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Sample records for colour doppler ultrasonography

  1. Preliminary report of an ultrasonography and colour Doppler uterine score to predict uterine receptivity in an in-vitro fertilization programme.

    PubMed

    Salle, B; Bied-Damon, V; Benchaib, M; Desperes, S; Gaucherand, P; Rudigoz, R C

    1998-06-01

    A total of 96 women undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment were examined by transvaginal ultrasonography with colour and pulsed Doppler ultrasound on the 22nd day of the menstrual cycle preceding IVF. We assessed endometrial thickness, endometrial morphology, myometrial echogenicity, subendometrial vascularization, the uterine artery pulsatility index, protodiastolic notch and end diastolic blood flow in order to define a uterine score which could be correlated with the pregnancy rate. The overall pregnancy rate was 30.2%, and there was no difference between the pregnant and non-pregnant groups with regard to any of the ultrasonographic and Doppler parameters when examined separately. However, the uterine score was significantly higher in the pregnant group (15.9 +/- 2.81 versus 12.7 +/- 5.3, P = 0.002; t-test). No pregnancy occurred if the score was between 0 and 10. With a score of 11-15 there was a 34.7% chance of pregnancy, and scores >16 had a 42% chance of pregnancy. In conclusion, individual ultrasonographic and Doppler parameters are not of sufficient accuracy to predict uterine receptivity. The uterine score calculated prior to IVF cycles appears to be a useful predictor of implantation. PMID:9688410

  2. Color Doppler ultrasonography of the abdominal aorta

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, S.; Danesino, G.M.; Danesino, V.; Castellani, S.

    2010-01-01

    Alterations of the abdominal aorta are relatively common, particularly in older people. Technological advances in the fields of ultrasonography, computed tomography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging have greatly increased the imaging options for the assessment of these lesions. Because it can be done rapidly and is also non-invasive, ultrasonography plays a major role in the exploration of the abdominal aorta, from its emergence from the diaphragm to its bifurcation. It is indicated for the diagnosis and follow-up of various aortic diseases, especially aneurysms. It can be used to define the shape, size, and location of these lesions, the absence or presence of thrombi and their characteristics. It is also useful for monitoring the evolution of the lesion and for postoperative follow-up. However, its value is limited in surgical planning and in emergency situations. PMID:23396814

  3. Evaluation of color Doppler ultrasonography in diagnosing hepatic alveolar echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Tao, Song; Qin, Zhao; Haitao, Li; Lei, Yang; Lanhui, Yao; Qin, Xu; Yongquan, Lu; Hao, Wen

    2012-02-01

    To assess the accuracy of color Doppler ultrasonography in diagnosing hepatic alveolar echinococcosis, 129 patients were examined at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University between July 2004 and June 2010. Those patients suspected of having hepatic alveolar echinococcosis were examined and diagnosed by color Doppler ultrasound. All the cases were compared with the gold standard. The findings of their sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and 95% confidence interval were recorded. Sensitivity: 95% (95% confidence interval: 90.7%-99.3%); specificity: 20.7% (95% confidence interval: 6.0%-35.4%); positive predictive value: 80.5%; negative predictive value: 54.5%; positive likelihood ratio: 1.2: negative likelihood ratio: 0.2. Our study indicates that color Doppler ultrasonography, when used in diagnosing hepatic alveolar echinococcosis, has high sensitivity although specificity is low. Color Doppler ultrasound is, thus, considered to be an efficient means for diagnosing hepatic alveolar echinococcosis. PMID:22230130

  4. Persistent postmolar gestational trophoblastic disease: use of transvaginal sonography and colour flow Doppler.

    PubMed

    Carter, J; Carlson, J; Hartenbach, E; Saltzman, A; Fowler, J; Carson, L; Twiggs, L B

    1993-11-01

    Invasive moles have been difficult to diagnose except at hysterectomy. Many patients with persistent gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) have been treated without ever demonstrating the site of the persistent trophoblastic focus. High resolution transvaginal sonography (TVS) has provided a technique of demonstrating very small uterine lesions, previously unsuspected by transabdominal sonography. The addition of colour flow Doppler further increased diagnostic sensitivity and provides another means of monitoring response to therapy. Three patients with persistent GTD, scanned by TVS and CFD (colour flow Doppler) performed as part of their metastatic work-up are presented. The only abnormalities detected were foci demonstrated within the myometrium that demonstrated increased flow on CFD. Single agent chemotherapy was commenced and the patients were monitored periodically through their course with repeat ultrasonography. After an initial lag period, the lesions decreased in size as the beta-HCG titres fell. An unsuspected adnexal mass was diagnosed on 1 patient, later proving to be a mature ovarian teratoma. PMID:8179558

  5. Review of ultrasonography of malignant neck nodes: greyscale, Doppler, contrast enhancement and elastography.

    PubMed

    Ying, M; Bhatia, K S S; Lee, Y P; Yuen, H Y; Ahuja, A T

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of neck lymph nodes is essential in patients with head and neck cancers for predicting the patient's prognosis and selecting the appropriate treatment. Ultrasonography is a useful imaging tool in the assessment of neck lymph nodes. Greyscale ultrasonography assesses the size, distribution, and internal architecture of lymph nodes. Doppler ultrasonography evaluates the intranodal vascular pattern and resistance of lymph nodes. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography provides information on lymph node parenchymal perfusion. Elastography allows qualitative and quantitative assessment of lymph node stiffness. This article reviews the value of greyscale, Doppler and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography as well as elastography in the assessment of malignant nodes in the neck. PMID:24434158

