest as high-temperature structural materials. The holes ranged from 1 to 13 mm in diameter and 0.1 to 2.5 mm in

Don J. Roth; James R. Bodis; Chip Bishop

1995-01-01

153

Composite and classified color display in MR imaging of the female pelvis.  

PubMed

Because of its superior soft-tissue-imaging capabilities, MRI has proved to be an excellent modality for visualizing the contents of the female pelvis. In an effort to potentially improve gynecological MRI studies, we have applied color composite techniques to sets of spin-echo and gradient-echo gray-tone MR images obtained from various individuals. For composite generation, based on tissue region of interest calculated mean pixel intensity values, various colors were applied to spatially aligned images using a DEC MicroVAX II computer with interactive digital language (IDL) so that tissue contrast patterns could be optimized in the final image. The IDL procedures, which are similar to those used in NASA's LANDSAT image processing system, allowed the generation of single composite images displaying the combined information present in a series of spatially aligned images acquired using different pulse sequences. With our composite generation techniques, it was possible to generate seminatural-appearing color images of the female pelvis that possessed enhanced conspicuity of specific tissues and fluids. For comparison with color composites, classified images were also generated based on computer recognition and statistical separation of distinct tissue intensity patterns in an image set using the maximum likelihood processing algorithm. PMID:1545674

Brown, H K; Hazelton, T R; Fiorica, J V; Parsons, A K; Clarke, L P; Silbiger, M L

1992-01-01

154

Geometric Characterisation of Light Weight Composites Using Computer Tomographic Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

One way of generating light weight composites is to insert porous ceramic grains into the melt of the matrix. The foam like inner structure of the grains causes a considerable weight reduction. On the other hand, it is desired that the mechanical properties of the matrix carry over to the composite. The properties of the composite depend both on the

Michael GODEHARDT; Katja SCHLADITZ

2006-01-01

155

Segmenting Scenes by Matching Image Composites Bryan C. Russell1  

E-print Network

investigate how, given an image, similar images sharing the same global description can help with unsupervised scene segmentation. In contrast to recent work in semantic alignment of scenes, we allow an input image is painfully under-constrained ­ given a single image, it is extremely difficult to parti- tion

Freeman, William T.

156

Column-by-column compositional mapping by Z-contrast imaging  

SciTech Connect

A phenomenological method is developed to determine the composition of materials, with atomic column resolution, by analysis of integrated intensities of aberration-corrected Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy images. The method is exemplified for InAsxP1-x alloys using epitaxial thin films with calibrated compositions as standards. Using this approach we have determined the composition of the two-dimensional wetting layer formed between self-assembled InAs quantum wires on InP (001) substrates. The method utilizes a series of B coefficients that models the background signal in Z-contrast images, which is unaccounted for by image simulations.

Molina Rubio, Sergio I [ORNL; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Sales Lerida, David [ORNL; Galindo, Pedro [Universidad de Cadiz, Spain; Fuster, David [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC); Gonzalez, Yolanda [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC); Alen, B. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC); Gonzalez, Luisa [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC); Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL

2009-01-01

157

Artist: Ken Hodges Composite image explaining Objective and Motivation for Galileo Probe Heat Loads:  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artist: Ken Hodges Composite image explaining Objective and Motivation for Galileo Probe Heat Loads: Galileo Probe descending into Jupiters Atmosphere shows heat shield separation with parachute deployed. (Ref. JPL P-19180)

1981-01-01

158

Composite finite elements for 3D image based computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithmical concept for modeling and simulation with partial differential equations (PDEs) in image based\\u000a computing where the computational geometry is defined through previously segmented image data. Such problems occur in applications\\u000a from biology and medicine where the underlying image data has been acquired through, e.g. computed tomography (CT), magnetic\\u000a resonance imaging (MRI) or electron microscopy (EM). Based

Florian Liehr; Tobias Preusser; Martin Rumpf; Stefan Sauter; Lars Ole Schwen

2009-01-01

159

Estimation of carcass composition and cut composition from computed tomography images of live growing pigs of different genotypes.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was (1) to study the relationship between cross-sectional computed tomography (CT) images obtained in live growing pigs of different genotypes and dissection measurements and (2) to estimate carcass composition and cut composition from CT measurements. Sixty gilts from three genotypes (Duroc×(Landrace×Large White), Pietrain×(Landrace×Large White), and Landrace×Large White) were CT scanned and slaughtered at 30 kg (n=15), 70 kg (n=15), 100 kg (n=12) or 120 kg (n=18). Carcasses were cut and the four main cuts were dissected. The distribution of density volumes on the Hounsfield scale (HU) were obtained from CT images and classified into fat (HU between -149 and -1), muscle (HU between 0 and 140) or bone (HU between 141 and 1400). Moreover, physical measurements were obtained on an image of the loin and an image of the ham. Four different regression approaches were studied to predict carcass and cut composition: linear regression, quadratic regression and allometric equations using volumes as predictors, and linear regression using volumes and physical measurements as predictors. Results show that measurements from whole animal taken in vivo with CT allow accurate estimation of carcass and cut composition. The prediction accuracy varied across genotypes, BW and variable to be predicted. In general, linear models, allometric models and linear models, which included also physical measurements at the loin and the ham, produced the lowest prediction errors. PMID:25213454

Font-I-Furnols, Maria; Carabús, Anna; Pomar, Candido; Gispert, Marina

2015-01-01

160

Segmenting Scenes by Matching Image Composites Bryan C. Russell1  

E-print Network

of Oxford Abstract In this paper, we investigate how, given an image, similar images sharing the same global description can help with unsupervised scene segmentation. In contrast to recent work in semantic alignment, is a fundamentally challenging prob- lem. The task is painfully under-constrained ­ given a single image

Sivic, Josef

161

A New Approach to Decoding and Compositing Motion-Compensated DCT-Based Images  

E-print Network

A New Approach to Decoding and Compositing Motion- Compensated DCT-Based Images Shih-Fu Chang the computational speedup of compositing DCT-compressed video directly in the DCT domain, compared, filtering, etc. In this paper, we propose a new decoding algorithm for MC-DCT compressed video which con

Chang, Shih-Fu

162

Fired 0-3 Piezoelectric Composite Materials for Biomedical Ultrasonic Imaging Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric composite materials have found wide applications in various transducer devices as they can easily be tailored to the specific needs of a device engineer. cently developed fired 0-3 composites show encouragi ng properties as transducers for biomedical imaging applications. prepared by pressing pellets of PZT powder, heat treating them at different temperatures from 7000 C to 900° C, and

C. Madhavan; T. R. Gururaja; T. T. Srinivasan; Q. C. Xu; R. E. Newnam

1987-01-01

163

A METHOD FOR COLOR NAMING AND DESCRIPTION OF COLOR COMPOSITION IN IMAGES  

E-print Network

A METHOD FOR COLOR NAMING AND DESCRIPTION OF COLOR COMPOSITION IN IMAGES Aleksandra Mojsilovic IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 30 Saw Mill River Road, Hawthorne, NY 10532 ABSTRACT Color is one and extraction of color composition. In this work we start from the National Bureau of Standards' recommendation

Mojsilovic, Aleksandra

164

The colours of the Sun  

E-print Network

We compile a sample of Sun-like stars with accurate effective temperatures, metallicities and colours (from the UV to the near-IR). A crucial improvement is that the effective temperature scale of the stars has recently been established as both accurate and precise through direct measurement of angular diameters obtained with stellar interferometers. We fit the colours as a function of effective temperature and metallicity, and derive colour estimates for the Sun in the Johnson/Cousins, Tycho, Stromgren, 2MASS and SDSS photometric systems. For (B-V)_Sun, we favour the ``red'' colour 0.64 versus the ``blue'' colour 0.62 of other recent papers, but both values are consistent within the errors; we ascribe the difference to the selection of Sun-like stars versus interpolation of wider colour-Teff-metallicity relations.

Johan Holmberg; Chris Flynn; Laura Portinari

2005-11-06

165

NATURAL COLOUR URBAN 3D MODELLING A STEREOSCOPIC APPROACH WITH IKONOS MULTISPECTRSAL AND PANCHROMATIC DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach for generating urban 3D colour models using a stereoscopic technique and the commercial high- resolution satellite image data. The concept and result of the approach is presented. The paper demonstrates that it is possible to model an urban environment in natural colour 3D using the new commercial high-resolution satellite image data. The approach is fast

Yun Zhang

2002-01-01

166

Nondestructive inspection of tagged composites using real-time magneto-optic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While magneto-optic/eddy current imagers (MOIs) are widely used for the nondestructive inspection (NDI) of aging aluminum airframes, they are not currently used to inspect aerospace composites for two reasons. First, most composites are essentially electrical insulators, which makes it difficult for the MOI to induce sufficient eddy currents in these materials for imaging. Second, unlike steel, which can be easily magnetized and inspected using the MOI, most composites are not appreciably magnetic. Exceptions to these two stated limitations are composites containing electrically conducting 'screens' of aluminum or copper for lighting-protection, 'stealthy' military composites containing iron particles for radar absorption, and some commercial composites containing nickel-coated carbon fibers for lighting protection and/or electromagnetic shielding. These existing composites can be inspected, to one degree or another,with the MOI. Moreover, by 'tagging' the matrix component of newly-manufactured composites with magnetic oxides, excellent MOI images of cracks, voids, potential disbonds and defects in fiber-weave are possible. Experimental results presented here demonstrate these facts. It is anticipated that when this new technology is perfected, and when magnetic 'tagging' at the time of manufacture becomes an accepted practice, the MOI will be widely used for the NDI of composites during their manufacture, in-service inspection or repair.

Fitzpatrick, Gerald L.; Thome, David K.; Skaugset, Richard L.; Shih, William C.

1996-11-01

167

Fluorescent PolystyreneFe3O4 Composite Nanospheres for In Vivo Imaging and Hyperthermia  

E-print Network

Fluorescent Polystyrene­Fe3O4 Composite Nanospheres for In Vivo Imaging and Hyperthermia By Donglu hyperthermia.[16] The main purpose of this work is to present a new strategy in biomedical nanotechnology that allows simultaneous in vivo imaging and local therapy via hyperthermia. This novel concept is based

Papautsky, Ian

168

Monitoring of wildfires in boreal forests using large area AVHRR NDVI composite image data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composite image data, produced from AVHRR data collected in 1990, were evaluated for locating and mapping the areal extent of wildfires in the boreal forests of Alaska during that year. A technique was developed to map forest fire boundaries by subtracting a late-summer AVHRR NDVI image from an early summer scene. The locations and boundaries

E. S. Kasischke; N. H. F. French; P. Harrell; N. L. Jr. Christensen; S. L. Ustin; D. Barry

1993-01-01

169

Spitzer MIPS Infrared Imaging of M31: Further Evidence for a Spiral-Ring Composite Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

New images of M31 at 24, 70, and 160 mum taken with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) reveal the morphology of the dust in this galaxy. This morphology is well represented by a composite of two logarithmic spiral arms and a circular ring (radius ~10 kpc) of star formation offset from the nucleus. The two spiral arms appear

K. D. Gordon; J. Bailin; C. W. Engelbracht; G. H. Rieke; K. A. Misselt; W. B. Latter; E. T. Young; M. L. N. Ashby; P. Barmby; B. K. Gibson; D. C. Hines; J. Hinz; O. Krause; D. A. Levine; F. R. Marleau; A. Noriega-Crespo; S. Stolovy; D. A. Thilker; M. W. Werner

2006-01-01

170

Three-dimensional plasmonic stereoscopic prints in full colour.  

PubMed

Metal nanostructures can be designed to scatter different colours depending on the polarization of the incident light. Such spectral control is attractive for applications such as high-density optical storage, but challenges remain in creating microprints with a single-layer architecture that simultaneously enables full-spectral and polarization control of the scattered light. Here we demonstrate independently tunable biaxial colour pixels composed of isolated nanoellipses or nanosquare dimers that can exhibit a full range of colours in reflection mode with linear polarization dependence. Effective polarization-sensitive full-colour prints are realized. With this, we encoded two colour images within the same area and further use this to achieve depth perception by realizing three-dimensional stereoscopic colour microprint. Coupled with the low cost and durability of aluminium as the functional material in our pixel design, such polarization-sensitive encoding can realize a wide spectrum of applications in colour displays, data storage and anti-counterfeiting technologies. PMID:25369035

Goh, Xiao Ming; Zheng, Yihan; Tan, Shawn J; Zhang, Lei; Kumar, Karthik; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Yang, Joel K W

2014-01-01

171

SingleColour and SingleFlavour Colour Superconductivity  

E-print Network

Chromodynamics (QCD) predicts that at high density, such as that found within the core of a compact star, cold interactions, as is required when modelling compact stars, the situation changes. These e#ects introduce colour a study of single­flavour and other spin­1 colour supercon­ ducting condensates in a survey of generic

Low, Robert

172

Composition of biosonar images for target recognition by echolocating bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echolocating bats can recognize flying insects as sonar targets in a variety of different acoustic situations ranging from open spaces to dense clutter. Target classification must depend on perceiving images whose dimensions can tolerate intrusion of additional echoes from other objects, even echoes arriving at about the same time as those from the insect, without disrupting image organization. The big

James A. Simmons; Prestor A. Saillant; Janine M. Wotton; Tim Haresign; Michael J. Ferragamo; Cynthia F. Moss

1995-01-01

173

Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft Composites Using Dielectric Properties and Imaging in the Terahertz Spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz imaging and dielectric property measurements were assessed as nondestructive evaluation techniques for damage to aircraft glass fiber composites. Samples with localized heat damage showed a minimal change in refractive index or absorption coefficient; however, material blistering was detected. Voids were located by terahertz imaging using amplitude and phase techniques. Delamination depths were approximated by measuring the timing of Fabry-Perot reflections. Evidence of bending stress damage and simulated hidden cracks was also detected with terahertz imaging.

Stoik, C. D.; Bohn, M. J.; Blackshire, J. L.

2009-03-01

174

Thermal imaging of graphite/epoxy composite samples with fabricated defects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Consideration is given to a thermal inspection system for quickly inspecting large area composites for increased reliability and maintainability of helicopters resulting from improved quality assurance manufacturing. The infrared camera/image processor-based inspection system was used to image defects in composites. Noncontacting and single-sided measurements were performed on graphite/epoxy samples with fiber volume fraction variations, fabricated porosity, impact damage, and inclusions in incurred lay ups. These defects were imaged by determining the variations in the cooling rates caused by differences in through ply thermal diffusivity. Attention is also given to the system's sensitivity to measuring the defects due to sample thickness.

Zalameda, Joseph N.; Winfree, William P.

1991-01-01

175

Data-oriented composite-kernel-based support vector machine for image classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One novel composite kernel based support vector machine (SVM), which is called DOCKSVM (Data Oriented Composite Kernel based Support Vector Machine) is proposed in the paper. SVM have been proved good potential in various studies, and tried to application for pattern classification problems such as text categorization, image classification, objects detection etc. Recently, more and more researches show that SVM is promising in remote sensing image classification. Unlike traditional SVM method, DOCKSVM could integrate the bio-geophysical character into final classification through the composite kernels, which lead to the accuracy improvement of classification results. Firstly method of DOCKSVM is described in detail, then the novel method according to information entropy of training data to evaluate the weighted value of kernels is proposed, finally, preliminary results of application to remote sensing image classification is given which show that it's good potential tool for remote sensing image classification.

Tang, Jiakui; Zhang, Xianfeng; Chen, Xiuwan; Zhang, Jie; Wen, Xiaohu; Zhang, Zhidong; Wang, De

2009-06-01

176

THE COLOUR TERMS OF IRISH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colour terms of Irish have been discussed by a number of scholars, usually with an emphasis on Old Irish or in comparison with other Celtic languages. Lazar-Meyn (1991) has in addition interviewed speakers of the modern Celtic languages in order to study their use of colour terms, although she correctly notes that this area of the lexicon has come

Diarmuid Ó Sé

177

Complementary Colours for a Physicist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a simple experiment which enables splitting incident light into two different modes, each having a colour exactly complementary to the other. A brief historical development of colour theories and differences in a physicist's point of view with respect to an artist's one is discussed. An experimental system for producing…

Babic, Vitomir; Cepic, Mojca

2009-01-01

178

Multispectral near-infrared imaging of composite restorations in extracted teeth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One major advantage of composite restoration materials is that they can be color matched to the tooth. However, this presents a challenge when composites fail and they need to be replaced. Dentists typically spend more time repairing and replacing composites than placing new restorations. Previous studies have shown that near-infrared imaging can be used to distinguish between sound enamel and decay due to the differences in light scattering. The purpose of this study was to use a similar approach and exploit differences in light scattering to attain high contrast between composite and tooth structure. Extracted human teeth with composites (n=16) were imaged in occlusal transmission mode at wavelengths of 1300-nm, 1460-nm and 1550-nm using an InGaAs image sensor with a tungsten halogen light source with spectral filters. All samples were also imaged in the visible range using a high definition 3D digital microscope. Our results indicate that NIR wavelengths at 1460-nm and 1550-nm, coincident with higher water absorption yield the highest contrast between dental composites and tooth structure.

Logan, Cooper M.; Co, Katrina U.; Fried, William A.; Simon, Jacob C.; Staninec, Michal; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.

2014-02-01

179

Confocal time lapse imaging as an efficient method for the cytocompatibility evaluation of dental composites.  

PubMed

It is generally accepted that in vitro cell material interaction is a useful criterion in the evaluation of dental material biocompatibility. The objective of this study was to use 3D CLSM time lapse confocal imaging to assess the in vitro biocompatibility of dental composites. This method provides an accurate and sensitive indication of viable cell rate in contact with dental composite extracts. The ELS extra low shrinkage, a dental composite used for direct restoration, has been taken as example. In vitro assessment was performed on cultured primary human gingival fibroblast cells using Live/Dead staining. Images were obtained with the FV10i confocal biological inverted system and analyzed with the FV10-ASW 3.1 Software. Image analysis showed a very slight cytotoxicity in the presence of the tested composite after 5 hours of time lapse. A slight decrease of cell viability was shown in contact with the tested composite extracts compared to control cells. The findings highlighted the use of 3D CLSM time lapse imaging as a sensitive method to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the biocompatibility behavior of dental composites. PMID:25406737

Attik, Ghania Nina; Gritsch, Kerstin; Colon, Pierre; Grosgogeat, Brigitte

2014-01-01

180

Multispectral Near-Infrared Imaging of Composite Restorations in Extracted Teeth  

PubMed Central

One major advantage of composite restoration materials is that they can be color matched to the tooth. However, this presents a challenge when composites fail and they need to be replaced. Dentists typically spend more time repairing and replacing composites than placing new restorations. Previous studies have shown that near-infrared imaging can be used to distinguish between sound enamel and decay due to the differences in light scattering. The purpose of this study was to use a similar approach and exploit differences in light scattering to attain high contrast between composite and tooth structure. Extracted human teeth with composites (n=16) were imaged in occlusal transmission mode at wavelengths of 1300-nm, 1460-nm and 1550-nm using an InGaAs image sensor with a tungsten halogen light source with spectral filters. All samples were also imaged in the visible range using a high definition 3D digital microscope. Our results indicate that NIR wavelengths at 1460-nm and 1550-nm, coincident with higher water absorption yield the highest contrast between dental composites and tooth structure. PMID:25309098

Logan, Cooper M.; Co, Katrina U.; Fried, William A.; Simon, Jacob C.; Staninec, Michal; and, Daniel Fried; Darling, Cynthia L.

2014-01-01

181

CHARACTERIZING LANDSCAPE COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE WITH IMAGE TEXTURE PARAMETERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is a need to characterize landscapes using parameters that contain information beyond that of traditional land cover/land use categories. Surface composition and structure are desirable factors for applications such as modeling soil-plant-atmosphere interactions, understanding watershed hydro...

182

Meaning-Making with Colour in Multimodal Texts: An 11-Year-Old Student's Purposeful "Doing"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colour, a visual element of art and design, is a semiotic mode that is used strategically by sign-makers to communicate meaning. Understanding the meaning-making potential of colour can enhance students' understanding, appreciation, interpretation and composition of multimodal texts. This article features a case study of Anya, an 11-year-old…

Pantaleo, Sylvia

2012-01-01

183

Review of thermal imaging systems in composite defect detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal imaging technologies are widely used at present in many industrial areas, while being nowadays more and more employed in R&D&i activities. This article focuses on the comparison of the results obtained with commercially available non-experimental infrared (IR) cameras in the field of non-destructive defect detection. One of the cameras belongs to the FLIR SC5000 series, which is a Medium Wavelength Infrared (MWIR) camera, and the other two cameras are from the high-end ImageIR series manufactured by InfraTec GmbH: the ImageIR 8300 also belongs to the class of MWIR cameras and the ImageIR 8800 is a Long Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) camera. The comparative study is carried out by means of inspecting three different calibrated and induced defect samples with these three cameras using similar excitation sources, so that the configuration and lay out of the tests are comparable with each other. Additionally, after every inspection, a mathematical post-processing is applied to the resulting raw thermal images in order to enhance the detection of defects present in the samples.

Jorge Aldave, I.; Venegas Bosom, P.; Vega González, L.; López de Santiago, I.; Vollheim, B.; Krausz, L.; Georges, M.

2013-11-01

184

Colours Core palette Colours Core palette APPLYING THE GUIDELINES  

E-print Network

) (web and screen) Bright aqua 3262 C81 M0 Y36 K0 r0 G192 B181 #00C0B5 Dark aqua 309 C99 M27 Y22 K80 r0 G THE GUIDELINES Colours Colour breakdowns for print and web Colour Pantone® CMYK RGB Hex (special) (professional and desktop printing) (web and screen) (web and screen) university red 187 C0 M91 Y72 K23 r171 G31 B45 #B01C2e

Bristol, University of

185

Spectroscopic thermoacoustic imaging of water and fat composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During clinical studies, thermoacoustic imaging (TAI) failed to reliably identify malignant breast tissue. To increase detection capability, we propose spectroscopic TAI to differentiate samples based on the slope of their dielectric absorption. Phantoms composed of different ratios of water and fat were imaged using excitation frequencies between 2.7 and 3.1 GHz. The frequency-dependent slope of the TA signal was highly correlated with that of its absorption coefficient (R2 = 0.98 and p < 0.01), indicating spectroscopic TAI can distinguish materials based on their intrinsic dielectric properties. This approach potentially enhances cancer detection due to the increased water content of many tumors.

Bauer, Daniel R.; Wang, Xiong; Vollin, Jeff; Xin, Hao; Witte, Russell S.

2012-07-01

186

Floral scent emitted by white and coloured morphs in orchids.  

PubMed

Polymorphism of floral signals, such as colour and odour, is widespread in flowering plants and often considered to be adaptive, reflecting various pollinator preferences for particular floral traits. Several authors have recently hypothesized that particular associations exist between floral colour and scent, which would result from shared biochemistry between these two floral traits. In this study, we compared the chemical composition of floral volatiles emitted by white- and purple-flowered morphs of three different orchid species, including two food-deceptive species (Orchis mascula and Orchis simia) and a food-rewarding species (Anacamptis coriophora fragrans). We found clear interspecific differences in floral odours. As expected from their pollination strategy, the two deceptive orchids showed high inter-individual variation of floral volatiles, whereas the food-rewarding A. c. fragrans showed low variation of floral scent. Floral volatiles did not differ overall between white- and coloured-flowered morphs in O. mascula and A. c. fragrans, while O. simia exhibited different volatile profiles between the two colour morphs. However, a detailed analysis restricted to benzenoid compounds (which are associated with the production of floral anthocyanin pigments) showed that white inflorescences emitted more volatiles of the shikimic pathway than coloured ones, both for O. mascula and O. simia. These results are consistent with the current hypothesis that shared biochemistry creates pleiotropic links between floral colour and scent. Whether intraspecific variation of floral signals actually affects pollinator attraction and influences the reproductive success of these orchids remains to be determined. PMID:24525191

Dormont, L; Delle-Vedove, R; Bessière, J-M; Schatz, B

2014-04-01

187

Micromachined PIN-PMN-PT crystal composite transducer for high-frequency intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report the use of micromachined PbIn1/2Nb1/2O3-PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO 3 (PIN-PMNPT) single crystal 1-3 composite material for intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging application. The effective electromechanical coupling coefficient kt(eff) of the composite was measured to be 0.75 to 0.78. Acoustic impedance was estimated to be 20 MRayl. Based on the composite, needle-type and flexible-type IVUS transducers were fabricated. The composite transducer achieved an 86% bandwidth at the center frequency of 41 MHz, which resulted in a 43 ?m axial resolution. Ex vivo IVUS imaging was conducted to demonstrate the improvement of axial resolution. The composite transducer was capable of identifying the three layers of a cadaver coronary artery specimen with high resolution. The PIN-PMN-PT-based composite has superior piezoelectric properties comparable to PMN-PT-based composite and its thermal stability is higher than PMN-PT. PIN-PMN-PT crystal can be an alternative approach for fabricating high-frequency composite, instead of using PMN-PT. PMID:24960706

Li, Xiang; Ma, Teng; Tian, Jian; Han, Pengdi; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk

2014-07-01

188

Research of processing method for infrared image of sandwich structure composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composite sandwich structure has been widely used in aerospace due to its lightweight, high stiffness and strength. Existence of delaminations in the structure reduce the performance of the composites significantly, such flaws can be detected effectively and non-destructively by non-contact pulsed infrared thermography, but the contrast of infrared images of the material is low due to complex structure, so delaminations and sound area are difficult to be differentiated. In this paper, sandwich structure composites with aluminum facesheet and aluminum honeycomb cores are chosen as study objectives, several round-shape and rectangle-shape Teflon inserts with different sizes embedded in specimen, which simulate delaminations in the structure, and the processing method of infrared image is developed. The thermal image is processed through image denoising, image enhancement and feature extraction, and then the sizes of the defects are determined. Refer to the designed sizes, the results show that the accuracy of sizes measured by image processing is more than 90% for the defects bigger than ?10mm , these results demonstrated that detecting accuracy of the structure is higher by infrared image processing.

Huo, Yan; Zhang, Cun-Lin; Hu, Chun-Yu; Li, Chun-Guang

2012-10-01

189

Experimental verification of SNR and parallel imaging improvements using composite arrays.  

PubMed

Composite MRI arrays consist of triplets where two orthogonal upright loops are placed over the same imaging area as a standard surface coil. The optimal height of the upright coils is approximately half the width for the 7?cm coils used in this work. Resistive and magnetic coupling is shown to be negligible within each coil triplet. Experimental evaluation of imaging performance was carried out on a Philips 3?T Achieva scanner using an eight-coil composite array consisting of three surface coils and five upright loops, as well as an array of eight surface coils for comparison. The composite array offers lower overall coupling than the traditional array. The sensitivities of upright coils are complementary to those of the surface coils and therefore provide SNR gains in regions where surface coil sensitivity is low, and additional spatial information for improved parallel imaging performance. Near the surface of the phantom the eight-channel surface coil array provides higher overall SNR than the composite array, but this advantage disappears beyond a depth of approximately one coil diameter, where it is typically more challenging to improve SNR. Furthermore, parallel imaging performance is better with the composite array compared with the surface coil array, especially at high accelerations and in locations deep in the phantom. Composite arrays offer an attractive means of improving imaging performance and channel density without reducing the size, and therefore the loading regime, of surface coil elements. Additional advantages of composite arrays include minimal SNR loss using root-sum-of-squares combination compared with optimal, and the ability to switch from high to low channel density by merely selecting only the surface elements, unlike surface coil arrays, which require additional hardware. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25388793

Maunder, Adam; Fallone, B Gino; Daneshmand, Mojgan; De Zanche, Nicola

2015-02-01

190

Methodology for estimating availability of cloud-free image composites: A case study for southern Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image composites are often used for earth surface phenomena studies at regional or national level. The compromise between residual clouds and the length of compositing period is a necessary corollary to the choice of satellite optical data for monitoring earth surface phenomena dynamics. This paper introduced a methodology for estimating availability of cloud-free image composites for optical sensors with various revisiting intervals, using MODIS MOD06 L2 cloud fraction product in the period of 2000-2008. The methodology starts with downscaling of the cloud fraction product to 1 km × 1 km cloud cover binary images. The binary images are then used for the exploration of spatial and temporal characteristics of cloud dynamics, and subsequently for the simulation of cloud-free composite availability with various revisiting intervals of optical sensors. Using Canada's southern provinces as an application case, the study explored several factors important for the design of environmental monitoring system using optical sensors of earth observation, in particular, cloud dynamics and its inter-annual variability, sensors' revisiting intervals, and cloud-free threshold for targeting composites. While the cloud images used in the analysis are at 1 km × 1 km resolution, our analysis suggests that the simulated availabilities of cloud-free image composites may also provide reasonable estimates for optical sensors with higher than 1 km × 1 km resolution, though the closer to 1 km × 1 km resolution the optical sensor, the more pertinent the application. Also, the methodology can be parameterised to different temporal period and different spatial region, depending on applications.

Zhou, Fuqun; Zhang, Aining

2013-04-01

191

Introduction Colour-impaired vision, where certain colours cannot be  

E-print Network

these colours. Dark green, brown, orange, and dark red in the first row appear as almost indistinguishable olive, where he produces print graphics for daily publication and interactive web graphics. nvkelso

Jenny, Bernhard

192

Minimizing unsatisfaction in colourful neighbourhoods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colouring sparse graphs under various restrictions is a theoretical problem of significant practical relevance. Here we consider the problem of maximizing the number of different colours available at the nodes and their neighbourhoods, given a predetermined number of colours. In the analytical framework of a tree approximation, carried out at both zero and finite temperatures, solutions obtained by population dynamics give rise to estimates of the threshold connectivity for the incomplete to complete transition, which are consistent with those of existing algorithms. The nature of the transition as well as the validity of the tree approximation are investigated.

Wong, K. Y. Michael; Saad, David

2008-08-01

193

The colour of galaxies in distant groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new optical and near-infrared imaging for a sample of 98 spectroscopically selected galaxy groups at 0.25 < z < 0.55, most of which have velocity dispersions ? < 500kms-1. We use point spread function matched aperture photometry to measure accurate colours for group members and the surrounding field population. The sample is statistically complete above a stellar mass limit of approximately M = 1 × 1010Msolar. The overall colour distribution is bimodal in both the field and group samples; but, at fixed luminosity the fraction of group galaxies populating the red peak is larger, by ~20 +/- 7 per cent, than that of the field. In particular, group members with early-type morphologies, as identified in Hubble Space Telescope imaging, exhibit a tight red sequence, similar to that seen for more massive clusters. Using optical and near-infrared colours, including data from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we show that approximately 20-30 per cent of galaxies on the red sequence may be dust-reddened galaxies with non-negligible star formation and early-spiral morphologies. This is true of both the field and group samples, and shows little dependence on near-infrared luminosity. Thus, the fraction of bright (0.4MK < -22) group members with no sign of star formation or active galactic nuclei activity, as identified by their colours or [OII] emission, is 54 +/- 6 per cent. Our field sample, which includes galaxies in all environments, contains 35 +/- 3 per cent of such inactive galaxies, consistent with the amount expected if all such galaxies are located in groups and clusters. This reinforces our earlier conclusions that dense environments at z <~ 0.5 are associated with a premature cessation of star formation in some galaxies; in particular, we find no evidence for significantly enhanced star formation in these environments. Simple galaxy formation models predict a quenching of star formation in groups that is too efficient, overpopulating the red sequence. Attempts to fix this by increasing the time-scale of this quenching equally for all group members distort the colour distribution in a way that is inconsistent with observations.

