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1

Cadmium colours: composition and properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition and the properties of cadmium aquarelle colours are discussed. The examined colours were 24 different aquarelle cadmium colours from six different manufacturers. The colours ranged from light, bright yellows to dark, deep-red tones. The aim of this research was to find out if the pigments contain cadmium salts: sulphides and/or selenides. This information will help in choosing watercolours in conservation processes. Today, aquarelle colours not containing cadmium pigments are being sold as cadmium colours; thus their properties might be different from actual cadmium colours. The aim of the research was to verify that the colour samples contained cadmium pigments and to estimate their compositions and ageing properties. Element analyses were performed from colour samples using micro-chemical tests and X-ray fluorescence measurements. Thin-layer chromatography was used for analysing gum Arabic as a possible binding medium in the chosen colour samples. Through ageing tests, the resistance of the colour samples to the exposure to light, heat and humidity was studied. Visible-light spectroscopy was used in determining the hues and hue changes of the aquarelle colour samples. The spectrophotometer used the CIE L*a*b* tone colour measuring system. From the colour measurements the changes in the lightness/darkness, the redness, the yellowness and the saturation of the samples were examined.

Paulus, J.; Knuutinen, U.

2

Colour image compression by grey to colour conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instead of de-correlating image luminance from chrominance, some use has been made of using the correlation between the luminance component of an image and its chromatic components, or the correlation between colour components, for colour image compression. In one approach, the Green colour channel was taken as a base, and the other colour channels or their DCT subbands were approximated as polynomial functions of the base inside image windows. This paper points out that we can do better if we introduce an addressing scheme into the image description such that similar colours are grouped together spatially. With a Luminance component base, we test several colour spaces and rearrangement schemes, including segmentation. and settle on a log-geometric-mean colour space. Along with PSNR versus bits-per-pixel, we found that spatially-keyed s-CIELAB colour error better identifies problem regions. Instead of segmentation, we found that rearranging on sorted chromatic components has almost equal performance and better compression. Here, we sort on each of the chromatic components and separately encode windows of each. The result consists of the original greyscale plane plus the polynomial coefficients of windows of rearranged chromatic values, which are then quantized. The simplicity of the method produces a fast and simple scheme for colour image and video compression, with excellent results.

Drew, Mark S.; Finlayson, Graham D.; Jindal, Abhilash

2011-02-01

3

Colour model analysis for microscopic image processing  

PubMed Central

This article presents a comparative study between different colour models (RGB, HSI and CIEL*a*b*) applied to a very large microscopic image analysis. Such analysis of different colour models is needed in order to carry out a successful detection and therefore a classification of different regions of interest (ROIs) within the image. This, in turn, allows both distinguishing possible ROIs and retrieving their proper colour for further ROI analysis. This analysis is not commonly done in many biomedical applications that deal with colour images. Other important aspects is the computational cost of the different processing algorithms according to the colour model. This work takes these aspects into consideration to choose the best colour model tailored to the microscopic stain and tissue type under consideration and to obtain a successful processing of the histological image.

Bueno, Gloria; Gonzalez, Roberto; Deniz, Oscar; Gonzalez, Jesus; Garcia-Rojo, Marcial

2008-01-01

4

Colour Duplex imaging through wound dressings.  

PubMed

Colour flow Duplex scanning is becoming the method of choice to determine patency and haemodynamic status in infrainguinal grafts and native arteries. Due to surgical wounds and ulcers, there are often dressings covering the leg above the vessel to be scanned. There is no data as to the effect of different wound dressings on colour flow Duplex signals. Ten normal superficial femoral arteries were scanned by a blinded operator. Initially the artery was visualised to assess the normal image produced for each artery on B-mode and colour flow ultrasound and a Doppler reading was taken. Then each of five commonly used dressings were applied to the skin above the artery, in random order and the blinded operator graded the signal produced on a linear analogue scale. Primapore, an absorbent material dressing and Spyroflex, a bilaminate membrane dressing, did not transmit ultra-sound at all. Granuflex extra thin allowed a clear B-mode image of each artery to be visualised and an adequate Doppler waveform to be obtained. However colour flow mapping was less than optimal although it was possible in each of the arteries. Opsite and Tegaderm, two thin membrane dressings allowed excellent B-mode and colour flow images, in addition to clear Doppler signals. In patients who require dressings and who may require colour flow Duplex scanning of vessels in the same area, we would suggest the use of a product that permits ultrasound transmission, thus saving the necessity of removing the dressing for the assessment. PMID:8270077

Whiteley, M S; Magee, T R; Harris, R; Horrocks, M

1993-11-01

5

On a predictive scheme for colour image quantization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we proposed an improved colour image quantization scheme based on predictive coding. Since the neighbouring colour pixels are quite similar in most colour images, the similarity among the encoded pixels is exploited. In the proposed scheme the encoded distinct neighbouring colours are collected to form a smaller state-palette. If the closest colour in the state-palette is quite similar to the current encoding colour pixel, the index of the closest colour in the state-palette is recorded. Otherwise, the closest colour in original colour palette for the current encoding colour pixel is searched and the corresponding index is recorded. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves good image qualities while requiring much lower bit rates for colour image compression.

Hu, Y.-C.; Chen, W.-L.; Lo, C.-C.; Wu, C.-M.

2012-06-01

6

Website image colour transformation for the colour blind  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we look into the colour transformation algorithm, which focuses on the red-green colour vision deficient individuals. Red-green colour deficiency is the most common category of color blindness which causes red and green to be seen as beige color. From the comparison, the RGB color space to HSV conversion technique is chosen to be modified, which only allows

Siew-Li Ching; Maziani Sabudin

2010-01-01

7

Enhancing the low quality images using Unsupervised Colour Correction Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater images are affected by reduced contrast and non-uniform colour cast due to the absorption and scattering of light in the aquatic environment. This affects the quality and reliability of image processing and therefore colour correction is a necessary pre-processing stage. In this paper, we propose an Unsupervised Colour Correction Method (UCM) for underwater image enhancement. UCM is based on

Kashif Iqbal; Michael Odetayo; Anne E. James; Rosalina Abdul Salam; Abdullah Zawawi Talib

2010-01-01

8

Colour Image Segmentation by Non-Parametric Density Estimation in Colour Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel colour image segmentation routine, based on clustering pixels in colour space using non-parametric density estimation, is described. Although the basic methodology is well known, several important improvements to the previous work in this area are introduced. The density is estimated at a series of knot points in the colour space, and clustering is performed by hill climb- ing

Paul A. Bromiley; Neil A. Thacker; Patrick Courtney

2001-01-01

9

Towards more adequate colour histograms for in-body images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is a growing number of scientific papers describing classification of in-body images, most of it is based on traditional colour histograms. In this paper we explain why these might not be the most adequate visual features for in-body image classification. Based on a colour dynamic range maximization criterion, we propose a methodology for creating more adequate colour histograms,

A. Sousa; M. Dinis-Ribeiro; M. Areia; M. Correia; M. Coimbra

2008-01-01

10

Colour histogram analysis for melanoma discrimination in clinical images  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer, has a good prognosis if treated in the curable early stages. Colour provides critical discriminating information for the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Methods This research introduces a three-dimensional relative colour histogram analysis technique to identify colours characteristic of melanomas and then applies these ‘melanoma colours’ to differentiate benign skin lesions from melanomas. The relative colour of a skin lesion is determined based on subtracting a representative colour of the surrounding skin from each lesion pixel. Acolour mapping for ‘melanoma colours’ is determined using a training set of images. Apercent melanoma colour feature, defined as the percentage of the lesion pixels that are melanoma colours, is used for discriminating melanomas from benign lesions. The technique is evaluated using a clinical image data set of 129 malignant melanomas and 129 benign lesions consisting of 40 seborrheic keratoses and 89 nevocellular nevi. Results Using the percent melanoma colour feature for discrimination, experimental results yield correct melanoma and benign lesion discrimination rates of 84.3 and 83.0%, respectively. Conclusions The results presented in this work suggest that lesion colour in clinical images is strongly related to the presence of melanoma in that lesion. However, colour information should be combined with other information in order to further reduce the false negative and false positive rates.

Faziloglu, Yunus; Stanley, R. Joe; Moss, Randy H.; Van Stoecker, William; McLean, Rob P.

2011-01-01

11

Quantification of Japanese quail eggshell colour by image analysis.  

PubMed

The Japanese quail lays eggs with colourful and patterned shells which make the eggshell colour difficult to classify. In this study, the method of measuring colour of patchy eggs using image analyses and its power to discriminate among individual variation were established. Estimated repeatability for egg colour and proportion of patterned areas was high (>0.58), suggesting intermedíate or high heritability of eggshell colour characteristics. Three components have been identified as significant in discriminant function analysis. These three components explained 91.4% of the total variance in egg colour characteristics. In cluster analysis, 78.3% of the eggs that were collected from 15 females were correctly classified. This study indicates that eggshell colour characteristics can be reliably studied by image analyses and that this method can provide a unified character list for future examinations and interpretations of quail egg characteristics. PMID:19621137

Sezer, Metin; Tekelioglu, Oguz

2009-06-11

12

Spectral composition of thermoluminescence of coloured NaCl crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives the experimental results of studying the spectral composition of thermoluminescence in the different maxima in photo-chemically coloured “pure” NaCl crystals or NaCl-crystals containing Cu in different concentrations.

J. Dolejsí; A. Bohun

1960-01-01

13

Efficient colour splitters for high-pixel-density image sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the pixel size of image sensors shrinks to the wavelength of light, this results in low signal levels for a given photon flux per pixel as a result of scaling laws. Because many image sensors require colour filters, it becomes crucial for small-pixel sensors to have an efficient filtering method that can capture all incident photons without absorbing them. Here, we propose a new method to split colours by using a microscale plate-like structure with a transparent medium that has a higher refractive index than the surrounding material. We experimentally demonstrate that this principle of colour splitting based on near-field deflection can generate colour images with minimal signal loss. From comparisons of the sum of the total integrated values for the colour channels, we confirm the amount of light received is 1.85 times that of the conventional colour filter method of the Bayer array, while maintaining the same level of resolution.

Nishiwaki, Seiji; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Hiramoto, Masao; Fujii, Toshiya; Suzuki, Masa-Aki

2013-03-01

14

Automated identification of diabetic retinal exudates in digital colour images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To identify retinal exudates automatically from colour retinal images.Methods: The colour retinal images were segmented using fuzzy C-means clustering following some key preprocessing steps. To classify the segmented regions into exudates and non-exudates, an artificial neural network classifier was investigated.Results: The proposed system can achieve a diagnostic accuracy with 95.0% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity for the identification of images

A Osareh; M Mirmehdi; B Thomas; R Markham

2003-01-01

15

Ratio rule and homomorphic filter for enhancement of digital colour image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital colour image enhancement using a homomorphic filter provides good dynamic range compression, but it fails in colour rendition. In this letter, we propose to perform natural colour rendition in a digital colour image that is enhanced by a homomorphic filter. A novel neural network learning algorithm, named Ratio rule, is used to carry out the natural colour rendition process.

Ming-jung Seow; Vijayan K. Asari

2006-01-01

16

Improved image retrieval based on fuzzy colour feature vector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of Image indexing techniques is the Content-Based Image Retrieval which is an efficient way for retrieving images from the image database automatically based on their visual contents such as colour, texture, and shape. In this paper will be discuss how using content-based image retrieval (CBIR) method by colour feature extraction and similarity checking. By dividing the query image and all images in the database into pieces and extract the features of each part separately and comparing the corresponding portions in order to increase the accuracy in the retrieval. The proposed approach is based on the use of fuzzy sets, to overcome the problem of curse of dimensionality. The contribution of colour of each pixel is associated to all the bins in the histogram using fuzzy-set membership functions. As a result, the Fuzzy Colour Histogram (FCH), outperformed the Conventional Colour Histogram (CCH) in image retrieving, due to its speedy results, where were images represented as signatures that took less size of memory, depending on the number of divisions. The results also showed that FCH is less sensitive and more robust to brightness changes than the CCH with better retrieval recall values.

Ben-Ahmeida, Ahlam M.; Ben Sasi, Ahmed Y.

2013-03-01

17

Reconstructive colour X-ray diffraction imaging--a novel TEDDI imaging method.  

PubMed

Tomographic Energy-Dispersive Diffraction Imaging (TEDDI) enables a unique non-destructive mapping of the interior of bulk objects, exploiting the full range of X-ray signals (diffraction, fluorescence, scattering, background) recorded. By analogy to optical imaging, a wide variety of features (structure, composition, orientation, strain) dispersed in X-ray wavelengths can be extracted and colour-coded to aid interpretation. The ultimate aim of this approach is to realise real-time high-definition colour X-ray diffraction imaging, on the timescales of seconds, so that one will be able to 'look inside' optically opaque apparatus and unravel the space/time-evolution of the materials chemistry taking place. This will impact strongly on many fields of science but there are currently two barriers to this goal: speed of data acquisition (a 2D scan currently takes minutes to hours) and loss of image definition through spatial distortion of the X-ray sampling volume. Here we present a data-collection scenario and reconstruction routine which overcomes the latter barrier and which has been successfully applied to a phantom test object and to real materials systems such as a carbonating cement block. These procedures are immediately transferable to the promising technology of multi-energy-dispersive-detector-arrays which are planned to deliver the other breakthrough, that of one-two orders of magnitude improvement in data acquisition rates, that will be needed to realise real-time high-definition colour X-ray diffraction imaging. PMID:19684902

Lazzari, Olivier; Jacques, Simon; Sochi, Taha; Barnes, Paul

2009-06-26

18

Ultra-realistic 3-D imaging based on colour holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of recent progress in colour holography is provided with new applications. Colour holography recording techniques in silver-halide emulsions are discussed. Both analogue, mainly Denisyuk colour holograms, and digitally-printed colour holograms are described and their recent improvements. An alternative to silver-halide materials are the panchromatic photopolymer materials such as the DuPont and Bayer photopolymers which are covered. The light sources used to illuminate the recorded holograms are very important to obtain ultra-realistic 3-D images. In particular the new light sources based on RGB LEDs are described. They show improved image quality over today's commonly used halogen lights. Recent work in colour holography by holographers and companies in different countries around the world are included. To record and display ultra-realistic 3-D images with perfect colour rendering are highly dependent on the correct recording technique using the optimal recording laser wavelengths, the availability of improved panchromatic recording materials and combined with new display light sources.

Bjelkhagen, H. I.

2013-02-01

19

A steganographic scheme for colour image authentication (SSCIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a novel steganographic technique which demonstrates the colour image authentication technique in frequency domain based on the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). The DFT is applied on sub-image block called mask of size 2 x 2 for frequency components of corresponding spatial component. This transforms process done from beginning to end mask in row major order of

Nabin Ghoshal; J. K. Mandal

2011-01-01

20

Multispectral image invariant to illumination colour, strength, and shading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here a method that makes use of multispectral image data and generates a novel "photometric-invariant multispectral image" for this type of data. For RGB, an invariant image has been constructed independent of the colour and intensity of the illuminant and of shading. To generate this image either a set of calibration images is required, or entropy information taken from a single image can be used to develop the parameters necessary to produce the invariant. Nonetheless, generating an invariant image remains a complex and error-prone task for RGB image data. For multispectral images, we show that photometric-invariant image formation is in essence greatly simplified. One of the requirements for forming an invariant is the necessity of narrowband-sensor sensors. Here this is the case, and we show that with the simple knowledge of peak sensor wavelengths we can generate a high-D multispectral invariant. The PSNR is shown to be high between the respective invariant multispectral features for multispectral images taken under different illumination conditions, showing lighting invariance for a per-pixel measure; and the s-CIELAB error measure shows that the colour error between the 3-D colour images used to visualize the output invariant high-D data is also small.

Drew, Mark S.; Yazdani Salekdeh, Amin

2011-01-01

21

Colour coding of intensity levels in CCD images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present methods of displaying electronic images from Charge Coupled Device (CCD) cameras often fall short of ideal. The production of hard copy from computer printers or by the photography of monitors frequently limits the quantity and quality of information available. One way to improve the transfer of information from electronic files to human eye and brain is to see a spectrum of colours in addition to the usual brightness variations. The addition of colour gives an added dimension to the images and enables subtle variations in intensity to be more readily perceived.

Neville, R. J.

1995-06-01

22

Colour Stability of Veneering Composites after Accelerated Aging  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the colour stability of four indirect composite restorative materials after accelerated aging. Methods: Four indirect composites (Gradia, Signum+, HFO and Adoro) were used. For each material, six specimens were prepared and subjected to accelerated aging (Suntest CPS+, Atlas, Chicago, IL, USA) according to ISO 7491. A Dr. Lange Microcolor Data Station colorimeter (Braive Instruments, Liege, Belgium) was used to measure specimen colour before and after aging. Measurements were performed according to the CIE L*a*b* system, and the mean L*, a* and b* values for each material were calculated. The equation ?E = [(?L*)2 + (?a*)2 + (?b*)2]1/2 was used to measure the total colour change (?E), where ?L*, ?a* and ?b* are the differences in the respective values before and after aging. One-way ANOVA were used to determine statistically significant differences in ?L*, ?a*, ?b* and ?E. Results: No statistically significant differences were found in ?L*, ?a*, ?b* and ?E among the materials tested (P?L*=.063; P?a*=.521; P?b*=.984 and P?E=.408). After aging, Gradia specimens showed an increase in lightness (?L*=0.36) and a green-yellow shift (?a*=?1.18, ?b*=0.6), while Signum+ specimens exhibited an increase in lightness (?L*=0.5) and a green-blue shift (?a*=?0.9, ?b*=?0.45). HFO specimens exhibited an increase in lightness (?L*=0.75) and a green-yellow shift (?a*=?1.3, ?b*=0.06), and Adoro specimens exhibited an increase in lightness (?L*=2.07) and a green-yellow shift (?a*=?1.3, ?b*=0.68). Conclusions: Colour changes were found to be within accepted values of perceptibility and clinical acceptance after accelerated aging, and no statistically significant differences were found in ?L*, ?a*, ?b* and ?E among the materials tested.

Papadopoulos, Triantafillos; Sarafianou, Aspasia; Hatzikyriakos, Andreas

2010-01-01

23

Canvas: An Intelligent Colour Selection Tool For VDU Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

CANVAS is a palette-driven system for colour selection in the density slicing of single-band imagery. By incorporating intelligence on the visual distinction and ordering of colours, the system can operate in several modes. Colours can be selected individually from the palettes or by the system, which maximises the apparent distinction between them. Colour series with unipolar, repeating unipolar and bipolar

G. A. Gill; A. D. Trigg

1988-01-01

24

Applying colour science in colour design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although colour science has been widely used in a variety of industries over the years, it has not been fully explored in the field of product design. This paper will initially introduce the three main application fields of colour science: colour specification, colour-difference evaluation and colour appearance modelling. By integrating these advanced colour technologies together with modern colour imaging devices such as display, camera, scanner and printer, some computer systems have been recently developed to assist designers for designing colour palettes through colour selection by means of a number of widely used colour order systems, for creating harmonised colour schemes via a categorical colour system, for generating emotion colours using various colour emotional scales and for facilitating colour naming via a colour-name library. All systems are also capable of providing accurate colour representation on displays and output to different imaging devices such as printers.

Luo, Ming Ronnier

2006-06-01

25

Can gamut mapping quality be predicted by colour image difference formulae?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out a CRT monitor based psychophysical experiment to investigate the quality of three colour image difference metrics, the CIE?E ab equation, the iCAM and the S-CIELAB metrics. Six original images were reproduced through six gamut mapping algorithms for the observer experiment. The result indicates that the colour image difference calculated by each metric does not directly relate to perceived image difference.

Bando, Eriko; Hardeberg, Jon Y.; Connah, David

2005-03-01

26

The use of colour Doppler imaging in the diagnosis of retinal detachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

DesignProspective study.PurposeTo evaluate real-time duplex colour Doppler examination with colour and pulse Doppler ultrasonography (US) (colour Doppler imaging (CDI)) for detection of the retinal detachment from membranous structures in the posterior segment.Materials and methodsIn 33 consecutive patients with ophthalmoscopically invisible eyes (34 eyes), CDI was performed to detect the presence or absence of retinal detachment. The diagnostic criterion for retinal

M Ido; S Osawa; M Fukukita; M Sugimoto; Y Wakitani; Y Ito; M Miyamura; M Sasoh; Y Uji

2007-01-01

27

Dynamic application of digital image and colour processing in characterizing flame radiation features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the experimental investigation of the dynamic flame properties of flame flickering and equivalence ratio sensing of a combustion process was done. In particular, the time-varied flame properties were examined using a novel digital image and colour processing methodology. This technique makes use of the observed correlation between a digital image colour signal and physical flame radiation characteristics in the visible wavelength domain. Aspects of RGB and HSV colour modelling principles were applied to show that the addition of colour identification in the image processing of high-speed flame image data could yield three useful parameters which are related to the dynamic behaviour of different flame emanating components. First, the validity of the colour identities for tracking the yellowish-red diffusion and greenish-blue premixed flame colourations were examined by comparing their respective flickering frequency profiles. Then, the usefulness of the extracted Rdiffusion, Gpremixed and Bpremixed colour signals to abstractly represent the behaviour of soot, C2* and CH* emission characteristics in a dynamic flame transition from diffusion to stoichiometric premixed condition was demonstrated. In particular, the colour signal ratio Bpremixed/Gpremixed was correlated to exemplify the approximate time-varied state of the equivalence ratio from the imaged combustion phenomenon.

Huang, Hua Wei; Zhang, Yang

2010-08-01

28

Physics-based colour image segmentation for scenes containing vegetation and soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colour segmentation of images containing vegetation and soil is the theme of this work. Physics-based reflection models are used to develop an algorithm for separating object pixel clusters in the three-dimensional red, green and blue colour space. The dichromatic reflection model that is used as the basis for this algorithm, defines a plane in which the pixels from an object

Christine M. Onyango; John A. Marchant

2001-01-01

29

Morphological image compositing.  

PubMed

Image mosaicking can be defined as the registration of two or more images that are then combined into a single image. Once the images have been registered to a common coordinate system, the problem amounts to the definition of a selection rule to output a unique value for all those pixels that are present in more than one image. This process is known as image compositing. In this paper, we propose a compositing procedure based on mathematical morphology and its marker-controlled segmentation paradigm. Its scope is to position seams along salient image structures so as to diminish their visibility in the output mosaic even in the absence of radiometric corrections or blending procedures. We also show that it is suited to the seamless minimization of undesirable transient objects occurring in the regions where two or more images overlap. The proposed methodology and algorithms are illustrated for the composition of satellite images minimizing cloud cover. PMID:16640255

Soille, Pierre

2006-05-01

30

Improving local composition measurements of binary mixtures by image analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composition quantification in granular mixtures through colorimetric imaging is addressed. Digital images of binary mixtures have been analysed with three different colour spaces: gray scale, L?a?b? and HSV. Experiments have been carried out on a small scale drum mixer. After blending, the mixtures have been impregnated with a binder, solidified and sliced. The colorimetric analysis has been carried out on

F. Dal Grande; A. Santomaso; P. Canu

2008-01-01

31

Influence of bottle storage time on colour, phenolic composition and sensory properties of sweet red wines.  

PubMed

Changes in colour and phenolic composition in sweet red wines made from Merlot, Syrah and Tempranillo grapes were studied in order to assess the influence of bottle storage over a period of 12months. For this purpose, wine colour parameters, sensory analysis and concentrations of monomeric anthocyanins, pyranoanthocyanins, methylmethine-mediated condensation adducts, flavan3-ol derivatives and flavonols were measured. Hue increased and red colours decreased with the storage time, particularly over the first 3months. The concentrations of low molecular weight flavan-3-ol derivatives decreased with time due to the effect of their conversion into tannins of high molecular weight. In addition, the glycosylated flavonols decreased through hydrolysis to give the corresponding aglycones. Overall, the concentration of phenolic compounds decreased markedly with storage time, whereas the antioxidant activity in the wines remained constant throughout. A panel of expert tasters judged the colour, aroma and flavour of all initial and final wines to be acceptable. PMID:24176375

Marquez, Ana; Serratosa, Maria P; Merida, Julieta

2013-09-25

32

Hundred metre virtual telescope captures unique detailed colour image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A team of French astronomers has captured one of the sharpest colour images ever made. They observed the star T Leporis, which appears, on the sky, as small as a two-storey house on the Moon [1]. The image was taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), emulating a virtual telescope about 100 metres across and reveals a spherical molecular shell around an aged star. ESO PR Photo 06a/09 The star T Leporis as seen with VLTI ESO PR Photo 06b/09 The star T Leporis to scale ESO PR Photo 06c/09 A virtual 100-metre telescope ESO PR Photo 06d/09 The orbit of Theta1 Orionis C ESO PR Video 06a/09 Zoom-in onto T Leporis "This is one of the first images made using near-infrared interferometry," says lead author Jean-Baptiste Le Bouquin. Interferometry is a technique that combines the light from several telescopes, resulting in a vision as sharp as that of a giant telescope with a diameter equal to the largest separation between the telescopes used. Achieving this requires the VLTI system components to be positioned to an accuracy of a fraction of a micrometre over about 100 metres and maintained so throughout the observations -- a formidable technical challenge. When doing interferometry, astronomers must often content themselves with fringes, the characteristic pattern of dark and bright lines produced when two beams of light combine, from which they can model the physical properties of the object studied. But, if an object is observed on several runs with different combinations and configurations of telescopes, it is possible to put these results together to reconstruct an image of the object. This is what has now been done with ESO's VLTI, using the 1.8-metre Auxiliary Telescopes. "We were able to construct an amazing image, and reveal the onion-like structure of the atmosphere of a giant star at a late stage of its life for the first time," says Antoine Mérand, member of the team. "Numerical models and indirect data have allowed us to imagine the appearance of the star before, but it is quite astounding that we can now see it, and in colour." Although it is only 15 by 15 pixel across, the reconstructed image shows an extreme close-up of a star 100 times larger than the Sun, a diameter corresponding roughly to the distance between the Earth and the Sun. This star is, in turn, surrounded by a sphere of molecular gas, which is about three times as large again. T Leporis, in the constellation of Lepus (the Hare), is located 500 light-years away. It belongs to the family of Mira stars, well known to amateur astronomers. These are giant variable stars that have almost extinguished their nuclear fuel and are losing mass. They are nearing the end of their lives as stars, and will soon die, becoming white dwarfs. The Sun will become a Mira star in a few billion years, engulfing the Earth in the dust and gas expelled in its final throes. Mira stars are among the biggest factories of molecules and dust in the Universe, and T Leporis is no exception. It pulsates with a period of 380 days and loses the equivalent of the Earth's mass every year. Since the molecules and dust are formed in the layers of atmosphere surrounding the central star, astronomers would like to be able to see these layers. But this is no easy task, given that the stars themselves are so far away -- despite their huge intrinsic size, their apparent radius on the sky can be just half a millionth that of the Sun. "T Leporis looks so small from the Earth that only an interferometric facility, such as the VLTI at Paranal, can take an image of it. VLTI can resolve stars 15 times smaller than those resolved by the Hubble Space Telescope," says Le Bouquin. To create this image with the VLTI astronomers had to observe the star for several consecutive nights, using all the four movable 1.8-metre VLT Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs). The ATs were combined in different groups of three, and were also moved to different positions, creating more new interferometric configurations, so that astronomers could emulate a virtual telescope

2009-02-01

33

Colour space influence for vegetation image classification application to Caribbean forest and agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with a comparison of different colour space in order to improve high resolution images classification. The background of this study is the measure of the agriculture impact on the environment in islander context. Biodiversity is particularly sensitive and relevant in such areas and the follow-up of the forest front is a way to ensure its preservation. Very high resolution satellite images are used such as QuickBird and IKONOS scenes. In order to segment the images into forest and agriculture areas, we characterize both ground covers with colour and texture features. A classical unsupervised classifier is then used to obtain labelled areas. As features are computed on coloured images, we can wonder if the colour space choice is relevant. This study has been made considering more than fourteen colour spaces (RGB, YUV, Lab, YIQ, YCrCs, XYZ, CMY, LMS, HSL, KLT, IHS, I1I2I3, HSV, HSI, etc.) and shows the visual and quantitative superiority of IHS on all others. For conciseness reasons, results only show RGB, I1I2I3 and IHS colour spaces.

Abadi, M.; Grandchamp, E.

2008-10-01

34

High resolution tri-linear colour TDI CCD image sensor with programmable responsivity gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a 6032 element, 32 stage Tri-linear Time Delay and Integration Focal Plane Array for high resolution colour imaging applications. The sensor offers an improvement of a factor of 10 over comparable line scan CCD sensors. The imager architecture utilizes three individual TDI arrays, with a new multi-layer dielectric interference film (DIF) color filter or a dyed polyamide patterned

Suhail Agwani; James Miller; Sawas G. Chamberlain; William D. Washkurak

1995-01-01

35

Discrete Fourier Transform based multimedia colour image authentication for wireless communication (DFTMCIAWC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

T his paper presents a novel steganographic schemes based on Discrete Fourier Transformation (DFT) and demonstrates the multimedia colour image authentication process in frequency domain for wireless communication(DFTMCIAWC). Authentication is done through embedding secrete message\\/image into the transformed frequency components of the source image at message originating node. The DFT is applied on sub-image block called mask of size 2

Nabin Ghoshal; J. K. Mandal

2011-01-01

36

Statistical correlation between flavanolic composition, colour and sensorial parameters in grape seed during ripening.  

PubMed

The aim of this work has been to determine the correlations between sensory analysis, colour and content of main flavanols present in seeds. For this, the flavanic composition of grape seeds with different degrees of maturity was analysed by HPLC-DAD-MS and the obtained results were correlated with CIELab colour parameters, perceived colour (C), hardness of the seed (HS), tannic intensity (TI) and astringency (A). Multiple linear regression analysis (MLR) with the variables showing significant correlations (p<0.05) was also performed. Grape seeds undergo important decreases in the content of catechins and procyanidin oligomers during ripening. Epicatechin-(4-8)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (B2G) and (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECG) are the flavanolic compounds whose contents decrease most. The changes in the phenolic composition accompany changes in TI, A and HS. The total content of flavanols in the seed is not the only factor affecting these attributes, since samples containing higher contents in flavanols can exhibit less astringency and tannic intensity than others with lower ones. The qualitative profile of the seeds is, therefore, also responsible for the sensations elicited in the mouth. A and HS parameters are more affected by the presence of galloylated dimeric procyanidins in the molecule than TI. CIELab colour parameters of seeds have high correlation coefficients with many flavanolic compounds. ECG was the compound most related to these parameters. PMID:20103139

Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; García-Marino, Matilde; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

2009-10-01

37

Asymmetry in dermoscopic melanocytic lesion images: a computer description based on colour distribution.  

PubMed

Digital dermoscopy improves the accuracy of melanoma diagnosis. The aim of this study was to develop and validate software for assessment of asymmetry in melanocytic lesion images, based on evaluation of colour symmetry, and to compare it with assessment by human observers. An image analysis program enabling numerical assessment of asymmetry in melanocytic lesions, based on the evaluation and comparison of CIE L*a*b* colour components (CIE L*a*b* is the name of a colour space defined by the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) inside image colour blocks, was employed on the recorded lesion images. Clinical evaluation of asymmetry in dermoscopic images was performed on the same image set employing a 0-1 scoring system. Asymmetry judgement was expressed by the clinicians for 12.8% of benign naevi, 44.7% of atypical naevi and 64.2% of malignant melanomas, whereas the computer identified as asymmetric 6.3%, 33.3% and 82.2%, respectively. Numerical parameters referring to malignant melanomas were significantly higher, both with respect to benign naevi and atypical naevi. The numerical parameters produced could be effectively employed for computer-aided melanoma diagnosis. PMID:16648914

Seidenari, Stefania; Pellacani, Giovanni; Grana, Costantino

2006-01-01

38

Compositing digital images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most computer graphics pictures have been computed all at once, so that the rendering program takes care of all computations relating to the overlap of objects. There are several applications, however, where elements must be rendered separately, relying on compositing techniques for the anti-aliased accumulation of the full image. This paper presents the case for four-channel pictures, demonstrating that a

Thomas Porter; Tom Duff

1984-01-01

39

Modelling of Camera Phone Capture Channel for JPEG Colour Barcode Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As camera phones have permeated into our everyday lives, two dimensional (2D) barcode has attracted researchers and developers as a cost-effective ubiquitous computing tool. A variety of 2D barcodes and their applications have been developed. Often, only monochrome 2D barcodes are used due to their robustness in an uncontrolled operating environment of camera phones. However, we are seeing an emerging use of colour 2D barcodes for camera phones. Nonetheless, using a greater multitude of colours introduces errors that can negatively affect the robustness of barcode reading. This is especially true when developing a 2D barcode for camera phones which capture and store these barcode images in the baseline JPEG format. This paper present one aspect of the errors introduced by such camera phones by modelling the camera phone capture channel for JPEG colour barcode images.

Tan, Keng T.; Ong, Siong Khai; Chai, Douglas

40

Flame colour characterization in the visible and infrared spectrum using a digital camera and image processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt has been made to characterize the colour spectrum of methane flame under various burning conditions using RGB and HSV colour models instead of resolving the real physical spectrum. The results demonstrate that each type of flame has its own characteristic distribution in both the RGB and HSV space. It has also been observed that the averaged B and G values in the RGB model represent well the CH* and C*2 emission of methane premixed flame. Theses features may be utilized for flame measurement and monitoring. The great advantage of using a conventional camera for monitoring flame properties based on the colour spectrum is that it is readily available, easy to interface with a computer, cost effective and has certain spatial resolution. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that a conventional digital camera is able to image flame not only in the visible spectrum but also in the infrared. This feature is useful in avoiding the problem of image saturation typically encountered in capturing the very bright sooty flames. As a result, further digital imaging processing and quantitative information extraction is possible. It has been identified that an infrared image also has its own distribution in both the RGB and HSV colour space in comparison with a flame image in the visible spectrum.

Huang, Hua-Wei; Zhang, Yang

2008-08-01

41

Advantages of colour flow imaging in the diagnosis of left ventricular pseudoaneurysm.  

PubMed Central

Eleven cases of left ventricular pseudoaneurysm in nine patients were studied by cross sectional echocardiography, conventional Doppler echocardiography, and colour flow imaging. In two patients recurrent pseudoaneurysms developed after cardiac surgery, three had acute rupture after myocardial infarction, two were the result of stab wounds, one was a late rupture of a true left ventricular aneurysm, one developed after surgical resection of a true left ventricular aneurysm, and two as a consequence of left ventricular venting. In all 11 cases the diagnosis was confirmed by angiographic or surgical information or both. The diagnosis was suspected clinically in only four cases. Cross sectional echocardiography alone confirmed the diagnosis in five cases. Neither pulsed wave Doppler nor continuous wave Doppler established the diagnosis when they were used without colour flow imaging in five and three cases respectively. In all 11 cases colour flow imaging showed flow in and out of the pericardial cavity at the defect site as well as the abnormal flow within the pseudoaneurysm. Subsequent use of pulsed Doppler showed a consistent "to and fro" flow pattern across the myocardial defect with characteristic respiratory variation of the peak systolic velocity. This unique intrapericardial flow pattern is diagnostic of a pseudoaneurysm. Colour flow imaging is a valuable addition to cross sectional and Doppler echocardiography, and is the best technique for detecting left ventricular pseudoaneurysms. Images Fig 1 Fig 2

Sutherland, G R; Smyllie, J H; Roelandt, J R

1989-01-01

42

A 3D colour Doppler ultrasound imaging system for in vitro estimation of flow parameters downstream of prosthetic heart valves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a 3D colour ultrasound imaging system for the estimation of flow parameters downstream of prosthetic heart valves. The system consists of an ATL Ultramark 9 HDI colour Doppler ultrasound machine with a 38 mm aperture and a 5 MHz high resolution linear array transducer, a 3D ultrasound imaging system, and an in vitro circulation system under which

Herkole Sava; Philippe Pibarot; Jean Dumesil; A. Fenster; Louis-Gilles Durand

1998-01-01

43

Developments in the recovery of colour in fine art prints using spatial image processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Printmakers have at their disposal a wide range of colour printing processes. The majority of artists will utilise high quality materials with the expectation that the best materials and pigments will ensure image permanence. However, as many artists have experienced, this is not always the case. Inks, papers and materials can deteriorate over time. For artists and conservators who need to restore colour or tone to a print could benefit from the assistance of spatial colour enhancement tools. This paper studies two collections from the same edition of fine art prints that were made in 1991. The first edition has been kept in an archive and not exposed to light. The second edition has been framed and exposed to light for about 18 years. Previous experiments using colour enhancement methods [9,10] have involved a series of photographs that had been taken under poor or extreme lighting conditions, fine art works, scanned works. There are a range of colour enhancement methods: Retinex, RSR, ACE, Histogram Equalisation, Auto Levels, which are described in this paper. In this paper we will concentrate on the ACE algorithm and use a range of parameters to process the printed images and describe these results.

Rizzi, A.; Parraman, C.

2010-06-01

44

Screening for early familial ovarian cancer with transvaginal ultrasonography and colour blood flow imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To assess the value of transvaginal ultrasonography with colour blood flow imaging in detecting early ovarian cancer in women with a family history of the disease. DESIGN--Study of self referred symptomless women with a close relative who had developed the disease. Each woman was screened to detect persistent lesions and defined changes in ovarian volume. Morphological score and pulsatility index

T H Bourne; S Campbell; K M Reynolds; M I Whitehead; J Hampson; P Royston; T J Crayford; W P Collins

1993-01-01

45

Comparison of Colour Spaces for Optic Disc Localisation in Retinal Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The location of the optic disc is of critical importance in retinal image analysis. In this work we improve on an approach introduced in (3) who localised an optic disc region through greylevel morphology followed by snake fitting. We propose and implement both the automatic initialisation of the snake and the application of morphol- ogy in colour space. We examine

Alireza Osareh I; Majid Mirmehdi; Barry T. Thomas; Richard Markham

2002-01-01

46

Composite imaging method for histological image analysis.  

PubMed

A composite imaging method has been developed that enables the user to directly capture a composite image by one-image capturing. It was experimentally verified that the composite images of bright-field, dark-field, and phase-contrast images can be captured with an arbitrary composition ratio. The difference in pixel values between the captured composite image and the computer composite image was small. This imaging method is realized only by placing below the condenser a masking plate, which can easily be made using Neutral Density filters. Therefore, little additional time and cost are needed. The composite imaging method was applied for extracting Helicobacter pylori in microscopic images of HE-stained gastric histological sections. H pylori is difficult to extract because the colors in H pylori are similar to those in other areas. It is experimentally shown that a composite image of phase-contrast and dark-field images captured using the proposed method improves the accuracy for extracting H pylori. PMID:24110455

Imai, Mizuho; Takei, Akane; Miyamoto, Keita; Takahashi, Masanobu; Nakano, Masayuki

2013-07-01

47

Independent component analysis applied to feature extraction from colour and stereo images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work has shown that independent component analysis (ICA) applied to feature extraction from natural image data yields features resembling Gabor functions and simple-cell receptive fields. This article considers the effects of including chromatic and stereo information. The inclusion of colour leads to features divided into separate red\\/green, blue\\/yellow, and bright\\/dark channels. Stereo image data, on the other hand, leads

Patrik O. Hoyer; Aapo Hyvärinen

2000-01-01

48

Supervised colour image segmentation using granular reflex fuzzy min-max neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granular data classification and clustering is an upcoming and important issue in the field of pattern recognition. This paper proposes a Supervised Colour Image Segmentation technique based on Granular Reflex Fuzzy Min-Max Neural Network (GrRFMN). GrRFMN architecture consists of a reflex mechanism inspired from human brain to handle class overlaps. It has been observed that most of the image segmentation

Abhijeet V. Nandedkar

2010-01-01

49

Remote sensing image classification by mean shift and colour quantization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing imagery involves large amounts of data acquired by several kinds of airborne, sensors, wavelengths spatial resolutions, and temporal frequencies. To extract the thematic information from this data, many algorithms and techniques for segmentation and classification have been proposed. The representation of the different multispectral bands as true or false color imaging has been widely employed for visual interpretation and classification. On the other hand, the color quantization, which is a well-known method for data compression, has been utilized for color image segmentation and classification in computer vision application. The number of colors in the original image is reduced by minimizing the distortion between the quantified and the original image with the aim of conserving the pattern representation. Considering the density estimation in the color or feature space, similar samples are grouped together to identify patterns by any clustering techniques. Mean shift algorithm has been successfully applied to different applications as the basis for nonparametric unsupervised clustering techniques. Based on an iterative manner, mean shift detects modes in a probability density function. In this article, the contribution consists in providing an unsupervised color quantization method for image classification based on mean shift. To avoid its high computational cost, the integral image is used. The method is evaluated on Landsat satellite imagery as a case study to underline forest mapping. A comparison between the proposed method and the simple mean shift is carried out. The results prove that the proposed method is useful in multispectral remote sensing image classification study.

Taud, Hind; Couturier, Stéphane; Carrillo-Rivera, José Joel

2012-11-01

50

Two-Dimensional Windowing in the Structural Similarity Index for the Colour Image Quality Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the analysis of the usage of the Structural Similarity (SSIM) index for the quality assessment of the colour images with variable size of the sliding window. The experiments have been performed using the LIVE Image Quality Assessment Database in order to compare the linear correlation of achieved results with the Differential Mean Opinion Score (DMOS) values. The calculations have been done using the value (brightness) channel from the HSV (HSB) colour space as well as commonly used YUV/YIQ luminance channel and the average of the RGB channels. The analysis of the image resolution’s influence on the correlation between the SSIM and DMOS values for varying size of the sliding window is also presented as well as some results obtained using the nonlinear mapping based on the logistic function.

Okarma, Krzysztof

51

Digital image processing versus visual assessment of chewed two-colour wax in mixing ability tests.  

PubMed

Two-colour chewing gum and wax have been widely used as test foods to evaluate the ability to mix and knead a food bolus. The mixing of the colours has been assessed by computer analysis or by visual inspection. Reports contradict each other about whether computer analysis and visual assessment could equally well discriminate between the masticatory performances of groups of participants with different dental status. This study compares the results of computer analysis of digital images of chewed two-colour wax with the results of visual assessment of these images. Sixty healthy subjects participated and chewed on red-blue wax for 5, 10, 15 and 20 chewing strokes. The subjects were divided into three groups of 20, matched for age and gender, according to their dental status: natural dentition, full dentures and maxillary denture plus implant-supported mandibular overdenture. Mixing of the chewed wax was determined by computer analysis of images of the wax and by visual assessment of the images by five examiners. Both the computer method and the observers were able to distinguish the mixing abilities of the dentate subjects from the two denture wearer groups. Computer analysis could also discriminate the mixing abilities of the two denture groups. However, observers were not able to distinguish the mixing abilities of the two denture groups after 5, 10 and 15 chewing strokes. Only after 20 chewing strokes, they could detect a significant difference in mixing ability. PMID:21707695

van der Bilt, A; Speksnijder, C M; de Liz Pocztaruk, R; Abbink, J H

2011-06-27

52

Changes in colour, lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition of pork loin chops as affected by the type of culinary frying fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to determine how deep-fat frying in olive oil (OO), sunflower oil (SO), butter (BT) or pig lard (PLD) affected the colour, lipid oxidation, coloured products from Maillard reaction and fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat of fried pork loin chops. Instrumental colour significantly changed with frying and type of culinary fat. Frying pork loin

M. Rosario Ramírez; Ramón Cava

2005-01-01

53

Supervised colour image segmentation using granular reflex fuzzy min-max neural network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Granular data classification and clustering is an upcoming and important issue in the field of pattern recognition. This paper proposes a Supervised Colour Image Segmentation technique based on Granular Reflex Fuzzy Min-Max Neural Network (GrRFMN). GrRFMN architecture consists of a reflex mechanism inspired from human brain to handle class overlaps. It has been observed that most of the image segmentation techniques are pixel based. It means that segmentation is done on pixel-by-pixel basis. In this paper, a novel granule based approached for colour image segmentation is proposed. In the proposed technique granules of an image are processed. This results into a fast segmentation process. The image segmentation discussed here is a supervised. In training phase, GrRFMN learns different classes in the image using class granules. A trained GrRFMN is then used to segment the image. As GrRMN is trainable on-line in a single pass through data, the proposed method is easily extended for video sequence segmentation. Results on various standard images are presented.

Nandedkar, Abhijeet V.

2010-02-01

54

Performance of colour Doppler imaging discriminating normal tension glaucoma from healthy eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposePrevious studies have shown decreased retrobulbar blood flow in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) compared to healthy controls. This study evaluates the ability of colour Doppler imaging (CDI) to identify patients with NTG.MethodsSixty-two patients with untreated NTG (mean age 57±14 years) and 40 age-matched controls (mean age 58±9 years) were included in a prospective cross-sectional institutional study. Peak systolic velocity (PSV),

N Plange; M Kaup; A Weber; A Harris; K O Arend; A Remky

2009-01-01

55

A Hybrid top-down\\/bottom-up approach for image segmentation incorporating colour and texture with prior shape knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image segmentation is maybe one of the most fundamental topics in image processing. Among numerous methods for segmentation, blind (bottom-up) algorithms, which are based on intrinsic image features, e.g. intensity, colour and texture, have been used extensively. However, there are some situations such as poor image contrast, noise, and also occlusion that result in failure for blind segmentation methods. Therefore,

Mehryar Emambakhsh; Hossein Ebrahimnezhad; Mohammad Hossein Sedaaghi

2010-01-01

56

Real-Time Colour Doppler Imaging for HIFU Therapy Guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is an investigation of interference and blooming artifacts in real-time color Doppler imaging during High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) therapy to improve the field of view (FOV) and distinguish blood vessels from the artifacts. It is hypothesized that the interference and blooming artifacts are caused by incoherent interference between HIFU and imaging signals and inertial cavitation/boiling, respectively. The incoherent interference shifts the tissue velocity estimates toward the Nyquist limits in standard autocorrelation-based estimation. The interference artifact is removed by applying a threshold according to the acceleration in tissue velocity estimation. The effects of inertial cavitation and/or boiling (i.e., broadband spectrum and high amplitude) in the blooming artifact are analyzed by measuring the standard deviation of phase differences, the average difference between adjacent eigenvalues and the average power. From in vivo rabbit experiments, due to its broadband spectrum, while the standard deviation of phase differences in the blooming artifact (0.0959 +/- 0.0368 PRF) is significantly increased compared to the normal blood vessels (0.0078 +/- 0.0013 PRF), the average difference between adjacent eigenvalues in the blooming artifact (-35.0 +/- 8.6 dB) is moderately changed compared to those in the normal blood vessels (i.e., -58.6 +/- 4.6 dB). The average power in the blooming artifact (i.e., 48.0 +/- 12.7) is also increased compared to the normal blood vessels (i.e., 6.2 +/- 1.2). This broadband and high amplitude signature could be utilized to remove this blooming artifact by thresholding after further investigation to distinguish the target blood vessel from the artifact.

Yoo, Yang Mo; Zderic, Vesna; Managuli, Ravi; Vaezy, Shahram; Kim, Yongmin

2005-03-01

57

The colour preference control based on two-colour combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a framework of colour preference control to satisfy the consumer's colour related emotion. A colour harmony algorithm based on two-colour combinations is developed for displaying the images with several complementary colour pairs as the relationship of two-colour combination. The colours of pixels belonging to complementary colour areas in HSV colour space are shifted toward the target hue colours and there is no colour change for the other pixels. According to the developed technique, dynamic emotions by the proposed hue conversion can be improved and the controlled output image shows improved colour emotions in the preference of the human viewer. The psychophysical experiments are conducted to investigate the optimal model parameters to produce the most pleasant image to the users in the respect of colour emotions.

Hong, Ji Young; Kwak, Youngshin; Park, Du-Sik; Kim, Chang Yeong

2008-03-01

58

Colour models for characterising CRT colour monitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate reproduction of colour images is needed to transform between the device dependent and device independent coordinates, thereby the appearance of all colours can be colorimetrically specified. In general, colour device characterisation can be defined as the provision of data to enable development of a mathematical transformation which determines the conversion between device specific data and colorimetric data based

Byoung-Ho Kang; Hong-Gee Kim; Maeng-Sub Cho; M. R. Luo

1999-01-01

59

Independent sources of condition dependency and multiple pathways determine a composite trait: lessons from carotenoid-based plumage colouration.  

PubMed

Many colour ornaments are composite traits consisting of at least four components, which themselves may be more complex, determined by independent evolutionary pathways, and potentially being under different environmental control. To date, little evidence exists that several different components of colour elaboration are condition dependent and no direct evidence exists that different ornamental components are affected by different sources of variation. For example, in carotenoid-based plumage colouration, one of the best-known condition-dependent ornaments, colour elaboration stems from both condition-dependent pigment concentration and structural components. Some environmental flexibility of these components has been suggested, but specifically which and how they are affected remains unknown. Here, we tested whether multiple colour components may be condition dependent, by using a comprehensive 3 × 2 experimental design, in which we carotenoid supplemented and immune challenged great tit nestlings (Parus major) and quantified effects on different components of colouration. Plumage colouration was affected by an interaction between carotenoid availability and immune challenge. Path analyses showed that carotenoid supplementation increased plumage saturation via feather carotenoid concentration and via mechanisms unrelated to carotenoid deposition, while immune challenge affected feather length, but not carotenoid concentration. Thus, independent condition-dependent pathways, affected by different sources of variation, determine colour elaboration. This provides opportunities for the evolution of multiple signals within components of ornamental traits. This finding indicates that the selective forces shaping the evolution of different components of a composite trait and the trait's signal content may be more complex than believed so far, and that holistic approaches are required for drawing comprehensive evolutionary conclusions. PMID:23331336

Romero-Diaz, C; Richner, H; Granado-Lorencio, F; Tschirren, B; Fitze, P S

2013-01-17

60

UV durable colour pigment doped SmA liquid crystal composites for outdoor trans-reflective bi-stable displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High brightness trans-reflective bi-stable displays based on smectic A (SmA) liquid crystals (LCs) can have nearly perfect transparency in the clear state and very high reflection in the scattered state. Because the LC material in use is stable under UV radiation, this kind of displays can stand for strong day-light and therefore be ideal for outdoor applications from e-books to public signage and advertisement. However, the colour application has been limited because the traditional colourants in use are conventional dyes which are lack of UV stability and that their colours are easily photo bleached. Here we present a colour SmA display demonstrator using pigments as colourant. Mixing pigments with SmA LCs and maintain the desirable optical switching performance is not straightforward. We show here how it can be done, including how to obtain fine sized pigment nano-particles, the effects of particle size and size distribution on the display performance. Our optimized pigments/SmA compositions can be driven by a low frequency waveform (~101Hz) to a scattered state to exhibit colour while by a high frequency waveform (~103Hz) to a cleared state showing no colour. Finally, we will present its excellent UV life-time (at least <7.2 years) in comparison with that of dye composition (~2.4 years). The complex interaction of pigment nano-particles with LC molecules and the resulting effects on the LC electro-optical performances are still to be fully understood. We hope this work will not only demonstrate a new and practical approach for outdoor reflective colour displays but also provide a new material system for fundamental liquid crystal colloid research work.