  6. Conventional ultrasonography and color Doppler velocimetry of uterine leiomyomas.

    PubMed

    Caruso, A; Caforio, L; Testa, A C; Pomini, F; Ciampelli, M; Mancuso, S

    1998-01-01

    The role of uterine leiomyomas as causative factor of sterility is controversial. Submucosal myomas, in particular, can interfere with fertility and be associated to obstetric complications as abruption of placenta, post-partum metrorrhagia and puerperal sepsis. With ultrasonography, immediate and long-term information can be drawn on changes in the features of myomas. However, to-date, there are no reliable noninvasive exams to assess the nature and growth pattern of myomas. With Doppler velocimetry in ovarian malignancies a vascularization significantly different from that observed in benign tumors, is detected. It has been hypothesized that within benign tumors, as myomatous masses, tissues with different cell proliferation rates could be characterized by different vascular patterns. In a group of myomas shown to have central arterial vessels at Doppler examination, significant correlations were assessed between resistance indices of analyzed vessels and percentage of cell in the proliferative phase evaluated with cytofluorimetry. The myomatous tissue with high cell proliferation rate seems to have higher vascular resistances. PMID:10191660

  7. Color Doppler-ultrasonography in oral squamous cell carcinoma: Making ultrasonography more meaningful

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Rahul; Bhowate, Rahul; Nayyar, Abhishek Singh; Gandhi, Sweta; Dongarwar, Girish

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although color Doppler ultrasonography (CD-USG) is useful in the diagnosis of various diseases of the head and neck, flow signals in the malignant oral tumors are less studied. This study aimed to study the usefulness of CD-USG in mapping OSCC of buccal mucosa, tongue, and lip. Materials and Methods: This was a case–control study, conducted among 60 subjects aged 20–70 years. Group A consisted of 30 cases of OSCC of buccal mucosa, tongue, and lip, whereas Group B consisted of 30 controls. CD-USG investigation of each mass was carried out. The spectral waveform (time velocity Doppler spectrum) of flow signal was analyzed for the pulsatility index (PI), resistivity index (RI), peak systolic velocity (PSV) (m/s), and end diastolic velocity (EDV) (m/s). All patients had real-time, gray-scale sonography and CD-USG with spectral wave analysis. Results: In this study, the mean value for RI in patients with malignancy was 0.40 + 0.14, whereas for healthy subjects, it was 0.83 + 0.07. The mean value for PI in patients with malignancy was 0.86 + 0.20, whereas for healthy subjects, it was 2.61 + 0.77. In the present study, the mean PSV in malignant masses was 31.72 + 13.48, whereas for healthy subjects, it was 43.87 + 20.95, and the EDV in malignant masses was 10.33 + 5.21, whereas for healthy subjects, it was 7.07 + 3.44. Conclusions: The said Doppler indices were shown to be sensitive as well as specific for the diagnosis of malignant oral tumors. Although CD-USG cannot replace histopathological procedures, it plays a definite role as an adjunct to the clinical evaluation of OSCC cases. PMID:27069897

  8. Colour Doppler sonography of cystic ovarian follicles in cows.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Alexandra; Krüger, Lars; Miyamoto, Akio; Bollwein, Heinrich

    2008-12-01

    The goals of the present study were to investigate whether colour Doppler sonography can be used to differentiate temporary from persistent ovarian follicles and follicles with luteal tissue from follicles without luteal tissue and to assess the response of follicular cysts to administration of a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. Fifty-four cows having ovarian follicular structures with a diameter of >15 mm but no corpus luteum were included. These cows were examined via B-mode and colour Doppler sonography. The same examinations were repeated 10 to 12 days later, and the cows with follicular cysts (n=17) received a GnRH analogue. Blood flow was measured before and 30 min after treatment. Ten to 12 days later, the response to treatment was assessed using B-mode sonography. While 31 of 54 follicles disappeared spontaneously (temporary follicles), 23 follicles persisted and were diagnosed as cystic ovarian follicles (COFs). There was no difference between temporary follicles and COFs in regard to total area, wall thickness or the perfused area. In the luteinized follicles (n=13), based on the plasma progesterone concentration, total area was twice as large, wall thickness was three times greater and the perfused area was 4.5 times larger than those of the non-luteinized follicles (n=41). The sensitivity of diagnosing luteinized follicles was 61.5% using B-mode sonography and 92.3% using colour Doppler sonography. Twelve cows responded to GnRH, and five cows did not. There was a trend (P=0.07) toward higher (59.3%) blood flow in the cyst wall 30 min after treatment in the responding cows compared with the non-responding cows. Our results showed that the perfused area more accurately reflects active luteal tissue than wall thickness. Thus, colour Doppler sonography is superior to B-mode sonography for differentiating follicular and luteal cysts and aids in the selection of treatment. However, exact prediction of COFs destined to regress or persist and the

  9. Efficiency of three-dimensional Doppler ultrasonography in assessing nodal metastasis of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Hong, San-Fu; Lai, Yu-Shih; Lee, Kwo-Whei; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) color Doppler ultrasonography with a novel predictive model in the detection of cervical metastasis of untreated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. We assessed cervical lymph node metastasis in 52 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients by 3D color Doppler ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography. Pathologic analysis was used as the gold standard for evaluation of these imaging modalities. The rate of correct N staging was 84.6% on ultrasonography, 55.8% on magnetic resonance imaging, and 71.2% on positron emission tomography/computed tomography. On a level-by-level basis, the ultrasonography had 78.9% sensitivity, 99.0% specificity, 93.8% positive predictive value, 96.0% negative predictive value, and 95.7% accuracy. It also showed the highest agreement to histology results as compared with magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (kappa value = 0.832, 0.506, and 0.537, respectively). 3D Doppler ultrasonography with our prediction model provides a rapid, low-cost, noninvasive, and reliable method with low inter-observation variations for detecting neck metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. PMID:25209433

  10. Temperature influences upon vascular dynamics in cattle measured by doppler ultrasonography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two preliminary studies were performed to determine if Doppler-image ultrasonography can be used to document vascular changes of cattle under hot and cold conditions. Three calves per study (320 ± 38 kg) were acclimated to thermoneutrality (17.5oC). Ultrasound measurements were taken of the median...