Balogh, Michael L.; McGee, Sean L.; Wilman, Dave; Bower, Richard G.; Hau, George; Morris, Simon L.; Mulchaey, J. S.; Oemler, A., Jr.; Parker, Laura; Gwyn, Stephen

2009-09-01

194

Damage threshold study of sonic IR imaging on carbon-fiber reinforced laminated composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sonic Infrared Imaging, as a young NDE technology, has drawn a lot of attentions due to it's fast, wide-area evaluation capability, and due to its broad applications in different materials such as metal/metal alloy, composites and detection of various types of defects: surface, subsurface, cracks, delaminations/disbonds. Sonic IR Imaging combines pulsed ultrasound excitation and infrared imaging to detect defects in materials. The sound pulse causes rubbing due to non-unison motion between faces of defects, and infrared sensors image the temperature map over the target to identify defects. However, concerns have also been brought up about possible damages which might occur at the contact spots between the ultrasound transducer from the external excitation source and the target materials. In this paper, we present our results from a series of systematically designed experiments on carbon-fiber reinforced laminated composite panels to address the concerns.

Han, Xiaoyan; He, Qi; Zhang, Ding; Ashbaugh, Mike; Favro, Lawrence D.; Newaz, Golam; Thomas, Robert L.

2013-01-01

195

Optimal colour quality of LED clusters based on memory colours.  

PubMed

The spectral power distributions of tri- and tetrachromatic clusters of Light-Emitting-Diodes, composed of simulated and commercially available LEDs, were optimized with a genetic algorithm to maximize the luminous efficacy of radiation and the colour quality as assessed by the memory colour quality metric developed by the authors. The trade-off of the colour quality as assessed by the memory colour metric and the luminous efficacy of radiation was investigated by calculating the Pareto optimal front using the NSGA-II genetic algorithm. Optimal peak wavelengths and spectral widths of the LEDs were derived, and over half of them were found to be close to Thornton's prime colours. The Pareto optimal fronts of real LED clusters were always found to be smaller than those of the simulated clusters. The effect of binning on designing a real LED cluster was investigated and was found to be quite large. Finally, a real LED cluster of commercially available AlGaInP, InGaN and phosphor white LEDs was optimized to obtain a higher score on memory colour quality scale than its corresponding CIE reference illuminant. PMID:21451716

Smet, Kevin; Ryckaert, Wouter R; Pointer, Michael R; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

2011-03-28

196

Column-by-column compositional mapping by Z-contrast imaging  

SciTech Connect

A phenomenological method is developed to determine the composition of materials, with atomic column resolution, by analysis of integrated intensities of aberration-corrected Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy images. The method is exemplified for InAsxP1!x alloys using epitaxial thin films with calibrated compositions as standards. Using this approach we have determined the composition of the two-dimensional wetting layer formed between self-assembled InAs quantum wires on InP(0 01) substrates.

Molina, S. I. [Universidad de Cadiz, Spain; Sales Lerida, David [ORNL; Galindo, Pedro [Universidad de Cadiz, Spain; Fuster, David [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC); Gonzalez, Yolanda [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC); Alen, B. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC); Gonzalez, Luisa [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC); Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL

2008-01-01

197

Tomographic Imaging of Glass/Epoxy Composite with a Laser Based Ultrasonics Setup  

SciTech Connect

The present work is an attempt to augment the classical laser-based-ultrasonics setup for tomographic imaging purposes. A Glass/epoxy composite with steel insert is the test specimen and time-of-flight data has been used for tomographic reconstruction. Multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique is used for this limited-view experiment. The resulting image is able to bring out the strong metal features.

Khanna, N.; Raghuram, V.; Munshi, P.; Kishore, N. N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur 208016 (India); Arnold, W. [Fraunhofer Institute of Nondestructive Testing Saarbruecken 66123 (Germany)

2008-09-26

198

Coherency strain effects on TEM images of composite precipitates in Al-Li-Zr alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomalous superlattice dark-field images of composite precipitates consisting of a dark core surrounded by a bright shell in Al-2.52Li-0.15Zr alloys, has been investigated by many beam dynamical image simulations employing a scattering matrix approach. The coherency strain field in the shell of the precipitate, as well as in the matrix, has been calculated by use of relations derived, and these

M. K. Aydinol; A. S. Bor

1996-01-01

199

Image correlation nondestructive evaluation of impact damage in a glass fiber composite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented in viewgraph format, digital image correlation, damage in fibrous composites, and damaged coupons (cross-ply scotchply GI-Ep laminate) are outlined. It was concluded that the image correlation accuracy was 0.03 percent; strains can be processed through Tsai-Hill failure criteria to qualify the damage; the statistical data base must be generated to evaluate certainty of the damage estimate; size effects need consideration; and better numerical techniques are needed.

Russell, Samuel S.

1990-01-01

200

New insights into subsurface imaging of carbon nanotubes in polymer composites via scanning electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Despite many studies of subsurface imaging of carbon nanotube (CNT)-polymer composites via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), significant controversy exists concerning the imaging depth and contrast mechanisms. We studied CNT-polyimide composites and, by three-dimensional reconstructions of captured stereo-pair images, determined that the maximum SEM imaging depth was typically hundreds of nanometers. The contrast mechanisms were investigated over a broad range of beam accelerating voltages from 0.3 to 30 kV, and ascribed to modulation by embedded CNTs of the effective secondary electron (SE) emission yield at the polymer surface. This modulation of the SE yield is due to non-uniform surface potential distribution resulting from current flows due to leakage and electron beam induced current. The importance of an external electric field on SEM subsurface imaging was also demonstrated. The insights gained from this study can be generally applied to SEM nondestructive subsurface imaging of conducting nanostructures embedded in dielectric matrices such as graphene-polymer composites, silicon-based single electron transistors, high resolution SEM overlay metrology or e-beam lithography, and have significant implications in nanotechnology. PMID:25649345

Zhao, Minhua; Ming, Bin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Gibbons, Luke J; Gu, Xiaohong; Nguyen, Tinh; Park, Cheol; Lillehei, Peter T; Villarrubia, J S; Vladár, András E; Alexander Liddle, J

2015-02-27

201

Radiopacity of restorative composites by conventional radiograph and digital images with different resolutions  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was performed to evaluate and compare the radiopacity of dentin, enamel, and 8 restorative composites on conventional radiograph and digital images with different resolutions. Materials and Methods Specimens were fabricated from 8 materials and human molars were longitudinally sectioned 1.0 mm thick to include both enamel and dentin. The specimens and tooth sections were imaged by conventional radiograph using #4 sized intraoral film and digital images were taken in high speed and high resolution modes using a phosphor storage plate. Densitometric evaluation of the enamel, dentin, restorative materials, a lead sheet, and an aluminum step wedge was performed on the radiographic images. For the evaluation, the Al equivalent (mm) for each material was calculated. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05), considering the material factor and then the radiographic method factor, individually. Results The high speed mode allowed the highest radiopacity, while the high resolution mode generated the lowest values. Furthermore, the high resolution mode was the most efficient method for radiographic differentiation between restorative composites and dentin. The conventional radiograph was the most effective in enabling differentiation between enamel and composites. The high speed mode was the least effective in enabling radiographic differentiation between the dental tissues and restorative composites. Conclusion The high speed mode of digital imaging was not effective for differentiation between enamel and composites. This made it less effective than the high resolution mode and conventional radiographs. All of the composites evaluated showed radiopacity values that fit the ISO 4049 recommendations. PMID:24083207

Sarmento, Hugo Ramalho; Duarte, Rosângela Marques; Meireles Monte Raso, Sônia Saeger; de Andrade, Ana Karina Maciel; Dos Anjos-Pontual, Maria Luiza

2013-01-01

202

On-line Fusion of Colour Camera and Spectrophotometer for Sugar Content Prediction of Apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current grading lines for fresh fruit use sensors that measure weight, size, and sometimes colour or firmness. However, none of them measures so far an important organoleptic criteria for the consumer: sugar content. Image analysis can provide colour information on the fruit, while near-infrared spectrophotometric data can be used in order to determine sugar content. Sensor fusion methodology is aimed

V. Steinmetz; J. M. Roger; E. Moltó; J. Blasco

1999-01-01

203

Colour preferences of flower-naive honeybees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flower-naive honeybees Apis mellifera L. flying in an enclosure were tested for their colour preferences. Bees were rewarded once on an achromatic (grey, aluminium or hardboard), or on a chromatic (ultraviolet) disk. Since naive bees never alighted on colour stimuli alone, a scent was given in combination with colour. Their landings on twelve colour stimuli were recorded. Results after one

M. Giurfa; J. Núñez; L. Chittka; R. Menzel

1995-01-01

204

Class Separation Improvements in Pixel Classification Using Colour Injection  

PubMed Central

This paper presents an improvement in the colour image segmentation in the Hue Saturation (HS) sub-space. The authors propose to inject (add) a colour vector in the Red Green Blue (RGB) space to increase the class separation in the HS plane. The goal of the work is the development of an algorithm to obtain the optimal colour vector for injection that maximizes the separation between the classes in the HS plane. The chromatic Chrominace-1 Chrominance-2 sub-space (of the Luminance Chrominace-1 Chrominance-2 (YC1C2) space) is used to obtain the optimal vector to add. The proposal is applied on each frame of a colour image sequence in real-time. It has been tested in applications with reduced contrast between the colours of the background and the object, and particularly when the size of the object is very small in comparison with the size of the captured scene. Numerous tests have confirmed that this proposal improves the segmentation process, considerably reducing the effects of the variation of the light intensity of the scene. Several tests have been made in skin segmentation in applications for sign language recognition via computer vision, where an accurate segmentation of hands and face is required. PMID:22163628

Blanco, Edward; Mazo, Manuel; Bergasa, Luis; Palazuelos, Sira; Rodríguez, Jose; Losada, Cristina; Martín, Jose

2010-01-01

205

Visualizing Chemical Compositions and Kinetics of Sol-Gel by Near-Infrared Multispectral Imaging  

E-print Network

Visualizing Chemical Compositions and Kinetics of Sol-Gel by Near-Infrared Multispectral Imaging, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 Kinetics of sol-gel formation were studied using the recently developed near-infrared been studied extensively by many different spectroscopic techniques.4-15 Among them, the near-infrared

Reid, Scott A.

206

LOCAL STRAIN AND DAMAGE MEASUREMENTS ON A COMPOSITE WITH DIGITAL IMAGE CORRELATION AND ACOUSTIC EMISSION  

E-print Network

LOCAL STRAIN AND DAMAGE MEASUREMENTS ON A COMPOSITE WITH DIGITAL IMAGE CORRELATION AND ACOUSTIC of each part is essential. To obtain the stress/strain relations strain measurements are conducted be measured simultaneously. To measure strain many techniques can be used (extensometers, strain gauges

Boyer, Edmond

207

Improved Wavelet-based Spatial Filter of Damage Imaging Method on Composite Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric sensor array-based spatial filter technology is a new promising method presented in research area of structural health monitoring (SHM) in the recent years. To apply this method to composite structures and give the actual position of damage, this paper proposes a spatial filter-based damage imaging method improved by complex Shannon wavelet transform. The basic principle of spatial filter is

Yu WANG; Shenfang YUAN; Lei QIU

2011-01-01

208

Visualization of magnetization processes of soft magnetic composites by the magneto-optical imaging technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attractive features of soft magnetic composites (SMCs) are high resistivity, isotropic three-dimensional flux behavior, and easy compression into the complicated shapes required in electromagnetic devices. Comprehensive understanding of the materials will help optimize design of electromagnetic devices. This paper presents the magnetization processes in a SMC sample in micron scale by means of the magneto-optical imaging technique. The sample was

Zhi Wei Lin; Jian Guo Zhu; Jin Jiang Zhong; Tom H. Johansen; Xiao Lin Wang; Wei Yang Yu

2007-01-01

209

A Mixed-Initiative System for Representing Collections as Compositions of Image and Text Surrogates  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT People need to find, work with, and put together information. Diverse activities, such as scholarly research, comparison shopping, and entertainment involve collecting and connecting information resources. We need ,to represent collections in ways ,that promote understanding,of individual ,information resources and also their relationships. Representing individual resources with images as well astext makes good use of human cognitive facilities. Composition,

Andruid Kerne; Eunyee Koh; Blake Dworaczyk; J. Michael Mistrot; Hyun Choi; Steven M. Smith; Ross Graeber; Daniel Caruso; Andrew Webb; Rodney Hill; Joel Albea

210

Thermal imaging and air-coupled ultrasound characterization of a continuous-fiber ceramic composite panels.  

SciTech Connect

SYLRAMIC{trademark} continuous fiber ceramic-matrix composites (Nicalon{trademark} fiber/SiNC matrix) were fabricated by Dow Corning Corporation with the polymer-impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) process. The composite microstructure and its uniformity, and the completeness of infiltration during processing were studied as a function of number of PIP cycles. Two nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods, i.e., infrared thermal imaging and air-coupled ultrasound (UT), were used to investigate flat composite panels of two thicknesses and various sizes. The thermal imaging method provided two-dimensional (2D) images of through-thickness thermal diffusivity distributions, and the air-coupled UT method provided 2D images of through-thickness ultrasonic transmission of the panel components. Results from both types of NDEs were compared at various PIP cycles during fabrication of the composites. A delaminated region was clearly detected and its progressive repair was monitored during processing. The NDE data were also correlated to results obtained from destructive characterization.

Sun, J. G.; Easler, T. E.; Szweda, A.; Pillai, T. A. K.; Deemer, C.; Ellingson, W. A.

1998-04-01

211

A Particle Image Velocimetry Study of Vibrating Ionic Polymer Metal Composites in Aqueous Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low power consumption and activation voltage combined with high flexibility and minimal weight make ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) well-suited for miniaturized underwater propulsion systems. In the present study, we investigate the flow field generated by an IPMC strip vibrating in a quiescent aqueous environment using planar particle image velocimetry. We use the time-averaged flow field to compute the momentum

Sean D. Peterson; Maurizio Porfiri; Alessandro Rovardi

2009-01-01

212

Can Imageability Help Us Draw the Line between Storage and Composition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language requires both storage and composition. However, exactly what is retrieved from memory and what is assembled remains controversial, especially for inflected words. Here, "imageability effects" is introduced as a new diagnostic of storage and a complement to frequency effects. In 2 studies of past-tense morphology, more reliable…

Prado, Elizabeth L.; Ullman, Michael T.

2009-01-01

213

Automatic detection of small moving targets in a five-ocular composite optical imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is quite difficult to realize the automatic detection and determination of the small moving targets by the images data captured from a mono-aperture imaging system. Therefore a five-ocular composite optical imaging system is designed. The system is constituted by an infrared imaging system in the center and four visible imaging subsystems around the center subsystem. According to the inner feature of the overlapping field of view in the five-ocular composite optical imaging system, the automatic detection and recognition algorithm of the small moving targets for this system is built up. The algorithm is divided into four steps: the first step is preprocessing to get rid of low frequency background pixels, the second step is detecting the candidates of the small moving targets in the high frequency images remained by preprocessing, the third step is determining the true small moving targets from the candidates, and the last step is combining the detecting results of the visible subsystems into the detecting results of the infrared subsystem to determine the small moving targets are "live" or "dead", because the "dead" targets with lower temperature are not observed in the infrared subsystem. The test result in the experimental system indicated that the designed detection and recognition algorithm increased the detecting probability of the small moving targets, and decreased the probability of false alarms. The detection and recognition method was proved to be feasible and effective.

Qu, You-Shan; Fan, Xue-Wu; Li, Yan; Li, Ying-cai

2009-10-01

214

BOREAS RSS-7 Regional LAI and FPAR Images From 10-Day AVHRR-LAC Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Remote Sensing Science (BOREAS RSS-7) team collected various data sets to develop and validate an algorithm to allow the retrieval of the spatial distribution of Leaf Area Index (LAI) from remotely sensed images. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) level-4c 10-day composite Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images produced at CCRS were used to produce images of LAI and the Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) absorbed by plant canopies for the three summer IFCs in 1994 across the BOREAS region. The algorithms were developed based on ground measurements and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images. The data are stored in binary image format files.

Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Chen, Jing; Cihlar, Josef

2000-01-01

215

Flaw Detection for Composite Materials Improved by Advanced Thermal Image Reconstruction Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of advanced composite materials for use in space and propulsion components has seen considerable growth over the past few years. In addition to improvements that have been made in material properties and processing techniques, similar growth must be seen in the development of methods for the detection of flaws, either generated in service or during manufacturing. Thermal imaging techniques have proven to be successful for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of composite materials, but their detection capabilities decrease as flaw depth increases. The purpose of this research is to investigate advanced thermal imaging methods and thermal image processing technologies to increase the maximum depth below surface that a flaw can be detected and improve the contrast between flawed regions and sound regions.

Martin, Richard E.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.

2003-01-01

216

The WIRCam Deep Survey. I. Counts, colours, and mass-functions derived from near-infrared imaging in the CFHTLS deep fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new near-infrared imaging survey in the four CFHTLS deep fields: the WIRCam Deep Survey or "WIRDS". WIRDS comprises extremely deep, high quality (FWHM ~ 0.6?) J, H, and Ks imaging covering a total effective area of 2.1 deg2 and reaching AB 50% completeness limits of ? 24.5. We combine our images with the CFHTLS to create a unique eight-band ugrizJHKS photometric catalogues in the four CFHTLS deep fields; these four separate fields allow us to make a robust estimate of the effect of cosmic variance for all our measurements. We use these catalogues in combination with ? 9800 spectroscopic redshifts to estimate precise photometric redshifts (??z/(1 + z) ? 0.03 at i < 25), galaxy types, star-formation rates and stellar masses for a unique sample of ? 1.8 million galaxies. Our JHKs number counts are consistent with previous studies. We apply the "BzK" selection to our gzK filter set and find that the star forming BzK selection successfully selects 76% of star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 1.4 < z < 2.5 in our photometric catalogue, based on our photometric redshift measurement. Similarly the passive BzK selection returns 52% of the passive 1.4 < z < 2.5 population identified in the photometric catalogue. We present the mass functions of the total galaxy population as a function of redshift up to z = 2 and present fits using double Schechter functions. A mass-dependent evolution of the mass function is seen with the numbers of galaxies with masses of M ? 1010.75 still evolving at z ? 1, but galaxies of higher mass reaching their present day numbers by z ~ 0.8-1. This is consistent with the present picture of downsizing in galaxy evolution. We compare our results with the predictions of the GALFORM semi-analytical galaxy formation model and find that the simulations provide a relatively successful fit to the observed mass functions at intermediate masses (i.e. 10 ? log (M/M?) ? 11). However, as is common with semi-analytical predictions of the mass function, the GALFORM results under-predict the mass function at low masses (i.e. log (M/M?) ? 10), whilst the fit as a whole degrades beyondredshifts of z ~ 1.2. All photometric catalogues and images are made publicly available from TERAPIX and CADC. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS.

Bielby, R.; Hudelot, P.; McCracken, H. J.; Ilbert, O.; Daddi, E.; Le Fèvre, O.; Gonzalez-Perez, V.; Kneib, J.-P.; Marmo, C.; Mellier, Y.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Willott, C. J.

2012-09-01

217

The effect of stress and stress hormones on dynamic colour-change in a sexually dichromatic Australian frog.  

PubMed

Rapid colour changes in vertebrates have fascinated biologists for centuries, herein we demonstrate dynamic colour change in an anuran amphibian, the stony creek frog (Litoria wilcoxii), which turns from brown to bright (lemon) yellow during amplexus. We show this by comparing the colour of baseline (unpaired males) and amplecting (paired) males. We also investigate the possible role of stress and stress hormones on this colour change. Frogs were subjected to four different levels of stressors (handling, toe-clipping, saline injection and adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] injection) and the colour change was measured using digital photography. A comparison of baseline colour and stress hormone (corticosterone) levels was also conducted to give further insight to this topic. From the images, the Red Blue Green (RGB) colour values were calculated, and a principal components analysis (PCA) was used to create a single colour metric (the major axis) as an index of colour in the visible spectrum. A moderate stressor (toe-clipping) led to a significant change in colour (within 10 min) similar to that of amplecting males. Surprisingly, neither a mild stressor (handling and saline injection) nor the maximum stressor (handling and ACTH injection) led to a lightening response. This study confirms that the dynamic male colour change in this species in response to medium stressors adds new knowledge to the understanding of the functional mechanisms of dynamic colour change in amphibians. PMID:23507571

Kindermann, Christina; Narayan, Edward J; Wild, Francis; Wild, Clyde H; Hero, Jean-Marc

2013-06-01

218

Colour in Minoan faience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructures and chemical compositions of some 15 faience objects from Crete spanning the period from Middle Minoan IIIA through to Late Minoan IA are determined using analytical scanning electron microscopy. The Minoan faience is compared with replicate faience beads produced in the laboratory using various combinations of manganese, copper and iron as colorants. The alkali contents of the replicate

M. S. Tite; Y. Maniatis; D. Kavoussanaki; M. Panagiotaki; A. J. Shortland; S. F. Kirk

2009-01-01

219

Characterization of impact damage in metallic/nonmetallic composites using x-ray computed tomography imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterizing internal impact damage in composites can be difficult, especially in structurally complex composites or those consisting of many materials. Many methods for nondestructive inspection/nondestructive testing (NDI/NDT) of materials have been known and in use for many years, including x-ray film, real-time, and digital radiographic techniques, and ultrasonic techniques. However, these techniques are generally not capable of three-dimensional (3D) mapping of complex damage patterns, which is necessary to visualize and understand damage cracking modes. Conventional x-ray radiography suffers from the loss of 3D information. Structural complexity and signal dispersion in materials with many interfaces significantly effect ultrasonic inspection techniques. This makes inspection scan interpretation difficult, especially in composites containing a number of different materials (i.e., polymer, ceramic, and metallic). X-ray computed tomography (CT) is broadly applicable to any material or test object through which a beam of penetrating radiation may be passed and detected, including metals, plastics, ceramics, metallic/nonmetallic composites, and assemblies. The principal advantage of CT is that it provides densitometric (that is, radiological density and geometry) images of thin cross sections through an object. Because of the absence of structural superposition, images are much easier to interpret than conventional radiological images. The user can quickly learn to read CT data because images correspond more closely to the way the human mind visualizes 3D structures than projection radiology (that is, film radiography, real-time radiography (RTR), and digital radiography (DR)). Any number of CT images, or slices, from scanning an object can be volumetrically reconstructed to produce a 3D attenuation map of the object. The 3D attenuation data can be rendered using multiplanar or 3D solid visualization. In multiplanar visualization there are four planes of view that can be defined to be anywhere in an object. These visualization modes produce easily interpretable images with very good spatial resolution and excellent dimensional capability. This paper will discuss current applications of advanced CT imaging to characterizing impact damage in metallic/nonmetallic composites. Examples, including encapsulated ceramics in metal-matrix-composites, will be discussed.

Green, William H.; Wells, Joseph M.

1999-12-01

220

Defect imaging with elastic waves in inhomogeneous-anisotropic materials with composite geometries.  

PubMed

Imaging of defects in composite structures plays an important role in non-destructive testing (NDT) with elastic waves, i.e., ultrasound. Traditionally the imaging of such defects is performed using the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) algorithm assuming homogeneous isotropic materials. However, if parts of the structure are inhomogeneous and/or anisotropic, this algorithm fail to produce correct results that are needed in order to asses the lifetime of the part under test. Here we present a modification of this algorithm which enables a correct imaging of defects in inhomogeneous and/or anisotropic composite structures, whence it is termed InASAFT. The InASAFT is based on the exact modelling of the structure in order to account for the true nature of the elastic wave propagation using travel time ray tracing techniques. The algorithm is validated upon several numerical and real life examples yielding satisfactory results for imaging of cracks. The modified algorithm suffers, though, from the same difficulties encountered in the SAFT algorithm, namely "ghost" images and eventual lack of clear focused images. However, these artifacts can be identified using a forward wave propagation analysis of the structure. PMID:17258256

Shlivinski, A; Langenberg, K J

2007-03-01

221

The handicap of abnormal colour vision.  

PubMed

All people with abnormal colour vision, except for a few mildly affected deuteranomals, report that they experience problems with colour in everyday life and at work. Contemporary society presents them with increasing problems because colour is now so widely used in printed materials and in computer displays. Equal opportunity law gives them protection against unfair discrimination in employment, so a decision to exclude a person from employment on the grounds of abnormal colour vision must now be well supported by good evidence and sound argument. This paper reviews the investigations that have contributed to understanding the nature and consequences of the problems they have. All those with abnormal colour vision are at a disadvantage with comparative colour tasks that involve precise matching of colours or discrimination of fine colour differences either because of their loss of colour discrimination or anomalous perception of metamers. The majority have problems when colour is used to code information, in man-made colour codes and in naturally occurring colour codes that signal ripeness of fruit, freshness of meat or illness. They can be denied the benefit of colour to mark out objects and organise complex visual displays. They may be unreliable when a colour name is used as an identifier. They are slower and less successful in search when colour is an attribute of the target object or is used to organise the visual display. Because those with the more severe forms of abnormal colour vision perceive a very limited gamut of colours, they are at a disadvantage in the pursuit and appreciation of those forms of art that use colour. PMID:15312030

Cole, Barry L

2004-07-01

222

A time reversal focusing based impact imaging method and its evaluation on complex composite structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing use of composite structures in aerospace structures has attracted much interest in structural health monitoring (SHM) for the localization of impact positions due to their poor impact resistance properties. The propagation mechanism and the frequency dispersion features of signals on complex composite structures are more complicated than those on simple composite plates. In this paper, a time reversal focusing based impact imaging method for impact localization of complex composite structures is proposed. A complex Shannon wavelet transform is adopted to extract frequency narrow-band signals of impact response signals of a PZT sensors array at a special time-frequency scale and to measure the phase velocity of the signals. The frequency narrow-band signals are synthesized using software, depending on the time reversal focusing principle, to generate an impact image to estimate the impact position. A demonstration system is built on a composite panel with many bolt holes and stiffeners on an aircraft wing box to validate this method. The validating results show that the method can estimate the position of impact efficiently.

Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Wang, Yu

2011-10-01

223

Three-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and x-ray microtomographic imaging of composite materials  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a new-three-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging technique for nondestructive evaluation of green-state ceramic composite materials. The technique is based on a 3-D backprojection protocol for data acquisition combined with a Radon reconstruction technique. Particularly for NMR of solid materials, this imaging protocol can provide higher three dimensional spatial resolution than is possible with commonly applied slice-selection protocols. The applicability of this 3-D NMR imaging technique was demonstrated using whisker-reinforced Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic composites. While NMR is a sensitive and unique method for spatial discrimination of chemical properties (e.g., organic distributions), x-ray CT is a sensitive and proven technique for determining variations in density (i.e., voids and inclusions) within an object. The complementary nature of these two techniques was shown by imaging a piece of green ceramic composite material by both NMR and x-ray microtomography techniques.

Dieckman, S.L.; Gopalsami, N.; Botto, R.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Rizo, P. (CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38 (France). Lab. d'Electronique et de Technologie de l'Informatique)

1990-01-01

224

Repeatability of digital image correlation for measurement of surface strains in composite long bones.  

PubMed

Digital image correlation (DIC) can measure full-field surface strains during mechanical testing of hard and soft tissues. When compared to traditional methods, such as strain gauges, DIC offers larger validation data (?50,000 points) for, e.g., finite element models. Our main aim was to evaluate the repeatability of surface strain measurements with DIC during compressive testing of composite femurs mimicking human bones. We also studied the similarity of the composite femur samples using CT. Composite femurs were chosen as test material to minimize the uncertainties associated with the use of cadaveric tissues and to understand the variability of the DIC measurement itself. Six medium-sized fourth generation composite human proximal femora (Sawbones) were CT imaged and mechanically tested in stance configuration. The force-displacement curves were recorded and the 3D surface strains were measured with DIC on the anterior surface of the femurs. Five femurs fractured at the neck-trochanter junction and one at the site below the minor trochanter. CT image of this bone showed an air cavity at the initial fracture site. All femurs fractured through a sudden brittle crack. The fracture force for the composite bones was 5751±650N (mean±SD). The maximum von Mises strain during the fractures was 2.4±0.8%. Noise in one experiment was 5-30µ?. When applied loads were equalized the variation in strains between the bones was 20-25%, and when the maximum strains were equalized, variation in the other regions was 5-10%. DIC showed that the ability of nominally identical composite bones to bear high strains and loads before fracturing may vary between the samples. PMID:23791085

Väänänen, Sami P; Amin Yavari, Saber; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Isaksson, Hanna

2013-07-26

225

Can imageability help us draw the line between storage and composition?  

PubMed

Language requires both storage and composition. However, exactly what is retrieved from memory and what is assembled remains controversial, especially for inflected words. Here, "imageability effects" is introduced as a new diagnostic of storage and a complement to frequency effects. In 2 studies of past-tense morphology, more reliable imageability and frequency effects were found on irregulars than on regulars. An interaction with sex was also observed: Males but not females showed more reliable frequency and imageability effects for irregulars than for regulars; females but not males showed signs of storage for regulars, particularly among higher frequency forms. Overall, the findings validate imageability effects as another diagnostic of storage and suggest that the line between storage and computation is not a simple function; rather, it depends upon the interplay of both item- and subject-specific factors. PMID:19586257

Prado, Elizabeth L; Ullman, Michael T

2009-07-01

226

Ecological genomics in full colour.  

PubMed

Colour patterns in animals have long offered an opportunity to observe adaptive traits in natural populations. Colour plays myriad roles in interactions within and among species, from reproductive signalling to predator avoidance, leading to multiple targets of natural and sexual selection and opportunities for diversification. Understanding the genetic and developmental underpinnings of variation in colour promises a fuller understanding of these evolutionary processes, but the path to unravelling these connections can be arduous. The advent of genomic techniques suitable for nonmodel organisms is now beginning to light the way. Two new studies in this issue of Molecular Ecology use genomic sequencing of laboratory crosses to map colour traits in cichlid fishes, a remarkably diverse group in which coloration has played a major role in diversification. They illustrate how genomic approaches, specifically RAD sequencing, can rapidly identify both simple and more complex genetic variation underlying ecologically important traits. In the first, Henning et al. () detect a single locus that appears to control in a Mendelian fashion the presence of horizontal stripes, a trait that has evolved in numerous cichlid lineages. In the second, Albertson et al. () identify several genes and epistatic interactions affecting multiple colour traits, as well as a novel metric describing integration across colour traits. Albertson et al. () go further, by quantifying differential expression of parental alleles at a candidate locus and by relating differentiation among natural populations at mapped loci to trait divergence. Herein lies the promise of ecological genomics - efficiently integrating genetic mapping of phenotypes with population genomic data to both identify functional genes and unravel their evolutionary history. These studies offer guidance on how genomic techniques can be tailored to a research question or study system, and they also add to the growing body of empirical examples addressing basic questions about how ecologically important traits evolve in natural populations. PMID:25330852

Hohenlohe, Paul A

2014-11-01

227

Texture Variations Suppress Suprathreshold Brightness and Colour Variations  

PubMed Central

Discriminating material changes from illumination changes is a key function of early vision. Luminance cues are ambiguous in this regard, but can be disambiguated by co-incident changes in colour and texture. Thus, colour and texture are likely to be given greater prominence than luminance for object segmentation, and better segmentation should in turn produce stronger grouping. We sought to measure the relative strengths of combined luminance, colour and texture contrast using a suprathreshhold, psychophysical grouping task. Stimuli comprised diagonal grids of circular patches bordered by a thin black line and contained combinations of luminance decrements with either violet, red, or texture increments. There were two tasks. In the Separate task the different cues were presented separately in a two-interval design, and participants indicated which interval contained the stronger orientation structure. In the Combined task the cues were combined to produce competing orientation structure in a single image. Participants had to indicate which orientation, and therefore which cue was dominant. Thus we established the relative grouping strength of each cue pair presented separately, and compared this to their relative grouping strength when combined. In this way we observed suprathreshold interactions between cues and were able to assess cue dominance at ecologically relevant signal levels. Participants required significantly more luminance and colour compared to texture contrast in the Combined compared to Separate conditions (contrast ratios differed by about 0.1 log units), showing that suprathreshold texture dominates colour and luminance when the different cues are presented in combination. PMID:25502555

Schofield, Andrew J.; Kingdom, Frederick A. A.