Xu, H.; Davey, A. B.; Crossland, W. A.; Chu, D. P.

2012-10-01

61

Correction of motion artefacts and pseudo colour visualization of multispectral light scattering images for optical diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

State-of-the-art image processing methods offer new possibilities for diagnosing diseases using scattered light. The optical diagnosis of rheumatism is taken as an example to show that the diagnostic sensitivity can be improved using overlapped pseudo-coloured images of different wavelengths, provided that multispectral images are recorded to compensate for any motion related artefacts which occur during examination.

Minet, Olaf; Scheibe, Patrick; Beuthan, Jürgen; Zabarylo, Urszula

2009-10-01

62

Ontology-based lymphocyte population description using mathematical morphology on colour blood images.  

PubMed

Despite modern technologies (immunophenotyping, molecular probing, etc.) cytomorphologic examination of stained peripheral blood smears by microscopy remains the main way of diagnosis in a large variety of diseases (e.g. leukaemic disorders). Using tools from mathematical morphology for processing peripheral blood colour images, we have developed an image-based approach, to provide an objective and understandable description of lymphocyte populations according to a specifically designed ontology. This ontology-based framework needs a conceptualisation of the problem from a morphological viewpoint, the introduction of an adapted language, the generation of representative image databases, the development of image processing and data classification algorithms to automate the procedure and the validation of the system by human expertise. In this paper we present the main concepts, algorithms and some results to illustrate the high-performance of the approach. The aim of our work is to reconcile the automatisation with the medical expertise, so that they can reinforce each other. PMID:17543204

Angulo, J; Klossa, J; Flandrin, G

2007-01-20

63

Vision model based perceptual post filtering of JPEG2000 coded colour images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a perceptual post filtering coder for digital colour images in YCrCb colour space. The approach builds on our earlier perceptual coder (PC) and exploits intra-band and inter-orientation masking properties of Human Visual System (HVS) to identify, estimate and recover the amount of perceived visual information loss due to compression. The proposed technique applies to our earlier perceptual coder (PC) which retains most of the embedded Block Coding with Optimized Truncation (EBCOT) features and is bit-stream compliant to the JPEG2000 standard. We use PC coder to compress images with some information loss and hence loss of quality. The images are then reconstructed from the compressed bit-stream with our proposed post filtering coding technique that attempts to recover the perceived loss of visual information with a HVS model. The simulation results have shown that our proposed perceptual post filtering coder achieves comparable or superior visual performance over that of our PC, and that of JPEG2000 verification model 8.0 coder with both MSE and visual masking.

Tan, Chin Soon; Wu, Hong Ren

2005-07-01

64

Field programmable gate array based hardware implementation of a gradient filter for edge detection in colour images with subpixel precision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the field of industrial image processing the use of colour cameras becomes ever more common. Increasingly the established black and white cameras are replaced by economical single-chip colour cameras with Bayer pattern. The use of the additional colour information is particularly important for recognition or inspection. Become interesting however also for the geometric metrology, if measuring tasks can be solved more robust or more exactly. However only few suitable algorithms are available, in order to detect edges with the necessary precision. All attempts require however additional computation expenditure. On the basis of a new filter for edge detection in colour images with subpixel precision, the implementation on a pre-processing hardware platform is presented. Hardware implemented filters offer the advantage that they can be used easily with existing measuring software, since after the filtering a single channel image is present, which unites the information of all colour channels. Advanced field programmable gate arrays represent an ideal platform for the parallel processing of multiple channels. The effective implementation presupposes however a high programming expenditure. On the example of the colour filter implementation, arising problems are analyzed and the chosen solution method is presented.

Schellhorn, M.; Rosenberger, M.; Correns, M.; Blau, M.; Göpfert, A.; Rückwardt, M.; Linss, G.

2010-07-01

65

Identification of important image features for pork and turkey ham classification using colour and wavelet texture features and genetic selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to discriminate between various grades of pork and turkey ham was developed using colour and wavelet texture features. Image analysis methods originally developed for predicting the palatability of beef were applied to rapidly identify the ham grade. With high quality digital images of 50–94 slices per ham it was possible to identify the greyscale that best expressed the

Patrick Jackman; Da-Wen Sun; Paul Allen; Nektarios A. Valous; Fernando Mendoza; Paddy Ward

2010-01-01

66

Effect of tree types of light-curing units on 5-year colour changes of light-cured composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine colour changes in a composite cured with tungsten-halogen, light-emitting diode (LED) or a plasma arc after 5 years. Five specimens 10 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height were prepared\\u000a using Hybrid (Clearfil AP-X) composite for each test group. The corresponding specimens were cured with a tungsten-halogen\\u000a curing light, a LED unit or with

Onjen Tak; Subutay Han Altintas; Nilgun Ozturk; Aslihan Usumez

2009-01-01

67

Multivariate mathematical morphology and Bayesian classifier application to colour and medical images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multivariate images are now commonly produced in many applications. If their process is possible due to computers power and new programming languages, theoretical difficulties have still to be solved. Standard image analysis operators are defined for scalars rather than for vectors and their extension is not immediate. Several solutions exist but their pertinence is hardly linked to context. In the present paper we are going to get interested in segmentation of vector images also including a priori knowledge. The proposed strategy combines a decision procedure (where points are classified) and an automatic segmentation scheme (where regions are properly extracted). The classification is made using a Bayesian classifier. The segmentation is computed via a region growing method: the morphological Watershed transform. A direct computation of the Watershed transform on vector images is not possible since vector sets are not ordered. So, the Bayesian classifier is used for computing a scalar distance map where regions are enhanced or attenuated depending on their similitude to a reference shape: the current distance is the Mahalanobis distance. This combination allows to transfer the decision function from pixels to regions and to preserve the advantages of the original Watershed transform defined for scalar functions. The algorithm is applied for segmenting colour images (with a priori) and medical images, especially dermatology images where skin lesions have to be detected.

Garcia, Arnaud; Vachier, Corinne; Vallée, Jean-Paul

2008-03-01

68

Colour of fat, and colour, fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of muscle from heifers offered alternative forages to grass silage in a finishing ration.  

PubMed

The effect of type of silage offered to beef heifers during the finishing period on aspects of beef quality was determined. In two experiments, a diet based on grass silage (GS) was compared with a diet based on maize silage (MS) or whole-crop wheat silage (WCW). Compared to the GS-based diet, increasing the amount of MS linearly increased fat whiteness while the increase in fat whiteness due to WCW was dependent on the stage of crop maturity at harvesting. There was no effect of diet on muscle colour or on muscle pH measured at 48h post-mortem, drip loss, taste panel traits after 14days ageing or shear force values at 2, 7 or 14days ageing. The alternative silages decreased the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion and increased the linoleic:linolenic acid ratio in intramuscular lipid. It is concluded that type of silage affects fat colour and fatty acid composition of muscle but not the other muscle characteristics examined. PMID:23806853

Moloney, A P; Mooney, M T; Kerry, J P; Stanton, C; O'Kiely, P

2013-05-23

69

What makes good image composition?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some people are born with an intuitive sense of good composition. They do not need to be taught composition, and their work is immediately perceived as being well by other people. In an attempt to help others learn composition, art critics, scientists and psychologists analyzed well-compose works in the hope of recognizing patterns and trends that anyone could employ to achieve similar results. Unfortunately, the identified patterns are by no means universal. Moreover, since a compositional rule is useful only as long as it enhances the idea that the artist is trying to express, there is no objective standard to judge whether a given composition is "good" or "bad". As a result, the study of composition seems to be full of contradictions. Nevertheless, there are several basic "low level" rules supported by physiological studies in visual perception that artists and photographers intuitively obey. Regardless of image content, a prerequisite for all good images is that their respective composition would be balanced. In a balanced composition, factors such as shape, direction, location and color are determined in a way that is pleasant to the eye. An unbalanced composition looks accidental, transitory and its elements show a tendency to change place or shape in order to reach a state that better reflects the total structure. Under these conditions, the artistic statement becomes incomprehensive and confusing.

Banner, Ron

2011-02-01

70

Colour and pigment composition of red wines obtained from co-maceration of Tempranillo and Graciano varieties.  

PubMed

The Vitis vinifera L. cv Graciano is often used as an integral component of Rioja wines because it is considered to contribute significantly to the quality of Tempranillo based wines. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of the incorporation of the Graciano variety on the colour and pigment composition of Tempranillo based wine and to evaluate the possible differences between blending Tempranillo with Graciano varietal wine (W wine) in contrast to a wine obtained by mixing these two grape varieties in the prefermentative maceration step (M wine). Results indicated that pigment extraction and retention in M wine was higher than in Tempranillo (T) wine. Colour differences (DeltaE(ab)(*)) between wines at the end of the study (after 12 months in bottles) were detectable by the human eye (DeltaE(ab)(*) > or = 3) in all cases except for T and W. These wines have indistinguishable colours even when using analytical methods (DeltaE(ab)(*) < or = 1). Regarding hue h(ab), T and W presented higher values (more orange-red) than Graciano (G) and M (more blue-red). PCA allowed the colour and composition analytical data to be reduced to a small number of principal components that could separate successfully between T and G wines and between the different steps of the winemaking process. PMID:20103154

García-Marino, Matilde; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

2009-10-29

71

Colour naming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study exploring colour ranges corresponding to different colour names has been conducted. Available colour terms in Turkish language have been identified and the most frequently known or used colour terms have been attained. Using the Munsell Color System, colour ranges reflecting the colour naming and colour perception of Turkish people, have been constructed for each colour term. The discussion of the findings and observations during the research are also included.

?ahin Ekici, Ebru; Yener, Cengiz; Camgöz, Nilgün

2006-06-01

72

Screening for early familial ovarian cancer with transvaginal ultrasonography and colour blood flow imaging.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To assess the value of transvaginal ultrasonography with colour blood flow imaging in detecting early ovarian cancer in women with a family history of the disease. DESIGN--Study of self referred symptomless women with a close relative who had developed the disease. Each woman was screened to detect persistent lesions and defined changes in ovarian volume. Morphological score and pulsatility index were recorded. SETTING--Ovarian screening clinic. SUBJECTS--1601 self referred women. INTERVENTIONS--Women with a positive screening result were recommended to have further investigations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Findings at surgery and histology of abnormal ovaries. Morphological score > or = 5 and pulsatility index < 1.0 at last scan. RESULTS--Women were aged 17 to 79 (mean 47) years; 959 (60%) were premenopausal, 469 (29%) were naturally postmenopausal, and 173 (11%) had had a hysterectomy. 157 women had a pedigree suggestive of the site specific ovarian cancer syndrome and 288 of multiple site cancers. 61 women had a positive screening result (3.8%, 95% confidence interval 2.9 to 4.9%), six of whom had primary ovarian cancer detected at surgery (five stage Ia, one stage III). Use of a high morphological score or a low pulsatility index increased the odds of finding ovarian cancer from 1:9 to about 2:5 (1:1 in the highest risk groups). Five interval cancers were reported (three ovarian and two peritoneal). Eight of the 11 cancers developed in women with pedigrees suggestive of inherited cancer. CONCLUSIONS--Transvaginal ultrasonography with colour flow imaging can effectively detect early ovarian cancer in women with a family history of the disease. The screening interval should be less than two years.

Bourne, T H; Campbell, S; Reynolds, K M; Whitehead, M I; Hampson, J; Royston, P; Crayford, T J; Collins, W P

1993-01-01

73

1J-3 High Frequency Colour Flow Imaging of Mouse Tumours using Inter-Frame Clutter Filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously reported the use of inter-frame clutter filtering as a technique for increasing the frame rate of high frequency (HF) ultrasound (> 20 MHz) power Doppler (PD) imaging while maintaining sensitivity to slow flow (Needles et al., 2004). In the current study we have simulated and experimentally evaluated in vitro the performance of inter-frame filtering for colour flow (CF)

A. Needles; A. M. Cheung; F. S. Foster; D. E. Goertz

2006-01-01

74

FUNGAL DAMAGE DETECTION IN WHEAT USING SHORT-WAVE NEAR-INFRARED HYPERSPECTRAL AND DIGITAL COLOUR IMAGING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healthy and fungal-damaged wheat kernels infected by the species of storage fungi namely Penicillium spp., Aspergillus glaucus, and A. niger were scanned using short-wave near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system in the 700–1100 nm wavelength range and an area scan colour camera. Multivariate image (MVI) analysis was used to reduce the dimensionality of the hyperspectral data and to select the significant wavelength

C. B. Singh; D. S. Jayas; J. Paliwal; N. D. G. White

2010-01-01

75

Fungal Damage Detection in Wheat Using Short-Wave Near-Infrared Hyperspectral and Digital Colour Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healthy and fungal-damaged wheat kernels infected by the species of storage fungi, namely Penicillium spp., Aspergillus glaucus, and A. niger, were scanned using a short-wave near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system in the 700–1100 nm wavelength range and an area scan colour camera. A multivariate image analysis was used to reduce the dimensionality of the hyperspectral data and to select the significant

C. B. Singh; D. S. Jayas; J. Paliwal; N. D. G. White

2012-01-01

76

Identification of important image features for pork and turkey ham classification using colour and wavelet texture features and genetic selection.  

PubMed

A method to discriminate between various grades of pork and turkey ham was developed using colour and wavelet texture features. Image analysis methods originally developed for predicting the palatability of beef were applied to rapidly identify the ham grade. With high quality digital images of 50-94 slices per ham it was possible to identify the greyscale that best expressed the differences between the various ham grades. The best 10 discriminating image features were then found with a genetic algorithm. Using the best 10 image features, simple linear discriminant analysis models produced 100% correct classifications for both pork and turkey on both calibration and validation sets. PMID:20374847

Jackman, Patrick; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul; Valous, Nektarios A; Mendoza, Fernando; Ward, Paddy

2009-11-16

77

Image Retrieval with Sketches and Compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an image search technique that is based on characterizing the strongest edges of an image. It allows queries in the form of rough line-sketches that outline the basic form and composition of an image. This permits the user to quickly and easily transform a mental picture of an image into a query. Characterizing images with signatures that represents

Raj Kumar Rajendran; Shih-fu Chang

2000-01-01

78

Composite ultrasound imaging apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An imaging apparatus and method for use in presenting composite two dimensional and three dimensional images from individual ultrasonic frames. A cross-sectional reconstruction is applied by using digital ultrasound frames, transducer orientation and a known center. Motion compensation, rank value filtering, noise suppression and tissue classification are utilized to optimize the composite image. 37 figs.

Morimoto, A.K.; Bow, W.J. Jr.; Strong, D.S.; Dickey, F.M.

1998-09-15

79

Composite ultrasound imaging apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An imaging apparatus and method for use in presenting composite two dimensional and three dimensional images from individual ultrasonic frames. A cross-sectional reconstruction is applied by using digital ultrasound frames, transducer orientation and a known center. Motion compensation, rank value filtering, noise suppression and tissue classification are utilized to optimize the composite image.

Morimoto, Alan K. (Albuquerque, NM); Bow, Jr., Wallace J. (Albuquerque, NM); Strong, David Scott (Albuquerque, NM); Dickey, Fred M. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

80

Atmospheric correction for ocean colour images using a classification and a neuro-variational algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiometers on board satellite measure the solar radiation reflected by both ocean and atmosphere at several wavelengths. One difficulty is that the signal is strongly polluted by the contribution of the atmosphere. An important step in the processing of ocean colour images is the so-called "atmospheric correction" that consists in removing the contribution of the atmospheric signal to solely retrieve the ocean contribution. Due to the presence of aerosols in the atmosphere, this contribution cannot be predicted a priori. Thus, standard algorithms use a part of the signal, generally the near-infrared bands, to deduce the contribution of aerosols to the signal. It is necessary to make some assumptions on the contribution of the ocean for these bands. Most of the time this contribution is determined a priori. In some situations, this approach is not relevant. Two main problems can occur: (1) The ocean contribution can not be determined a priori in the near-infrared bands; it is the case of most of the coastal waters where the content of the water is complex and not be predicted. (2) The near-infrared part of the signal is not enough to entirely deduce the aerosol contribution; it is the case of absorbing aerosol. To solve this problem, a methodology was proposed: NeuroVaria. It was based on the spectral matching principle: instead of making strong hypothesis on the oceanic contribution, a multispectral optimization is made on both oceanic and atmospheric signal. NeuroVaria alone was already validated in several cases. To improve the accuracy of the results and to process more situations, NeuroVaria was combined with a classification procedure in order to constrain the inversion. The classification was done with neuronal classifier (SOM map). The method was applied to the daily MODIS images off the Senegal coast. The resulting oceanic products were validated and a data archive of the daily MODIS data of the region is under construction. This database comprises the Chla-a concentration, the water leaving reflectance spectrum, the aerosol parameters.

Brajard, Julien; Diouf, Daouda; Crépon, Michel; Thiria, Sylvie

2013-04-01

81

Enhancement of the resolution of full-field optical coherence tomography by using a colour image sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of white balance in a colour image detector on the resolution of a full-field optical coherence tomograph (FFOCT) is studied. The change in the interference pulse width depending on the white balance tuning is estimated in the cases of a thermal radiation source (incandescent lamp) and a white light emitting diode. It is shown that by tuning white balance of the detector in a certain range, the FFOCT resolution can be increased by 20 % as compared to the resolution, attained with the use of a monochrome detector.

Kalyanov, A. L.; Lychagov, V. V.; Smirnov, I. V.; Ryabukho, V. P.

2013-08-01

82

An Ecological Alternative to Snodgrass & Vanderwart: 360 High Quality Colour Images with Norms for Seven Psycholinguistic Variables  

PubMed Central

This work presents a new set of 360 high quality colour images belonging to 23 semantic subcategories. Two hundred and thirty-six Spanish speakers named the items and also provided data from seven relevant psycholinguistic variables: age of acquisition, familiarity, manipulability, name agreement, typicality and visual complexity. Furthermore, we also present lexical frequency data derived from Internet search hits. Apart from the high number of variables evaluated, knowing that it affects the processing of stimuli, this new set presents important advantages over other similar image corpi: (a) this corpus presents a broad number of subcategories and images; for example, this will permit researchers to select stimuli of appropriate difficulty as required, (e.g., to deal with problems derived from ceiling effects); (b) the fact of using coloured stimuli provides a more realistic, ecologically-valid, representation of real life objects. In sum, this set of stimuli provides a useful tool for research on visual object-and word- processing, both in neurological patients and in healthy controls.

Moreno-Martinez, Francisco Javier; Montoro, Pedro R.

2012-01-01

83

Membrane composition analysis by imaging mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Membranes on solid supports offer an ideal format for imaging. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) can be used to obtain composition information on membrane-associated components. Using the NanoSIMS50, images of composition variations in membrane domains can be obtained with a lateral resolution better than 100 nm. By suitable calibration, these variations in composition can be translated into a quantitative analysis of the membrane composition. Progress towards imaging small phase-separated lipid domains, membrane-associated proteins and natural biological membranes will be described.

Boxer, S G; Kraft, M L; Longo, M; Hutcheon, I D; Weber, P K

2006-03-29

84

Composite Kernels for Hyperspectral Image Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter presents a framework of composite kernel machines for enhanced classification of hyperspectral images. This novel method exploits the properties of Mercer's kernels to construct a family of composite kernels that easily combine spatial and spectral information. This framework of composite kernels demonstrates: 1) enhanced classification accuracy as compared to traditional approaches that take into account the spectral information

Gustavo Camps-Valls; Luis Gomez-Chova; J. Munoz-Mari; J. Vila-Franc'es; J. Calpe-Maravilla

2006-01-01

85

A set of high quality colour images with Spanish norms for seven relevant psycholinguistic variables: the Nombela naming test.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new corpus of 140 high quality colour images belonging to 14 subcategories and covering a range of naming difficulty. One hundred and six Spanish speakers named the items and provided data for several psycholinguistic variables: age of acquisition, familiarity, manipulability, name agreement, typicality and visual complexity. Furthermore, we also present lexical frequency data derived internet search hits. Apart from the large number of variables evaluated, these stimuli present an important advantage with respect to other comparable image corpora in so far as naming performance in healthy individuals is less prone to ceiling effect problems. Reliability and validity indexes showed that our items display similar psycholinguistic characteristics to those of other corpora. In sum, this set of ecologically valid stimuli provides a useful tool for scientists engaged in cognitive and neuroscience-based research. PMID:21298582

Moreno-Martinez, Francisco Javier; Montoro, Pedro R; Laws, Keith R

2011-02-04

86

Generalized satellite image processing: eight years of ocean colour data for any region on earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past decade, the world's oceans have been systematically observed by orbiting spectroradiometers such as MODIS and MERIS. These sensors have generated a huge amount of data with unprecedented temporal and spatial coverage. The data is freely available, but not always accessible for marine researchers with no image processing experience. In order to provide historical and current oceanographic parameters for the jellyfish forecasting in the JELLYFOR project, a tool for the generalized processing and archiving of satellite data was created (GRIMAS). Using this generalized software, the large amount of remote sensing data can be accessed, and parameters such as chlorophyll a concentration (CHL), sea surface temperature (SST) and total suspended matter concentration (TSM) can be extracted and gridded for any region on earth. Time-series and climatologies can be easily extracted from this data archive. The products generated can be based on the standard products, as supplied by space agencies, or can be new or regionally calibrated products. All available MODIS and MERIS L2 images from an eight year period (2003-2010) were processed in order to create a gridded dataset of CHL, SST (MODIS only) and of TSM for the three JELLYFOR regions. For two of the regions, data for an extended region was also processed. Multi-year composites (climatologies) of satellite data and time-series can provide a wealth of information for different projects in any region. Climatologies from the two sensors are in good agreement, while significant differences can occur on a scene per scene basis. Total suspended matter concentrations match favourably with in situ data derived from sensors on autonomous buoys. MODIS sea surface temperature corresponds closely to temperature continuously measured underway on research vessels.

Vanhellemont, Quinten; Ruddick, Kevin

2011-10-01

87

Perception of Age in Adult Caucasian Male Faces: Computer Graphic Manipulation of Shape and Colour Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated visual cues to age by using facial composites which blend shape and colour information from multiple faces. Baseline measurements showed that perceived age of adult male faces is on average an accurate index of their chronological age over the age range 20-60 years. Composite images were made from multiple images of different faces by averaging face shape

D. Michael Burt; David I. Perrett

1995-01-01

88

Physics Based Medical Image Understanding of the Colouration of the Ocular Fundus with Application to Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

By analysing the interaction of light with the structures and pigments of the human ocular fundus a model has been developed capable of predicting the colouration of ocular tissue. Variations in the colour of healthy tissue can be attributed to changes in the amount of ocular pigmentation and thus the model is used to generate a range of colouration. Representation

Stephen J Preece; Ela Claridge

89

Advanced thermal imaging of composites  

SciTech Connect

Composite materials were studied by Scanning Thermal Conductivity Microscope (STCM) and high speed thermography. The STCM is a qualitative technique which is used to study thermal conductivity variations on a sub-micrometer scale. High speed thermography is a quantitative technique for measuring thermal diffusivity with a variable spatial resolution from centimeters down to less than 25 gm. A relative thermal conductivity contrast map was obtained from a SiC/Si3N4 continuous fiber ceramic composite using the STCM. Temperature changes of a carbon/carbon composite after a heat pulse were captured by an IR camera to generate a thermal diffusivity map of the specimen. Line profiles of the temperature distribution showed significant variations as a result of fiber orientation.

Wang, H.; Dinwiddie, R.B.

1996-06-01

90

Colouring fabrics with excimer lasers to simulate encoded images: the case of the Shroud of Turin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The faint body image embedded into the Turin Shroud has not yet explained by traditional science. We present experimental results of excimer laser irradiation (wavelengths 308 nm and 193 nm) of a raw linen fabric and of a linen cloth, seeking for a possible mechanism of image formation. The permanent coloration of both linens is a threshold effect on the

P. di Lazzaro; G. Baldacchini; G. Fanti; D. Murra; A. Santoni

2008-01-01

91

Colouring fabrics with excimer lasers to simulate encoded images: the case of the Shroud of Turin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The faint body image embedded into the Turin Shroud has not yet explained by traditional science. We present experimental results of excimer laser irradiation (wavelengths 308 nm and 193 nm) of a raw linen fabric and of a linen cloth, seeking for a possible mechanism of image formation. The permanent coloration of both linens is a threshold effect on the laser beam intensity and it can be achieved only in a surprisingly narrow range of irradiation parameters: the shorter the wavelength, the narrower the range. We also obtained the first direct evidence of latent images impressed on linen that appear in a relatively long period (one year) after a laser irradiation that at first did not generate a clear image. The results are compared to the characteristics of the Turin Shroud, commenting the possibility that a burst of directional ultraviolet radiation may have played a role in the formation of the Shroud image.

di Lazzaro, P.; Baldacchini, G.; Fanti, G.; Murra, D.; Santoni, A.

2008-10-01

92

Composite delamination detection using infrared images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes our results of detecting composite delamination using infrared camera. Rivets in airframe are usually made of composite materials. It is very difficult to detect rivet delamination as conventional optical methods can not identify the delaminations. Here a neural net-based image- processing tool was developed by Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) to process the infrared images. The tool consists of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and Fuzzy CMAC (Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Computer) neural networks. Results show that our tool can accurately pinpoint those delaminated rivet heads.

Kwan, Chiman; Xu, Roger; Haynes, Leonard S.

2001-10-01

93

Colour and urban landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colour regards urban landscape of important elements, it can reflect a city's history, local features and cultural tradition. This paper discusses to colour aesthetic application in urban landscape design, namely how to play a landscape of natural colour and artificial colour features and create urban landscape beauty of colours. Keywords-colour; urban landscape; urban colour \\

Xueping Wu; Shicheng Xu

2011-01-01

94

The Publishing Professional: Composition's "Tyrannizing Image."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper attempts to explain the relationship between publication and professionalism in the culture of the American research university. To act, order, and believe in relation to the dominant image in contemporary composition studies is to understand published, professional discourse as the sacred well of the culture. The published discourse…

Vandenberg, Peter

95

Colour blindness.  

PubMed

The physiology of colour vision is discussed; as is the way in which the human eye can detect various combinations of red, green and blue. Red-green colour blindness, with X-linked inheritance, is the most common, but other types are also considered. Methods of testing relating to the age of the child are reviewed. The use of colours in teaching is widespread, but there is controversy over the difficulties this may cause a colour blind child. A review of the literature does not reveal much information on this, and any problems that do arise are likely to be individual to the child, and to depend on such factors as overall intelligence, the attitude of the teacher, and the personality of the child. There is not doubt that it is essential to recognise colour vision defects when it comes to choosing a career, and that tests must be done during secondary schooling, but in order to avoid some affected children being disadvantaged there is enough evidence to support testing at school entry. PMID:9581449

Gordon, N

1998-03-01

96

MAJORITY ORDERING FOR COLOUR MATHEMATICAL MORPHOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binary and grayscale mathematical morphology have many applications in different domains. On the other hand, colour morphology is not widespread. The reason is the lack of a suitable colour ordering strategy that makes the extension of grayscale morphology to colour images not straightforward. We will introduce a new majority sorting scheme (MSS) that can be applied to binary, grayscale and

Alessandro Ledda; Wilfried Philips

97

Bright Retinal Lesions Detection using Colour Fundus Images Containing Reflective Features  

SciTech Connect

In the last years the research community has developed many techniques to detect and diagnose diabetic retinopathy with retinal fundus images. This is a necessary step for the implementation of a large scale screening effort in rural areas where ophthalmologists are not available. In the United States of America, the incidence of diabetes is worryingly increasing among the young population. Retina fundus images of patients younger than 20 years old present a high amount of reflection due to the Nerve Fibre Layer (NFL), the younger the patient the more these reflections are visible. To our knowledge we are not aware of algorithms able to explicitly deal with this type of reflection artefact. This paper presents a technique to detect bright lesions also in patients with a high degree of reflective NFL. First, the candidate bright lesions are detected using image equalization and relatively simple histogram analysis. Then, a classifier is trained using texture descriptor (Multi-scale Local Binary Patterns) and other features in order to remove the false positives in the lesion detection. Finally, the area of the lesions is used to diagnose diabetic retinopathy. Our database consists of 33 images from a telemedicine network currently developed. When determining moderate to high diabetic retinopathy using the bright lesions detected the algorithm achieves a sensitivity of 100% at a specificity of 100% using hold-one-out testing.

Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2009-01-01

98

Determination of Number of Clusters in K-Means Clustering and Application in Colour Image Segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main disadvantage of the k-means algorithm is that the number of clusters, K, must be supplied as a parameter. In this paper we present a simple validity measure based on the intra-cluster and inter-cluster distance measures which allows the number of clusters to be determined automatically. The basic procedure involves producing all the segmented images for 2 clusters up

Siddheswar Ray; Rose H. Turi

1999-01-01

99

Segmentation of Colour Layers in Historical Maps Based on Hierarchical Colour Sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A colour image segmentation (CIS) process for scanned historical maps is presented to overcome common problems associated with segmentation of old documents such as (1) variation in colour values of the same colour layer within one map page, (2) differences in typical colour values between homogeneous areas and thin line-work, which belong both to the same colour layer, and (3) extensive parameterization that results in a lack of robustness. The described approach is based on a two-stage colour layer prototype search using a constrained sampling design. Global colour layer prototypes for the identification of homogeneous regions are derived based on colour similarity to the most extreme colour layer values identified in the map page. These global colour layer prototypes are continuously adjusted using relative distances between prototype positions in colour space until a reliable sample is collected. Based on this sample colour layer seeds and directly connected neighbors of the same colour layer are determined resulting in the extraction of homogeneous colour layer regions. In the next step the global colour layer prototypes are recomputed using a new sample of colour values along the margins of identified homogeneous coloured regions. This sampling step derives representative prototypes of map layer sections that deviate significantly from homogeneous regions of the same layers due to bleaching, mixed or false colouring and ageing of the original scanned documents. A spatial expansion process uses these adjusted prototypes as start criterion to assign the remaining colour layer parts. The approach shows high robustness for map documents that suffer from low graphical quality indicating some potential for general applicability due to its simplicity and the limited need for preliminary information. The only input required is the colours and number of colour layers present in the map.

Leyk, Stefan

100

Monitoring of Interstitial Laser Thermotherapy with Heat-sensitive Colour Subtraction Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Calibration with Absolute Tissue Temperature and Correlation with Predicted Lesion Size  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Magnetic resonance imaging (MR) is the most sensitive modality for monitoring interstitial thermotherapy (ILT). A real-time\\u000a pulse sequence that assigns a colour spectrum to grey-scale changes could potentially increase the accuracy of MR-guided thermal\\u000a surgery. This study aimed to calibrate this sequence with tissue temperature and then to determine whether it could be used\\u000a to predict accurately the extent

S. W. T. Gould; N. V. Vaughan; W. Gedroyc; G. Lamb; R. Goldin; A. Darzi

1999-01-01

101

Colour triplet-valued wavelets and splines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of colour and and multispectral image recognition connects all the topics we are considering. Colour (multispectral) image processing is investigated using an algebraic approach based on triplet numbers. In the algebraic approach, each image element is considered not as a 3D vector, but as a triplet number. The main goal of the paper is to show that triplet

Valeri Labunets; Alexei Maidan; Ekaterina Labunets-Rundblad; Jaakko Astola

2001-01-01

102

REFLECTANCE, ILLUMINATION, AND EDGES IN 3-D MONDRIAN COLOUR-CONSTANCY EXPERIMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colour constancy remains an important topic in colour research today, as it has for more than a century. Technological advances in digital capture and image processing have expanded studies of this constancy from individual colour patches to entire complex images. In Land's Colour Mondrian experiment he controlled uniform illumination over an array of more than 100 coloured papers to demonstrate

John McCann; Carinna Parraman; Alessandro Rizzi

103

Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit.  

PubMed

The highest possible resolution for printed colour images is determined by the diffraction limit of visible light. To achieve this limit, individual colour elements (or pixels) with a pitch of 250 nm are required, translating into printed images at a resolution of ?100,000 dots per inch (d.p.i.). However, methods for dispensing multiple colourants or fabricating structural colour through plasmonic structures have insufficient resolution and limited scalability. Here, we present a non-colourant method that achieves bright-field colour prints with resolutions up to the optical diffraction limit. Colour information is encoded in the dimensional parameters of metal nanostructures, so that tuning their plasmon resonance determines the colours of the individual pixels. Our colour-mapping strategy produces images with both sharp colour changes and fine tonal variations, is amenable to large-volume colour printing via nanoimprint lithography, and could be useful in making microimages for security, steganography, nanoscale optical filters and high-density spectrally encoded optical data storage. PMID:22886173

Kumar, Karthik; Duan, Huigao; Hegde, Ravi S; Koh, Samuel C W; Wei, Jennifer N; Yang, Joel K W

2012-08-12

104

Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The highest possible resolution for printed colour images is determined by the diffraction limit of visible light. To achieve this limit, individual colour elements (or pixels) with a pitch of 250 nm are required, translating into printed images at a resolution of ~100,000 dots per inch (d.p.i.). However, methods for dispensing multiple colourants or fabricating structural colour through plasmonic structures have insufficient resolution and limited scalability. Here, we present a non-colourant method that achieves bright-field colour prints with resolutions up to the optical diffraction limit. Colour information is encoded in the dimensional parameters of metal nanostructures, so that tuning their plasmon resonance determines the colours of the individual pixels. Our colour-mapping strategy produces images with both sharp colour changes and fine tonal variations, is amenable to large-volume colour printing via nanoimprint lithography, and could be useful in making microimages for security, steganography, nanoscale optical filters and high-density spectrally encoded optical data storage.

Kumar, Karthik; Duan, Huigao; Hegde, Ravi S.; Koh, Samuel C. W.; Wei, Jennifer N.; Yang, Joel K. W.

2012-09-01

105

Upper extremity composite tissue allotransplantation imaging.  

PubMed

Objective: Upper extremity (UE) transplantation is the most commonly performed composite tissue allotransplantation worldwide. However, there is a lack of imaging standards for pre- and posttransplant evaluation. This study highlights the protocols and findings of UE allotransplantation toward standardization and implementation for clinical trials. Methods: Multimodality imaging protocols for a unilateral hand transplant candidate and a bilateral mid-forearm level UE transplant recipient include radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, catheter angiography, and vascular ultrasonography. Pre- and posttransplant findings, including dynamic CT and MR performed for assessment of motor activity of transplanted hands, are assessed, and image quality of vessels and bones on CT and MR evaluated. Results: Preoperative imaging demonstrates extensive skeletal deformity and variation in vascular anatomy and vessel patency. Posttransplant images confirm bony union in anatomical alignment and patency of vascular anastomoses. Mild differences in rate of vascular enhancement and extent of vascular networks are noted between the 2 transplanted limbs. Dynamic CT and MR demonstrate a 15° to 30° range of motion at metacarpophalangeal joints and 90° to 110° at proximal interphalangeal joints of both transplanted hands at 8 months posttransplant. Image quality was slightly better for CT than for MR in the first subject, while MR was slightly better in the second subject. Conclusion: Advanced vascular and musculoskeletal imaging play an important role in surgical planning and can provide novel posttransplantation data to monitor the success of the procedure. Implementation of more standardized protocols should enable a more comprehensive assessment to evaluate the efficacy in clinical trials. PMID:23943677

George, Elizabeth; Mitsouras, Dimitrios; Kumamaru, Kanako K; Shah, Nehal; Smith, Stacy E; Schultz, Kurt; Deaver, Pamela M; Mullen, Katherine M; Steigner, Michael L; Gravereaux, Edwin C; Demehri, Shadpour; Bueno, Ericka M; Talbot, Simon G; Pomahac, Bohdan; Rybicki, Frank J

2013-07-16

106

Influence of cadmium accumulation and dietary status on fatty acid composition in two colour forms of shore crabs, Carcinus maenas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cadmium exposure and dietary status on cadmium accumulation, fatty acid (FA) content and profiles were investigated\\u000a in two colour forms of the shore crab Carcinus maenas. Groups of shore crabs were either starved or fed with blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, during a 40?d exposure period to 2 or 6??M Cd2+ (as CdCl2). Starved green individuals accumulated more

B. Styrishave; M. Faldborg Petersen; O. Andersen

2000-01-01

107

The Challenge of Colour: Eighteenth-Century Botanists and the Hand-Colouring of Illustrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colourful plant images are often taken as the icon of natural history illustration. However, so far, little attention has been paid to the question of how this beautiful colouring was achieved. At a case study of the eighteenth-century Nuremberg doctor and botanist, Christoph Jacob Trew, the process of how illustrations were hand-coloured, who was involved in this work, and how

Kärin Nickelsen

2006-01-01

108

What Colour Is a Shadow?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What colour is a shadow? Black, grey, or some other colour? This article describes how to use a digital camera to test the hypothesis that a shadow under a clear blue sky has a blue tint. A white sheet of A4 paper was photographed in full sunlight and in shadow under a clear blue sky. The images were analysed using a shareware program called…

Hughes, S. W.

2009-01-01

109

The colour wheels of art, perception, science and physiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colour is not the domain of any one discipline be it art, philosophy, psychology or science. Each discipline has its own colour wheel and this presentation examines the origins and philosophies behind the colour circles of Art, Perception, Science and Physiology (after image) with reference to Aristotle, Robert Boyle, Leonardo da Vinci, Goethe, Ewald Hering and Albert Munsell. The paper analyses and discusses the differences between the four colour wheels using the Natural Colour System® notation as the reference for hue (the position of colours within each of the colour wheels). Examination of the colour wheels shows the dominance of blue in the wheels of art, science and physiology particularly at the expense of green. This paper does not consider the three-dimensionality of colour space its goal was to review the hue of a colour with regard to its position on the respective colour wheels.

Harkness, Nick

2006-06-01

110

A Combined Physical and Statistical Approach to Colour Constancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational colour constancy tries to recover the colour of the scene illuminant of an image. Colour constancy algorithms can, in general, be divided into two groups: statistics-based approaches that exploit statistical knowledge of common lights and surfaces, and physics-based algorithms which are based on an understanding of how physical processes such as highlights manifest themselves in images. A combined physical

Gerald Schaefer; Steven D. Hordley; Graham D. Finlayson

2005-01-01

111

Colour Clusters for Computer Diagnosis of Melanocytic Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To overcome subjectivity and variability in the interpretation of dermoscopic images, image analysis programs, enabling the numerical description of melanocytic lesion images, have been developed. Objectives: Our aim was to assess a method for the description of colours in melanocytic lesion images, based on the subdivision of image colours into red, green and blue clusters. Methods: Melanomas and naevi

Stefania Seidenari; Costantino Grana; Giovanni Pellacani

2007-01-01

112

Colour Perception in ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children…

Banaschewski, Tobias; Ruppert, Sinje; Tannock, Rosemary; Albrecht, Bjorn; Becker, Andreas; Uebel, Henrik; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Rothenberger, Aribert

2006-01-01

113

The coloured quantum plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the quantum plane associated to the coloured quantum group GLq?,?(2) and solve the problem of constructing the corresponding differential geometric structure. This is achieved within the /R-matrix framework generalising the Wess-Zumino formalism and leads to the concept of coloured quantum space. Both the coloured Manin plane as well as the bicovariant differential calculus exhibit the colour exchange symmetry. The coloured /h-plane corresponding to the coloured Jordanian quantum group GLh?,?(2) is also obtained by contraction of the coloured /q-plane.

Parashar, Deepak

2003-01-01

114

Single shot white light interference microscopy with colour fringe analysis for quantitative phase imaging of biological cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To quantitatively obtain the phase map of Onion and human red blood cell (RBC) from white light interferogram we used Hilbert transform color fringe analysis technique. The three Red, Blue and Green color components are decomposed from single white light interferogram and Refractive index profile for Red, Blue and Green colour were computed in a completely non-invasive manner for Onion and human RBC. The present technique might be useful for non-invasive determination of the refractive index variation within cells and tissues and morphological features of sample with ease of operation and low cost.

Srivastava, Vishal; Mehta, D. S.

2013-02-01

115

Two international colour meetings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two international Colour meetings held in May 1961 have given an opportunity or scientists working in this field to meet and compare notes. The first was the Maxwell Colour Centenary in London, organized by the Colour Group, with the Institute of Physics and Physical Society, and the Jnter–Society Colour Council (of the U.S.A.), to celebrate the first demonstration of colour

R. W. Brocklebank

1962-01-01

116

SLIC: Scheduled Linear Image Compositing for Parallel Volume Rendering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parallel volume rendering offers a feasible solution to the large data visualization problem by distributing both the data and rendering calculations among multiple computers connected by a network. In sort-last parallel volume rendering, each processor generates an image of its assigned subvolume, which is blended together with other images to derive the final image. Improving the efficiency of this compositing

Aleksander Stompel; Kwan-Liu Ma; Eric B. Lum; James P. Ahrens; John Patchett

2003-01-01

117

Across light: through colour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The speed at which our world is changing is reflected in the shifting way artistic images are created and produced. Holography can be used as a medium to express the perception of space with light and colour and to make the material and the immaterial experiments with optical and digital holography. This paper intends to be a reflection on the final product of that process surrounding a debate of ideas for new experimental methodologies applied to holographic images. Holography is a time-based medium and the irretrievable linear flow of time is responsible for a drama, unique to traditional cinematography. If the viewers move to left or right, they see glimpses of the next scene or the previous one perceived a second ago. This interaction of synthetic space arises questions such as: can we see, in "reality", two forms in the same space? Trying to answer this question, a series of works has been created. These concepts are embryonic to a series of digital art holograms and lenticulars technique's titled "Across Light: Through Colour". They required some technical research and comparison between effects from different camera types, using Canon IS3 and Sony HDR CX105.

Azevedo, Isabel; Richardson, Martin; Bernardo, Luis Miguel

2012-02-01

118

A theory of selection for gamut mapping colour constancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamut mapping colour constancy attempts to determine the set of diagonal matrices taking the gamut of image colours under an unknown illuminant into the gamut of colours observed under a standard illuminant. Forsyth (1990) developed such an algorithm in rgb sensor space which Finlayson (1996) later modified to work in a 2-d chromaticity space. In this paper we prove that

G. Finlayson; S. Hordley

1998-01-01

119

Correlation of consumer assessment of longissimus dorsi beef palatability with image colour, marbling and surface texture features.  

PubMed

A new study was conducted to apply computer vision methods successfully developed using trained sensory panel palatability data to new samples with consumer panel palatability data. The computer vision methodology utilized the traditional approach of using beef muscle colour, marbling and surface texture as palatability indicators. These features were linked to corresponding consumer panel palatability data with the traditional approach of partial least squares regression (PLSR). Best subsets were selected by genetic algorithms. Results indicate that accurate modelling of likeability with regression models was possible (r(2)=0.86). Modelling of other important palatability attributes proved encouraging (tenderness r(2)=0.76, juiciness r(2)=0.69, flavour r(2)=0.78). Therefore, the current study provides a basis for further expanding computer vision methodology to correlate with consumer panel palatability data. PMID:20374825

Jackman, Patrick; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul; Brandon, Karen; White, Anna-Marie

2009-10-20

120

Ultrasonic Scanning System for Imaging Flaw Growth in Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A system for measuring and visually representing damage in composite specimens while they are being loaded was demonstrated. It uses a hobbiest grade microcomputer system to control data taking and image processing. The system scans operator selected regi...

L. J. Kiraly E. H. Meyn

1982-01-01

121

Does Colour Preference Have a Role in Colour Term Acquisition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A developmental association exists between colour preference and emerging colour term acquisition in young children. Colour preference might influence colour term acquisition by directing attention towards or away from a particular colour, making it more or less memorable. To investigate the role that colour preference may have in the acquisition…

Pitchford, Nicola J.; Davis, Emma E.; Scerif, Gaia

2009-01-01

122

StereoPasting: interactive composition in stereoscopic images.  

PubMed

We propose "StereoPasting," an efficient method for depth-consistent stereoscopic composition, in which a source 2D image is interactively blended into a target stereoscopic image. As we paint "disparity" on a 2D image, the disparity map of the selected region is gradually produced by edge-aware diffusion, and then blended with that of the target stereoscopic image. By considering constraints of the expected disparities and perspective scaling, the 2D object is warped to generate an image pair, which is then blended into the target image pair to get the composition result. The warping is formulated as an energy minimization, which could be solved in real time. We also present an interactive composition system, in which users can edit the disparity maps of 2D images by strokes, while viewing the composition results instantly. Experiments show that our method is intuitive and efficient for interactive stereoscopic composition. A lot of applications demonstrate the versatility of our method. PMID:23744267

Tong, Ruo-Feng; Zhang, Yun; Cheng, Ke-Li

2013-08-01

123

Obstacle detection in highway environment by colour CCD camera and image processing prototype installed in a vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a demonstrator which has been developed at THOMSON-CSF\\/LER in cooperation with French car manufacturers (RENAULT and PSA Research Divisions) during the PROMETHEUS Programme. The vehicle is equipped with a video camera and image processing and visualization hardware. This system has been realized to demonstrate the important role that can be played by electronics, image and information

Stkphane Raboisson; Philippe Schmouker

1994-01-01

124

Animation of Archived Composite Infrared Satellite Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this tool, users can build their own animations from infrared satellite imagery superimposed on a world map. Animations are constructed by selecting year, month, date, and time for the archived images. Users can also adjust the animation length, interval between images, and speed of the animation.

125

Automatic photobook: focusing on image selection and image layout based on content and composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present improvements to image selection and image layout for automatic photobook generating algorithms. These improvements are designed to help the user easily create a photo album, which matches the user preferences and strengthens the aesthetic quality of the photobook. Image content, composition, and metadata are utilized to determine the set of images being selected, and to suggest the layout of each page.

Xue, Shao-Fu; Tang, Henry; Tretter, Daniel; Lin, Qian; Allebach, Jan

2013-03-01

126

Assessment of a 1-D, Multi-colour X-ray Imaging System for the MAST ST  

SciTech Connect

A design of the ID soft x-ray imaging system for future experiments at the Mega-Amper Spherical Tokamak (MAST) and results of the numerical simulations based on initial assumptions about the state of the tokamak plasma as well as the parameters and geometry of the detection system are presented. The imaging system consists of a set of arrays of detectors, pinholes and filters attached to each set, together with suitable readout electronics. In simulations, an array of semiconductor detectors is compared with an array of scintillator-photomultiplier combination. The measuring system is assumed to operate in the range 1-10 keV. In addition to the 1-D imaging of x-ray emission, the system gives the possibility to measure the energy slope of x-ray spectrum and thus the electron temperature of plasma.An extended numerical code simulates the imaging system for various parameters of plasma (spatial profiles of the plasma density and temperature) generated at the tokamak and for different configurations of the detection system.

Jablonski, S.; Czarnecka, A.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Ryc, L. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Association EURATOM--IPPLM, Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Rzadkiewicz, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Association EURATOM--IPPLM, Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); A. Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk near Warsaw (Poland)

2008-03-19

127

The North Sea: Satellite colour atlas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite imagery of the North Sea from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) shows complex seasonal changes in the optical and biological properties of surface waters, features which have not been resolved, hitherto, through direct observations from ships. Selected scenes for the period 1979-1986, presented as single band (channel 3), colour composite (channels 1 + 2 + 3) and chlorophyll (channels 1/3 or 2/3) images, are used to demonstrate the relative surface distributions between February and October of suspended sediments, coccolithophores and plant pigments. Comparison are made also with sea surface temperature images from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Quantitative evaluation of the CZCS data is restricted by a lack of contemporary in situ optical and biological measurements. However, chlorophyll and Secchi disc distributions, determined by measurements from research ships have been compared qualitatively with images from the Southern Bight (13 May 1986) and for the east central North Sea (24 August 1984 and 24 October 1985). Mini series of CZCS images are presented to show the annual coccolithophore blooms, the development of the spring bloom in the Skagerrak, June 1983 and summer chlorophyl distributions in the German Bight.

Holligan, P. M.; Aarup, T.; Groom, S. B.

128

Compositional breast imaging using a dual-energy mammography protocol  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Mammography has a low sensitivity in dense breasts due to low contrast between malignant and normal tissue confounded by the predominant water density of the breast. Water is found in both adipose and fibroglandular tissue and constitutes most of the mass of a breast. However, significant protein mass is mainly found in the fibroglandular tissue where most cancers originate. If the protein compartment in a mammogram could be imaged without the influence of water, the sensitivity and specificity of the mammogram may be improved. This article describes a novel approach to dual-energy mammography, full-field digital compositional mammography (FFDCM), which can independently image the three compositional components of breast tissue: water, lipid, and protein. Methods: Dual-energy attenuation and breast shape measures are used together to solve for the three compositional thicknesses. Dual-energy measurements were performed on breast-mimicking phantoms using a full-field digital mammography unit. The phantoms were made of materials shown to have similar x-ray attenuation properties of the compositional compartments. They were made of two main stacks of thicknesses around 2 and 4 cm. Twenty-six thickness and composition combinations were used to derive the compositional calibration using a least-squares fitting approach. Results: Very high accuracy was achieved with a simple cubic fitting function with root mean square errors of 0.023, 0.011, and 0.012 cm for the water, lipid, and protein thicknesses, respectively. The repeatability (percent coefficient of variation) of these measures was tested using sequential images and was found to be 0.5%, 0.5%, and 3.3% for water, lipid, and protein, respectively. However, swapping the location of the two stacks of the phantom on the imaging plate introduced further errors showing the need for more complete system uniformity corrections. Finally, a preliminary breast image is presented of each of the compositional compartments separately. Conclusions: FFDCM has been derived and exhibited good compositional thickness accuracy on phantoms. Preliminary breast images demonstrated the feasibility of creating individual compositional diagnostic images in a clinical environment.

Laidevant, Aurelie D.; Malkov, Serghei; Flowers, Chris I.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John A.