  11. Assessment of hemodynamic disturbances in aphasic patients by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Pendefunda, L

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a study of Doppler cerebrovascular ultrasonography carried out in 38 aphasie patients (forms ranging from transient speech disturbances to severe, persistent disturbances of motor, sensory or mixed aphasia) after ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. In these cases, the clinical symptoms were dominated by speech impairment and neurological deficits (mainly pyramidal), of low intensity or transient. The angiographic study revealed stenotic or occlusive disturbances at various levels of the cerebral arterial trunks. The prevalence of some clinical aspects of aphasia correlated with Doppler velocimetric images is discussed and the use of transcranial Doppler method in idiopathic aphasia, possible consequence of a transient ischemic attack, is suggested. PMID:2479971

  12. Comparison between ultrasonographic findings of benign and malignant canine mammary gland tumours using B-mode, colour Doppler, power Doppler and spectral Doppler.

    PubMed

    Soler, Marta; Dominguez, Elisabet; Lucas, Xiomara; Novellas, Rosa; Gomes-Coelho, Kassia Valeria; Espada, Yvonne; Agut, Amalia

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the comparison between the ultrasonographic features of canine mammary tumours, assessed by B-Mode, colour Doppler, power Doppler, spectral Doppler, and histopathologic features, would help to differentiate if a tumour is benign or malignant. Ultrasonographic examinations of 104 tumours were performed. Volume, margins, presence of a capsule, echotexture and presence and distribution of the vascular flow of the tumours were evaluated. All the tumours were surgically removed, submitted for histopathologic examination and classified in two groups: Group I (benign tumours) and Group II (malignant tumours). Echotexture was the only parameter evaluated by B-Mode ultrasonography where significant differences were found (p<0.01), with tumours in Group I being homogeneous and tumours in Group II presenting greater heterogeneity. Presence of vascular flow was observed in most of the tumours from both groups and no differences between them were found. Regarding flow distribution, significant differences were observed between groups (p<0.05). In benign tumours, the most common vascular pattern was the peripheral, showing significant differences (p<0.05) compared to mixed and central patterns. In malignant tumours the mixed pattern was the most frequent. Also significant differences among other patterns (peripheral and central) were found. Concerning vascular resistivity and pulsatility indexes, there were no significant differences between the two groups. The echotexture and type of vascular flow pattern of canine mammary gland tumours may help, in a first examination of the tumour, to differentiate between benign and malignant tumours; however to reach a definitive diagnosis histological study is required. PMID:27473987

  13. TEMPERATURE INFLUENCES UPON VASCULAR DYNAMICS AS MEASURED BY DOPPLER ULTRASONOGRAPHY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two preliminary studies were performed using doppler-image ultrasound to document the vascular changes of cattle under hot and cold conditions. Three calves per study (320 ± 38 kg) were acclimated to thermoneutrality in the Brody Environmental Center at the University of Missouri. A minimum of thr...

  14. Efficacy of Doppler Ultrasonography for Assessment of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Patency

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Masashi; Sato, Morio; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Kayo; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Shioyama, Kazushi; Kishi, Yasukazu; Terada, Masaki; Yamada, Ryusaku

    1996-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of Doppler ultrasonography (US) as a noninvasive method for monitoring patency of the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Methods: Twenty-nine patients who had received TIPS for bleeding esophagogastric varices and/or refractory ascites with portal hypertension underwent Doppler US studies within 2 weeks after TIPS. Further studies were performed in 15 of them at 6 months, in 9 at 1 year, and in 4 at 2 years for a total of 57 US studies. The US findings were compared with the angiographic findings obtained at the same time. Results: In 45 of the 57 studies, shunt patency was found by Doppler US, correlating to 44 patencies and one occlusion on angiography. Doppler signal in the shunt could not be detected in 12 studies resulting in the diagnosis of shunt occlusion. This correlated with angiographic occlusion in 8 studies and patency in the remaining 4. All angiographically patent shunts that were occluded by Doppler US had various degrees of stenosis. A number of technical factors were found to be responsible for Doppler US false-positive or false-negative diagnoses, some related to the type of stent used. The Doppler US sensitivity was therefore 92%, the specificity 89%. Conclusion: Doppler US is a reliable noninvasive method to evaluate patency of TIPS.

  15. [Usefulness of power Doppler ultrasonography for the diagnosis of autoinfarction of parathyroid gland in secondary hyperparathyroidism].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Motoko; Ito, Kazuko; Matsushita, Kazunori; Matsushita, Kazutaka; Tominaga, Yoshihiro; Matsuoka, Susumu; Ueki, Tsuneo; Goto, Norihiko; Sato, Tetsuhiko; Katayama, Akio; Haba, Toshihito; Uchida, Kazuharu

    2005-09-01

    Spontaneous remission due to parathyroid infarction of secondary hyperparathyroidism is rare compared with that of primary hyperparathyroidism, probably because several glands are enlarged in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Lately, neck ultrasound examination has become a more beneficial and specific method for the diagnosis of enlarged parathyroid glands in contrast to classic diagnostic techniques such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and scintigraphy. However, the diagnosis of parathyroid infarction reported in previous studies was often based on CT, MRI and scintigraphy findings and there are few studies that reported such diagnosis by urgent power Doppler ultrasonography of the neck. Here we present a hemodialysis patient with autoinfarction of the left parathyroid gland diagnosed by urgent power Doppler ultrasonography of the neck. PMID:16272629

  16. Practical application of color Doppler ultrasonography in patients with ejaculatory dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hara, Ryoei; Nagai, Atsushi; Fujii, Tomohiro; Fukumoto, Kazuhiko; Ohira, Shin; Jo, Yoshimasa; Yokoyama, Teruhiko; Miyaji, Yoshiyuki

    2015-06-01

    We describe two cases in which dynamic analysis of ejaculation using color Doppler ultrasonography was useful in diagnosis of ejaculatory dysfunction and planning of therapy. The first patient was a 32-year-old man with a diagnosis of retrograde ejaculation. A bladder neck collagen injection was carried out, as the main cause was thought to be the bladder neck remaining open during ejaculation. The patient had antegrade ejaculation 1 week later. The second patient was a 48-year-old man with a diagnosis of anorgasmia accompanied by decreased seminal emission and insufficient function of the rhythmic pelvic striated muscles. The patient was prescribed etilefrine hydrochloride 15 mg/day. The symptom improved 2 weeks after starting this drug. These cases suggest that the use of color Doppler ultrasonography during ejaculation can improve the understanding of ejaculatory dysfunction and therapy for this condition. PMID:25808696