2014-01-01

228

Colour Appearance and Colour Rendering of HDR Scenes: An Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to gain a deeper understanding of the appearance of coloured objects in a three-dimensional scene, the research introduces a multidisciplinary experimental approach. The experiment employed two identical 3-D Mondrians, which were viewed and compared side by side. Each scene was subjected to different lighting conditions. First, we used an illumination cube to diffuse the light and illuminate all

Carinna Parraman; Alessandro Rizzi; John J. McCannc

229

Digital image correlation method for measuring thermal deformation of composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal deformation measurement of the high-speed aircrafts under the high temperature is significant for reliability assessment, life prediction, and safety design for the materials and structures. This paper presents a digital image correlation method to accurately measure the full-field thermal deformation of composites under the environment of high temperature. First, real-time deformation images of experimental objects under different loads are acquired with CCD cameral. Based on the digital speckle correlation theory, the bilinear interpolation algorithm is employed to measure the thermal deformation. Last, the comparative analyses on measurement results by the proposed and traditional methods are conducted, as well as factors impacting measurement errors are analyzed.

Jiang, Li; He, Yan; Wang, Dong-wei; Liu, Ke; Wu, Wei-ren

2013-10-01

230

BOREAS Level-4c AVHRR-LAC Ten-Day Composite Images: Surface Parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Satellite Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed satellite data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. Manitoba Remote Sensing Center (MRSC) and BOREAS Information System (BORIS) personnel acquired, processed, and archived data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instruments on the NOAA-11 and -14 satellites. The AVHRR data were acquired by CCRS and were provided to BORIS for use by BOREAS researchers. These AVHRR level-4c data are gridded, 10-day composites of surface parameters produced from sets of single-day images. Temporally, the 10-day compositing periods begin 11-Apr-1994 and end 10-Sep-1994. Spatially, the data cover the entire BOREAS region. The data are stored in binary image format files. Note: Some of the data files on the BOREAS CD-ROMs have been compressed using the Gzip program.

Cihlar, Josef; Chen, Jing; Huang, Fengting; Nickeson, Jaime; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

2000-01-01

231

High-resolution imaging of biological cell with fiber-based composite interferometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We proposed and demonstrated an optical system for high-speed and high-resolution imaging of surface profiles. The system is a fiber-based composite interferometer in which a Michelson interferometer is used for the measurement of the surface profile of the sample and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used for compensation of phase deviation due to the systematic errors and environmental perturbations. In the

Hsiu-I. Hsu; Chun-Wei Chang; Max T.-K. Hou; I.-Jen Hsu

2009-01-01

232

Biologically motivated composite image sensor for deep-field target tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work addresses the design of an image acquisition front-end for target detection and tracking within a wide range of distances. Inspired by raptor bird's vision, a novel design for a visual sensor is proposed. The sensor consists of two parts, each originating from the studies of biological vision systems of different species. The front end is comprised of a set of video cameras imitating a falconiform eye, in particular its optics and retina [1]. The back end is a software remapper that uses a popular in machine vision log-polar model of retino-cortical projection in primates [2], [3], [4]. The output of this sensor is a composite log-polar image incorporating both near and far visual fields into a single homogeneous image space. In such space it is easier to perform target detection and tracking for those applications that deal with targets moving along the camera axis. The target object preserves its shape and size being handled seamlessly between cameras regardless of distance to the composite sensor. The prototype of proposed composite sensor has been created and is used as a front-end in experimental mobile vehicle detection and tracking system. Its has been tested inside a driving simulator and results are presented.

Melnyk, Pavlo B.; Messner, Richard A.

2007-01-01

233

Comparison of spread spectrum and pulse signal excitation for split spectrum techniques composite imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic imaging of composites was investigated. Glass and carbon fiber reinforced plastic produced by resin transfer molding and prepreg forming were analyzed. In some of the samples air bubbles were trapped during RTM (resin transfer molding) process and interlayer gaps were present in prepreg technology samples. One of the most expected techniques to apply in such case is the Split Spectrum processing. On the other hand such signals require specific processing to reliably reconstruct the temporal position of the defect reflection. Correlation processing can be used for signal compression or Wiener filtering can be applied for spectral content equalisation. Pulse signals are simple to generate, but lack the possibility to alter the signal's spectrum shape. Spread spectrum signals offer a powerful tool for signal energy over frequency band increase and resolution enhancement. CW (continuous wave) burst has high energy but lacks the bandwidth needed for SSP (spread spectrum processing). The aim of the investigation was to compare the performance of the above signals in case of composite imaging, when various Split Spectrum Processing techniques are used with preceding Wiener processing for spectral content compensation. Resulting composite signals and images obtained are presented. Structural noise removal performance was evaluated as Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC).

Svilainis, L.; Kitov, S.; Rodríguez, A.; Vergara, L.; Dumbrava, V.; Chaziachmetovas, A.

2012-12-01

234

Estimation of urinary stone composition by automated processing of CT images.  

PubMed

The objective of this article was developing an automated tool for routine clinical practice to estimate urinary stone composition from CT images based on the density of all constituent voxels. A total of 118 stones for which the composition had been determined by infrared spectroscopy were placed in a helical CT scanner. A standard acquisition, low-dose and high-dose acquisitions were performed. All voxels constituting each stone were automatically selected. A dissimilarity index evaluating variations of density around each voxel was created in order to minimize partial volume effects: stone composition was established on the basis of voxel density of homogeneous zones. Stone composition was determined in 52% of cases. Sensitivities for each compound were: uric acid: 65%, struvite: 19%, cystine: 78%, carbapatite: 33.5%, calcium oxalate dihydrate: 57%, calcium oxalate monohydrate: 66.5%, brushite: 75%. Low-dose acquisition did not lower the performances (P < 0.05). This entirely automated approach eliminates manual intervention on the images by the radiologist while providing identical performances including for low-dose protocols. PMID:19711066

Chevreau, Grégoire; Troccaz, Jocelyne; Conort, Pierre; Renard-Penna, Raphaëlle; Mallet, Alain; Daudon, Michel; Mozer, Pierre

2009-10-01

235

Multi-scale 3D image-based modelling of a carbon/carbon composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed thermal and mechanical finite element analyses of woven composites are computationally challenging due to the heterogeneous nature and the geometrical complexity of the composite. In this paper two finite element three-dimensional image-based models at different length scales are used to evaluate the thermal diffusivity and stiffness of a 2D carbon/carbon composite. The micro-scale model was developed from SEM micrographs of the carbon tow whereas the macro-scale model was derived from high resolution x-ray tomographic images of the composite. The micro-scale model predicts thermal conductivities and Young's modulus at the tow scale in the three orthogonal directions (x, y and z). The output results from the micro-scale model are then incorporated in the macro-scale model to obtain through-thickness thermal diffusivity and in-plane Young's modulus. The modelling results are in excellent agreement with the experimental results obtained from the laser flash and tensile tests and the deviations are within the bounds of numerical error of 5%.

Alghamdi, A.; Mummery, P.; Sheikh, M. A.

2013-12-01

236

Correlations between the neurobiology of colour vision and the psycholinguistics of colour naming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Neurobiological experiments demonstrate that colour sensation is perceived by the brain by processes which, in principle, follow the opponent colour pairs scheme proposed by Hering in 1874. Tests on colour naming in various European, Asian and Central American languages have shown that the opponent scheme is also reflected in psycholinguistics. The linguistic evolution of colour terms proposed by Berlin

Heinrich Zollinger; Roman Jakobson

1979-01-01

237

Search for colour singlet and colour reconnection effects in hadronic Z decays at LEP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A search is performed in symmetric 3-jet hadronic Z-decay events for evidence of colour singlet production or colour reconnection effects. Asymmetries in the angular separation of particles are found to be sensitive indicators of such effects. Upper limits on the level of colour singlet production or of colour reconnection effects are established for a variety of models.

Achard, P.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, V. P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S. V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillère, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J. J.; Blyth, S. C.; Bobbink, G. J.; Böhm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J. G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; van Dalen, J. A.; de Asmundis, R.; Déglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degré, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M. A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J. H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P. H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z. F.; Grenier, G.; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M. W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L. J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hervé, A.; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S. R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B. N.; Jones, L. W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberr?´a, I.; Käfer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kim, J. K.; Kirkby, J.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; König, A. C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kräber, M.; Kraemer, R. W.; Krüger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J. M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lin, W. T.; Linde, F. L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z. A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y. S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W. G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J. P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R. R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G. B.; Muanza, G. S.; Muijs, A. J. M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Nowak, H.; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroué, P. A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofiev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M. A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P. G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, K.; Roe, B. P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, S.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rubio, J. A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schäfer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D. J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D. P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L. Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J. D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X. W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, C.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tonwar, S. C.; Tóth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K. L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R. T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Z. M.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B. Z.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S. C.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.

2004-02-01

238

Composites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how composites work by creating and testing their own composite for an imaginary company. This activity shows learners that composites are simply materials that are made up of two or more visibly distinct substances. Use this activity to talk about how composites are everywhere in our lives.

Research, Cornell C.

2003-01-01

239

Summing large- towers in colour flow evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider soft-gluon evolution in the colour flow basis. We give explicit expressions for the colour structure of the (one-loop) soft anomalous dimension matrix for an arbitrary number of partons, and we show how the successive exponentiation of classes of large- contributions can be achieved to provide a systematic expansion of the evolution in terms of colour-suppressed contributions.

Plätzer, Simon

2014-06-01

240

Polymorphism and Adaptation of Primate Colour Vision  

E-print Network

Chapter 13 Polymorphism and Adaptation of Primate Colour Vision Amanda D. Melin, Chihiro Hiramatsu levels. Primates have evolved a unique ability for trichromatic colour vision from a dichromatic in extensive colour vision variability in New World monkeys, where trichromats and dichromats are found

Fedigan, Linda M.

241

Colour space models for soil science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil colour is an important soil property. It is frequently used by soil scientists for the identification and classification of soil. It is also used as an indicator of field soil physical, chemical and biological properties as well as of the occurrence of soil processes. Measurements of soil colour are commonly made using the Munsell soil colour charts. A number

R. A. Viscarra Rossel; B. Minasny; P. Roudier; A. B. McBratney

2006-01-01

242

Genetics of novel corolla colours in periwinkle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inheritance of a novel corolla colour in periwinkle [Catharanthus roseus (L) G. Don], viz. magenta, was studied by crossing an accession MJ, possessing this corolla colour, with cultivar Nirmal, possessing white corolla. The accession MJ was also crossed with another accession OR, possessing another novel corolla colour, viz. orange-red, to determine the relationship between genes governing magenta corolla and orange-red

R. N. Kulkarni; K. Baskaran; Y. Sreevalli

2005-01-01

243

An RGB Approach to Prismatic Colours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching prismatic colours usually boils down to establishing the take-home message that white light consists of "differently refrangible" coloured rays. This approach explains the classical spectrum of seven colours but has its limitations, e.g. in discussing spectra from setups with higher resolution or in understanding the well…

Theilmann, Florian; Grusche, Sascha

2013-01-01

244

Biological Components of Colour Preference in Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult colour preference has been summarized quantitatively in terms of weights on the two fundamental neural processes that underlie early colour encoding: the S-(L+M) ("blue-yellow") and L-M ("red-green") cone-opponent contrast channels ( Ling, Hurlbert & Robinson, 2006; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007). Here, we investigate whether colour preference in…

Franklin, Anna; Bevis, Laura; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

2010-01-01

245

Strategies for Prompt Searches for GRB Afterglows: The Discovery of GRB 001011 Optical/Near-Infrared Counterpart Using Colour-Colour Selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the discovery of the optical and near-infrared counterpart to GRB 001011. The GRB 001011 error box determined by Beppo-SAX was simultaneously imaged in the near-infrared by the 3.58-m. New Technology Telescope and in the optical by the 1.54-m Danish Telescope - 8 hr after the gamma-ray event. We implement the colour-colour discrimination technique proposed by Rhoads (2001) and extend it using near-IR data as well. We present the results provided by an automatic colour-colour discrimination pipe-line developed to discern the different populations of objects present in the GRB 001011 error box. Our software revealed three candidates based on single-epoch images. Second-epoch observations carried out approx. 3.2 days after the burst revealed that the most likely candidate had faded thus identifying it with the counterpart to the GRB. In deep R-band images obtained 7 months after the burst a faint (R=25.38 plus or minus 0.25) elongated object, presumably the host galaxy of GRB 001011, was detected at the position of the afterglow. The GRB 001011 afterglow is the first discovered with the assistance of colour-colour diagram techniques. We discuss the advantages of using this method and its application to boxes determined by future missions.

Gorosabel, J.; Fynbo, J. U.; Hjorth, J.; Wolf, C.; Andersen, M. I.; Pedersen, H.; Christensen, L.; Jensen, B. L.; Moller, P.; Afonso, J.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

246

Combining 3D optical imaging and dual energy absorptiometry to measure three compositional components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the design of the technique combining 3D optical imaging and dual-energy absorptiometry body scanning to estimate local body area compositions of three compartments. Dual-energy attenuation and body shape measures are used together to solve for the three compositional tissue thicknesses: water, lipid, and protein. We designed phantoms with tissue-like properties as our reference standards for calibration purposes. The calibration was created by fitting phantom values using non-linear regression of quadratic and truncated polynomials. Dual-energy measurements were performed on tissue-mimicking phantoms using a bone densitometer unit. The phantoms were made of materials shown to have similar x-ray attenuation properties of the biological compositional compartments. The components for the solid phantom were tested and their high energy/low energy attenuation ratios are in good correspondent to water, lipid, and protein for the densitometer x-ray region. The three-dimensional body shape was reconstructed from the depth maps generated by Microsoft Kinect for Windows. We used open-source Point Cloud Library and freeware software to produce dense point clouds. Accuracy and precision of compositional and thickness measures were calculated. The error contributions due to two modalities were estimated. The preliminary phantom composition and shape measurements are found to demonstrate the feasibility of the method proposed.

Malkov, Serghei; Shepherd, John

2014-02-01

247

Combining 3D optical imaging and dual energy absorptiometry to measure three compositional components.  

PubMed

We report on the design of the technique combining 3D optical imaging and dual-energy absorptiometry body scanning to estimate local body area compositions of three compartments. Dual-energy attenuation and body shape measures are used together to solve for the three compositional tissue thicknesses: water, lipid, and protein. We designed phantoms with tissue-like properties as our reference standards for calibration purposes. The calibration was created by fitting phantom values using non-linear regression of quadratic and truncated polynomials. Dual-energy measurements were performed on tissue-mimicking phantoms using a bone densitometer unit. The phantoms were made of materials shown to have similar x-ray attenuation properties of the biological compositional compartments. The components for the solid phantom were tested and their high energy/low energy attenuation ratios are in good correspondent to water, lipid, and protein for the densitometer x-ray region. The three-dimensional body shape was reconstructed from the depth maps generated by Microsoft Kinect for Windows. We used open-source Point Cloud Library and freeware software to produce dense point clouds. Accuracy and precision of compositional and thickness measures were calculated. The error contributions due to two modalities were estimated. The preliminary phantom composition and shape measurements are found to demonstrate the feasibility of the method proposed. PMID:25083118

Malkov, Serghei; Shepherd, John

2014-02-17

248

Thermal imaging measurement and correlation of thermal diffusivity in continuous fiber ceramic composites  

SciTech Connect

Continuous fiber ceramic matrix composites (CFCCs) are currently being developed for a variety of high-temperature applications, including use in advanced heat engines. For such composites, knowledge of porosity distribution and presence of defects is important for optimizing mechanical and thermal behavior of the components. The assessment of porosity and its distribution is also necessary during composite processing to ensure component uniformity. To determine the thermal properties of CFCC materials, and particularly for detecting defects and nonuniformities, the authors have developed an infrared thermal imaging method to provide a single-shot full-field measurement of thermal diffusivity distributions in large components. This method requires that the back surface of a specimen receives a thermal pulse of short duration and that the temperature of the front surface is monitored as a function of time. The system has been used to measure thermal diffusivities of several CFCC materials with known porosity or density values, including SYLRAMIC{trademark} SiC/SiNC composite samples from Dow Corning and SiC/SiC and enhanced SiC/SiC samples from DuPont Lanxide Composites, to determine the relationship of thermal diffusivity to component porosity or density.

Sun, J.G.; Deemer, C.; Ellingson, W.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Easler, T.E.; Szweda, A. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States); Craig, P.A. [DuPont Lanxide Composites Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

1997-09-01

249

Image analysis of the microstructure of pseudo-1-3 magnetostrictive composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies did by some scholars proved applying a magnetic field during the manufacture process of polymer-bonded Terfenol-D could orient the magnetic easy direction of the particles along the field direction and form a pseudo-1-3 structure. Compared to the 0-3 composites composed of Terfenol-D particles dispersed randomly in a polymer matrix, pseudo-1-3 magnetostrictive composites present much larger magnetostrictive performance. In this paper, magnetostrictive composites based on Terfenol-D particles in an unsaturated polyester resin matrix were fabricated under different magnetic fields. Magentostriction was tested and compared to get the detail effects of orientation fields on magnetostrictive properties of magnetostrictive composites. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe their microstructures. Image analysis was applied to describe the microstructures. The distribution of the angles between the major axis of the particles and the magnetic field direction was used to evaluate the arrangement of particles in the matrix quantitatively. The results confirm particle chain-like structures in composites prepared under larger magnetic field, and show that particle arrangement changes with the strength of the orientation field, which is result in the changes of magnetostrictive performance.

Dong, Xufeng; Qi, Min; Guan, Xinchun; Ou, Jinping

2010-04-01

250

A composite six bp in-frame deletion in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene is associated with the Japanese brindling coat colour in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)  

PubMed Central

Background In the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), classical genetic studies have identified five alleles at the Extension locus: ED (dominant black), ES (steel, weaker version of ED), E (wild type, normal extension of black), eJ(Japanese brindling, mosaic distribution of black and yellow) and e (non-extension of black, yellow/red with white belly). Sequencing almost the complete coding sequence (CDS) of the rabbit MC1R gene, we recently identified two in-frame deletions associated with dominant black (c.280_285del6; alleles ED or ES) and recessive red (c.304_333del30; allele e) coat colours. It remained to characterize the eJallele whose phenotypic effect is similar to the Orange and Sex-linked yellow loci of cat and Syrian hamster. Results We sequenced the whole CDS in 25 rabbits of different coat colours including 10 Japanese and 10 Rhinelander (tricolour) rabbits and identified another 6 bp-in frame deletion flanked by a G > A transition in 5' (c.[124G>A;125_130del6]) that was present in all animals with Japanese brindling coat colour and pattern. These mutations eliminate two amino acids in the first transmembrane domain and, in addition, cause an amino acid substitution at position 44 of the wild type sequence. Genotyping 371 rabbits of 31 breeds with different coat colour this allele (eJ) was present in homozygous state in Japanese, Rhinelander and Dutch tricolour rabbits only (except one albino rabbit). Rabbits with eJ/eJ genotype were non fixed at the non-agouti mutation we previously identified in the ASIP gene. Segregation in F1 and F2 families confirmed the order of dominance already determined by classical genetic experiments with a possible dose effect evident comparing eJ/eJ and eJ/e animals. MC1R mRNA was expressed in black hair skin regions only. Conclusions The c.[124A;125_130del6] allele may be responsible for a MC1R variant determining eumelanin production in the black areas. However, the mechanism determining the presence of both red and black hairs in the same animal seems more complex. Expression analyses of the c.[124A;125_130del6] allele suggest that MC1R transcription may be regulated epigenetically in rabbits with the Japanese brindling phenotype. Further studies are needed to clarify this issue. PMID:20594318

2010-01-01

251

Novel Recognition Method of Blast Furnace Dust Composition by Multifeature Analysis Based on Comprehensive Image-Processing Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional artificial recognition methods for the blast furnace dust composition have several disadvantages, including a great deal of information to dispose, complex operation, and low working efficiency. In this article, a multifeature analysis method based on comprehensive image-processing techniques was proposed to automatically recognize the blast furnace dust composition. First, the artificial recognition and feature analysis, which included image preprocessing, Harris corner feature, Canny edge feature, and Ruffle feature analysis, was designed to build the template image, so that any unknown dust digital image could be tested. Second, the composition of coke, microvariation pulverized coal, vitric, ash, and iron from dust would be distinguished according to their different range of values based on the multifeature analysis. The method is valid for recognizing the blast furnace dust composition automatically, and it is fast and has a high recognition accuracy.

Guo, Hongwei; Su, Buxin; Bai, Zhenlong; Zhang, Jianliang; Li, Xinyu

2014-11-01

252

Novel Recognition Method of Blast Furnace Dust Composition by Multifeature Analysis Based on Comprehensive Image-Processing Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional artificial recognition methods for the blast furnace dust composition have several disadvantages, including a great deal of information to dispose, complex operation, and low working efficiency. In this article, a multifeature analysis method based on comprehensive image-processing techniques was proposed to automatically recognize the blast furnace dust composition. First, the artificial recognition and feature analysis, which included image preprocessing, Harris corner feature, Canny edge feature, and Ruffle feature analysis, was designed to build the template image, so that any unknown dust digital image could be tested. Second, the composition of coke, microvariation pulverized coal, vitric, ash, and iron from dust would be distinguished according to their different range of values based on the multifeature analysis. The method is valid for recognizing the blast furnace dust composition automatically, and it is fast and has a high recognition accuracy.

Guo, Hongwei; Su, Buxin; Bai, Zhenlong; Zhang, Jianliang; Li, Xinyu

2014-09-01

253

Colour annealing - a toy model of colour reconnections  

SciTech Connect

We present a simple toy model for colour reconnections at the nonperturbative level. The model resembles an annealing-type algorithm and is applicable to any collider and process type, though we argue for a possible enhancement of the effect in hadron-hadron collisions. We present a simple application and study of the consequences for semileptonic t{bar t} events at the Tevatron.

Sandhoff, Marisa; /Wuppertal U.; Skands, Peter; /Fermilab

2005-12-01

254

Mouse Simulation Using Two Coloured Tapes  

E-print Network

In this paper, we present a novel approach for Human Computer Interaction (HCI) where, we control cursor movement using a real-time camera. Current methods involve changing mouse parts such as adding more buttons or changing the position of the tracking ball. Instead, our method is to use a camera and computer vision technology, such as image segmentation and gesture recognition, to control mouse tasks (left and right clicking, double-clicking, and scrolling) and we show how it can perform everything as current mouse devices can. The software will be developed in JAVA language. Recognition and pose estimation in this system are user independent and robust as we will be using colour tapes on our finger to perform actions. The software can be used as an intuitive input interface to applications that require multi-dimensional control e.g. computer games etc.

Kumar, Vikram; Mahe, Swapnil; Vyawahare, Swapnil; 10.5121/ijist.2012.2206

2012-01-01

255

Spectral Edge Image Fusion: Theory and Applications  

E-print Network

-infrared images, and colour visualisation of MRI Diffusion-Tensor imaging. Keywords: Image fusion; gradient such as a colour monitor. This process is termed image fusion. Thus, in the image fusion problem, there can be 10Spectral Edge Image Fusion: Theory and Applications David Connah1 , Mark S. Drew2 , Graham D

Drew, Mark S.

256

Colour vision in diurnal and nocturnal hawkmoths.  

PubMed

Diurnal and nocturnal hawkmoths (Sphingidae, Lepidoptera) have three spectral types of receptor sensitive to ultraviolet, blue and green light. As avid flower visitors and pollinators, they use olfactory and visual cues to find and recognise flowers. Moths of the diurnal species Macroglossum stellatarum and the nocturnal species Deilephila elpenor, Hyles lineata and Hyles gallii use and learn the colour of flowers. Nocturnal species can discriminate flowers at starlight intensities when humans and honeybees are colour-blind. M. stellatarum can use achromatic, intensity-related cues if colour cues are absent, and this is probably also true for D. elpenor. Both species can recognise colours even under a changed illumination colour. PMID:21680465

Kelber, Almut; Balkenius, Anna; Warrant, Eric J

2003-08-01

257

PROGRESS ON DEVELOPING SONIC INFRARED IMAGING FOR DEFECT DETECTION IN COMPOSITE STRUCTURES  

SciTech Connect

At last year's QNDE conference, we presented our development of Sonic IR imaging technology in metal structures, with results from both experimental studies and theoretical computing. In the latest aircraft designs, such as the B787 from Boeing, composites have become the major materials in structures such as the fuselage and wings. This is in contrast to composites' use only in auxiliary components such as flaps and spoilers in the past. With today's advanced technology of fabrication, it is expected the new materials can be put in use in even more aircraft structures due to its light weight and high strength (high strength-to-weight ratio), high specific stiffness, tailorability of properties, design flexibility etc. Especially, with increases in fuel cost, reducing the aircraft's body weight becomes more and more appealing. In this presentation, we describe the progress on our development of Sonic IR imaging for aircraft composite structures. In particular, we describe the some unexpected results discovered while modeling delaminations. These results were later experimentally verified with an engineered delamination.

Han Xiaoyan; He Qi; Li Wei [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute for Manufacturing Research Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Newaz, Golam; Favro, Lawrence D. [Institute for Manufacturing Research Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Thomas, Robert L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Institute for Manufacturing Research Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

2010-02-22

258

Quantitative imaging of chemical composition using dual-energy, dual-source CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual-energy x-ray material decomposition has been proposed as a noninvasive quantitative imaging technique for more than 20 years. In this paper, we summarize previously developed dual-energy material decomposition methods and propose a simple yet accurate method for quantitatively measuring chemical composition in vivo. In order to take advantage of the newly developed dual-source CT, the proposed method is based upon post reconstruction (image space) data. Different from other post reconstruction methods, this method is designed to directly measure element composition (mass fraction) in a tissue by a simple table lookup procedure. The method has been tested in phantom studies and also applied to a clinical case. The results showed that this method is capable of accurately measuring elemental concentrations, such as iron in tissue, under low noise imaging conditions. The advantage of this method lies in its simplicity and fast processing times. We believe that this method can be applied clinically to measure the mass fraction of any chemical element in a two-material object, such as to quantify the iron overload in the liver (hemochromatosis). Further investigations on de-noising techniques, as well as clinical validation, are merited.

Liu, Xin; Primak, Andrew N.; Yu, Lifeng; McCollough, Cynthia H.; Morin, Richard L.

2008-03-01

259

Arnheim's Gestalt theory of visual balance: Examining the compositional structure of art photographs and abstract images  

PubMed Central

In Art and Visual Perception, Rudolf Arnheim, following on from Denman Ross's A Theory of Pure Design, proposed a Gestalt theory of visual composition. The current paper assesses a physicalist interpretation of Arnheim's theory, calculating an image's centre of mass (CoM). Three types of data are used: a large, representative collection of art photographs of recognised quality; croppings by experts and non-experts of photographs; and Ross and Arnheim's procedure of placing a frame around objects such as Arnheim's two black disks. Compared with control images, the CoM of art photographs was closer to an axis (horizontal, vertical, or diagonal), as was the case for photographic croppings. However, stronger, within-image, paired comparison studies, comparing art photographs with the CoM moved on or off an axis (the ‘gamma-ramp study’), or comparing adjacent croppings on or off an axis (the ‘spider-web study’), showed no support for the Arnheim–Ross theory. Finally, studies moving a frame around two disks, of different size, greyness, or background, did not support Arnheim's Gestalt theory. Although the detailed results did not support the Arnheim–Ross theory, several significant results were found which clearly require explanation by any adequate theory of the aesthetics of visual composition. PMID:23145250

McManus, I C; Stöver, Katharina; Kim, Do

2011-01-01

260

Matrix models and graph colouring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study an edge-colouring problem on random planar graphs which is one of the simplest vertex models that may be analyzed by standard methods of large N matrix models. The main features of the saddle point solution and its critical behaviour are described. At the critical value of the coupling gcr the eigen value density u(?)M is found to vanish at the border of the support as ?-a2/3.

Cicuta, Giovanni M.; Molinari, Luca; Montaldi, Emilio

1993-06-01

261

Studying the influence of package shape and colour on consumer expectations of milk desserts using word association and conjoint analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food packaging plays a major role in attracting consumer attention and generating sensory and hedonic expectations; which could affect their product perception and purchase decisions. In the present study word association and conjoint analysis were used to study the influence of package shape and colour on consumer expectations of milk desserts. Six images of milk dessert packages with different colour

Gastón Ares; Rosires Deliza

2010-01-01

262

A comparison of the carotenoid accumulation in Capsicum varieties that show different ripening colours: deletion of the capsanthin-capsorubin synthase gene is not a prerequisite for the formation of a yellow pepper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ripe pepper (Capsicum sp.) fruits can display a range of colours from white to deep red. To un- derstand better the regulatory mechanisms of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathways that underlie these ripening colours, Capsicum varieties that show seven different fully ripe colour types were analysed. The levels and composition of the carotenoid accumulation in these samples at different stages of

Sun-Hwa Ha; Jung-Bong Kim; Jong-Sug Park; Shin-Woo Lee; Kang-Jin Cho

2007-01-01

263

Ultrasonic near-surface contact imaging of foam-based hybrid composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ultrasonic near-surface contact imaging technique was developed to study bond integrity variations in a foam-based hybrid composite material system. The method integrates a pair of ultrasonic wedge transducers into a traditional ultrasonic C-scan system in a pitch-catch arrangement. Unlike a conventional C-scan, the specimen is not immersed in water but uses a thin layer of water couplant between the wedges and sample surface. The use of an angled wedge system produces generalized Rayleigh-Lamb waves in the multi-layer material system, where variations in local amplitude and phase velocity of the travelling waves were mapped between bonded polymer composite laminates and ceramic foam substrates. Three categories of features were observed in the scans including: (1) near-surface thermocouple hole positions, (2) reflected wave edge effects, and (3) potential bond line integrity variations.

Ko, R. T.; Blackshire, J. L.; Chen, M. Y.