2010-01-01

129

Compositional breast imaging using a dual-energy mammography protocol  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Mammography has a low sensitivity in dense breasts due to low contrast between malignant and normal tissue confounded by the predominant water density of the breast. Water is found in both adipose and fibroglandular tissue and constitutes most of the mass of a breast. However, significant protein mass is mainly found in the fibroglandular tissue where most cancers originate. If the protein compartment in a mammogram could be imaged without the influence of water, the sensitivity and specificity of the mammogram may be improved. This article describes a novel approach to dual-energy mammography, full-field digital compositional mammography (FFDCM), which can independently image the three compositional components of breast tissue: water, lipid, and protein. Methods: Dual-energy attenuation and breast shape measures are used together to solve for the three compositional thicknesses. Dual-energy measurements were performed on breast-mimicking phantoms using a full-field digital mammography unit. The phantoms were made of materials shown to have similar x-ray attenuation properties of the compositional compartments. They were made of two main stacks of thicknesses around 2 and 4 cm. Twenty-six thickness and composition combinations were used to derive the compositional calibration using a least-squares fitting approach. Results: Very high accuracy was achieved with a simple cubic fitting function with root mean square errors of 0.023, 0.011, and 0.012 cm for the water, lipid, and protein thicknesses, respectively. The repeatability (percent coefficient of variation) of these measures was tested using sequential images and was found to be 0.5%, 0.5%, and 3.3% for water, lipid, and protein, respectively. However, swapping the location of the two stacks of the phantom on the imaging plate introduced further errors showing the need for more complete system uniformity corrections. Finally, a preliminary breast image is presented of each of the compositional compartments separately. Conclusions: FFDCM has been derived and exhibited good compositional thickness accuracy on phantoms. Preliminary breast images demonstrated the feasibility of creating individual compositional diagnostic images in a clinical environment.

Laidevant, Aurelie D.; Malkov, Serghei; Flowers, Chris I.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John A. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Department of Medicine and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

2010-01-15

130

Magnetic resonance imaging of gel-cast ceramic composites  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are being employed to aid in the development of advanced near-net-shape gel-cast ceramic composites. MRI is a unique nondestructive evaluation tool that provides information on both the chemical and physical properties of materials. In this effort, MRI imaging was performed to monitor the drying of porous green-state alumina - methacrylamide-N.N`-methylene bisacrylamide (MAM-MBAM) polymerized composite specimens. Studies were performed on several specimens as a function of humidity and time. The mass and shrinkage of the specimens were also monitored and correlated with the water content.

Dieckman, S.L.; Balss, K.M.; Waterfield, L.G. [and others

1997-04-01

131

Colour Photography by Speckle Interferometry in White Light  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for recording, on black and white photographic emulsion, the image of coloured objects is described. For this purpose, we have used an interferential device by division of wavefront. The reconstruction of this image with the colours of the object is explained.

J. Montilla; R. Hernandez

1982-01-01

132

Chemical imaging of wood-polypropylene composites.  

PubMed

Recent investigations of wood plastic composites have revealed a detrimental effect of using lubricant systems in production. This includes nullifying part or all of the mechanical benefit of using a polar compatibilizer, maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP), in the composite formulation. This investigation utilizes lubricants labeled with deuterium in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to allow for the separation of individual lubricants from all other material constituents. All of the deuterium labeled lubricants, used without MAPP, revealed their expulsion from the wood interface during crystallization. MAPP coupling agent was found to exist near the wood, but it is unclear if any covalent bonding with the hydroxyl functionality on the wood surface occurred. The addition of zinc stearate lubricants appears to nullify the activity of the anhydride functionality near the wood surface as evidenced by a shift in the FT-IR spectra to the hydrolyzed form of the coupling agent. Most of the additives collect at the edges of the spherulites in mostly amorphous regions of the material. The consequence of this morphology may be a weak interface between crystallites. PMID:16925926

Harper, David P; Wolcott, Michael P

2006-08-01

133

Modified Global and Modified Linear Contrast Stretching Algorithms: New Colour Contrast Enhancement Techniques for Microscopic Analysis of Malaria Slide Images  

PubMed Central

Malaria is one of the serious global health problem, causing widespread sufferings and deaths in various parts of the world. With the large number of cases diagnosed over the year, early detection and accurate diagnosis which facilitates prompt treatment is an essential requirement to control malaria. For centuries now, manual microscopic examination of blood slide remains the gold standard for malaria diagnosis. However, low contrast of the malaria and variable smears quality are some factors that may influence the accuracy of interpretation by microbiologists. In order to reduce this problem, this paper aims to investigate the performance of the proposed contrast enhancement techniques namely, modified global and modified linear contrast stretching as well as the conventional global and linear contrast stretching that have been applied on malaria images of P. vivax species. The results show that the proposed modified global and modified linear contrast stretching techniques have successfully increased the contrast of the parasites and the infected red blood cells compared to the conventional global and linear contrast stretching. Hence, the resultant images would become useful to microbiologists for identification of various stages and species of malaria.

Abdul-Nasir, Aimi Salihah; Mashor, Mohd Yusoff; Mohamed, Zeehaida

2012-01-01

134

Field-portable pixel super-resolution colour microscope.  

PubMed

Based on partially-coherent digital in-line holography, we report a field-portable microscope that can render lensfree colour images over a wide field-of-view of e.g., >20 mm(2). This computational holographic microscope weighs less than 145 grams with dimensions smaller than 17×6×5 cm, making it especially suitable for field settings and point-of-care use. In this lensfree imaging design, we merged a colorization algorithm with a source shifting based multi-height pixel super-resolution technique to mitigate 'rainbow' like colour artefacts that are typical in holographic imaging. This image processing scheme is based on transforming the colour components of an RGB image into YUV colour space, which separates colour information from brightness component of an image. The resolution of our super-resolution colour microscope was characterized using a USAF test chart to confirm sub-micron spatial resolution, even for reconstructions that employ multi-height phase recovery to handle dense and connected objects. To further demonstrate the performance of this colour microscope Papanicolaou (Pap) smears were also successfully imaged. This field-portable and wide-field computational colour microscope could be useful for tele-medicine applications in resource poor settings. PMID:24086742

Greenbaum, Alon; Akbari, Najva; Feizi, Alborz; Luo, Wei; Ozcan, Aydogan

2013-09-27

135

Field-Portable Pixel Super-Resolution Colour Microscope  

PubMed Central

Based on partially-coherent digital in-line holography, we report a field-portable microscope that can render lensfree colour images over a wide field-of-view of e.g., >20 mm2. This computational holographic microscope weighs less than 145 grams with dimensions smaller than 17×6×5 cm, making it especially suitable for field settings and point-of-care use. In this lensfree imaging design, we merged a colorization algorithm with a source shifting based multi-height pixel super-resolution technique to mitigate ‘rainbow’ like colour artefacts that are typical in holographic imaging. This image processing scheme is based on transforming the colour components of an RGB image into YUV colour space, which separates colour information from brightness component of an image. The resolution of our super-resolution colour microscope was characterized using a USAF test chart to confirm sub-micron spatial resolution, even for reconstructions that employ multi-height phase recovery to handle dense and connected objects. To further demonstrate the performance of this colour microscope Papanicolaou (Pap) smears were also successfully imaged. This field-portable and wide-field computational colour microscope could be useful for tele-medicine applications in resource poor settings.

Greenbaum, Alon; Akbari, Najva; Feizi, Alborz; Luo, Wei; Ozcan, Aydogan

2013-01-01

136

Computerized ultrasonic scanning bridge for defect imaging: composite materials  

SciTech Connect

A computerized ultrasonic scanning bridge has been developed for the scanning and imaging of defects in structures. The raster scanning pattern can be implemented with any pair of the six available axes. The digitized ultrasonic signal can be imaged using a Peritek Graphics system. Details of the ultrasonic scanning bridge and imaging system will be reviewed. Examples of the evaluation of a graphite epoxy component will be reviewed. The scanning of the composite part requires the use of the two angulation axis for the raster scanning. The correlation of the ultrasonic inspection with failure pressure of the graphite epoxy component will be presented.

Boyd, D.; McDonald, W.; Simmons, A.

1982-01-01

137

The Sensation of Colour  

Microsoft Academic Search

PROF. CLERK MAXWELL in his valuable paper on Colour in NATURE (vol. iv. p. 13) commits himself to the opinion that there must be three distinct sets of retinal nerves, one for each of the three primary sensations of colour. It is obvious that demonstrative proof or disproof of this is unattainable : we can only reason analogically. The analogy

Joseph John Murphy

1871-01-01

138

Generalised leptonic colour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is conceivable that there is an SUN ‘colour’ gauge group for leptons, analogous to the gauged SU3 colour group of the quarks. The standard model emerges as the low energy effective theory when the leptonic colour is spontaneously broken. The simplest such generalised leptonic colour models are constructed. We show that the see-saw mechanism for small neutrino masses, along with the theoretical constraint of electric charge quantisation, suggests that the models with N=3, 5, 7 are the theoretically most promising cases. A striking feature of generalised leptonic colour is the physics associated with the extra leptonic degrees of freedom—the liptons. These particles can potentially be discovered at future colliders, such as the LHC, making the idea testable in the near future.

Foot, R.; Volkas, R. R.

2007-02-01

139

Document Image Processing: Going beyond the Black-and-White Barrier. Progress, Issues and Options with Greyscale and Colour Image Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussion of digital document image processing focuses on issues and options associated with greyscale and color image processing. Topics include speed; size of original document; scanning resolution; markets for different categories of scanners, including photographic libraries, publishing, and office applications; hybrid systems; data…

Hendley, Tom

1995-01-01

140

Object knowledge modulates colour appearance  

PubMed Central

We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective) colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis.

Witzel, Christoph; Valkova, Hanna; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

2011-01-01

141

Colour perception in pseudophakia.  

PubMed

Minor differences in colour perception between pseudophakic, phakic, and spectacle aphakic eyes were identified by the Pickford-Nicholson anomaloscope and the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test. The results suggest that pseudophakic eyes are more sensitive to red and less sensitive to blue than aphakic eyes corrected with spectacles. Spectrophotometer measurements reveal that the Rayner-Pearce posterior chamber intraocular lens used in this study transmits an evenly balanced colour spectrum, whereas an aphakic spectacle lens exhibits significant colour distortion, reducing the red and enhancing the blue transmission. This distortion may possibly be attributed to the increased chromatic aberration in the spectacle lens compared with the intraocular lens. PMID:6981423

Jay, J L; Gautam, V B; Allan, D

1982-10-01

142

The application of digital image processing technology in studying composite insulator pollution flashover  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces the idea of utilizing computer-based image processing technology to conduct precise and objective composite insulator testing. The methods that are most commonly used in testing composite insulators are reviewed. Image-based analysis of hydrophobic insulator classification systems is explored. In conclusion, the author introduces image processing technology into the testing of hydrophobicity of composite insulators.

Hongqi Zhang; Chunguang Wang; Haizhen Kang

2010-01-01

143

Colour Mixing Based on Daylight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large…

Meyn, Jan-Peter

2008-01-01

144

Composite filter trees and image recognition via binary search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Construction rules for building composite binary phase-only filters (CBPOFs) designed for use at the nodes of a binary tree have been developed using upweighted superposition algorithms. This paper describes the use of this method to build a four-target, rotation-invariant CBPOF bank on which binary tree searches can be performed. Each of the four trees in this filter bank consists of 256 simple filters (BPOFs) and 254 composites. Sequential search of the 256 simple filters is replaced by a binary search which uses at most 26 composites and 4 simple BPOFs. An image recognition system utilizing the filter bank has been developed, assembled, and evaluated by simulation and experiment. The empirical results obtained using a hybrid optical correlator with computer-controlled magneto-optic spatial light modulators (MOSLMs) at the input and filter planes are presented.

Carhart, Gary W.; Walsh, Thomas R.; Giles, Michael K.

1990-09-01

145

Assessing landscape change in Waterton Lakes National Park, Canada, using multitemporal composites constructed from terrestrial repeat photographs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to investigate landscape level changes that have occurred in Waterton Lakes National Park (WLNP), Canada between the years 1914 and 2005 using digital image processing techniques usually associated with satellite image analysis. Multitemporal colour composites, image classification, and principal components analysis were used to process registered images of the montane ecotone from photographic pairs

Dawna L. Cerney; J. Ronald Eyton; David R. Butler

2008-01-01

146

The colour of fitness: plumage coloration and lifetime reproductive success in the tawny owl  

PubMed Central

We studied variation in plumage colour and life history in a population of tawny owls (Strix aluco) in southern Finland, using 26 years of data on individually marked male and female owls. Colour was scored on a semi-continuous scale from pale grey to reddish brown. Colour scoring was repeatable and showed a bimodal distribution (grey and brown morph) in both sexes. During the study period, colour composition was stable in the study population in both sexes. The sexes did not mate assortatively with respect to their colour. Colour was a highly heritable trait and was under selection. Grey-coloured male and female owls had a higher lifetime production of fledglings, and grey-coloured male (but not female) owls produced more recruits during their lifetime than brown individuals. Selection on colour was mediated through viability selection and not through fecundity selection. Our results reveal remarkably strong selection on a genetically determined phenotypic trait.

Brommer, Jon E; Ahola, Kari; Karstinen, Teuvo

2005-01-01

147

Evaluation of colour properties and chemical quality parameters of cactus juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition and visual appearance of cactus fruits from the genera Opuntia and Hylocereus were investigated. Colour properties were assessed in solutions with pH ranging from 1 to 8 and expressed as chroma, hue and colour shade. Between pH 3 and 7, all samples were stable as indicated by hue and chroma values. The colour shade of the red

Florian C. Stintzing; Andreas Schieber; Reinhold Carle

2003-01-01

148

The architecture of the colour centre in the human visual brain: new results and a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used the technique of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a variety of colour paradigms to activate the human brain regions selective for colour. We show here that the region defined previously (Lueck et al., 1989; Zeki et al., 1991; McKeefry and Zeki, 1997) as the human colour centre consists of two subdivisions, a posterior one, which we

Andreas Bartels; Semir Zeki

2000-01-01

149

Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification.  

PubMed

In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically identified and extracted from high resolution digital images. DIAT was made user friendly with a graphical user interface. The software counted the number of blue and brown pixels in the iris image and calculated a Pixel Index of the Eye (PIE-score) that described the eye colour quantitatively. The PIE-score ranged from -1 to 1 (brown to blue). The software eliminated the need for user based interpretation and qualitative eye colour categories. In 94% (570) of 605 analyzed eye images, the iris region was successfully extracted and a PIE-score was calculated. A very high correlation between the PIE-score and the human perception of eye colour was observed. The correlations between the PIE-scores and the six IrisPlex SNPs (HERC2 rs12913832, OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399, TYR rs1393350, SLC45A2 rs16891982 and IRF4 rs12203592) were analyzed in 570 individuals. Significant differences (p<10(-6)) in the PIE-scores of the individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G (PIE=0.99) and rs12913832 GA (PIE=-0.71) or A (PIE=-0.87) were observed. We adjusted for the effect of HERC2 rs12913832 and showed that the quantitative PIE-scores were significantly associated with SNPs with minor effects (OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399 and TYR rs1393350) on the eye colour. We evaluated the two published prediction models for eye colour (IrisPlex [1] and Snipper[2]) and compared the predictions with the PIE-scores. We found good concordance with the prediction from individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G. However, both methods had difficulties in categorizing individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 GA because of the large variation in eye colour in HERC2 rs12913832 GA individuals. With the use of the DIAT software and the PIE-score, it will be possible to automatically compare the iris colour of large numbers of iris images obtained by different studies and to perform large meta-studies that may reveal loci with small effects on the eye colour. PMID:23948321

Andersen, Jeppe D; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine; Christoffersen, Susanne R; Delgado, Mikaela C; Henriksen, Sarah T; Nielsen, Mette M; Sørensen, Erik; Ullum, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Dahl, Anders L; Paulsen, Rasmus R; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

2013-06-28

150

Shape and colour measurement of colourful objects by fringe projection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a novel method to measure shape and colour information of a colourful object by projecting separate red, green and blue colour fringe patterns onto the object surface. With regard to the object surface's colour, the modulation at each pixel position in the three colour channels has different values. For example, when projecting blue fringe patterns onto a red point, the corresponding pixel has too low a fringe modulation to accurately calculate the phase (shape) information; but with red fringe patterns a high fringe modulation is obtained. Therefore, phase information of the red point can be calculated by projecting red fringe patterns. For each object point, by comparing the modulation values from the three colour channels, it is possible to choose the channel having maximum modulation, and hence phase information can be reliably obtained by the phase-shifting algorithm. The fringe order information is obtained by using the optimum three-frequency selection method, so there is a maximum reliability in determining the fringe order and the 3-D shape of an object with step or large slopes on the surface. Since three colour channels are used, colour information of the object surface can be extracted with high dynamic range from the same fringe patterns. Chromatic aberration between colour channels is unavoidable and can be eliminated by a software-based method. Using the recently developed colour fringe projection system, separate colour fringe patterns are projected onto a mug having different colour patterns, a colourful box and plate, and a colour checker card to test the proposed method. The results show the range of colours that can be measured and that shape and colour information of colourful objects can be reliably obtained.

Zhang, Zonghua; Towers, Catherine E.; Towers, David P.

2008-08-01

151

Composite delamination depth profiling in sonic-IR imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impact damage remains a major issue for aerospace composite structures. Considerable internal damage can occur in laminated composites from external impact loads in service with only minimal visual detectability from the surface of the structure. Damage can occur at any ply depth without visual indications on the front surface. Accurate depth measurements can aid repair assessments. This method is focused on investigating depth profiling of composite delamination by using Sonic-IR, which is a nondestructive evaluation method (NDE) technique that makes images of defects using an infrared camera with an ultrasonic transducer as a stimulation source. The depth profiling relies on the time delays of the temperature increases at the surface from the different defect depths. To process the time vs. temperature data captured from the camera, polynomial curve fitting was used. A mathematical model has been built to calculated time vs. second derivative of temperature curves for depth measurements. The samples used to calibrate the mathematical model data are carbon fiber composite panels with ply thickness variance and inserts with known depths.

Zhao, Selina X.; Han, Xiaoyan; Favro, Lawrence D.; Newaz, Golam; Thomas, Robert L.

2012-05-01

152

Characterization of fiber composite flywheels by ultrasonic imaging techniques  

SciTech Connect

A set of flywheels of different fiber composites has been investigated ultrasonically by an ULTRA IMAGE III System developed by General Dynamics. The 40 cm (16 in.) in diameter and 4.3 cm (1.7 in.) thick flywheels have been studied in an immersion test with a 2.5 cm (1 in.) diameter, 1.5 MHz, conically focused transducer. By monitoring the amplitude of the back surface signals from the wheels and displaying the amplitude variations with different color bands, the internal structures of the wheels such as the fiber orientations and bonding distributions can be examined in detail. The baseline information concerning the integrity of these prototype flywheels, relative to different manufacturing processes, with and without ring shrink fit, has been recorded. This paper describes a consistent, reliance, and cost-effective nondestructive testing technique for analyzing the internal bonding structures of fiber composites.

Tsao, M.C.; Grills, R.H.; Andrew, G.A.; Coppa, A.P.

1983-01-01

153

Ultrasonic scanning system for imaging flaw growth in composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system for measuring and visually representing damage in composite specimens while they are being loaded was demonstrated. It uses a hobbiest grade microcomputer system to control data taking and image processing. The system scans operator selected regions of the specimen while it is under load in a tensile test machine and measures internal damage by the attenuation of a 2.5 MHz ultrasonic beam passed through the specimen. The microcomputer dynamically controls the position of ultrasonic transducers mounted on a two axis motor driven carriage. As many as 65,536 samples can be taken and filed on a floppy disk system in less than four minutes.

Kiraly, L. J.; Meyn, E. H.

1982-03-01

154

Imaging of SiC in metal matrix composites  

SciTech Connect

TEM has advantages over XRD in determining lattice periodicity. This paper reports an attempt in matching a simulation to an experimental image of SiC in an Al-8.5wt%Fe-1.3 wt%V-1.7 wt%Si composite containing 15 wt% SiC particulates, processed by powder metallurgy. The hexagonal allotrope has predominantly the 6H polytype structure; 1/3 of the 15R polytype is also observed. This SiC structure represents the 87R polytype. 6 refs, 2 figs.

Radmilovic, V. [Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Physical Metallurgy; O`Keefe, M.A.; Thomas, G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1992-08-01

155

Determination of prestenotic flow volume using an automated method based on colour Doppler imaging for evaluating orifice area by the continuity equation: validation in a pulsatile flow model  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo evaluate, in a pulsatile flow model simulating flow conditions in valvar stenoses, whether accurate determination of orifice area can be achieved by the continuity equation using automated determination of flow volumes based on spatiotemporal integration of digital colour Doppler flow velocities.MethodsA method for automated determination of flow volumes which takes into account the velocity distribution across a region of

K Dennig; H J Nesser; D Hall; H U Haase; A Schömig

1998-01-01

156

Vector quantization of images based on a composite source model  

SciTech Connect

Compression of digitized pictures is finding increasing application in teleconferencing, archiving, and remote sensing. The potential capability of Vector Quantization, a relatively new source coding technique, for the compression of still, monochromatic images is studied here. A vector quantizer operates on blocks (vectors) of contiguous samples of the input signal - in this case, an image. As the block size increases, the performance of vector quantization approaches the best that is theoretically possible, but at the cost of an exponential growth in computational complexity. A coder based on vector quantization, with moderate block sizes, which performs better than existing coders of comparable complexity was developed. Since blocks of samples, rather than individual ones, are treated as atomic entities in vector quantization, a new vector model for images called the Composite Source Model. Each block is viewed as being the output of one of a bank of subsources selected by a switch. Each subsource generates blocks of a distinct perceptual type, e.g., blocks with an edge at a particular orientation. Based on the new model, the author proposed a new coding method called Classified Vector Quantization. In this method, each block of samples in an image is classified to determine which subsource or class it belongs to.

Ramamurthi, B.

1985-01-01

157

Hyperspectral imaging of structure and composition in atomically thin heterostructures.  

PubMed

Precise vertical stacking and lateral stitching of two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), can be used to create ultrathin heterostructures with complex functionalities, but this diversity of behaviors also makes these new materials difficult to characterize. We report a DUV-vis-NIR hyperspectral microscope that provides imaging and spectroscopy at energies of up to 6.2 eV, allowing comprehensive, all-optical mapping of chemical composition in graphene/h-BN lateral heterojunctions and interlayer rotations in twisted bilayer graphene (tBLG). With the addition of transmission electron microscopy, we obtain quantitative structure-property relationships, confirming the formation of interfaces in graphene/h-BN lateral heterojunctions that are abrupt on a micrometer scale, and a one-to-one relationship between twist angle and interlayer optical resonances in tBLG. Furthermore, we perform similar hyperspectral imaging of samples that are supported on a nontransparent silicon/SiO2 substrate, enabling facile fabrication of atomically thin heterostructure devices with known composition and structure. PMID:23841492

Havener, Robin W; Kim, Cheol-Joo; Brown, Lola; Kevek, Joshua W; Sleppy, Joel D; McEuen, Paul L; Park, Jiwoong

2013-07-12

158

Colouring of Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

ON reading the very interesting and suggestive article on ``Experiments on the Autumn Colouring of Plants,'' by E. Overton, in NATURE for January 26, it occurred to me that the following observation might be of interest. While I was in Switzerland last summer, I noticed that different plants of Sempervivum arachnoideum, L., growing under apparently very similar conditions, differed much

May Rathbone

1899-01-01

159

Colour and photosensitive epilepsy.  

PubMed

Red-coloured flicker is claimed to be more epileptogenic than white or that of other colours matched for subjective intensity. A feature of the colour opponent system is that the response of luminosity-sensitive cortical units to stimulation of ganglion cells of a particular spectral sensitivity is reduced when cells of other sensitivities are simultaneously stimulated. We hypothesized that the apparent effect of colour on photosensitivity was not a property of red light per se but arose simply from the fact that, with commercially available filters a light can be provided to stimulate only red sensitive cones, but owing to the overlap of the absorption spectra of the visual pigments it is difficult to stimulate only green or blue sensitive cones. Such stimulation of a single cone population can be achieved by the 'silent substitution method' which has been used for evoked response studies. In 12 photosensitive epileptic patients we find that, using stimulus intensities (less than 20 nits) at which white flicker is without effect, stimulation of either red or green cones by the silent substitution method may produce epileptiform discharges, there being a slight (and not significant) excess of patients showing a greater sensitivity for green than for red cone stimulation. The findings are considered to support the hypothesis set out above. PMID:6208004

Binnie, C D; Estevez, O; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, D G; Peters, A

1984-11-01

160

The colours of cloaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a survey of results from various research groups under the unifying viewpoint of transformational physics, which has been recently introduced for the design of metamaterials in optics and acoustics. We illustrate the versatility of underlying geometric transforms in order to bridge wave phenomena (the different 'colours' of waves) ranging from transverse electric waves, to linear surface water waves

Sébastien Guenneau; Ross C. McPhedran; Stefan Enoch; Alexander B. Movchan; Mohamed Farhat; Nicolae-Alexandru P. Nicorovici

2011-01-01

161

The Colour of Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

I AM reminded by Lord Rayleigh's lecture on this subject of the splendid light-blue colour presented by the tanks of water in which some of the water companies allow the sedimentation to take place of ``hard water'' which has been treated by Clark's process. I am thinking of those near Caterham and of those at Plumstead. The tanks-to the best

E. Ray Lankester

1910-01-01

162

Cultural preferences for hair colour  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to compare colour preference between Japanese and British people who have a different culture, we examined hair colour preference by questionnaire1-4), visual assessment5,6) and SD method7). We found several key differences between two countries. They were 'beauty' and 'fashion'. British students want hair colour beautiful, in contrast Japanese students want hair colour fashionable. From the factor analysis, we

Y. Kato; T. L. V. Cheung; S. Kitaguchi; S. Westland; H. Yasunaga; T. Sato

163

The Four-Colour Theorem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four-colour theorem, that every loopless planar graph admits a vertex-colouring with at most four different colours, was proved in 1976 by Appel and Haken, using a computer. Here we give another proof, still using a computer, but simpler than Appel and Haken's in several respects.

Neil Robertson; Daniel P. Sanders; Paul D. Seymour; Robin Thomas

1997-01-01

164

Russia and the colour revolutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colour revolutions, and especially the Orange Revolution in Ukraine, are widely perceived as major international setbacks to Putin's Russia. The Ukrainian events alarmed Russian elites, who feared the possibility of a local colour revolution during the 2007–2008 electoral cycle. To thwart the perceived colour revolution threat, Russian authorities adopted strategies that combined a political, administrative and intellectual assault on

Evgeny Finkel; Yitzhak M. Brudny

2012-01-01

165

Evaluation of ceramic matrix composites by thermal diffusivity imaging.  

SciTech Connect

Because of the complex structural design and multiple processing steps, ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) typically contain a variety of flaws distributed throughout the volume. These flaws need to be detected and characterized because they are detrimental to CMC material properties. Thermal diffusivity imaging is a nondestructive evaluation method that can quantitatively determine the thermal property of a CMC component. Thermal diffusivity is an intrinsic material property that not only depends on the material constituents but also on the micro- and macrostructure of the CMC component. This paper investigates fundamental theories for thermal diffusivity measurement using pulsed thermal imaging from two- and one-sided setups. The variation of thermal diffusivity is examined for two types of flaws, voids and cracks, that are commonly present within CMCs. The sensitivity of thermal imaging to detect small and large flaws is analyzed and evaluated with measured thermal diffusivity data. In addition, analysis of fracture theories for the mechanical and thermal properties of materials with distributed microcracks has identified that thermal diffusivity may be used to determine the degradation of mechanical properties and, therefore, to predict the remaining life of a CMC component. Preliminary results for correlating thermal and mechanical properties are discussed.

Sun, J. G.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2007-01-01

166

Specifying colour and maintaining colour accuracy for 3D printing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in rapid prototyping technologies have led to the emergence of three-dimensional printers which can fabricate physical artefacts, including the application of surface colours. In light of these developments, this paper asserts that the need to print colour accurately is just as important for designers using three-dimensional colour printing as it is for two-dimensional inkjet printing. Parallels can be made with two-dimensional digital Inkjet printing and 2D common problems include: on screen previsualisation, colour management methods, colour gamut and maintaining colour accuracy. However, for three dimensional colour printed objects, there are more variables that will affect the finished colour. These are: the powder and process inks, unevenness of the surface, wax post-processing and other infiltration media and procedures. Furthermore, in some 3D printers, the K channel is replaced by the binder and so the printer is only using the cyan, magenta and yellow channels. The paper will suggest methods for improving pre-visualisation and accurate pre-viewing of the colours through the manufacture of three-dimensional colour charts as a reference guide for designers so that they can make accurate coloured artefacts. A series of case studies will be demonstrated.

Parraman, Carinna; Walters, Peter; Reid, Brendan; Huson, David

2008-03-01

167

Bleaching-induced colour change in plastic filling materials.  

PubMed

The purpose of this in vitro study is to compare the colour changes of five different tooth-coloured restoratives: Ormocer (Definite/Degussa), compomer (Dyract AP/Dentsply De Tray), packable composite (Filtek P60/3M), flowable composite (Filtek Flow/3M) and hybrid composite (Filtek Z250/3M) after two different bleaching regimens [Vivastyle (10% carbamide peroxide)/Vivadent and Crest Professional Whitestrips (6.5% hydrogen peroxide strip bands)/Procter & Gamble]. Fifteen specimens of 30 x 30 x 2mm(3) size were fabricated from each material and randomly divided into three groups of five. Specimens in group one were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for two weeks and served as control. Group two specimens were treated with Vivastyle for two hours per day for two weeks and group three specimens were treated with Whitestrips for 30 min twice daily for two weeks. During the test period the specimens were kept at 37 C and in 100% relative humidity. At the end of the bleaching regimens colour measurements of the control and test groups were made with UV visible recording spectrophotometer. Colour changes were calculated with the use of the CIE-LAB uniform colour scale and compared by the use of Kruskall-Wallis test, followed by the Mann-Whitney U test. Control, Vivastyle and Whitestrips L*, a* and b* values differed significantly for all materials except Filtek Z250 (p < 0.05). All restorative materials demonstrated significantly higher colour change (DeltaE) with Whitestrips (p < 0.05). Dyract AP demonstrated the highest colour change both for the bleaching regimens followed by Filtek Flow, Definite, Filtek P60, and Filtek Z250 showed the smallest colour change. Colour change of plastic restorative materials during bleaching is both filling material and bleach specific. PMID:15613379

Yalcin, Filiz; Gurgan, Sevil

2005-01-01

168

Compositional maps of Saturn's moon Phoebe from imaging spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The origin of Phoebe, which is the outermost large satellite of Saturn, is of particular interest because its inclined, retrograde orbit suggests that it was gravitationally captured by Saturn, having accreted outside the region of the solar nebula in which Saturn formed. By contrast, Saturn's regular satellites (with prograde, low-inclination, circular orbits) probably accreted within the sub-nebula in which Saturn itself formed. Here we report imaging spectroscopy of Phoebe resulting from the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft encounter on 11 June 2004. We mapped ferrous-iron-bearing minerals, bound water, trapped CO2, probable phyllosilicates, organics, nitriles and cyanide compounds. Detection of these compounds on Phoebe makes it one of the most compositionally diverse objects yet observed in our Solar System. It is likely that Phoebe's surface contains primitive materials from the outer Solar System, indicating a surface of cometary origin. PMID:15875014

Clark, Roger N; Brown, Robert H; Jaumann, Ralf; Cruikshank, Dale P; Nelson, Robert M; Buratti, Bonnie J; McCord, Thomas B; Lunine, J; Baines, K H; Bellucci, G; Bibring, J-P; Capaccioni, F; Cerroni, P; Coradini, A; Formisano, V; Langevin, Y; Matson, D L; Mennella, V; Nicholson, P D; Sicardy, B; Sotin, C; Hoefen, Todd M; Curchin, John M; Hansen, Gary; Hibbits, Karl; Matz, K-D

2005-05-01

169

Digital Compositing Techniques for Coronal Imaging (Invited review)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar corona exhibits a huge range in brightness which cannot be captured in any single photographic exposure. Short exposures show the bright inner corona and prominences, while long exposures reveal faint details in equatorial streamers and polar brushes. For many years, radial gradient filters and other analog techniques have been used to compress the corona's dynamic range in order to study its morphology. Such techniques demand perfect pointing and tracking during the eclipse, and can be difficult to calibrate. In the past decade, the speed, memory and hard disk capacity of personal computers have rapidly increased as prices continue to drop. It is now possible to perform sophisticated image processing of eclipse photographs on commercially available CPU's. Software programs such as Adobe Photoshop permit combining multiple eclipse photographs into a composite image which compresses the corona's dynamic range and can reveal subtle features and structures. Algorithms and digital techniques used for processing 1998 eclipse photographs will be discussed which are equally applicable to the recent eclipse of 1999 August 11.

Espenak, F.

2000-04-01

170

A multi-threaded mosaicking algorithm for fast image composition of fluorescence bladder images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The treatment of urinary bladder cancer is usually carried out using fluorescence endoscopy. A narrow-band bluish illumination activates a tumor marker resulting in a red fluorescence. Because of low illumination power the distance between endoscope and bladder wall is kept low during the whole bladder scan, which is carried out before treatment. Thus, only a small field of view (FOV) of the operation field is provided, which impedes navigation and relocating of multi-focal tumors. Although off-line calculated panorama images can assist surgery planning, the immediate display of successively growing overview images composed from single video frames in real-time during the bladder scan, is well suited to ease navigation and reduce the risk of missing tumors. Therefore we developed an image mosaicking algorithm for fluorescence endoscopy. Due to fast computation requirements a flexible multi-threaded software architecture based on our RealTimeFrame platform is developed. Different algorithm tasks, like image feature extraction, matching and stitching are separated and applied by independent processing threads. Thus, different implementation of single tasks can be easily evaluated. In an optimization step we evaluate the trade-off between feature repeatability and total processing time, consider the thread synchronization, and achieve a constant workload of each thread. Thus, a fast computation of panoramic images is performed on a standard hardware platform, preserving full input image resolution (780x576) at the same time. Displayed on a second clinical monitor, the extended FOV of the image composition promises high potential for surgery assistance.

Behrens, Alexander; Bommes, Michael; Stehle, Thomas; Gross, Sebastian; Leonhardt, Steffen; Aach, Til

2010-03-01

171

Colour vision requirements of firefighters.  

PubMed

To perform their job safely firefighters must be able to identify colours on industrial gas cylinders, portable fire extinguishers, road traffic signals and several pieces of firefighting equipment. Although good colour vision is necessary we believe that the existing colour vision standard, which bars entry to the fire service to applicants who fail more than two plates of the Ishihara test, is unnecessarily stringent. We have identified and quantified the colour coded information encountered by firefighters. Colours were plotted on the CIE chromaticity diagram (1931) and isochromatic zones, which document the colour confusions of colour deficient observers, superimposed. This novel technique established possible colour confusions in different types of colour deficiency. Analysis of the results showed that red/green dichromats (protanopes and deuteranopes), severe deuteranomalous trichromats who fail the Farnsworth D15 test, and protanomalous trichromats are unsuitable for firefighting work. However, people with slight deuteranomalous trichromatism who pass the D15 test, are not disadvantaged and can be employed safely as firefighters. A new colour vision standard and a new testing procedure is recommended. PMID:8776247

Margrain, T H; Birch, J; Owen, C G

1996-04-01

172

Specifying colour and maintaining colour accuracy for 3D printing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in rapid prototyping technologies have led to the emergence of three-dimensional printers which can fabricate physical artefacts, including the application of surface colours. In light of these developments, this paper asserts that the need to print colour accurately is just as important for designers using three-dimensional colour printing as it is for two-dimensional inkjet printing. Parallels can be made

Carinna Parraman; Peter Walters; Brendan Reid; David Huson

2008-01-01

173

Do teenage magazines give a genuine view of tooth colour?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To compare the colour of incisors depicted in teenage magazines with a sample of Welsh teenagers.Materials and methods A representative one month sample of magazines aimed at 9- to 16-year-old girls was obtained from a retail outlet. All images containing photographs of anterior teeth were identified and the colour of the incisor teeth measured using two commercial shade guides.

B. Chadwick; R. Playle

2007-01-01

174

Design Issues for a Colour Photometric Stereo System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the detailed performance analysis for a colour photometric stereo system proposed recently. The system\\u000a recovers surface colour and surface normal for each surface patch separately, in the presence of highlights and shadows. The\\u000a error analysis presented concerns every step of the algorithm, and it is based on the assumptions that errors may arise due\\u000a to Gaussian image

Svetlana Barsky; Maria Petrou

2006-01-01

175

Fast marching methods applied to face location in videophone applications using colour information  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is proposed to automatically segment out a person's face from a given sequence of images that consists of a head-and-shoulder view, using the fast marching level set approach. The method proposed involves a fast, reliable and computationally efficient algorithm, which exploits the colour information in an image to segment the face region. The colour information is derived

Prag Sharma; Richard Reilly

2002-01-01

176

Colour vision of diabetics.  

PubMed Central

The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test has been assessed as a screening test for the detection of diabetic retinopathy likely to benefit from laser photocoagulation therapy. Two hundred and thirty-two diabetic eyes of 126 patients were tested. The results were assessed both for total error score relative to age and for the presence of polarity. Although the incidence of abnormal colour discrimination was found to correlate with the severity of retinopathy, the test was not sufficiently selective to be of value as a screening test in the detection of retinopathy requiring treatment.

Green, F D; Ghafour, I M; Allan, D; Barrie, T; McClure, E; Foulds, W S

1985-01-01

177

Complementary colours for a physicist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on a simple experiment which enables splitting incident light into two different modes, each having a colour exactly complementary to the other. A brief historical development of colour theories and differences in a physicist's point of view with respect to an artist's one is discussed. An experimental system for producing colours and their physically exact complements using cellophane is presented. The origin of the colours lies in the transmission of polarized light through the birefringent cellophane, and therefore the optics of birefringent materials is briefly presented. A set-up which will be described in the following can be used in a laboratory experiment at an undergraduate level.

Babi?, Vitomir; ?epi?, Mojca

2009-07-01

178

A New Colour ConsciousnessColour in the Digital Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

A film's visual design is increasingly determined digitally, after principal cinematography. This essay charts the nature of the digital revolution in relation to digital colour grading. Faced with the new digital devices, filmmakers are casting about for appropriate, respectable functions. The paper examines how the first two mainstream Hollywood releases to feature digital colour designs, Gary Ross's Pleasantville (1998), and