  17. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography: From methodology to major clinical applications.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Antonello; Conte, Marianna; Cavallaro, Massimo; Scarafile, Raffaella; Riegler, Lucia; Cocchia, Rosangela; Pezzullo, Enrica; Carbone, Andreina; Natale, Francesco; Santoro, Giuseppe; Caso, Pio; Russo, Maria Giovanna; Bossone, Eduardo; Calabrò, Raffaele

    2016-07-26

    Non-invasive Doppler ultrasonographic study of cerebral arteries [transcranial Doppler (TCD)] has been extensively applied on both outpatient and inpatient settings. It is performed placing a low-frequency (≤ 2 MHz) transducer on the scalp of the patient over specific acoustic windows, in order to visualize the intracranial arterial vessels and to evaluate the cerebral blood flow velocity and its alteration in many different conditions. Nowadays the most widespread indication for TCD in outpatient setting is the research of right to left shunting, responsable of so called "paradoxical embolism", most often due to patency of foramen ovale which is responsable of the majority of cryptogenic strokes occuring in patients younger than 55 years old. TCD also allows to classify the grade of severity of such shunts using the so called "microembolic signal grading score". In addition TCD has found many useful applications in neurocritical care practice. It is useful on both adults and children for day-to-day bedside assessment of critical conditions including vasospasm in subarachnoidal haemorrhage (caused by aneurysm rupture or traumatic injury), traumatic brain injury, brain stem death. It is used also to evaluate cerebral hemodynamic changes after stroke. It also allows to investigate cerebral pressure autoregulation and for the clinical evaluation of cerebral autoregulatory reserve. PMID:27468332

  18. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography: From methodology to major clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    D’Andrea, Antonello; Conte, Marianna; Cavallaro, Massimo; Scarafile, Raffaella; Riegler, Lucia; Cocchia, Rosangela; Pezzullo, Enrica; Carbone, Andreina; Natale, Francesco; Santoro, Giuseppe; Caso, Pio; Russo, Maria Giovanna; Bossone, Eduardo; Calabrò, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive Doppler ultrasonographic study of cerebral arteries [transcranial Doppler (TCD)] has been extensively applied on both outpatient and inpatient settings. It is performed placing a low-frequency (≤ 2 MHz) transducer on the scalp of the patient over specific acoustic windows, in order to visualize the intracranial arterial vessels and to evaluate the cerebral blood flow velocity and its alteration in many different conditions. Nowadays the most widespread indication for TCD in outpatient setting is the research of right to left shunting, responsable of so called “paradoxical embolism”, most often due to patency of foramen ovale which is responsable of the majority of cryptogenic strokes occuring in patients younger than 55 years old. TCD also allows to classify the grade of severity of such shunts using the so called “microembolic signal grading score”. In addition TCD has found many useful applications in neurocritical care practice. It is useful on both adults and children for day-to-day bedside assessment of critical conditions including vasospasm in subarachnoidal haemorrhage (caused by aneurysm rupture or traumatic injury), traumatic brain injury, brain stem death. It is used also to evaluate cerebral hemodynamic changes after stroke. It also allows to investigate cerebral pressure autoregulation and for the clinical evaluation of cerebral autoregulatory reserve. PMID:27468332

  19. Doppler ultrasonography in living donor liver transplantation recipients: Intra- and post-operative vascular complications

    PubMed Central

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Attia, Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Living-donor liver transplantation has provided a solution to the severe lack of cadaver grafts for the replacement of liver afflicted with end-stage cirrhosis, fulminant disease, or inborn errors of metabolism. Vascular complications remain the most serious complications and a common cause for graft failure after hepatic transplantation. Doppler ultrasound remains the primary radiological imaging modality for the diagnosis of such complications. This article presents a brief review of intra- and post-operative living donor liver transplantation anatomy and a synopsis of the role of ultrasonography and color Doppler in evaluating the graft vascular haemodynamics both during surgery and post-operatively in accurately defining the early vascular complications. Intra-operative ultrasonography of the liver graft provides the surgeon with useful real-time diagnostic and staging information that may result in an alteration in the planned surgical approach and corrections of surgical complications during the procedure of vascular anastomoses. The relevant intra-operative anatomy and the spectrum of normal and abnormal findings are described. Ultrasonography and color Doppler also provides the clinicians and surgeons early post-operative potential developmental complications that may occur during hospital stay. Early detection and thus early problem solving can make the difference between graft survival and failure. PMID:27468207

  20. Doppler ultrasonography in living donor liver transplantation recipients: Intra- and post-operative vascular complications.

    PubMed

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Attia, Hussein

    2016-07-21

    Living-donor liver transplantation has provided a solution to the severe lack of cadaver grafts for the replacement of liver afflicted with end-stage cirrhosis, fulminant disease, or inborn errors of metabolism. Vascular complications remain the most serious complications and a common cause for graft failure after hepatic transplantation. Doppler ultrasound remains the primary radiological imaging modality for the diagnosis of such complications. This article presents a brief review of intra- and post-operative living donor liver transplantation anatomy and a synopsis of the role of ultrasonography and color Doppler in evaluating the graft vascular haemodynamics both during surgery and post-operatively in accurately defining the early vascular complications. Intra-operative ultrasonography of the liver graft provides the surgeon with useful real-time diagnostic and staging information that may result in an alteration in the planned surgical approach and corrections of surgical complications during the procedure of vascular anastomoses. The relevant intra-operative anatomy and the spectrum of normal and abnormal findings are described. Ultrasonography and color Doppler also provides the clinicians and surgeons early post-operative potential developmental complications that may occur during hospital stay. Early detection and thus early problem solving can make the difference between graft survival and failure. PMID:27468207

  1. Assessment of endometrial receptivity by transvaginal color Doppler and three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization procedures.