2014-02-01

264

Brilliant Star in a Colourful Neighbourhood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spectacular new image from ESO's Wide Field Imager at the La Silla Observatory in Chile shows the brilliant and unusual star WR 22 and its colourful surroundings. WR 22 is a very hot and bright star that is shedding its atmosphere into space at a rate many millions of times faster than the Sun. It lies in the outer part of the dramatic Carina Nebula from which it formed. Very massive stars live fast and die young. Some of these stellar beacons have such intense radiation passing through their thick atmospheres late in their lives that they shed material into space many millions of times more quickly than relatively sedate stars such as the Sun. These rare, very hot and massive objects are known as Wolf-Rayet stars [1], after the two French astronomers who first identified them in the mid-nineteenth century, and one of the most massive ones yet measured is known as WR 22. It appears at the centre of this picture, which was created from images taken through red, green and blue filters with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile. WR 22 is a member of a double star system and has been measured to have a mass at least 70 times that of the Sun. WR 22 lies in the southern constellation of Carina, the keel of Jason's ship Argo in Greek mythology. Although the star lies over 5000 light-years from the Earth it is so bright that it can just be faintly seen with the unaided eye under good conditions. WR 22 is one of many exceptionally brilliant stars associated with the beautiful Carina Nebula (also known as NGC 3372) and the outer part of this huge region of star formation in the southern Milky Way forms the colourful backdrop to this image. The subtle colours of the rich background tapestry are a result of the interactions between the intense ultraviolet radiation coming from hot massive stars, including WR 22, and the vast gas clouds, mostly hydrogen, from which they formed. The central part of this enormous complex of gas and dust lies off the left side of this picture as can be seen in image eso1031b. This area includes the remarkable star Eta Carinae and was featured in an earlier press release (eso0905). Notes [1] More information about Wolf-Rayet stars More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

2010-07-01

265

Digital analysis of Van Gogh’s complementary colours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, the analysis of visual arts is performed by human art experts only. \\u000aThe availability of advanced artificial intelligence techniques makes it possible to support art experts in their judgement of visual art. \\u000aIn this paper image-analysis techniques are applied to measure the complementary colours in the oeuvre of Vincent van Gogh. It is commonly acknowledged that, especially in his

Igor Berezhnoy; Eric Postma; Jaap van den Herik

2005-01-01

266

Three-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation of a Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel During Hydrostatic Pressure Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ambient temperature hydrostatic pressurization tests were conducted on a composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV) to understand the fiber stresses in COPV components. Two three-dimensional digital image correlation systems with high speed cameras were used in the evaluation to provide full field displacement and strain data for each pressurization test. A few of the key findings will be discussed including how the principal strains provided better insight into system behavior than traditional gauges, a high localized strain that was measured where gages were not present and the challenges of measuring curved surfaces with the use of a 1.25 in. thick layered polycarbonate panel that protected the cameras.

Revilock, Duane M., Jr.; Thesken, John C.; Schmidt, Timothy E.

2007-01-01

267

Ground-based hyperspectral imaging for the mapping of geological outcrop composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of high resolution surveying techniques has increased dramatically in earth science applications over the last decade. New products, software solutions and an increased attention to "usability" have made terrestrial laser scanning (lidar) and digital photogrammetry popular methods for obtaining more detailed geometric data for many applications. Geology, especially the study of outcrops, is one such application area where the introduction of laser scanning in particular has benefitted, by allowing an increasingly quantitative approach at a variety of scales. Despite this, most of the contribution of modern surveying techniques has been related to the capture of topographic detail - the shape and form of outcrops - while the remote mapping of outcrop lithology has yet to be satisfactorily addressed. Ground-based spectral imaging offers new possibilities for an improved understanding of outcrop composition, by mapping lithology and the distribution of mineralogy with high resolution and increased automation. Advances in airborne and spaceborne multispectral and hyperspectral sensors have been successful for mineral prospecting and the regional mapping of rock types. However, because of the nadir viewing angle of the sensor, such a configuration is of limited value for near-vertical cliff sections. A new generation of close range hyperspectral imagers is now becoming available, with capabilities of measuring in the short-wave infra-red (SWIR) part of the electromagnetic spectrum suitable for detecting absorption features exhibited by many minerals found in sedimentary rocks. This research uses a ground-based hyperspectral sensor to acquire spectral images of geological outcrops, with the aim of remotely determining the distribution of lithologies. The method was applied to case studies from carbonate and siliciclastic rocks. The images were processed to obtain spectral classification maps of the distribution of representative rock types. To increase the quantitative approach, the spectral data were integrated with photorealistic 3D models derived from terrestrial laser scanning and conventional image acquisition. Because the push-broom hyperspectral sensor recorded panoramic rather than planar images, the integration was performed using a cylindrical camera model. Using this approach, it was possible to relate the pixels of the spectral images to a real-world coordinate system, aiding analysis and validation. In addition, the spectral images could be superimposed on the lidar-derived photorealistic models, allowing a simultaneous visualisation of multiple thematic results together with the conventional digital camera imagery. For the case studies used, encouraging results were produced, allowing the mapping of features that were not easily visible in conventional images. It is therefore concluded that ground-based hyperspectral imaging is an important method that may be applicable to many earth science applications.

Kurz, Tobias; Buckley, Simon; Schneider, Danilo; Howell, John

2010-05-01

268

The original colours of fossil beetles  

PubMed Central

Structural colours, the most intense, reflective and pure colours in nature, are generated when light is scattered by complex nanostructures. Metallic structural colours are widespread among modern insects and can be preserved in their fossil counterparts, but it is unclear whether the colours have been altered during fossilization, and whether the absence of colours is always real. To resolve these issues, we investigated fossil beetles from five Cenozoic biotas. Metallic colours in these specimens are generated by an epicuticular multi-layer reflector; the fidelity of its preservation correlates with that of other key cuticular ultrastructures. Where these other ultrastructures are well preserved in non-metallic fossil specimens, we can infer that the original cuticle lacked a multi-layer reflector; its absence in the fossil is not a preservational artefact. Reconstructions of the original colours of the fossils based on the structure of the multi-layer reflector show that the preserved colours are offset systematically to longer wavelengths; this probably reflects alteration of the refractive index of the epicuticle during fossilization. These findings will allow the former presence, and original hue, of metallic structural colours to be identified in diverse fossil insects, thus providing critical evidence of the evolution of structural colour in this group. PMID:21957131

McNamara, Maria E.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Orr, Patrick J.; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui

2012-01-01

269

Study on the methods of digital image quality evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproducing encapsulated emotions and ideas of human consciousness into the real world has been a continuous desire in human history and colour plays an important role in discerning an object and in communicating thoughts and emotions. From the beginning of the twentieth century, an explosive number of developments occurred in conjunction with colour imaging devices, e.g. colour photography, colour television,

Jin-Seo Kim; Maeng-Sub Cho; Byoung-Tae Choi

2004-01-01

270

Gas Flow Measurements by 3D Particle Tracking Velocimetry Using Coloured Tracer Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes an original approach for 3D Particle Tracking Velocimetry (3D PTV), applicable also for gaseous flows\\u000a and based on tracer particles of different colours. On the images acquired by several cameras, tracer particles are handled\\u000a by colour recognition and 3D localisation. Then, the PTV tracking algorithm rebuilds the trajectories of the tracer particles\\u000a using a criterion of Minimum Acceleration. Theoretical

Dominique Tarlet; Christian Bendicks; Christoph Roloff; Róbert Bordás; Bernd Wunderlich; Bernd Michaelis; Dominique Thévenin

271

An Efficient DCT-Based Image Compression System Based on Laplacian Transparent Composite Model.  

PubMed

Recently, a new probability model dubbed the Laplacian transparent composite model (LPTCM) was developed for DCT coefficients, which could identify outlier coefficients in addition to providing superior modeling accuracy. In this paper, we aim at exploring its applications to image compression. To this end, we propose an efficient nonpredictive image compression system, where quantization (including both hard-decision quantization (HDQ) and soft-decision quantization (SDQ)) and entropy coding are completely redesigned based on the LPTCM. When tested over standard test images, the proposed system achieves overall coding results that are among the best and similar to those of H.264 or HEVC intra (predictive) coding, in terms of rate versus visual quality. On the other hand, in terms of rate versus objective quality, it significantly outperforms baseline JPEG by more than 4.3 dB in PSNR on average, with a moderate increase on complexity, and ECEB, the state-of-the-art nonpredictive image coding, by 0.75 dB when SDQ is OFF (i.e., HDQ case), with the same level of computational complexity, and by 1 dB when SDQ is ON, at the cost of slight increase in complexity. In comparison with H.264 intracoding, our system provides an overall 0.4-dB gain or so, with dramatically reduced computational complexity; in comparison with HEVC intracoding, it offers comparable coding performance in the high-rate region or for complicated images, but with only less than 5% of the HEVC intracoding complexity. In addition, our proposed system also offers multiresolution capability, which, together with its comparatively high coding efficiency and low complexity, makes it a good alternative for real-time image processing applications. PMID:25532182

Sun, Chang; Yang, En-Hui

2015-03-01

272

Shrinkage of dental composite in simulated cavity measured with digital image correlation.  

PubMed

Polymerization shrinkage of dental resin composites can lead to restoration debonding or cracked tooth tissues in composite-restored teeth. In order to understand where and how shrinkage strain and stress develop in such restored teeth, Digital Image Correlation (DIC) was used to provide a comprehensive view of the displacement and strain distributions within model restorations that had undergone polymerization shrinkage. Specimens with model cavities were made of cylindrical glass rods with both diameter and length being 10 mm. The dimensions of the mesial-occlusal-distal (MOD) cavity prepared in each specimen measured 3 mm and 2 mm in width and depth, respectively. After filling the cavity with resin composite, the surface under observation was sprayed with first a thin layer of white paint and then fine black charcoal powder to create high-contrast speckles. Pictures of that surface were then taken before curing and 5 min after. Finally, the two pictures were correlated using DIC software to calculate the displacement and strain distributions. The resin composite shrunk vertically towards the bottom of the cavity, with the top center portion of the restoration having the largest downward displacement. At the same time, it shrunk horizontally towards its vertical midline. Shrinkage of the composite stretched the material in the vicinity of the "tooth-restoration" interface, resulting in cuspal deflections and high tensile strains around the restoration. Material close to the cavity walls or floor had direct strains mostly in the directions perpendicular to the interfaces. Summation of the two direct strain components showed a relatively uniform distribution around the restoration and its magnitude equaled approximately to the volumetric shrinkage strain of the material. PMID:25079865

Li, Jianying; Thakur, Preetanjali; Fok, Alex S L

2014-01-01

273

Simultaneously measuring 3D shape and colour texture of moving objects using IR and colour fringe projection techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneously measuring the three-dimensional (3D) shape and colour texture of moving objects in real time is becoming increasingly important in many application fields. The existing methods of measuring moving objects have certain disadvantages, such as complicated procedures to build the coordinate transformation between cameras, inaccurate 3D shape data because of the longer capturing time of fringe pattern images, and sensitivity to environmental light due to the projected visible fringe patterns. This paper presents a novel method to capture 3D shape and colour texture information of moving objects simultaneously by combining the infrared (IR) channel and visible channel together. Shape data are calculated from IR fringe patterns to avoid the effect of environmental light on the measured objects. Shape data and colour texture information are simultaneously captured by IR and visible channels of a 2-CCD camera; therefore, these parameters have pixel-to-pixel correspondence without needing any registration. The experimental results on two moving objects indicate that the proposed method can simultaneously obtain 3D shape and colour texture information in a reliable way.

Xu, Y. J.; Chen, C.; Huang, S. J.; Zhang, Z. H.

2014-10-01

274

Fruit over sunbed: Carotenoid skin colouration is found more attractive than melanin colouration.  

PubMed

Skin colouration appears to play a pivotal part in facial attractiveness. Skin yellowness contributes to an attractive appearance and is influenced both by dietary carotenoids and by melanin. While both increased carotenoid colouration and increased melanin colouration enhance apparent health in Caucasian faces by increasing skin yellowness, it remains unclear, firstly, whether both pigments contribute to attractiveness judgements, secondly, whether one pigment is clearly preferred over the other, and thirdly, whether these effects depend on the sex of the face. Here, in three studies, we examine these questions using controlled facial stimuli transformed to be either high or low in (a) carotenoid colouration, or (b) melanin colouration. We show, firstly, that both increased carotenoid colouration and increased melanin colouration are found attractive compared to lower levels of these pigments. Secondly, we show that carotenoid colouration is consistently preferred over melanin colouration when levels of colouration are matched. In addition, we find an effect of the sex of stimuli with stronger preferences for carotenoids over melanin in female compared to male faces, irrespective of the sex of the observer. These results are interpreted as reflecting preferences for sex-typical skin colouration: men have darker skin than women and high melanization in male faces may further enhance this masculine trait, thus carotenoid colouration is not less desirable, but melanin colouration is relatively more desirable in males compared to females. Taken together, our findings provide further support for a carotenoid-linked health-signalling system that is highly important in mate choice. PMID:25014019

Lefevre, Carmen E; Perrett, David I

2015-02-01

275

Magnetite/CdTe magnetic-fluorescent composite nanosystem for magnetic separation and bio-imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new synthesis protocol is described to obtain a CdTe decorated magnetite bifunctional nanosystem via dodecylamine (DDA) as cross linker. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and fluorescence microscopy are used to characterize the constitution, size, composition and physical properties of these superparamagnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles. These CdTe decorated magnetite nanoparticles were then functionalized with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody to specifically target cells expressing this receptor. The EGFR is a transmembrane glycoprotein and is expressed on tumor cells from different tissue origins including human leukemic cell line Molt-4 cells. The magnetite-CdTe composite nanosystem is shown to perform excellently for specific selection, magnetic separation and fluorescent detection of EGFR positive Molt-4 cells from a mixed population. Flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy results show that this composite nanosystem has great potential in antibody functionalized magnetic separation and imaging of cells using cell surface receptor antibody.

Kale, Anup; Kale, Sonia; Yadav, Prasad; Gholap, Haribhau; Pasricha, Renu; Jog, J. P.; Lefez, Benoit; Hannoyer, Béatrice; Shastry, Padma; Ogale, Satishchandra

2011-06-01

276

Micro-measurements of mechanical properties for adhesives and composites using digital imaging technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for a constituent based durability or accelerated life prediction procedure to be used for the engineering design of polymer matrix composites is discussed in the light of current plans for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) concerns about the U.S. infrastructure (bridges, pipelines, etc.) and other technological considerations of national concern. It is pointed out that good measurement procedures for insitu resin properties are needed for both adhesives and composites. A double cantilever beam (DCB) specimen which shows promise for the easy determination of adhesive shear properties is presented and compared with measurements of strains within the bondline using a new optical digital imaging micro-measurement system (DIMMS). The DCB specimen is also used to assess damage in a bonded joint using a dynamic mechanical thermal analysis system (DMTA). The possible utilization of the same DIMMS and DMTA procedures to determine the insitu properties of the resin in a composite specimen are discussed as well as the use of the procedures to evaluate long term mechanical and physical aging. Finally, a discussion on the state-of-the art of the measurement of strains in micron and sub-micron domains is given.

Brinson, Hal F.

1994-01-01

277

The Impact of Biochemistry vs. Population Membership on Floral Scent Profiles in Colour Polymorphic Hesperis matronalis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Studies of floral scent evolution often attribute variation in floral scent to differences in pollinator behaviour, ignoring the potential for shared biochemistry between floral scent and floral colour to dictate patterns of phenotypic variation in scent production. To determine the relative effects of shared biochemistry and/or localized population-level phenomena on floral scent phenotype, floral scent composition and emission rate were examined in five wild populations of colour polymorphic Hesperis matronalis (Brassicaceae). Methods Floral scent was collected by in situ dynamic headspace extraction on purple and white colour morphs in each of five wild populations. Gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy of extracts allowed determination of floral scent composition and emission rate for all individuals, which were examined by non-metric multidimensional scaling and analysis of variance (ANOVA), respectively, to determine the contributions of floral colour and population membership to scent profile variation. Key Results Despite the fact that colour morph means were very similar in some populations and quite different in other populations, colour morphs within populations did not differ from each other in terms of scent composition or emission rate. Populations differed significantly from one another in terms of both floral scent composition and emission rate. Conclusions Shared biochemistry alone cannot explain the variation in floral scent phenotype found for H. matronalis. Such a result may suggest that the biochemical association between floral scent and floral colour is complex or dependent on genetic background. Floral scent does vary significantly with population membership; several factors, including environmental conditions, founder effects and genetics, may account for this differentiation and should be considered in future studies. PMID:18819948

Majetic, Cassie J.; Raguso, Robert A.; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

2008-01-01

278

Determining thermal diffusivity and defect attributes in ceramic matrix composites by infrared imaging.  

SciTech Connect

Ceramic matrix composites are being developed for numerous high temperature applications, including rotors and combustors for advanced turbine engines, heat exchanger and hot-gas filters for coal gasification plants. Among the materials of interest are silicon-carbide-fiber-reinforced-silicon-carbide (SiC{sub (f)}/SiC), silicon-carbide-fiber-reinforced-silicon-nitride (SiC{sub (f)}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), aluminum-oxide-reinforced-alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3(f)}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), etc. In the manufacturing of these ceramic composites, the conditions of the fiber/matrix interface are critical to the mechanical and thermal behavior of the component. Defects such as delaminations and non-uniform porosity can directly effect the performance. A nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method, developed at Argonne National Laboratory has proved beneficial in analyzing as-processed conditions and defect detection created during manufacturing. This NDE method uses infrared thermal imaging for fill-field quantitative measurement of the distribution of thermal diffusivity in large components. Intensity transform algorithms have been used for contrast enhancement of the output image. Nonuniformity correction and automatic gain control are used to dynamically optimize video contrast and brightness, providing additional resolution in the acquired images. Digital filtering, interpolation, and least-squares-estimation techniques have been incorporated for noise reduction and data acquisition. The Argonne NDE system has been utilized to determine thermal shock damage, density variations, and variations in fiber coating in a full array of test specimens.

Ahuja, S.; Ellingson, W. A.; Koehl, E. R.; Stuckey, J.

1997-12-05

279

Why colour in subterranean vertebrates? Exploring the evolution of colour patterns in caecilian amphibians  

Microsoft Academic Search

aposematism; caecilians; colour; crypsis; evolution; Gymnophiona; independent contrasts; pattern; selection. Abstract The proximate functions of animal skin colour are difficult to assign as they can result from natural selection, sexual selection or neutral evolution under genetic drift. Most often colour patterns are thought to signal visual stimuli; so, their presence in subterranean taxa is perplexing. We evaluate the adaptive nature

K. C. WOLLENBERG; G. JOHN MEASEY

2009-01-01

280

Digital colour tone for fluorescence sensing: a direct comparison of intensity, ratiometric and hue based quantification.  

PubMed

The hue parameter of HSV colour-space for digital imaging is shown to be accessible for convenient quantitative fluorescence imaging. A commercially available pH probe was utilized in solution and incorporated into optical ?-sensors for microscopy applications. PMID:24603672

Hakonen, Aron; Beves, Jonathon E; Strömberg, Niklas

2014-07-21

281

A MULTIVARIATE GAUSSIAN MIXTURE MODEL OF LINEAR PREDICTION ERROR FOR COLOUR TEXTURE SEGMENTATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an algorithm for parametric supervised colour texture segmentation using a novel image observa- tion model. The proposed segmentation algorithm consists of two phases: In the first phase, we estimate an initial class label field of the image based on a 2D multichannel complex linear prediction model. Information of both luminance and chrominance spatial variation feature cues are

Imtnan-Ul-Haque QAZI; Fatima GHAZI; Olivier ALATA; J. C. BURIE; C. F. MALOIGNE

2009-01-01

282

Flaw investigation in a multi-layered, multi-material composite: Using air-coupled ultrasonic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramic tiles are the main ingredient of a multi-material, multi-layered composite being considered for the modernization of tank armors. The high stiffness, low attenuation, and precise dimensions of these uniform tiles make them remarkable resonators when driven to vibrate. Defects in the tile, during manufacture or after usage, are expected to change the resonance frequencies and resonance images of the tile. The comparison of the resonance frequencies and resonance images of a pristine tile/lay-up to a defective tile/lay-up will thus be a quantitative damage metric. By examining the vibrational behavior of these tiles and the composite lay-up with Finite Element Modeling and analytical plate vibration equations, the development of a new Nondestructive Evaluation technique is possible. This study examines the development of the Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Resonance Imaging technique as applied to a hexagonal ceramic tile and a multi-material, multi-layered composite.

Livings, R. A.; Dayal, V.; Barnard, D. J.; Hsu, D. K.

2012-05-01

283

Development of an image-based analysis method to determine the physical composition of a mixed waste material.  

PubMed

An experimental study was undertaken to assess the suitability of an image-based approach for determining the physical composition of mixed wastes. Waste samples were investigated at six different waste sorting facilities each visited twice during the study. These materials were physically sorted to examine the composition of these materials; during each of these surveys the waste was also processed to obtain digital images covering an area of 30 m(2), representing approximately 250-500 kg (3× mechanical bucket loads) of mixed waste. The images were processed using ERDAS Imagine software to assess the area covered by each component within the waste material. The composition determined from the image analysis was compared with results from the physical hand sorting. The image analysis results indicated a strong correlation with the physical results (mean r=0.91), however it was evident that components such as film plastics and paper were being over-estimated by the image analysis approach. This manuscript provides initial results, demonstrating the potential of an image-based method, and discusses further research requirements and future applications of this technique. PMID:22019051

Wagland, S T; Veltre, F; Longhurst, P J

2012-02-01

284

Mineralization in Rust-coloured Acarospora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upper cortex and extracellular hyphal wall matrix are mineralized in both rust-coloured Acarospora sinopica and the paler A. smaragdula ‘f. subochracea’ in the form of microgranular or microbotryoidal phases. Analysis confirmed the distinctive colours are not simply due to hydrated iron oxides, as previously believed, and suggests mixed sulphide and oxide phases with little crystallinity, as well as other

O. William Purvis; Anton Kearsley; Gordon Cressey; Anna T. Crewe; Mats Wedin

2008-01-01

285

Colour polymorphism in birds: causes and functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied polymorphism in all species of birds that are presently known to show intraspecific variation in plumage colour. At least three main mecha- nisms have been put forward to explain the maintenance of polymorphism: apostatic, disruptive and sexual selection. All of them make partly different predictions. Our aims were to investigate evolutionary causes and adaptive functions of colour polymorphism

P. Galeotti; D. Rubolini; P. O. Dunn; M. Fasola

2003-01-01

286

Measurement of skin colour in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis--Surface colours can be measured by a number of METHODS based on REFLECTOMETRY, COLORIMETRY and VISUAL STANDARDS. In both humans and animals, difficulties arise because the SKIN COLOUR may change owing to changes in blood flow, caused by the pressure exerted by the measuring instrument, because the skin surface is easily deformed, and because it may be impossible to take

I. M. GIBSON

1971-01-01

287

The Aurora Borealis and its Colours  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN reference to Mr. Backhouse's letter last week (p. 145) we have nowhere stated that ``similarity in colour in electric discharges is sufficient to indicate similarity of constitution, eyen when their spectra are quite unlike'' If Mr. Backhouse will again read our paper on the Auroræ, he will see that we say that in the same gas the colour of

Warren de La Rue; Hugo Müller

1880-01-01

288

Pigment chemistry and colour of Pelargonium flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major factors responsible for colour variation in a range of Pelargonium species and cultivars were shown to be the types and relative levels of pigments present. Variations in pH and copigment levels were not found to contribute significantly. Flowers with colours ranging from cream and pink through to deep purple, including salmon, orange and red, were studied. While either

Kevin A. Mitchell; Kenneth R. Markham; Murray R. Boase

1998-01-01

289

Instant colour photography: chemistry and UV stabilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultraviolet (UV) screening agent precursor, dinonylphenylisophthalate, applied as a component of a surface coating on instant colour positive photographic prints stabilizes the dyes that are used and prevents the fading of colour that otherwise occurs. It is believed that upon exposure to UV light the ester precursor rearrangesin situ to form substituted benzophenones, which are effective UV screening agents.

A. M. Usmani; I. O. Salyer

1983-01-01

290

Representing Object Colour in Language Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Embodied theories of cognition hold that mentally representing something "red" engages the neural subsystems that respond to environmental perception of that colour. This paper examines whether implicit perceptual information on object colour is represented during sentence comprehension even though doing so does not necessarily facilitate task…

Connell, Louise

2007-01-01

291

Blue integumentary structural colours in dragonflies (Odonata) are not produced by incoherent Tyndall scattering.  

PubMed

For nearly 80 years, the non-iridescent, blue, integumentary structural colours of dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata) have been attributed to incoherent Tyndall or Rayleigh scattering. We investigated the production of the integumentary structural colours of a damselfly--the familiar bluet, Enallagma civile (Coenagrionidae)--and a dragonfly--the common green darner, Anax junius (Aeshnidae)--using fibre optic spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The reflectance spectra of both species showed discrete reflectance peaks of approximately 30% reflectance at 475 and 460 nm, respectively. These structural colours are produced by light scattering from closely packed arrays of spheres in the endoplasmic reticulum of box-shaped epidermal pigment cells underlying the cuticle. The observed reflectance spectra do not conform to the inverse fourth power relationship predicted for Tyndall/Rayleigh scattering. Two-dimensional (2-D) Fourier analysis of the TEM images of the colour-producing arrays reveals ring-shaped distributions of Fourier power at intermediate spatial frequencies, documenting a quasiordered nanostructure. The nanostructured Fourier power spectra falsify the assumption of spatial independence of scatterers that is required for incoherent scattering. Radial averages of the Fourier power spectrum indicate that the spheres are substantially nanostructured at the appropriate spatial scale to produce visible colours by coherent scattering. However, the spatial periodicity of the arrays is apparently too large to produce the observed colour by coherent scattering. The nanospheres could have expanded substantially (approximately 50%) during preparation for TEM. Alternatively, coherent light scattering could be occurring both from the surfaces and from structures at the centre of the spheres. These arrays of colour-producing spheres within pigment cells have convergently evolved at least 11-14 times independently within the Odonata. Structural colouration from arrays in living cells has also fostered the convergent evolution of temperature-dependent colour change in numerous odonate lineages. PMID:15472030

Prum, Richard O; Cole, Jeff A; Torres, Rodolfo H

2004-10-01

292

Colour in insect thermoregulation: empirical and theoretical tests in the colour-changing grasshopper, Kosciuscola tristis.  

PubMed

Body colours can result in different internal body temperatures, but evidence for the biological significance of colour-induced temperature differences is inconsistent. We investigated the relationship between body colour and temperature in a model insect species that rapidly changes colour. We used an empirical approach and constructed a heat budget model to quantify whether a colour change from black to turquoise has a role in thermoregulation for the chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis). Our study shows that colour change in K. tristis provides relatively small temperature differences that vary greatly with wind speed (0.55 °C at ms(-1) to 0.05 °C at 10 ms(-1)). The biological significance of this difference is unclear and we discuss the requirement for more studies that directly test hypotheses regarding the fitness effects of colour in manipulating body temperature. PMID:23108152

Umbers, K D L; Herberstein, M E; Madin, J S

2013-01-01

293

Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of colour-quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour-rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour-rendering index metric or a refined colour-quality scale metric fails to distinguish between two principle colour-rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase

A. Zukauskas; R. Vaicekauskas; M. S. Shur

2010-01-01

294

Bleeding detection in wireless capsule endoscopy using adaptive colour histogram model and support vector classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a colour imaging technology that enables detailed examination of the interior of the gastrointestinal tract. A typical WCE examination takes ~ 8 hours and captures ~ 40,000 useful images. After the examination, the images are viewed as a video sequence, which generally takes a clinician over an hour to analyse. The manufacturers of the WCE provide certain automatic image analysis functions e.g. Given Imaging offers in their Rapid Reader software: The Suspected Blood Indicator (SBI), which is designed to report the location in the video of areas of active bleeding. However, this tool has been reported to have insufficient specificity and sensitivity. Therefore it does not free the specialist from reviewing the entire footage and was suggested only to be used as a fast screening tool. In this paper we propose a method of bleeding detection that uses in its first stage Hue-Saturation-Intensity colour histograms to track a moving background and bleeding colour distributions over time. Such an approach addresses the problem caused by drastic changes in blood colour distribution that occur when it is altered by gastrointestinal fluids and allow detection of other red lesions, which although are usually "less red" than fresh bleeding, they can still be detected when the difference between their colour distributions and the background is large enough. In the second stage of our method, we analyse all candidate blood frames, by extracting colour (HSI) and texture (LBP) features from the suspicious image regions (obtained in the first stage) and their neighbourhoods and classifying them using Support Vector Classifier into Bleeding, Lesion and Normal classes. We show that our algorithm compares favourably with the SBI on the test set of 84 full length videos.

Mackiewicz, Michal W.; Fisher, Mark; Jamieson, Crawford

2008-03-01

295

Monitoring of wildfires in boreal forests using large area AVHRR NDVI composite image data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composite image data, produced from AVHRR data collected in 1990, were evaluated for locating and mapping the areal extent of wildfires in the boreal forests of Alaska during that year. A technique was developed to map forest fire boundaries by subtracting a late-summer AVHRR NDVI image from an early summer scene. The locations and boundaries of wildfires within the interior region of Alaska were obtained from the Alaska Fire Service, and compared to the AVHRR-derived fire-boundary map. It was found that AVHRR detected 89.5 percent of all fires with sizes greater than 2000 ha with no false alarms and that, for most cases, the general shape of the fire boundary detected by AVHRR matched those mapped by field observers. However, the total area contained within the fire boundaries mapped by AVHRR were only 61 percent of those mapped by the field observers. However, the AVHRR data used in this study did not span the entire time period during which fires occurred, and it is believed the areal estimates could be improved significantly if an expanded AVHRR data set were used.

Kasischke, Eric S.; French, Nancy H. F.; Harrell, Peter; Christensen, Norman L., Jr.; Ustin, Susan L.; Barry, Donald

1993-01-01

296

Monitoring of wildfires in boreal forests using large area AVHRR NDVI composite image data  

SciTech Connect

Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composite image data, produced from AVHRR data collected in 1990, were evaluated for locating and mapping the areal extent of wildfires in the boreal forests of Alaska during that year. A technique was developed to map forest fire boundaries by subtracting a late-summer AVHRR NDVI image from an early summer scene. The locations and boundaries of wildfires within the interior region of Alaska were obtained from the Alaska Fire Service, and compared to the AVHRR-derived fire-boundary map. It was found that AVHRR detected 89.5% of all fires with sizes greater than 2,000ha with no false alarms and that, for most cases, the general shape of the fire boundary detected by AVHRR matched those mapped by field observers. However, the total area contained within the fire boundaries mapped by AVHRR were only 61% of those mapped by the field observers. However, the AVHRR data used in this study did not span the entire time period during which fires occurred, and it is believed the areal estimates could be improved significantly if an expanded AVHRR data set were used.

Kasischke, E.S.; French, N.H.F. (Environmental Research Inst. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States)); Harrell, P.; Christensen, N.L. Jr. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)); Ustin, S.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States)); Barry, D. (U.S. Bureau of Land Management, Fairbanks, AK (United States))

1993-06-01

297

Automated segmentation of muscle and adipose tissue on CT images for human body composition analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to compute body composition in cancer patients lends itself to determining the specific clinical outcomes associated with fat and lean tissue stores. For example, a wasting syndrome of advanced disease associates with shortened survival. Moreover, certain tissue compartments represent sites for drug distribution and are likely determinants of chemotherapy efficacy and toxicity. CT images are abundant, but these cannot be fully exploited unless there exist practical and fast approaches for tissue quantification. Here we propose a fully automated method for segmenting muscle, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, taking the approach of shape modeling for the analysis of skeletal muscle. Muscle shape is represented using PCA encoded Free Form Deformations with respect to a mean shape. The shape model is learned from manually segmented images and used in conjunction with a tissue appearance prior. VAT and SAT are segmented based on the final deformed muscle shape. In comparing the automatic and manual methods, coefficients of variation (COV) (1 - 2%), were similar to or smaller than inter- and intra-observer COVs reported for manual segmentation.