Scott Higgins

2003-01-01

179

A universal ultraviolet-optical colour-colour-magnitude relation of galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bimodal galaxy distribution in the optical colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) comprises a narrow 'red sequence' populated mostly by early-type galaxies and a broad 'blue cloud' dominated by star-forming systems. Although the optical CMD allows one to select red sequence objects, neither can it be used for galaxy classification without additional observational data such as spectra or high-resolution images, nor to identify blue galaxies at unknown redshifts. We show that adding the near ultraviolet (NUV) colour [Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) NUV ?eff= 227 nm] to the optical (g - r versus Mr) CMD reveals a tight relation in the 3D colour-colour-magnitude space smoothly continuing from the 'blue cloud' to the 'red sequence'. We found that 98 per cent of 225 000 low-redshift (Z < 0.27) galaxies follow a smooth surface ? with a standard deviation of 0.03-0.07 mag making it the tightest known galaxy photometric relation, given the ˜0.9 mag range of k-corrected g - r colours. Similar relations exist in other NUV-optical colours. There is a strong correlation between morphological types and integrated ? colours of galaxies, while the connection with g - r is ambiguous. Rare galaxy classes such as E+A or tidally stripped systems become outliers that occupy distinct regions in the 3D parameter space. Using stellar population models for galaxies with different star formation histories, we show that (a) the (?) distribution at a given luminosity is formed by objects having constant and exponentially declining star formation rates with different characteristic time-scales with the red sequence part consistent also with simple stellar population; (b) colour evolution for exponentially declining models goes along the relation suggesting a weak evolution of its shape up to a redshift of 0.9; (c) galaxies with truncated star formation histories have very short transition phase offset from the relation thus explaining the rareness of E+A galaxies. This relation can be used as a powerful galaxy classification tool when morphology remains unresolved. Its mathematical consequence is the possibility of precise and simple redshift estimates from only three broad-band photometric points. We show that this simple approach being applied to Sloan Digital Sky Survey and GALEX data works better than most existing photometric redshift techniques applied to multicolour data sets. Therefore, the relation can be used as an efficient search technique for galaxies at intermediate redshifts (0.3 < Z < 0.8) using optical imaging surveys. Footnotes<label>1</label> <label>2</label> <label>3</label> <label>4</label></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chilingarian, Igor V.; Zolotukhin, Ivan Yu.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JOpt...13b4014G"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">colours</span> of cloaks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a survey of results from various research groups under the unifying viewpoint of transformational physics, which has been recently introduced for the design of metamaterials in optics and acoustics. We illustrate the versatility of underlying geometric transforms in order to bridge wave phenomena (the different '<span class="hlt">colours</span>' of waves) ranging from transverse electric waves, to linear surface water waves at an air-fluid interface, to pressure waves in fluids and out-of-plane shear waves in elastic media: these waves are all governed by a second order scalar partial differential equation (PDE) invariant under geometric transform. Moreover, flexural waves propagating in thin plates represent a very peculiar situation whereby the displacement field satisfies a fourth order scalar PDE which also retains its form under geometric transform (unlike for the Navier equation in elastodynamics). Control of flexural wave trajectories is illustrated with a multilayered cloak and a carpet. Interestingly, the <span class="hlt">colours</span> of waves can be revealed through an analysis of the band spectra of invisibility cloaks. In the context of acoustics, this suggests one can hear the shape of a drum. Alternative avenues towards cloaking based upon anomalous resonances of a negatively refracting coating (which can be seen as the result of folding the space back onto itself), and even plasmonic shells reducing the scattering cross-section of nano-objects are also addressed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guenneau, Sébastien; McPhedran, Ross C.; Enoch, Stefan; Movchan, Alexander B.; Farhat, Mohamed; Nicorovici, Nicolae-Alexandru P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return 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onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://media.tkk.fi/GTTS/GAiF/GAiF_PDF/GAiF2003_1-1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Automatic <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Enhancement and Scene Change Detection of Digital Video</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Basically digital video is a sequence of still <span class="hlt">images</span>, displayed at a constant frame rate. Simplest adaptation of still <span class="hlt">image</span> <span class="hlt">colour</span> correction algorithm into the digital video is to use the same algorithm frame by frame in the video sequence. However, this kind of approach does not lead to satisfactory results. The sources of the problems are the temporal continuity</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Korpi-Anttila</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3787"> <span id="translatedtitle">Map Segmentation by <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Cube Genetic K-Mean Clustering</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Segmentation of a <span class="hlt">colour</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> composed of different kinds of texture regions can be a hard problem, namely to compute for an exact texture fields and a decision of the optimum number of segmentation areas in an <span class="hlt">image</span> when it contains similar and\\/or unstationary texture fields. In this work, a method is described for evolving adaptive procedures for these problems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vitorino Ramos; Fernando Muge</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6493E..28P"> <span id="translatedtitle">User preferences in <span class="hlt">colour</span> enhancement for unsupervised printing methods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to obtain a good quality <span class="hlt">image</span> in preparation for inkjet printing, the process of adjusting <span class="hlt">images</span> can be a time consuming and a costly procedure. In this paper, we consider the use of an unsupervised <span class="hlt">colour</span> enhancement method as part of the automatic pre-processors for printing. Other unsupervised <span class="hlt">colour</span> enhancement methods are utilised and compared: Retinex, RSR, ACE, Histogram Equalisation, Auto Levels. Test <span class="hlt">images</span> are subjected to all of the enhancement methods, which are then printed. Users are asked compare each of the sampled <span class="hlt">images</span>. In all cases, the results are dependent on the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Thus, we have selected a range of test <span class="hlt">images</span>: photographs of scenes, reproduction of prints, paintings and drawings. Some of the tested methods are parameter dependent. We do not intend to consider fine tuning for each of the techniques, rather to consider an average parameter set for each one and then test if this approach can aid the decision process of fine tuning. Three user groups are employed: the general user, commercial photographer expert and fine artist. Groups are asked to make a blind evaluation of a range of <span class="hlt">images</span> (the original and the <span class="hlt">colour</span> enhanced by the different methods); these are randomly placed. All <span class="hlt">images</span> are printed on the same printer using the same settings. Users are asked to identify their preferred print in relation to lightness, tonal range, <span class="hlt">colour</span> range, quality of detail and overall subjective preference.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parraman, Carinna; Rizzi, Alessandro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53309349"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Number of Discriminable <span class="hlt">Colours</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">ALTHOUGH a calculation of the approximate number of discriminable <span class="hlt">colours</span> must depend upon the individual concerned, `normal' persons may be expected to furnish data which agree to the correct order of magnitude. The method used here involves the choice of an arbitrary <span class="hlt">colour</span> solid, the well-known Titchener-Ebbhighaus double pyramid, to which available experimental data are applied with simplifying assumptions, in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">George B. Welch</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1937-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56209109"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colours</span> due to Intermittent Illumination</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">MR. C. T. WHITMELL (NATURE, September 1, p. 424) describes a method of producing <span class="hlt">coloured</span> patches by means of a rotating disc, furnished with a ring of holes. It will be found that the phenomenon can also be produced by intermittent reflection. In the year 1881 I described in NATURE (vol. xxiv. p. 140) a method whereby <span class="hlt">colour</span> patches of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. J. Jervis-Smith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1904-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=physicist&pg=6&id=EJ844003"> <span id="translatedtitle">Complementary <span class="hlt">Colours</span> for a Physicist</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This paper reports on a simple experiment which enables splitting incident light into two different modes, each having a <span class="hlt">colour</span> exactly complementary to the other. A brief historical development of <span class="hlt">colour</span> theories and differences in a physicist's point of view with respect to an artist's one is discussed. An experimental system for producing…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Babic, Vitomir; Cepic, Mojca</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54875545"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analogy of <span class="hlt">Colour</span> and Music</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">I FIND in your number of January 13 an interesting paper by Mr. Barrett on the Correlation of <span class="hlt">Colour</span> and Sound. It seems to me that Mr. Barrett depreciates the phenomenon of Newton's rings by saying that the ``connection between the relative spaces occupied by each <span class="hlt">colour</span> and the relative vibrations of the notes of the scale'' ... ``cannot be</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. S. Okely</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1870-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/968600"> <span id="translatedtitle">Column-by-column <span class="hlt">compositional</span> mapping by Z-contrast <span class="hlt">imaging</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A phenomenological method is developed to determine the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of materials, with atomic column resolution, by analysis of integrated intensities of aberration-corrected Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy <span class="hlt">images</span>. The method is exemplified for InAsxP1-x alloys using epitaxial thin films with calibrated <span class="hlt">compositions</span> as standards. Using this approach we have determined the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the two-dimensional wetting layer formed between self-assembled InAs quantum wires on InP (001) substrates. The method utilizes a series of B coefficients that models the background signal in Z-contrast <span class="hlt">images</span>, which is unaccounted for by <span class="hlt">image</span> simulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Molina Rubio, Sergio I [ORNL; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Sales Lerida, David [ORNL; Galindo, Pedro [Universidad de Cadiz, Spain; Fuster, David [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC); Gonzalez, Yolanda [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC); Alen, B. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC); Gonzalez, Luisa [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC); Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23665152"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genetics of <span class="hlt">colouration</span> in birds.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Establishing the links between phenotype and genotype is of great importance for resolving key questions about the evolution, maintenance and adaptive function of phenotypic variation. Bird <span class="hlt">colouration</span> is one of the most studied systems to investigate the role of natural and sexual selection in the evolution of phenotypic diversity. Given the recent advances in molecular tools that allow discovering genetic polymorphisms and measuring gene and protein expression levels, it is timely to review the literature on the genetics of bird <span class="hlt">colouration</span>. The present study shows that melanin-based <span class="hlt">colour</span> phenotypes are often associated with mutations at melanogenic genes. Differences in melanin-based <span class="hlt">colouration</span> are caused by switches of eumelanin to pheomelanin production or by changes in feather keratin structure, melanoblast migration and differentiation, as well as melanosome structure. Similar associations with other types of <span class="hlt">colourations</span> are difficult to establish, because our knowledge about the molecular genetics of carotenoid-based and structural <span class="hlt">colouration</span> is quasi inexistent. This discrepancy stems from the fact that only melanin-based <span class="hlt">colouration</span> shows pronounced heritability estimates, i.e. the resemblance between related individuals is usually mainly explained by genetic factors. In contrast, the expression of carotenoid-based <span class="hlt">colouration</span> is phenotypically plastic with a high sensitivity to variation in environmental conditions. It therefore appears that melanin-based <span class="hlt">colour</span> traits are prime systems to understand the genetic basis of phenotypic variation. In this context, birds have a great potential to bring us to new frontiers where many exciting discoveries will be made on the genetics of phenotypic traits, such as <span class="hlt">colouration</span>. In this context, a major goal of our review is to suggest a number of exciting future avenues. PMID:23665152</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roulin, Alexandre; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21035303"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> and contrast enhancement for improved skin lesion segmentation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Accurate extraction of lesion borders is a critical step in analysing dermoscopic skin lesion <span class="hlt">images</span>. In this paper, we consider the problems of poor contrast and lack of <span class="hlt">colour</span> calibration which are often encountered when analysing dermoscopy <span class="hlt">images</span>. Different illumination or different devices will lead to different <span class="hlt">image</span> <span class="hlt">colours</span> of the same lesion and hence to difficulties in the segmentation stage. Similarly, low contrast makes accurate border detection difficult. We present an effective approach to improve the performance of lesion segmentation algorithms through a pre-processing step that enhances <span class="hlt">colour</span> information and <span class="hlt">image</span> contrast. We combine this enhancement stage with two different segmentation algorithms. One technique relies on analysis of the <span class="hlt">image</span> background by iterative measurements of non-lesion pixels, while the other technique utilises co-operative neural networks for edge detection. Extensive experimental evaluation is carried out on a dataset of 100 dermoscopy <span class="hlt">images</span> with known ground truths obtained from three expert dermatologists. The results show that both techniques are capable of providing good segmentation performance and that the <span class="hlt">colour</span> enhancement step is indeed crucial as demonstrated by comparison with results obtained from the original RGB <span class="hlt">images</span>. PMID:21035303</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schaefer, Gerald; Rajab, Maher I; Celebi, M Emre; Iyatomi, Hitoshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22177553"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of vitamin E supplementation and diet on fatty acid <span class="hlt">composition</span> and on meat <span class="hlt">colour</span> and lipid oxidation of lamb leg steaks displayed in modified atmosphere packs.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Groups of 8 lambs were allocated to one of five concentrate diets supplemented with all-rac-?-tocopheryl acetate containing 30 (C30), 60 (C60), 120 (C120), 250 (C250) and 500 (C500) mg/kg dry matter. Two other groups were fed grass silage and 400 g/day concentrate with 60 (S60) or 500 (S500) mg ?-tocopheryl acetate/kg dry matter. Within diet, vitamin E level did not affect growth performance or carcass characteristics. Basal diet did not affect final live weight, conformation and fatness scores. M. semimembranosus from S lambs contained more ?-tocopherol than that of C lambs on the same intake and by day 6 in MAP (75%O2/25%CO2) chroma and a* were below acceptable levels in C30 lambs. TBARS were higher in C30 and C60 muscle than in other treatments (P<0.001) after 3 and 6 days display. Muscle fatty acid <span class="hlt">composition</span> varied with basal diet but lipid oxidation depended more on vitamin E concentration with an initial concentration of 1.9 ?g/g muscle preventing significant lipid oxidation. PMID:22177553</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kasapidou, E; Wood, J D; Richardson, R I; Sinclair, L A; Wilkinson, R G; Enser, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42451836"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regional geological interpretation of a digital <span class="hlt">coloured</span> residual Bouguer gravity <span class="hlt">image</span> of eastern Australia with a wavelength cut?off of 250 km</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A short wavelength (<250 km) residual Bouguer gravity <span class="hlt">image</span> of eastern Australia emphasizes anomalies and anomaly patterns related to continental crustal structure in comparison with a total?field gravity <span class="hlt">image</span>. Filtering removes the masking effect of long wavelength anomalies, whether they have a shallow origin (e.g. extensive platform cover) or a deep source (e.g. mantle). Short wavelength anomalies are mainly caused</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. G. Murray; E. Scheibner; R. N. Walker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50591469"> <span id="translatedtitle">A cross-sectional ultrasound <span class="hlt">imaging</span> for measuring body <span class="hlt">composition</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have developed a measuring system to visualize a complete cross-sectional <span class="hlt">image</span> of the human extremity using ultrasonography. This system uses several ultrasound probes, and these probes measure fragmentary graphical <span class="hlt">images</span> of one cross-sectional plane which are then transformed into a complete cross-sectional <span class="hlt">image</span>. The developed system is superior to other <span class="hlt">imaging</span> devices in many respects because it is portable,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kiyotaka Fukumoto; Masayoshi Tsubai; Satoshi Muraki; Osamu Fukuda; Hironori Sato</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19688230"> <span id="translatedtitle">Could digital <span class="hlt">imaging</span> be an alternative for digital colorimeters?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study evaluated the <span class="hlt">colour</span> parameters of <span class="hlt">composite</span> and ceramic shade guides determined using a colorimeter and digital <span class="hlt">imaging</span> method with illuminants at different <span class="hlt">colour</span> temperatures. Two different resin <span class="hlt">composite</span> shade guides, namely Charisma (Heraeus Kulzer) and Premise (Kerr Corporation), and two different ceramic shade guides, Vita Lumin Vacuum (VITA Zahnfabrik) and Noritake (Noritake Co.), were evaluated at three different <span class="hlt">colour</span> temperatures (2,700 K, 2,700-6,500 K, and 6500 K) of illuminants. Ten shade tabs were selected (A1, A2, A3, A3,5, A4, B1, B2, B3, C2 and C3) from each shade guide. CIE Lab values were obtained using digital <span class="hlt">imaging</span> and a colorimeter (ShadeEye NCC Dental Chroma Meter, Shofu Inc.). The data were analysed using two-way ANOVA, and Pearson's correlation. While mean L* values of both <span class="hlt">composite</span> and ceramic shade guides were not affected from the <span class="hlt">colour</span> temperature, L* values obtained with the colorimeter showed significantly lower values than those of the digital <span class="hlt">imaging</span> (p < 0.01). At combined 2,700-6500 K <span class="hlt">colour</span> temperature, the means of a* values obtained from colorimeter and digital <span class="hlt">imaging</span> did not show significant differences (p > 0.05). For both <span class="hlt">composite</span> and ceramic shade guides, L* and b* values obtained from colorimeter and digital <span class="hlt">imaging</span> method presented a high level of correlation. High-level correlations were also acquired for a* values in all shade guides except for the Charisma <span class="hlt">composite</span> shade guide. Digital <span class="hlt">imaging</span> method could be an alternative for the colorimeters unless the proper object-camera distance, digital camera settings and suitable illumination conditions could be supplied. However, variations in shade guides, especially for <span class="hlt">composites</span>, may affect the correlation. PMID:19688230</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Caglar, Alper; Yamanel, Kivanc; Gulsahi, Kamran; Bagis, Bora; Ozcan, Mutlu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-08-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8074E..34K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Compact slot-in-type optical correlator for retrieving shape, <span class="hlt">colour</span>, and texture</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A compact optical correlator applicable to the retrieval of <span class="hlt">colour</span> and texture as well as shape information was developed. A new technique for retrieving <span class="hlt">colour</span> and texture information by using a slot-in-type compact joint-transform correlator (JTC) with minimum size (140 (W) × 220 (L) × 40 mm (H)) was developed. The developed techniques were used to retrieve <span class="hlt">images</span> of fruits and vegetables, taken by the digital camera. The developed technique can retrieve <span class="hlt">images</span> of certain fruits, such as an apple, from <span class="hlt">images</span> of many different fruits and vegetables. It will open up a new area of retrieval techniques for ambiguous <span class="hlt">images</span> based on shape, <span class="hlt">colour</span> and texture information.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kuboyama, H.; Moriyama, K.; Yamaguchi, K.; Arai, S.; Fukuda, M.; Kato, M.; Kawaguchi, T.; Inoue, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/d16057u364h56964.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Short and long-term effects of micro-oxygenation treatments on the <span class="hlt">colour</span> and phenolic <span class="hlt">composition</span> of a Cabernet Sauvignon wine aged in barrels and\\/or bottles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Micro-oxygenation is the controlled and continuous addition of small doses of oxygen to the wine in order to achieve a rational\\u000a management of the evolution of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> and mouthfeel properties of red wines. The short and, especially, the long-term\\u000a effects of this technology on the <span class="hlt">colour</span> characteristics of wines are still little known. In this study, a Cabernet Sauvignon</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alicia González-del Pozo; Íñigo Arozarena; María-José Noriega; Montserrat Navarro; Ana Casp</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=semiotic+AND+analysis&id=EJ986959"> <span id="translatedtitle">Meaning-Making with <span class="hlt">Colour</span> in Multimodal Texts: An 11-Year-Old Student's Purposeful "Doing"</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Colour</span>, a visual element of art and design, is a semiotic mode that is used strategically by sign-makers to communicate meaning. Understanding the meaning-making potential of <span class="hlt">colour</span> can enhance students' understanding, appreciation, interpretation and <span class="hlt">composition</span> of multimodal texts. This article features a case study of Anya, an 11-year-old…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pantaleo, Sylvia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22colour%22&id=EJ986959"> <span id="translatedtitle">Meaning-Making with <span class="hlt">Colour</span> in Multimodal Texts: An 11-Year-Old Student's Purposeful "Doing"</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|<span class="hlt">Colour</span>, a visual element of art and design, is a semiotic mode that is used strategically by sign-makers to communicate meaning. Understanding the meaning-making potential of <span class="hlt">colour</span> can enhance students' understanding, appreciation, interpretation and <span class="hlt">composition</span> of multimodal texts. This article features a case study of Anya, an 11-year-old…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pantaleo, Sylvia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40979007"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> development and quality of mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit during ripening and after harvest</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">colour</span> of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit changes from green to purple black after harvest as the fruit ripens, and is used as a quality guide for growers and consumers. We determined the relationship between anthocyanin <span class="hlt">composition</span> and content during fruit <span class="hlt">colour</span> development in relation to fruit maturity and postharvest quality. Fruit at different stages of maturity (light greenish</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. Palapol; S. Ketsa; D. Stevenson; J. M. Cooney; A. C. Allan; I. B. Ferguson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21451716"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optimal <span class="hlt">colour</span> quality of LED clusters based on memory <span class="hlt">colours</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The spectral power distributions of tri- and tetrachromatic clusters of Light-Emitting-Diodes, composed of simulated and commercially available LEDs, were optimized with a genetic algorithm to maximize the luminous efficacy of radiation and the <span class="hlt">colour</span> quality as assessed by the memory <span class="hlt">colour</span> quality metric developed by the authors. The trade-off of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> quality as assessed by the memory <span class="hlt">colour</span> metric and the luminous efficacy of radiation was investigated by calculating the Pareto optimal front using the NSGA-II genetic algorithm. Optimal peak wavelengths and spectral widths of the LEDs were derived, and over half of them were found to be close to Thornton's prime <span class="hlt">colours</span>. The Pareto optimal fronts of real LED clusters were always found to be smaller than those of the simulated clusters. The effect of binning on designing a real LED cluster was investigated and was found to be quite large. Finally, a real LED cluster of commercially available AlGaInP, InGaN and phosphor white LEDs was optimized to obtain a higher score on memory <span class="hlt">colour</span> quality scale than its corresponding CIE reference illuminant. PMID:21451716</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smet, Kevin; Ryckaert, Wouter R; Pointer, Michael R; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2306940"> <span id="translatedtitle">Classification of delaminated <span class="hlt">composites</span> using neuro-fuzzy <span class="hlt">image</span> analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Computer assisted <span class="hlt">image</span> analysis is often required in automatic visual in- spection in manufacturing processes.However, in spite of years of research in pixel-based <span class="hlt">image</span> processing techniques such systems are often unable to recognise characteristics that are obvious to human visual inspection.In this paper, we present a technique that combines conventional <span class="hlt">image</span> analysis, neural networks and fuzzy decision-making.The motivation for this</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul L. Rosin; Henry O. Nyongesa; Andrew W. Otieno</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3460808"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of dental resin material <span class="hlt">composition</span> on cross-polarization-optical coherence tomography <span class="hlt">imaging</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract. The purpose of this study was to investigate cross-polarization-optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) signal attenuation through different resin material <span class="hlt">compositions</span>. Four distinct <span class="hlt">composite</span> systems were used: Filtek supreme ultra (FSU) (3M ESPE), IPS empress direct (EMD) (Ivoclar Vivadent), estelite sigma quick (SQK) (Tokuyama Dental), and Z100 (3M ESPE). Cross-sectional <span class="hlt">images</span> of different <span class="hlt">composite</span>-demineralized phantoms (n=108) were collected using a 1310-nm intraoral cross-polarization swept source OCT (CP-OCT) <span class="hlt">imaging</span> system. %T quantified the CP-OCT signal attenuation. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer chemical analysis was utilized to determine how different matrix/filler <span class="hlt">compositions</span> affected attenuation of the near infrared (NIR) signal. CP-OCT <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of dental resin <span class="hlt">composites</span> showed enormous variation in signal attenuation. For each of our <span class="hlt">composite</span> systems, there was not a consistent attenuation difference in the NIR signal for A to D shades. The four <span class="hlt">composites</span> had similar measured backscattering values but attenuated the overall signal to different degrees. When comparing the A2 shades between the four different <span class="hlt">composite</span> systems, the order of highest to lowest of %T was EMD>Z100, FSU>SQK (ANOVA, Tukey, p<0.0001). As a result, we demonstrate the importance of understanding how the constituents of <span class="hlt">composite</span> materials affect CP-OCT signal attenuation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lammeier, Carmen; Li, YuPing; Lunos, Scott; Fok, Alex; Rudney, Joel; Jones, Robert S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42667140"> <span id="translatedtitle">Non Destructive Testing of Thermoplastic <span class="hlt">Composites</span> by NMR <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> and Localised Spectroscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The application of NMR methods to the non-destructive testing of thermoplastic <span class="hlt">composites</span> is discussed. NMR <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of the polymer matrix is restricted to the detection of defects in excess of 5 mm using standard instrumentation. Higher resolution can be achieved by <span class="hlt">imaging</span> the matrix at high temperatures or by more sophisticated NMR procedures with the practical limit of 0.1 mm</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nigel J. Clayden; Peter Jackson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41056534"> <span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring of wildfires in boreal forests using large area AVHRR NDVI <span class="hlt">composite</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) <span class="hlt">composite</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> data, produced from AVHRR data collected in 1990, were evaluated for locating and mapping the areal extent of wildfires in the boreal forests of Alaska during that year. A technique was developed to map forest fire boundaries by subtracting a late-summer AVHRR NDVI <span class="hlt">image</span> from an early summer scene. The locations and boundaries</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. S. Kasischke; N. H. F. French; P. Harrell; N. L. Jr. Christensen; S. L. Ustin; D. Barry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/927081"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> monitor calibration based on CIE standards</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> monitors are widely used in today's computer systems. For many applications, such as those used in vision research, programs arc required to generate specific <span class="hlt">colours</span> on the monitor. Unfortunately, monitors vary significantly in the <span class="hlt">colour</span> characteristics of their phosphors and the amount of light emitted for a particular applied voltage. However, there exist reasonable models for characterizing the <span class="hlt">colour</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Radu I. Campeanu; John D. McFall</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/l1j2167l0462283r.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> preferences of flower-naive honeybees</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Flower-naive honeybees Apis mellifera L. flying in an enclosure were tested for their <span class="hlt">colour</span> preferences. Bees were rewarded once on an achromatic (grey, aluminium or hardboard), or on a chromatic (ultraviolet) disk. Since naive bees never alighted on <span class="hlt">colour</span> stimuli alone, a scent was given in combination with <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Their landings on twelve <span class="hlt">colour</span> stimuli were recorded. Results after one</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Giurfa; J. Núñez; L. Chittka; R. Menzel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15082262"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distortion-free single point <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of multi-layered <span class="hlt">composite</span> sandwich panel structures.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The results of a magnetic resonance <span class="hlt">imaging</span> (MRI) investigation concerning the effects of an aluminum honeycomb sandwich panel on the B1 and B0 fields and on subsequent <span class="hlt">image</span> quality are presented. Although the sandwich panel structure, representative of an aircraft <span class="hlt">composite</span> material, distorts B0 and attenuates B1, distortion-free <span class="hlt">imaging</span> is possible using single point (constant time) <span class="hlt">imaging</span> techniques. A new expression is derived for the error caused by gradient field distortion due to the heterogeneous magnetic susceptibility within a sample and this error is shown not to cause geometric distortion in the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The origin of the B0 distortion in the sample under investigation was also examined. The graphite-epoxy 'skin' of the panel is the principal source of the B0 distortion. Successful <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of these structures sets the stage for the development of methods for detecting moisture ingress and degradation within <span class="hlt">composite</span> sandwich structures. PMID:15082262</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marble, Andrew E; Mastikhin, Igor V; MacGregor, Rod P; Akl, Mohamad; LaPlante, Gabriel; Colpitts, Bruce G; Lee-Sullivan, Pearl; Balcom, Bruce J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JMagR.168..164M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distortion-free single point <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of multi-layered <span class="hlt">composite</span> sandwich panel structures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The results of a magnetic resonance <span class="hlt">imaging</span> (MRI) investigation concerning the effects of an aluminum honeycomb sandwich panel on the B1 and B0 fields and on subsequent <span class="hlt">image</span> quality are presented. Although the sandwich panel structure, representative of an aircraft <span class="hlt">composite</span> material, distorts B0 and attenuates B1, distortion-free <span class="hlt">imaging</span> is possible using single point (constant time) <span class="hlt">imaging</span> techniques. A new expression is derived for the error caused by gradient field distortion due to the heterogeneous magnetic susceptibility within a sample and this error is shown not to cause geometric distortion in the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The origin of the B0 distortion in the sample under investigation was also examined. The graphite-epoxy `skin' of the panel is the principal source of the B0 distortion. Successful <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of these structures sets the stage for the development of methods for detecting moisture ingress and degradation within <span class="hlt">composite</span> sandwich structures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marble, Andrew E.; Mastikhin, Igor V.; MacGregor, Rod P.; Akl, Mohamad; Laplante, Gabriel; Colpitts, Bruce G.; Lee-Sullivan, Pearl; Balcom, Bruce J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=490644"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> anomia restricted to the left visual hemifield after splenial disconnexion.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a patient with damage to the right occipital lobe and to the splenium of the corpus callosum, an incomplete <span class="hlt">colour</span> anopia in the left upper quadrants and a <span class="hlt">colour</span> anomia was found for the complete left visual hemifield beyond 2 degrees eccentricity. The patient had no difficulty in recognising <span class="hlt">coloured</span> targets when presented in the periphery of the left visual hemifield and in the foveal region, but could not name them correctly. The results suggest that the lesion of the splenium of the corpus callosum disconnects the right visual cortex from the language areas of the left hemisphere, and the specific disturbance of <span class="hlt">colour</span> naming is the consequence. <span class="hlt">Images</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zihl, J; von Cramon, D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22colour%22&pg=6&id=EJ993848"> <span id="translatedtitle">Beyond a Dichotomic Approach, the Case of <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Phenomena</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This research documents the aims and the impact of a teaching experiment concerning <span class="hlt">colour</span> phenomena. This teaching experiment is designed in order to make students consider not only the spectral <span class="hlt">composition</span> of light but also its intensity, and to consider the absorption of light by a pigment as relative, instead of as total or zero. Eight…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Viennot, L.; de Hosson, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://vir.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/83/3/651.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dual-<span class="hlt">colour</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of membrane protein targeting directed by poa semilatent virus movement protein TGBp3 in plant and mammalian cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The movement function of poa semilatent hordeivirus (PSLV) is mediated by the triple gene block (TGB) proteins, of which two, TGBp2 and TGBp3, are membrane proteins. TGBp3 is localized to peripheral bodies in the vicinity of the plasma membrane and is able to re-direct TGBp2 from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the peripheral bodies. For <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of TGBp3-mediated protein targeting,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. A. Zamyatnin; A. G. Solovyev; A. A. Sablina; A. A. Agranovsky; L. Katul; H. J. Vetten; J. Schiemann; A. E. Hinkkanen; K. Lehto; S. Yu. Morozov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2330765"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> and texture segmentation using wavelet frame analysis, deterministic relaxation, and fast marching algorithms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Luminance, <span class="hlt">colour</span>, and\\/or texture features may be used, either alone or in combination, for segmentation. In this paper luminance and <span class="hlt">colour</span> classes are described using the corre- sponding empirical probability distributions. For texture analysis and characterisation a mul- tichannel scale\\/orientation decomposition is performed using wavelet frame analysis. Knowing only the number of the different classes of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, regions of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spyros Liapis; Eftychios Sifakis; Georgios Tziritas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41296419"> <span id="translatedtitle">On-line Fusion of <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Camera and Spectrophotometer for Sugar Content Prediction of Apples</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Current grading lines for fresh fruit use sensors that measure weight, size, and sometimes <span class="hlt">colour</span> or firmness. However, none of them measures so far an important organoleptic criteria for the consumer: sugar content. <span class="hlt">Image</span> analysis can provide <span class="hlt">colour</span> information on the fruit, while near-infrared spectrophotometric data can be used in order to determine sugar content. Sensor fusion methodology is aimed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">V. Steinmetz; J. M. Roger; E. Moltó; J. Blasco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1692839"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental factors which may have led to the appearance of <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is hypothesized that <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision and opponent processing of <span class="hlt">colour</span> signals in the visual system evolved as a means of overcoming the extremely unfavourable lighting conditions in the natural environment of early vertebrates. The significant flicker of illumination inherent in the shallow-water environment complicated the visual process in the achromatic case, in particular preventing early detection of enemies. The presence of two spectral classes of photoreceptors and opponent interaction of their signals at a subsequent retinal level allowed elimination of the flicker from the retinal <span class="hlt">image</span>. This new visual function provided certain advantages concerning reaction times and favoured survival. This assumption explains why the building blocks for <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision arose so early, i.e. just after the active predatory lifestyle was mastered. The principal functions of <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision inherent in extant animals required a more complex neural machinery for <span class="hlt">colour</span> processing and evolved later as the result of a change in visual function favouring <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maximov, V V</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8493352"> <span id="translatedtitle">The neurophysiological correlates of <span class="hlt">colour</span> induction, <span class="hlt">colour</span> and brightness contrast.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Psychophysical experiments suggest that <span class="hlt">colour</span> contrast and <span class="hlt">colour</span> induction by surround lights can be explained as brightness contrasts (darkness induction) in the spectral region of the surround <span class="hlt">colour</span>. It follows from this model that a chromatic surround reduces the gain of receptor-ganglion cell channels if the surround <span class="hlt">colour</span> is in their excitatory spectral region. Thus, a green-sensitive cell (G+/R- or WS in our nomenclature) would respond less to a blue-green stimulus flashed into its receptive field when the surround (5 degrees/20 degrees inner/outer diameter) is illuminated with blue light. Neurophysiological experiments show that this is indeed the case and that such surround-induced response changes are present already in relay cells of the parvocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus (P-LGN) and their retinal afferents. These surround-induced response changes are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with psychophysical experiments. Since the neuronal signal for white consists of a balanced excitation of the M-cone excited, green-blue-sensitive WS-cells and the L-cone excited, yellow-red-sensitive WL-cells, the findings also explain <span class="hlt">colour</span> induction on white surfaces as well as <span class="hlt">coloured</span> shadows: during blue surround illumination, white signals from the WS-cells, and during red surround the white signals from the WL-cells are reduced. The neurophysiological surround effects on P-LGN cells are identical but weaker than those produced by light of the same <span class="hlt">colour</span> shone into the receptive field centres. They are therefore undistinguishable from direct adaptation of those receptors which feed directly into the receptive field of the respective cells. This suggests that they are caused by scattered light reaching the receptive field from the surround. PMID:8493352</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Creutzfeldt, O D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007OptCo.269...47M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cross-talk free <span class="hlt">image</span> encryption and watermarking by digital holography and random <span class="hlt">composition</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In previous <span class="hlt">image</span> watermarking methods an encoded host <span class="hlt">image</span> and a watermark <span class="hlt">image</span> are usually directly added, consequently the two <span class="hlt">images</span> have cross-talk in the decryption step. To eliminate this effect, we propose a novel method based on digital holography, in which all the <span class="hlt">image</span> pixels of the two sets of holograms resulted from two hidden <span class="hlt">images</span> are rearranged and integrated into one set of <span class="hlt">composite</span> holograms with a random scattering matrix (RSM). In decryption the use of this matrix can ensure the exact retrieval of each hologram, and then the perfect reconstruction of each <span class="hlt">image</span> without cross-talk noise can be achieved. The feasibility of this method and its robustness against occlusion and additional noise are verified by computer simulations with phase-shifting interferometry and double random-phase encoding technique. This approach is suitable for both two- and three-dimensional <span class="hlt">images</span>, and the additional RSM as a key provides a much higher level of security.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meng, X. F.; Cai, L. Z.; He, M. Z.; Dong, G. Y.; Shen, X. X.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/3lbtj30qw0h3590t.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Density Conditions for Panchromatic <span class="hlt">Colourings</span> of Hypergraphs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">  Let be a hypergraph. A panchromatic t-<span class="hlt">colouring</span> of is a t-<span class="hlt">colouring</span> of its vertices such that each edge has at least one vertex of each <span class="hlt">colour</span>; and is panchromatically t-choosable if, whenever each vertex is given a list of t <span class="hlt">colours</span>, the vertices can be <span class="hlt">coloured</span> from their lists in such a way that each edge receives at least t</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alexandr V. Kostochka; Douglas R. Woodall</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23507571"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of stress and stress hormones on dynamic <span class="hlt">colour</span>-change in a sexually dichromatic Australian frog.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rapid <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes in vertebrates have fascinated biologists for centuries, herein we demonstrate dynamic <span class="hlt">colour</span> change in an anuran amphibian, the stony creek frog (Litoria wilcoxii), which turns from brown to bright (lemon) yellow during amplexus. We show this by comparing the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of baseline (unpaired males) and amplecting (paired) males. We also investigate the possible role of stress and stress hormones on this <span class="hlt">colour</span> change. Frogs were subjected to four different levels of stressors (handling, toe-clipping, saline injection and adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] injection) and the <span class="hlt">colour</span> change was measured using digital photography. A comparison of baseline <span class="hlt">colour</span> and stress hormone (corticosterone) levels was also conducted to give further insight to this topic. From the <span class="hlt">images</span>, the Red Blue Green (RGB) <span class="hlt">colour</span> values were calculated, and a principal components analysis (PCA) was used to create a single <span class="hlt">colour</span> metric (the major axis) as an index of <span class="hlt">colour</span> in the visible spectrum. A moderate stressor (toe-clipping) led to a significant change in <span class="hlt">colour</span> (within 10 min) similar to that of amplecting males. Surprisingly, neither a mild stressor (handling and saline injection) nor the maximum stressor (handling and ACTH injection) led to a lightening response. This study confirms that the dynamic male <span class="hlt">colour</span> change in this species in response to medium stressors adds new knowledge to the understanding of the functional mechanisms of dynamic <span class="hlt">colour</span> change in amphibians. PMID:23507571</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kindermann, Christina; Narayan, Edward J; Wild, Francis; Wild, Clyde H; Hero, Jean-Marc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=185433"> <span id="translatedtitle">CHARACTERIZING LANDSCAPE <span class="hlt">COMPOSITION</span> AND STRUCTURE WITH <span class="hlt">IMAGE</span> TEXTURE PARAMETERS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is a need to characterize landscapes using parameters that contain information beyond that of traditional land cover/land use categories. Surface <span class="hlt">composition</span> and structure are desirable factors for applications such as modeling soil-plant-atmosphere interactions, understanding watershed hydro...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ApPhL..90q3902W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear photoinduced anisotropy and modifiable optical <span class="hlt">image</span> display in a bacteriorhodopsin/polymer <span class="hlt">composite</span> film</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The nonlinear photoinduced anisotropy with large birefringence in a bacteriorhodopsin/polymer <span class="hlt">composite</span> (bR/PC) film was observed. The contrast ratio, a ratio of the maximum to the minimum intensity of transmitted probe light through the bR/PC film within the linear gray scale range could reach ~350:1. An all-optical <span class="hlt">image</span> display in different colors was performed. The intensity of the transmitted signal could be modulated by adjusting the multibeam polarization states and intensities. Therefore, the positive <span class="hlt">image</span>, negative <span class="hlt">image</span>, and <span class="hlt">image</span> erasure in display were demonstrated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wei, Lai; Luo, Jia; Zhu, Jiang; Lu, Ming; Zhao, You-Yuan; Ma, De-Wang; Ding, Jian-Dong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21752009"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">colour</span> of gender stereotyping.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite legislative attempts to eliminate gender stereotyping from society, the propensity to evaluate people on the basis of their sex remains a pernicious social problem. Noting the critical interplay between cultural and cognitive factors in the establishment of stereotypical beliefs, the current investigation explored the extent to which culturally transmitted <span class="hlt">colour</span>-gender associations (i.e., pink is for girls, blue is for boys) set the stage for the automatic activation and expression of gender stereotypes. Across six experiments, the results demonstrated that (1) consumer choice for children's goods is dominated by gender-stereotyped <span class="hlt">colours</span> (Experiment 1); (2) <span class="hlt">colour</span>-based stereotypic associations guide young children's behaviour (Experiment 2); (3) <span class="hlt">colour</span>-gender associations automatically activate associated stereotypes in adulthood (Experiments 3-5); and (4) <span class="hlt">colour</span>-based stereotypic associations bias impressions of male and female targets (Experiment 6). These findings indicate that, despite prohibitions against stereotyping, seemingly innocuous societal practices may continue to promote this mode of thought. PMID:21752009</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cunningham, Sheila J; Macrae, C Neil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2663031"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carotenoid-Based <span class="hlt">Colours</span> Reflect the Stress Response in the Common Lizard</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Under chronic stress, carotenoid-based <span class="hlt">colouration</span> has often been shown to fade. However, the ecological and physiological mechanisms that govern <span class="hlt">colouration</span> still remain largely unknown. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> changes may be directly induced by the stressor (for example through reduced carotenoid intake) or due to the activation of the physiological stress response (PSR, e.g. due to increased blood corticosterone concentrations). Here, we tested whether blood corticosterone concentration affected carotenoid-based <span class="hlt">colouration</span>, and whether a trade-off between <span class="hlt">colouration</span> and PSR existed. Using the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara), we correlatively and experimentally showed that elevated blood corticosterone levels are associated with increased redness of the lizard's belly. In this study, the effects of corticosterone did not depend on carotenoid ingestion, indicating the absence of a trade-off between <span class="hlt">colouration</span> and PSR for carotenoids. While carotenoid ingestion increased blood carotenoid concentration, <span class="hlt">colouration</span> was not modified. This suggests that carotenoid-based <span class="hlt">colouration</span> of common lizards is not severely limited by dietary carotenoid intake. Together with earlier studies, these findings suggest that the common lizard's carotenoid-based <span class="hlt">colouration</span> may be a <span class="hlt">composite</span> trait, consisting of fixed (e.g. genetic) and environmentally elements, the latter reflecting the lizard's PSR.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fitze, Patrick S.; Cote, Julien; San-Jose, Luis Martin; Meylan, Sandrine; Isaksson, Caroline; Andersson, Staffan; Rossi, Jean-Marc; Clobert, Jean</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23568710"> <span id="translatedtitle">Increasing land-use intensity decreases floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> diversity of plant communities in temperate grasslands.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To preserve biodiversity and ecosystem functions in a globally changing world it is crucial to understand the effect of land use on ecosystem processes such as pollination. Floral <span class="hlt">colouration</span> is known to be central in plant-pollinator interactions. To date, it is still unknown whether land use affects the <span class="hlt">colouration</span> of flowering plant communities. To assess the effect of land use on the diversity and <span class="hlt">composition</span> of flower <span class="hlt">colours</span> in temperate grasslands, we collected data on the number of flowering plant species, blossom cover and flower reflectance spectra from 69 plant communities in two German regions, Schwäbische Alb (SA) and Hainich-Dün (HD). We analysed reflectance data of flower <span class="hlt">colours</span> as they are perceived by honeybees and studied floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> diversity based upon spectral loci of each flowering plant species in the Maxwell triangle. Before the first mowing, flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> diversity decreased with increasing land-use intensity in SA, accompanied by a shift of mean flower <span class="hlt">colours</span> of communities towards an increasing proportion of white blossom cover in both regions. By changing <span class="hlt">colour</span> characteristics of grasslands, we suggest that increasing land-use intensity can affect the flower visitor fauna in terms of visitor behaviour and diversity. These changes may in turn influence plant reproduction in grassland plant communities. Our results indicate that land use is likely to affect communication processes between plants and flower visitors by altering flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> traits. PMID:23568710</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Binkenstein, Julia; Renoult, Julien P; Schaefer, H Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15312030"> <span id="translatedtitle">The handicap of abnormal <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">All people with abnormal <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision, except for a few mildly affected deuteranomals, report that they experience problems with <span class="hlt">colour</span> in everyday life and at work. Contemporary society presents them with increasing problems because <span class="hlt">colour</span> is now so widely used in printed materials and in computer displays. Equal opportunity law gives them protection against unfair discrimination in employment, so a decision to exclude a person from employment on the grounds of abnormal <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision must now be well supported by good evidence and sound argument. This paper reviews the investigations that have contributed to understanding the nature and consequences of the problems they have. All those with abnormal <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision are at a disadvantage with comparative <span class="hlt">colour</span> tasks that involve precise matching of <span class="hlt">colours</span> or discrimination of fine <span class="hlt">colour</span> differences either because of their loss of <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination or anomalous perception of metamers. The majority have problems when <span class="hlt">colour</span> is used to code information, in man-made <span class="hlt">colour</span> codes and in naturally occurring <span class="hlt">colour</span> codes that signal ripeness of fruit, freshness of meat or illness. They can be denied the benefit of <span class="hlt">colour</span> to mark out objects and organise complex visual displays. They may be unreliable when a <span class="hlt">colour</span> name is used as an identifier. They are slower and less successful in search when <span class="hlt">colour</span> is an attribute of the target object or is used to organise the visual display. Because those with the more severe forms of abnormal <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision perceive a very limited gamut of <span class="hlt">colours</span>, they are at a disadvantage in the pursuit and appreciation of those forms of art that use <span class="hlt">colour</span>. PMID:15312030</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cole, Barry L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8417E..0KH"> <span id="translatedtitle">Research of processing method for infrared <span class="hlt">image</span> of sandwich structure <span class="hlt">composite</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Composite</span> sandwich structure has been widely used in aerospace due to its lightweight, high stiffness and strength. Existence of delaminations in the structure reduce the performance of the <span class="hlt">composites</span> significantly, such flaws can be detected effectively and non-destructively by non-contact pulsed infrared thermography, but the contrast of infrared <span class="hlt">images</span> of the material is low due to complex structure, so delaminations and sound area are difficult to be differentiated. In this paper, sandwich structure <span class="hlt">composites</span> with aluminum facesheet and aluminum honeycomb cores are chosen as study objectives, several round-shape and rectangle-shape Teflon inserts with different sizes embedded in specimen, which simulate delaminations in the structure, and the processing method of infrared <span class="hlt">image</span> is developed. The thermal <span class="hlt">image</span> is processed through <span class="hlt">image</span> denoising, <span class="hlt">image</span> enhancement and feature extraction, and then the sizes of the defects are determined. Refer to the designed sizes, the results show that the accuracy of sizes measured by <span class="hlt">image</span> processing is more than 90% for the defects bigger than ?10mm , these results demonstrated that detecting accuracy of the structure is higher by infrared <span class="hlt">image</span> processing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huo, Yan; Zhang, Cun-Lin; Hu, Chun-Yu; Li, Chun-Guang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3159894"> <span id="translatedtitle">High Frequency PMN-PT 1-3 <span class="hlt">Composite</span> Transducer for Ultrasonic <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> Application</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Development of PMN-PT single crystal/epoxy 1–3 <span class="hlt">composites</span> for high-frequency ultrasonic transducers application is presented. The <span class="hlt">composite</span> was fabricated by using a DRIE dry etching process with a 45% volume fraction of PMN-PT. A 35 MHz ultrasound flat transducer was fabricated with the <span class="hlt">composite</span>, which was found to have an effective electromechanical coupling coefficient of 0.81, an insertion loss of 18 db, and a –6 dB bandwidth as high as 100%. Tungsten wire phantom <span class="hlt">image</span> shows that the transducer had an axial resolution of 30 ?m, which was in good agreement with the theoretical expectation. The initial results showed that the PMN-PT/epoxy 1–3 <span class="hlt">composite</span> has many attractive properties over conventional piezoelectric materials for medical <span class="hlt">imaging</span> applications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">SUN, PING; WANG, GAOFENG; WU, DAWEI; ZHU, BENPENG; HU, CHANGHONG; LIU, CHANGGENG; DJUTH, FRANK T.; ZHOU, QIFA; SHUNG, K. KIRK</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJAEO..21...17Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methodology for estimating availability of cloud-free <span class="hlt">image</span> <span class="hlt">composites</span>: A case study for southern Canada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Image</span> <span class="hlt">composites</span> are often used for earth surface phenomena studies at regional or national level. The compromise between residual clouds and the length of <span class="hlt">compositing</span> period is a necessary corollary to the choice of satellite optical data for monitoring earth surface phenomena dynamics. This paper introduced a methodology for estimating availability of cloud-free <span class="hlt">image</span> <span class="hlt">composites</span> for optical sensors with various revisiting intervals, using MODIS MOD06 L2 cloud fraction product in the period of 2000-2008. The methodology starts with downscaling of the cloud fraction product to 1 km × 1 km cloud cover binary <span class="hlt">images</span>. The binary <span class="hlt">images</span> are then used for the exploration of spatial and temporal characteristics of cloud dynamics, and subsequently for the simulation of cloud-free <span class="hlt">composite</span> availability with various revisiting intervals of optical sensors. Using Canada's southern provinces as an application case, the study explored several factors important for the design of environmental monitoring system using optical sensors of earth observation, in particular, cloud dynamics and its inter-annual variability, sensors' revisiting intervals, and cloud-free threshold for targeting <span class="hlt">composites</span>. While the cloud <span class="hlt">images</span> used in the analysis are at 1 km × 1 km resolution, our analysis suggests that the simulated availabilities of cloud-free <span class="hlt">image</span> <span class="hlt">composites</span> may also provide reasonable estimates for optical sensors with higher than 1 km × 1 km resolution, though the closer to 1 km × 1 km resolution the optical sensor, the more pertinent the application. Also, the methodology can be parameterised to different temporal period and different spatial region, depending on applications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhou, Fuqun; Zhang, Aining</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13332216"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Composition</span> of a Dewarped and Enhanced Document <span class="hlt">Image</span> From Two View <span class="hlt">Images</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we propose an algorithm to compose a geometrically dewarped and visually enhanced <span class="hlt">image</span> from two document <span class="hlt">images</span> taken by a digital camera at different angles. Unlike the conventional works that require special equipments or assumptions on the contents of books or complicated <span class="hlt">image</span> acquisition steps, we estimate the unfolded book or document surface from the corresponding points</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hyung il Koo; Jinho Kim; Nam Ik Cho</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5044960"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preparation of B[sub 4]C/Al <span class="hlt">composites</span> for <span class="hlt">image</span> analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Composites</span> made by infiltrating B[sub 4]C networks with aluminum, or its alloys, are of interest for lightweight armor applications. <span class="hlt">Image</span> analysis plays an important part in correlating the microstructures of such <span class="hlt">composites</span> with their mechanical properties. Accurate <span class="hlt">image</span> analysis requires a high degree of perfection in the metallographic preparation, which is particularly difficult where the phases present have such disparate hardnesses and reactivities. Two preparation procedures have been developed that produce adequate contrast and definition for analysis of key microstructural features.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kelly, A.M.; Reiswig, R.D.; Hill, M.A.; Blumenthal, W.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7072660"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preparation of AlB sub 4 C <span class="hlt">composites</span> for <span class="hlt">image</span> analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Composites</span> made by infiltrating B{sub 4}C networks with aluminium, or its alloys are of interest for lightweight armor applications. <span class="hlt">Image</span> analysis plays an important part in correlating the microstructures of such <span class="hlt">composites</span> with their mechanical properties. Accurate <span class="hlt">image</span> analysis requires a high degree of perfection in the metallographic preparation, which is particularly difficult where the phases present have such disparate hardness and reactivities. Two preparation procedures have been developed that produce adequate contrast and definition for analysis of key microstructural features. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kelly, A.M.; Reiswig, R.D.; Hill, M.A.; Blumenthal, W.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/64344"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of delamination and disbonding in stratified dielectric <span class="hlt">composites</span> by millimeter wave <span class="hlt">imaging</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Electromagnetic radiation at microwave frequencies has been in use for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of various low-loss and generally lossy dielectric materials. A monostatic backscatter millimeter wave <span class="hlt">imaging</span> system was utilized for non-destructive characterization of defects in low-loss <span class="hlt">composites</span> of Kevlar/epoxy. Defects consisting of subsurface delamination and disbonding defects were successfully detected and characterized. <span class="hlt">Images</span> are constructed by measuring the relative amplitude and phase of the reflected radiation. The results clearly indicate the potential of such high-frequency systems for nondestructive characterization of small defects in low-loss dielectric <span class="hlt">composite</span> materials.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bakhtiari, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Raptis, A.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Division</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1511..525H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Damage threshold study of sonic IR <span class="hlt">imaging</span> on carbon-fiber reinforced laminated <span class="hlt">composite</span> materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sonic Infrared <span class="hlt">Imaging</span>, as a young NDE technology, has drawn a lot of attentions due to it's fast, wide-area evaluation capability, and due to its broad applications in different materials such as metal/metal alloy, <span class="hlt">composites</span> and detection of various types of defects: surface, subsurface, cracks, delaminations/disbonds. Sonic IR <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> combines pulsed ultrasound excitation and infrared <span class="hlt">imaging</span> to detect defects in materials. The sound pulse causes rubbing due to non-unison motion between faces of defects, and infrared sensors <span class="hlt">image</span> the temperature map over the target to identify defects. However, concerns have also been brought up about possible damages which might occur at the contact spots between the ultrasound transducer from the external excitation source and the target materials. In this paper, we present our results from a series of systematically designed experiments on carbon-fiber reinforced laminated <span class="hlt">composite</span> panels to address the concerns.