    PubMed

    Kupesic, S; Bekavac, I; Bjelos, D; Kurjak, A

    2001-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the usefulness of transvaginal color Doppler and three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography for the assessment of endometrial receptivity. A total of 89 patients undergoing in vitro fertilization procedures were evaluated for endometrial thickness and volume, endometrial morphology, and subendometrial perfusion on the day of embryo transfer. Neither the volume nor the thickness of the endometrium on the day of embryo transfer had a predictive value for conception during in vitro fertilization cycles (P > .05). Patients who became pregnant were characterized by a significantly lower resistance index, obtained from subendometrial vessels by transvaginal color Doppler ultrasonography (resistance index = 0.53 +/- 0.04 versus 0.64 +/- 0.04, pregnant versus not pregnant, respectively; P < .05), and a significantly higher flow index (13.2 +/- 2.2 versus 11.9 +/- 2.4; P < .05), as measured by a three-dimensional power Doppler histogram. No difference was found in the predictive value of scoring systems analyzing endometrial thickness and volume, endometrial morphology, and subendometrial perfusion by color Doppler and three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography. The high degree of endometrial perfusion shown by color Doppler ultrasonography and on three-dimensional power Doppler histograms on the day of embryo transfer can indicate a more favorable endometrial milieu for successful in vitro fertilization. PMID:11211132

  2. Internal Jugular Phlebectasia: Diagnosis by Ultrasonography, Doppler and Contrast CT

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Manash Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Jugular phlebectasia is an isolated saccular or fusiform dilation of a vein without tortuosity. Its aetiology remains controversial. It is infradiagnosed, as it is generally asymptomatic. However, it has been increasingly recognized in recent years due to the better imaging techniques which are available. Phlebectasia of the Internal Jugular Vein (IJV) is a rare disease. It is mostly unilateral and it involves only the right side. It is usually a childhood disease which is diagnosed during the study of an intermittent neck mass. Its treatment is controversial. Presently, a conservative approach to unilateral or bilateral asymptomatic phlebectasia is recommended. Symptomatic phlebectasia requires surgery. The diagnosis is suggested by clinical features which can be confirmed by noninvasive radiology. This paper is reporting a case of unilateral right internal jugular phlebectasia in a 12 year old female patient who complained of an intermittent, right sided neck swelling, where we used UltraSonoGraphy(USG) with Doppler and Contrast enhanced CT(CECT) to evaluate the lesion. PMID:23905140

  3. Vascular mapping of the face: B-mode and doppler ultrasonography study

    PubMed Central

    Tucunduva-Neto, Raul; Saieg, Mauro; Costa, Andre-Luiz; de Freitas, Cláudio

    2016-01-01

    Background To analyze the face vascularization pattern using B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography, and also propose an arterial vessel mapping. Material and Methods The investigation was performed on 20 ultrasonography exams of facial vessels through linear and endocavitary transducers. We analyzed and determined the average values for diameters, peak systolic velocity and resistive index of the following arteries: external carotid, lingual, deep lingual, sublingual, facial, submental, inferior labial, superior labial, angular, maxillary inferior alveolar, mental, buccal, greater palatine, infraorbital, superficial temporal, transverse facial and frontal. Results Data was obtained allowing the analysis of the tissue hemodynamics. We were able to map the vascularization of the face and it was possible to access three arteries of small diameter (0,60mm angular artery; 0,55mm greater palatine artery; 0,45mm infraorbital artery). Conclusions The results presented in this article are valid tool supporting the non-invasive mapping of facial vascularization. Key words:Anatomy, vascularization, ultrasonography, doppler. PMID:26827055

  4. Basket pattern blood flow signals discovered in a case of splenic hamartoma by power Doppler ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Shigeo; Shiraki, Katsuya; Yamamoto, Kouji; Nakano, Takeshi; Koyama, Mutsumi; Yano, Takatsugu; Sanda, Takayuki; Tamaki, Hisao; Hirano, Tadanori; Fukudome, Kazuo; Ishihara, Akinori

    2005-01-01

    We present the gray-scale ultrasonography (GSUS), power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS), abdominal computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings for a case of splenic hamartoma in a 27-year-old man, showing a φ 50 mm homogeneous, iso- and hypo-echoic splenic mass with evidence of a small plural cystic lesion. This splenic hamartoma showed increased vascularity on power Doppler sonograms. PDUS showed multiple circular blood flow signals inside the mass (i.e. a basket pattern), which was consistent with the small plural cystic lesion shown by GSUS. Spectral analysis also confirmed arterial and venous flow. CT scans showed that the mass had low-density relative to the normal spleen and MRI showed that the mass was isodense, relative to the normal spleen. Therefore, CT and MRI are not useful for the diagnosis of splenic hamartoma. Ultrasonography can be used to diagnose splenic hamartoma without administration of a contrast material and therefore is an indispensable method for the diagnosis of splenic hamartoma. PMID:16127761

  5. Evaluation of ovarian blood flow by colour Doppler ultrasound: practical use for reproductive management in the cow.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Motozumi; Miyamoto, Akio

    2009-09-01

    Transrectal real-time ultrasonography (US) has been developed as a research and practical tool in bovine reproduction. Non-invasive US observations have made it possible to provide real-time and serial analyses of ovarian morphological changes and fetal development and have generated new information on reproductive physiology during the bovine oestrous cycle and pregnancy. This has greatly contributed to an understanding of the real-time dynamics of follicular development. US has also allowed for more accurate diagnosis compared with rectal palpation in reproductive management in cattle. Practical applications of US include early diagnosis of pregnancy, identification of twin fetuses, detection of ovarian and uterine pathologies and determination of fetal sex. In recent years, local blood flow has been analysed in individual ovarian follicles and the corpus luteum (CL) in the cow using colour Doppler US. From these observations, it has been found that (1) the blood supply to follicles is closely related to follicular growth, atresia and ovulation, (2) the blood supply to the CL increases in parallel with its growth, and (3) there is an acute increase in blood flow in the mature CL prior to luteal regression. Colour Doppler US may provide an estimate of the physiological status of follicles and corpora lutea. For example, images of blood flow can be used to assess the thickness of the follicular wall and provide a differential diagnosis of follicular and luteal cysts. Assessment of the area of blood flow in the CL using colour Doppler imaging may offer a useful adjunct in estimating CL function, which could be applied to the diagnosis of non-pregnancy and fetal loss. The number of small follicles which have blood flow at the start of gonadotrophin treatment may be a useful index to predict the superovulatory response. With improvements in portability and cost-effectiveness, the evaluation of ovarian blood flow by colour Doppler US is likely to become widely used as