Chung, Howard; Cobzas, Dana; Birdsell, Laura; Lieffers, Jessica; Baracos, Vickie

2009-02-01

298

Laser induced fluorescence imaging of thermal damage in polymer matrix composites  

SciTech Connect

A simple, fluorescence based imaging system has been developed that is capable of identifying regions of thermal damage in polymer matrix composites (PMCs). These materials are playing an increasingly important role in the production of high performance vehicles and aircraft, where their low weight and high mechanical strength, combined with advancements in manufacturing technology, ensure increased use for a variety of applications. Of particular concern in the aerospace industry is the tendency of some PMC materials to become irreversibly damaged when exposed to elevated temperatures. Traditional nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques are capable of detecting physical anomalies such as cracks and delaminations but cannot detect initial heat damage, which occurs on a molecular scale. Spectroscopic techniques such as laser induced fluorescence provide an attractive means for detecting this type of damage and are amenable to imaging large, irregularly shaped surfaces. In this report the authors describe instrumentation capable of rapidly detecting thermal damage in graphite epoxy components and suggest improvements which will enable this technology to make quantitative judgments concerning the mechanical strength properties of heat damaged specimens.

Fisher, W.G.; Meyer, K.E.; Wachter, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Perl, D.R. [N.A.S. North Island, San Diego, CA (United States). Naval Aviation Depot; Kulowitch, P.J. [Naval Air Warfare Center, Patuxent River, MD (United States). Aircraft Div.

1997-06-01

299

Near infrared imaging of the surface of Venus and implications for crustal composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Venus Express is an ESA spacecraft orbiting Venus since April 2006. The instrument VIRTIS acquires multispectral images in the range from 0.2 to 5 m wavelength. An analysis of VIRTIS images at the wavelengths of the atmospheric window at 1.02 m shows evidence for variation of surface emissivity on the southern hemisphere [Mueller et al. 2008]. Inferred surface emissivity is correlated to some extend with morphological units identified from radar images of the NASA/JPL Magellan mission [Tanaka et al. 1997]. Alpha and Phoebe Regios are highlands mostly composed of tessera terrain, which is defined as a region strongly deformed by compressive and extensional tectonism in at least two directions. In comparison to lowland plains and other less tectonized highlands, these regions generally emit less thermal radiation, which implies lower emissivity. A recent analysis of NIR data from the Galileo fly-by in 1990 finds, that highland regions on Venus on average have a lower emissivity than lowlands [Hashimoto et al. 2008]. As a significant part of Venus highlands in the area observed by Galileo is composed of tessera, this observation is consistent with the observation of Mueller et al. [2008]. In situ measurements by the Venera and Vega landers are at most places consistent with basaltic surface composition. The hypsometry of Venus is unimodal. Inferred lava viscosity of most volcanic features is low, consistent with basaltic composition. All these observations hint towards a crust mostly composed of basalt [Basilevsky et al 1997]. However, no landing site was on tessera terrain, tessera are hypsometrically elevated and the morphology is dominated by tectonic deformation. Among other arguments this leads to the hypothesis that tessera highlands crust is more abundant in feldspar and silica, comparable to lunar highlands or continents on Earth [Nikolaeva et al., 1992]. NIR mapping supports this hypothesis, although other interpretations of the NIR data can not be ruled out. Generation of felsic crust is unlikely under the current climatic and tectonic regime on Venus. The lunar highland crust is believed to be a remnant of an magma ocean [Taylor 1974]. Enrichment in silica as in the continental crust of Earth requires recycling of water into the mantle [Campbell and Taylor 1984]. The surface of Venus is extremely dry and Venus and crustal recycling by plate tectonics does not operate at present. Any crust with felsic bulk composition had to be created during the early history of the planet. In a stratigraphic analysis tessera terrain predates all units it is in contact with [Ivanov and Head 1996]. Tessera terrain is defined by an extensive history of tectonic deformation. Assuming that tessera highlands indeed represent less dense crustal blocks created early in the history of Venus, implications arise from their persistence on the surface of Venus regarding resurfacing mechanism, crustal recycling and thermal evolution. If tessera highlands are enriched in silica relative to basalt this implies existence of a primordial ocean on Venus [Hashimoto et al. 2008]. In either case Venus would even more closely resemble the Earth-Moon system than previously assumed, making Venus an excellent subject for general studies of earth-like planets. Basilevsky, A. T.,et al. (1997), The Resurfacing History of Venus, in Venus II, pp. 1047-1084. Hashimoto, et al. (2008), Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) Data Suggests Felsic Highland Crust on Venus, JGR, in press. Ivanov, M. A., et al. (1996), Tessera terrain on Venus: A survey of the global distribution, characteristics, and relation to surrounding units from Magellan data, JGR, 101, 14,861-14,908. Mueller, N., et al. (2008), Venus surface thermal emission at one micrometer in VIRTIS imaging observations - evidence for variation of crust and mantle differentiation conditions, JGR , in press. Nikolaeva, O. V., et al. (1992), Evidence on the crustal dichotomy, pp. 129-139, Venus Geology, Geochemistry, and Geophysics - Research results from the USSR. Tanaka, K. L., et al. (1997), Phy

Müller, N.; Helbert, J.

2009-04-01

300

LUNAR SURFACE COMPOSITIONAL UNITS DETERMINED BY SPECTRAL MIXING ANALYSIS OF IMAGES FROM THE MOON MINERALOGY MAPPER (M3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mapping-surface compositional units on large areas of the Moon is a key step for interpretating its geology. In addition, the spatial distribution and relative abundances of minerals and glasses are essential for the study of mixing processes and maturation of the soil. We are using data from the M3 imaging spectrometer [1], which was in lunar orbit onboard Chandrayaan-1 for

J. Combe; G. Y. Kramer; T. B. McCord; L. A. Taylor; N. E. Petro; C. M. Pieters; J. W. Boardman; J. F. Mustard; J. M. Sunshine; S. Tompkins

2009-01-01

301

Spatial Imaging of Cracks in Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites by EIT Tsung-Chin Hou, Jerome P. Lynch  

E-print Network

particular group, termed high-performance FRCC (HPFRCC), are unique materials that exhibit strain hardeningSpatial Imaging of Cracks in Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites by EIT Tsung-Chin Hou, Jerome for structural health monitoring. In this study, the electrical properties of a unique strain-hardening fiber

Lynch, Jerome P.

302

Bone marrow fat composition as a novel imaging biomarker in postmenopausal women with prevalent fragility fractures  

PubMed Central

The goal of this MR-imaging study was to quantify vertebral bone marrow fat content and composition in diabetic and non-diabetic postmenopausal women with fragility fractures and to compare them with non-fracture controls with and without type-2 diabetes mellitus. Sixty-nine postmenopausal women (mean age 63±5 years) were recruited. Thirty-six patients (47.8%) had spinal and/or peripheral fragility fractures. Seventeen fracture patients were diabetic. Thirty-three women (52.2%) were non-fracture controls. Sixteen women were diabetic non-fracture controls. To quantify vertebral bone marrow fat content and composition, patients underwent MR-spectroscopy (MRS) of the lumbar spine at 3 Tesla. Bone mineral density (BMD) was determined by dual-energy X-Ray-absorptiometry (DXA) of the hip and lumbar spine (LS) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of the LS. To evaluate associations of vertebral marrow fat content and composition with spinal and/or peripheral fragility fractures and diabetes, we used linear regression models adjusted for age, race, and spine vBMD by QCT. At the LS, non-diabetic and diabetic fracture patients had lower vBMD than controls and diabetics without fractures (p=0.018; p=0.005). However, aBMD by DXA did not differ between fracture and non-fracture patients. After adjustment for age, race, and spinal vBMD, the prevalence of fragility fractures was associated with -1.7% lower unsaturation levels (confidence interval [CI] -2.8% to - 0.5%, p=0.005) and +2.9% higher saturation levels (CI 0.5% to 5.3%, p=0.017). Diabetes was associated with -1.3% (CI -2.3% to -0.2%, p=0.018) lower unsaturation and +3.3% (CI 1.1% to 5.4%. p=0.004) higher saturation levels. Diabetics with fractures had the lowest marrow unsaturation and highest saturation. There were no associations of marrow fat content with diabetes or fracture. Our results suggest that altered bone marrow fat composition is linked with fragility fractures and diabetes. MRS of spinal bone marrow fat may therefore serve as a novel tool for BMD-independent fracture risk assessment. PMID:23558967

Patsch, Janina M.; Li, Xiaojuan; Baum, Thomas; Yap, Samuel P.; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Schwartz, Ann V.; Link, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

303

Colour and lighting in hospital design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little information or guidance has been available to assist the development of a hospital's visual environment. A report on lighting and colour design schemes, accessible to non professionals with responsibility for refurbishment strategies, was required by NHS Estates. Firstly, 20 hospitals were audited to establish a picture of current practice and to identify key issues where colour design could broadly enhance the environment for patients, staff and visitors. Critical areas were outlined in this report, where colour design can be utilised and applied, for the benefit of all users, from ambience to essential legal requirements such as colour contrast for the visually impaired. Provision of staff relaxation rooms that are different in terms of colour and lux levels from immediate work spaces, or thoughtfully designed areas for patients awaiting intensive treatment, have been shown to have some beneficial effects on a sense of well being. Colour and design have not been established as a definite cure for sickness and ill health, but certainly monotony and poor conditions in premises that have not been refurbished with any care, have had a detrimental affect on recovery rates and staff morale. The realisation that a well balanced and attractive environment is of major importance to patients' health is, in no way new; Florence Nightingale observed that 'a variety of form and brilliance of colour in the objects presented to patients are an actual means of recovery'.

Dalke, Hilary; Little, Jenny; Niemann, Elga; Camgoz, Nilgun; Steadman, Guillaume; Hill, Sarah; Stott, Laura

2006-06-01

304

Physicochemical and physiological basis of dichromatic colour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Out of three perceptual characteristics of the colour of any substance, the hue depends mostly on the spectral properties of a substance, while the brightness and saturation depend also on the concentration of a substance and its thickness. Here, we report that evident change of the hue of the colour (i.e., from green to red) is due to a change in concentration or the thickness of a layer in some exceptional substances such as pumpkin seed oil or an aqueous solution of bromophenol blue. In some regions of Central Europe, salad dressing is made preferably with the pumpkin seed oil, which has a strong characteristic nut-like taste and remarkable properties of the colour: it appears red in a bottle, but green when served as a salad dressing. The colour of the pumpkin seed oil was previously described as brownish yellow, dark green, dark green to red ochre or dark reddish brown to light yellow green. We elucidated the physicochemical and physiological basis of such dichromatism by Beer-Lambert law and by the characteristics of human colour perception. Our concept was corroborated by the outcome of calculations of colour from spectral properties using colour matching functions. We found that dichromatism is observed if the absorption spectrum of any substance has at least two local minima: one wide but shallow and one narrow but deep local minimum.

Kreft, Samo; Kreft, Marko

2007-11-01

305

Contrast normalization in colour vision: the effect of luminance contrast on colour contrast detection  

PubMed Central

While contrast normalization is well known to occur in luminance vision between overlaid achromatic contrasts, and in colour vision between overlaid colour contrasts, it is unknown whether it transfers between colour and luminance contrast. Here we investigate whether contrast detection in colour vision can be normalized by achromatic contrast, or whether this is a selective process driven only by colour contrast. We use a method of cross-orientation masking, in which colour detection is masked by cross-oriented achromatic contrast, over a range of spatio-temporal frequencies (0.375–1.5?cpd, 2–8?Hz). We find that there is virtually no cross-masking of colour by achromatic contrast under monocular or binocular conditions for any of the spatio-temporal frequencies tested, although we find significant facilitation at low spatio-temporal conditions (0.375?cpd, 2?Hz). These results indicate that the process of contrast nornalization is colour selective and independent of achromatic contrast, and imply segregated chromatic signals in early visual processing. Under dichoptic conditions, however, we find a strikingly different result with significant masking of colour by achromatic contrast. This indicates that the dichoptic site of suppression is unselective, responding similarly to colour and luminance contrast, and suggests that dichoptic suppression has a different origin from monocular or binocular suppression. PMID:25491564

Mullen, Kathy T.; Kim, Yeon Jin; Gheiratmand, Mina

2014-01-01

306

Application of pulse acoustic microscopy technique for 3D imaging bulk microstructure of carbon fiber-reinforced composites.  

PubMed

Impulse acoustic microscopy technique is applied for 3D imaging of bulk microstructure of composite materials. Short pulses of focused high-frequency ultrasound have been employed for layer-by-layer imaging of internal microstructure of carbon fiber-reinforced composite (CFRC) laminates. The method provides spatial resolution of 60 microm and in-depth resolution of 80 microm, approximately. Echo signals reflected from structural units--plies, fiber bundles; and microflaws form acoustic images of microstructure at different depth inside samples. The images make it possible to see ply arrays, packing of bundles in plies; binding material distribution over the specimen body. They reveal failure of interply adhesion, buckling of single plies and fiber bundles, internal defoliations and disbonds, voids in the specimen body. The series of successive images offer outstanding possibilities to reconstruct the bulk structure, to estimate local variations of properties, topological and geometrical characteristics of structural components. The imaging technique has been applied to study different types of fiber packing--unidirectional, cross-ply and woven laminates. Mechanisms of ultrasonic contrast for diverse elements in acoustic images of CFRC laminate bulk microstructure and structural defects are discussed. PMID:16876841

Liu, Songping; Guo, Enming; Levin, V M; Liu, Feifei; Petronyuk, Yu S; Zhang, Qianlin

2006-12-22

307

System and technique for retrieving depth information about a surface by projecting a composite image of modulated light patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique, associated system and program code, for retrieving depth information about at least one surface of an object, such as an anatomical feature. Core features include: projecting a composite image comprising a plurality of modulated structured light patterns, at the anatomical feature; capturing an image reflected from the surface; and recovering pattern information from the reflected image, for each of the modulated structured light patterns. Pattern information is preferably recovered for each modulated structured light pattern used to create the composite, by performing a demodulation of the reflected image. Reconstruction of the surface can be accomplished by using depth information from the recovered patterns to produce a depth map/mapping thereof. Each signal waveform used for the modulation of a respective structured light pattern, is distinct from each of the other signal waveforms used for the modulation of other structured light patterns of a composite image; these signal waveforms may be selected from suitable types in any combination of distinct signal waveforms, provided the waveforms used are uncorrelated with respect to each other. The depth map/mapping to be utilized in a host of applications, for example: displaying a 3-D view of the object; virtual reality user-interaction interface with a computerized device; face--or other animal feature or inanimate object--recognition and comparison techniques for security or identification purposes; and 3-D video teleconferencing/telecollaboration.

Hassebrook, Laurence G. (Inventor); Lau, Daniel L. (Inventor); Guan, Chun (Inventor)

2010-01-01

308

System and technique for retrieving depth information about a surface by projecting a composite image of modulated light patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique, associated system and program code, for retrieving depth information about at least one surface of an object. Core features include: projecting a composite image comprising a plurality of modulated structured light patterns, at the object; capturing an image reflected from the surface; and recovering pattern information from the reflected image, for each of the modulated structured light patterns. Pattern information is preferably recovered for each modulated structured light pattern used to create the composite, by performing a demodulation of the reflected image. Reconstruction of the surface can be accomplished by using depth information from the recovered patterns to produce a depth map/mapping thereof. Each signal waveform used for the modulation of a respective structured light pattern, is distinct from each of the other signal waveforms used for the modulation of other structured light patterns of a composite image; these signal waveforms may be selected from suitable types in any combination of distinct signal waveforms, provided the waveforms used are uncorrelated with respect to each other. The depth map/mapping to be utilized in a host of applications, for example: displaying a 3-D view of the object; virtual reality user-interaction interface with a computerized device; face--or other animal feature or inanimate object--recognition and comparison techniques for security or identification purposes; and 3-D video teleconferencing/telecollaboration.

Hassebrook, Laurence G. (Inventor); Lau, Daniel L. (Inventor); Guan, Chun (Inventor)

2008-01-01

309

MUNSELL COLOR ANALYSIS OF LANDSAT COLOR-RATIO-COMPOSITE IMAGES OF LIMONITIC AREAS IN SOUTHWEST NEW MEXICO.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Green areas on Landsat 4/5 - 4/6 - 6/7 (red - blue - green) color-ratio-composite (CRC) images represent limonite on the ground. Color variation on such images was analyzed to determine the causes of the color differences within and between the green areas. Digital transformation of the CRC data into the modified cylindrical Munsell color coordinates - hue, value, and saturation - was used to correlate image color characteristics with properties of surficial materials. The amount of limonite visible to the sensor is the primary cause of color differences in green areas on the CRCs. Vegetation density is a secondary cause of color variation of green areas on Landsat CRC images. Digital color analysis of Landsat CRC images can be used to map unknown areas. Color variations of green pixels allows discrimination among limonitic bedrock, nonlimonitic bedrock, nonlimonitic alluvium, and limonitic alluvium.

Kruse, Fred A.

1984-01-01

310

3D palmprint and hand imaging system based on full-field composite color sinusoidal fringe projection technique.  

PubMed

Palmprint and hand shape, as two kinds of important biometric characteristics, have been widely studied and applied to human identity recognition. The existing research is based mainly on 2D images, which lose the third-dimensional information. The biological features extracted from 2D images are distorted by pressure and rolling, so the subsequent feature matching and recognition are inaccurate. This paper presents a method to acquire accurate 3D shapes of palmprint and hand by projecting full-field composite color sinusoidal fringe patterns and the corresponding color texture information. A 3D imaging system is designed to capture and process the full-field composite color fringe patterns on hand surface. Composite color fringe patterns having the optimum three fringe numbers are generated by software and projected onto the surface of human hand by a digital light processing projector. From another viewpoint, a color CCD camera captures the deformed fringe patterns and saves them for postprocessing. After compensating for the cross talk and chromatic aberration between color channels, three fringe patterns are extracted from three color channels of a captured composite color image. Wrapped phase information can be calculated from the sinusoidal fringe patterns with high precision. At the same time, the absolute phase of each pixel is determined by the optimum three-fringe selection method. After building up the relationship between absolute phase map and 3D shape data, the 3D palmprint and hand are obtained. Color texture information can be directly captured or demodulated from the captured composite fringe pattern images. Experimental results show that the proposed method and system can yield accurate 3D shape and color texture information of the palmprint and hand shape. PMID:24085070

Zhang, Zonghua; Huang, Shujun; Xu, Yongjia; Chen, Chao; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Nan; Xiao, Yanjun

2013-09-01

311

The influence of ambient illumination on colour adaptation in three fringe photoelasticity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In three fringe photoelasticity, a single colour isochromatic image is used to estimate the total fringe order by comparing the colour at each point with that of a calibration table. The generation of the calibration table is critical, and certain nuances involved therein are brought out in this paper. Ideally, the same specimen material and lighting conditions must be used for both the calibration and application experiments, which are often not possible in an industrial scenario, and colour adaptation is a simple way of suitably modifying the calibration table. Till date, only experimental analyses of the colour adaptation procedures are available in the literature; in this paper, the colour adaptation procedures are investigated from an analytical viewpoint. This study has brought out that a two-point colour adaptation scheme accounts not only for tint variation between the calibration and application specimens, but also for ambient illumination. This finding has also been experimentally verified for a benchmark problem, and thereafter extended for reflection photoelastic analyses.

Neethi Simon, B.; Kasimayan, T.; Ramesh, K.

2011-02-01

312

Aluminum-free low-modulus Ti-C composites that exhibit reduced image artifacts during MRI.  

PubMed

Feasibility studies were performed to determine the suitability of a novel synthesis technique for fabricating multifunctional composite materials for orthopedic implants. By blending paramagnetic Ti powder with diamagnetic graphite and consolidating the resulting mixtures, Ti-C composites that cannot be feasibly obtained via conventional alloying techniques or ingot metallurgy were synthesized. The synthesized composite material exhibited extremely low magnetic susceptibility (?=67.6×10(-6)), and, as a result, exhibited fewer artifacts during magnetic resonance imaging. The strength of the composite material (?=770MPa) was such that it could support external loads to which the human body is subjected, but its Young's modulus was low (E=81.9 GPa) such that it could mitigate the stress-shielding effect. The material was also free from toxic elements such as Al and V and, thus, can be considered less harmful. PMID:25449916

Kim, Sung-Chul; Lee, Hong-Jun; Son, Seong-Guk; Seok, Hyun-Kwang; Lee, Kang-Sik; Shin, Seung-Young; Lee, Jae-Chul

2015-01-15

313

Why colour in subterranean vertebrates? Exploring the evolution of colour patterns in caecilian amphibians.  

PubMed

The proximate functions of animal skin colour are difficult to assign as they can result from natural selection, sexual selection or neutral evolution under genetic drift. Most often colour patterns are thought to signal visual stimuli; so,their presence in subterranean taxa is perplexing. We evaluate the adaptive nature of colour patterns in nearly a third of all known species of caecilians, an order of amphibians most of which live in tropical soils and leaf litter. We found that certain colour pattern elements in caecilians can be explained based on characteristics concerning above-ground movement. Our study implies that certain caecilian colour patterns have convergently evolved under selection and we hypothesize their function most likely to be a synergy of aposematism and crypsis, related to periods when individuals move overground. In a wider context, our results suggest that very little exposure to daylight is required to evolve and maintain a varied array of colour patterns in animal skin. PMID:21462404

Wollenberg, K C; Measey, C John

2009-05-01

314

Mid-infrared imaging Fourier transform spectrometry for high power fiber laser irradiated fiberglass composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New measurement techniques to study continuous wave (CW) laser-material interactions are emerging with the ability to monitor the evolving, spatial distribution of the state of the surface-gas boundary layer. A qualitative analysis of gas phase combustion plumes above the surface of laser irradiated fiberglass composites is developed from fast framing hyperspectral imagery observations. An imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) operating in the mid-infrared (MWIR) with high framing rate has recently been developed at the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) in collaboration with Telops Inc. A 320 x 256 indium antimonide (InSb) focal plane array with spectral response from 1.5 - 5.5 ?m is mated with a Michelson interferometer to achieve spectral resolutions as high as 0.25 cm-1. The very fast 16- tap InSb array frames at 1.9 kHz for the full 320 x 256 frame size. The single pixel field of view of 0.3 mrad provides a spatial resolution of 1 mm at the minimum focal distance of 3 m. Painted and unpainted fiberglass composites are irradiated with a 1064 nm CW Nd:YAG laser for 60 s at 100 W in air at atmospheric pressure. Selective emission in the region of 2100 - 3200 cm-1 is readily evident and is used to develop a time-dependent spatial map of both temperature and plume constituents. The time evolution of gas phase combustion products such as CO and CO2 molecules are monitored, with a spectral resolution of 2 cm-1. High-speed imagery is obtained using a low-pass filter for the interferograms, illustrating significant turbulent behavior during laser irradiation. Spatial brightness temperature maps exceed 600 K. Spatial variation in the ratio of [CO2]/[CO] indicates an interplay between heterogeneous and homogeneous kinetics.

Acosta, R. I.; Gross, K. C.; Perram, G. P.

2012-03-01

315

Interactions of near-coastal and basin-wide features of the Mediterranean Sea in the surface colour and temperature historical record  

SciTech Connect

Sea surface colour and temperature images, derived from time series of CZCS (1978-1986) and AVHRR (1982-1990) data, have been used to assess the interactions of near-coastal and basin-wide features in the Mediterranean basin. Individual images were processed to apply sensor(s) calibration, to correct for atmospheric contamination, and to estimate chlorophyll-like pigment concentration and surface temperature. Long-term composites show marked differences between western and eastern sub-basins, inshore and offshore domains, northern and southern near-coastal areas. Continental runoff and wind-driven mixing, as well as geomorphology and meteorology of the (northern) basin margins, appear to influence both water dynamics and bio-geo-chemistry. The major sub-basins present a distinct seasonality, superimposed to that of the basin.

Barale, V.; Filippi, P. [Space Applications Institute, Ispra (Italy)

1997-08-01

316

Quantitative assessment of tissue sections by Reverse Colour Coding.  

PubMed

Stains and dyes are frequently used to emphasise tissue structures for viewing under microscopy but few simple objective quantification methods exist. We describe the derivation of a mathematical formula enabling calculation of the relative contribution of three different coloured components to an image, which can be applied to rapid batch assessment of tissue sections for quantification of area proportions of differently stained elements. In order to validate this method, termed Reverse Colour Coding (RCC), we compared RCC estimations with known area proportions in artificially created images to calculate absolute accuracy, and compared RCC with panel visual estimation (VE) for the assessment of actual NCAM-stained muscle slides. Our results indicate that RCC has an absolute accuracy of 98-98.5% and superior inter-observer agreement and both inter- and intra-observer variability compared with VE. Results also suggest that cognitive bias occurring with VE may be eliminated by use of RCC. We submit RCC as a more accurate and less labour-intensive method of quantifying area proportions of stained tissues on microscopic images. PMID:18006070

Urso-Baiarda, Fulvio; MacQuillan, Anthony; Grobbelaar, Adriaan O

2008-02-15

317

Adaptive plasticity during the development of colour vision.  

PubMed

Colour vision greatly enhances the discriminatory and cognitive capabilities of visual systems and is found in a great majority of vertebrates and many invertebrates. However, colour coding visual systems are confronted with the fact that the external stimuli are ambiguous because they are subject to constant variations of luminance and spectral composition. Furthermore, the transmittance of the ocular media, the spectral sensitivity of visual pigments and the ratio of spectral cone types are also variable. This results in a situation where there is no fixed relationship between a stimulus and a colour percept. Colour constancy has been identified as a powerful mechanism to deal with this set of problems; however, it is active only in a short-term time range. Changes covering longer periods of time require additional tuning mechanisms at the photoreceptor level or at postreceptoral stages of chromatic processing. We have used the trichromatic blue acara (Aequidens pulcher, Cichlidae) as a model system and studied retinal morphology and physiology, and visually evoked behaviour after rearing fish for 1-2 years under various conditions including near monochromatic lights (spectral deprivation) and two intensities of white light (controls). In general, long-term exposure to long wavelengths light had lesser effects than light of middle and short wavelengths. Within the cone photoreceptors, spectral deprivation did not change the absorption characteristics of the visual pigments. By contrast, the outer segment length of middle and long-wave-sensitive cones was markedly increased in the blue rearing group. Furthermore, in the same group, we observed a loss of 65% short-wave-sensitive cones after 2 years. These changes may be interpreted as manifestations of compensatory mechanisms aimed at restoring the balance between the chromatic channels. At the horizontal cell level, the connectivity between short-wave-sensitive cones and the H2 cone horizontal cells, and the spinule dynamics were both affected in the blue light group. This observation rules out the role of spinules as sites of chromatic feedback synapses. The light-evoked responses of H2 horizontal cells were also sensitive to spectral deprivation showing a shift of the neutral point towards short wavelengths in the blue rearing group. Interestingly, we also found an intensity effect because in the group reared in bright white light the neutral point was more towards longer wavelength than in the dim light group. Like the changes in the cones, the reactions of horizontal cells to spectral deprivation in the long wave domain can be characterised as compensatory. We also tested the spectral sensitivity of the various experimental groups of blue acara in visually evoked behaviour using the optomotor response paradigm. In this case, the changes in the relative spectral sensitivity were more complex and could not be explained by a simple extrapolation of the adaptive and compensatory processes in the outer retina. We conclude that the inner retina, and/or the optic tectum are also involved and react to the changes of the spectral environment. In summary, we have shown a considerable developmental plasticity in the colour vision system of the blue acara, where epigenetic adaptive processes at various levels of the visual system respond to the specific spectral composition of the surroundings and provide a powerful mechanism to ensure functional colour vision in different visual environments. We suggest that processes involving an active fine-tuning of the photoreceptors and the postreceptoral processing of chromatic information during ontogenetic development are a general feature of all colour vision systems. Such mechanisms would establish a functional balance between the various chromatic channels. This appears to be an essential condition for the cognitive systems to extract the relevant and stable information from the unstable and changing stimulus situation. PMID:15845347

Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Kröger, Ronald H H

2005-07-01

318

David R. Hilbert Colour, Theories of  

E-print Network

views as Democritus and Galileo. Although the metaphysics is no longer atomistic in a strict sense, many be a property of external objects as were Democritus and Galileo. Colours as perceived are commonly seen

Hilber, David

319

Colour vision: parallel pathways intersect in Drosophila.  

PubMed

In the last one hundred years, colour vision has been demonstrated in bees and many other insects. But the underlying neural wiring remained elusive. A new study on Drosophila melanogaster combining behavioural and genetic tools yields surprising insights. PMID:24309280

Kelber, Almut; Henze, Miriam J

2013-12-01

320

Mechanisms, functions and ecology of colour vision in the honeybee.  

PubMed

Research in the honeybee has laid the foundations for our understanding of insect colour vision. The trichromatic colour vision of honeybees shares fundamental properties with primate and human colour perception, such as colour constancy, colour opponency, segregation of colour and brightness coding. Laborious efforts to reconstruct the colour vision pathway in the honeybee have provided detailed descriptions of neural connectivity and the properties of photoreceptors and interneurons in the optic lobes of the bee brain. The modelling of colour perception advanced with the establishment of colour discrimination models that were based on experimental data, the Colour-Opponent Coding and Receptor Noise-Limited models, which are important tools for the quantitative assessment of bee colour vision and colour-guided behaviours. Major insights into the visual ecology of bees have been gained combining behavioural experiments and quantitative modelling, and asking how bee vision has influenced the evolution of flower colours and patterns. Recently research has focussed on the discrimination and categorisation of coloured patterns, colourful scenes and various other groupings of coloured stimuli, highlighting the bees' behavioural flexibility. The identification of perceptual mechanisms remains of fundamental importance for the interpretation of their learning strategies and performance in diverse experimental tasks. PMID:24828676

Hempel de Ibarra, N; Vorobyev, M; Menzel, R

2014-06-01

321

Inheritance of seed colour in turnip rape ( Brassica campestris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inheritance of seed colour was investigated in the progenies of crosses between seven yellow seeded forms and a brown seeded one of turnip rape (Brassica campestris L.). Seed colour differences were found to be determined in each case by one or two genes with epistatic effect. Moreover, independent inheritance of hilum colour was observed. Seed colour was predominantly but

A. Schwetka

1982-01-01

322

The inheritance of fruit colour in apple (Malus pumila Mill.)  