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Han, Xiaoyan; He, Qi; Zhang, Ding; Ashbaugh, Mike; Favro, Lawrence D.; Newaz, Golam; Thomas, Robert L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8493E..0AC"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Composite</span> low-coherence interferometer for <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of immersed tissue with high accuracy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Imaging</span> and measurement of the surface profile of an object with high resolution has become essential in both of biological research and industry application. Many samples under investigation such as cultured cells are usually immersed in liquid. Although the techniques such as scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope can provide <span class="hlt">imaging</span> or measurement of the surface profile with nanometer resolution, it is difficult for them to <span class="hlt">image</span> an immersed object with their typical types. Recently, we have proposed and demonstrated a new technique based on <span class="hlt">composite</span> interferometer which can perform <span class="hlt">imaging</span> and measurement of the surface profile of an object with accuracy in the axial direction within 5 nm through a self-phase-compensation mechanism. In this research, an optical system based on the concept of combination of optical coherence microscopy (OCM) and <span class="hlt">composite</span> interferometer was built for <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of biological tissue immersed in water with axial accuracy at nanometer scale. In the system, a Ti:sapphire laser with center wavelength at 800 nm and spectral width of 140 nm was used as the light source. The <span class="hlt">composite</span> interferometer comprises two Michelson interferometers sharing common light source, reference arm and photodetector. One of the two interferometers served as a typical OCM system and the other was used to measure the phase shift in the reference arm in each axial scan with the sample being a fixed reflection mirror. The system was used to <span class="hlt">image</span> the surface profiles of various immersed biological samples with accuracy at nanometer scale through the self-phasecompensation mechanism.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, Chun-Wei; Hsu, I.-Jen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3672664"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optical <span class="hlt">imaging</span> correlates with magnetic resonance <span class="hlt">imaging</span> breast density and reveals <span class="hlt">composition</span> changes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction In addition to being a risk factor for breast cancer, breast density has been hypothesized to be a surrogate biomarker for predicting response to endocrine-based chemotherapies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a noninvasive bedside scanner based on diffuse optical spectroscopic <span class="hlt">imaging</span> (DOSI) provides quantitative metrics to measure and track changes in breast tissue <span class="hlt">composition</span> and density. To access a broad range of densities in a limited patient population, we performed optical measurements on the contralateral normal breast of patients before and during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). In this work, DOSI parameters, including tissue hemoglobin, water, and lipid concentrations, were obtained and correlated with magnetic resonance <span class="hlt">imaging</span> (MRI)-measured fibroglandular tissue density. We evaluated how DOSI could be used to assess breast density while gaining new insight into the impact of chemotherapy on breast tissue. Methods This was a retrospective study of 28 volunteers undergoing NAC treatment for breast cancer. Both 3.0-T MRI and broadband DOSI (650 to 1,000 nm) were obtained from the contralateral normal breast before and during NAC. Longitudinal DOSI measurements were used to calculate breast tissue concentrations of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, water, and lipid. These values were compared with MRI-measured fibroglandular density before and during therapy. Results Water (r = 0.843; P < 0.001), deoxyhemoglobin (r = 0.785; P = 0.003), and lipid (r = -0.707; P = 0.010) concentration measured with DOSI correlated strongly with MRI-measured density before therapy. Mean DOSI parameters differed significantly between pre- and postmenopausal subjects at baseline (water, P < 0.001; deoxyhemoglobin, P = 0.024; lipid, P = 0.006). During NAC treatment measured at about 90 days, significant reductions were observed in oxyhemoglobin for pre- (-20.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI), -32.7 to -7.4) and postmenopausal subjects (-20.1%; 95% CI, -31.4 to -8.8), and water concentration for premenopausal subjects (-11.9%; 95% CI, -17.1 to -6.7) compared with baseline. Lipid increased slightly in premenopausal subjects (3.8%; 95% CI, 1.1 to 6.5), and water increased slightly in postmenopausal subjects (4.4%; 95% CI, 0.1 to 8.6). Percentage change in water at the end of therapy compared with baseline correlated strongly with percentage change in MRI-measured density (r = 0.864; P = 0.012). Conclusions DOSI functional measurements correlate with MRI fibroglandular density, both before therapy and during NAC. Although from a limited patient dataset, these results suggest that DOSI may provide new functional indices of density based on hemoglobin and water that could be used at the bedside to assess response to therapy and evaluate disease risk.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3784673"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiopacity of restorative <span class="hlt">composites</span> by conventional radiograph and digital <span class="hlt">images</span> with different resolutions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose This study was performed to evaluate and compare the radiopacity of dentin, enamel, and 8 restorative <span class="hlt">composites</span> on conventional radiograph and digital <span class="hlt">images</span> with different resolutions. Materials and Methods Specimens were fabricated from 8 materials and human molars were longitudinally sectioned 1.0 mm thick to include both enamel and dentin. The specimens and tooth sections were <span class="hlt">imaged</span> by conventional radiograph using #4 sized intraoral film and digital <span class="hlt">images</span> were taken in high speed and high resolution modes using a phosphor storage plate. Densitometric evaluation of the enamel, dentin, restorative materials, a lead sheet, and an aluminum step wedge was performed on the radiographic <span class="hlt">images</span>. For the evaluation, the Al equivalent (mm) for each material was calculated. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05), considering the material factor and then the radiographic method factor, individually. Results The high speed mode allowed the highest radiopacity, while the high resolution mode generated the lowest values. Furthermore, the high resolution mode was the most efficient method for radiographic differentiation between restorative <span class="hlt">composites</span> and dentin. The conventional radiograph was the most effective in enabling differentiation between enamel and <span class="hlt">composites</span>. The high speed mode was the least effective in enabling radiographic differentiation between the dental tissues and restorative <span class="hlt">composites</span>. Conclusion The high speed mode of digital <span class="hlt">imaging</span> was not effective for differentiation between enamel and <span class="hlt">composites</span>. This made it less effective than the high resolution mode and conventional radiographs. All of the <span class="hlt">composites</span> evaluated showed radiopacity values that fit the ISO 4049 recommendations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sarmento, Hugo Ramalho; Duarte, Rosangela Marques; Meireles Monte Raso, Sonia Saeger; de Andrade, Ana Karina Maciel; Dos Anjos-Pontual, Maria Luiza</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2421676"> <span id="translatedtitle">Music organisation using <span class="hlt">colour</span> synaesthesia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The movement of music from physical discs to digital resources managed on a computer has had an effect on the listening habits of users. We explore using the potential of the innate synaesthesia that some people report feeling between <span class="hlt">colour</span> and mood in a novel interface that enables a user to explore their music collection and create musical playlists in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael Voong; Russell Beale</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE2002793050"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> Glass Condensate: An Introduction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures a...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. Iancu A. Leonidov L. McLerran</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6143..623R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plexus structure <span class="hlt">imaging</span> with thin slab MR neurography: rotating frames, fly-throughs, and <span class="hlt">composite</span> projections</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We explored multiple <span class="hlt">image</span> processing approaches by which to display the segmented adult brachial plexus in a three-dimensional manner. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) 1.5-Tesla scans with STIR sequences, which preferentially highlight nerves, were performed in adult volunteers to generate high-resolution raw <span class="hlt">images</span>. Using multiple software programs, the raw MRN <span class="hlt">images</span> were then manipulated so as to achieve segmentation of plexus neurovascular structures, which were incorporated into three different visualization schemes: rotating upper thoracic girdle skeletal frames, dynamic fly-throughs parallel to the clavicle, and thin slab volume-rendered <span class="hlt">composite</span> projections.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raphael, David T.; McIntee, Diane; Tsuruda, Jay S.; Colletti, Patrick; Tatevossian, Raymond; Frazier, James</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40475855"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colouring</span> of moulded plastic products by the addition of <span class="hlt">colour</span> masterbatches</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">colouring</span> of moulded plastic products can be achieved by adding a small percentage of <span class="hlt">colour</span> masterbach into the main bulk of plastic resin during processing. Indeed, this practice has been accepted widely in the industry. Since the primary objective of this practice is to <span class="hlt">colour</span> the products, the amount of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> masterbatch added being normally less than 4</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. C.-Y. Wong; N. S. K. Ng; V. L. F. Ng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18420057"> <span id="translatedtitle">Search for <span class="hlt">colour</span> singlet and <span class="hlt">colour</span> reconnection effects in hadronic Z decays at LEP</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A search is performed in symmetric 3-jet hadronic Z-decay events for evidence of <span class="hlt">colour</span> singlet production or <span class="hlt">colour</span> reconnection effects. Asymmetries in the angular separation of particles are found to be sensitive indicators of such effects. Upper limits on the level of <span class="hlt">colour</span> singlet production or of <span class="hlt">colour</span> reconnection effects are established for a variety of models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Achard; O. Adriani; M. Aguilar-Benitez; J. Alcaraz; G. Alemanni; J. Allaby; A. Aloisio; M. G. Alviggi; H. Anderhub; V. P. Andreev; F. Anselmo; A. Arefiev; T. Azemoon; T. Aziz; P. Bagnaia; A. Bajo; G. Baksay; L. Baksay; S. V. Baldew; S. Banerjee; A. Barczyk; R. Barillère; P. Bartalini; M. Basile; N. Batalova; R. Battiston; A. Bay; F. Becattini; U. Becker; F. Behner; L. Bellucci; R. Berbeco; J. Berdugo; P. Berges; B. Bertucci; B. L. Betev; M. Biasini; M. Biglietti; A. Biland; J. J. Blaising; S. C. Blyth; G. J. Bobbink; A. Böhm; L. Boldizsar; B. Borgia; S. Bottai; D. Bourilkov; M. Bourquin; S. Braccini; J. G. Branson; F. Brochu; J. D. Burger; W. J. Burger; X. D. Cai; M. Capell; G. Carlino; A. Cartacci; J. Casaus; F. Cavallari; N. Cavallo; C. Cecchi; M. Cerrada; M. Chamizo; Y. H. Chang; M. Chemarin; A. Chen; G. Chen; H. F. Chen; H. S. Chen; G. Chiefari; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; I. Clare; R. Clare; G. Coignet; N. Colino; S. Costantini; S. Cucciarelli; P. Déglon; J. Debreczeni; A. Degré; K. Dehmelt; K. Deiters; E. Delmeire; P. Denes; F. Denotaristefani; M. Diemoz; M. Dierckxsens; C. Dionisi; M. Dittmar; A. Doria; M. T. Dova; D. Duchesneau; M. Duda; B. Echenard; A. Eline; A. Engler; F. J. Eppling; P. Extermann; M. A. Falagan; S. Falciano; A. Favara; J. Fay; O. Fedin; M. Felcini; T. Ferguson; H. Fesefeldt; E. Fiandrini; J. H. Field; F. Filthaut; P. H. Fisher; W. Fisher; I. Fisk; G. Forconi; K. Freudenreich; C. Furetta; Yu. Galaktionov; S. N. Ganguli; P. Garcia-Abia; M. Gataullin; S. Gentile; S. Giagu; Z. F. Gong; G. Grenier; O. Grimm; M. W. Gruenewald; M. Guida; V. K. Gupta; A. Gurtu; L. J. Gutay; D. Haas; D. Hatzifotiadou; T. Hebbeker; A. Hervé; J. Hirschfelder; H. Hofer; M. Hohlmann; G. Holzner; S. R. Hou; Y. Hu; B. N. Jin; L. W. Jones; I. Josa-Mutuberr??a; D. Käfer; M. Kaur; M. N. Kienzle-Focacci; J. K. Kim; J. Kirkby; W. Kittel; A. Klimentov; A. C. König; M. Kopal; V. Koutsenko; M. Kräber; R. W. Kraemer; A. Krüger; A. Kunin; I. Laktineh; G. Landi; M. Lebeau; A. Lebedev; P. Lebrun; P. Lecomte; P. Lecoq; R. Leiste; M. Levtchenko; P. Levtchenko; C. Li; S. Likhoded; C. H. Lin; W. T. Lin; F. L. Linde; L. Lista; Z. A. Liu; W. Lohmann; E. Longo; Y. S. Lu; C. Luci; L. Luminari; W. Lustermann; W. G. Ma; L. Malgeri; A. Malinin; J. Mans; J. P. Martin; F. Marzano; K. Mazumdar; R. R. McNeil; S. Mele; L. Merola; M. Meschini; W. J. Metzger; A. Mihul; H. Milcent; G. Mirabelli; J. Mnich; G. B. Mohanty; G. S. Muanza; A. J. M. Muijs; B. Musicar; M. Musy; S. Nagy; S. Natale; M. Napolitano; F. Nessi-Tedaldi; H. Newman; A. Nisati; T. Novak; H. Nowak; R. Ofierzynski; G. Organtini; I. Pal; C. Palomares; P. Paolucci; R. Paramatti; G. Passaleva; S. Patricelli; T. Paul; M. Pauluzzi; C. Paus; F. Pauss; M. Pedace; S. Pensotti; D. Perret-Gallix; B. Petersen; D. Piccolo; F. Pierella; M. Pioppi; P. A. Piroué; E. Pistolesi; V. Plyaskin; M. Pohl; V. Pojidaev; J. Pothier; D. Prokofiev; J. Quartieri; G. Rahal-Callot; M. A. Rahaman; P. Raics; N. Raja; R. Ramelli; P. G. Rancoita; R. Ranieri; A. Raspereza; P. Razis; D. Ren; M. Rescigno; S. Reucroft; S. Riemann; K. Riles; B. P. Roe; L. Romero; A. Rosca; S. Rosier-Lees; S. Roth; C. Rosenbleck; J. A. Rubio; G. Ruggiero; H. Rykaczewski; A. Sakharov; S. Saremi; S. Sarkar; J. Salicio; E. Sanchez; C. Schäfer; V. Schegelsky; H. Schopper; D. J. Schotanus; C. Sciacca; L. Servoli; S. Shevchenko; N. Shivarov; V. Shoutko; E. Shumilov; A. Shvorob; D. Son; C. Souga; P. Spillantini; M. Steuer; D. P. Stickland; B. Stoyanov; A. Straessner; K. Sudhakar; G. Sultanov; L. Z. Sun; S. Sushkov; H. Suter; J. D. Swain; Z. Szillasi; X. W. Tang; P. Tarjan; L. Tauscher; L. Taylor; B. Tellili; D. Teyssier; C. Timmermans; Samuel C. C. Ting; S. M. Ting; S. C. Tonwar; J. Tóth; C. Tully; K. L. Tung; J. Ulbricht; E. Valente; R. T. Van de Walle; R. Vasquez; V. Veszpremi; G. Vesztergombi; I. Vetlitsky; D. Vicinanza; G. Viertel; S. Villa; M. Vivargent; S. Vlachos; I. Vodopianov; H. Vogel; H. Vogt; I. Vorobiev; A. A. Vorobyov; M. Wadhwa; Q. Wang; X. L. Wang; Z. M. Wang; M. Weber; P. Wienemann; H. Wilkens; S. Wynhoff; L. Xia; Z. Z. Xu; J. Yamamoto; B. Z. Yang; C. G. Yang; H. J. Yang; M. Yang; S. C. Yeh; An. Zalite; Yu. Zalite; Z. P. Zhang; J. Zhao; G. Y. Zhu; R. Y. Zhu; H. L. Zhuang; A. Zichichi; B. Zimmermann; M. Zöller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=the+AND+green+AND+movement&pg=4&id=EJ871682"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biological Components of <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Preference in Infancy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Adult <span class="hlt">colour</span> preference has been summarized quantitatively in terms of weights on the two fundamental neural processes that underlie early <span class="hlt">colour</span> encoding: the S-(L+M) ("blue-yellow") and L-M ("red-green") cone-opponent contrast channels ( Ling, Hurlbert & Robinson, 2006; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007). Here, we investigate whether <span class="hlt">colour</span> preference in…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Franklin, Anna; Bevis, Laura; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40248579"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> space models for soil science</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Soil <span class="hlt">colour</span> is an important soil property. It is frequently used by soil scientists for the identification and classification of soil. It is also used as an indicator of field soil physical, chemical and biological properties as well as of the occurrence of soil processes. Measurements of soil <span class="hlt">colour</span> are commonly made using the Munsell soil <span class="hlt">colour</span> charts. A number</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. A. Viscarra Rossel; B. Minasny; P. Roudier; A. B. McBratney</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/392949"> <span id="translatedtitle">Choosing effective <span class="hlt">colours</span> for data visualization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we describe a technique for choosing multiple <span class="hlt">colours</span> for use during data visualization. Our goal is a systematic method for maximizing the total number of <span class="hlt">colours</span> available for use, while still allowing an observer to rapidly and accurately search a display for any one of the given <span class="hlt">colours</span>. Previous research suggests that we need to consider three</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christopher G. Healey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/610525"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Image</span> Re-Composer: A Post-Production Tool Using <span class="hlt">Composition</span> Information of Pictures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose a post-production tool for refining pictures called the <span class="hlt">Image</span> Re-Composer. This tool decomposes an original picture into figure objects and the ground, and then recomposes the figure objects according to <span class="hlt">composition</span> information taken from a well designed picture, such as an art masterpiece. The figure extraction is performed by a figure extraction method that utilizes a characteristic of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shoji Tanaka; Jun Kurumizawa; Andre Plante; Yuichi Iwadate; Seiji Inokuchi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27092493"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Particle <span class="hlt">Image</span> Velocimetry Study of Vibrating Ionic Polymer Metal <span class="hlt">Composites</span> in Aqueous Environments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Low power consumption and activation voltage combined with high flexibility and minimal weight make ionic polymer metal <span class="hlt">composites</span> (IPMCs) well-suited for miniaturized underwater propulsion systems. In the present study, we investigate the flow field generated by an IPMC strip vibrating in a quiescent aqueous environment using planar particle <span class="hlt">image</span> velocimetry. We use the time-averaged flow field to compute the momentum</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sean D. Peterson; Maurizio Porfiri; Alessandro Rovardi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/8114"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermal <span class="hlt">imaging</span> and air-coupled ultrasound characterization of a continuous-fiber ceramic <span class="hlt">composite</span> panels.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SYLRAMIC{trademark} continuous fiber ceramic-matrix <span class="hlt">composites</span> (Nicalon{trademark} fiber/SiNC matrix) were fabricated by Dow Corning Corporation with the polymer-impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) process. The <span class="hlt">composite</span> microstructure and its uniformity, and the completeness of infiltration during processing were studied as a function of number of PIP cycles. Two nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods, i.e., infrared thermal <span class="hlt">imaging</span> and air-coupled ultrasound (UT), were used to investigate flat <span class="hlt">composite</span> panels of two thicknesses and various sizes. The thermal <span class="hlt">imaging</span> method provided two-dimensional (2D) <span class="hlt">images</span> of through-thickness thermal diffusivity distributions, and the air-coupled UT method provided 2D <span class="hlt">images</span> of through-thickness ultrasonic transmission of the panel components. Results from both types of NDEs were compared at various PIP cycles during fabrication of the <span class="hlt">composites</span>. A delaminated region was clearly detected and its progressive repair was monitored during processing. The NDE data were also correlated to results obtained from destructive characterization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sun, J. G.; Easler, T. E.; Szweda, A.; Pillai, T. A. K.; Deemer, C.; Ellingson, W. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40832284"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">image</span> analysis technique for evaluating internal damage in graphite-fabric\\/polyimide <span class="hlt">composites</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this paper is to suggest a possible technique for evaluating internal damage in fabric-reinforced <span class="hlt">composite</span> materials. The technique presented in this work is based on capturing and performing a qualitative analysis of scanning electron microscope (SEM) <span class="hlt">images</span> of damage from planar specimen slices (serial sections) and then reassembling the slices in three-dimensional space. This method has been</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K Searles; J McCarthy; M Kumosa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=storage&id=EJ847159"> <span id="translatedtitle">Can <span class="hlt">Imageability</span> Help Us Draw the Line between Storage and <span class="hlt">Composition</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Language requires both storage and <span class="hlt">composition</span>. However, exactly what is retrieved from memory and what is assembled remains controversial, especially for inflected words. Here, "<span class="hlt">imageability</span> effects" is introduced as a new diagnostic of storage and a complement to frequency effects. In 2 studies of past-tense morphology, more reliable…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prado, Elizabeth L.; Ullman, Michael T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4563R"> <span id="translatedtitle">True Color <span class="hlt">Images</span> of the Earth created with the Geostationary Satellite Instrument MSG SEVIRI</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the most famous pictures ever taken was by the crew of Apollo 17 in 1972, showing our Earth from a distance of about 45000km. This picture was named 'Blue Marble' and it reminds us of the beauty and uniqueness of our home planet. With geostationary satellites, such views of the Earth are possible without the need to have a photographer in space. However, up to the present, the production of such Blue Marble type <span class="hlt">images</span> from geostationary satellite data has been impaired by the lack of channels in the visible spectral region. A method for the generation of full disk MSG (METEOSAT Second Generation) SEVIRI (Scanning-Enhanced Visible and Infrared <span class="hlt">Imager</span>) true <span class="hlt">colour</span> <span class="hlt">composite</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> will be presented. The algorithm mainly uses the SEVIRI channels VIS006 (0.6?m), NIR008 (0.8?m) and NIR016 (1.6?m). The lack of information in the blue and green parts of the visible spectrum is compensated by using data from NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration's) Blue Marble next generation (BMNG) project to fill a look-up table (LUT) transforming RGB (red/green/blue) false <span class="hlt">colour</span> <span class="hlt">composite</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> of VIS006/NIR008/NIR016 into true <span class="hlt">colour</span> <span class="hlt">images</span>. Tabulated radiative transfer calculations of a pure Rayleigh atmosphere are used to add an impression of Rayleigh scattering towards the sunlit horizon. The resulting <span class="hlt">images</span> satisfy naive expectations: clouds are white or transparent, vegetated surfaces are greenish, deserts are sandy-<span class="hlt">coloured</span>, the ocean is dark blue to black and a narrow halo due to Rayleigh scattering is visible at the sunlit horizon. Therefore, such <span class="hlt">images</span> are easily interpretable also for inexperienced users not familiar with the characteristics of typical MSG false <span class="hlt">colour</span> <span class="hlt">composite</span> <span class="hlt">images</span>. The <span class="hlt">images</span> can be used for scientific applications to illustrate specific meteorological conditions or for non-scientific purposes, for example, for raising awareness in the public of the Earth's worthiness of protection.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reuter, Maximilian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3103096"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> doppler ultrasonography provides real-time microwave field visualisation in an ex vivo porcine model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction Microwave ablation (MWA) uses non-ionising thermal energy to cause cell death by coagulative necrosis. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Doppler ultrasound (US) produces a spherical <span class="hlt">image</span> during tissue ablation that appears to approximate the microwave near field (MNF) in shape and size. The aim of the present study was to determine whether <span class="hlt">colour</span> Doppler US <span class="hlt">images</span> observed during microwave ablation correlate with the actual thermocoagulation zone (TCZ) observed in liver tissue. Methods Twenty MWAs were performed in ex vivo bovine liver using a 915-MHz ablation antenna set to 45 W for 6 min concomitant with Doppler US <span class="hlt">imaging</span>. The edges of spherical <span class="hlt">images</span> observed with <span class="hlt">colour</span> Doppler US were marked circumferentially in the tissue. The tissue was transected parallel to the angle of antenna insertion, and the distances between methylene blue markings and the TCZ were measured. Results The <span class="hlt">images</span> observed using <span class="hlt">colour</span> Doppler US were similar in size and shape to the actual TCZ observed in the tissue. The mean distance between the observed <span class="hlt">colour</span> Doppler US field diameter and the measured TCZ was 2 ± 1 mm. Conclusions Using <span class="hlt">colour</span> Doppler US, the visualised field during MWA correlates with the TCZ in an ex vivo bovine liver model. Real-time, dynamic feedback of the treatment area may increase the effectiveness of MWA for liver tumours in vivo.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Byrd, Jim F; Agee, Neal; McKillop, Iain H; Sindram, David; Martinie, John B; Iannitti, David A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6244829"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Compositing</span> DISSPLA output with synthetic <span class="hlt">images</span> ISSCO week 86</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A number of graphics packages exist at Sandia to provide scientists and engineers a means of efficiently representing their data. These packages include DISSPLA, TELL-A-GRAF, Mapper, Movie.BYU, Weasel, and some state of the art scene software currently under development. Some very enhanced graphics can be obtained by combining the output of some of these graphics packages. This presentation will discuss a method that was developed which allows incorporating the output of DISSPLA, the most widely used graphics package at Sandia for representing scientific data, with the scene software. The result of this combination is a high quality very informative graph. The procedures that are used to perform this combination will be discussed and many examples of the resulting output will be presented. The technique can be used for simply adding annotation to an <span class="hlt">image</span> generated using the scene software or to add an attractive background from the scene software to a text slide made using DISSPLA. This technique can also be used to merge a ray-traced 3-D surface with a corresponding 3-D DISSPLA vector plot. This is how the two graphs from Sandia on the 1985 ISSCO poster for the ''Battle of the Artists'' were made.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mareda, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21207701"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of impact damage in metallic/nonmetallic <span class="hlt">composites</span> using x-ray computed tomography <span class="hlt">imaging</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Characterizing internal impact damage in <span class="hlt">composites</span> can be difficult, especially in structurally complex <span class="hlt">composites</span> or those consisting of many materials. Many methods for nondestructive inspection/nondestructive testing (NDI/NDT) of materials have been known and in use for many years, including x-ray film, real-time, and digital radiographic techniques, and ultrasonic techniques. However, these techniques are generally not capable of three-dimensional (3D) mapping of complex damage patterns, which is necessary to visualize and understand damage cracking modes. Conventional x-ray radiography suffers from the loss of 3D information. Structural complexity and signal dispersion in materials with many interfaces significantly effect ultrasonic inspection techniques. This makes inspection scan interpretation difficult, especially in <span class="hlt">composites</span> containing a number of different materials (i.e., polymer, ceramic, and metallic). X-ray computed tomography (CT) is broadly applicable to any material or test object through which a beam of penetrating radiation may be passed and detected, including metals, plastics, ceramics, metallic/nonmetallic <span class="hlt">composites</span>, and assemblies. The principal advantage of CT is that it provides densitometric (that is, radiological density and geometry) <span class="hlt">images</span> of thin cross sections through an object. Because of the absence of structural superposition, <span class="hlt">images</span> are much easier to interpret than conventional radiological <span class="hlt">images</span>. The user can quickly learn to read CT data because <span class="hlt">images</span> correspond more closely to the way the human mind visualizes 3D structures than projection radiology (that is, film radiography, real-time radiography (RTR), and digital radiography (DR)). Any number of CT <span class="hlt">images</span>, or slices, from scanning an object can be volumetrically reconstructed to produce a 3D attenuation map of the object. The 3D attenuation data can be rendered using multiplanar or 3D solid visualization. In multiplanar visualization there are four planes of view that can be defined to be anywhere in an object. These visualization modes produce easily interpretable <span class="hlt">images</span> with very good spatial resolution and excellent dimensional capability. This paper will discuss current applications of advanced CT <span class="hlt">imaging</span> to characterizing impact damage in metallic/nonmetallic <span class="hlt">composites</span>. Examples, including encapsulated ceramics in metal-matrix-<span class="hlt">composites</span>, will be discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Green, William H.; Wells, Joseph M. [US Army Research Laboratory/Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-12-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2693529"> <span id="translatedtitle">The influence of <span class="hlt">colour</span> and sound on neuronal activation during visual object naming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper investigates how neuronal activation for naming photographs of objects is influenced by the addition of appropriate <span class="hlt">colour</span> or sound. Behaviourally, both <span class="hlt">colour</span> and sound are known to facilitate object recognition from visual form. However, previous functional <span class="hlt">imaging</span> studies have shown inconsistent effects. For example, the addition of appropriate <span class="hlt">colour</span> has been shown to reduce antero-medial temporal activation whereas the addition of sound has been shown to increase posterior superior temporal activation. Here we compared the effect of adding <span class="hlt">colour</span> or sound cues in the same experiment. We found that the addition of either the appropriate <span class="hlt">colour</span> or sound increased activation for naming photographs of objects in bilateral occipital regions and the right anterior fusiform. Moreover, the addition of <span class="hlt">colour</span> reduced left antero-medial temporal activation but this effect was not observed for the addition of object sound. We propose that activation in bilateral occipital and right fusiform areas precedes the integration of visual form with either its <span class="hlt">colour</span> or associated sound. In contrast, left antero-medial temporal activation is reduced because object recognition is facilitated after <span class="hlt">colour</span> and form have been integrated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hocking, Julia; Price, Cathy J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2781854"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision in mammals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> vision allows animals to reliably distinguish differences in the distributions of spectral energies reaching the eye. Although not universal, a capacity for <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision is sufficiently widespread across the animal kingdom to provide prima facie evidence of its importance as a tool for analysing and interpreting the visual environment. The basic biological mechanisms on which vertebrate <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision ultimately rests, the cone opsin genes and the photopigments they specify, are highly conserved. Within that constraint, however, the utilization of these basic elements varies in striking ways in that they appear, disappear and emerge in altered form during the course of evolution. These changes, along with other alterations in the visual system, have led to profound variations in the nature and salience of <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision among the vertebrates. This article concerns the evolution of <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision among the mammals, viewing that process in the context of relevant biological mechanisms, of variations in mammalian <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision, and of the utility of <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacobs, Gerald H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23911545"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> discrimination and categorisation in Williams syndrome.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) present with impaired functioning of the dorsal visual stream relative to the ventral visual stream. As such, little attention has been given to ventral stream functions in WS. We investigated <span class="hlt">colour</span> processing, a predominantly ventral stream function, for the first time in nineteen individuals with Williams syndrome. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> discrimination was assessed using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> categorisation was assessed using a match-to-sample test and a <span class="hlt">colour</span> naming task. A visual search task was also included as a measure of sensitivity to the size of perceptual <span class="hlt">colour</span> difference. Results showed that individuals with WS have reduced <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination relative to typically developing participants matched for chronological age; performance was commensurate with a typically developing group matched for non-verbal ability. In contrast, categorisation was typical in WS, although there was some evidence that sensitivity to the size of perceptual <span class="hlt">colour</span> differences was reduced in this group. PMID:23911545</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Farran, Emily K; Cranwell, Matthew B; Alvarez, James; Franklin, Anna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6082788"> <span id="translatedtitle">Three-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and x-ray microtomographic <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of <span class="hlt">composite</span> materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a new-three-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) <span class="hlt">imaging</span> technique for nondestructive evaluation of green-state ceramic <span class="hlt">composite</span> materials. The technique is based on a 3-D backprojection protocol for data acquisition combined with a Radon reconstruction technique. Particularly for NMR of solid materials, this <span class="hlt">imaging</span> protocol can provide higher three dimensional spatial resolution than is possible with commonly applied slice-selection protocols. The applicability of this 3-D NMR <span class="hlt">imaging</span> technique was demonstrated using whisker-reinforced Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic <span class="hlt">composites</span>. While NMR is a sensitive and unique method for spatial discrimination of chemical properties (e.g., organic distributions), x-ray CT is a sensitive and proven technique for determining variations in density (i.e., voids and inclusions) within an object. The complementary nature of these two techniques was shown by <span class="hlt">imaging</span> a piece of green ceramic <span class="hlt">composite</span> material by both NMR and x-ray microtomography techniques.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dieckman, S.L.; Gopalsami, N.; Botto, R.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Rizo, P. (CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38 (France). Lab. d'Electronique et de Technologie de l'Informatique)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3236303"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">composite</span> six bp in-frame deletion in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene is associated with the Japanese brindling coat <span class="hlt">colour</span> in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background In the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), classical genetic studies have identified five alleles at the Extension locus: ED (dominant black), ES (steel, weaker version of ED), E (wild type, normal extension of black), eJ(Japanese brindling, mosaic distribution of black and yellow) and e (non-extension of black, yellow/red with white belly). Sequencing almost the complete coding sequence (CDS) of the rabbit MC1R gene, we recently identified two in-frame deletions associated with dominant black (c.280_285del6; alleles ED or ES) and recessive red (c.304_333del30; allele e) coat <span class="hlt">colours</span>. It remained to characterize the eJallele whose phenotypic effect is similar to the Orange and Sex-linked yellow loci of cat and Syrian hamster. Results We sequenced the whole CDS in 25 rabbits of different coat <span class="hlt">colours</span> including 10 Japanese and 10 Rhinelander (tricolour) rabbits and identified another 6 bp-in frame deletion flanked by a G > A transition in 5' (c.[124G>A;125_130del6]) that was present in all animals with Japanese brindling coat <span class="hlt">colour</span> and pattern. These mutations eliminate two amino acids in the first transmembrane domain and, in addition, cause an amino acid substitution at position 44 of the wild type sequence. Genotyping 371 rabbits of 31 breeds with different coat <span class="hlt">colour</span> this allele (eJ) was present in homozygous state in Japanese, Rhinelander and Dutch tricolour rabbits only (except one albino rabbit). Rabbits with eJ/eJ genotype were non fixed at the non-agouti mutation we previously identified in the ASIP gene. Segregation in F1 and F2 families confirmed the order of dominance already determined by classical genetic experiments with a possible dose effect evident comparing eJ/eJ and eJ/e animals. MC1R mRNA was expressed in black hair skin regions only. Conclusions The c.[124A;125_130del6] allele may be responsible for a MC1R variant determining eumelanin production in the black areas. However, the mechanism determining the presence of both red and black hairs in the same animal seems more complex. Expression analyses of the c.[124A;125_130del6] allele suggest that MC1R transcription may be regulated epigenetically in rabbits with the Japanese brindling phenotype. Further studies are needed to clarify this issue.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010eso..pres...31."> <span id="translatedtitle">Brilliant Star in a <span class="hlt">Colourful</span> Neighbourhood</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A spectacular new <span class="hlt">image</span> from ESO's Wide Field <span class="hlt">Imager</span> at the La Silla Observatory in Chile shows the brilliant and unusual star WR 22 and its <span class="hlt">colourful</span> surroundings. WR 22 is a very hot and bright star that is shedding its atmosphere into space at a rate many millions of times faster than the Sun. It lies in the outer part of the dramatic Carina Nebula from which it formed. Very massive stars live fast and die young. Some of these stellar beacons have such intense radiation passing through their thick atmospheres late in their lives that they shed material into space many millions of times more quickly than relatively sedate stars such as the Sun. These rare, very hot and massive objects are known as Wolf-Rayet stars [1], after the two French astronomers who first identified them in the mid-nineteenth century, and one of the most massive ones yet measured is known as WR 22. It appears at the centre of this picture, which was created from <span class="hlt">images</span> taken through red, green and blue filters with the Wide Field <span class="hlt">Imager</span> on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile. WR 22 is a member of a double star system and has been measured to have a mass at least 70 times that of the Sun. WR 22 lies in the southern constellation of Carina, the keel of Jason's ship Argo in Greek mythology. Although the star lies over 5000 light-years from the Earth it is so bright that it can just be faintly seen with the unaided eye under good conditions. WR 22 is one of many exceptionally brilliant stars associated with the beautiful Carina Nebula (also known as NGC 3372) and the outer part of this huge region of star formation in the southern Milky Way forms the <span class="hlt">colourful</span> backdrop to this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The subtle <span class="hlt">colours</span> of the rich background tapestry are a result of the interactions between the intense ultraviolet radiation coming from hot massive stars, including WR 22, and the vast gas clouds, mostly hydrogen, from which they formed. The central part of this enormous complex of gas and dust lies off the left side of this picture as can be seen in <span class="hlt">image</span> eso1031b. This area includes the remarkable star Eta Carinae and was featured in an earlier press release (eso0905). Notes [1] More information about Wolf-Rayet stars More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009eso..pres...40."> <span id="translatedtitle">Opening up a <span class="hlt">Colourful</span> Cosmic Jewel Box</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The combination of <span class="hlt">images</span> taken by three exceptional telescopes, the ESO Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal , the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla observatory and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, has allowed the stunning Jewel Box star cluster to be seen in a whole new light. Star clusters are among the most visually alluring and astrophysically fascinating objects in the sky. One of the most spectacular nestles deep in the southern skies near the Southern Cross in the constellation of Crux. The Kappa Crucis Cluster, also known as NGC 4755 or simply the "Jewel Box" is just bright enough to be seen with the unaided eye. It was given its nickname by the English astronomer John Herschel in the 1830s because the striking <span class="hlt">colour</span> contrasts of its pale blue and orange stars seen through a telescope reminded Herschel of a piece of exotic jewellery. Open clusters [1] such as NGC 4755 typically contain anything from a few to thousands of stars that are loosely bound together by gravity. Because the stars all formed together from the same cloud of gas and dust their ages and chemical makeup are similar, which makes them ideal laboratories for studying how stars evolve. The position of the cluster amongst the rich star fields and dust clouds of the southern Milky Way is shown in the very wide field view generated from the Digitized Sky Survey 2 data. This <span class="hlt">image</span> also includes one of the stars of the Southern Cross as well as part of the huge dark cloud of the Coal Sack [2]. A new <span class="hlt">image</span> taken with the Wide Field <span class="hlt">Imager</span> (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile shows the cluster and its rich surroundings in all their multicoloured glory. The large field of view of the WFI shows a vast number of stars. Many are located behind the dusty clouds of the Milky Way and therefore appear red [3]. The FORS1 instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) allows a much closer look at the cluster itself. The telescope's huge mirror and exquisite <span class="hlt">image</span> quality have resulted in a brand-new, very sharp view despite a total exposure time of just 5 seconds. This new <span class="hlt">image</span> is one of the best ever taken of this cluster from the ground. The Jewel Box may be visually <span class="hlt">colourful</span> in <span class="hlt">images</span> taken on Earth, but observing from space allows the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope to capture light of shorter wavelengths than can not be seen by telescopes on the ground. This new Hubble <span class="hlt">image</span> of the core of the cluster represents the first comprehensive far ultraviolet to near-infrared <span class="hlt">image</span> of an open galactic cluster. It was created from <span class="hlt">images</span> taken through seven filters, allowing viewers to see details never seen before. It was taken near the end of the long life of the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 ? Hubble's workhorse camera up until the recent Servicing Mission, when it was removed and brought back to Earth. Several very bright, pale blue supergiant stars, a solitary ruby-red supergiant and a variety of other brilliantly <span class="hlt">coloured</span> stars are visible in the Hubble <span class="hlt">image</span>, as well as many much fainter ones. The intriguing <span class="hlt">colours</span> of many of the stars result from their differing intensities at different ultraviolet wavelengths. The huge variety in brightness of the stars in the cluster exists because the brighter stars are 15 to 20 times the mass of the Sun, while the dimmest stars in the Hubble <span class="hlt">image</span> are less than half the mass of the Sun. More massive stars shine much more brilliantly. They also age faster and make the transition to giant stars much more quickly than their faint, less-massive siblings. The Jewel Box cluster is about 6400 light-years away and is approximately 16 million years old. Notes [1] Open, or galactic, star clusters are not to be confused with globular clusters ? huge balls of tens of thousands of ancient stars in orbit around our galaxy and others. It seems that most stars, including our Sun, formed in open clusters. [2] The Coal Sack is a dark nebula in the Southern Hemisphere, near the Southern Cross, that can be seen with the unaided eye. A dark nebula is not the compl</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3435956"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geometric and <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Data Fusion for Outdoor 3D Models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper deals with the generation of accurate, dense and <span class="hlt">coloured</span> 3D models of outdoor scenarios from scanners. This is a challenging research field in which several problems still remain unsolved. In particular, the process of 3D model creation in outdoor scenes may be inefficient if the scene is digitalized under unsuitable technical (specific scanner on-board camera) and environmental (rain, dampness, changing illumination) conditions. We address our research towards the integration of <span class="hlt">images</span> and range data to produce photorealistic models. Our proposal is based on decoupling the <span class="hlt">colour</span> integration and geometry reconstruction stages, making them independent and controlled processes. This issue is approached from two different viewpoints. On the one hand, given a complete model (geometry plus texture), we propose a method to modify the original texture provided by the scanner on-board camera with the <span class="hlt">colour</span> information extracted from external <span class="hlt">images</span> taken at given moments and under specific environmental conditions. On the other hand, we propose an algorithm to directly assign external <span class="hlt">images</span> onto the complete geometric model, thus avoiding tedious on-line calibration processes. We present the work conducted on two large Roman archaeological sites dating from the first century A.D., namely, the Theatre of Segobriga and the Fori Porticus of Emerita Augusta, both in Spain. The results obtained demonstrate that our approach could be useful in the digitalization and 3D modelling fields.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Merchan, Pilar; Adan, Antonio; Salamanca, Santiago; Dominguez, Vicente; Chacon, Ricardo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span 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</span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000Natur.404..457V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structural <span class="hlt">colour</span>: <span class="hlt">Colour</span> mixing in wing scales of a butterfly</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Green coloration in the animal kingdom, as seen in birds' feathers and reptile integument, is often an additive mixture of structurally effected blue and pigmentary yellow. Here we investigate the origin of the bright green coloration of the wing scales of the Indonesian male Papilio palinurus butterfly, the microstructure of which generates an extraordinary combination of both yellow and blue iridescence. The dual <span class="hlt">colour</span> arises from a modulation imposed on the multilayer, producing the blue component as a result of a previously undiscovered retro-reflection process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vukusic, P.; Sambles, J. R.; Lawrence, C. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2530358"> <span id="translatedtitle">The performance of general-purpose <span class="hlt">colour</span> CRT monitors in PACS environment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">General-purpose <span class="hlt">colour</span> cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors are used commonly for <span class="hlt">image</span> display in personal computer-based picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and telemedicine systems. At present, however, we have not enough information about their performance or reliability for this task. Therefore, we studied the performance of five general-purpose <span class="hlt">colour</span> CRTs and the changes in their performance in a year.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hiroshi Kondoh; Kikuo Hatazawa; Takahiro Kozuka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/1q0ky86d5l787h5g.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical <span class="hlt">Composition</span> of Polymer Surfaces <span class="hlt">Imaged</span> by Atomic Force Microscopy and Complementary Approaches</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article we review the recent developments in the field of high resolution lateral mapping\\u000a of the surface chemical <span class="hlt">composition</span> of polymers by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and other complementary\\u000a <span class="hlt">imaging</span> techniques. The different AFM approaches toward nanometer scale mapping with chemical sensitivity\\u000a based on chemical force microscopy (CFM) are discussed as a means to unravel, for instance, the\\u000a lateral</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Julius Vancso; Henrik Hillborg; Holger Schönherr</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2009110470"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Image</span> Segmentation by Polygonal Markov Fields.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper advocates the use of multi-<span class="hlt">coloured</span> polygonal Markov fields for model-based <span class="hlt">image</span> segmentation. The formal construction of consistent multi-<span class="hlt">coloured</span> polygonal Markov fields by Arak-Clifford-Surgailis and its dynamic representation are recalled ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. N. M. Van Lieshout R. Kluszczynski T. Schreiber</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21164804"> <span id="translatedtitle">Raman mixture <span class="hlt">composition</span> and flow velocity <span class="hlt">imaging</span> with high repetition rates.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A novel and completely tracer free strategy to <span class="hlt">image</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and velocity fields during the mixing process of two liquids is introduced. The achieved temporal resolution, spatial resolution and sampling rate of 30 ns, 54 x 54 µm2 and 10 kHz, respectively, are sufficient to resolve Kolmogorov time and length scales as well as transient mixing phenomena of many technical mixing processes. During the injection of liquid water into liquid ethanol, mixing was quantitatively observed by means of high repetition rate Raman <span class="hlt">imaging</span> using a laser cluster for the excitation of the Raman process with 8 successive light sheet pulses. One high speed camera was used to detect the CH-vibration Raman band signal of ethanol, while a second one was used to detect the OH-vibration Raman band signal of water and ethanol. From the ratio of both, the mixture <span class="hlt">composition</span> field was computed. The dense flow field was determined by processing the mixture <span class="hlt">composition</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> with a variational optical flow method. PMID:21164804</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Braeuer, Andreas; Engel, Sascha Ronald; Dowy, Stefan; Luther, Sebastian; Goldlücke, Jürgen; Leipertz, Alfred</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MS%26E...42a2007S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of spread spectrum and pulse signal excitation for split spectrum techniques <span class="hlt">composite</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ultrasonic <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of <span class="hlt">composites</span> was investigated. Glass and carbon fiber reinforced plastic produced by resin transfer molding and prepreg forming were analyzed. In some of the samples air bubbles were trapped during RTM (resin transfer molding) process and interlayer gaps were present in prepreg technology samples. One of the most expected techniques to apply in such case is the Split Spectrum processing. On the other hand such signals require specific processing to reliably reconstruct the temporal position of the defect reflection. Correlation processing can be used for signal compression or Wiener filtering can be applied for spectral content equalisation. Pulse signals are simple to generate, but lack the possibility to alter the signal's spectrum shape. Spread spectrum signals offer a powerful tool for signal energy over frequency band increase and resolution enhancement. CW (continuous wave) burst has high energy but lacks the bandwidth needed for SSP (spread spectrum processing). The aim of the investigation was to compare the performance of the above signals in case of <span class="hlt">composite</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span>, when various Split Spectrum Processing techniques are used with preceding Wiener processing for spectral content compensation. Resulting <span class="hlt">composite</span> signals and <span class="hlt">images</span> obtained are presented. Structural noise removal performance was evaluated as Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Svilainis, L.; Kitov, S.; Rodríguez, A.; Vergara, L.; Dumbrava, V.; Chaziachmetovas, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJART...1c.110Z"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> Consideration for Waiting areas in hospitals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> is one the most important factors in the nature that can have some affects on human behaviour. Many years ago, it was proven that using <span class="hlt">colour</span> in public place can have some affect on the users. Depend of the darkness and lightness; it can be vary from positive to negative. The research will mainly focus on the <span class="hlt">colour</span> and psychological influences and physical factors. The statement of problem in this research is what is impact of <span class="hlt">colour</span> usually applied to waiting area? The overall aim of the study is to explore the visual environment of hospitals and to manage the <span class="hlt">colour</span> psychological effect of the hospital users in the waiting area by creating a comfortable, pleasant and cozy environment for users while spend their time in waiting areas. The analysisconcentrate on satisfaction and their interesting regarding applied <span class="hlt">colour</span> in two private hospital waiting area in Malaysia.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zraati, Parisa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23635466"> <span id="translatedtitle">Toxicity evaluation of two dental <span class="hlt">composites</span>: three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy time-lapse <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of cell behavior.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro biocompatibility of two dental <span class="hlt">composites</span> (namely A and B) with similar chemical <span class="hlt">composition</span> used for direct restoration using three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) time-lapse <span class="hlt">imaging</span>. Time-lapse <span class="hlt">imaging</span> was performed on cultured human HGF-1 fibroblast-like cells after staining using Live/Dead®. <span class="hlt">Image</span> analysis showed a higher mortality rate in the presence of <span class="hlt">composite</span> A than <span class="hlt">composite</span> B. The viability rate decreased in a time-dependent manner during the 5 h of exposure. Morphological alterations were associated with toxic effects; cells were enlarged and more rounded in the presence of <span class="hlt">composite</span> A as shown by F-actin and cell nuclei staining. Resazurin assay was used to confirm the active potential of <span class="hlt">composites</span> in cell metabolism; results showed severe cytotoxic effects in the presence of both no light-curing <span class="hlt">composites</span> after 24 h of direct contact. However, extracts of polymerized <span class="hlt">composites</span> induced a moderate decrease in cell metabolism after the same incubation period. <span class="hlt">Composite</span> B was significantly better tolerated than <span class="hlt">composite</span> A at all investigated end points and all time points. The finding confirmed that the used CLSM method was sufficiently sensitive to differentiate the biocompatibility behavior of two <span class="hlt">composites</span> based on similar methacrylate monomers. PMID:23635466</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Attik, Ghania Nina; Pradelle-Plasse, Nelly; Campos, Doris; Colon, Pierre; Grosgogeat, Brigitte</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NuPhB.871..330F"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span>-independent partition functions in <span class="hlt">coloured</span> vertex models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study lattice configurations related to Sn, the scalar product of an off-shell state and an on-shell state in rational An integrable vertex models, n?{1,2}. The lattice lines are colourless and oriented. The state variables are n conserved <span class="hlt">colours</span> that flow along the line orientations, but do not necessarily cover every bond in the lattice.Choosing boundary conditions such that the positions where the <span class="hlt">colours</span> flow into the lattice are fixed, and where they flow out are summed over, we show that the partition functions of these configurations, with these boundary conditions, are n-independent. Our results extend to trigonometric An models, and to all n.This n-independence explains, in vertex-model terms, results from recent studies of S2 (Caetano and Vieira, 2012, [1], Wheeler, arXiv:1204.2089, [2]). Namely, 1.S2, which depends on two sets of Bethe roots, {b1} and {b2}, and cannot (as far as we know) be expressed in single determinant form, degenerates in the limit {b1}??, and/or {b2}??, into a product of determinants, 2. Each of the latter determinants is an A1 vertex-model partition function.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Foda, O.; Wheeler, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Nanot..24m5706C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sub-surface <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of carbon nanotube-polymer <span class="hlt">composites</span> using dynamic AFM methods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High-resolution sub-surface <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of carbon nanotube (CNT) networks within polymer nanocomposites is demonstrated through electrical characterization techniques based on dynamic atomic force microscopy (AFM). We compare three techniques implemented in the single-pass configuration: DC-biased amplitude modulated AFM (AM-AFM), electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) in terms of the physics of sub-surface <span class="hlt">image</span> formation and experimental robustness. The methods were applied to study the dispersion of sub-surface networks of single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) in a polyimide (PI) matrix. We conclude that among these methods, the KPFM channel, which measures the capacitance gradient (?C/?d) at the second harmonic of electrical excitation, is the best channel to obtain high-contrast <span class="hlt">images</span> of the CNT network embedded in the polymer matrix, without the influence of surface conditions. Additionally, we propose an analysis of the ?C/?d <span class="hlt">images</span> as a tool to characterize the dispersion and connectivity of the CNTs. Through the analysis we demonstrate that these AFM-based sub-surface methods probe sufficiently deep within the SWNT <span class="hlt">composites</span>, to resolve clustered networks that likely play a role in conductivity percolation. This opens up the possibility of dynamic AFM-based characterization of sub-surface dispersion and connectivity in nanostructured <span class="hlt">composites</span>, two critical parameters for nanocomposite applications in sensors and energy storage devices.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cadena, Maria J.; Misiego, Rocio; Smith, Kyle C.; Avila, Alba; Pipes, Byron; Reifenberger, Ron; Raman, Arvind</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22465466"> <span id="translatedtitle">Myopia and iris <span class="hlt">colour</span>: a possible connection?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Myopia is a common ocular disease in the world. Its prevalence has increased rapidly worldwide, especially in some East-Asian countries. Genetic factors and environmental factors both affect myopia's onset and its progress. Iris <span class="hlt">colour</span> is an important characteristic of a person. It is a possible risk factor for myopia by affecting the amount and the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of light entering eyes. The study of iris <span class="hlt">colour</span> may contribute to the understanding of myopia mechanism and provide good suggestive evidence for studies on other eye diseases. In this article, the possible connection between myopia and iris <span class="hlt">colour</span> is proposed. Approaches to dissect any link are suggested. PMID:22465466</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meng, Weihua; Butterworth, Jacqueline; Calvas, Patrick; Malecaze, Francois</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7644E..20D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Image</span> analysis of the microstructure of pseudo-1-3 magnetostrictive <span class="hlt">composites</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous studies did by some scholars proved applying a magnetic field during the manufacture process of polymer-bonded Terfenol-D could orient the magnetic easy direction of the particles along the field direction and form a pseudo-1-3 structure. Compared to the 0-3 <span class="hlt">composites</span> composed of Terfenol-D particles dispersed randomly in a polymer matrix, pseudo-1-3 magnetostrictive <span class="hlt">composites</span> present much larger magnetostrictive performance. In this paper, magnetostrictive <span class="hlt">composites</span> based on Terfenol-D particles in an unsaturated polyester resin matrix were fabricated under different magnetic fields. Magentostriction was tested and compared to get the detail effects of orientation fields on magnetostrictive properties of magnetostrictive <span class="hlt">composites</span>. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe their microstructures. <span class="hlt">Image</span> analysis was applied to describe the microstructures. The distribution of the angles between the major axis of the particles and the magnetic field direction was used to evaluate the arrangement of particles in the matrix quantitatively. The results confirm particle chain-like structures in <span class="hlt">composites</span> prepared under larger magnetic field, and show that particle arrangement changes with the strength of the orientation field, which is result in the changes of magnetostrictive performance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dong, Xufeng; Qi, Min; Guan, Xinchun; Ou, Jinping</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3178153"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> photographs for screening in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: are they necessary?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aims To investigate whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) with associated infra-red <span class="hlt">images</span> provide enough information to determine treatment decisions in the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), or whether retinal <span class="hlt">colour</span> photography is also necessary. Methods In all, 87 OCT scans of 82 eyes with nAMD undergoing monitoring post ranibizumab treatment were taken using the Zeiss Stratus (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany; n=87) together with their corresponding infra-red <span class="hlt">images</span>. Fundus <span class="hlt">colour</span> photographs were also taken. These <span class="hlt">images</span> were reviewed by an experienced assessor, and a ranibizumab treatment decision was made during a multidisciplinary team retinal <span class="hlt">image</span> review meeting. Results In all, 30 OCT scans (34.5%) showed intraretinal or subretinal oedema. A total of 24 <span class="hlt">colour</span> photographs (19.5%) demonstrated retinal haemorrhage. Corresponding OCT infra-red <span class="hlt">images</span> gave poor sensitivity in detecting haemorrhages (0.176). In 16.7% of decisions to treat, haemorrhage alone was the deciding factor. Signs of disease activity seen only on <span class="hlt">colour</span> photography were the deciding factor in clinical decisions for 8% of scans assessed. Conclusions The presence or increase of intra-retinal oedema is an important sign of activity triggering ranibizumab retreatment, but some eyes show signs of retinal haemorrhage without coexisting oedema. These haemorrhages are often only seen on either <span class="hlt">colour</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> or fundoscopy and are unclear or invisible on OCT scans and infra-red <span class="hlt">images</span>. Therefore, although retinal <span class="hlt">colour</span> photography creates additional expense, it is indispensable for making informed retreatment decisions, if patients are monitored using retinal <span class="hlt">imaging</span> alone.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hibbs, S P; Smith, A; Chow, L P; Downes, S M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JPhCS.241a2053G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Atomic structure-<span class="hlt">colour</span> relationship in natural diamonds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> is a physical attribute that can be very difficult to characterise in diamond and consequently it receives regular attention from scientists working in the gem industry. In this work we compare natural brown (the most common <span class="hlt">colour</span>) and colourless type IIa diamonds containing only trace quantities (< 1 at. ppm) of nitrogen. Numerous attempts have been made to trace the origin of brown tints in natural diamond, with the most likely culprits, i.e. dislocations and nitrogen impurities, ruled out through the application of various analytical techniques. Consequently more emphasis has recently been placed on the study of smaller defects in the diamond structure and their influence on <span class="hlt">colour</span>. The focus of this research work is the analysis of vacancy defects having a size of the order of 1nm using aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (AC-STEM). The small electron probe size and depth of focus afforded by this technique allows such defect structures together with their position to be resolved far more readily than with conventional HR-TEM. Small-scale contrast variations are apparent in the lattice <span class="hlt">images</span> of brown and not of colourless diamonds. These features have been compared to simulated phase contrast <span class="hlt">images</span> of vacancy clusters in diamond. In addition, both experimental and simulated defocus series indicate that such features are not restricted to the surface of the specimen.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Godfrey, I. S.; Bangert, U.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1211..518H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Progress on Developing Sonic Infrared <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> for Defect Detection in <span class="hlt">Composite</span> Structures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">At last year's QNDE conference, we presented our development of Sonic IR <span class="hlt">imaging</span> technology in metal structures, with results from both experimental studies and theoretical computing. In the latest aircraft designs, such as the B787 from Boeing, <span class="hlt">composites</span> have become the major materials in structures such as the fuselage and wings. This is in contrast to <span class="hlt">composites</span>' use only in auxiliary components such as flaps and spoilers in the past. With today's advanced technology of fabrication, it is expected the new materials can be put in use in even more aircraft structures due to its light weight and high strength (high strength-to-weight ratio), high specific stiffness, tailorability of properties, design flexibility etc. Especially, with increases in fuel cost, reducing the aircraft's body weight becomes more and more appealing. In this presentation, we describe the progress on our development of Sonic IR <span class="hlt">imaging</span> for aircraft <span class="hlt">composite</span> structures. In particular, we describe the some unexpected results discovered while modeling delaminations. These results were later experimentally verified with an engineered delamination.