  6. Doppler ultrasonography and exercise testing in diagnosing a popliteal artery adventitial cyst.

    PubMed

    Taurino, Maurizio; Rizzo, Luigi; Stella, Nazzareno; Mastroddi, Massimo; Conteduca, Fabio; Maggiore, Claudia; Faraglia, Vittorio

    2009-01-01

    We describe popliteal arterial adventitial cystic disease which causes intermittent claudication in a young athletic man, with atypical manifestation, without loss of foot pulses on knee flexion nor murmur in the popliteal fossa. The findings obtained from Magnetic Resonance Imaging were non-diagnostic. The diagnosis resulted from Echo-Doppler ultrasonography along with peak exercise testing. Ultrasonography also provided useful physiopathological informations suggesting that a popliteal artery adventitial cyst can become symptomatic if muscle exertion increases fluid pressure within the cyst, enough to cause hemodynamically significant endoluminal stenosis. Rapid diagnosis is essential to prevent progressive claudication threatening limb viability. To guarantee this professional sportsman a reliable and durable outcome, instead of less aggressive management, we resected the involved arterial segment and interposed an autologous saphenous-vein graft. PMID:19473494

  7. Blood flow in intracranial aneurysms treated with Pipeline embolization devices: computational simulation and verification with Doppler ultrasonography on phantom models

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to validate a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of flow-diverter treatment through Doppler ultrasonography measurements in patient-specific models of intracranial bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. Methods: Computational and physical models of patient-specific bifurcation and sidewall aneurysms were constructed from computed tomography angiography with use of stereolithography, a three-dimensional printing technology. Flow dynamics parameters before and after flow-diverter treatment were measured with pulse-wave and color Doppler ultrasonography, and then compared with CFD simulations. Results: CFD simulations showed drastic flow reduction after flow-diverter treatment in both aneurysms. The mean volume flow rate decreased by 90% and 85% for the bifurcation aneurysm and the side-wall aneurysm, respectively. Velocity contour plots from computer simulations before and after flow diversion closely resembled the patterns obtained by color Doppler ultrasonography. Conclusion: The CFD estimation of flow reduction in aneurysms treated with a flow-diverting stent was verified by Doppler ultrasonography in patient-specific phantom models of bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. The combination of CFD and ultrasonography may constitute a feasible and reliable technique in studying the treatment of intracranial aneurysms with flow-diverting stents. PMID:25754367

  8. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Chemoembolization: Assessment with Contrast-Enhanced Doppler Ultrasonography

    SciTech Connect

    Catalano, Orlando; Esposito, Maria; Lobianco, Roberto; Cusati, Bianca; Altei, Francesco; Siani, Alfredo

    1999-11-15

    Purpose: To report our preliminary experience concerning the use of Doppler ultrasonography (DUS) techniques after intravenous injection of the galactose-based contrast agent Levovist in the assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). The sonographic findings are correlated with those obtained using iodized oil (Lipiodol) helical computed tomography (CT). Methods: For 7 months we studied 28 patients with cirrhosis and HCC (a total of 43 nodules) who had undergone TACE between 18 and 30 days previously. The lesions were investigated with color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) and power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS), before and after infusion of the echo-contrast agent (300 mg/ml, maximum 1 injection for each nodule, administered at constant velocity within 60-90 sec), and with helical Lipiodol-CT (0-7 days after DUS). In the retrospective analysis, special attention was given to the Doppler signals related to pulsatile intra- and perinodular flow and to the detection of new vessels after contrast agent injection. The signal intensity was graded as 0 (absent), 1 (low), 2 (medium), or 3 (high), while its distribution was classified as peripheral, central, or diffuse. Oily agent retention on CT scans was assessed as 0 (absent), I (<10%), II (<50%), III (>50%), or IV (homogeneous). These scores were awarded separately, without knowledge of the other judgments. Results: An hepatic global echo-enhancing effect was identified in all cases and always lasted long enough to allow an accurate analysis of all parenchymal lesions (at least 8 min). The signal scores could be evaluated in 39 of 43 HCCs, as follows: basal CDUS: grade 0 in 17 lesions, grade 1 in 16, grade 2 in 6; contrast-enhanced CDUS: grade 0 in 12 lesions, grade 1 in 10, grade 2 in 14, grade 3 in 3; basal PDUS: grade 0 in 15 lesions, grade 1 in 13, grade 2 in 9, grade 3 in 2; contrast-enhanced PDUS: grade 0 in 11 lesions, grade 1 in 9, grade 2 in 15

  9. The Role of Power Doppler Ultrasonography as Disease Activity Marker in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bhasin, Shaloo; Cheung, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    Structural damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) occurs early if inflammation is not treated promptly. Treatment targeted to reduce inflammation, in particular, that of synovial inflammation in the joints (synovitis), has been recommended as standard treat-to-target recommendations by rheumatologists. The goal is to achieve disease remission (i.e., no disease activity). Several accepted remission criteria have not always equated to the complete absence of true inflammation. Over the last decade, musculoskeletal ultrasonography has been demonstrated to detect subclinical synovitis not appreciated by routine clinical or laboratory assessments, with the Power Doppler modality allowing clinicians to more readily appreciate true inflammation. Thus, targeting therapy to Power Doppler activity may provide superior outcomes compared with treating to clinical targets alone, making it an attractive marker of disease activity in RA. However, more validation on its true benefits such as its benefits to patients in regard to patient related outcomes and issues with standardized training in acquisition and interpretation of power Doppler findings are required. PMID:26063952