E-print Network

The inheritance of fruit colour in apple (Malus pumila Mill.) Allan G. WHITE Yves LESPINASSE that red fruit colour was determined by two dominant complementary genes. Blush and red colour did key words : Skin colour, hybridization. R�SUM� Hérédité de la couleur du fruit chez le pommier (Malus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

323

Salience of Primary and Secondary Colours in Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primary colour terms ("black", "white", "red", "green", "yellow", and "blue") are more fundamental in colour language than secondary colour terms ("pink", "purple", "orange", "brown", and "grey"). Here, we assess whether this distinction exists in the absence of language, by investigating whether primary colours attract and sustain preverbal…

Franklin, Anna; Pitchford, Nicola; Hart, Lynsey; Davies, Ian R. L.; Clausse, Samantha; Jennings, Siobhan

2008-01-01

324

The Colour of the Young Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VLT study gives insight on the evolution of the star formation rate Summary An international team of astronomers [1] has determined the colour of the Universe when it was very young. While the Universe is now kind of beige, it was much bluer in the distant past , at a time when it was only 2,500 million years old. This is the outcome of an extensive and thorough analysis of more than 300 galaxies seen within a small southern sky area, the so-called Hubble Deep Field South. The main goal of this advanced study was to understand how the stellar content of the Universe was assembled and has changed over time. Dutch astronomer Marijn Franx , a team member from the Leiden Observatory (The Netherlands), explains: "The blue colour of the early Universe is caused by the predominantly blue light from young stars in the galaxies. The redder colour of the Universe today is caused by the relatively larger number of older, redder stars." The team leader, Gregory Rudnick from the Max-Planck Institut für Astrophysics (Garching, Germany) adds: "Since the total amount of light in the Universe in the past was about the same as today and a young blue star emits much more light than an old red star, there must have been significantly fewer stars in the young Universe than there is now. Our new findings imply that the majority of stars in the Universe were formed comparatively late, not so long before our Sun was born, at a moment when the Universe was around 7,000 million years old." These new results are based on unique data collected during more than 100 hours of observations with the ISAAC multi-mode instrument at ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), as part of a major research project, the Faint InfraRed Extragalactic Survey (FIRES) . The distances to the galaxies were estimated from their brightness in different optical near-infrared wavelength bands. PR Photo 34/03 : The Evolving Colour of the Universe . Observing the early Universe It is now well known that the Sun was formed some 4.5 billion years ago. But when did most of the other stars in our home Galaxy form? And what about stars in other galaxies? These are some of the key questions in present-day astronomy, but they can only be answered by means of observations with the world's largest telescopes. One way to address these issues is to observe the very young Universe directly - by looking back in time. For this, astronomers take advantage of the fact that light emitted by very distant galaxies travels a long time before reaching us. Thus, when astronomers look at such remote objects, they see them as they appeared long ago. Those remote galaxies are extremely faint, however, and these observations are therefore technically difficult. Another complication is that, due to the expansion of the Universe, light from those galaxies is shifted towards longer wavelengths [2], out of the optical wavelength range and into the infrared region. In order to study those early galaxies in some detail, astronomers must therefore use the largest ground-based telescopes, collecting their faint light during very long exposures. In addition they must use infrared-sensitive detectors. Telescopes as giant eyes The "Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S)" is a very small portion of the sky in the southern constellation Tucanae ( "the Toucan" ). It was selected for very detailed studies with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and other powerful telescopes. Optical images of this field obtained by the HST represent a total exposure time of 140 hours. Many ground-based telescopes have also obtained images and spectra of objects in this sky area, in particular the ESO telescopes in Chile. A sky area of 2.5 x 2.5 arcmin 2 in the direction of HDF-S was observed in the context of a thorough study (the Faint InfraRed Extragalactic Survey; FIRES, see ESO PR 23/02 ). It is slightly larger than the field covered by the WFPC2 camera on the HST, but still 100 times smaller than the area subtended by the full moon. Whenever this field was visible from the ESO Paranal Observatory and th

2003-12-01

325

Angle-Insensitive Structural Colours based on Metallic Nanocavities and Coloured Pixels beyond the Diffraction Limit  

PubMed Central

To move beyond colorant-based pigmentation display technologies, a variety of photonic and plasmonic crystal based structures have been designed and applied as colour filters. Nanostructure based colour filtering offers increased efficiencies, low power consumption, slim dimensions, and enhanced resolution. However, incident angle tolerance still needs to be improved. In this work, we propose a new scheme through localized resonance in metallic nanoslits by light funneling. Angle insensitive colour filters up to ±80 degrees have been achieved, capable of wide colour tunability across the entire visible band with pixel size beyond the diffraction limit (~?/2). This work opens the door to angle insensitive manipulation of light with structural filtering. PMID:23378925

Wu, Yi-Kuei Ryan; Hollowell, Andrew E.; Zhang, Cheng; Guo, L. Jay

2013-01-01

326

THE COLOUR GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect

In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the Colour Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the Colour Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory.

IANCU,E.; LEONIDOV,A.; MCLERRAN,L.

2001-08-06

327

Colouring Solutions of the Ice Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ice problem on a lattice can be expressed in terms of arrow configurations on bonds with equal numbers of arrows pointing to and away from the vertices. In some cases vertex (ice) models can be expressed as colouring problems. We use the colouring association in conjunction with an old heuristic argument of Pauling to (re)derive the exact results for the residual entropy of ice on the square and triangular lattices.

Thompson, Colin J.

2011-11-01

328

Flower colour adaptation in a mimetic orchid  

PubMed Central

Although the tremendous variability in floral colour among angiosperms is often attributed to divergent selection by pollinators, it is usually difficult to preclude the possibility that floral colour shifts were driven by non-pollinator processes. Here, we examine the adaptive significance of flower colour in Disa ferruginea, a non-rewarding orchid that is thought to attract its butterfly pollinator by mimicking the flowers of sympatric nectar-producing species. Disa ferruginea has red flowers in the western part of its range and orange flowers in the eastern part—a colour shift that we hypothesized to be the outcome of selection for resemblance to different local nectar-producing plants. Using reciprocal translocations of red and orange phenotypes as well as arrays of artificial flowers, we found that the butterfly Aeropetes tulbaghia, the only pollinator of the orchid, preferred both the red phenotype and red artificial flowers in the west where its main nectar plant also has red flowers, and both the orange phenotype and orange artificial flowers in the east, where its main nectar plant has orange flowers. This phenotype by environment interaction demonstrates that the flower colour shift in D. ferruginea is adaptive and driven by local colour preference in its pollinator. PMID:22298842

Newman, Ethan; Anderson, Bruce; Johnson, Steven D.

2012-01-01

329

Colourful parrot feathers resist bacterial degradation  

PubMed Central

The brilliant red, orange and yellow colours of parrot feathers are the product of psittacofulvins, which are synthetic pigments known only from parrots. Recent evidence suggests that some pigments in bird feathers function not just as colour generators, but also preserve plumage integrity by increasing the resistance of feather keratin to bacterial degradation. We exposed a variety of colourful parrot feathers to feather-degrading Bacillus licheniformis and found that feathers with red psittacofulvins degraded at about the same rate as those with melanin and more slowly than white feathers, which lack pigments. Blue feathers, in which colour is based on the microstructural arrangement of keratin, air and melanin granules, and green feathers, which combine structural blue with yellow psittacofulvins, degraded at a rate similar to that of red and black feathers. These differences in resistance to bacterial degradation of differently coloured feathers suggest that colour patterns within the Psittaciformes may have evolved to resist bacterial degradation, in addition to their role in communication and camouflage. PMID:20926430

Burtt, Edward H.; Schroeder, Max R.; Smith, Lauren A.; Sroka, Jenna E.; McGraw, Kevin J.

2011-01-01

330

Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is commonly known that the properties of sintered materials are strongly related to technological conditions of the densification process. This paper shows the sintering behavior of a NiAl-Al2O3 composite, and its individual components sintered separately. Each kind of material was processed via the powder metallurgy route (hot pressing). The progress of sintering at different stages of the process was tested. Changes in the microstructure were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal-ceramics interface was clean and no additional phases were detected. Correlation between the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of the sintered materials was analyzed. The values of elastic constants of NiAl/Al2O3 were close to intermetallic ones due to the volume content of the NiAl phase particularly at low densities, where small alumina particles had no impact on the composite's stiffness. The influence of the external pressure of 30 MPa seemed crucial for obtaining satisfactory stiffness for three kinds of the studied materials which were characterized by a high dense microstructure with a low number of isolated spherical pores.

Chmielewski, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Pietrzak, K.; Rojek, J.; Strojny-N?dza, A.; Mackiewicz, S.; Dutkiewicz, J.

2014-11-01

331

Impact of colour adjustment on flavour stability of pale lager beers with a range of distinct colouring agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of colour adjustment on the flavour stability of five pale lager beers with a range of colouring agents such as specialty malts, colouring beer and artificial caramel colourant was investigated. The research focused on determination of the endogenous anti-oxidative potential (EAP) of the beer samples using a novel Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) method. The results were correlated with

Andrés Furukawa Suárez; Thomas Kunz; Natalia Cortés Rodríguez; James MacKinlay; Paul Hughes; Frank-Jürgen Methner

2011-01-01

332

Seasonal Changes in Colour: A Comparison of Structural, Melanin- and Carotenoid-Based Plumage Colours  

PubMed Central

Background Plumage coloration is important for bird communication, most notably in sexual signalling. Colour is often considered a good quality indicator, and the expression of exaggerated colours may depend on individual condition during moult. After moult, plumage coloration has been deemed fixed due to the fact that feathers are dead structures. Still, many plumage colours change after moult, although whether this affects signalling has not been sufficiently assessed. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied changes in coloration after moult in four passerine birds (robin, Erithacus rubecula; blackbird, Turdus merula; blue tit, Cyanistes caeruleus; and great tit, Parus major) displaying various coloration types (melanin-, carotenoid-based and structural). Birds were caught regularly during three years to measure plumage reflectance. We used models of avian colour vision to derive two variables, one describing chromatic and the other achromatic variation over the year that can be compared in magnitude among different colour types. All studied plumage patches but one (yellow breast of the blue tit) showed significant chromatic changes over the year, although these were smaller than for a typical dynamic trait (bill colour). Overall, structural colours showed a reduction in relative reflectance at shorter wavelengths, carotenoid-based colours the opposite pattern, while no general pattern was found for melanin-based colours. Achromatic changes were also common, but there were no consistent patterns of change for the different types of colours. Conclusions/Significance Changes of plumage coloration independent of moult are probably widespread; they should be perceivable by birds and have the potential to affect colour signalling. PMID:20644723

Delhey, Kaspar; Burger, Claudia; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Peters, Anne

2010-01-01

333

Remote observation of ocean colour for prediction of upper ocean heating rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude and variability in the vertical distribution of solar heating of the ocean is controlled by the concentration of pigments imaged by the Coastal Zone Colour Scanner. The vertical heating profile influences the thermal structure and dynamics of the upper ocean on time-scales from the diurnal to the climatic, and can potentially be predicted from estimation of attenuance from

Marlon R. Lewis; Trevor C. Platt

1987-01-01

334

Transvaginal ultrasonography associated with colour Doppler energy in the diagnosis of hydrosalpinx  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this prospective study were to investigate the accuracy of B-mode transvaginal ultrasonography alone, using the typical finding of the presence of an elongated shaped mass with incomplete septa, in the screening of hydrosalpinx in women undergoing surgery for gynaecolo- gical diseases, and to determine the predictive value of this method combined with colour Doppler energy (CDE) imaging

S. Guerriero; S. Ajossa; M. P. Lai; A. M. Paoletti; G. B. Melis

2000-01-01

335

A time reversal focusing based impact imaging method and its evaluation on complex composite structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing use of composite structures in aerospace structures has attracted much interest in structural health monitoring (SHM) for the localization of impact positions due to their poor impact resistance properties. The propagation mechanism and the frequency dispersion features of signals on complex composite structures are more complicated than those on simple composite plates. In this paper, a time reversal

Lei Qiu; Shenfang Yuan; Xiaoyue Zhang; Yu Wang

2011-01-01

336

Flower colour and cytochromes P450.  

PubMed

Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3'H and F3'5'H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3'5'Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3'5'H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3'5'H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3'5'H and F3'H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones. PMID:23297355

Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

2013-02-19

337

Flower colour and cytochromes P450†  

PubMed Central

Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3?-hydroxylase (F3?H) and flavonoid 3?,5?-hydroxylase (F3?5?H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3?H and F3?5?H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3?5?Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3?5?H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3?5?H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3?5?H and F3?H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones. PMID:23297355

Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

2013-01-01

338

Colour preferences and coloured bait consumption by weka Gallirallus australis, an endemic New Zealand rail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native birds are among the non-target species that are killed in poisoning operations directed at introduced mammalian pests in New Zealand. By identifying colours that birds find unattractive, and incorporating them into poisonous baits, some deaths may be avoided. The colour preferences of weka, Gallirallus australis, an endemic New Zealand rail, were tested over 6 days by offering individual weka

Lynette Hartley; Joseph Waas; Cheryl O'Connor; Lindsay Matthews

2000-01-01

339

Colour within an internalist framework: The role of 'colour' in the structure of the perceptual system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colour is, according to prevailing orthodoxy in perceptual psychology, a kind of autonomous and unitary attribute. It is regarded as unitary or homogeneous by assuming that its core properties do not depend on the type of 'perceptual object' to which it pertains and that 'colour per se' constitutes a natural attribute in the functional architecture of the perceptual system. It

Rainer Mausfeld

340

Variability in Avian Eggshell Colour: A Comparative Study of Museum Eggshells  

PubMed Central

Background The exceptional diversity of coloration found in avian eggshells has long fascinated biologists and inspired a broad range of adaptive hypotheses to explain its evolution. Three main impediments to understanding the variability of eggshell appearance are: (1) the reliable quantification of the variation in eggshell colours; (2) its perception by birds themselves, and (3) its relation to avian phylogeny. Here we use an extensive museum collection to address these problems directly, and to test how diversity in eggshell coloration is distributed among different phylogenetic levels of the class Aves. Methodology and Results Spectrophotometric data on eggshell coloration were collected from a taxonomically representative sample of 251 bird species to determine the change in reflectance across different wavelengths and the taxonomic level where the variation resides. As many hypotheses for the evolution of eggshell coloration assume that egg colours provide a communication signal for an avian receiver, we also modelled reflectance spectra of shell coloration for the avian visual system. We found that a majority of species have eggs with similar background colour (long wavelengths) but that striking differences are just as likely to occur between congeners as between members of different families. The region of greatest variability in eggshell colour among closely related species coincided with the medium-wavelength sensitive region around 500 nm. Conclusions The majority of bird species share similar background eggshell colours, while the greatest variability among species aligns with differences along a red-brown to blue axis that most likely corresponds with variation in the presence and concentration of two tetrapyrrole pigments responsible for eggshell coloration. Additionally, our results confirm previous findings of temporal changes in museum collections, and this will be of particular concern for studies testing intraspecific hypotheses relating temporal patterns to adaptation of eggshell colour. We suggest that future studies investigating the phylogenetic association between the composition and concentration of eggshell pigments, and between the evolutionary drivers and functional impacts of eggshell colour variability will be most rewarding. PMID:20711258

Cassey, Phillip; Portugal, Steven J.; Maurer, Golo; Ewen, John G.; Boulton, Rebecca L.; Hauber, Mark E.; Blackburn, Tim M.

2010-01-01

341

White-light digital image cross-correlation (DICC) analysis of the deformation of composite materials with random microstructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sophisticated image cross-correlation algorithm (J. Appl. Opt. 33 (1994) 6667) has been used to measure both components of in-plane displacement at the surface of a deforming composite material. The natural random pattern present on the surface of a polished polymer bonded explosive (PBX) sample is photographed using a high-resolution digital camera mounted on an optical microscope. Frames are taken

P. J Rae; S. J. P Palmer; H. T Goldrein; A. L Lewis; J. E Field

2004-01-01

342

The colour distribution of galaxies at redshift five  

E-print Network

We present the results of a study investigating the rest-frame ultra-violet (UV) spectral slopes of redshift z~5 Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs). By combining deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the CANDELS and HUDF fields with ground-based imaging from the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey (UDS), we have produced a large sample of z~5 LBGs spanning an unprecedented factor of >100 in UV luminosity. Based on this sample we find a clear colour-magnitude relation (CMR) at z~5, such that the rest-frame UV slopes (beta) of brighter galaxies are notably redder than their fainter counterparts. Our determination of the z~5 CMR is well described by a linear relationship of the form: d beta = (-0.12 +/- 0.02) d Muv, with no clear evidence for a change in CMR slope at faint magnitudes (i.e. Muv > -18.9). Using the results of detailed simulations we are able, for the first time, to recover the intrinsic (i.e. free from noise) variation of galaxy colours around the CMR at z~5. We find significant (12 sigma) evidence for intrinsic c...

Rogers, A B; Dunlop, J S; Bowler, R A A; Curtis-Lake, E F; Dayal, P; Faber, S M; Ferguson, H C; Finkelstein, S L; Grogin, N A; Hathi, N P; Kocevski, D; Koekemoer, A M; Kurczynski, P

2013-01-01

343

Palette-colouring: a belief propagation approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a variation of the prototype combinatorial optimization problem known as graph colouring. Our optimization goal is to colour the vertices of a graph with a fixed number of colours, in a way to maximize the number of different colours present in the set of nearest neighbours of each given vertex. This problem, which we pictorially call palette-colouring, has been recently addressed as a basic example of a problem arising in the context of distributed data storage. Even though it has not been proved to be NP-complete, random search algorithms find the problem hard to solve. Heuristics based on a naive belief propagation algorithm are observed to work quite well in certain conditions. In this paper, we build upon the mentioned result, working out the correct belief propagation algorithm, which needs to take into account the many-body nature of the constraints present in this problem. This method improves the naive belief propagation approach at the cost of increased computational effort. We also investigate the emergence of a satisfiable-to-unsatisfiable 'phase transition' as a function of the vertex mean degree, for different ensembles of sparse random graphs in the large size ('thermodynamic') limit.

Pelizzola, Alessandro; Pretti, Marco; van Mourik, Jort

2011-05-01

344

Pushing the Limits on Quantitative Analysis and WDS/EDS Compositional Imaging with EPMA: Characterizing Apparent Microstructures in UHP Garnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WDS and EDS imaging of large (~1 cm) pyrope-rich garnets (94mol% prp, 5mol% alm, ~1mol% grs, essentially nil sps) from impure aluminous whiteschist in the Dora Maira massif, Italian Alps, has revealed apparent lamellar microstructures that reflect very small antithetical compositional fluctuations in Mg and Fe concentrations. They do not show up in optical examination (e.g., as pigeonite lamellae in augites do), but this is to be expected because of the limited compositional contrast across these structures. As far as we are aware, microstructures of this sort have not previously been reported in garnets formed at any P-T conditions. Thermodynamic modeling of this rock has shown that these garnets formed at 775°C and 3.5 GPa. The lamellar structures show best in Mg WDS images (TAP crystal and 1024 x 1024 resolution) made at 15 kV and 400 nA and appear in two orientations at about a 20 degree angle to each other. Most importantly, they are not horizontal and thus should not represent potential scan-line artifacts. Based on WDS image scales, the spacing appears to be between 5 and 10 microns. In order to demonstrate that these apparent compositional waves are real rather than some kind of unexpected imaging artifact, we performed quantitative analytical traverses (15 kV, 20 nA) at 2-micron point spacing across these structures. The traverses revealed nearly perfect antithetical compositional fluctuations of roughly 0.6 mol% alm and prp, with essentially constant grs content. The lateral spacing of amplitude maxima for these compositional fluctuations was quite constant, with an average of 7.5 micrometers. Because we are pushing both spatial and analytical resolution limits, we remain not totally convinced that these apparent lamellar microstructures are real. However, their pattern regularity, the fact that they definitely have a lamellar rather than spotty appearance, and that they are seen having consistent spacing with two essentially independent techniques (WDS stage-scan mapping and quantitative analysis) argues for their reality and indicates that they are likely not the result of random uncertainty. Acceptance of these microstructures has potential mineralogical and tectonic importance related to the UHP origin of the garnets. Our thermodynamic modeling and other work on the UHP massifs of the Alps suggests that these rocks underwent very rapid exhumation, probably at roughly isothermal conditions. If the microstructures formed post-growth, as seems likely, this extreme decompression might have imposed unusual amounts of short-range intracrystalline stress in the garnet lattice that could have resulted in compositional fluctuations driven by strain energy.

Tracy, R. J.; Caddick, M. J.

2013-12-01

345

Nondestructive Superresolution Imaging of Defects and Nonuniformities in Metals, Semiconductors, Dielectrics, Composites, and Plants Using Evanescent Microwaves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have imaged and mapped material nonuniformities and defects using microwaves generated at the end of a microstripline resonator with 0.4 micrometer lateral spatial resolution at 1 GHz. Here we experimentally examine the effect of microstripline substrate permittivity, the feedline-to-resonator coupling strength, and probe tip geometry on the spatial resolution of the probe. Carbon composites, dielectrics, semiconductors, metals, and botanical samples were scanned for defects, residual stresses, subsurface features, areas of different film thickness, and moisture content. The resulting evanescent microwave probe (EMP) images are discussed. The main objective of this work is to demonstrate the overall capabilities of the EMP imaging technique as well as to discuss various probe parameters that can be used to design EMPs for different applications.

Tabib-Azar, M.; Pathak, P. S.; Ponchak, G.; LeClair, S.

1999-01-01

346

A New Sample Substrate for Imaging and Correlating Organic and Trace Metal Composition in Biological Cells and Tissues  

SciTech Connect

Many disease processes involve alterations in the chemical makeup of tissue. Synchrotron-based infrared (IR) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopes are becoming increasingly popular tools for imaging the organic and trace metal compositions of biological materials, respectively, without the need for extrinsic labels or stains. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) provides chemical information on the organic components of a material at a diffraction-limited spatial resolution of 2-10 {mu}m in the mid-infrared region. The synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobe is a complementary technique used to probe trace element content in the same systems with a similar spatial resolution. However to be most beneficial, it is important to combine the results from both imaging techniques on a single sample, which requires precise overlap of the IR and X-ray images. In this work, we have developed a sample substrate containing a gold grid pattern on its surface, which can be imaged with both the IR and X-ray microscopes. The substrate consists of a low trace element glass slide that has a gold grid patterned on its surface, where the major and minor parts of the grid contain 25 and 12 nm gold, respectively. This grid pattern can be imaged with the IR microscope because the reflectivity of gold differs as a function of thickness. The pattern can also be imaged with the SXRF microprobe because the Au fluorescence intensity changes with gold thickness. The tissue sample is placed on top of the patterned substrate. The grid pattern's IR reflectivity image and the gold SXRF image are used as fiducial markers for spatially overlapping the IR and SXRF images from the tissue. Results show that IR and X-ray images can be correlated precisely, with a spatial resolution of less than one pixel (i.e., 2-3 microns). The development of this new tool will be presented along with applications to paraffin-embedded metalloprotein crystals, Alzheimer's disease, and hair composition.

Miller,L.; Wang, Q.; Smith, R.; Zhong, H.; Elliott, D.; Warren, J.

2007-01-01

347

Photonic-crystal full-colour displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our information-rich world, it is becoming increasingly important to develop technologies capable of displaying dynamic and changeable data, for reasons ranging from value-added advertising to environmental sustainability. There is an intense drive at the moment towards paper-like displays, devices having a high reflectivity and contrast to provide viewability in a variety of environments, particularly in sunlight where emissive or backlit devices perform very poorly. The list of possible technologies is extensive, including electrophoretic, cholesteric liquid crystalline, electrochromic, electrodewetting, interferometric and more. Despite tremendous advances, the key drawback of all these existing display options relates to colour. As soon as an RGB (red, green and blue) colour filter or spatially modulated colour scheme is implemented, substantial light losses are inevitable even if the intrinsic reflectivity of the material is very good.

Arsenault, André C.; Puzzo, Daniel P.; Manners, Ian; Ozin, Geoffrey A.

2007-08-01

348

Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging of Port Wine Stain Biochemical Composition in Response to Laser Therapy: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective Objective methods to assess port wine stain (PWS) response to laser treatment have been the subject of various research efforts for several years. Herein, we present a pilot study using a newly developed, light emitting diode (LED) based spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) device to record quantitatively biochemical compositional changes in PWS after laser therapy. Study Design/Patients and Methods A SFDI system was used to image before, and after, five PWS treatment sessions [n = 4 subjects (one subject was imaged before and after two consecutive laser treatments)]. SFDI derived wide-field optical properties (absorption and scattering) and tissue chromophore concentrations including oxy-hemoglobin (ctO2Hb), deoxy-hemoglobin (ctHHb), total hemoglobin (ctTHb), and tissue oxygen saturation (stO2) are presented for skin imaged prior to and immediately after laser treatment. The SFDI derived images were analyzed by comparing the above measurements in PWS to those of normal skin and tracking changes immediately after laser exposure. Results Elevated oxy-hemoglobin (>20%) and tissue oxygen saturation (>5%) were measured in all PWS lesions and compared to values for normal skin prior to treatment. Laser treatment resulted in an increase in deoxy-hemoglobin (>100%), decrease in tissue oxygen saturation (>10%), and reduced scattering (>15%) in all PWS lesions. One subject was followed before and after two consecutive laser treatments and the overall improvement in PWS lesion blanching was quantitatively assessed by measuring a 45% decrease in dermal blood volume. Conclusion SFDI is a rapid non-contact wide-field optical technique that shows potential as an imaging device that can be used to quantify biochemical compositional changes in PWS after laser therapy. Future work will investigate the potential of SFDI to provide intra-operative guidance for laser therapy of PWS lesions on an individual patient basis. PMID:22911574

Mazhar, Amaan; Sharif, Seyed A.; Cuccia, J. David; Nelson, J. Stuart; Kelly, Kristen M.; Durkin, Anthony J.

2012-01-01

349

The impact of color composition on X-ray image interpretation in aviation security screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve aviation security, many airports apply Threat Image Projection (TIP) and computer-based X-ray image interpretation training (CBT). One difference between TIP and CBT X-ray images is the algorithm used to merge virtual threat items into X-ray images of passenger bags, resulting in different color nuances. In this study, we tested the influence of merging algorithms on threat

Claudia C. von Bastian; Adrian Schwaninger; Stefan Michel

2009-01-01

350

Multi-colour detection of gravitational arcs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong gravitational lensing provides fundamental insights into the understanding of the dark matter distribution in massive galaxies, galaxy clusters, and the background cosmology. Despite their importance, few gravitational arcs have been discovered so far. The urge for more complete, large samples and unbiased methods of selecting candidates increases. Several methods for the automatic detection of arcs have been proposed in the literature, but large amounts of spurious detections retrieved by these methods force observers to visually inspect thousands of candidates per square degree to clean the samples. This approach is largely subjective and requires a huge amount of checking by eye, especially considering the actual and upcoming wide-field surveys, which will cover thousands of square degrees. In this paper we study the statistical properties of the colours of gravitational arcs detected in the 37 deg2 of the CFHTLS-Archive-Research Survey (CARS). Most of them lie in a relatively small region of the (g' - r', r' - i') colour-colour diagram. To explain this property, we provide a model that includes the lensing optical depth expected in a ?CDM cosmology that, in combination with the sources' redshift distribution of a given survey, in our case CARS, peaks for sources at redshift z ~ 1. By furthermore modelling the colours derived from the spectral energy distribution of the galaxies that dominate the population at that redshift, the model reproduces the observed colours well. By taking advantage of the colour selection suggested by both data and model, we automatically detected 24 objects out of 90 detected by eye checking. Compared with the single-band arcfinder, this multi-band filtering returns a sample complete to 83% and a contamination reduced by a factor of ~6.5. New gravitational arc candidates are also proposed.

Maturi, Matteo; Mizera, Sebastian; Seidel, Gregor

2014-07-01

351

Colour-temperature correspondences: when reactions to thermal stimuli are influenced by colour.  

PubMed

In our daily lives, information concerning temperature is often provided by means of colour cues, with red typically being associated with warm/hot, and blue with cold. While such correspondences have been known about for many years, they have primarily been studied using subjective report measures. Here we examined this correspondence using two more objective response measures. First, we used the Implicit Association Test (IAT), a test designed to assess the strength of automatic associations between different concepts in a given individual. Second, we used a priming task that involved speeded target discrimination in order to assess whether priming colour or thermal information could invoke the crossmodal association. The results of the IAT confirmed that the association exists at the level of response selection, thus indicating that a participant's responses to colour or thermal stimuli are influenced by the colour-temperature correspondence. The results of the priming experiment revealed that priming a colour affected thermal discrimination reaction times (RTs), but thermal cues did not influence colour discrimination responses. These results may therefore provide important clues as to the level of processing at which such colour-temperature correspondences are represented. PMID:24618675

Ho, Hsin-Ni; Van Doorn, George H; Kawabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Junji; Spence, Charles

2014-01-01

352

Colour-Temperature Correspondences: When Reactions to Thermal Stimuli Are Influenced by Colour  

PubMed Central

In our daily lives, information concerning temperature is often provided by means of colour cues, with red typically being associated with warm/hot, and blue with cold. While such correspondences have been known about for many years, they have primarily been studied using subjective report measures. Here we examined this correspondence using two more objective response measures. First, we used the Implicit Association Test (IAT), a test designed to assess the strength of automatic associations between different concepts in a given individual. Second, we used a priming task that involved speeded target discrimination in order to assess whether priming colour or thermal information could invoke the crossmodal association. The results of the IAT confirmed that the association exists at the level of response selection, thus indicating that a participant’s responses to colour or thermal stimuli are influenced by the colour-temperature correspondence. The results of the priming experiment revealed that priming a colour affected thermal discrimination reaction times (RTs), but thermal cues did not influence colour discrimination responses. These results may therefore provide important clues as to the level of processing at which such colour-temperature correspondences are represented. PMID:24618675

Ho, Hsin-Ni; Van Doorn, George H.; Kawabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Junji; Spence, Charles

2014-01-01

353

Obtaining Online Ecological Colourings by Generalizing First-Fit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A colouring of a graph is ecological if every pair of vertices that have the same set of colours in their neighbourhood are coloured alike. We consider the following problem: if a graph G and an ecological colouring c of G are given, can further vertices added to G, one at a time, be coloured using colours from some finite set C so that at each stage the current graph is ecologically coloured? If the answer is yes, then we say that the pair (G,c) is ecologically online extendible. By generalizing the well-known First-Fit algorithm, we are able to characterize when (G,c) is ecologically online extendible. For the case where c is a colouring of G in which each vertex is coloured distinctly, we give a simple characterization of when (G,c) is ecologically online extendible using only the colours of c, and we also show that (G,c) is always online extendible if we permit ourselves to use one extra colour. We also study (off-line) ecological H-colourings where the colouring must satisfy further restrictions imposed by some fixed pattern graph H. We characterize the computational complexity of this problem. This solves an open question posed by Crescenzi et al.

Johnson, Matthew; Patel, Viresh; Paulusma, Daniël; Trunck, Théophile

354

The effect of atmospheric and topographic correction on pixel-based image composites: Improved forest cover detection in mountain environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of forest cover is essential as a tool to stimulate forest management and conservation. Image compositing techniques that sample the most suited pixel from multi-temporal image acquisitions, provide an important tool for forest cover detection as they provide alternatives for missing data due to cloud cover and data discontinuities. At present, however, it is not clear to which extent forest cover detection based on compositing can be improved if the source imagery is firstly corrected for topographic distortions on a pixel-basis. In this study, the results of a pixel compositing algorithm with and without preprocessing topographic correction are compared for a study area covering 9 Landsat footprints in the Romanian Carpathians based on two different classifiers: Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). Results show that classifier selection has a stronger impact on the classification accuracy than topographic correction. Finally, application of the optimal method (SVM classifier with topographic correction) on the Romanian Carpathian Ecoregion between 1985, 1995 and 2010 shows a steady greening due to more afforestation than deforestation.

Vanonckelen, Steven; Lhermitte, Stef; Van Rompaey, Anton

2015-03-01

355

ORIGINAL PAPER Seasonal ontogenetic colour plasticity in the adult striated  

E-print Network

February 2008 # Springer-Verlag 2008 Abstract Camouflage and warning colouration are two important forms provides a benefit of increased camouflage. Keywords Aposematism . Conspicuousness . Camouflage . Crypsis animals: cryptic colouration or camouflage, which decreases the risk of detection, and warning

Tullberg, Birgitta

356

Introduction With the exception of bioluminescence, animal colour pat-  

E-print Network

iridescent colouration of male damselflies is determined by variation in surface nanostructures (cuticular that are stunningly bright and iridescent in their appearance, yet functionally obscure. These colours are often

Macedonia, Joseph

357

Whorfian effects on colour memory are not reliable.  