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Han, Xiaoyan; He, Qi; Li, Wei; Newaz, Golam; Favro, Lawrence D.; Thomas, Robert L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22915360"> <span id="translatedtitle">A brief discussion about <span class="hlt">image</span> quality and SEM methods for quantitative fractography of polymer <span class="hlt">composites</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The methodology for fracture analysis of polymeric <span class="hlt">composites</span> with scanning electron microscopes (SEM) is still under discussion. Many authors prefer to use sputter coating with a conductive material instead of applying low-voltage (LV) or variable-pressure (VP) methods, which preserves the original surfaces. The present work examines the effects of sputter coating with 25 nm of gold on the topography of carbon-epoxy <span class="hlt">composites</span> fracture surfaces, using an atomic force microscope. Also, the influence of SEM <span class="hlt">imaging</span> parameters on fractal measurements is evaluated for the VP-SEM and LV-SEM methods. It was observed that topographic measurements were not significantly affected by the gold coating at tested scale. Moreover, changes on SEM setup leads to nonlinear outcome on texture parameters, such as fractal dimension and entropy values. For VP-SEM or LV-SEM, fractal dimension and entropy values did not present any evident relation with <span class="hlt">image</span> quality parameters, but the resolution must be optimized with <span class="hlt">imaging</span> setup, accompanied by charge neutralization. PMID:22915360</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hein, L R O; Campos, K A; Caltabiano, P C R O; Kostov, K G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3485801"> <span id="translatedtitle">Arnheim's Gestalt theory of visual balance: Examining the <span class="hlt">compositional</span> structure of art photographs and abstract <span class="hlt">images</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In Art and Visual Perception, Rudolf Arnheim, following on from Denman Ross's A Theory of Pure Design, proposed a Gestalt theory of visual <span class="hlt">composition</span>. The current paper assesses a physicalist interpretation of Arnheim's theory, calculating an <span class="hlt">image</span>'s centre of mass (CoM). Three types of data are used: a large, representative collection of art photographs of recognised quality; croppings by experts and non-experts of photographs; and Ross and Arnheim's procedure of placing a frame around objects such as Arnheim's two black disks. Compared with control <span class="hlt">images</span>, the CoM of art photographs was closer to an axis (horizontal, vertical, or diagonal), as was the case for photographic croppings. However, stronger, within-<span class="hlt">image</span>, paired comparison studies, comparing art photographs with the CoM moved on or off an axis (the ‘gamma-ramp study’), or comparing adjacent croppings on or off an axis (the ‘spider-web study’), showed no support for the Arnheim–Ross theory. Finally, studies moving a frame around two disks, of different size, greyness, or background, did not support Arnheim's Gestalt theory. Although the detailed results did not support the Arnheim–Ross theory, several significant results were found which clearly require explanation by any adequate theory of the aesthetics of visual <span class="hlt">composition</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McManus, I C; Stover, Katharina; Kim, Do</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6878037"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> biases are a question of taste</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Unpalatable insects often advertise their defences to avian predators by conspicuous <span class="hlt">colours</span>, such as red and yellow. Therefore, perhaps not surprisingly, birds tend to have unlearned biases against warningly <span class="hlt">coloured</span> food. These biases are particularly evident when other components of insect warning displays, such as novel sounds and odours, are also present. We tested whether bitter taste, often associated with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Candy Rowe; John Skelhorn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22colour%22&pg=2&id=EJ750687"> <span id="translatedtitle">Representing Object <span class="hlt">Colour</span> in Language Comprehension</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Embodied theories of cognition hold that mentally representing something "red" engages the neural subsystems that respond to environmental perception of that <span class="hlt">colour</span>. This paper examines whether implicit perceptual information on object <span class="hlt">colour</span> is represented during sentence comprehension even though doing so does not necessarily facilitate task…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Connell, Louise</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2011105816"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span>, Usability and Security: A Case Study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of <span class="hlt">colour</span> in user interfaces is extensive. It is typically a usability issue, and has rarely caused any security concerns. In this article, we show that the use of <span class="hlt">colours</span> in the design of CAPTCHA, a standard security technology that has found wid...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. S. E. Ahmad L. Yan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18203990"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> vision in coral reef fish.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over many millions of years, sea creatures have developed a range of light reflectance properties. One example is the large variation in the patterns and <span class="hlt">colours</span> of fish inhabiting the world's coral reefs. Attempts to understand the significance of the <span class="hlt">colouration</span> have been made, but all too often from the perspective of a human observer. A more ecological approach requires us to consider the visual system of those for whom the <span class="hlt">colours</span> were intended, namely other sea life. A first step is to understand the sensitivity of reef fish themselves to <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Physiological data has revealed wavelength-tuned photoreceptors in reef fish, and this study provides behavioural evidence for their application in <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination. Using classical conditioning, freshly caught damselfish were trained to discriminate <span class="hlt">coloured</span> patterns for a food reward. Within 3-4 days of capture the fish selected a target <span class="hlt">colour</span> on over 75% of trials. Brightness of the distracter and target were systematically varied to confirm that the fish could discriminate stimuli on the basis of chromaticity alone. The study demonstrates that reef fish can learn to perform two-alternative discrimination tasks, and provides the first behavioural evidence that reef fish have <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision. PMID:18203990</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Siebeck, U E; Wallis, G M; Litherland, L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22transmission%22&pg=4&id=EJ848938"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> Mathematics: With Graphs and Numbers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|The different combinations involved in additive and subtractive <span class="hlt">colour</span> mixing can often be difficult for students to remember. Using transmission graphs for filters of the primary <span class="hlt">colours</span> and a numerical scheme to write out the relationships are good exercises in analytical thinking that can help students recall the combinations rather than just…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">LoPresto, Michael C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JRASC..99...98K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Visual Star <span class="hlt">Colours</span> from Instrumental Photometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to display graphically the visual <span class="hlt">colours</span> of stars and other astronomical objects, photometric broadband R, V, B <span class="hlt">colours</span> are used to proxy for the r, g, b <span class="hlt">colours</span> of the three visual sensors of the eye. From photometric Johnson B-V and V-R <span class="hlt">colour</span> indices, R, V, and B magnitudes (V = 0) are calculated, and from these the respective brightnesses (r, v = 1 = g, and b) are calculated. After suitable normalization these are then placed in a ternary diagram having r, g, and b as the vertices. All B-V and V-R are adjusted so that the Sun falls in the same place as a blackbody at 5800 K. The resulting ternary plot shows all of its objects (stars, planets) in their visual <span class="hlt">colours</span> at their relative positions in the ternary diagram. The star <span class="hlt">colours</span> displayed on a computer monitor screen or as a print with a <span class="hlt">colour</span> printer are more vivid than the usual visual impressions of isolated stars, undoubtedly because of properties of the dark-adapted eye, but double-star pairs with contrasting <span class="hlt">colours</span> correspond nicely to telescopic visual impressions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kohman, Truman P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/38706740"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> vision in coral reef fish</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">SUMMARY Over many millions of years, sea creatures have developed a range of light reflectance properties. One example is the large variation in the patterns and <span class="hlt">colours</span> of fish inhabiting the world?s coral reefs. Attempts to understand the significance of the <span class="hlt">colouration</span> have been made, but all too often from the perspective of a human observer. A more ecological approach</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">U. E. Siebeck; G. M. Wallis; L. Litherland</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhyEd..41..263S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Should we use <span class="hlt">colours</span> as symbolic representations of hot and cold?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">People usually talk about 'hot and cold' <span class="hlt">colours</span> without really thinking of the impact these definitions may have on scientific understanding. These <span class="hlt">colours</span> are associated with the human sensations of hot and cold, and this idea is consistent with commonsense and daily experience. Interacting with students, we detect conceptual conflicts when they have to interpret phenomena whose origin is the emission of radiation. The contradiction between the scientific explanation for blackbody radiation and their understanding of 'hot and cold' <span class="hlt">colours</span>, reinforced by the <span class="hlt">coloured</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> in textbooks, leads frequently to misconceptions and to the remembering of facts and interpretations that are based on context and not on scientific knowledge. In this article we show the difficulties experienced by students with these concepts and make some suggestions of strategies that teachers should use when dealing with them.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Simeão Carvalho, Paulo; Sousa, Adriano Sampaio e.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15472030"> <span id="translatedtitle">Blue integumentary structural <span class="hlt">colours</span> in dragonflies (Odonata) are not produced by incoherent Tyndall scattering.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For nearly 80 years, the non-iridescent, blue, integumentary structural <span class="hlt">colours</span> of dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata) have been attributed to incoherent Tyndall or Rayleigh scattering. We investigated the production of the integumentary structural <span class="hlt">colours</span> of a damselfly--the familiar bluet, Enallagma civile (Coenagrionidae)--and a dragonfly--the common green darner, Anax junius (Aeshnidae)--using fibre optic spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The reflectance spectra of both species showed discrete reflectance peaks of approximately 30% reflectance at 475 and 460 nm, respectively. These structural <span class="hlt">colours</span> are produced by light scattering from closely packed arrays of spheres in the endoplasmic reticulum of box-shaped epidermal pigment cells underlying the cuticle. The observed reflectance spectra do not conform to the inverse fourth power relationship predicted for Tyndall/Rayleigh scattering. Two-dimensional (2-D) Fourier analysis of the TEM <span class="hlt">images</span> of the <span class="hlt">colour</span>-producing arrays reveals ring-shaped distributions of Fourier power at intermediate spatial frequencies, documenting a quasiordered nanostructure. The nanostructured Fourier power spectra falsify the assumption of spatial independence of scatterers that is required for incoherent scattering. Radial averages of the Fourier power spectrum indicate that the spheres are substantially nanostructured at the appropriate spatial scale to produce visible <span class="hlt">colours</span> by coherent scattering. However, the spatial periodicity of the arrays is apparently too large to produce the observed <span class="hlt">colour</span> by coherent scattering. The nanospheres could have expanded substantially (approximately 50%) during preparation for TEM. Alternatively, coherent light scattering could be occurring both from the surfaces and from structures at the centre of the spheres. These arrays of <span class="hlt">colour</span>-producing spheres within pigment cells have convergently evolved at least 11-14 times independently within the Odonata. Structural <span class="hlt">colouration</span> from arrays in living cells has also fostered the convergent evolution of temperature-dependent <span class="hlt">colour</span> change in numerous odonate lineages. PMID:15472030</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prum, Richard O; Cole, Jeff A; Torres, Rodolfo H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1691721"> <span id="translatedtitle">The coevolution theory of autumn <span class="hlt">colours</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">According to the coevolution theory of autumn <span class="hlt">colours</span>, the bright <span class="hlt">colours</span> of leaves in autumn are a warning signal to insects that lay their eggs on the trees in that season. If the <span class="hlt">colour</span> is linked to the level of defensive commitment of the tree and the insects learn to avoid bright <span class="hlt">colours</span>, this may lead to a coevolutionary process in which bright trees reduce their parasite load and choosy insects locate the most profitable hosts for the winter. We try to clarify what the theory actually says and to correct some misunderstandings that have been put forward. We also review current research on autumn <span class="hlt">colours</span> and discuss what needs to be done to test the theory.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Archetti, Marco; Brown, Sam P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8135E...8A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pattern recognition with <span class="hlt">composite</span> correlation filters designed from noisy training <span class="hlt">images</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Correlation filters for target detection are usually designed under the assumption that the appearance of a target is explicitly known. Because the shape and intensity values of a target are used, correlation filters are highly sensitive to changes in the target appearance in the input scene, such as those of due to rotation or scaling. <span class="hlt">Composite</span> filter design was introduced to address this problem by accounting for different possibilities for the appearance of the target within the input scene. However, explicit knowledge for each possible appearance is still required. In this work, we propose <span class="hlt">composite</span> filter design when an object to be recognized is given in noisy training <span class="hlt">images</span> and its exact shape and intensity values are not explicitly known. Optimal filters with respect to the peak-to-output energy criterion are derived and used to synthesize a single <span class="hlt">composite</span> filter that can be used for distortion invariant target detection. Parameters required for filter design are estimated with suggested techniques. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed filters are presented and compared with those of common <span class="hlt">composite</span> filters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aguilar-González, Pablo Mario; Kober, Vitaly</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20824689"> <span id="translatedtitle">Understanding tissue specific <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of bioenergy feedstocks through hyperspectral Raman <span class="hlt">imaging</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hyperspectral Raman <span class="hlt">imaging</span> was used to study the tissue/cell type specific distribution of lignin and cellulose polymers within the plant cell walls. Distinct differences in cell wall <span class="hlt">compositions</span> were identified between two potential bioenergy feedstocks: corn stover and Eucalyptus globulus. Characteristic bands of 627, 1,175, 1,206, and 1,428?cm?¹ were only observed for corn stover and 1,381?cm?¹ was only present in E. globulus. One-dimensional and two-dimensional chemical maps of lignin and cellulose were generated for the stem of corn stover, ranging from the epidermis to the pith area and revealed that lignin and cellulose abundance varies significantly among different cell types in the following order: sclerenchyma cells and tracheids (?5 times)?>?epidermal cells (?3 times)?>?bundle sheath cells?>?parenchyma cells. The Raman mapping methods developed on corn stover were also validated on E. globulus and clearly highlighted their difference in lignin <span class="hlt">composition</span>. PMID:20824689</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sun, Lan; Simmons, Blake A; Singh, Seema</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7777K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ground-based hyperspectral <span class="hlt">imaging</span> for the mapping of geological outcrop <span class="hlt">composition</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of high resolution surveying techniques has increased dramatically in earth science applications over the last decade. New products, software solutions and an increased attention to "usability" have made terrestrial laser scanning (lidar) and digital photogrammetry popular methods for obtaining more detailed geometric data for many applications. Geology, especially the study of outcrops, is one such application area where the introduction of laser scanning in particular has benefitted, by allowing an increasingly quantitative approach at a variety of scales. Despite this, most of the contribution of modern surveying techniques has been related to the capture of topographic detail - the shape and form of outcrops - while the remote mapping of outcrop lithology has yet to be satisfactorily addressed. Ground-based spectral <span class="hlt">imaging</span> offers new possibilities for an improved understanding of outcrop <span class="hlt">composition</span>, by mapping lithology and the distribution of mineralogy with high resolution and increased automation. Advances in airborne and spaceborne multispectral and hyperspectral sensors have been successful for mineral prospecting and the regional mapping of rock types. However, because of the nadir viewing angle of the sensor, such a configuration is of limited value for near-vertical cliff sections. A new generation of close range hyperspectral <span class="hlt">imagers</span> is now becoming available, with capabilities of measuring in the short-wave infra-red (SWIR) part of the electromagnetic spectrum suitable for detecting absorption features exhibited by many minerals found in sedimentary rocks. This research uses a ground-based hyperspectral sensor to acquire spectral <span class="hlt">images</span> of geological outcrops, with the aim of remotely determining the distribution of lithologies. The method was applied to case studies from carbonate and siliciclastic rocks. The <span class="hlt">images</span> were processed to obtain spectral classification maps of the distribution of representative rock types. To increase the quantitative approach, the spectral data were integrated with photorealistic 3D models derived from terrestrial laser scanning and conventional <span class="hlt">image</span> acquisition. Because the push-broom hyperspectral sensor recorded panoramic rather than planar <span class="hlt">images</span>, the integration was performed using a cylindrical camera model. Using this approach, it was possible to relate the pixels of the spectral <span class="hlt">images</span> to a real-world coordinate system, aiding analysis and validation. In addition, the spectral <span class="hlt">images</span> could be superimposed on the lidar-derived photorealistic models, allowing a simultaneous visualisation of multiple thematic results together with the conventional digital camera imagery. For the case studies used, encouraging results were produced, allowing the mapping of features that were not easily visible in conventional <span class="hlt">images</span>. It is therefore concluded that ground-based hyperspectral <span class="hlt">imaging</span> is an important method that may be applicable to many earth science applications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kurz, Tobias; Buckley, Simon; Schneider, Danilo; Howell, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10664760"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coloured</span> overlays, text, and texture.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In four studies children were asked to read aloud a passage of randomly ordered common words with and without a <span class="hlt">coloured</span> sheet of plastic (overlay) placed upon the page. The children's rate of reading increased with the overlay, for some children more than for others. The children were also asked to undertake a test of texture segmentation in which targets consisting of a structured texture had to be distinguished from within a random background texture. The texture segmentation was improved when the overlay was used, again for some children more than for others. The improvement in texture segmentation was, in general, correlated with the improvement in rate of reading. Slower readers were generally poorer at texture segmentation. The implications for reading, for texture segmentation, and for clinical tests of vision are discussed. PMID:10664760</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilkins, A; Lewis, E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23495128"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Colour</span> of Pain: Can Patients Use <span class="hlt">Colour</span> to Describe Osteoarthritis Pain?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to explore patients' views on the acceptability and feasibility of using <span class="hlt">colour</span> to describe osteoarthritis (OA) pain, and whether <span class="hlt">colour</span> could be used to communicate pain to healthcare professionals. METHODS: Six group interviews were conducted with 17 patients with knee OA. Discussion topics included first impressions about using <span class="hlt">colour</span> to describe pain, whether participants could associate their pain with <span class="hlt">colour</span>, how <span class="hlt">colours</span> related to changes to intensity and different pain qualities, and whether they could envisage using <span class="hlt">colour</span> to describe pain to healthcare professionals. RESULTS: The group interviews indicated that, although the idea of using <span class="hlt">colour</span> was generally acceptable, it did not suit all participants as a way of describing their pain. The majority of participants chose red to describe high-intensity pain; the reasons given were because red symbolized inflammation, fire, anger and the stop signal in a traffic light system. <span class="hlt">Colours</span> used to describe the absence of pain were chosen because of their association with positive emotional feelings, such as purity, calmness and happiness. A range of <span class="hlt">colours</span> was chosen to represent changes in pain intensity. Aching pain was consistently identified as being associated with <span class="hlt">colours</span> such as grey or black, whereas sharp pain was described using a wider selection of <span class="hlt">colours</span>. The majority of participants thought that they would be able to use <span class="hlt">colour</span> to describe their pain to healthcare professionals, although issues around the interpretability and standardization of <span class="hlt">colour</span> were raised. CONCLUSIONS: For some patients, using <span class="hlt">colour</span> to describe their pain experience may be a useful tool to improve doctor-patient communication. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23495128</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wylde, Vikki; Wells, Victoria; Dixon, Samantha; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..SHK.Z2004C"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Review of 3D <span class="hlt">imaging</span> techniques for visualisation of the structure of energetic <span class="hlt">composites</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A review of <span class="hlt">imaging</span> techniques which can be used to acquire three dimensional data on the structure of polymer <span class="hlt">composite</span> materials is presented. The techniques chosen utilise a variety of mechanisms for forming contrast, and include x-ray tomography (XCT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and optical & electron microscopy. Discussion is illustrated with reference to a particular HMX based UK PBX. The achievable contrast and spatial resolutions are considered, along with arguments relating to the destructive and non-destructive methods of acquiring data. Particular emphasis is given to the safety concerns and the added experimental complications which arise when studying energetic materials.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carmichael, A. E.; Williamson, D. M.; Govier, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995PhRvL..75.4433V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Direct <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of the percolation network in a three-dimensional disordered conductor-insulator <span class="hlt">composite</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have directly <span class="hlt">imaged</span> the percolation network at the surface of a three-dimensional carbon-black-polymer <span class="hlt">composite</span> using an electric force microscope. At intermediate length scales the conductive area exposed at the surface increases with surface area according to a power law corresponding to a three-dimensional infinite cluster of fractal dimension D=2.6+/-0.1. This value is in good agreement with the scaling theory prediction, D=2.53. At large length scales the behavior is homogenous with the classical exponent D=3.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Viswanathan, Ravi; Heaney, Michael B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhRvL.100c8103J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nanoscale <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> of Mineral Crystals inside Biological <span class="hlt">Composite</span> Materials Using X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We for the first time applied x-ray diffraction microscopy to the <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of mineral crystals inside biological <span class="hlt">composite</span> materials—intramuscular fish bone—at the nanometer scale resolution. We identified mineral crystals in collagen fibrils at different stages of mineralization. Based on the experimental results and biomineralization analyses, we suggested a dynamic model to account for the nucleation and growth of mineral crystals in the collagen matrix. The results obtained from this study not only further our understanding of the complex structure of bone, but also demonstrate that x-ray diffraction microscopy will become an important tool to study biological materials.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiang, Huaidong; Ramunno-Johnson, Damien; Song, Changyong; Amirbekian, Bagrat; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Nishino, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Yukio; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Miao, Jianwei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3637..231E"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Composite</span> holographic screens for the stereoscopic or multiview color <span class="hlt">image</span> display</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The transmission type holographic screen is a special kind of scatterer, which is used to concentrate the light from the projected <span class="hlt">image</span> into small size spot (viewing zone). As a result, different <span class="hlt">images</span> can be delivered to each observer's eyes and it is possible to display the stereoscopic <span class="hlt">images</span>. The most serious problem related with the holographic screen is its high dispersion and aberrations which cause the viewing zone distortions and poor color reproduction in the displayed <span class="hlt">image</span>, especially in the screen corners. Both of the above mentioned drawbacks become more prominent when the screen size becomes larger. To compensate the screen dispersion, a diffuser in the form of a long narrow stripe directed to the reference beam axis is used for an object. The length and position of the diffuser are calculated to make the reconstructed <span class="hlt">images</span> of it for all wavelengths of the white light projector to be superposed in the viewing zone. To solve the aberrations problem, a big size screen was composed by mosaicking many sub-screens which were recorded individually in the specially optimized setup. For example, when the sub- screen is recorded for the edge part of the screen, the diffuser was tilted different direction to provide proper superposition of the reconstructed diffuser <span class="hlt">images</span>. For each sub-screen, the diffuser is tilted such that it is in nearly the same plane with the reference beam axis. The sub-screens are recorded on the holographic photoplates PFG-01 (Russia) with an optical set-up optimized for each sub-screen by adjusting the diffuser position and its tilt angle. All necessary parameters are calculated by considering the light beam path for different wavelengths in the visible spectrum. The size of each sub-screen is 40 X 30 cm2. Eight sub- screens are mosaicked to obtain a <span class="hlt">composite</span> holographic screen with size 80 X 120 cm2. The screens have been used to display the full color stereoscopic <span class="hlt">images</span> from slide projectors. The distances between the projector and the <span class="hlt">composite</span> screen, and the screen and a viewer are set to 4 m and 3.5 m, respectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Evtikhiev, Nickolay N.; Axelrod, Anatoly A.; Bobrinev, Vladimir I.; Kostrov, Nickolay A.; Koshevarov, Gennady A.; Markin, Vladimir V.; Melnikov, Leonid J.; Oleinikov, Alexey L.; Radominov, Oleg E.; Son, Jung-Young</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21366874"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of <span class="hlt">Image</span> And X-Ray Microtomography Technique To Quantify Filler Distribution In Thermoplastic-Natural Rubber Blend <span class="hlt">Composites</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">X-ray microtomography and <span class="hlt">Image</span>J 1.39 u is used as a tool to quantify volume percentage of B{sub 4}C as fillers in thermoplastic-natural rubber blend <span class="hlt">composites</span>. The use of percentage of area occupied by fillers as obtain from <span class="hlt">Image</span>J from the microtomography sliced <span class="hlt">images</span> enables the proposed technique to easily obtain the amount volume percentage of B{sub 4}C in the <span class="hlt">composite</span> non-destructively. Comparison with other technique such as density measurement and chemical analysis proves the proposed technique as one of the promising approach.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahmad, Sahrim; Rasid, Rozaidi; Mouad, A. T. [Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Aziz Mohamed, A.; Abdullah, Jaafar; Dahlan, M.; Mohamad, Mahathir; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Hamzah Harun, M. [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Yazid, Hafizal [Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Hafizal Yazid, Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Abdullah, W. Saffiey W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005APhy...51...52B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectral Morphological Analysis of Acoustical <span class="hlt">Images</span> of Biological Tissues and <span class="hlt">Composite</span> Structures: I. Statistical Approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The problem of classifying <span class="hlt">images</span> of different biological tissues and <span class="hlt">composite</span> structures is solved using the spectral and morphological analysis based on the Bayesian method for statistical hypothesis verification. The basis functions are constructed from a learning set. The spectral approach and its particular realizations in the form of Bartlett’s and Pisarenko’s methods adapted to the problem are considered. An extension of the spectral approach to the more general spectral-morphological classification is proposed. The latter takes into account the spatial-spectrum features of the structure types to be classified, as well as their morphological features, which manifest themselves in a correlation between the expansion coefficients. The characteristic properties of the spectral and spectral-morphological approaches are discussed using numerical classification examples. The method is generalized to the classification of multiparameter <span class="hlt">images</span> of structures, which may be represented, for example, by the distributions of the sound velocity, density, absorption, and values of the nonlinear parameter.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burov, V. A.; Kim, E. L.; Rumyantseva, O. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23643832"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> reproduction for advanced manufacture of soft tissue prostheses.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to develop a <span class="hlt">colour</span> reproduction system in advanced manufacture technology for accurate and automatic processing of soft tissue prostheses. METHODS: The manufacturing protocol was defined to effectively and consistently produce soft tissue prostheses using a 3D printing system. Within this protocol printer <span class="hlt">colour</span> profiles were developed using a number of mathematical models for the proposed 3D <span class="hlt">colour</span> printing system based on 240 training <span class="hlt">colours</span>. On this basis, the <span class="hlt">colour</span> reproduction system was established and their system errors including accuracy of <span class="hlt">colour</span> reproduction, performance of <span class="hlt">colour</span> repeatability and <span class="hlt">colour</span> gamut were evaluated using 14 known human skin shades. RESULTS: The printer <span class="hlt">colour</span> profile developed using the third-order polynomial regression based on least-square fitting provided the best model performance. The results demonstrated that by using the proposed <span class="hlt">colour</span> reproduction system, 14 different skin <span class="hlt">colours</span> could be reproduced and excellent <span class="hlt">colour</span> reproduction performance achieved. Evaluation of the system's <span class="hlt">colour</span> repeatability revealed a demonstrable system error and this highlighted the need for regular evaluation. The <span class="hlt">colour</span> gamut for the proposed 3D printing system was simulated and it was demonstrated that the vast majority of skin <span class="hlt">colours</span> can be reproduced with the exception of extreme dark or light skin <span class="hlt">colour</span> shades. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the proposed <span class="hlt">colour</span> reproduction system can be effectively used to reproduce a range of human skin <span class="hlt">colours</span> for application in advanced manufacture of soft tissue prostheses. PMID:23643832</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xiao, Kaida; Zardawi, Faraedon; van Noort, Richard; Yates, Julian M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7961E.181Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the quality of <span class="hlt">image</span> for various breast <span class="hlt">composition</span> and exposure conditions in digital mammography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Breast density has a close relationship with breast cancer risk. The exposure parameters must be appropriately chosen for each breast. However, the optimal exposure conditions for digital mammography are uncertain in clinical. The exposure parameters in digital mammography must be optimized with maximization of <span class="hlt">image</span> quality and minimization of radiation dose. We evaluated <span class="hlt">image</span> quality under different exposure conditions to investigate the most advantageous tube voltage. For different compressed breast phantom thicknesses and <span class="hlt">compositions</span>, we measured the Wiener spectrum (WS), noise-equivalent number of quanta (NEQ), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). In this study, the signal-to-noise ratios were derived from a perceived statistical decision theory model with the internal noise of eye-brain system (SNRi), contrived and studied by Loo et al.1 and Ishida et al.2 These were calculated under a fixed average glandular dose. The WS values were obtained with a fixed <span class="hlt">image</span> contrast. For 4-cm-thick and 50% glandular breast phantoms, the NEQ showed that high voltages gave a superior noise property of <span class="hlt">images</span>, especially for thick breasts, but the improvement in the NEQ by tube voltage was not so remarkable. On the other hand, the SNRi value with a Mo filter was larger than that with a Rh filter. The SNRi increased when the tube voltage decreased. The result differed from those of WS and NEQ. In this study, the SNRi depended on the contrast of signal. Accuracy should be high with an intense, low-contrast object.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yamada, Maki; Kato, Yuri; Fujita, Naotoshi; Kodera, Yoshie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19487128"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Compositional</span> contrast of uncoated fungal spores and stained section-face by low-loss backscattered electron <span class="hlt">imaging</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Comparative surface <span class="hlt">imaging</span> was performed on uncoated fungal spores and stained section-face by field emission scanning electron microscopy with an in-column energy-selective backscattered electron detector. Epoxy resin thin sections (ca. 200 and 500 nm thick) of the osmicated and uranyl acetate/lead citrate-stained fungus were examined with the microscope. Topographical contrast was evident in secondary electron <span class="hlt">imaging</span> by either a below-lens or an in-lens detector. Meanwhile, low-loss backscattered electron <span class="hlt">images</span> showed mainly <span class="hlt">compositional</span> contrast at low accelerating voltages (mostly below 1 kV). With attenuated topographical contrast, several different electron densities could be detected, exhibiting several levels of electron density even on a flat plane of spines. Minute differences in topography on epoxy resin sections as seen by secondary electron <span class="hlt">imaging</span> represented the periphery of the fungal spores and hyphae. On the other hand, the <span class="hlt">compositional</span> contrast could be retrieved from stained section-face in low-loss BSE <span class="hlt">imaging</span>, revealing subcellular entities after contrast inversion. The resolution of low-loss BSE <span class="hlt">imaging</span> was sufficient to resolve plasma membrane, and various types of vacuoles and vesicles. These results suggest that low-loss backscattered electron <span class="hlt">imaging</span> could potentially provide <span class="hlt">compositional</span> information to resolve surface chemical features of uncoated microbial cells and stained section-face with heterogeneous surface <span class="hlt">compositions</span>. PMID:19487128</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Ki Woo; Jaksch, Heiner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007NW.....94..935K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physicochemical and physiological basis of dichromatic <span class="hlt">colour</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Out of three perceptual characteristics of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of any substance, the hue depends mostly on the spectral properties of a substance, while the brightness and saturation depend also on the concentration of a substance and its thickness. Here, we report that evident change of the hue of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> (i.e., from green to red) is due to a change in concentration or the thickness of a layer in some exceptional substances such as pumpkin seed oil or an aqueous solution of bromophenol blue. In some regions of Central Europe, salad dressing is made preferably with the pumpkin seed oil, which has a strong characteristic nut-like taste and remarkable properties of the <span class="hlt">colour</span>: it appears red in a bottle, but green when served as a salad dressing. The <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the pumpkin seed oil was previously described as brownish yellow, dark green, dark green to red ochre or dark reddish brown to light yellow green. We elucidated the physicochemical and physiological basis of such dichromatism by Beer-Lambert law and by the characteristics of human <span class="hlt">colour</span> perception. Our concept was corroborated by the outcome of calculations of <span class="hlt">colour</span> from spectral properties using <span class="hlt">colour</span> matching functions. We found that dichromatism is observed if the absorption spectrum of any substance has at least two local minima: one wide but shallow and one narrow but deep local minimum.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kreft, Samo; Kreft, Marko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006OptLT..38..343D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> and lighting in hospital design</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Little information or guidance has been available to assist the development of a hospital's visual environment. A report on lighting and <span class="hlt">colour</span> design schemes, accessible to non professionals with responsibility for refurbishment strategies, was required by NHS Estates. Firstly, 20 hospitals were audited to establish a picture of current practice and to identify key issues where <span class="hlt">colour</span> design could broadly enhance the environment for patients, staff and visitors. Critical areas were outlined in this report, where <span class="hlt">colour</span> design can be utilised and applied, for the benefit of all users, from ambience to essential legal requirements such as <span class="hlt">colour</span> contrast for the visually impaired. Provision of staff relaxation rooms that are different in terms of <span class="hlt">colour</span> and lux levels from immediate work spaces, or thoughtfully designed areas for patients awaiting intensive treatment, have been shown to have some beneficial effects on a sense of well being. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> and design have not been established as a definite cure for sickness and ill health, but certainly monotony and poor conditions in premises that have not been refurbished with any care, have had a detrimental affect on recovery rates and staff morale. The realisation that a well balanced and attractive environment is of major importance to patients’ health is, in no way new; Florence Nightingale observed that ‘a variety of form and brilliance of <span class="hlt">colour</span> in the objects presented to patients are an actual means of recovery’.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dalke, Hilary; Little, Jenny; Niemann, Elga; Camgoz, Nilgun; Steadman, Guillaume; Hill, Sarah; Stott, Laura</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5409762"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of breast <span class="hlt">composition</span> on absorbed dose and <span class="hlt">image</span> contrast</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have studied the effect of breast <span class="hlt">composition</span> on the average whole breast dose, average glandular dose, and <span class="hlt">image</span> contrast in mammography, using both computational and experimental methods. Three glandular/adipose <span class="hlt">compositions</span> were considered: 30/70, 50/50, and 70/30 by weight, for both 3- and 5-cm breast thickness. Absorbed dose was found to increase with greater glandular content and this increase is more pronounced for thick breasts and softer beams. For typical screen-film x-ray beams, the average dose to a highly glandular breast is nearly twice the dose to a highly adipose breast and the average glandular dose about 40% higher. Dose was reduced when higher energy beams were employed. The use of a grid increased the dose by a factor of 2.0 to 2.6. Finally, the measured <span class="hlt">image</span> contrast decreases with increasing breast glandularity, to a greater extent in small breasts and when low energy beams were employed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Skubic, S.E.; Fatouros, P.P. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (USA))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23880014"> <span id="translatedtitle">A practical and objective approach to scar <span class="hlt">colour</span> assessment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Scarring is a significant clinical problem following dermal injury. However, scars are not a single describable entity and huge phenotypic variability is evident. Quantitative, reproducible inter-observer scar assessment is essential to monitor wound healing and the effect of scar treatments. Scar <span class="hlt">colour</span>, reflecting the biological processes occurring within a scar, is integral to any assessment. The objective of this study was to analyse scar <span class="hlt">colour</span> using the non-invasive Eykona(®) Wound Measurement System (the System) as compared against the Manchester Scar Scale (MSS). Three dimensional <span class="hlt">images</span> of 43 surgical scars were acquired post-operatively from 35 patients at 3-6 months and the <span class="hlt">colour</span> difference between the scar and surrounding skin was calculated (giving ?Lab values). The colourimetric results were then compared against subjective MSS gradings. A significant difference in ?Lab values between MSS gradings of "slight mismatch" and "obvious mismatch" (p < 0.025) and between "obvious mismatch" and "gross mismatch" (p < 0.05) were noted. The System creates objective, reproducible data, without the need for any specialist expertise and compares favourably with the MSS. Greater scar numbers are required to further clinically validate this device - however, with this potential to calculate scar length, width, volume and other characteristics, it could provide a complete, objective, quantitative record of scarring throughout the wound-healing process. PMID:23880014</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hallam, M J; McNaught, K; Thomas, A N; Nduka, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3470611"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of distensibility, plaque burden, and <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the atherosclerotic carotid artery using magnetic resonance <span class="hlt">imaging</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: Arterial distensibility is a marker that can measure vessel wall functional and structural changes resulting from atherosclerosis with applications including estimation of mechanical properties of the wall. We sought to assess the feasibility of using magnetic resonance <span class="hlt">imaging</span> (MRI) to include wall distensibility in the characterization of atherosclerotic carotid arteries and to analyze the relationship between distensibility and morphological and <span class="hlt">compositional</span> plaque features. Methods: Five healthy volunteers were <span class="hlt">imaged</span> with a multiple-slice CINE MR sequence twice, within 24 h, to determine the interscan reproducibility of distensibility measurements. Twenty-one subjects with >15% carotid stenosis and the five healthy volunteers were <span class="hlt">imaged</span> using a multicontrast carotid MRI protocol to characterize arterial wall morphology and <span class="hlt">composition</span>. Normalized wall index (wall area/total vessel area), maximum wall thickness and, if present, percentages of wall area occupied by calcification and lipid-rich necrotic core were determined. A multiple-slice CINE MR sequence was added to the multicontrast protocol to measure the distensibility coefficient (DC) at several locations spanning the bifurcation. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the coefficient of variation were used to assess the reproducibility of DC measurements made on the healthy subjects. The DC was compared between arterial segments and between the healthy and diseased groups. Furthermore, within the diseased group, DC was correlated to plaque morphology and <span class="hlt">composition</span> at each location as well as that averaged over the plaque. Results: Distensibility measurements were highly reproducible: ICC (95% confidence interval) was 0.998 (0.96–1.0) for the common carotid segment and 0.990 (0.92–1.0) for the internal carotid segment. In healthy volunteers, we found significantly higher distensibility in the common segment of the carotid artery compared to the internal carotid segment (mean ± SD = 4.56 ± 1.02 versus 3.56 ± 1.32 × 10?5/Pa; p < 0.05). However, no segmental differences were seen in the diseased group (3.25 ± 1.84 versus 3.26 ± 1.60 × 10?5/Pa; p = 0.607). Location-to-location changes in DC were not found to correlate to changes in the local plaque morphology or <span class="hlt">composition</span> nor were average DC found to be associated with aggregate plaque features. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the feasibility of MRI to measure distensibility in the carotid artery and to presumably detect changes in distensibility due to age and/or disease. The results suggest that the effect of atherosclerosis on local distensibility may not strongly depend upon the specific underlying plaque features in mild to moderate stenotic carotid lesions though more diffuse or nonlocal changes in arterial distensibility could not be ruled out.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Canton, Gador; Hippe, Daniel S.; Sun, Jie; Underhill, Hunter R.; Kerwin, William S.; Tang, Dalin; Yuan, Chun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PMB....49.5267P"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new test phantom with different breast tissue <span class="hlt">compositions</span> for <span class="hlt">image</span> quality assessment in conventional and digital mammography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our objective is to describe a new test phantom that permits the objective assessment of <span class="hlt">image</span> quality in conventional and digital mammography for different types of breast tissue. A test phantom, designed to represent a compressed breast, was made from tissue equivalent materials. Three separate regions, with different breast tissue <span class="hlt">compositions</span>, are used to evaluate low and high contrast resolution, spatial resolution and <span class="hlt">image</span> noise. The phantom was <span class="hlt">imaged</span> over a range of kV using a Contour 2000 (Bennett) mammography unit with a Kodak MinR 2190-MinR L screen film combination and a Senograph 2000D (General Electric) digital mammography unit. Objective <span class="hlt">image</span> quality assessments for different breast tissue <span class="hlt">compositions</span> were performed using the phantom for conventional and digital mammography. For a similar mean glandular dose (MGD), the digital system gives a significantly higher contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) than the screen film system for 100% glandular tissue. In conclusion, in mammography, a range of exposure conditions is used for <span class="hlt">imaging</span> because of the different breast tissue <span class="hlt">compositions</span> encountered clinically. Ideally, the patient dose <span class="hlt">image</span> quality relationship should be optimized over the range of exposure conditions. The test phantom presented in this work permits <span class="hlt">image</span> quality parameters to be evaluated objectively for three different types of breast tissue. Thus, it is a useful tool for optimizing the patient dose <span class="hlt">image</span> quality relationship.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pachoud, Marc; Lepori, D.; Valley, Jean-François; Verdun, Francis R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15656276"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new test phantom with different breast tissue <span class="hlt">compositions</span> for <span class="hlt">image</span> quality assessment in conventional and digital mammography.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our objective is to describe a new test phantom that permits the objective assessment of <span class="hlt">image</span> quality in conventional and digital mammography for different types of breast tissue. A test phantom, designed to represent a compressed breast, was made from tissue equivalent materials. Three separate regions, with different breast tissue <span class="hlt">compositions</span>, are used to evaluate low and high contrast resolution, spatial resolution and <span class="hlt">image</span> noise. The phantom was <span class="hlt">imaged</span> over a range of kV using a Contour 2000 (Bennett) mammography unit with a Kodak MinR 2190-MinR L screen-film combination and a Senograph 2000D (General Electric) digital mammography unit. Objective <span class="hlt">image</span> quality assessments for different breast tissue <span class="hlt">compositions</span> were performed using the phantom for conventional and digital mammography. For a similar mean glandular dose (MGD), the digital system gives a significantly higher contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) than the screen-film system for 100% glandular tissue. In conclusion, in mammography, a range of exposure conditions is used for <span class="hlt">imaging</span> because of the different breast tissue <span class="hlt">compositions</span> encountered clinically. Ideally, the patient dose-<span class="hlt">image</span> quality relationship should be optimized over the range of exposure conditions. The test phantom presented in this work permits <span class="hlt">image</span> quality parameters to be evaluated objectively for three different types of breast tissue. Thus, it is a useful tool for optimizing the patient dose-<span class="hlt">image</span> quality relationship. PMID:15656276</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pachoud, Marc; Lepori, D; Valley, Jean-François; Verdun, Francis R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA411562"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computer Assisted Assessment of Wound Appearance Using Digital <span class="hlt">Imaging</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes a digital <span class="hlt">image</span> processing system for the analysis of <span class="hlt">colour</span> in wound <span class="hlt">images</span> under clinical conditions. The system uses a 3CCD array digital video camera together with a <span class="hlt">colour</span> scale for reference. The accuracy of <span class="hlt">colour</span> assessment wa...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Hoppe D. Wertheim J. Melhuish H. Morris K. G. Harding</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..MARW26005W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structural <span class="hlt">colours</span> in blue-banded bee</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Periodic, micro-textured biological materials are ubiquitous in nature. Electromagnetic waves at different frequencies are selectively reflected by such materials. This phenomenon is the origin of structural <span class="hlt">colours</span> observed in variety of insects. In this work, we analyze the mechanisms that lead to the bluish-green <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the blue-banded bee feathers. The reflection spectrum of the blue-banded bee feather was calculated by the transfer matrix method (TMM). The reflection peaks found are compatible within the experimental data. In addition to Bragg scattering, guided resonance has been observed in our theoretical calculation, which leads to a novel understanding of the structural <span class="hlt">colours</span> in blue-banded bees.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wan, Jones; Dai, Lixiin; Li, Jensen; Fung, Kwok-Kwong; Chan, Che-Ting</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/8905"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determining thermal diffusivity and defect attributes in ceramic matrix <span class="hlt">composites</span> by infrared <span class="hlt">imaging</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ceramic matrix <span class="hlt">composites</span> are being developed for numerous high temperature applications, including rotors and combustors for advanced turbine engines, heat exchanger and hot-gas filters for coal gasification plants. Among the materials of interest are silicon-carbide-fiber-reinforced-silicon-carbide (SiC{sub (f)}/SiC), silicon-carbide-fiber-reinforced-silicon-nitride (SiC{sub (f)}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), aluminum-oxide-reinforced-alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3(f)}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), etc. In the manufacturing of these ceramic <span class="hlt">composites</span>, the conditions of the fiber/matrix interface are critical to the mechanical and thermal behavior of the component. Defects such as delaminations and non-uniform porosity can directly effect the performance. A nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method, developed at Argonne National Laboratory has proved beneficial in analyzing as-processed conditions and defect detection created during manufacturing. This NDE method uses infrared thermal <span class="hlt">imaging</span> for fill-field quantitative measurement of the distribution of thermal diffusivity in large components. Intensity transform algorithms have been used for contrast enhancement of the output <span class="hlt">image</span>. Nonuniformity correction and automatic gain control are used to dynamically optimize video contrast and brightness, providing additional resolution in the acquired <span class="hlt">images</span>. Digital filtering, interpolation, and least-squares-estimation techniques have been incorporated for noise reduction and data acquisition. The Argonne NDE system has been utilized to determine thermal shock damage, density variations, and variations in fiber coating in a full array of test specimens.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahuja, S.; Ellingson, W. A.; Koehl, E. R.; Stuckey, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-12-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52871656"> <span id="translatedtitle">Artist's <span class="hlt">colour</span> rendering of HDR scenes in 3D Mondrian <span class="hlt">colour</span>-constancy experiments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The presentation provides an update on ongoing research using three-dimensional <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Mondrians. Two still life arrangements comprising hand-painted <span class="hlt">coloured</span> blocks of 11 different <span class="hlt">colours</span> were subjected to two different lighting conditions of a nearly uniform light and directed spotlights. The three-dimensional nature of these test targets adds shadows and multiple reflections, not found in flat Mondrian targets. Working from exactly</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carinna E. Parraman; John J. McCann; Alessandro Rizzi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1946761"> <span id="translatedtitle">Follicular contact dermatitis due to <span class="hlt">coloured</span> permanent-pressed sheets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A delayed hypersensitivity type of allergic contact dermatitis was observed following exposure to certain brands of 50% cotton, 50% polyester <span class="hlt">coloured</span> permanent-pressed sheets produced by a particular manufacturer. The dermatitis presented as an extremely pruritic follicular eczema of the body and vesicular edema of the ears and face. Patch testing excluded formalin as the allergen but suggested permanent-pressing chemicals as a possibility. Several washings of the sheets did not prevent the development of the dermatitis. The removal of sheets did not immediately result in improvement: the condition could persist for up to eight weeks after their discontinuance. <span class="hlt">Images</span>FIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Panaccio, Francois; Montgomery, D. C.; Adam, J. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=the+AND+green+AND+movement&pg=5&id=EJ939924"> <span id="translatedtitle">Salience of Primary and Secondary <span class="hlt">Colours</span> in Infancy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Primary <span class="hlt">colour</span> terms ("black", "white", "red", "green", "yellow", and "blue") are more fundamental in <span class="hlt">colour</span> language than secondary <span class="hlt">colour</span> terms ("pink", "purple", "orange", "brown", and "grey"). Here, we assess whether this distinction exists in the absence of language, by investigating whether primary <span class="hlt">colours</span> attract and sustain preverbal…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Franklin, Anna; Pitchford, Nicola; Hart, Lynsey; Davies, Ian R. L.; Clausse, Samantha; Jennings, Siobhan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/l81458621734n842.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> association influences honey bee choice between sucrose concentrations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Certain <span class="hlt">colours</span> associated with floral food resources are more quickly learned by honey bees (Apis mellifera) than are other <span class="hlt">colours</span>. But the impact of <span class="hlt">colour</span>, and other floral cues, on bee choice behaviour has not yet been determined. In these experiments, <span class="hlt">colour</span> association and sugar concentration of reward were varied to assess how they interact to affect bee choice behaviour.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">V. S. Banschbach</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58603876"> <span id="translatedtitle">The theory and phenomenology of <span class="hlt">coloured</span> quark models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A general introduction to <span class="hlt">coloured</span> quark models is given and their phenomenology is described with particular reference to the new particles. It is shown that there are essentially three types of <span class="hlt">colour</span> models with <span class="hlt">colour</span> excitation when the <span class="hlt">colour</span> group is SU(3)- Han-Nambu, Greenberg and a model which has the same charges as that of Tati and which can be</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F E Close</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37844934"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> and product choice: a study of gender roles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose – Research in to how <span class="hlt">colour</span> can stimulate interest and subsequently increase the appeal power of products. There has been very little or no research in the <span class="hlt">colour</span>-impact domain in Malaysia. Gender has also been presented as an important factor of <span class="hlt">colour</span> penchant and proclivity. Seeks to understand the influence of <span class="hlt">colour</span> on consumer choice of automobile as well</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Debby Funk; Nelson Oly Ndubisi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.idea-edu.com/content/download/207/719/file/COLOUR%20and%20SPACE%20-%20An%20Investigation%20of%20Three-Dimensionality.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">COLOUR</span> and SPACE: An Investigation of Three Dimensionality</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monica Billger, in her doctoral dissertation, states 'The feasibility of working consciously with <span class="hlt">colours</span> is limited by our knowledge about how the appearance of <span class="hlt">coloured</span> materials varies with context, that is, how a <span class="hlt">coloured</span> surface is affected by its spatial situation' (Billger, 1999, p. 5). In association, however, we can also seek to understand how the application of <span class="hlt">colour</span> provides</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dianne Smith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41140220"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of polysaccharides on the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of anthocyanins</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of a variety of plant polysaccharides and sugars on anthocyanin <span class="hlt">colour</span> was investigated. The <span class="hlt">colour</span> intensity (absorbance), but not the ?max, of solutions of different anthocyanins was found to be diminished in the presence of amylose, amylopectin and ?- and ?-cyclodextrins whilst glucose, maltose and sucrose caused an increase in <span class="hlt">colour</span>. This <span class="hlt">colour</span> change was more apparent at</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jane E Lancaster</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34727082"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal resolution of <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision in the honeybee</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary 1.The temporal resolution of <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision was measured in freely-flying honeybees by testing the performance of trained bees in discriminating between two stimuli, one of which presented a steady, homogeneous mixture of two <span class="hlt">colours</span>, while the other offered a heterochromatic flicker between the two <span class="hlt">colours</span> at various temporal frequencies. Pairwise combinations of the <span class="hlt">colours</span> uv, blue and green were</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mandyam Srinivasan; Miriam Lehrer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a 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showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1430.1176L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flaw investigation in a multi-layered, multi-material <span class="hlt">composite</span>: Using air-coupled ultrasonic resonance <span class="hlt">imaging</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ceramic tiles are the main ingredient of a multi-material, multi-layered <span class="hlt">composite</span> being considered for the modernization of tank armors. The high stiffness, low attenuation, and precise dimensions of these uniform tiles make them remarkable resonators when driven to vibrate. Defects in the tile, during manufacture or after usage, are expected to change the resonance frequencies and resonance <span class="hlt">images</span> of the tile. The comparison of the resonance frequencies and resonance <span class="hlt">images</span> of a pristine tile/lay-up to a defective tile/lay-up will thus be a quantitative damage metric. By examining the vibrational behavior of these tiles and the <span class="hlt">composite</span> lay-up with Finite Element Modeling and analytical plate vibration equations, the development of a new Nondestructive Evaluation technique is possible. This study examines the development of the Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Resonance <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> technique as applied to a hexagonal ceramic tile and a multi-material, multi-layered <span class="hlt">composite</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Livings, R. A.; Dayal, V.; Barnard, D. J.; Hsu, D. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51652301"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structural <span class="hlt">colours</span> in blue-banded bee</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Periodic, micro-textured biological materials are ubiquitous in nature. Electromagnetic waves at different frequencies are selectively reflected by such materials. This phenomenon is the origin of structural <span class="hlt">colours</span> observed in variety of insects. In this work, we analyze the mechanisms that lead to the bluish-green <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the blue-banded bee feathers. The reflection spectrum of the blue-banded bee feather was calculated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jones Wan; Lixiin Dai; Jensen Li; Kwok-Kwong Fung; Che-Ting Chan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/3133701617g804k3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> and cytochromes P450</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Flavonoids are major constituents of flower <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Plants accumulate specific flavonoids and thus every species often exhibits a limited flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> range. Three cytochromes P450 play critical roles in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. Flavonoid 3?-hydroxylase (F3?H, CYP75B) and flavonoid 3?,5?-hydroxylase (F3?5?H, CYP75A) catalyze the hydroxylation of the B-ring of flavonoids and are necessary to biosynthesize cyanidin-(red to magenta) and delphinidin-(violet</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoshikazu Tanaka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BAAA...53..133M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Globular Clusters: Chemical Abundance - Integrated <span class="hlt">Colour</span> calibration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work, we improve the chemical abundance - integrated <span class="hlt">colour</span> cali- bration presented in Forte, Faifer & Geisler, 2007 (FFG07 hereafter) using a new (g-i) vs. (C-T1) <span class="hlt">colours</span> calibration obtained from M87. Using this calibration and better values of the reddening for the galactic globulars, we found that a quadratic calibration is still enough to represent the observa- tional data, as in FFG07.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moyano Loyola, G.; Faifer, F. R.; Forte, J. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/863714"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tracking <span class="hlt">colour</span> objects using adaptive mixture models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract The use of adaptive Gaussian mixtures to model the <span class="hlt">colour</span> distributions of objects is described. These models are used to perform robust, real-time tracking under varying illumination, viewing geometry and camera parameters. Observed log-likelihood measurements were used to perform selective adaptation. q,1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Real-time tracking; <span class="hlt">Colour</span> model; Gaussian mixture model; Adaptive learning</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stephen J. Mckenna; Yogesh Raja; Shaogang Gong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41163634"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes during the caramelisation reaction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sucrose solutions, with concentrations near or superior to saturation, present high potentialities for the candy and pastry industries. The development of <span class="hlt">colour</span> in a neutral and highly concentrated sucrose solution (16.32%(w\\/w) water content) subjected to isothermal heat treatment (in the 100–160°C range) was investigated. Under such conditions, sucrose degrades through caramelisation and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is formed. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> development was monitored</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mafalda A. C. Quintas; Teresa R. S. Brandão; Cristina L. M. Silva</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/793050"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE <span class="hlt">COLOUR</span> GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">IANCU,E.; LEONIDOV,A.; MCLERRAN,L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-08-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23228200"> <span id="translatedtitle">Use of magnetic resonance <span class="hlt">imaging</span> to predict the body <span class="hlt">composition</span> of pigs in vivo.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of the study was to evaluate whether magnetic resonance <span class="hlt">imaging</span> (MRI) offers the opportunity to reliably analyze body <span class="hlt">composition</span> of pigs in vivo. Therefore, the relation between areas of loin eye muscle and its back fat based on MRI <span class="hlt">images</span> were used to predict body <span class="hlt">composition</span> values measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). During the study, a total of 77 pigs were studied by MRI and DXA, with a BW ranging between 42 and 102 kg. The pigs originated from different extensive or conventional breeds or crossbreds such as Cerdo Iberico, Duroc, German Landrace, German Large White, Hampshire and Pietrain. A Siemens Magnetom Open was used for MRI in the thorax region between 13th and 14th vertebrae in order to measure the loin eye area (MRI-LA) and the above back fat area (MRI-FA) of both body sides, whereas a whole body scan was performed by DXA with a GE Lunar DPX-IQ in order to measure the amount and percentage of fat tissue (DXA-FM; DXA-%FM) and lean tissue mass (DXA-LM; DXA-%LM). A linear single regression analysis was performed to quantify the linear relationships between MRI- and DXA-derived traits. In addition, a stepwise regression procedure was carried out to calculate (multiple) regression equations between MRI and DXA variables (including BW). Single regression analyses showed high relationships between DXA-%FM and MRI-FA (R 2 = 0.89, ?MSE = 2.39%), DXA-FM and MRI-FA (R 2 = 0.82, ?MSE = 2757 g) and DXA-LM and MRI-LA (R 2 = 0.82, ?MSE = 4018 g). Only DXA-%LM and MRI-LA did not show any relationship (R 2 = 0). As a result of the multiple regression analysis, DXA-LM and DXA-FM were both highly related to MRI-LA, MRI-FA and BW (R 2 = 0.96; ?MSE = 1784 g, and R 2 = 0.95, ?MSE = 1496 g). Therefore, it can be concluded that the use of MRI-derived <span class="hlt">images</span> provides exact information about important 'carcass-traits' in pigs and may be used to reliably predict the body <span class="hlt">composition</span> in vivo. PMID:23228200</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kremer, P V; Förster, M; Scholz, A M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20926430"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colourful</span> parrot feathers resist bacterial degradation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The brilliant red, orange and yellow <span class="hlt">colours</span> of parrot feathers are the product of psittacofulvins, which are synthetic pigments known only from parrots. Recent evidence suggests that some pigments in bird feathers function not just as <span class="hlt">colour</span> generators, but also preserve plumage integrity by increasing the resistance of feather keratin to bacterial degradation. We exposed a variety of <span class="hlt">colourful</span> parrot feathers to feather-degrading Bacillus licheniformis and found that feathers with red psittacofulvins degraded at about the same rate as those with melanin and more slowly than white feathers, which lack pigments. Blue feathers, in which <span class="hlt">colour</span> is based on the microstructural arrangement of keratin, air and melanin granules, and green feathers, which combine structural blue with yellow psittacofulvins, degraded at a rate similar to that of red and black feathers. These differences in resistance to bacterial degradation of differently <span class="hlt">coloured</span> feathers suggest that <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns within the Psittaciformes may have evolved to resist bacterial degradation, in addition to their role in communication and camouflage. PMID:20926430</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burtt, Edward H; Schroeder, Max R; Smith, Lauren A; Sroka, Jenna E; McGraw, Kevin J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3061162"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colourful</span> parrot feathers resist bacterial degradation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The brilliant red, orange and yellow <span class="hlt">colours</span> of parrot feathers are the product of psittacofulvins, which are synthetic pigments known only from parrots. Recent evidence suggests that some pigments in bird feathers function not just as <span class="hlt">colour</span> generators, but also preserve plumage integrity by increasing the resistance of feather keratin to bacterial degradation. We exposed a variety of <span class="hlt">colourful</span> parrot feathers to feather-degrading Bacillus licheniformis and found that feathers with red psittacofulvins degraded at about the same rate as those with melanin and more slowly than white feathers, which lack pigments. Blue feathers, in which <span class="hlt">colour</span> is based on the microstructural arrangement of keratin, air and melanin granules, and green feathers, which combine structural blue with yellow psittacofulvins, degraded at a rate similar to that of red and black feathers. These differences in resistance to bacterial degradation of differently <span class="hlt">coloured</span> feathers suggest that <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns within the Psittaciformes may have evolved to resist bacterial degradation, in addition to their role in communication and camouflage.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burtt, Edward H.; Schroeder, Max R.; Smith, Lauren A.; Sroka, Jenna E.; McGraw, Kevin J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49339574"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of <span class="hlt">colour</span> adjustment on flavour stability of pale lager beers with a range of distinct <span class="hlt">colouring</span> agents</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The impact of <span class="hlt">colour</span> adjustment on the flavour stability of five pale lager beers with a range of <span class="hlt">colouring</span> agents such as specialty malts, <span class="hlt">colouring</span> beer and artificial caramel <span class="hlt">colourant</span> was investigated. The research focused on determination of the endogenous anti-oxidative potential (EAP) of the beer samples using a novel Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) method. The results were correlated with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrés Furukawa Suárez; Thomas Kunz; Natalia Cortés Rodríguez; James MacKinlay; Paul Hughes; Frank-Jürgen Methner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=diodes&pg=3&id=EJ834524"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Handheld LED <span class="hlt">Coloured</span>-Light Mixer for Students to Learn Collaboratively the Primary <span class="hlt">Colours</span> of Light</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|To overcome students' inaccurate prior knowledge on primary additive <span class="hlt">colours</span>, a <span class="hlt">coloured</span>-light mixer has been constructed to enable students to observe directly the <span class="hlt">colours</span> produced and reach the conclusion by themselves that the three primary <span class="hlt">colours</span> of light are red, green, and blue (NOT red, yellow, and blue). Three closely packed tiny…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai; Chitaree, Ratchapak; Panijpan, Bhinyo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42461833"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Control of <span class="hlt">Colour</span> by Using Measurement and Feedback</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> simulation on CAD computer screens is a potentially important aid to rapid response in product development. Control of screen <span class="hlt">colour</span> in high-resolution CRT monitors can be achieved on the basis of the principles of additive <span class="hlt">colour</span>-mixing. The use of trichromatic-unit <span class="hlt">colour</span> specifications is extended to include RGB drive values and provide a measured feedback signal for correcting <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Measurement</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. P. Oulton; I. Porat</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/442220"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laser induced fluorescence <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of thermal damage in polymer matrix <span class="hlt">composites</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simple, fluorescence-based <span class="hlt">imaging</span> system was developed for identifying regions of thermal damage in polymer-matrix <span class="hlt">composites</span> (PMCs). PMCs have important applications where low weight and high mechanical strength are needed. One concern in the aerospace industry is the tendency of some PMC materials to become irreversibly damaged when exposed to high temperatures. Traditional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are capable of detecting physical flaws, such as cracks and delaminations, but have not proven effective for detecting initial heat damage, which occurs on a molecular scale. Spectroscopic techniques such as laser-induced fluorescence provide an attractive means for detecting thermal damage on large, irregularly shaped surfaces. This paper describes instrumentation capable of rapidly detecting thermal damage in graphite/epoxy components.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G.; Meyer, K.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/3042"> <span id="translatedtitle">Subcritical Crack Growth in Ceramic <span class="hlt">Composites</span> at High Temperature Measured Using Digital <span class="hlt">Image</span> Correlation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An in situ experimental technique is described that allows high resolution, high sensitivity determination of displacements and full-field strains during high temperature mechanical testing. The technique is used to investigate elevated temperature crack growth in SiC/Nicalon sub f <span class="hlt">composites</span>. At 1150 degrees C, the reinforcing fibers have a higher creep susceptibility than the matrix. Fiber creep leads to relaxation of crack bridging tractions, resulting in subcritical crack growth. Differential <span class="hlt">image</span> analysis is used to measure the crack opening displacement profile u(x) of an advancing, bridged crack. With appropriate modeling, such data can be used to determine the traction law, from which the mechanics of cracking and failure may be determined.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mumm, D.R.; Morris, W.L.; Dadkhah, M.S.; Cox, B.N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18057960"> <span id="translatedtitle">Insights into the chemical <span class="hlt">composition</span> of Equisetum hyemale by high resolution Raman <span class="hlt">imaging</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Equisetaceae has been of research interest for decades, as it is one of the oldest living plant families, and also due to its high accumulation of silica up to 25% dry wt. Aspects of silica deposition, its association with other biomolecules, as well as the chemical <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the outer strengthening tissue still remain unclear. These questions were addressed by using high resolution (<1 microm) Confocal Raman microscopy. Two-dimensional spectral maps were acquired on cross sections of Equisetum hyemale and Raman <span class="hlt">images</span> calculated by integrating over the intensity of characteristic spectral regions. This enabled direct visualization of differences in chemical <span class="hlt">composition</span> and extraction of average spectra from defined regions for detailed analyses, including principal component analysis (PCA) and basis analysis (partial least square fit based on model spectra). Accumulation of silica was <span class="hlt">imaged</span> in the knobs and in a thin layer below the cuticula. In the spectrum extracted from the knob region as main contributions, a broad band below 500 cm(-1) attributed to amorphous silica, and a band at 976 cm(-1) assigned to silanol groups, were found. From this, we concluded that these protrusions were almost pure amorphous, hydrated silica. No silanol group vibration was detected in the silicified epidermal layer below and association with pectin and hemicelluloses indicated. Pectin and hemicelluloses (glucomannan) were found in high levels in the epidermal layer and in a clearly distinguished outer part of the hypodermal sterome fibers. The inner part of the two-layered cells revealed as almost pure cellulose, oriented parallel along the fiber. PMID:18057960</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gierlinger, Notburga; Sapei, Lanny; Paris, Oskar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51243180"> <span id="translatedtitle">Augmenting full <span class="hlt">colour</span>-fused multi-band night vision imagery with synthetic imagery in real-time</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the design and first field trial results of an all-day all-weather enhanced and synthetic-fused multi-band <span class="hlt">colour</span> night vision surveillance and observation system. The system augments a fused and dynamic three-band natural-<span class="hlt">colour</span> night vision <span class="hlt">image</span> with synthetic 3D imagery in real-time. The night vision sensor suite consists of three cameras, sensitive in, respectively, the visual (400–700?nm), the near-infrared (NIR,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alexander Toet; Maarten A. Hogervorst; Rob van Son; Judith Dijk</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11516213J"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Composite</span> analysis of dust impacts on African easterly waves in the Moderate Resolution <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> Spectrometer era</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examines the synoptic scale impacts of African dust on easterly waves in the tropical northeast Atlantic. Moderate Resolution <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> Spectrometer aerosol optical depth (AOD), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration products, and National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis fields in the Atlantic main hurricane development region (MDR) form the basis for statistical analysis of a limited set of cases objectively selected for the 2000-2008 hurricane seasons when thresholds are exceeded for sea surface temperature (SST), easterly wind shear, cyclonic vorticity, and upward motion. After ranking African easterly waves by AOD, the top (dusty) and bottom (clean) cases are studied as <span class="hlt">composite</span> differences. African dust and subsidence cause temperatures to warm ˜3°C in the 700 hPa layer, while SSTs cause temperatures to cool, stabilizing the atmosphere. Increased AOD and strong (10 m s-1) 600 hPa easterly winds limit cloud efficiency through shear and oversupply of condensation nuclei. Vertical section <span class="hlt">composites</span> demonstrate that warm dry subsident air coincides with the African dust plume in the latitudes 18°N-30°N. Hurricane reanalysis data indicate that higher AOD in the MDR reduces chances for the intensification of African easterly waves.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jury, Mark R.; Santiago, Myrna J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21638289"> <span id="translatedtitle">Can X-ray spectrum <span class="hlt">imaging</span> replace backscattered electrons for <span class="hlt">compositional</span> contrast in the scanning electron microscope?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The high throughput of the silicon drift detector energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SDD-EDS) enables X-ray spectrum <span class="hlt">imaging</span> (XSI) in the scanning electron microscope to be performed in frame times of 10-100?s, the typical time needed to record a high-quality backscattered electron (BSE) <span class="hlt">image</span>. These short-duration XSIs can reveal all elements, except H, He, and Li, present as major constituents, defined as 0.1 mass fraction (10 wt%) or higher, as well as minor constituents in the range 0.01-0.1 mass fraction, depending on the particular <span class="hlt">composition</span> and possible interferences. Although BSEs have a greater abundance by a factor of 100 compared with characteristic X-rays, the strong <span class="hlt">compositional</span> contrast in element-specific X-ray maps enables XSI mapping to compete with BSE <span class="hlt">imaging</span> to reveal <span class="hlt">compositional</span> features. Differences in the fraction of the interaction volume sampled by the BSE and X-ray signals lead to more delocalization of the X-ray signal at abrupt <span class="hlt">compositional</span> boundaries, resulting in poorer spatial resolution. Improved resolution in X-ray elemental maps occurs for the case of a small feature composed of intermediate to high atomic number elements embedded in a matrix of lower atomic number elements. XSI <span class="hlt">imaging</span> strongly complements BSE <span class="hlt">imaging</span>, and the SDD-EDS technology enables an efficient combined BSE-XSI measurement strategy that maximizes the <span class="hlt">compositional</span> information. If 10?s or more are available for the measurement of an area of interest, the analyst should always record the combined BSE-XSI information to gain the advantages of both measures of <span class="hlt">compositional</span> contrast. PMID:21638289</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Newbury, Dale E; Ritchie, Nicholas W M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/500920"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laser induced fluorescence <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of thermal damage in polymer matrix <span class="hlt">composites</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simple, fluorescence based <span class="hlt">imaging</span> system has been developed that is capable of identifying regions of thermal damage in polymer matrix <span class="hlt">composites</span> (PMCs). These materials are playing an increasingly important role in the production of high performance vehicles and aircraft, where their low weight and high mechanical strength, combined with advancements in manufacturing technology, ensure increased use for a variety of applications. Of particular concern in the aerospace industry is the tendency of some PMC materials to become irreversibly damaged when exposed to elevated temperatures. Traditional nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques are capable of detecting physical anomalies such as cracks and delaminations but cannot detect initial heat damage, which occurs on a molecular scale. Spectroscopic techniques such as laser induced fluorescence provide an attractive means for detecting this type of damage and are amenable to <span class="hlt">imaging</span> large, irregularly shaped surfaces. In this report the authors describe instrumentation capable of rapidly detecting thermal damage in graphite epoxy components and suggest improvements which will enable this technology to make quantitative judgments concerning the mechanical strength properties of heat damaged specimens.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fisher, W.G.; Meyer, K.E.; Wachter, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Perl, D.R. [N.A.S. North Island, San Diego, CA (United States). Naval Aviation Depot; Kulowitch, P.J. [Naval Air Warfare Center, Patuxent River, MD (United States). Aircraft Div.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7261E..19C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Automated segmentation of muscle and adipose tissue on CT <span class="hlt">images</span> for human body <span class="hlt">composition</span> analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ability to compute body <span class="hlt">composition</span> in cancer patients lends itself to determining the specific clinical outcomes associated with fat and lean tissue stores. For example, a wasting syndrome of advanced disease associates with shortened survival. Moreover, certain tissue compartments represent sites for drug distribution and are likely determinants of chemotherapy efficacy and toxicity. CT <span class="hlt">images</span> are abundant, but these cannot be fully exploited unless there exist practical and fast approaches for tissue quantification. Here we propose a fully automated method for segmenting muscle, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, taking the approach of shape modeling for the analysis of skeletal muscle. Muscle shape is represented using PCA encoded Free Form Deformations with respect to a mean shape. The shape model is learned from manually segmented <span class="hlt">images</span> and used in conjunction with a tissue appearance prior. VAT and SAT are segmented based on the final deformed muscle shape. In comparing the automatic and manual methods, coefficients of variation (COV) (1 - 2%), were similar to or smaller than inter- and intra-observer COVs reported for manual segmentation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chung, Howard; Cobzas, Dana; Birdsell, Laura; Lieffers, Jessica; Baracos, Vickie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2850791"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structural <span class="hlt">colour</span> and iridescence in plants: the poorly studied relations of pigment <span class="hlt">colour</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background <span class="hlt">Colour</span> is a consequence of the optical properties of an object and the visual system of the animal perceiving it. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> is produced through chemical and structural means, but structural <span class="hlt">colour</span> has been relatively poorly studied in plants. Scope This Botanical Briefing describes the mechanisms by which structures can produce <span class="hlt">colour</span>. In plants, as in animals, the most common mechanisms are multilayers and diffraction gratings. The functions of structural <span class="hlt">colour</span> are then discussed. In animals, these <span class="hlt">colours</span> act primarily as signals between members of the same species, although they can also play roles in camouflaging animals from their predators. In plants, multilayers are found predominantly in shade-plant leaves, suggesting a role either in photoprotection or in optimizing capture of photosynthetically active light. Diffraction gratings may be a surprisingly common feature of petals, and recent work has shown that they can be used by bees as cues to identify rewarding flowers. Conclusions Structural <span class="hlt">colour</span> may be surprisingly frequent in the plant kingdom, playing important roles alongside pigment <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Much remains to be discovered about its distribution, development and function.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Glover, Beverley J.; Whitney, Heather M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9692029"> <span id="translatedtitle">A novel system for the objective classification of iris <span class="hlt">colour</span> and its correlation with response to 1% tropicamide.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Iris <span class="hlt">colour</span> can provide an enormous amount of information about an individual. In addition to changes with pathological conditions, the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the iris can be a particularly useful indicator of how well a person will respond to a topically applied ocular drug. Until recently, classification of iris <span class="hlt">colour</span> has been subjective, ranging from a basic description ('light' and 'dark') to more detailed grading systems, such as a comparison with preset photographic standards. However, variability within observers and differences in the interpretation between observers can influence the results. Objective techniques, in this respect, possess several advantages. They are able to detect differences in <span class="hlt">colour</span> that subjective techniques are incapable of and they provide continuous data rather than discrete categories, thus improving the accuracy of drug response predictions. This study assessed iris <span class="hlt">colour</span> by objective means. Slit-lamp photographs of various <span class="hlt">coloured</span> irides were taken under standardised conditions. The slides were then scanned into a computer and the <span class="hlt">colour</span> analysed using a calibrated software package. To establish the optimum <span class="hlt">colour</span> parameter to be used for predictions of drug response, several parameters were calculated and compared with the subject response to 1% tropicamide (maximum change in pupil size, time to maximum change and total duration of effect). Many parameters had strong correlations with drug response, but the parameters 'z', 'b' (the proportion of blue in the <span class="hlt">image</span>) and 'y' (the proportion of yellow in the <span class="hlt">image</span>) were found to exhibit the highest correlations. They also showed better correlations with drug response than did a current iris <span class="hlt">colour</span> grading system. PMID:9692029</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">German, E J; Hurst, M A; Wood, D; Gilchrist, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.7186M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Near infrared <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of the surface of Venus and implications for crustal <span class="hlt">composition</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Venus Express is an ESA spacecraft orbiting Venus since April 2006. The instrument VIRTIS acquires multispectral <span class="hlt">images</span> in the range from 0.2 to 5 m wavelength. An analysis of VIRTIS <span class="hlt">images</span> at the wavelengths of the atmospheric window at 1.02 m shows evidence for variation of surface emissivity on the southern hemisphere [Mueller et al. 2008]. Inferred surface emissivity is correlated to some extend with morphological units identified from radar <span class="hlt">images</span> of the NASA/JPL Magellan mission [Tanaka et al. 1997]. Alpha and Phoebe Regios are highlands mostly composed of tessera terrain, which is defined as a region strongly deformed by compressive and extensional tectonism in at least two directions. In comparison to lowland plains and other less tectonized highlands, these regions generally emit less thermal radiation, which implies lower emissivity. A recent analysis of NIR data from the Galileo fly-by in 1990 finds, that highland regions on Venus on average have a lower emissivity than lowlands [Hashimoto et al. 2008]. As a significant part of Venus highlands in the area observed by Galileo is composed of tessera, this observation is consistent with the observation of Mueller et al. [2008]. In situ measurements by the Venera and Vega landers are at most places consistent with basaltic surface <span class="hlt">composition</span>. The hypsometry of Venus is unimodal. Inferred lava viscosity of most volcanic features is low, consistent with basaltic <span class="hlt">composition</span>. All these observations hint towards a crust mostly composed of basalt [Basilevsky et al 1997]. However, no landing site was on tessera terrain, tessera are hypsometrically elevated and the morphology is dominated by tectonic deformation. Among other arguments this leads to the hypothesis that tessera highlands crust is more abundant in feldspar and silica, comparable to lunar highlands or continents on Earth [Nikolaeva et al., 1992]. NIR mapping supports this hypothesis, although other interpretations of the NIR data can not be ruled out. Generation of felsic crust is unlikely under the current climatic and tectonic regime on Venus. The lunar highland crust is believed to be a remnant of an magma ocean [Taylor 1974]. Enrichment in silica as in the continental crust of Earth requires recycling of water into the mantle [Campbell and Taylor 1984]. The surface of Venus is extremely dry and Venus and crustal recycling by plate tectonics does not operate at present. Any crust with felsic bulk <span class="hlt">composition</span> had to be created during the early history of the planet. In a stratigraphic analysis tessera terrain predates all units it is in contact with [Ivanov and Head 1996]. Tessera terrain is defined by an extensive history of tectonic deformation. Assuming that tessera highlands indeed represent less dense crustal blocks created early in the history of Venus, implications arise from their persistence on the surface of Venus regarding resurfacing mechanism, crustal recycling and thermal evolution. If tessera highlands are enriched in silica relative to basalt this implies existence of a primordial ocean on Venus [Hashimoto et al. 2008]. In either case Venus would even more closely resemble the Earth-Moon system than previously assumed, making Venus an excellent subject for general studies of earth-like planets. Basilevsky, A. T.,et al. (1997), The Resurfacing History of Venus, in Venus II, pp. 1047-1084. Hashimoto, et al. (2008), Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) Data Suggests Felsic Highland Crust on Venus, JGR, in press. Ivanov, M. A., et al. (1996), Tessera terrain on Venus: A survey of the global distribution, characteristics, and relation to surrounding units from Magellan data, JGR, 101, 14,861-14,908. Mueller, N., et al. (2008), Venus surface thermal emission at one micrometer in VIRTIS <span class="hlt">imaging</span> observations - evidence for variation of crust and mantle differentiation conditions, JGR , in press. Nikolaeva, O. V., et al. (1992), Evidence on the crustal dichotomy, pp. 129-139, Venus Geology, Geochemistry, and Geophysics - Research results from the USSR. Tanaka, K. L., et al. (1997), Phy</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Müller, N.; Helbert, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51551732"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cross-talk free <span class="hlt">image</span> encryption and watermarking by digital holography and random <span class="hlt">composition</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In previous <span class="hlt">image</span> watermarking methods an encoded host <span class="hlt">image</span> and a watermark <span class="hlt">image</span> are usually directly added, consequently the two <span class="hlt">images</span> have cross-talk in the decryption step. To eliminate this effect, we propose a novel method based on digital holography, in which all the <span class="hlt">image</span> pixels of the two sets of holograms resulted from two hidden <span class="hlt">images</span> are rearranged and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">X. F. Meng; L. Z. Cai; M. Z. He; G. Y. Dong; X. X. Shen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50143130"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fabrication of curved ceramic\\/polymer <span class="hlt">composite</span> transducer for ultrasonic <span class="hlt">imaging</span> applications by fused deposition of ceramics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fused Deposition of Ceramics (FDC), developed at Rutgers University, is a Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) technique where a three-dimensional green ceramic object is built, layer by layer, starting from a Computer Aided Design (CAD) file of the object. This technique was used to build novel piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers for medical <span class="hlt">imaging</span> applications. Curved ceramic skeletons for 2-2 <span class="hlt">composite</span> transducers were</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. M. Lous; I. A. Cornejo; T. F. McNulty; A. Safari; S. C. Danforth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35957587"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sexual dimorphism in the human brain: evaluation of tissue volume, tissue <span class="hlt">composition</span> and surface anatomy using magnetic resonance <span class="hlt">imaging</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Magnetic resonance <span class="hlt">imaging</span> (MRI) was used to evaluate sex differences in brain morphology by comparing measures of brain tissue volume, brain tissue <span class="hlt">composition</span> (proportions of gray and white matter), and measures of cortical surface anatomy. A large and well-matched sample of healthy women (n=42) and healthy men (n=42) were evaluated. There was a significant gender effect on intracranial volume, males</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peg Nopoulos; Michael Flaum; Dan O’Leary; Nancy C Andreasen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18841045"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new test phantom with different breast tissue <span class="hlt">compositions</span> for <span class="hlt">image</span> quality assessment in conventional and digital mammography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our objective is to describe a new test phantom that permits the objective assessment of <span class="hlt">image</span> quality in conventional and digital mammography for different types of breast tissue. A test phantom, designed to represent a compressed breast, was made from tissue equivalent materials. Three separate regions, with different breast tissue <span class="hlt">compositions</span>, are used to evaluate low and high contrast resolution,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marc Pachoud; D. Lepori; Jean-François Valley; Francis R. Verdun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55193477"> <span id="translatedtitle">LUNAR SURFACE <span class="hlt">COMPOSITIONAL</span> UNITS DETERMINED BY SPECTRAL MIXING ANALYSIS OF <span class="hlt">IMAGES</span> FROM THE MOON MINERALOGY MAPPER (M3)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mapping-surface <span class="hlt">compositional</span> units on large areas of the Moon is a key step for interpretating its geology. In addition, the spatial distribution and relative abundances of minerals and glasses are essential for the study of mixing processes and maturation of the soil. We are using data from the M3 <span class="hlt">imaging</span> spectrometer [1], which was in lunar orbit onboard Chandrayaan-1 for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Combe; G. Y. Kramer; T. B. McCord; L. A. Taylor; N. E. Petro; C. M. Pieters; J. W. Boardman; J. F. Mustard; J. M. Sunshine; S. Tompkins</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21333982"> <span id="translatedtitle">Generation of <span class="hlt">Composite</span> Dose and Biological Effective Dose (BED) Over Multiple Treatment Modalities and Multistage Planning Using Deformable <span class="hlt">Image</span> Registration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Currently there are no commercially available tools to generate <span class="hlt">composite</span> plans across different treatment modalities and/or different planning <span class="hlt">image</span> sets. Without a <span class="hlt">composite</span> plan, it may be difficult to perform a meaningful dosimetric evaluation of the overall treatment course. In this paper, we introduce a method to generate <span class="hlt">composite</span> biological effective dose (BED) plans over multiple radiotherapy treatment modalities and/or multistage plans, using deformable <span class="hlt">image</span> registration. Two cases were used to demonstrate the method. Case I was prostate cancer treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and a permanent seed implant. Case II involved lung cancer treated with two treatment plans generated on two separate computed tomography <span class="hlt">image</span> sets. Thin-plate spline or optical flow methods were used as appropriate to generate deformation matrices. The deformation matrices were then applied to the dose matrices and the resulting physical doses were converted to BED and added to yield the <span class="hlt">composite</span> plan. Cell proliferation and sublethal repair were considered in the BED calculations. The difference in BED between normal tissues and tumor volumes was accounted for by using different BED models, {alpha}/{beta} values, and cell potential doubling times. The method to generate <span class="hlt">composite</span> BED plans presented in this paper provides information not available with the traditional simple dose summation or physical dose summation. With the understanding of limitations and uncertainties of the algorithms involved, it may be valuable for the overall treatment plan evaluation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Geoffrey [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States) and Department of Medical Radiological Technology, China Medical University, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: geoffrey.zhang@moffitt.org; Huang, T-C; Feygelman, Vladimir; Stevens, Craig; Forster, Kenneth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States) and Department of Medical Radiological Technology, China Medical University, Taiwan (China)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23860278"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> preferences in nest-building zebra finches.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Some bird species are selective in the materials they choose for nest building, preferring, for example, materials of one <span class="hlt">colour</span> to others. However, in many cases the cause of these preferences is not clear. One of those species is the zebra finch, which exhibits strong preferences for particular <span class="hlt">colours</span> of nest material. In an attempt to determine why these birds strongly prefer one <span class="hlt">colour</span> of material over another, we compared the preferences of paired male zebra finches for nest material <span class="hlt">colour</span> with their preferences for food of the same <span class="hlt">colours</span>. We found that birds did indeed prefer particular <span class="hlt">colours</span> of nest material (in most cases blue) but that they did not generally prefer food of one <span class="hlt">colour</span> over the other <span class="hlt">colours</span>. It appears, then, that a preference for one <span class="hlt">colour</span> or another of nest material is specific to the nest-building context. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. PMID:23860278</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Muth, Felicity; Steele, Matthew; Healy, Susan D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013A%26A...553A..74S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Properties of young star cluster systems: the age signature from near-infrared integrated <span class="hlt">colours</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Context. A recent JHKs study of several grand-design spiral galaxies, including NGC 2997, shows a bimodal distribution of their system of star clusters and star forming complexes in <span class="hlt">colour</span>-magnitude and <span class="hlt">colour-colour</span> diagrams. In a comparison with stellar population models including gas, the (J - H) vs. (H - Ks) diagram reveals that embedded clusters, still immersed in their parental clouds of gas and dust, generally have a redder (H - Ks) <span class="hlt">colour</span> than older clusters, whose gas and dust have already been ejected. This bimodal behaviour is also evident in the <span class="hlt">colour</span>-magnitude diagram MK vs. (J - Ks), where the brightest clusters split into two sequences separating younger from older clusters. In addition, the reddening-free index Qd = (H - Ks) - 0.884 (J - H) has been shown to correlate with age for the young clusters and thus provided an effective way to differentiate the embedded clusters from the older ones. Aims: We aim to study the behaviour of these photometric indices for star cluster systems in the Local Group. In particular, we investigate the effectiveness of the Qd index in sorting out clusters of different ages at their early evolutionary stages. In addition, the whole set of homogeneous measurements will serve as a template for analyses of the populations belonging to distant galaxies that are unresolved clusters or complexes. Methods: Surface photometry was carried out for 2MASS <span class="hlt">images</span> of populous clusters younger than ~100 Myr whose ages were available. The integrated magnitude and <span class="hlt">colours</span> were measured to a limiting radius and combined to generate the photometric diagrams. Some clusters, particularly the embedded ones, were studied for the first time using this method. Results: The integrated magnitudes and <span class="hlt">colours</span> extracted from the surface photometry of the most populous clusters/complexes in the Local Group show the expected bimodal distribution in the <span class="hlt">colour-colour</span> and <span class="hlt">colour</span>-magnitude diagrams. In particular, we confirm the index Qd as a powerful tool for distinguishing clusters younger than about 7 Myr from older clusters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Santos, J. F. C.; Dottori, H.; Grosbøl, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24085070"> <span id="translatedtitle">3D palmprint and hand <span class="hlt">imaging</span> system based on full-field <span class="hlt">composite</span> color sinusoidal fringe projection technique.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Palmprint and hand shape, as two kinds of important biometric characteristics, have been widely studied and applied to human identity recognition. The existing research is based mainly on 2D <span class="hlt">images</span>, which lose the third-dimensional information. The biological features extracted from 2D <span class="hlt">images</span> are distorted by pressure and rolling, so the subsequent feature matching and recognition are inaccurate. This paper presents a method to acquire accurate 3D shapes of palmprint and hand by projecting full-field <span class="hlt">composite</span> color sinusoidal fringe patterns and the corresponding color texture information. A 3D <span class="hlt">imaging</span> system is designed to capture and process the full-field <span class="hlt">composite</span> color fringe patterns on hand surface. <span class="hlt">Composite</span> color fringe patterns having the optimum three fringe numbers are generated by software and projected onto the surface of human hand by a digital light processing projector. From another viewpoint, a color CCD camera captures the deformed fringe patterns and saves them for postprocessing. After compensating for the cross talk and chromatic aberration between color channels, three fringe patterns are extracted from three color channels of a captured <span class="hlt">composite</span> color <span class="hlt">image</span>. Wrapped phase information can be calculated from the sinusoidal fringe patterns with high precision. At the same time, the absolute phase of each pixel is determined by the optimum three-fringe selection method. After building up the relationship between absolute phase map and 3D shape data, the 3D palmprint and hand are obtained. Color texture information can be directly captured or demodulated from the captured <span class="hlt">composite</span> fringe pattern <span class="hlt">images</span>. Experimental results show that the proposed method and system can yield accurate 3D shape and color texture information of the palmprint and hand shape. PMID:24085070</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Zonghua; Huang, Shujun; Xu, Yongjia; Chen, Chao; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Nan; Xiao, Yanjun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007NaPho...1..468A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photonic-crystal full-<span class="hlt">colour</span> displays</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In our information-rich world, it is becoming increasingly important to develop technologies capable of displaying dynamic and changeable data, for reasons ranging from value-added advertising to environmental sustainability. There is an intense drive at the moment towards paper-like displays, devices having a high reflectivity and contrast to provide viewability in a variety of environments, particularly in sunlight where emissive or backlit devices perform very poorly. The list of possible technologies is extensive, including electrophoretic, cholesteric liquid crystalline, electrochromic, electrodewetting, interferometric and more. Despite tremendous advances, the key drawback of all these existing display options relates to <span class="hlt">colour</span>. As soon as an RGB (red, green and blue) <span class="hlt">colour</span> filter or spatially modulated <span class="hlt">colour</span> scheme is implemented, substantial light losses are inevitable even if the intrinsic reflectivity of the material is very good.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arsenault, André C.; Puzzo, Daniel P.; Manners, Ian; Ozin, Geoffrey A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17115173"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changes in <span class="hlt">colour</span> of different human tissues as a marker of age.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study deals with age estimation based on <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes of human tissue from the intervertebral discs, Achilles tendon and rib cartilage. The investigated <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes are the result of the accumulation of non-enzymatic browning products in the tissue. Samples of excised tissues were photographed with a digital camera and the pictures were evaluated using the <span class="hlt">image</span> analysis processor Lucia G 4.11 processor. The values of the intensities of the RGB channels (MeanRed, Mean Green, MeanBlue) and parameters from the IHS system (MeanSaturation, HueTypical, HueVariation, BrightVariation and MeanBrightness) were evaluated. The results confirm that <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes of some tissues depend on ageing and are a good tool for age estimation. PMID:17115173</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pilin, Alexander; Pudil, Frantisek; Bencko, Vladimír</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-11-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1331907"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interaction between <span class="hlt">colour</span> and spatial coded processes converging to retinal ganglion cells in goldfish</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1. Extracellular recordings were made from ganglion cell units in the isolated goldfish retina. The discharge patterns of these units are spatial and <span class="hlt">colour</span> coded. 2. Even for weak stimuli these ganglion cell responses are highly distorted. To a first approximation a rectifying element can account for the observed distortion. 3. A method is introduced to determine whether the interaction between the spatial and <span class="hlt">colour</span>-coded processes occurs preceding or after the rectifying stage. 4. With various stimulus patterns such as checkerboards, bars, annuli, etc., not only the location of the interaction point but also the mode of operation underlying the <span class="hlt">colour</span> and spatial interactions has been studied. 5. The presented data indicate that for the common phasic ganglion cells in the goldfish retina spatial and <span class="hlt">colour</span> interaction occurs preceding the rectifying stage. Moreover an algebraic mode of operation governs this interaction. 6. The charm of the presented method lies in the fact that no assumptions need to be made about the dynamics of the various retinal transformations converging to the ganglion cells. Neither is a description required for the non-linear (rectifying) element in order to answer the question of the location and the mode of operation of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> and spatial interaction mechanism. <span class="hlt">Images</span>Fig. 1</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spekreijse, H.; van den Berg, T. J. T. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1971-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7962E..84A"> <span id="translatedtitle">A novel segmentation method to identify left ventricular infarction in short-axis <span class="hlt">composite</span> strain-encoded magnetic resonance <span class="hlt">images</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Composite</span> Strain Encoding (CSENC) is a new Magnetic Resonance <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> (MRI) technique for simultaneously acquiring cardiac functional and viability <span class="hlt">images</span>. It combines the use of Delayed Enhancement (DE) and the Strain Encoding (SENC) <span class="hlt">imaging</span> techniques to identify the infracted (dead) tissue and to <span class="hlt">image</span> the myocardial deformation inside the heart muscle. In this work, a new unsupervised segmentation method is proposed to identify infarcted left ventricular tissue in the <span class="hlt">images</span> provided by CSENC MRI. The proposed method is based on the sequential application of Bayesian classifier, Otsu's thresholding, morphological opening, radial sweep boundary tracing and the fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering algorithm. This method is tested on <span class="hlt">images</span> of twelve patients with and without myocardial infarction (MI) and on simulated heart <span class="hlt">images</span> with various levels of superimposed noise. The resulting clustered <span class="hlt">images</span> are compared with those marked up by an expert cardiologist who assisted in validating results coming from the proposed method. Infarcted myocardium is correctly identified using the proposed method with high levels of accuracy and precision.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Algohary, Ahmad O.; Metwally, Muhammad K.; El-Bialy, Ahmed M.; Kandil, Ahmed H.; Osman, Nael F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2982023"> <span id="translatedtitle">Floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> versus phylogeny in structuring subalpine flowering communities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relative number of seeds produced by competing species can influence the community structure; yet, traits that influence seed production, such as pollinator attraction and floral <span class="hlt">colour</span>, have received little attention in community ecology. Here, we analyse floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> using reflectance spectra that include near-UV and examined the phylogenetic signal of floral <span class="hlt">colour</span>. We found that coflowering species within communities tended to be more divergent in floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> than expected by chance. However, coflowering species were not phylogenetically dispersed, in part due to our finding that floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> is a labile trait with a weak phylogenetic signal. Furthermore, while we found that locally rare and common species exhibited equivalent floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> distances from their coflowering neighbours, frequent species (those found in more communities) exhibited higher <span class="hlt">colour</span> distances from their coflowering neighbours. Our findings support recent studies, which have found that (i) plant lineages exhibit frequent floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> transitions; and (ii) traits that influence local population dynamics contribute to community structure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McEwen, Jamie R.; Vamosi, Jana C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15014764"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Composite</span> Amplitude Modulated Phase Only Filter Based Detection and Tracking of the Back-Reflection of KDP <span class="hlt">Images</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An algorithm for determining the position of the KDP back-reflection <span class="hlt">image</span> was developed. It was compared to a centroid-based algorithm. While the algorithm based on centroiding exhibited a radial standard deviation of 9 pixels, the newly proposed algorithm based on classical matched filtering (CMF) and a Gaussian fit to correlation peak provided a radial standard deviation of less than 1 pixel. The speed of the peak detection was improved from an average of 5.5 seconds for Gaussian fit to 0.022 seconds by using a polynomial fit. The performance was enhanced even further by utilizing a <span class="hlt">composite</span> amplitude modulated phase only filter; producing a radial standard deviation of 0.27 pixels. The proposed technique was evaluated on 900+ <span class="hlt">images</span> with varying degrees of noise and <span class="hlt">image</span> amplitude as well as real National Ignition Facility (NIF) <span class="hlt">images</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Awwal, A S; McClay, W A; Ferguson, S W; Candy, J V; Salmon, J T; Wegner, P J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-08-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1201160"> <span id="translatedtitle">The unsuitability of html-based <span class="hlt">colour</span> charts for estimating animal <span class="hlt">colours</span> - a comment on Berggren and Meril? (2004)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background A variety of techniques are used to study the <span class="hlt">colours</span> of animal signals, including the use of visual matching to <span class="hlt">colour</span> charts. This paper aims to highlight why they are generally an unsatisfactory tool for the measurement and classification of animal <span class="hlt">colours</span> and why <span class="hlt">colour</span> codes based on HTML (really RGB) standards, as advocated in a recent paper, are particularly inappropriate. There are many theoretical arguments against the use of <span class="hlt">colour</span> charts, not least that human <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision differs markedly from that of most other animals. However, the focus of this paper is the concern that, even when applied to humans, there is no simple 1:1 mapping from an RGB <span class="hlt">colour</span> space to the perceived <span class="hlt">colours</span> in a chart (the results are both printer- and illumination-dependent). We support our criticisms with data from <span class="hlt">colour</span> matching experiments with humans, involving self-made, printed <span class="hlt">colour</span> charts. Results <span class="hlt">Colour</span> matching experiments with printed charts involving 11 subjects showed that the choices made by individuals were significantly different between charts that had exactly the same RGB values, but were produced from different printers. Furthermore, individual matches tended to vary under different lighting conditions. Spectrophotometry of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> charts showed that the reflectance spectra of the charts varied greatly between printers and that equal steps in RGB space were often far from equal in terms of reflectance on the printed charts. Conclusion In addition to outlining theoretical criticisms of the use of <span class="hlt">colour</span> charts, our empirical results show that: individuals vary in their perception of <span class="hlt">colours</span>, that different printers produce strikingly different results when reproducing what should be the same chart, and that the characteristics of the light irradiating the surface do affect <span class="hlt">colour</span> perception. Therefore, we urge great caution in the use of <span class="hlt">colour</span> charts to study animal <span class="hlt">colour</span> signals. They should be used only as a last resort and in full knowledge of their limitations, with specially produced charts made to high industry standards.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stevens, Martin; Cuthill, Innes C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MNRAS.435.1313H"> <span id="translatedtitle">The dark side of galaxy <span class="hlt">colour</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present age distribution matching, a theoretical formalism for predicting how galaxies of luminosity L and <span class="hlt">colour</span> C occupy dark matter haloes. Our model supposes that there are just two fundamental properties of a halo that determine the <span class="hlt">colour</span> and brightness of the galaxy it hosts: the maximum circular velocity Vmax and the redshift zstarve that correlates with the epoch at which the star formation in the galaxy ceases. The halo property zstarve is intended to encompass physical characteristics of halo mass assembly that may deprive the galaxy of its cold gas supply and, ultimately, quench its star formation. The new, defining feature of the model is that, at fixed luminosity, galaxy <span class="hlt">colour</span> is in monotonic correspondence with zstarve, with the larger values of zstarve being assigned redder <span class="hlt">colours</span>. We populate an N-body simulation with a mock galaxy catalogue based on age distribution matching and show that the resulting mock galaxy distribution accurately describes a variety of galaxy statistics. Our model suggests that halo and galaxy assembly are indeed correlated. We make publicly available our low-redshift, Sloan Digital Sky Survey Mr < -19 mock galaxy catalogue, and main progenitor histories of all z = 0 haloes, at http://logrus.uchicago.edu/~aphearin</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hearin, Andrew P.; Watson, Douglas F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE83704014"> <span id="translatedtitle">Eight-Fold Way to <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Geometrodynamics.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> models of strong interactions are generalized to a GL(8,C)sup(f) x GL(8,C)sup(c) gauge theory incorporating space-time curvature and Cartan's torsion. Following Salam, the dynamics is determined by an Einstein-Dirac-type Lagrangian. The resulting f...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. W. Mielke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36577281"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flesh <span class="hlt">colour</span> dominates consumer preference for chicken</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Existing research investigating interactions between visual and oral sensory cues has tended to use model food systems. In contrast, this study compared product quality assessments of corn-fed and wheat-fed chicken products among persons recruited in Northern Ireland. Three approaches have been adopted to investigate the effect of <span class="hlt">colour</span> upon consumer choice of chicken: sensory assessment under normal lighting; focus group</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Orla B. Kennedy; Barbara J. Stewart-Knox; Peter C. Mitchell; David I. Thurnham</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://jeb.biologists.org/cgi/reprint/205/8/1077.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reflections on <span class="hlt">colourful</span> ommatidia of butterfly eyes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The eye shine of butterflies from a large number of ommatidia was observed with a modified epi-illumination apparatus equipped with an objective lens of large numerical aperture. A few representative cases are presented: the satyrine Bicyclus anynana, the heliconian Heliconius melpomene, the small white Pieris rapae and the small copper Lycaena phlaeas. The <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the eye shine is determined</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doekele G. Stavenga</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ACIDS+AND+ALKALI&id=EJ128282"> <span id="translatedtitle">Demonstration of the <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Range of Indicators</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Describes the construction of a box that is filled with indicator of a particular concentration. A little acid is added to one side and a little alkali to the other so that the complete <span class="hlt">colour</span> range of the indicator is observable. (GS)|</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Woods, G. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.public.asu.edu/~kjmcgraw/pubs/FE03.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">How feather <span class="hlt">colour</span> reflects its carotenoid content</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary 1. Many birds sequester carotenoid pigments in <span class="hlt">colourful</span> patches of feathers to advertise or compete for mates. Because carotenoids can be scarce in nature and serve valuable physiological functions, only the highest-quality individuals are thought to acquire or allocate more pigments for use in sexual displays. 2. A critical but rarely tested assumption of carotenoid-based signals is that the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lauri Saks; Kevin McGraw; Peeter Horak</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007MNRAS.380..819K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Period-<span class="hlt">colour</span> and amplitude-<span class="hlt">colour</span> relations in classical Cepheid variables - V. The Small Magellanic Cloud Cepheid models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Period-<span class="hlt">colour</span> (PC) and amplitude-<span class="hlt">colour</span> (AC) relations at maximum, mean and minimum light are constructed from a large grid of full amplitude hydrodynamic models of Cepheids with a <span class="hlt">composition</span> appropriate for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We compare these theoretical relations with those from observations. The theoretical relations are, in general, in good agreement with their observational counterparts, though there exist some discrepancy for short period (log[P] < 1) Cepheids. We outline a physical mechanism which can, in principle, be one factor to explain the observed PC/AC relations for the long and short period Cepheids in the Galaxy, Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and SMC. Our explanation relies on the hydrogen ionization front (HIF)-photosphere interaction and the way this interaction changes with pulsation period, pulsation phase and metallicity. Since the PC relation is connected with the period-luminosity (PL) relation, it is postulated that such a mechanism can also explain the observed properties of the PL relation in these three galaxies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kanbur, Shashi M.; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Feiden, Greg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11324269"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tooth root <span class="hlt">colour</span> as a measure of chronological age.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to assess a possible <span class="hlt">colour</span> shift in the root surfaces of adult human teeth and if so, whether this <span class="hlt">colour</span> change is related to chronological age. Teeth extracted from persons of known age and gender were obtained from Ontario dental practitioners and grouped into five-year age ranges. Three experiments were undertaken: (1) to identify a possible difference in yellow <span class="hlt">colouration</span> between the four surfaces of tooth roots (mesial, distal, lingual, and buccal), (2) to investigate the difference in yellow <span class="hlt">colouration</span> of tooth roots between non-molar teeth and molar teeth and (3) to assess the correlation between the age of teeth and root <span class="hlt">colour</span> saturation for yellow, magenta, cyan and black. The teeth in all investigations were scanned by a flat-bed digital <span class="hlt">colour</span> scanner with a Kodak <span class="hlt">colour</span> scale control and viewed on a <span class="hlt">colour</span> computer monitor. In the first two experiments the yellow <span class="hlt">colour</span> saturation of the root surfaces was measured at six points on each root using Photoshop 5.0 software. A significant difference was observed in the percentage yellow <span class="hlt">colour</span> saturation between the mesial and the other three anatomical surfaces (p < 0.01), and between the root surfaces of non-molar and molar teeth (p < 0.01) (ANOVA with Bonferroni post-test). The authors then randomly assigned tooth surfaces to select an equivalent number of posterior and anterior teeth in the study, assessing the relationship between age and root <span class="hlt">colouration</span>. Four points of <span class="hlt">colour</span> measurement on 40 teeth (sample size permitting, see Table 1) for each known age and gender were assessed for <span class="hlt">colour</span> saturation (cyan, magenta, yellow and black). The correlation of chronological age to <span class="hlt">colour</span> saturation was linear for all <span class="hlt">colours</span>, with correlation coefficients ranging from r = 0.81 to r = 0.94. The high correlation values strongly support the conclusion that chronological age is related to increased root <span class="hlt">colouration</span>. PMID:11324269</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lackovic, K P; Wood, R E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1809965"> <span id="translatedtitle">The cause of 50 million-year-old <span class="hlt">colour</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multilayer reflectors cause structural, 'metallic' <span class="hlt">colours</span> in a diversity of animals today, yet are unknown in extinct species. We identify a multilayer reflector, causing structural <span class="hlt">colour</span>, in a 50-million-year-old beetle from Messel, Germany. It is proposed that the original material of this reflector has been preserved, although this is not a precondition for determining original <span class="hlt">colours</span> from ancient multilayer reflectors. Therefore, the potential exists to reveal the original <span class="hlt">colours</span> of other (particularly arthropod) extinct species.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parker, Andrew R; McKenzie, David R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/w42l45442tx61405.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">What weta want: <span class="hlt">colour</span> preferences of a frugivorous insect</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plants use <span class="hlt">colours</span> as signals to attract mutualists and repel antagonists. Fleshy-fruits are often conspicuously <span class="hlt">coloured</span>\\u000a to signal different types of information including fruit maturity and spatial location. Previous work on fruit <span class="hlt">colour</span> selection\\u000a focus on large diurnal vertebrates, yet fruit <span class="hlt">colours</span> are perceived differently by frugivores with different types of visual\\u000a systems. Here, we tested whether a nocturnal, frugivorous,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nik Fadzly; K. C. Burns</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996A%26A...314L..25L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling X-ray <span class="hlt">colour-colour</span> changes in Z sources.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the X-ray <span class="hlt">colour-colour</span> variations of Z sources. We use a Monte Carlo code to model the scattering of radiation emitted from the hot central corona (HCC) as it passes through a (non-uniform) radially accreting region. We find that the horizontal branch of the Z track of Cyg X-2 can be produced by changes in the radial accretion structure with increasing mass transfer rate. The normal branch however, requires changes in the spectrum emerging from the HCC. The effect of the non-uniform bulk motion of the plasma is shown to be important in determining both the position of the Z track in <span class="hlt">colour-colour</span> space, and also the extent and orientation of the horizontal branch.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Litchfield, S. J.; Kylafis, N. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37.2983S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diagnostics of magnetospheric electron density, density irregularities, and ion <span class="hlt">composition</span> (H+, He+, O+) using whistler mode radio sounding from <span class="hlt">IMAGE</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Radio Plasma <span class="hlt">Imager</span> (RPI) on the <span class="hlt">IMAGE</span> satellite provided the first opportunity for spacebased whistler mode (WM) sounding of the magnetosphere. At altitude <10,000 km <span class="hlt">IMAGE</span> has observed WM echoes resulting from magnetospheric reflection (MR), specular reflection (SR) at the Earth-ionosphere boundary, and back scattering (BS) by field aligned irregularities (FAI) of WM waves. Based on the characteristic spectral form, WM echoes can be classified as discrete, multipath, or diffuse echoes. The observed dispersion (time delay versus frequency) of MR-WM and SR-WM echoes compared with that calculated from ray tracing simulations leads to the determination of electron density, density irregularities, and ion <span class="hlt">composition</span> along the geomagnetic field line B passing through <span class="hlt">IMAGE</span>. The MR-WM echo dispersion provides information on ion <span class="hlt">composition</span> (H+, He+, O+) and electron density at altitudes >1000 km and the SR-WM echo dispersion provides information on electron density at all altitudes but weighted more at low altitudes (<1000 km). Electron density at <1000 km is a measure of O+ density, the ion species predominantly present at low altitudes. Assuming diffusive equilibrium plasma density model, our method permits unique determination of electron density and ion <span class="hlt">composition</span> along B from the satellite altitude down to 90 km. The observed spread in time delay at each frequency of a diffuse WM echo can be used to determine the location and scale size of small scale FAI responsible for scattering of WM waves. We illustrate our method by two case studies: whistler mode echoes observed on <span class="hlt">IMAGE</span> on 22 and 26 October 2005. The significance of WM radio sounding of the magnetosphere from <span class="hlt">IMAGE</span> lies in its potential for probing an altitude region (<5,000-10,000 km) that is important for understanding the effects of solar variability on the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere but which is also elusive in terms of accessibility for measurement by previously applied methods.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sonwalkar, Vikas; Reddy, Amani; Carpenter, Donald; Reinisch, Bodo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1197377"> <span id="translatedtitle">Perception of <span class="hlt">colour</span> in unilateral tritanopia.