  10. Doppler and Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography of Testicles in Adult Domestic Felines.

    PubMed

    de Brito, Mbs; Feliciano, Mar; Coutinho, L N; Uscategui, R R; Simões, Apr; Maronezi, M C; de Almeida, V T; Crivelaro, R M; Gasser, B; Pavan, L; Russiano, W R

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to characterize the vascular patterns of testicular blood flow of adult cats, measuring the systolic velocity (SV), diastolic velocity (DV), resistance index (RI), gate time (wash-in) peak enhancement and output time (wash-out) of the contrast and addition of tissue fill characteristics. Forty-five adult cats were selected, and the echotexture, echogenicity, size, contours and margins of testicles were assessed via ultrasound. By Doppler were evaluated the blood flow and determined of vascular index in testicular artery (SV, DV and RI) and via contrast-enhanced ultrasonography determine the time for phases: wash-in, wash-out and peak enhancement. Sonographic findings presented normal. Testicular artery was observed in the spermatic cord with tortuous patter and showed monophasic-patterned waves and low vascular resistance and with systolic peak evident. Values of indices vascular were as follows: SV = 6.73 cm/s, DV = 2.8 cm/s and RI = 0.54 for left testicles; and SV = 6.23 cm/s, DV = 2.77 cm/s and RI = 0.53 for right testicles. Contrast filled the subcapsular vascular structures and after a few seconds, a homogeneous moderate enhancement of the parenchyma, with parenchymal vessels still distinguishable and after the peak phase, a rapid homogeneous decrease in echogenicity. Values of time for contrast-enhanced ultrasonography were as follows: wash-in = 8.78 s, peak enhancement = 21.62 s and wash-out = 75.36 for left testicles; and wash-in = 10.76 s, peak enhancement = 21.50 s and wash-out = 81.81 for right testicles. Doppler and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the testicles in healthy adult cats was easily implemented and may provide baseline data for this organ to allow the use of these techniques as a diagnostic tool for evaluating testicular abnormalities in sick cats. PMID:26095687

  11. Neural migration disorders studied by cerebral ultrasound and colour Doppler flow imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Pellicer, A.; Cabañas, F.; Pérez-Higueras, A.; García-Alix, A.; Quero, J.

    1995-01-01

    Cerebral ultrasound and colour Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) were used to diagnose a wide spectrum of anomalies of cell migration (17 patients): presumed lissencephaly (n = 12); schizencephaly of both fused (n = 2) and open lips (n = 2); hemimegalencephaly (n = 1); and subependymal type grey matter heterotopia (n = 12). The patients with grey matter heterotopia had irregular ventricular margins (n = 10), periventricular hyperechogenic bands (n = 12), and/or periventricular hyperechogenic nodules (n = 7). Some patients had more than one type of migration disorder as well as other central nervous system malformations. Cerebral ultrasound diagnoses were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or necropsy. It is concluded that colour Doppler flow imaging is a worthwhile addition to the assessment of brain surface anomalies. Images Figure 7 Figure 1 Figures 5 and 6 Figures 3 and 4 Figure 2 PMID:7583607

  12. Adding Doppler Ultrasonography to the Follow-Up of Patients with Vasospastic Disorder Improves Objectivity

    PubMed Central

    Karabacak, Kubilay; Kadan, Murat; Kaya, Erkan; Erol, Gokhan; Arslan, Gokhan; Celik, Murat; Doğanci, Suat; Demirkilic, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    Background Assessing therapeutic efficacy and patient satisfaction objectively and quantitatively has always been a problem in patients with vasospastic disorders. We aimed to present the additive value of ultrasonographic assessment of peripheral arteries secondary to cold stimulation, as a test for treatment efficacy during follow-up. Material/Methods Arterial blood flow rates were measured from radial artery with Doppler USG in patients who presented to our department with vasospastic disorders. Ultrasonography was performed at the following intervals; before cold stimulation and at 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th minutes of cold stimulation. Patients were controlled by repeat cold stimulation test and Doppler US at the 2nd month of the treatment. Results were analyzed with SPSS for Mac 20.0 package program. Results We enrolled 46 patients in the study. All patients were male and mean age was 22.3±2.17 years. Most common symptoms were cyanosis and coldness. There were statistically significant differences between pre-treatment and post-treatment arterial blood flow rates at each measurement time point (p<0.001) except initial measurement (p>0.05). On post-treatment values, there were 10.04±0.78 cm/s increase in 5th minute, 6.25±1.39 cm/s in 10th minute, 6.43±2.13 cm/s in 15th minute, and 6.38±1.86 cm/s in 20th minute measurements. All increases at the 5 time points were statistically meaningful when compared to their pre-treatment corresponding time points (p<0.001). Conclusions Doppler flowmetry added to standard cold stimulation test for evaluating the patients with vasospastic disorders provides better and more objective results when compared to the patient-oriented subjective scoring systems. PMID:25639947

  13. Planning digital artery perforators using color Doppler ultrasonography: A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Kosuke; Takamatsu, Kiyohito; Uemura, Takuya; Onode, Ema; Okada, Mitsuhiro; Kazuki, Kenichi; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2016-05-01