PubMed

The Whorfian hypothesis suggests that differences between languages cause differences in cognitive processes. Support for this idea comes from studies that find that patterns of colour memory errors made by speakers of different languages align with differences in colour lexicons. The current study provides a large-scale investigation of the relationship between colour language and colour memory, adopting a cross-linguistic and developmental approach. Colour memory on a delayed matching-to-sample (XAB) task was investigated in 2 language groups with differing colour lexicons, for 3 developmental stages and 2 regions of colour space. Analyses used a Bayesian technique to provide simultaneous assessment of two competing hypotheses (H1-Whorfian effect present, H0-Whorfian effect absent). Results of the analyses consistently favoured H0. The findings suggest that Whorfian effects on colour memory are not reliable and that the importance of such effects should not be overestimated. PMID:25230782

Wright, Oliver; Davies, Ian R L; Franklin, Anna

2014-11-01

358

Testing the AUDI2000 colour-difference formula for solid colours using some visual datasets with usefulness to automotive industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colour-difference formulas are tools employed in colour industries for objective pass/fail decisions of manufactured products. These objective decisions are based on instrumental colour measurements which must reliably predict the subjective colour-difference evaluations performed by observers' panels. In a previous paper we have tested the performance of different colour-difference formulas using the datasets employed at the development of the last CIErecommended colour-difference formula CIEDE2000, and we found that the AUDI2000 colour-difference formula for solid (homogeneous) colours performed reasonably well, despite the colour pairs in these datasets were not similar to those typically employed in the automotive industry (CIE Publication x038:2013, 465-469). Here we have tested again AUDI2000 together with 11 advanced colour-difference formulas (CIELUV, CIELAB, CMC, BFD, CIE94, CIEDE2000, CAM02-UCS, CAM02-SCD, DIN99d, DIN99b, OSA-GP-Euclidean) for three visual datasets we may consider particularly useful to the automotive industry because of different reasons: 1) 828 metallic colour pairs used to develop the highly reliable RIT-DuPont dataset (Color Res. Appl. 35, 274-283, 2010); 2) printed samples conforming 893 colour pairs with threshold colour differences (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 883-891, 2012); 3) 150 colour pairs in a tolerance dataset proposed by AUDI. To measure the relative merits of the different tested colour-difference formulas, we employed the STRESS index (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1823-1829, 2007), assuming a 95% confidence level. For datasets 1) and 2), AUDI2000 was in the group of the best colour-difference formulas with no significant differences with respect to CIE94, CIEDE2000, CAM02-UCS, DIN99b and DIN99d formulas. For dataset 3) AUDI2000 provided the best results, being statistically significantly better than all other tested colour-difference formulas.

Martínez-García, Juan; Melgosa, Manuel; Gómez-Robledo, Luis; Li, Changjun; Huang, Min; Liu, Haoxue; Cui, Guihua; Luo, M. Ronnier; Dauser, Thomas

2013-11-01

359

Separating strain from composition in unit cell parameter maps obtained from aberration corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging  

SciTech Connect

Based on the evaluation of lattice parameter maps in aberration corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy images, we propose a simple method that allows quantifying the composition and disorder of a semiconductor alloy at the unit cell scale with high accuracy. This is realized by considering, next to the out-of-plane, also the in-plane lattice parameter component allowing to separate the chemical composition from the strain field. Considering only the out-of-plane lattice parameter component not only yields large deviations from the true local alloy content but also carries the risk of identifying false ordering phenomena like formations of chains or platelets. Our method is demonstrated on image simulations of relaxed supercells, as well as on experimental images of an In{sub 0.20}Ga{sub 0.80}N quantum well. Principally, our approach is applicable to all epitaxially strained compounds in the form of quantum wells, free standing islands, quantum dots, or wires.

Schulz, T.; Remmele, T.; Korytov, M.; Markurt, T.; Albrecht, M. [Leibniz-Institut für Kristallzüchtung, Max-Born-Straße 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Duff, A.; Lymperakis, L.; Neugebauer, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Straße 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Chèze, C. [TopGaN Sp. z o.o., Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Skierbiszewski, C. [TopGaN Sp. z o.o., Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland)

2014-01-21

360

An Evanescent Microwave Probe for Super-Resolution Nondestructive Imaging of Metals, Semiconductors, Dielectrics, Composites and Biological Specimens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using evanescent microwaves with decay lengths determined by a combination of microwave wavelength (lambda) and waveguide termination geometry, we have imaged and mapped material non-uniformities and defects with a resolving capability of lambda/3800=79 microns at 1 GHz. In our method a microstrip quarter wavelength resonator was used to generate evanescent microwaves. We imaged materials with a wide range of conductivities. Carbon composites, dielectrics (Duroid, polymers), semiconductors (3C-SiC, polysilicon, natural diamond), metals (tungsten alloys, copper, zinc, steel), high-temperature superconductors, and botanical samples were scanned for defects, residual stresses, integrity of brazed junctions, subsurface features, areas of different film thickness and moisture content. The evanescent microwave probe is a versatile tool and it can be used to perform very fast, large scale mapping of a wide range of materials. This method of characterization compares favorably with ultrasound testing, which has a resolution of about 0.1 mm and suffers from high absorption in composite materials and poor transmission across boundaries. Eddy current methods which can have a resolution on the order of 50 microns are restricted to evaluating conducting materials. Evanescent microwave imaging, with careful choice of operating frequency and probe geometry, can have a resolution of up to 1 micron. In this method we can scan hot and moving objects, sample preparation is not required, testing is non-destructive, non-invasive and non-contact, and can be done in air, in liquid or in vacuum.

Pathak, P. S.; Tabib-Azar, M.; Ponchak, G.

1998-01-01

361

Spatially resolved colours and stellar population properties in early-type galaxies at z ˜ 1.5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present F850LP - F160W colour gradients for 11 early-type galaxies (ETGs) at 1.0 < zspec < 1.9 selected from the GOODS-South field. Significant negative F850LP - F160W colour gradients (core redder than the outskirts) have been detected in ˜70 per cent of our sample within the effective radius Re, the remaining 30 per cent having a flat colour profile consistent with a null gradient. Extending the analysis to R > Re, enclosing the whole galaxy, we have found that the fraction of high-z ETGs with negative F850LP - F160W colour gradients rises up to 100 per cent. For each galaxy, we investigate the origin of the radial colour variation with an innovative technique based on the matching of both the spatially resolved colour and the global spectral energy distribution (SED) to predictions of composite stellar population models. In fact, we find that the age of the stellar populations is the only parameter whose radial variation alone can fully account for the observed colour gradients and global SEDs for six ETGs in our sample, without the need of radial variation of any other stellar population property. For four out of these six ETGs, a pure metallicity variation can also reproduce the detected colour gradients. None the less, a minor contribution to the observed colour gradients from the radial variation of star formation time-scale, abundance of low- to high-mass stars and dust cannot be completely ruled out. For the rest of the sample, our analysis suggests a more complex scenario whereby more properties of the stellar populations need to simultaneously vary, likely with comparable weights, to generate the observed colour gradients and global SEDs. Our results show that, despite the young mean age of our galaxies (<3-4 Gyr), they already exhibit significant differences among their stellar content. We have discussed our results within the framework of the widest accepted scenarios of galaxy formation and conclude that none of them can satisfactorily account for the observed distribution of colour gradients and for the spatially resolved content of high-z ETGs. Our results suggest that the distribution of colour gradients may be due to different initial conditions in the formation mechanisms of ETGs.

Gargiulo, A.; Saracco, P.; Longhetti, M.; La Barbera, F.; Tamburri, S.

2012-10-01

362

Familiarity effects in the construction of facial-composite images using modern software systems.  

PubMed

We investigate the effect of target familiarity on the construction of facial composites, as used by law enforcement to locate criminal suspects. Two popular software construction methods were investigated. Participants were shown a target face that was either familiar or unfamiliar to them and constructed a composite of it from memory using a typical 'feature' system, involving selection of individual facial features, or one of the newer 'holistic' types, involving repeated selection and breeding from arrays of whole faces. This study found that composites constructed of a familiar face were named more successfully than composites of an unfamiliar face; also, naming of composites of internal and external features was equivalent for construction of unfamiliar targets, but internal features were better named than the external features for familiar targets. These findings applied to both systems, although benefit emerged for the holistic type due to more accurate construction of internal features and evidence for a whole-face advantage. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work is of relevance to practitioners who construct facial composites with witnesses to and victims of crime, as well as for software designers to help them improve the effectiveness of their composite systems. PMID:22103723

Frowd, Charlie D; Skelton, Faye C; Butt, Neelam; Hassan, Amal; Fields, Stephen; Hancock, Peter J B

2011-12-01

363

Supersymmetric coloured/hairy black holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss all possible spherically symmetric black hole type solutions to an N = 2 supergravity model with SO (3) gauging. The solutions consist of a one parameter family of black hole solutions evading the no-hair theorem and an isolated solution that is a supersymmetric analogue of a coloured black hole.

Meessen, Patrick

2008-07-01

364

How feather colour reflects its carotenoid content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Many birds sequester carotenoid pigments in colourful patches of feathers to advertise or compete for mates. Because carotenoids can be scarce in nature and serve valuable physiological functions, only the highest-quality individuals are thought to acquire or allocate more pigments for use in sexual displays. 2. A critical but rarely tested assumption of carotenoid-based signals is that the

Lauri Saks; Kevin McGraw; Peeter Horak

2003-01-01

365

All the colours of the rainbow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our perception of colour has always been a source of fascination, so it's little wonder that studies of the phenomenon date back hundreds of years. What, though, can modern scientists learn from medieval literature -- and how do we go about it?

Smithson, Hannah E.; Gasper, Giles E. M.; McLeish, Tom C. B.

2014-08-01

366

What weta want: colour preferences of a frugivorous insect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants use colours as signals to attract mutualists and repel antagonists. Fleshy-fruits are often conspicuously coloured\\u000a to signal different types of information including fruit maturity and spatial location. Previous work on fruit colour selection\\u000a focus on large diurnal vertebrates, yet fruit colours are perceived differently by frugivores with different types of visual\\u000a systems. Here, we tested whether a nocturnal, frugivorous,

Nik Fadzly; K. C. Burns

2010-01-01

367

Time Optimal d-List Colouring of a Graph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first linear time algorithm for d-list colouring of a graph - i.e. a proper colouring of each vertex v by colours coming from lists L(v) of sizes at least deg(v). Previously, procedures with such complexity were only known for ?-list colouring, where for each vertex v one has |L(v)|??, the maximum of the vertex degrees. An implementation of the procedure is available.

Gravin, Nick

368

Determination of pigments in colour layers on walls of some selected historical buildings using optical and scanning electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect

For successful restoration of painted walls and painted coloured finishing coats it is necessary to determine the composition of the original colour layers. Identification of the pigments used in The Cistercian Abbey of Sticna and The Manor of Novo Celje was carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Selected samples of wall paintings were inspected by the combined application of an optical microscope and a low-vacuum Scanning Electron Microscope to determine their colour and structural features and to identify the position of individual pigment grains. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to determine the elemental distribution on selected surfaces and elemental composition of individual pigments. It was found that the most abundantly used pigments were iron oxide red, cinnabar, green earth, umber, calcium carbonate white, ultramarine, yellow ochre and carbon black. These identifications have allowed us to compare the use of various pigments in buildings from different historical periods.

Skapin, A. Sever [Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Dimiceva 12, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: andrijana.skapin@zag.si; Ropret, P. [Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Restoration Center, Poljanska 40, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: polona.ropret@rescen.si; Bukovec, P. [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Askerceva 5, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: peter.bukovec@uni-lj.si

2007-11-15

369

Perception of colour in unilateral tritanopia.  

PubMed Central

The unilateral tritanope described in the previous paper (Alpern, Kitahara & Krantz, 1983) was able to match every narrow-band light presented to his tritanopic eye with lights from a tristimulus colorimeter viewed in the adjacent field by the normal eye. In two regions of the spectrum (called isochromes) physically identical lights appeared identical to the observer's two eyes. One isochrome was close to 'blue' for the normal eye, the other was in the long-wave spectral region seen by the normal eye predominantly as 'red'. Between these isochromes the normal eye required less than spectral purity to match, dropping to near zero purity at 560-570 nm. A mixture of the two isochromes that appeared purple to the normal eye appeared neutral to the tritanopic eye. Hence dichoptic matches grossly violate Grassmann's additivity law. For the normal eye colour naming conformed to typical normal results. For the tritanopic eye the results were coherent with those found by dichoptic matching: the spectrum was divided into two regions by the achromatic neutral band. To the short-wave side, only the colour names 'blue' and 'white' were ever used. To the long-wave side the predominant colour names were 'red' and 'white' with some 'yellow'. Spectral lights appeared neither 'red-blue' nor greenish. Surrounding the test with an annulus either 430 nm, 650 nm, or a mixture of these, fails to induce any greenish appearance, although the achromatic band shifted in the expected directions. It is concluded that there must be exactly three functionally independent, essentially non-linear central codes for colour perception, and that these codes are different from those suggested in existing theories of colour perception. PMID:6603509

Alpern, M; Kitahara, K; Krantz, D H

1983-01-01

370

On the colour-colour properties of the Extremely Red Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The colours of the galaxy class known as Extremely Red Objects (EROs; R-K>5) are considered to be consistent with two distinct galaxy populations at high redshift: evolved ellipticals or young dusty starbursts. In this paper the properties of EROs, spanned by the five photometric bands RIJHK, are investigated as to the possibility to distinguish between these two galaxy populations using only broad band photometry. The broad band colours of elliptical and starburst galaxies at redshifts up to 5 are computed from synthetic spectra obtained using the spectral evolution synthesis programme PÉGASE.2. Two initial mass functions and a range of metallicities and extinctions are used. In order to be extremely red in the redshift range considered, the evolution of the R-K colour sets the requirement that ellipticals have to be less than 7-8 Gyr old, and that the starbursts must have colour excesses of E(B-V)>1, as derived from the nebular emission lines. In investigating the overlap in the different colour-colour planes as a function of redshift, it is found that the planes formed from permutations of the same three filters exhibit very similar overlap characteristics. In colour-colour planes formed within such triplets one of the filters will serve as a ``pivot'' band against which the two other bands are compared. The configuration where this pivot band lies between the other two bands has the best performance as a discriminator among the three possible configurations. A consistent behaviour cannot be found among the configurations formed by permuting four filters. The minimal filter configuration R-H vs. H-K is found to be the very best discriminator, working as such up to redshift 2.9.

Bergström, S.; Wiklind, T.

2004-01-01

371

Analytical method for determining colour intensities based on Cherenkov radiation colour Quenching  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work a study was made for determining colour intensities using as luminous non-monochromatic source the Cherenkov\\u000a emission produced in the walls of a glass capillary which acts as luminous source itself inside of a coloured solution to\\u000a be evaluated. The reproducibility of this method has been compared with the spectrophotometric assay; the relative errors\\u000a of both analytical

C. González-Gómez; J. de D. López-González; M. A. Ferro-García

1983-01-01

372

Analysis of organic colouring and binding components in colour layer of art works  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods of analysis of organic components of colour layers of art works have been tested: IR microspectroscopy of indigo, Cu-phthalocyanine, and Prussian blue, and MALDI-TOF-MS of proteinaceous binders and a protein-containing red dye. The IR spectra distortion common for smooth outer surfaces and polished cross sections of colour layer of art works is suppressed by reflectance measurement of microtome

S. Kuckova; I. Nemec; R. Hynek; J. Hradilova; T. Grygar

2005-01-01

373

Simultaneous and successive colour discrimination in the honeybee ( Apis mellifera )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colour discrimination of individual free-flying honeybees (Apis mellifera) was tested with simultaneous and successive viewing conditions for a variety of broadband reflectance stimuli. For simultaneous viewing bees used form vision to discriminate patterned target stimuli from homogeneous coloured distractor stimuli, and for successive discrimination bees were required to discriminate between homogeneously coloured stimuli. Bees were significantly better at a

Adrian G Dyer; Christa Neumeyer

2005-01-01

374

Then and now: James Clerk Maxwell and colour  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the researches of James Clerk Maxwell into the production and perception of colour is presented, and links to a selection of present day applications of colour science are indicated. Although false colour photography was not known in Maxwell's time, aspects of his work, suitably interpreted, have a bearing on the wide applicability of the technique. An outline

Richard C. Dougal; Clive A. Greated; Alan E. Marson

2006-01-01

375

Skin Blood Perfusion and Oxygenation Colour Affect Perceived Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated,

Ian D. Stephen; Vinet Coetzee; Miriam Law Smith; David I. Perrett

2009-01-01

376

Inheritance of coat colour in the field spaniel dog  

E-print Network

Note Inheritance of coat colour in the field spaniel dog R Robinson St Stephens Nursery, Stephens known as roan. dog genetics / coat colour / field spaniel / breed Résumé - Hérédité de la couleur du for the heredity of coat colour in the dog (Little, 1957; Robinson, 1990), it has become apparent as work

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

377

they form juxtaposed pointillistic colour centres which, to our  

E-print Network

EX4 4QL, UK. E-mail: P.Vukusic@ex.ac.uk The nature of Drosophila melanogaster C.J. Reaume and M their wing colours and patterns. We seek to know how changes in genes and development can control colour weighting of inter-specific and intra-specific selection pressures affect wing colour intensity, hue

Sokolowski, Marla

378

The chemistry and analysis of annatto food colouring: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annatto food colouring (E160b) has a long history of use in the food industry for the colouring of a wide range of food commodities. The principal colouring component of annatto is the oil-soluble diapo carotenoid bixin, which is the methyl ester of the dicarboxylic acid norbixin and soluble in aqueous alkali. Bixin and norbixin, therefore, exhibit not only physicochemical properties

M. Scotter

2009-01-01

379

An Interaction of Screen Colour and Lesson Task in CAL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colour is a common feature in computer-aided learning (CAL), though the instructional effects of screen colour are not well understood. This investigation considers the effects of different CAL study tasks with feedback on posttest performance and on posttest memory of the lesson colour scheme. Graduate students (n=68) completed a computer-based…

Clariana, Roy B.

2004-01-01

380

The Proportional Colouring Problem: Optimizing Buffers in Wireless Mesh Networks  

E-print Network

The Proportional Colouring Problem: Optimizing Buffers in Wireless Mesh Networks Florian Huc 1 I3S optimization: the proportional edge colouring problem. Given a graph G with positive weights associated to its edges, we want to find a proper edge colouring which assigns to each edge at least a proportion (given

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

381

Balanced colourings of strongly regular R. A. Bailey  

E-print Network

Balanced colourings of strongly regular graphs R. A. Bailey School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen is balanced if every pair of distinct colours occurs equally often on the ends of an edge. When the graph is the complete regular multipartite graph a balanced colouring is just a balanced incomplete-block design, or 2

Queen Mary, University of London

382

The impact of the day of observation of image composites on adequate time series generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many remote sensing products that are useful for time series analysis and seasonal monitoring studies are offered in form of composites. A composite combines a number of observations of a defined period and selects or computes one value. This results in observations sampled at varying time intervals that rules out a high number of time series analysis techniques. This study investigates the impact of either using the actual day of observation to generate a time series from composites or assuming the starting or middle day of the compositing period. For this study 16-day MODIS VI composites of 1km spatial resolution from Terra and Aqua were employed. A 1100x500km region in central Mexico served as study site. Statistical measures including temporal cross-correlation and the root mean square error were used for time series analysis. A temporal shift of approximately seven days with a high variability is introduced when using the starting day of the compositing period. The middle day mitigates the mean error close to zero but still shows a high error variability. Only time series that take into account the day of observation and estimate from that samples at equidistant intervals can be used for a correct estimation of temporal characteristics.

Colditz, Rene R.; Ressl, Rainer A.

2013-10-01

383

Capturing natural-colour 3D models of insects for species discovery and diagnostics.  

PubMed

Collections of biological specimens are fundamental to scientific understanding and characterization of natural diversity-past, present and future. This paper presents a system for liberating useful information from physical collections by bringing specimens into the digital domain so they can be more readily shared, analyzed, annotated and compared. It focuses on insects and is strongly motivated by the desire to accelerate and augment current practices in insect taxonomy which predominantly use text, 2D diagrams and images to describe and characterize species. While these traditional kinds of descriptions are informative and useful, they cannot cover insect specimens "from all angles" and precious specimens are still exchanged between researchers and collections for this reason. Furthermore, insects can be complex in structure and pose many challenges to computer vision systems. We present a new prototype for a practical, cost-effective system of off-the-shelf components to acquire natural-colour 3D models of insects from around 3 mm to 30 mm in length. ("Natural-colour" is used to contrast with "false-colour", i.e., colour generated from, or applied to, gray-scale data post-acquisition.) Colour images are captured from different angles and focal depths using a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera rig and two-axis turntable. These 2D images are processed into 3D reconstructions using software based on a visual hull algorithm. The resulting models are compact (around 10 megabytes), afford excellent optical resolution, and can be readily embedded into documents and web pages, as well as viewed on mobile devices. The system is portable, safe, relatively affordable, and complements the sort of volumetric data that can be acquired by computed tomography. This system provides a new way to augment the description and documentation of insect species holotypes, reducing the need to handle or ship specimens. It opens up new opportunities to collect data for research, education, art, entertainment, biodiversity assessment and biosecurity control. PMID:24759838

Nguyen, Chuong V; Lovell, David R; Adcock, Matt; La Salle, John

2014-01-01

384

Capturing Natural-Colour 3D Models of Insects for Species Discovery and Diagnostics  

PubMed Central

Collections of biological specimens are fundamental to scientific understanding and characterization of natural diversity—past, present and future. This paper presents a system for liberating useful information from physical collections by bringing specimens into the digital domain so they can be more readily shared, analyzed, annotated and compared. It focuses on insects and is strongly motivated by the desire to accelerate and augment current practices in insect taxonomy which predominantly use text, 2D diagrams and images to describe and characterize species. While these traditional kinds of descriptions are informative and useful, they cannot cover insect specimens “from all angles” and precious specimens are still exchanged between researchers and collections for this reason. Furthermore, insects can be complex in structure and pose many challenges to computer vision systems. We present a new prototype for a practical, cost-effective system of off-the-shelf components to acquire natural-colour 3D models of insects from around 3 mm to 30 mm in length. (“Natural-colour” is used to contrast with “false-colour”, i.e., colour generated from, or applied to, gray-scale data post-acquisition.) Colour images are captured from different angles and focal depths using a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera rig and two-axis turntable. These 2D images are processed into 3D reconstructions using software based on a visual hull algorithm. The resulting models are compact (around 10 megabytes), afford excellent optical resolution, and can be readily embedded into documents and web pages, as well as viewed on mobile devices. The system is portable, safe, relatively affordable, and complements the sort of volumetric data that can be acquired by computed tomography. This system provides a new way to augment the description and documentation of insect species holotypes, reducing the need to handle or ship specimens. It opens up new opportunities to collect data for research, education, art, entertainment, biodiversity assessment and biosecurity control. PMID:24759838

Nguyen, Chuong V.; Lovell, David R.; Adcock, Matt; La Salle, John

2014-01-01

385

Semantically-Rich Composition of Virtual Images Fabio Oliveira, Tamar Eilam, Michael Kalantar, Florian Rosenberg  

E-print Network

without a clear methodology for standardization are suffering from an adverse effect on cost -- image, Florian Rosenberg IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Hawthorne, NY, USA {fabolive, eilamt, kalantar with a large number of one-off virtual images, adversely affecting the cost. We propose an approach, tool

Rosenberg, Florian

386

A new architecture for hyperspectral image compression based on wavelets transformation and fractal composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fractal-based image compression algorithm under wavelet transformation for hyper-spectral remote sensing image was introduced in this paper (also named AWFC algorithm). With the development of the hyperspectral remote sensing we have to obtain more and more spectral bands and how to store and transmit the huge data measured by TB bits level becomes a disaster to the limited electrical bandwidth. It is important to compress the huge hyperspectral image data acquired by hyperspectral sensor such as MODIS, PHI, OMIS etc. Otherwise, conventional lossless compression algorithm couldn't reach satisfied compression ratio while other loss compression methods could get results of high compression ratio but no good image fidelity especially to the hyperspectral image data. As the third generation image compression algorithm-fractal image compression is superior than traditional compression methods with high compression ratio, good image fidelity and less time complexity. In order to keep the spectral dimension invariability, we have compared the results of two compression algorithms based on the outside storage file structure of BSQ and BIP separately. The HV and Quad-tree partitioning and the domain-range matching algorithms have also been improved to accelerate the encode/decode efficiency. The proposed method has been realized and obtained perfect experimental results. At last, the possible modifications algorithm and the limitations of the method are also analyzed and discussed in this paper.

Hu, Xingtang; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Xia; Hu, Fangchao; Wei, Zheng

2006-03-01

387

Composite x-ray image assembly for large-field digital mammography with one- and two-dimensional positioning of a focal plane array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To demonstrate the feasibility of a novel large-field digital mammography technique, a 1024 x 1024 pixel Loral charge-coupled device (CCD) focal plane array (FPA) was positioned in a mammographic field with one- and two-dimensional scan sequences to obtain 950 x 1800 pixel and 3600 x 3600 pixel composite images, respectively. These experiments verify that precise positioning of FPAs produced seamless composites and that the CCD mosaic concept has potential for high-resolution, large-field imaging. The proposed CCD mosaic concept resembles a checkerboard pattern with spacing left between the CCDs for the driver and readout electronics. To obtain a complete x-ray image, the mosaic must be repositioned four times, with an x-ray exposure at each position. To reduce the patient dose, a lead shield with appropriately patterned holes is placed between the x-ray source and the patient. The high-precision motorized translation stages and the fiber-coupled-scintillating-screen-CCD sensor assembly were placed in the position usually occupied by the film cassette. Because of the high mechanical precision, seamless composites were constructed from the subimages. This paper discusses the positioning, image alignment procedure, and composite image results. The paper only addresses the formation of a seamless composite image from subimages and will not consider the effects of the lead shield, multiple CCDs, or the speed of motion.

Halama, G.; McAdoo, J.; Liu, H.

1998-01-01

388

Scaling up the Single Transducer Thickness-Independent Ultrasonic Imaging Method for Accurate Characterization of Microstructural Gradients in Monolithic and Composite Tubular Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasonic velocity/time-of-flight imaging that uses back surface reflections to gauge volumetric material quality is highly suited for quantitative characterization of microstructural gradients including those due to pore fraction, density, fiber fraction, and chemical composition variations. However, a weakness of conventional pulse-echo ultrasonic velocity/time-of-flight imaging is that the image shows the effects of thickness as well as microstructural variations unless the part is uniformly thick. This limits this imaging method's usefulness in practical applications. Prior studies have described a pulse-echo time-of-flight-based ultrasonic imaging method that requires using a single transducer in combination with a reflector plate placed behind samples that eliminates the effect of thickness variation in the image. In those studies, this method was successful at isolating ultrasonic variations due to material microstructure in plate-like samples of silicon nitride, metal matrix composite, and polymer matrix composite. In this study, the method is engineered for inspection of more complex-shaped structures-those having (hollow) tubular/curved geometry. The experimental inspection technique and results are described as applied to (1) monolithic mullite ceramic and polymer matrix composite 'proof-of-concept' tubular structures that contain machined patches of various depths and (2) as-manufactured monolithic silicon nitride ceramic and silicon carbide/silicon carbide composite tubular structures that might be used in 'real world' applications.

Roth, Don J.; Carney, Dorothy V.; Baaklini, George Y.; Bodis, James R.; Rauser, Richard W.

1998-01-01

389

Metal-polymer nano-composite films with ordered vertically aligned metal cylinders for sub-wavelength imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a self-assembled and anisotropically metal loaded large area PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymer film as a medium with hyperbolic dispersion for application in superlensing and nanolithography. We obtained domain sizes from 30 to 100 nm with successful demonstration of metal loading inside the nano-templates. The separation between the individual nanorods and their radius was effectively controlled by varying the molecular weights and compositions of the polymers. We apply Maxwell-Garnett homogenization and FDTD simulations to show the sub-wavelength imaging and lithography potential of these hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs). A proof of principle nanolithography result demonstrates sub-wavelength imaging and lithography using the proposed HMMs.

Wu, Linda Y. L.; Leng, B.; Bisht, A.

2014-09-01

390

Cartilaginous End Plates: Quantitative MR Imaging with Very Short Echo Times-Orientation Dependence and Correlation with Biochemical Composition.  

PubMed

Purpose To measure the T2* of the human cartilaginous end plate by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with very short echo times and to determine the effect of the orientation of the end plate on T2* and on relationships between T2* and biochemical composition. Materials and Methods This study was exempt from institutional review board approval, and informed consent was not required. Thirty-four samples of three cadaveric lumbar spines (from subjects who died at ages 51, 57, and 66 years) containing cartilaginous end plates and subchondral bone were prepared. Samples were imaged with a 3-T imager for T2* quantification by using a three-dimensional very short echo time sequence (repetition time msec/echo times msec, 30/0.075, 2, 5, 12, 18). Samples were imaged with the end plate at three orientations with respect to the constant magnetic induction field: 0°, 54.7°, and 90°. After imaging, the cartilage was assayed for its water, glycosaminoglycan, and collagen content. Pearson correlations were used to investigate the effect of orientation on the relationships between T2* and biochemical composition. Results T2* was significantly longer when measured at an orientation of 54.7° (21.8 msec ± 2.8 [± standard error of the mean]) than at 0° (10.0 msec ± 0.7, P < .001) or 90° (9.9 msec ± 0.4, P < .001). At 54.7°, T2* was highly correlated with glycosaminoglycan content (r = 0.85, P < .001), the collagen-to-glycosaminoglycan ratio (r = -0.79, P < .001), and water content (r = 0.62, P = .02); at 0° and 90°, there were no significant differences in these relationships, with a minimum P value of .19. Conclusion T2* evaluation can allow noninvasive estimation of the degeneration of the cartilaginous end plate; however, the accuracy of T2*-based estimates of biochemical composition depends on the orientation of the end plate. © RSNA, 2014. PMID:25302832

Fields, Aaron J; Han, Misung; Krug, Roland; Lotz, Jeffrey C

2015-02-01

391

Representation or context as a cognitive strategy in colour constancy?  

PubMed

If an identification task with colour constancy as its objective is carried out under drastically changing illumination, do people rely mainly on colour information or do they rely on other sources of information? This question suggested two hypotheses for testing: (i) context hypothesis: people rely mainly on colour information (spectral reflectance or illumination chromaticity) to achieve colour constancy; (ii) representation hypothesis: people rely mainly on all other clues associated with colour to achieve colour constancy, including form information (any shape elements) and space information (spatial coordinates or spatial correlation). Experiment 1 showed that form information was readily associated with colour information to produce implicit representation. This gave the best colour-constancy performance (95.72%) and the fastest processing speed, so it probably used a top-down process. However, it was also prone to error owing to assumptions. Space information was not readily associated with colour information so colour-constancy performance was halved (48.73%) and processing time doubled. When the subject was deprived of both information sources and only given colour information, this resulted in the longest reaction times and the worst colour-constancy performance (41.38%). These results clearly support the representation hypothesis rather than the context hypothesis. When all three clues were available at the same time, the order of preference was: symbol, location, then colour. Experiment 2 showed that when form information was the main clue, colour-constancy performance was conceptually driven and processed more quickly; this supports the representation hypothesis. However, when form information was not used, colour constancy was data-driven, processed more slowly, and achieved an inferior identification rate overall; this supports the context hypothesis. PMID:18986062

Lin, Ta-Wei; Sun, Chun-Wang

2008-01-01

392

The coding of uniform colour figures in monkey visual cortex  

PubMed Central

Psychophysical studies indicate that perception of the colour and brightness of a surface depends on neural signals evoked by the borders of the surface rather than its interior. The visual cortex emphasizes contrast borders, but it is unclear whether colour surface signals also exist, whether colour border signals are orientation selective or mainly non-oriented, and whether cortical processing tends to separate colour and form information. To address these questions we examined the representation of uniform colour figures by recording single neuron activity from areas V1 and V2 in alert macaque monkeys during behaviourally induced fixation. Three aspects of coding were quantified: colour, orientation and edge selectivity. The occurrence of colour selectivity was not correlated with orientation or edge selectivity. The fraction of colour-selective cells was the same (64 % in layers 2 and 3 of V1, 45 % in V2) for oriented and non-oriented cells, and for edge-selective and surface-responsive cells. Oriented cells were often highly selective in colour space, and about 40 % of them were selective for edge polarity or border ownership. Thus, contrary to the idea of feature maps, colour, orientation and edge polarity are multiplexed in cortical signals. The results from V2 were similar to those from upper-layer V1, indicating that cortical processing does not strive to separate form and colour information. Oriented cells were five times more frequent than non-oriented cells. Thus, the vast majority of colour-coded cells are orientation tuned. Based on response profiles across a 4 deg square figure, and the relative frequency of oriented and non-oriented cells, we estimate that the cortical colour signal is 5–6 times stronger for the edges than for the surface of the figure. The frequency of oriented colour cells and their ability to code edge polarity indicate that these cells play a major role in the representation of surface colour. PMID:12611925

Friedman, Howard S; Zhou, Hong; von der Heydt, Rüdiger

2003-01-01

393

Colour and Optical Properties of Materials: An Exploration of the Relationship Between Light, the Optical Properties of Materials and Colour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colour is an important and integral part of everyday life, and an understanding and knowledge of the scientific principles behind colour, with its many applications and uses, is becoming increasingly important to a wide range of academic disciplines, from physical, medical and biological sciences through to the arts. Colour and the Optical Properties of Materials carefully introduces the science behind

Richard J. D. Tilley

2003-01-01

394

DNA-based eye colour prediction across Europe with the IrisPlex system.  