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The unilateral tritanope described in the previous paper (Alpern, Kitahara & Krantz, 1983) was able to match every narrow-band light presented to his tritanopic eye with lights from a tristimulus colorimeter viewed in the adjacent field by the normal eye. In two regions of the spectrum (called isochromes) physically identical lights appeared identical to the observer's two eyes. One isochrome was close to 'blue' for the normal eye, the other was in the long-wave spectral region seen by the normal eye predominantly as 'red'. Between these isochromes the normal eye required less than spectral purity to match, dropping to near zero purity at 560-570 nm. A mixture of the two isochromes that appeared purple to the normal eye appeared neutral to the tritanopic eye. Hence dichoptic matches grossly violate Grassmann's additivity law. For the normal eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> naming conformed to typical normal results. For the tritanopic eye the results were coherent with those found by dichoptic matching: the spectrum was divided into two regions by the achromatic neutral band. To the short-wave side, only the <span class="hlt">colour</span> names 'blue' and 'white' were ever used. To the long-wave side the predominant <span class="hlt">colour</span> names were 'red' and 'white' with some 'yellow'. Spectral lights appeared neither 'red-blue' nor greenish. Surrounding the test with an annulus either 430 nm, 650 nm, or a mixture of these, fails to induce any greenish appearance, although the achromatic band shifted in the expected directions. It is concluded that there must be exactly three functionally independent, essentially non-linear central codes for <span class="hlt">colour</span> perception, and that these codes are different from those suggested in existing theories of <span class="hlt">colour</span> perception.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alpern, M; Kitahara, K; Krantz, D H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14820448"> <span id="translatedtitle">The representation of <span class="hlt">colours</span> in the cerebral cortex</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">New insights into how <span class="hlt">colour</span> is represented in the cerebral cortex and what variables govern the responses of single cortical <span class="hlt">colour</span>-coded cells have been gained by the discovery of specific visual cortical areas rich in <span class="hlt">colour</span>-coded cells.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Zeki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22colour%22&pg=3&id=EJ685186"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Interaction of Screen <span class="hlt">Colour</span> and Lesson Task in CAL</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|<span class="hlt">Colour</span> is a common feature in computer-aided learning (CAL), though the instructional effects of screen <span class="hlt">colour</span> are not well understood. This investigation considers the effects of different CAL study tasks with feedback on posttest performance and on posttest memory of the lesson <span class="hlt">colour</span> scheme. Graduate students (n=68) completed a computer-based…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clariana, Roy B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ww2.lafayette.edu/~traldil/colours3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Subset Expansion of the <span class="hlt">Coloured</span> Tutte Polynomial</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">as and Riordan introduce a Tutte polynomial for <span class="hlt">coloured</span> graphs and matroids in (3). We observe that this polynomial has an expansion as a sum indexed by the subsets of the ground-set of a <span class="hlt">coloured</span> matroid, generalizing the subset expansion of the Tutte polynomial. We also discuss similar expansions of other contraction-deletion invariants of graphs and matroids. 1. The <span class="hlt">coloured</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">LORENZO T RALDI</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/22906699"> <span id="translatedtitle">Treatment of paper coating <span class="hlt">colour</span> effluents by membrane filtration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dilute coating <span class="hlt">colour</span> effluents are created during the coating of paper and board. After treating the <span class="hlt">colour</span> effluents with ultrafiltration, the retentate can be reused as coating <span class="hlt">colour</span> and the permeate can replace fresh water. At the same time, the load on the external treatment plant is reduced. In this investigation, pilot-plant experiments were performed at a paper mill. A</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A.-S. Jönsson; C. Jönsson; M. Teppler; P. Tomani; S. Wännström</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/mn5217645342w291.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Behavioural evidence for <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision in stomatopod crustaceans</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">If an organism can be taught to respond in a particular way to a wavelength of light, irrespective of that light's intensity, then it must be able to perceive the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the stimulus. No marine invertebrate has yet been shown to have <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision. Stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimps) are <span class="hlt">colourful</span> animals and their eyes have many adaptations which indicate</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. J. Marshall; J. P. Jones; T. W. Cronin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/kp4028h282k00883.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Screening and specification of <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes of nitritometric indicators</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The specification of <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes of nitritometric indicators, viz., cresyl fast violet acetate, amethyst violet, safranine O, neutral red, methylene violet, neutral violet, phenosafranine, brilliant cresyl blue and lissamine blue BF, in the titration of sulphanilamide has been carried out with the help of tristimulus colorimetry. Apart from the determination of true <span class="hlt">colour</span> co-ordinates and complementary <span class="hlt">colour</span> co-ordinates, the quantitative</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chilukuri S. P. Sastry; Kommula R. Srinivas; Dasari Narasimha Rao; Kommuri M. M. Krishna Prasad</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13028752"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous and successive <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination in the honeybee ( Apis mellifera )</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination of individual free-flying honeybees (Apis mellifera) was tested with simultaneous and successive viewing conditions for a variety of broadband reflectance stimuli. For simultaneous viewing bees used form vision to discriminate patterned target stimuli from homogeneous <span class="hlt">coloured</span> distractor stimuli, and for successive discrimination bees were required to discriminate between homogeneously <span class="hlt">coloured</span> stimuli. Bees were significantly better at a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adrian G Dyer; Christa Neumeyer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5747125"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new method for <span class="hlt">colour</span> measurements in graphic arts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a method for <span class="hlt">colour</span> measurements directly on printed half-tone multicoloured pictures. The paper introduces the concept of <span class="hlt">colour</span> impression. By this concept we mean the CMY or CMYK vector (<span class="hlt">colour</span> vector), which lives in the three- or four-dimensional space of printing inks. Two factors contribute to values of the vector components, namely, the percentage of the area</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Verikas; K. Malmqvist; L. Malmqvist; L. Bergman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42466355"> <span id="translatedtitle">Equating the perceived intensity of <span class="hlt">coloured</span> lights to hens</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">1. Previous investigations of the effects of light <span class="hlt">colour</span> on the productivity or behaviour of chickens have not equated the intensity of the different <span class="hlt">coloured</span> lights.2. Ten pullets (Warren Studler 128) were used to determine the perceived intensity of two <span class="hlt">colours</span> at opposite ends of the visible spectrum (blue, peak wavelength 415 nm and red, peak wavelength 635 nm).3. Initially</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. S. Prayitno; C. J. C. Phillips</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2159664"> <span id="translatedtitle">Induction operators for a computational <span class="hlt">colour</span>-texture representation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this paper is to outline a perceptual approach to a computational <span class="hlt">colour</span>-texture representation based on some <span class="hlt">colour</span> induction phenomena. The extension of classical grey level methods for texture processing to the RGB channels of the corresponding <span class="hlt">colour</span> texture is not the best solution to simulate human perception. Chromatic induction mechanisms of the human visual system, that has</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maria Vanrell; Ramón Baldrich; Anna Salvatella; Robert Benavente; Francesc Tous</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40832983"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physical chemistry and mechanical <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of ceramic-fibre-reinforced ceramic- or metal-matrix <span class="hlt">composites</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Raman (micro)spectrometry allows the study of the non-metallic phases of ceramic- or metal-matrix <span class="hlt">composites</span> at the micrometer scale. The three examples that are given concern a mullite-matrix <span class="hlt">composite</span> reinforced by the Nippon Carbon NLM-202™ SiC fibre, an alumina-matrix <span class="hlt">composite</span> reinforced by a Saphikon™ monocrystalline ?-Al2O3 fibre and a Textron SCS-6™ fibre-reinforced Ti6242 matrix <span class="hlt">composite</span>. Physical and chemical evolution of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G Gouadec; S Karlin; J Wu; M Parlier; Ph Colomban</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JOpt...15i4011K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bleed-through correction for rendering and correlation analysis in multi-<span class="hlt">colour</span> localization microscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multi-<span class="hlt">colour</span> localization microscopy has enabled sub-diffraction studies of colocalization between multiple biological species and quantification of their correlation at length scales previously inaccessible with conventional fluorescence microscopy. However, bleed-through, or misidentification of probe species, creates false colocalization and artificially increases certain types of correlation between two <span class="hlt">imaged</span> species, affecting the reliability of information provided by colocalization and quantified correlation. Despite the potential risk of these artefacts of bleed-through, neither the effect of bleed-through on correlation nor methods for its correction in correlation analyses have been systematically studied at typical rates of bleed-through reported to affect multi-<span class="hlt">colour</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span>. Here, we present a reliable method of bleed-through correction applicable to <span class="hlt">image</span> rendering and correlation analysis of multi-<span class="hlt">colour</span> localization microscopy. Application of our bleed-through correction shows that our method accurately corrects the artificial increase in both types of correlation studied (Pearson coefficient and pair correlation), at all rates of bleed-through tested, in all types of correlation examined. In particular, anti-correlation could not be quantified without our bleed-through correction, even at rates of bleed-through as low as 2%. While it is demonstrated with dichroic-based multi-<span class="hlt">colour</span> FPALM here, our presented method of bleed-through correction can be applied to all types of localization microscopy (PALM, STORM, dSTORM, GSDIM, etc), including both simultaneous and sequential multi-<span class="hlt">colour</span> modalities, provided the rate of bleed-through can be reliably determined.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Dahan; Curthoys, Nikki M.; Parent, Matthew T.; Hess, Samuel T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA412206"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of Optical Skin Lesion <span class="hlt">Images</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Black-white and <span class="hlt">colour</span> skin/lesion <span class="hlt">images</span> are synthesised with known characteristics such as boundary, skin pattern and <span class="hlt">colour</span>. The skin and lesion textures are modelled by the auto-regressive (AR) process. Black-white skin lesion <span class="hlt">images</span> are obtained by c...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Z. She P. J. Fish A. W. Duller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40833520"> <span id="translatedtitle">Direct observation and measurement of fiber architecture in short fiber-polymer <span class="hlt">composite</span> foam through micro-CT <span class="hlt">imaging</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A non-destructive X-ray <span class="hlt">imaging</span> technique was used to determine internal structure in a polymer foam reinforced with short fibers. The technique, known as micro-CT (for computerized tomography), was used to measure the fiber length distribution (FLD) and fiber orientation distribution (FOD), two parameters that are critical to the behavior of short-fiber-reinforced <span class="hlt">composites</span>. Phenolic foam reinforced with short glass fibers was</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hongbin Shen; Steven Nutt; David Hull</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/x4t7g1547548w836.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new sample substrate for <span class="hlt">imaging</span> and correlating organic and trace metal <span class="hlt">composition</span> in biological cells and tissues</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many disease processes involve alterations in the chemical makeup of tissue. Synchrotron-based infrared (IR) and X-ray fluorescence\\u000a (XRF) microscopes are becoming increasingly popular tools for <span class="hlt">imaging</span> the organic and trace metal <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of biological\\u000a materials, respectively, without the need for extrinsic labels or stains. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM)\\u000a provides chemical information on the organic components of a material at</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lisa M. Miller; Qi Wang; Randy J. Smith; Hui Zhong; Donald Elliott; John Warren</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40319882"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical surface <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the polyethylene implanted by Ag + ions studied by phase <span class="hlt">imaging</span> atomic force microscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">High density polyethylene (HDPE) has been modified by Ag+ ion implantation with the energy of 60keV. The total amount of implanted silver ions was 1, 5 and 12×1015 ions\\/cm2. The surface topography was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), while the surface <span class="hlt">composition</span> changes were detected using phase <span class="hlt">imaging</span> AFM. Surface topography changes were studied in detail using 3D surface</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Strbac; M. Nenadovic; Lj. Rajakovic; Z. Rakocevic</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18515625"> <span id="translatedtitle">White-light digital <span class="hlt">image</span> cross-correlation (DICC) analysis of the deformation of <span class="hlt">composite</span> materials with random microstructure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A sophisticated <span class="hlt">image</span> cross-correlation algorithm (J. Appl. Opt. 33 (1994) 6667) has been used to measure both components of in-plane displacement at the surface of a deforming <span class="hlt">composite</span> material. The natural random pattern present on the surface of a polished polymer bonded explosive (PBX) sample is photographed using a high-resolution digital camera mounted on an optical microscope. Frames are taken</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. J Rae; S. J. P Palmer; H. T Goldrein; A. L Lewis; J. E Field</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1024542"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aortic-ventricular tunnel in a neonate: diagnosis and management based on cross sectional and <span class="hlt">colour</span> Doppler ultrasonography.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A five day old symptom free neonate was referred for assessment of a to and fro murmur associated with large volume pulses. Cross sectional echocardiography and <span class="hlt">colour</span> flow mapping confirmed the diagnosis of an aortic-ventricular tunnel with forward flow into the aorta and regurgitant flow into the ventricle through both the tunnel and the dilated aortic valve ring. Surgical correction by patch closure of the aortic end of the tunnel was successfully undertaken two weeks later without any additional investigations. Postoperative echocardiography and <span class="hlt">colour</span> flow <span class="hlt">imaging</span> showed no aortic regurgitation and normal left ventricular dimensions and function. <span class="hlt">Images</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sreeram, N; Franks, R; Walsh, K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22colour%22&pg=3&id=EJ814626"> <span id="translatedtitle">"We Are Multiculturalism": A Self-Study of Faculty of <span class="hlt">Colour</span> with Pre-Service Teachers of <span class="hlt">Colour</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This paper reports a self-study of three faculty of <span class="hlt">colour</span> engaged in teaching a special summer session geared to recruiting people of <span class="hlt">colour</span> to teaching. Given our past experiences in institutions of higher education, we recognised the unique situation and potential of faculty of <span class="hlt">colour</span> teaching a class made up almost exclusively of students of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prado-Olmos, Patricia; Rios, Francisco; Castaneda, Lillian Vega</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23411227"> <span id="translatedtitle">Non-destructive determination of chemical <span class="hlt">composition</span> in intact and minced pork using near-infrared hyperspectral <span class="hlt">imaging</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral <span class="hlt">imaging</span> technique was investigated for non-destructive determination of chemical <span class="hlt">composition</span> of intact and minced pork. Hyperspectral <span class="hlt">images</span> (900-1700 nm) were acquired for both intact and minced pork samples and the mean spectra were extracted by automatic segmentation. Protein, moisture and fat contents were determined by traditional methods and then related with the spectral information by partial least-squares (PLS) regression models. The coefficient of determination obtained by cross-validated PLS models indicated that the NIR spectral range had an excellent ability to predict the content of protein (R(2)(cv)=0.88), moisture (R(2)(cv)=0.87) and fat (R(2)(cv)=0.95) in pork. Regression models using a few selected feature-related wavelengths showed that chemical <span class="hlt">composition</span> could be predicted with coefficients of determination of 0.92, 0.87 and 0.95 for protein, moisture and fat, respectively. Prediction of chemical contents in each pixel of the hyperspectral <span class="hlt">image</span> using these prediction models yielded spatially distributed visualisations of the sample <span class="hlt">composition</span>. PMID:23411227</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barbin, Douglas F; ElMasry, Gamal; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.businesscommunication.org/conventions/proceedings/2007/hongkong/13abcasiapac07.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Is Green the <span class="hlt">Colour</span> of Cash or Conviction? <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Culture in China as Seen by Managers of Finnish MNCs: Report on a Pilot Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite anecdotes on differences in <span class="hlt">colour</span> usage in, say, Europe and the Far-East, cultural <span class="hlt">colour</span> conventions are not thoroughly comprehended. There is a lack of knowledge on how to use <span class="hlt">colours</span> to support successful cross-cultural business communications, and even less understanding of why a particular <span class="hlt">colour</span> or <span class="hlt">colour</span> combination is interpreted in a specific way. The theoretical framework of this</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kirsi Mantua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23458658"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diagnosing synaesthesia with online <span class="hlt">colour</span> pickers: maximising sensitivity and specificity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The most commonly used method for formally assessing grapheme-<span class="hlt">colour</span> synaesthesia (i.e., experiencing <span class="hlt">colours</span> in response to letter and/or number stimuli) involves selecting <span class="hlt">colours</span> from a large <span class="hlt">colour</span> palette on several occasions and measuring consistency of the <span class="hlt">colours</span> selected. However, the ability to diagnose synaesthesia using this method depends on several factors that have not been directly contrasted. These include the type of <span class="hlt">colour</span> space used (e.g., RGB, HSV, CIELUV, CIELAB) and different measures of consistency (e.g., city block and Euclidean distance in <span class="hlt">colour</span> space). This study aims to find the most reliable way of diagnosing grapheme-<span class="hlt">colour</span> synaesthesia based on maximising sensitivity (i.e., ability of a test to identify true synaesthetes) and specificity (i.e., ability of a test to identify true non-synaesthetes). We show, applying ROC (receiver operating characteristics) to binary classification of a large sample of self-declared synaesthetes and non-synaesthetes, that the consistency criterion (i.e., cut-off value) for diagnosing synaesthesia is considerably higher than the current standard in the field. We also show that methods based on perceptual CIELUV and CIELAB <span class="hlt">colour</span> models (rather than RGB and HSV <span class="hlt">colour</span> representations) and Euclidean distances offer an even greater sensitivity and specificity than most currently used measures. Together, these findings offer improved heuristics for the behavioural assessment of grapheme-<span class="hlt">colour</span> synaesthesia. PMID:23458658</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rothen, Nicolas; Seth, Anil K; Witzel, Christoph; Ward, Jamie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5299..254U"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mobile robot control for <span class="hlt">composition</span> of seamless and high-resolution <span class="hlt">images</span> in library</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We are developing an assistant robot system for administration of a library. In this system, an autonomous mobile robot obtains <span class="hlt">images</span> with a camera, and composes seamless and high-resolution <span class="hlt">images</span> of a bookshelf by using mosaicing and super-resolution techniques. In this paper, we propose a control method for the robot in front of a bookshelf as a part of this system. To obtain <span class="hlt">images</span> that are suitable for mosaicing, a robot should take <span class="hlt">images</span> from the same distance and orientation to a bookshelf. Our control method utilizes horizontal edges, which are detected easily in any bookshelf. The robot modifies its orientation with the edge in camera <span class="hlt">images</span>. We implemented a super-resolution and mosaicing algorithm. Our implementation is simple. However, it can compose a high quality <span class="hlt">image</span> in an experiment, since the robot obtains preferable <span class="hlt">images</span> for the <span class="hlt">image</span> processing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ueda, Ryuichi; Moriya, Toshio; Trevai, Chomchana; Arai, Tamio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23888526"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between natural tooth shade and skin <span class="hlt">colour</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of skin <span class="hlt">colour</span> and tooth shade. One hundred and twenty six individuals aging between 18 to 25 years participated in this study. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> of the maxillary central incisors was examined by VITA easy shade. Tooth shades were assigned to four ordinal values. Nivea Beauty Protect Foundation shade sample was used as a guide to assess facial skin <span class="hlt">colour</span> Shin <span class="hlt">colours</span> were also assigned to four ordinal values. Spearman test revealed that there was a significant relationship between tooth shade and skin <span class="hlt">colour</span> Total co-relation factor was 51.6% (p <0 .01). Co-relation factors were 57% for women and 27% for men (p <0 .01). The highest tooth shade prevalence belonged to the second group and the highest skin <span class="hlt">colour</span> prevalence was also in the second skin <span class="hlt">colour</span> group. PMID:23888526</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nourbakhsh, M; Mousavinejad, N; Adli, A R; Harati, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991Natur.349..235W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changes in <span class="hlt">colour</span> appearance following post-receptoral adaptation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">CURRENT models of <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision assume that <span class="hlt">colour</span> is represented by activity in three independent post-receptoral channels: two encoding chromatic information and one encoding luminance1. An important feature of these models is that variations in certain directions in <span class="hlt">colour</span> space modulate the response of only one of the channels. We have tested whether such models can predict how <span class="hlt">colour</span> appearance is altered by adaptation-induced changes in post-receptoral sensitivity. In contrast to the changes predicted by three independent channels, <span class="hlt">colour</span> appearance is always distorted away from the direction in <span class="hlt">colour</span> space to which the observer has adapted. This suggests that at the level at which the adaptation effects occur, there is no <span class="hlt">colour</span> direction that invariably isolates only a single post-receptoral channel.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Webster, Michael A.; Mollon, J. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3443577"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Composite</span> Match Index with Application of Interior Deformation Field Measurement from Magnetic Resonance Volumetric <span class="hlt">Images</span> of Human Tissues</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Whereas a variety of different feature-point matching approaches have been reported in computer vision, few feature-point matching approaches employed in <span class="hlt">images</span> from nonrigid, nonuniform human tissues have been reported. The present work is concerned with interior deformation field measurement of complex human tissues from three-dimensional magnetic resonance (MR) volumetric <span class="hlt">images</span>. To improve the reliability of matching results, this paper proposes <span class="hlt">composite</span> match index (CMI) as the foundation of multimethod fusion methods to increase the reliability of these various methods. Thereinto, we discuss the definition, components, and weight determination of CMI. To test the validity of the proposed approach, it is applied to actual MR volumetric <span class="hlt">images</span> obtained from a volunteer's calf. The main result is consistent with the actual condition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Penglin; Zhang, Xubing; Chen, Jiangping</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17115141"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new sample substrate for <span class="hlt">imaging</span> and correlating organic and trace metal <span class="hlt">composition</span> in biological cells and tissues.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many disease processes involve alterations in the chemical makeup of tissue. Synchrotron-based infrared (IR) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopes are becoming increasingly popular tools for <span class="hlt">imaging</span> the organic and trace metal <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of biological materials, respectively, without the need for extrinsic labels or stains. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) provides chemical information on the organic components of a material at a diffraction-limited spatial resolution of 2-10 microm in the mid-infrared region. The synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobe is a complementary technique used to probe trace element content in the same systems with a similar spatial resolution. However to be most beneficial, it is important to combine the results from both <span class="hlt">imaging</span> techniques on a single sample, which requires precise overlap of the IR and X-ray <span class="hlt">images</span>. In this work, we have developed a sample substrate containing a gold grid pattern on its surface, which can be <span class="hlt">imaged</span> with both the IR and X-ray microscopes. The substrate consists of a low trace element glass slide that has a gold grid patterned on its surface, where the major and minor parts of the grid contain 25 and 12 nm gold, respectively. This grid pattern can be <span class="hlt">imaged</span> with the IR microscope because the reflectivity of gold differs as a function of thickness. The pattern can also be <span class="hlt">imaged</span> with the SXRF microprobe because the Au fluorescence intensity changes with gold thickness. The tissue sample is placed on top of the patterned substrate. The grid pattern's IR reflectivity <span class="hlt">image</span> and the gold SXRF <span class="hlt">image</span> are used as fiducial markers for spatially overlapping the IR and SXRF <span class="hlt">images</span> from the tissue. Results show that IR and X-ray <span class="hlt">images</span> can be correlated precisely, with a spatial resolution of less than one pixel (i.e., 2-3 microns). The development of this new tool will be presented along with applications to paraffin-embedded metalloprotein crystals, Alzheimer's disease, and hair <span class="hlt">composition</span>. PMID:17115141</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miller, Lisa M; Wang, Qi; Smith, Randy J; Zhong, Hui; Elliott, Donald; Warren, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-11-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50821039"> <span id="translatedtitle">The impact of color <span class="hlt">composition</span> on X-ray <span class="hlt">image</span> interpretation in aviation security screening</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to improve aviation security, many airports apply Threat <span class="hlt">Image</span> Projection (TIP) and computer-based X-ray <span class="hlt">image</span> interpretation training (CBT). One difference between TIP and CBT X-ray <span class="hlt">images</span> is the algorithm used to merge virtual threat items into X-ray <span class="hlt">images</span> of passenger bags, resulting in different color nuances. In this study, we tested the influence of merging algorithms on threat</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Claudia C. von Bastian; Adrian Schwaninger; Stefan Michel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/e5vj2871050j342x.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flower <span class="hlt">colours</span> along an alpine altitude gradient, seen through the eyes of fly and bee pollinators</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Alpine flowers face multiple challenges in terms of abiotic and biotic factors, some of which may result in selection for\\u000a certain <span class="hlt">colours</span> at increasing altitude, in particular the changing pollinator species <span class="hlt">composition</span>, which tends to move from\\u000a bee-dominated at lower elevations to fly-dominated in high-alpine regions. To evaluate whether growing at altitude—and the\\u000a associated change in the dominant pollinator groups</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sarah E. J. Arnold; Vincent Savolainen; Lars Chittka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/22743881"> <span id="translatedtitle">Profiling of <span class="hlt">colour</span> pigments of chili powders of different origin by high-performance liquid chromatography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">colour</span> pigments of five chili powders of different origins were separated and quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The similarities and dissimilarities of pigment <span class="hlt">composition</span> of chili powders were elucidated by principal component analysis (PCA). RP-HPLC separated 50–100 pigment fractions depending on the detection wavelength and on the origin of chili powder. It was found that the pigment</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Agnes Kósa; Tibor Cserháti; Esther Forgács; Helena Morais; Teresa Mota; A. C Ramos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7061E...4T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Extended depth-of-field (EDoF) using sharpness transport across <span class="hlt">colour</span> channels</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we present an approach to obtain an extended Depth-of-Field (DoF) for cell phone miniature camera by jointly optimizing optical system and post-capture digital processing techniques. Using a computational <span class="hlt">imaging</span> approach, we demonstrate how to increase, to a useful operating range, the effective DoF of a specifically designed fixed focus lens operating e.g. at f/2.8. This is achieved with a lens design where the longitudinal chromatic aberration has been increased. This increase is controlled so as to have, for any distance within the extended DoF, at least one <span class="hlt">colour</span> channel of a RGB <span class="hlt">image</span> which contains the in-focus scene information (e.g. high frequencies). By determining the sharpest <span class="hlt">colour</span> (for each region in the digital <span class="hlt">image</span>) and reflecting its sharpness on the others, we show that it is possible to get a sharp <span class="hlt">image</span> for all <span class="hlt">colours</span> through the merged DoF of the three of them. We compare our technique with other approaches that also aimed to increase the DoF such as Wavefront coding.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tisse, Christel-Loic; Nguyen, Hoang Phi; Tessières, Régis; Pyanet, Marine; Guichard, Frédéric</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/40230739"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intensity filtering of a two-dimensional optical <span class="hlt">image</span> in high-performance photorefractive mesogenic <span class="hlt">composites</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Edge enhancement, a type of intensity filtering of a two-dimensional optical <span class="hlt">image</span>, was demonstrated using a high-performance photorefractive polymer-dissolved liquid crystal. We calculated the expected <span class="hlt">images</span> using Fourier transform holographic geometry and obtained good agreement between the observed <span class="hlt">images</span> and the theoretical expectation. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ono, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Tomomi; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro; Norisada, Hideki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-08-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40902423"> <span id="translatedtitle">Kinetics of the migration of lipids in <span class="hlt">composite</span> chocolate measured by magnetic resonance <span class="hlt">imaging</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Migration of hazelnut oil into chocolate was followed non-invasively by magnetic resonance <span class="hlt">imaging</span>, using a spin echo pulse sequence to acquire <span class="hlt">images</span> with a 5 ms echo time and a 2000 ms repetition time. A calibration curve was used to correlate the <span class="hlt">image</span> intensity with the concentration of hazelnut oil. Two different degrees of chocolate temper, at three different storage</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marc E Miquel; Sophie Carli; Patrick J Couzens; Hans-J Wille; Laurance D Hall</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3490707"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial Frequency Domain <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> of Port Wine Stain Biochemical <span class="hlt">Composition</span> in Response to Laser Therapy: A Pilot Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background and Objective Objective methods to assess port wine stain (PWS) response to laser treatment have been the subject of various research efforts for several years. Herein, we present a pilot study using a newly developed, light emitting diode (LED) based spatial frequency domain <span class="hlt">imaging</span> (SFDI) device to record quantitatively biochemical <span class="hlt">compositional</span> changes in PWS after laser therapy. Study Design/Patients and Methods A SFDI system was used to <span class="hlt">image</span> before, and after, five PWS treatment sessions [n = 4 subjects (one subject was <span class="hlt">imaged</span> before and after two consecutive laser treatments)]. SFDI derived wide-field optical properties (absorption and scattering) and tissue chromophore concentrations including oxy-hemoglobin (ctO2Hb), deoxy-hemoglobin (ctHHb), total hemoglobin (ctTHb), and tissue oxygen saturation (stO2) are presented for skin <span class="hlt">imaged</span> prior to and immediately after laser treatment. The SFDI derived <span class="hlt">images</span> were analyzed by comparing the above measurements in PWS to those of normal skin and tracking changes immediately after laser exposure. Results Elevated oxy-hemoglobin (>20%) and tissue oxygen saturation (>5%) were measured in all PWS lesions and compared to values for normal skin prior to treatment. Laser treatment resulted in an increase in deoxy-hemoglobin (>100%), decrease in tissue oxygen saturation (>10%), and reduced scattering (>15%) in all PWS lesions. One subject was followed before and after two consecutive laser treatments and the overall improvement in PWS lesion blanching was quantitatively assessed by measuring a 45% decrease in dermal blood volume. Conclusion SFDI is a rapid non-contact wide-field optical technique that shows potential as an <span class="hlt">imaging</span> device that can be used to quantify biochemical <span class="hlt">compositional</span> changes in PWS after laser therapy. Future work will investigate the potential of SFDI to provide intra-operative guidance for laser therapy of PWS lesions on an individual patient basis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mazhar, Amaan; Sharif, Seyed A.; Cuccia, J. David; Nelson, J. Stuart; Kelly, Kristen M.; Durkin, Anthony J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3436906"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multimodality <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of atherosclerotic plaque activity and <span class="hlt">composition</span> using FDG-PET/CT and MRI in carotid and femoral arteries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose To evaluate the relationship between atherosclerotic plaque inflammation, as assessed by FDG-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG-PET/CT), and plaque morphology and <span class="hlt">composition</span>, as assessed by magnetic resonance <span class="hlt">imaging</span> (MRI), in the carotid and femoral arteries. Materials and methods Sixteen patients underwent FDG-PET/CT and MRI (T2 weighted (T2W) and Proton density weighted (PDW)) of the carotid and femoral arteries. For every <span class="hlt">image</span> slice, two observers determined the corresponding regions of the FDG-PET/CT and MRI <span class="hlt">image</span> sets by matching CT and T2W axial <span class="hlt">images</span>. Each plaque was then classified into one of three groups according to the CT appearance and T2W/PDW signal: 1) collagen, 2) lipid-necrotic core and 3) calcium. Arterial FDG uptake was measured for each plaque and normalized to vein FDG activity to produce a blood-normalized artery activity called the target to background ratio (TBR). The vessel wall thickness (VWT), the vessel wall area and the total vessel wall area were measured from the T2W MR <span class="hlt">images</span>. Results The TBR value was higher in the lipid-necrotic core group compared to the collagen and calcium groups, (p < 0.001). The lipid-necrotic core group demonstrated a significant TBR variation according to the median of the VWT (TBR = 1.26 ± 0.25 vs. TBR = 1.50 ± 0.12). There was no correlation with other morphological MR parameters. Conclusions This study demonstrates the complementary value of non-invasive FDG-PET/CT and MR <span class="hlt">imaging</span> for the evaluation of atherosclerotic plaque <span class="hlt">composition</span> and activity. Lipid-rich plaques are more inflamed than either calcified or collagen-rich plaques.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Silvera, Stephane S.; el Aidi, Hamza; Rudd, James H. F.; Mani, Venkatesh; Yang, Lingde; Farkouh, Michael; Fuster, Valentin; Fayad, Zahi A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48540942"> <span id="translatedtitle">The dark <span class="hlt">colour</span> of black cotton soils</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary  Black cotton soil from Indore (Madhya Pradesh) which is predominantly composed of montmorillonite contained 0·45% organic\\u000a matter. A sensible reduction of the organic content by any method was invariably followed by a corresponding reduction in\\u000a its dark <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Treatment with 10% sodium hexametaphosphate at boiling point or with H2O2 at 80° C. or the dichromate were effective in removing the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">V. S. Ramachandran; F. U. Ahmad; L. C. Jain</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1959-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19444425"> <span id="translatedtitle">Background complexity affects <span class="hlt">colour</span> preference in bumblebees.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Flowers adapted for hummingbird pollination are typically red. This correlation is usually explained by the assertion that nectar- or pollen-stealing bees are "blind" to red flowers. However, laboratory studies have shown that bees are capable of locating artificial red flowers and often show no innate preference for blue over red. We hypothesised that these findings might be artefacts of the simplified laboratory environment. Using bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) that had been trained to visit red and blue artificial flowers, we tested whether <span class="hlt">colour</span> preference was influenced by complexity of the background on which they were foraging. Many bees were indifferent to flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> when tested using a uniform green background like those commonly used in laboratory studies, but all bees showed strong <span class="hlt">colour</span> preferences (usually for blue) when flowers were presented against a photograph of real foliage. Overall, preference for blue flowers was significantly greater on the more realistic, complex background. These results support the notion that the red of "hummingbird syndrome" flowers can function to reduce bee visits despite the ability of bees to detect red and highlight the need to consider context when drawing inferences about pollinator preferences from laboratory data. PMID:19444425</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Forrest, Jessica; Thomson, James D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21920975"> <span id="translatedtitle">A shared chemical basis of avian host-parasite egg <span class="hlt">colour</span> mimicry.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in other birds' nests and impose considerable fitness costs on their hosts. Historically and scientifically, the best studied example of circumventing host defences is the mimicry of host eggshell <span class="hlt">colour</span> by the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus). Yet the chemical basis of eggshell <span class="hlt">colour</span> similarity, which impacts hosts' tolerance towards parasitic eggs, remains unknown. We tested the alternative scenarios that (i) cuckoos replicate host egg pigment chemistry, or (ii) cuckoos use alternative mechanisms to produce a similar perceptual effect to mimic host egg appearance. In parallel with patterns of similarity in avian-perceived <span class="hlt">colour</span> mimicry, the concentrations of the two key eggshell pigments, biliverdin and protoporphyrin, were most similar between the cuckoo host-races and their respective hosts. Thus, the chemical basis of avian host-parasite egg <span class="hlt">colour</span> mimicry is evolutionarily conserved, but also intraspecifically flexible. These analyses of pigment <span class="hlt">composition</span> reveal a novel proximate dimension of coevolutionary interactions between avian brood parasites and hosts, and imply that alternative phenotypes may arise by the modifications of already existing biochemical and physiological mechanisms and pathways. PMID:21920975</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Igic, Branislav; Cassey, Phillip; Grim, Tomás; Greenwood, David R; Moskát, Csaba; Rutila, Jarkko; Hauber, Mark E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40698799"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coloured</span> mineral coatings on monument surfaces as a result of biomineralization: the case of the Tarragona cathedral (Catalonia)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Successive <span class="hlt">coloured</span> coatings on the Taragona cathedral (Catalonia) were analyzed using chemical, microbiological and mineralogical techniques. The coatings consist of mainly biogenic minerals (calcite, several oxalates, phosphates) and their fabric and <span class="hlt">composition</span> is independent of the underlying rock. The origin of the crusts or patinas is attributed to bygone (sub-fossil) microflores which formed biofilms and microbial mats on and within</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clara Urzì; M VENDRELLSAZ; W KRUMBEIN</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40902949"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of processing techniques on the natural <span class="hlt">colourings</span> and the other functional constituents in virgin olive oil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of two new enzyme processing aids, Bioliva and Rapidase adex D, and that of the olive paste malaxation temperature factor on the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of natural <span class="hlt">colourings</span> (chlorophylls, xanthophylls, and carotenes) and the chromatic parameters (chroma, brightness, and hue) have been investigated in virgin olive oils. Other major analytical variables (secoiridoid derivatives, tocopherols, volatiles, sensory scoring, oxidative stability, and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Ranalli; A. Malfatti; L. Lucera; S. Contento; E. Sotiriou</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7528E...1P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Artist's <span class="hlt">colour</span> rendering of HDR scenes in 3D Mondrian <span class="hlt">colour</span>-constancy experiments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The presentation provides an update on ongoing research using three-dimensional <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Mondrians. Two still life arrangements comprising hand-painted <span class="hlt">coloured</span> blocks of 11 different <span class="hlt">colours</span> were subjected to two different lighting conditions of a nearly uniform light and directed spotlights. The three-dimensional nature of these test targets adds shadows and multiple reflections, not found in flat Mondrian targets. Working from exactly the same pair of scenes, an author painted them using watercolour inks and paints to recreate both LDR and HDR Mondrians on paper. This provided us with a second set of appearance measurements of both scenes. Here we measured appearances by measuring reflectances of the artist's rendering. Land's <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Mondrian extended <span class="hlt">colour</span> constancy from a pixel to a complex scene. Since it used a planar array in uniform illumination, it did not measure the appearances of real life 3-D scenes in non-uniform illumination. The experiments in this paper, by simultaneously studying LDR and HDR renditions of the same array of reflectances, extend Land's Mondrian towards real scenes in non-uniform illumination. The results show that the appearances of many areas in complex scenes do not correlate with reflectance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parraman, Carinna E.; McCann, John J.; Rizzi, Alessandro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004eso..pres....7."> <span id="translatedtitle">Adding New <span class="hlt">Colours</span> to Interferometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Another vital step has been accomplished as planned towards full operation of the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile, one of the world's foremost astronomical facilities. In the night of March 20-21, 2004, a team of astronomers and engineers from France, Italy, Germany and ESO celebrated the successful assembly and completion of the first on-line tests of the latest of the first-generation VLTI instruments, the Astronomical Multiple BEam Recombiner (AMBER). They combined the two beams of light from the southern star Theta Centauri from two test telescopes ("siderostats" with 40-cm aperture, cf. ESO PR 06/01) to produce strong and clear interferometric fringes. Equally successful observations were then obtained on the bright star Sirius, and consistently repeated during the following nights. A joint project This is the most promising result of about 7 years of dedicated work by a team of over 40 astronomers and engineers. The AMBER instrument has been developed by a European consortium of seven research institutes in three ESO member countries, the main partners being: Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (LAOG), Laboratoire Universitaire d'Astrophysique de Nice (LUAN) and Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur in France, Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR) in Bonn, Germany, and Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (OAA; part of INAF, the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics) in Florence, Italy. The total cost of AMBER is of the order of 5.9 million Euros, mostly contributed by the members of the consortium. It was built through an agreement with ESO, which rewards the consortium solely with guaranteed observing time. According to the contract, the consortium will receive 60 observing nights to be spread among two or three of the four 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes and 130 nights with the four Auxiliary Telescopes over a period of eight years. AMBER: soon to join three light beams at once ESO PR Photo 09a/04 ESO PR Photo 09a/04 AMBER at the VLT Interferometric Laboratory [Preview - JPEG: 534 x 400 pix - 68k] [Normal - JPEG: 1067 x 800 pix - 665k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 09a/04 shows the AMBER instrument in the VLT Interferometric Laboratory at Paranal. The AMBER instrument is mounted on a 4.2 x 1.5 m precision optical table, placed in the VLT Interferometric Laboratory at the top of the Paranal mountain, cf. PR Photo 09/04. The total shipping weight of the instrument and its extensive associated electronics was almost 4 tons. AMBER is the latest addition to the VLTI and completes the planned set of first-generation instruments for this facility. It continues the success story of the interferometric mode of the VLT, following the unique initial scientific results obtained by the VINCI and MIDI instruments, the installation of the first MACAO adaptive optics systems and the recent arrival of the first 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescope at Paranal (ESO PR 01/04). The interferometric technique can achieve <span class="hlt">images</span>, as sharp as those of a telescope with a diameter equivalent to the distance between the telescopes in the interferometer. For the VLTI, this distance can be as large as 205 meters, resulting in a resolution of 0.001 arcsec in the near-infrared spectral region (at 1 ?m wavelength). The latter measure corresponds to about 2 metres on the surface of the Moon. AMBER is a very powerful complement to the other instruments already installed at the VLTI and offered to the astronomical community. AMBER is indeed sensitive in the near-infrared wavelength region of 1 to 2.5 microns while the present instrument, MIDI, covers the 8 to 13 microns range. Moreover, AMBER will be able to perform spectroscopic measurements with a spectral resolution up to 10,000. ESO PR Photo 09b/04 ESO PR Photo 09b/04 The AMBER instrument (detail) [Preview - JPEG: 435 x 400 pix - 74k] [Normal - JPEG: 870 x 800 pix - 722k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 09b/04 shows in the foreground some of the mirrors and optical fibers (yellow cables), as well as the dichroic mirrors by means of which the light beams</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50216955"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wide acceptance angle, non-<span class="hlt">imaging</span>, triple junction based, 10× <span class="hlt">composite</span> space concentrator</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A novel, wide acceptance angle, nonimaging, 10×, all-<span class="hlt">composite</span> space concentrator array has been developed and prototyped as a possible lower cost alternative to the very high efficiency, multijunction technology based, planar space arrays. This triple junction cell based, carbon <span class="hlt">composite</span>, concentrator array can provide similar high performance, while, at the same time, offers cost and weight advantages. Unlike other concentrator</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. D. Krut; G. S. Glenn; B. Bailor; M. Takahashi; R. A. Sherif; D. R. Lillington; N. H. Karam; U. Ortabasi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.B13A0184B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inferences of Particle Size and <span class="hlt">Composition</span> From Video-like <span class="hlt">Images</span> Based on Acoustic Data: Grotto Plume, Main Endeavor Field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Optical and acoustic scattering from particles in a seafloor hydrothermal plume can be related if the particle properties and scattering mechanisms are known. We assume Rayleigh backscattering of sound and Mie forward scattering of light. We then use the particle concentrations implicit in the observed acoustic backscatter intensity to recreate the optical <span class="hlt">image</span> a camera would see given a particular lighting level. The motivation for this study is to discover what information on particle size and <span class="hlt">composition</span> in the buoyant plume can be inferred from a comparison of the calculated optical <span class="hlt">images</span> (based on acoustic data) with actual video <span class="hlt">images</span> from the acoustic acquisition cruise and the IMAX film "Volcanoes of the Deep Sea" (Stephen Low Productions, Inc.). Because the geologists, biologists and oceanographers involved in the study of seafloor hydrothermal plumes all "see" plumes in different ways, an additional motivation is to create more realistic plume <span class="hlt">images</span> from the acoustic data. By using visualization techniques, with realistic lighting models, we can convert the plume <span class="hlt">image</span> from mechanical waves (sound) to electromagnetic waves (light). The resulting <span class="hlt">image</span> depends on assumptions about the particle size distribution and <span class="hlt">composition</span>. Conversion of the volume scattering coefficients from Rayleigh to Mie scattering is accomplished by an extinction scale factor that depends on the wavelengths of light and sound and on the average particle size. We also make an adjustment to the scattered light based on the particles reflectivity (albedo) and color. We present a series of <span class="hlt">images</span> of acoustic data for Grotto Plume, Main Endeavour Field (within the Endeavour ISS Site) using both realistic lighting models and traditional visualization techniques to investigate the dependence of the <span class="hlt">images</span> on assumptions about particle <span class="hlt">composition</span> and size. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the visibility of the buoyant plume increases as the intensity of supplied light increases, the particle size decreases, and the particle reflectivity increases. However, decreasing the particle size (and thus increasing the extinction scale factor) results in a wider, less defined plume and increases the relative importance of the acoustic background noise; the best fit of our calculated optical <span class="hlt">images</span> to the character of actual video <span class="hlt">images</span> of the bottom few meters of the plumes (the acoustic data volume is 55 m tall) suggests that average particle size is fairly large ( ˜1000 ? m) in the buoyant plume. This suggests that existing data on particle size distributions underestimates the average particle size; the best explanation is the breakup of aggregates of particles during collection and filtering of water samples (no in situ measurements exist). We also investigate the effects of particle color on plume color by using models based on data collected by Feely et al (1987), Walker and Baker (1988), and Mottl and McConachy (1990). Highly reflective particles result in result in sharper-edged plumes suggesting that pyrite (albedo ˜0.6) and chalcopyrite (albedo ˜0.3) are the dominant particle <span class="hlt">compositions</span>. This study shows that plume particles in the buoyant plume are probably larger than previously suspected and a predominance of pyrite and chalcopyrite is necessary to explain the high reflectance of black smoker plumes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bemis, K. G.; Rona, P. A.; Santilli, K.; Dastur, J.; Silver, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997MeScT...8..917H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation of ? in a flame by two-<span class="hlt">colour</span> laser-induced-grating spectroscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">By using two-<span class="hlt">colour</span> laser-induced-grating spectroscopy (TC-LIGS), we observed the third-overtone spectrum of the O - H stretch of water vapour at a point in a stoichiometric 0957-0233/8/8/013/img2 - air flame. We also demonstrated the extension of these point measurements to a line <span class="hlt">image</span> in a flame. Only thermal gratings could be observed. The reasons for this and the difficulties in making a practical combustion diagnostic are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hart, Roger C.; Balla, R. Jeffrey; Herring, G. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35887282"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Image</span>-spectroscopy – I. The advantages of increased spectral information for <span class="hlt">compositional</span> EFTEM analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The acquisition of a series of energy-filtered TEM <span class="hlt">images</span> over the energy-loss range of interest creates a three-dimensional data set comprising both spatial and spectral information. Such an <span class="hlt">image</span>-series contains energy-loss information not available with conventional two- or three-window methods, allowing standard techniques for quantitative EELS analysis to be applied to extracted ‘<span class="hlt">image</span>-spectra’. The increase in spectral information enables improved</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. J Thomas; P. A Midgley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48101878"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inheritance of flower and pod <span class="hlt">colour</span> in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Inheritance of flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> and pod <span class="hlt">colour</span> in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) has followed a qualitative pattern. Purple\\u000a flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> is dominant over white flower <span class="hlt">colour</span>, whereas black pod <span class="hlt">colour</span> is partially dominant over white pod <span class="hlt">colour</span>.\\u000a A segregation ratio of 3 purple:1 white flowers in F2 generations of two crosses indicated that white flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> is controlled by</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. S. Sangwan; G. P. Lodhi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22103723"> <span id="translatedtitle">Familiarity effects in the construction of facial-<span class="hlt">composite</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> using modern software systems.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the effect of target familiarity on the construction of facial <span class="hlt">composites</span>, as used by law enforcement to locate criminal suspects. Two popular software construction methods were investigated. Participants were shown a target face that was either familiar or unfamiliar to them and constructed a <span class="hlt">composite</span> of it from memory using a typical 'feature' system, involving selection of individual facial features, or one of the newer 'holistic' types, involving repeated selection and breeding from arrays of whole faces. This study found that <span class="hlt">composites</span> constructed of a familiar face were named more successfully than <span class="hlt">composites</span> of an unfamiliar face; also, naming of <span class="hlt">composites</span> of internal and external features was equivalent for construction of unfamiliar targets, but internal features were better named than the external features for familiar targets. These findings applied to both systems, although benefit emerged for the holistic type due to more accurate construction of internal features and evidence for a whole-face advantage. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work is of relevance to practitioners who construct facial <span class="hlt">composites</span> with witnesses to and victims of crime, as well as for software designers to help them improve the effectiveness of their <span class="hlt">composite</span> systems. PMID:22103723</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frowd, Charlie D; Skelton, Faye C; Butt, Neelam; Hassan, Amal; Fields, Stephen; Hancock, Peter J B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15032920"> <span id="translatedtitle">The use of four-<span class="hlt">colour</span> immunofluorescence techniques to identify mesenchymal stem cells.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In stem-cell research a major difficulty is caused by the lack of distinctive features that allow the identification of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Until now, there has been no specific marker and the most common way to identify hMSC is by their characteristic stem-cell properties: self-replication and differentiation potential. However, these findings can only be revealed retrospectively, and, once differentiated, hMSC lose their stem-cell character. The aim of this study was to establish four-<span class="hlt">colour</span> immunofluorescence of several markers simultaneously in order to address the problem of how to identify hMSC on the single-cell level. The four markers collagen-I, collagen-IV, fibronectin and CD44 are known to be expressed by hMSC. Antibody binding was detected using secondary antibodies conjugated to FITC, Alexa546, TexasRed and AMCA. Because the distinction between Alexa546 and TexasRed was not possible on conventional digital <span class="hlt">images</span> using standard filter sets, we performed spectral <span class="hlt">image</span> acquisition. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was subsequently decomposed into its pure spectral components, which permitted linear unmixing. Using this procedure we were able to demonstrate four-<span class="hlt">colour</span> immunofluorescence on hMSC. With the possibility of using more sophisticated marker profiles and/or additional markers, four-<span class="hlt">colour</span> immunofluorescence offers the opportunity of identifying hMSC on the single-cell level without performing differentiation assays. PMID:15032920</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schieker, Matthias; Pautke, Christoph; Reitz, Katharina; Hemraj, Indradeo; Neth, Peter; Mutschler, Wolf; Milz, Stefan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22515406"> <span id="translatedtitle">Visible skin <span class="hlt">colouration</span> predicts perception of male facial age, health and attractiveness.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although there is evidence that perception of facial age, health and attractiveness is informed by shape characteristics as well as by visible skin condition, studies on the latter have focused almost exclusively on female skin. Recent research, however, suggests that a decrease in skin <span class="hlt">colour</span> homogeneity leads to older, less healthy and less attractive ratings of facial skin in both women and men. Here, we elaborate on the significance of the homogeneity of visible skin <span class="hlt">colouration</span> in men by testing the hypothesis that perception of age, health and attractiveness of (non-contextual) digitally isolated fields of cheek skin only can predict that of whole facial <span class="hlt">images</span>. Facial digital <span class="hlt">images</span> of 160 British men (all Caucasian) aged between 10 and 70 were blind-rated for age, health and attractiveness by a total of 147 men and 154 women (mean age = 22.95, SD = 4.26), and these ratings were related to those of corresponding <span class="hlt">images</span> of cheek skin reported by Fink et al. (J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. in press). Linear regression analysis showed that age, health and attractiveness perception of men's faces could be predicted by the ratings of cheek skin only, such that older men were viewed as older, less healthy and less attractive. This result underlines once again the potent signalling role of skin in its own right, independent of shape or other factors and suggests strongly that visible skin condition, and skin <span class="hlt">colour</span> homogeneity in particular, plays a significant role in the perception of men's faces. PMID:22515406</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fink, B; Bunse, L; Matts, P J; D'Emiliano, D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51125312"> <span id="translatedtitle">Streak observation of DC pre-breakdown light in silicone oil \\/ low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film <span class="hlt">composites</span> using a long <span class="hlt">image</span> guide scope</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">DC breakdown light of silicone oil and LDPE film <span class="hlt">composites</span> between needle-sphere electrodes with the film placed on sphere electrode was observed using a streak camera. A long <span class="hlt">image</span> guide scope (IGS) was attached to the streak camera as light delay path. This new system enables us to obtain a streak <span class="hlt">image</span> of an initial process of the DC breakdown</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Amir Izzani Mohamed; Yuuji Miyamoto; Masayoshi Mori; Kazunori Kadowaki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21882840"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Composites</span> of aminodextran-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles and graphene oxide for cellular magnetic resonance <span class="hlt">imaging</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Formation of <span class="hlt">composites</span> of dextran-coated Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (NPs) and graphene oxide (Fe(3)O(4)-GO) and their application as T(2)-weighted contrast agent for efficient cellular magnetic resonance <span class="hlt">imaging</span> (MRI) are reported. Aminodextran (AMD) was first synthesized by coupling reaction of carboxymethyldextran with butanediamine, which was then chemically conjugated to meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinnic acid-modified Fe(3)O(4) NPs. Next, the AMD-coated Fe(3)O(4) NPs were anchored onto GO sheets via formation of amide bond in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC). It is found that the Fe(3)O(4)-GO <span class="hlt">composites</span> possess good physiological stability and low cytotoxicity. Prussian Blue staining analysis indicates that the Fe(3)O(4)-GO nanocomposites can be internalized efficiently by HeLa cells, depending on the concentration of the <span class="hlt">composites</span> incubated with the cells. Furthermore, compared with the isolated Fe(3)O(4) NPs, the Fe(3)O(4)-GO <span class="hlt">composites</span> show significantly enhanced cellular MRI, being capable of detecting cells at the iron concentration of 5 ?g mL(-1) with cell density of 2 × 10(5) cells mL(-1), and at the iron concentration of 20 ?g mL(-1) with cell density of 1000 cells mL(-1). PMID:21882840</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Weihong; Yi, Peiwei; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Liming; Deng, Zongwu; Zhang, Zhijun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1430.1129S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlation of scanning microwave interferometry and digital X-ray <span class="hlt">images</span> for damage detection in ceramic <span class="hlt">composite</span> armor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Application of non-contact, scanning, microwave interferometry for inspection of ceramic-based <span class="hlt">composite</span> armor facilitates detection of defects which may occur in manufacturing or in service. Non-contact, one-side access permits inspection of panels while on the vehicle. The method was applied as a base line inspection and post-damage inspection of <span class="hlt">composite</span> ceramic armor containing artificial defects, fiduciaries, and actual damage. Detection, sizing, and depth location capabilities were compared using microwave interferometry system and micro-focus digital x-ray <span class="hlt">imaging</span>. The data demonstrates corroboration of microwave interference scanning detection of cracks and laminar features. The authors present details of the system operation, descriptions of the test samples used, and recent res