PubMed

The ability to predict Externally Visible Characteristics (EVCs) from DNA, also referred to as Forensic DNA Phenotyping (FDP), is an exciting new chapter in forensic genetics holding great promise for tracing unknown individuals who are unidentifiable via standard forensic short tandem repeat (STR) profiling. For the purpose of DNA-based eye colour prediction, we previously developed the IrisPlex system consisting of a multiplex genotyping assay and a prediction model based on genotype and phenotype data from 3804 Dutch Europeans. Recently, we performed a forensic developmental validation study of the highly sensitive IrisPlex assay, which currently represents the only validated tool available for DNA-based prediction of eye colour in forensic applications. In the present study, we validate the IrisPlex prediction model by extending our initially described model towards genotype and phenotype data from multiple European populations. We performed IrisPlex analysis on 3840 individuals from seven sites across Europe as part of the European Eye (EUREYE) study for which DNA and high-resolution eye images were available. The accuracy rate of correctly predicting an individual's eye colour as being blue or brown, above the empirically established probability threshold of 0.7, was on average 94% across all seven European populations, ranging from 91% to 98%, despite the large variation in eye colour frequencies between the populations. The overall prediction accuracies expressed by the area under the receiver characteristic operating curves (AUC) were 0.96 for blue and 0.96 for brown eyes, which is considerably higher than those established before. The IrisPlex prediction model parameters generated from this multi-population European dataset, and thus its prediction capabilities, were highly comparable to those previously established. Therefore, the increased information regarding eye colour phenotype and genotype distributions across Europe, and the system's ability to provide eye colour predictions across Europe accurately, both highlight additional evidence for the utility of the IrisPlex system in forensic casework. PMID:21813346

Walsh, Susan; Wollstein, Andreas; Liu, Fan; Chakravarthy, Usha; Rahu, Mati; Seland, Johan H; Soubrane, Gisele; Tomazzoli, Laura; Topouzis, Fotis; Vingerling, Johannes R; Vioque, Jesus; Fletcher, Astrid E; Ballantyne, Kaye N; Kayser, Manfred

2012-05-01

395

Diagnosing synaesthesia with online colour pickers: maximising sensitivity and specificity.  

PubMed

The most commonly used method for formally assessing grapheme-colour synaesthesia (i.e., experiencing colours in response to letter and/or number stimuli) involves selecting colours from a large colour palette on several occasions and measuring consistency of the colours selected. However, the ability to diagnose synaesthesia using this method depends on several factors that have not been directly contrasted. These include the type of colour space used (e.g., RGB, HSV, CIELUV, CIELAB) and different measures of consistency (e.g., city block and Euclidean distance in colour space). This study aims to find the most reliable way of diagnosing grapheme-colour synaesthesia based on maximising sensitivity (i.e., ability of a test to identify true synaesthetes) and specificity (i.e., ability of a test to identify true non-synaesthetes). We show, applying ROC (receiver operating characteristics) to binary classification of a large sample of self-declared synaesthetes and non-synaesthetes, that the consistency criterion (i.e., cut-off value) for diagnosing synaesthesia is considerably higher than the current standard in the field. We also show that methods based on perceptual CIELUV and CIELAB colour models (rather than RGB and HSV colour representations) and Euclidean distances offer an even greater sensitivity and specificity than most currently used measures. Together, these findings offer improved heuristics for the behavioural assessment of grapheme-colour synaesthesia. PMID:23458658

Rothen, Nicolas; Seth, Anil K; Witzel, Christoph; Ward, Jamie

2013-04-30

396

Bird colour vision: behavioural thresholds reveal receptor noise.  

PubMed

Birds have impressive physiological adaptations for colour vision, including tetrachromacy and coloured oil droplets, yet it is not clear exactly how well birds can discriminate the reflecting object colours that they encounter in nature. With behavioural experiments, we determined colour discrimination thresholds of chickens in bright and dim light. We performed the experiments with two colour series, orange and green, covering two parts of chicken colour space. These experiments allowed us to compare behavioural results with model expectations and determine how different noise types limit colour discrimination. At intensities ranging from bright light to those corresponding to early dusk (250-10 cd m(-2)), we describe thresholds accurately by assuming a constant signal-to-noise ratio, in agreement with an invariant Weber fraction of Weber's law. Below this intensity, signal-to-noise ratio decreases and Weber's law is violated because photon-shot noise limits colour discrimination. In very dim light (below 0.05cd m(-2) for the orange series or 0.2 cd m(-2) for the green series) colour discrimination is possibly constrained by dark noise, and the lowest intensity at which chickens can discriminate colours is 0.025 and 0.08 cd m(-2) for the orange and green series, respectively. Our results suggest that chickens use spatial pooling of cone outputs to mitigate photon-shot noise. Surprisingly, we found no difference between colour discrimination of chickens and humans tested with the same test in bright light. PMID:25609782

Olsson, Peter; Lind, Olle; Kelber, Almut

2015-01-15

397

Estimates of the Lunar Surface Composition with Clementine Images and LSCC Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There have been several approaches to develop remote sensing technique to estimate composition of the lunar surface using multispectral observations. We present a new approach based on statistical analysis of spectral and compositional data for lunar samples by the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC) and using the UVVIS Clementine data with 1 km resolution. This technique allows us to estimate and map the abundance of TiO2, SiO2, and FeO, pyroxene and plagioclase content, and maturity degree (Is/FeO).

Shkuratov, Yu.; Pieters, C.; Omelchenko, V.; Stankevich, D.; Kaydash, V.; Taylor, L.

2003-01-01

398

Bone-composition imaging using coherent-scatter computed tomography: Assessing bone health beyond bone mineral density  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative analysis of bone composition is necessary for the accurate diagnosis and monitoring of metabolic bone diseases. Accurate assessment of the bone mineralization state is the first requirement for a comprehensive analysis. In diagnostic imaging, x-ray coherent scatter depends upon the molecular structure of tissues. Coherent-scatter computed tomography (CSCT) exploits this feature to identify tissue types in composite biological specimens. We have used CSCT to map the distributions of tissues relevant to bone disease (fat, soft tissue, collagen, and mineral) within bone-tissue phantoms and an excised cadaveric bone sample. Using a purpose-built scanner, we have measured hydroxyapatite (bone mineral) concentrations based on coherent-scatter patterns from a series of samples with varying hydroxyapatite content. The measured scatter intensity is proportional to mineral density in true g/cm{sup 3}. Repeated measurements of the hydroxyapatite concentration in each sample were within, at most, 2% of each other, revealing an excellent precision in determining hydroxyapatite concentration. All measurements were also found to be accurate to within 3% of the known values. Phantoms simulating normal, over-, and under-mineralized bone were created by mixing known masses of pure collagen and hydroxyapatite. An analysis of the composite scatter patterns gave the density of each material. For each composite, the densities were within 2% of the known values. Collagen and hydroxyapatite concentrations were also examined in a bone-mimicking phantom, incorporating other bone constituents (fat, soft tissue). Tomographic maps of the coherent-scatter properties of each specimen were reconstructed, from which material-specific images were generated. Each tissue was clearly distinguished and the collagen-mineral ratio determined from this phantom was also within 2% of the known value. Existing bone analysis techniques cannot determine the collagen-mineral ratio in intact specimens. Finally, to demonstrate the in situ potential of this technique, the mineralization state of an excised normal cadaveric radius was examined. The average collagen-mineral ratio of the cortical bone derived from material-specific images of the radius was 0.53{+-}0.04, which is in agreement with the expected value of 0.55 for healthy bones.

Batchelar, Deidre L.; Davidson, Melanie T.M.; Dabrowski, Waldemar; Cunningham, Ian A. [Imaging Research Laboratories, Roberts Research Institute, London, Ontario, N6A 5K8 (Canada) and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5C1 (Canada); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, N6A 5K8 (Canada); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, N6A 5K8 (Canada) and Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5C1 (Canada)

2006-04-15

399

Extremal problems for colourings of uniform hypergraphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a classical problem (first posed by Erd?s) in the extremal theory of hypergraphs. According to Erd?s, a hypergraph possesses property B if its set of vertices admits a 2-colouring such that no edge of the hypergraph is monochromatic. The problem is to find the minimum m(n) of all m such that there is an n-uniform (each edge contains exactly n vertices) hypergraph with exactly m edges that does not possess property B. We consider more general problems (including the case of polychromatic colourings) and introduce a number of parametric properties of hypergraphs. We obtain estimates for analogues of m(n) for extremal problems on various classes of hypergraphs.

Shabanov, D. A.

2007-12-01

400

Three-Dimensional Imaging and Numerical Reconstruction of Graphite/Epoxy Composite Microstructure Based on Ultra-High Resolution X-Ray Computed Tomography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combined experimental and computational study aimed at high-resolution 3D imaging, visualization, and numerical reconstruction of fiber-reinforced polymer microstructures at the fiber length scale is presented. To this end, a sample of graphite/epoxy composite was imaged at sub-micron resolution using a 3D X-ray computed tomography microscope. Next, a novel segmentation algorithm was developed, based on concepts adopted from computer vision and multi-target tracking, to detect and estimate, with high accuracy, the position of individual fibers in a volume of the imaged composite. In the current implementation, the segmentation algorithm was based on Global Nearest Neighbor data-association architecture, a Kalman filter estimator, and several novel algorithms for virtualfiber stitching, smoothing, and overlap removal. The segmentation algorithm was used on a sub-volume of the imaged composite, detecting 508 individual fibers. The segmentation data were qualitatively compared to the tomographic data, demonstrating high accuracy of the numerical reconstruction. Moreover, the data were used to quantify a) the relative distribution of individual-fiber cross sections within the imaged sub-volume, and b) the local fiber misorientation relative to the global fiber axis. Finally, the segmentation data were converted using commercially available finite element (FE) software to generate a detailed FE mesh of the composite volume. The methodology described herein demonstrates the feasibility of realizing an FE-based, virtual-testing framework for graphite/fiber composites at the constituent level.

Czabaj, M. W.; Riccio, M. L.; Whitacre, W. W.

2014-01-01

401

Sp(l)itting Images; or, Back to the Future of (Rhetoric and?) Composition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article places responses received from an open-ended survey of graduate students and faculty in dialogue with published commentary on the scope of composition studies as a discipline to explore three interrelated disciplinary dilemmas: the "pedagogical imperative," the "theory-practice split," and the increasingly complicated relationship…

Kopelson, Karen

2008-01-01

402

Computer vision-based analysis of foods: a non-destructive colour measurement tool to monitor quality and safety.  

PubMed

Computer vision-based image analysis has been widely used in food industry to monitor food quality. It allows low-cost and non-contact measurements of colour to be performed. In this paper, two computer vision-based image analysis approaches are discussed to extract mean colour or featured colour information from the digital images of foods. These types of information may be of particular importance as colour indicates certain chemical changes or physical properties in foods. As exemplified here, the mean CIE a* value or browning ratio determined by means of computer vision-based image analysis algorithms can be correlated with acrylamide content of potato chips or cookies. Or, porosity index as an important physical property of breadcrumb can be calculated easily. In this respect, computer vision-based image analysis provides a useful tool for automatic inspection of food products in a manufacturing line, and it can be actively involved in the decision-making process where rapid quality/safety evaluation is needed. PMID:24288215

Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Gökmen, Vural

2014-05-01

403

Improving the Rainbow Attack by Reusing Colours  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hashing or encrypting a key or a password is a vital part in most network security protocols. The most practical generic attack on such schemes is a time memory trade-off attack. Such an attack inverts any one-way function using a trade-off between memory and execution time. Existing techniques include the Hellman attack and the rainbow attack, where the latter uses different reduction functions ("colours") within a table.

Ågren, Martin; Johansson, Thomas; Hell, Martin

404

Artist's colour rendering of HDR scenes in 3D Mondrian colour-constancy experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presentation provides an update on ongoing research using three-dimensional Colour Mondrians. Two still life arrangements comprising hand-painted coloured blocks of 11 different colours were subjected to two different lighting conditions of a nearly uniform light and directed spotlights. The three-dimensional nature of these test targets adds shadows and multiple reflections, not found in flat Mondrian targets. Working from exactly the same pair of scenes, an author painted them using watercolour inks and paints to recreate both LDR and HDR Mondrians on paper. This provided us with a second set of appearance measurements of both scenes. Here we measured appearances by measuring reflectances of the artist's rendering. Land's Colour Mondrian extended colour constancy from a pixel to a complex scene. Since it used a planar array in uniform illumination, it did not measure the appearances of real life 3-D scenes in non-uniform illumination. The experiments in this paper, by simultaneously studying LDR and HDR renditions of the same array of reflectances, extend Land's Mondrian towards real scenes in non-uniform illumination. The results show that the appearances of many areas in complex scenes do not correlate with reflectance.

Parraman, Carinna E.; McCann, John J.; Rizzi, Alessandro

2010-01-01

405

Imaging of Fatigue Damage in CFRP Composite Laminates Using Nonlinear Harmonic Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, experimental evidence is presented that suggests a strong nonlinear interaction between acoustic wave and micro-structural damage before the onset of delaminations in fatigued CFRP samples. Sample used were 32 plies quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy laminate fatigued with a four point bending fatigue. First harmonic images were constructed from the amplitude of the first harmonic normalized by the amplitude of the fundamental. Harmonic imaging technique (HIT) shows a much higher sensitivity to micro-damage than amplitude C-scan. Correlations are established between the image zone where the nonlinear parameter is high and the region where a high density of micro-delamination and matrix cracks is observed.

Mattei, Christophe; Marty, Pierre

2003-03-01

406

Improvements in High Speed, High Resolution Dynamic Digital Image Correlation for Experimental Evaluation of Composite Drive System Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite materials have the potential to reduce the weight of rotating drive system components. However, these components are more complex to design and evaluate than static structural components in part because of limited ability to acquire deformation and failure initiation data during dynamic tests. Digital image correlation (DIC) methods have been developed to provide precise measurements of deformation and failure initiation for material test coupons and for structures under quasi-static loading. Attempts to use the same methods for rotating components (presented at the AHS International 68th Annual Forum in 2012) are limited by high speed camera resolution, image blur, and heating of the structure by high intensity lighting. Several improvements have been made to the system resulting in higher spatial resolution, decreased image noise, and elimination of heating effects. These improvements include the use of a high intensity synchronous microsecond pulsed LED lighting system, different lenses, and changes in camera configuration. With these improvements, deformation measurements can be made during rotating component tests with resolution comparable to that which can be achieved in static tests

Kohlman, Lee W.; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Roberts, Gary D.; Handschuh, Robert Frederick

2013-01-01

407

Improvements in High Speed, High Resolution Dynamic Digital Image Correlation for Experimental Evaluation of Composite Drive System Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite materials have the potential to reduce the weight of rotating drive system components. However, these components are more complex to design and evaluate than static structural components in part because of limited ability to acquire deformation and failure initiation data during dynamic tests. Digital image correlation (DIC) methods have been developed to provide precise measurements of deformation and failure initiation for material test coupons and for structures under quasi-static loading. Attempts to use the same methods for rotating components (presented at the AHS International 68th Annual Forum in 2012) are limited by high speed camera resolution, image blur, and heating of the structure by high intensity lighting. Several improvements have been made to the system resulting in higher spatial resolution, decreased image noise, and elimination of heating effects. These improvements include the use of a high intensity synchronous microsecond pulsed LED lighting system, different lenses, and changes in camera configuration. With these improvements, deformation measurements can be made during rotating component tests with resolution comparable to that which can be achieved in static tests.

Kohlman, Lee; Ruggeri, Charles; Roberts, Gary; Handshuh, Robert

2013-01-01

408

Spitzer/MIPS Infrared Imaging of M31: Further Evidence for a Spiral/Ring Composite Structure  

E-print Network

New images of M31 at 24, 70, and 160 micron taken with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) reveal the morphology of the dust in this galaxy. This morphology is well represented by a composite of two logarithmic spiral arms and a circular ring (radius ~10 kpc) of star formation offset from the nucleus. The two spiral arms appear to start at the ends of a bar in the nuclear region and extend beyond the star forming ring. As has been found in previous work, the spiral arms are not continuous but composed of spiral segments. The star forming ring is very circular except for a region near M32 where it splits. The lack of well defined spiral arms and the prominence of the nearly circular ring suggests that M31 has been distorted by interactions with its satellite galaxies. Using new dynamical simulations of M31 interacting with M32 and NGC 205 we find that, qualitatively, such interactions can produce an offset, split ring like that seen in the MIPS images.

Gordon, K D; Engelbracht, C W; Rieke, G H; Misselt, K A; Latter, W B; Young, E T; Ashby, M L N; Barmby, P; Gibson, B K; Hines, D C; Hinz, J; Krause, O; Levine, D A; Marleau, F R; Noriega-Crespo, A; Stolovy, S; Thilker, D A; Werner, M W; Gordon, Karl D.

2006-01-01

409

Laser ultrasonic anomalous wave propagation imaging method with adjacent wave subtraction: Application to actual damages in composite wing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser ultrasonic wave propagation imaging methods have great potential for integrated structural health management and non-destructive evaluation. However, application of these techniques to complex structures in the field is difficult because they give rise to complicated wave propagation patterns. We developed an anomalous wave propagation imaging method with adjacent wave subtraction using laser ultrasonic scanning to solve this problem. The proposed method is suitable for non-destructive evaluation of complex structures because it highlights the propagation of anomalous waves related to structural discontinuities, and suppresses complex incident waves without the need of pre-stored reference data. In this study, the method was applied to a real composite wing subjected to bending and impact tests. The method enhanced the visibility of the anomalous waves related to damages such as stringer tip debonding, skin-spar debonding, and invisible impact damage. Based on these anomalous waves, variable time window amplitude mapping was performed to show the damage location, size, and shape resemble to the actual damage. Comparisons showed that the methods performed better than the ultrasonic A-scan in terms of damage detection and sizing accuracy. The presence of structural elements such as spars, stringers, ribs, and surface-mounted PZT elements did not adversely affect the inspection. The proposed wing test setup with a built-in ultrasonic propagation imaging system for automatic NDE could be easily expanded throughout a hanger for maintenance inspection.

Chia, Chen Ciang; Lee, Jung-Ryul; Park, Chan-Yik; Jeong, Hyo-Mi

2012-03-01

410

Adding New Colours to Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Another vital step has been accomplished as planned towards full operation of the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile, one of the world's foremost astronomical facilities. In the night of March 20-21, 2004, a team of astronomers and engineers from France, Italy, Germany and ESO celebrated the successful assembly and completion of the first on-line tests of the latest of the first-generation VLTI instruments, the Astronomical Multiple BEam Recombiner (AMBER). They combined the two beams of light from the southern star Theta Centauri from two test telescopes ("siderostats" with 40-cm aperture, cf. ESO PR 06/01) to produce strong and clear interferometric fringes. Equally successful observations were then obtained on the bright star Sirius, and consistently repeated during the following nights. A joint project This is the most promising result of about 7 years of dedicated work by a team of over 40 astronomers and engineers. The AMBER instrument has been developed by a European consortium of seven research institutes in three ESO member countries, the main partners being: Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (LAOG), Laboratoire Universitaire d'Astrophysique de Nice (LUAN) and Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur in France, Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR) in Bonn, Germany, and Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (OAA; part of INAF, the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics) in Florence, Italy. The total cost of AMBER is of the order of 5.9 million Euros, mostly contributed by the members of the consortium. It was built through an agreement with ESO, which rewards the consortium solely with guaranteed observing time. According to the contract, the consortium will receive 60 observing nights to be spread among two or three of the four 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes and 130 nights with the four Auxiliary Telescopes over a period of eight years. AMBER: soon to join three light beams at once ESO PR Photo 09a/04 ESO PR Photo 09a/04 AMBER at the VLT Interferometric Laboratory [Preview - JPEG: 534 x 400 pix - 68k] [Normal - JPEG: 1067 x 800 pix - 665k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 09a/04 shows the AMBER instrument in the VLT Interferometric Laboratory at Paranal. The AMBER instrument is mounted on a 4.2 x 1.5 m precision optical table, placed in the VLT Interferometric Laboratory at the top of the Paranal mountain, cf. PR Photo 09/04. The total shipping weight of the instrument and its extensive associated electronics was almost 4 tons. AMBER is the latest addition to the VLTI and completes the planned set of first-generation instruments for this facility. It continues the success story of the interferometric mode of the VLT, following the unique initial scientific results obtained by the VINCI and MIDI instruments, the installation of the first MACAO adaptive optics systems and the recent arrival of the first 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescope at Paranal (ESO PR 01/04). The interferometric technique can achieve images, as sharp as those of a telescope with a diameter equivalent to the distance between the telescopes in the interferometer. For the VLTI, this distance can be as large as 205 meters, resulting in a resolution of 0.001 arcsec in the near-infrared spectral region (at 1 ?m wavelength). The latter measure corresponds to about 2 metres on the surface of the Moon. AMBER is a very powerful complement to the other instruments already installed at the VLTI and offered to the astronomical community. AMBER is indeed sensitive in the near-infrared wavelength region of 1 to 2.5 microns while the present instrument, MIDI, covers the 8 to 13 microns range. Moreover, AMBER will be able to perform spectroscopic measurements with a spectral resolution up to 10,000. ESO PR Photo 09b/04 ESO PR Photo 09b/04 The AMBER instrument (detail) [Preview - JPEG: 435 x 400 pix - 74k] [Normal - JPEG: 870 x 800 pix - 722k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 09b/04 shows in the foreground some of the mirrors and optical fibers (yellow cables), as well as the dichroic mirrors by means of which the light beams

2004-04-01

411

Flaw detection in multi-layer, multi-material composites by resonance imaging: Utilizing Air-coupled Ultrasonics and Finite Element Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramic tiles are the main ingredient of a multi-material, multi-layered composite being considered for the modernization of tank armors. The high stiffness, low attenuation, and precise dimensions of these uniform tiles make them remarkable resonators when driven to vibrate. Defects in the tile, during manufacture or after usage, are expected to change the resonance frequencies and resonance images of the tile. The comparison of the resonance frequencies and resonance images of a pristine tile/lay-up to a defective tile/lay-up will thus be a quantitative damage metric. By examining the vibrational behavior of these tiles and the composite lay-up with Finite Element Modeling and analytical plate vibration equations, the development of a new Nondestructive Evaluation technique is possible. This study examines the development of the Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Resonance Imaging technique as applied to a hexagonal ceramic tile and a multi-material, multi-layered composite.

Livings, Richard Andrew

2011-12-01

412

A new approach to decoding and compositing motion-compensated DCT-based images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel decoding algorithm for the MC-DCT (motion-compensation discrete-cosine-transform)-based video, which performs inverse MC before inverse DCT, is designed. This algorithm can be applied in compositing compressed video within the network, which may take multiple compressed video sources and combine them into a single compressed output stream. The proposed algorithm convers all MC-DCT compressed video into the DCT domain and

Shih-Fu Chang; David G. Messerschmitt

1993-01-01

413

Imaging Carbon Nanotubes in High Performance Polymer Composites via Magnetic Force Microscope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Application of carbon nanotubes as reinforcement in structural composites is dependent on the efficient dispersion of the nanotubes in a high performance polymer matrix. The characterization of such dispersion is limited by the lack of available tools to visualize the quality of the matrix/carbon nanotube interaction. The work reported herein demonstrates the use of magnetic force microscopy (MFM) as a promising technique for characterizing the dispersion of nanotubes in a high performance polymer matrix.

Lillehei, Peter T.; Park, Cheol; Rouse, Jason H.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

414

Body image and correlation with body composition and attrition rate in the TIGER study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Body image can be a very important part of determining an individual's outlook and behavior. Previous research has shown that the degree of satisfaction women have with their bodies may vary across race and may have a significant impact on an individual's motivation and commitment to a regular exer...

415

Scattering and Recoiling Imaging Spectrmetry (SARIS) for Surface Composition, Structure and Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial- and time-resolved, element-specific images that expose the anisotropic distributions of 1 - 5 keV scattered He, Ne, and Ar and recoiled atoms from Pt111, Au110-(1x2), and Ag110-(1xn)-O will be presented. Temporal- resolution and element-specificity result from dispersion of the atoms according to their velocities as a function of projectile/target atom masses and deflection angles. Spatial-distribution results from blocking and focusing by 'atomic lenses' into patterns which are highly sensitive to crystal structure, forming the basis for a scattering and recoiling imaging spectrometry (SARIS). A gated 75x95 mm position-sensitive microchannel plate and resistive anode encoder coupled with a multiple stop time-to-amplitude converter and time-of-flight techniques allow collection of images in time frames as short as 10 ns. SARIS can be used to monitor surface dynamics and structural changes in real time and real space. R-factor analysis of the experimental and simulated images shows that changes in interatomic spacings can be measured to an accuracy of 0.01.

Rabalais, J. Wayne

1997-04-01

416

Correlations between Cassini VIMS spectra and RADAR SAR images: Implications for Titan's surface composition and the character of the Huygens Probe Landing Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titan's vast equatorial fields of RADAR-dark longitudinal dunes seen in Cassini RADAR synthetic aperture images correlate with one of two dark surface units discriminated as “brown” and “blue” in Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) color composites of short-wavelength infrared spectral cubes (RGB as 2.0, 1.6, 1.3?m). In such composites bluer materials exhibit higher reflectance at 1.3?m and lower at

Laurence A. Soderblom; Randolph L. Kirk; Jonathan I. Lunine; Jeffrey A. Anderson; Kevin H. Baines; Jason W. Barnes; Janet M. Barrett; Robert H. Brown; Bonnie J. Buratti; Roger N. Clark; Dale P. Cruikshank; Charles Elachi; Michael A. Janssen; Ralf Jaumann; Erich Karkoschka; Stéphane Le Mouélic; Rosaly M. Lopes; Ralph D. Lorenz; Thomas B. McCord; Philip D. Nicholson; Jani Radebaugh; Bashar Rizk; Christophe Sotin; Ellen R. Stofan; Tracie L. Sucharski; Martin G. Tomasko; Stephen D. Wall

2007-01-01

417

Image segmentation based on the integration of colourtexture descriptors--A review  

E-print Network

Image segmentation based on the integration of colour­texture descriptors--A review Dana E. Ilea n of colour­texture image segmentation and this is complemented with an examination of the potential future describe the image content. An example is provided by the segmentation of natural images that exhibit both

Whelan, Paul F.

418

An Ammeter That Indicates Electric Current by the Movement of a Light Spot, and Voltage by the Colour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new type of ammeter (PikoPikoII) has been developed which indicates the measured current by the movement of a spot of light and the voltage by the colour of the spot. Since this tool can make students feel as if they are observing a visual image of electricity, it is easy to prepare schematic explanations on electric circuits that match the…

Kamata, Masahiro; Hara, Chiho

2005-01-01

419

Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The applicability of colour-quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour-rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour-rendering index metric or a refined colour-quality scale metric fails to distinguish between two principle colour-rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially when the spectra of light sources contain a few narrow-band electroluminescence components. Supplementing these metrics by the known figures of merit that measure the gamut area of a small number of test colour samples does not completely resolve this issue. In contrast, the statistical approach, which is based on sorting a very large number of test colour samples in respect of just-perceivable colour distortions of several kinds, offers a comprehensive assessment of colour-rendition properties of solid-state light sources. In particular, two statistical indices, colour-fidelity index (CFI) and colour-saturation index (CSI), which are the relative numbers of object colours rendered with high fidelity and increased saturation, respectively, are sufficient to reveal and assess three distinct types of solid-state light sources. These are (i) high-fidelity lamps, which cover the entire spectrum with the spectral components present in the wavelength ranges of both 530-610 nm and beyond 610 nm (e.g. trichromatic warm white phosphor-converted (pc) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), red-amber-green-blue LED clusters, complementary clusters of white and coloured LEDs); (ii) colour-saturating lamps, which lack power in the 530-610 nm wavelength range (e.g. red-green-blue or red-cyan-blue LED clusters) and (iii) colour-dulling lamps, which lack power for wavelengths longer than 610 nm (dichromatic daylight pc LEDs and amber-green-blue LED clusters). Owing to a single statistical format, CSI and CFI can be used for design and optimization of multiwavelength LED clusters providing 'smart' illumination with a trade-off between different colour-rendition characteristics.

Žukauskas, A.; Vaicekauskas, R.; Shur, M. S.

2010-09-01

420

Formation of automatic letter-colour associations in non-synaesthetes through likelihood manipulation of letter-colour pairings.  

PubMed

Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is a well-characterized phenomenon in which achromatic letters and/or digits automatically and systematically trigger specific colour sensations. Models of its underlying mechanisms diverge on a central question: whether triggered sensations reflect (1) an overdeveloped capacity in normal cross-modal processing (i.e., sharing characteristics with the general population), or rather (2) qualitatively deviant processing (i.e., unique to a few individuals). To test to what extent synaesthesia-like (automatic) letter-colour associations may be learned by non-synaesthetes into adulthood, implied by (1), we developed a learning paradigm that aimed to implicitly train such associations via a visual search task that employed statistical probability learning of specific letter-colour pairs. In contrast to previous synaesthesia-training studies (Cohen Kadosh, Henik, Catena, Walsh, & Fuentes, 2009; Meier & Rothen, 2009), here all participants were naïve as to the end-goal of the experiment (i.e., the formation of letter-colour associations), mimicking the learning conditions of acquired grapheme-colour synaesthesia (Hancock, 2006; Witthoft & Winawer, 2006). In two experiments, we found evidence for significant binding of colours to letters by non-synaesthetes. These newly-formed associations showed synaesthesia-like characteristics, because they correlated in strength with performance on individual synaesthetic Stroop-tasks (experiment 1), and because interference between the learned (associated) colour and the real colour during letter processing depended on their relative positions in colour space (opponent vs. non-opponent colours, experiment 2) suggesting automatic formation on a perceptual rather than conceptual level, analogous to synaesthesia. Although not evoking conscious colour percepts, these learned, synaesthesia-like associations in non-synaesthetes support that common mechanisms may underlie letter-colour associations in synaesthetes and non-synaesthetes. PMID:23017594

Kusnir, Flor; Thut, Gregor

2012-12-01