    Digital artery perforator (DAP) flaps have been applied for the coverage of finger soft tissue defects. Although an advantage of this method is that there is no scarification of the digital arteries, it is difficult to identify the location of the perforators during intraoperative elevation of the DAP flap. In this study, anatomically reliable locations of DAPs were confirmed using color Doppler ultrasonography (US) in healthy volunteers. A successful case using an adiposal-only DAP flap for the coverage of a released digital nerve using preoperative DAP mapping with color Doppler US is also described. A total of 40 digital arteries in 20 fingers of the right hands of five healthy volunteers (mean age: 32.2 years old) were evaluated. The DAPs were identified using color flow imaging based on the beat of the digital artery in the short axial view. In total, 133 perforators were detected, 76 (an average of 3.8 per finger) arising from the radial digital artery and 57 (an average of 2.9 per finger) arising from ulnar digital artery. Sixty-three perforators (an average of 3.2 per finger) in the middle phalanges and 70 (an average of 3.5 per finger) in the proximal phalanges were found. Overall, an average of 1.7 perforators from each digital artery was detected in the proximal or middle phalanges. Moreover, at least one DAP per phalanx was reliably confirmed using color Doppler US. Preoperative knowledge of DAP mapping could make elevating the DAP flap easier and safer. PMID:26947673

  14. Colour Doppler sonography of femoral vein stenosis: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Ingram, S; Baxter, G M

    1994-04-01

    Colour Doppler sonography (CDS) is becoming an increasingly popular method of examining the deep venous system of the lower limb, particularly in the investigation of possible deep venous thrombosis (DVT). We describe a further application of CDS observed in three intravenous (i.v.) drug abusers who presented with symptoms mimicking a DVT. All three cases had femoral vein stenosis occurring at their injection site. This was demonstrated by CDS and at the same time DVT excluded. PMID:8162686

  15. Clinical Presentation, Management, and Outcomes of Deep Vein Thrombosis Based on Doppler Ultrasonography Examination.

    PubMed

    Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Menyar, Ayman; Asim, Mohammad; Kiliyanni, Abdul Salim

    2016-07-01

    We studied the frequency, clinical presentation, and outcomes of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Serial Doppler ultrasonography was performed between 2008 and 2013 for 6420 patients with suspected DVT. Diagnosis was confirmed in 662 (10.3%) participants (mean age: 50 ± 17 years; 51% females). Obesity, diabetes mellitus, and malignancy were reported in 47%, 28%, and 16%, respectively. Abnormal protein C, protein S, factor V Leiden, or antithrombin III were found in 9%, 7%, 3.8%, and 4%, respectively. Left, right, and both legs were involved in 55%, 37%, and 8%, respectively. Common femoral, popliteal, and posterior tibial veins were affected in 48.5%, 72%, and 71%, respectively. Postthrombotic syndrome, pulmonary embolism, and death were reported in 50%, 12.2%, and 15% of cases, respectively. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression analysis showed that gender had no impact on mortality during follow-up; however, age (>50 years) was associated with greater risk of death (hazard ratio: 6.54; 95% confidence interval: 3.2-13.3). These findings will improve our understanding of the various risk factors and help develop institutional guidelines for the management of patients with DVT. PMID:26345414

  16. Role of Doppler Ultrasonography and C-Reactive Protein in Patients with Acute Scrotum.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Abdulwahid G; Elkhader, Bahaaedin A; Saade, Charbel; Fagiri, Maram A; Mahmoud, Mustafa Z

    2016-01-01

    This research was designate with an intention to find the role of Doppler ultrasonography (DUS) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with acute scrotum. A sum of 80 (mean age 23±2.1 years) consequential patients were recruited for a period of six months between July 2015 and January 2016 in this prospective study. Collected data confined age, medical history, and clinical symptoms. DUS was performed with a linear array transducer (10-15 MHz) connected to HI vision Avius ultrasound unit; Hitachi. CRP was measured using turbidimetric analysis through the Cobas Integra analyzer system (Test CRPL2, 0-293); Roche Diagnostics. Statistical analysis was accomplished using the standard Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 for Windows; Microsoft. Fitted achievement values for DUS in the diagnosis of testicular torsion, epididymo-orchitis, and varicocele were respectively 100%, 91% and 88% for sensitivity, 92%, 71%, and 90% for specificity, and 94%, 83%, and 89% for accuracy. An increased in the serum CRP level (63.2±40.2 mg/L) was seen in an inflammatory cause of the acute scrotum. In contrast, there was no increase in CRP level (8±3.1 mg/L) in the non-inflammatory cases (P < 0.0001). Scrotal DUS is a highly precise preoperative diagnostic instrument, thereby confirm its course application in the incipient triage of patients with acute scrotum. Serum level of CRP can afford useful advice for differentiation between inflammatory and other reasons of the acute scrotum. PMID:27530575

  17. Evaluation of calcified carotid atheroma on panoramic radiographs and Doppler ultrasonography in an older population

    PubMed Central

    Atalay, Yusuf; Asutay, Fatih; Agacayak, Kamil Serkan; Koparal, Mahmut; Adali, Fahri; Gulsun, Belgin

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to determine the reliability of panoramic radiograph (PR) as a screening tool for the detection of calcified carotid atheroma (CCA) by comparing it with Doppler ultrasonography (DU) examination. A second aim was to evaluate the relationship among CCA, systemic diseases, smoking, and body mass index in an older population. Materials and methods A total of 1,650 PRs of patients aged over 45 years (736 males and 914 females) were randomly selected. All the patients had been referred to the Faculty of Dentistry, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey, during 2013–2014 for routine PR screening. Medical data were collected from the archival records of the dental school. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A (study group), CCA findings were confirmed by DU (n=59); and Group B (control group), CCA findings were not confirmed by DU (n=34). Results Of the 1,650 individuals, 93 (5.63%) were detected to have CCA on PR. The population consisted of 43 males and 50 females with mean age of 59.84±10.92 years. No difference was determined in respect of CCA between the sexes (P=0.745). There was a significant difference between Group A and Group B in respect of hypertension (P=0.004). But there was no difference between Group A and Group B in respect of age (P=0.495), BMI (P=0.756), diabetes (P=0.168), and smoking (P=0.482) distribution. Conclusion Although PR cannot be used as an initial diagnostic method when searching for CCA, dentists should be aware of CCA on a routine PR, particularly in older patients who may also have the risk factors of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and smoking. Recognizing of CCA especially in hypertensive patients could potentially increase the length and quality of life for individuals. PMID:26185431

  18. Implementation of a Process for Initial Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography in Children With Sickle Cell Anemia.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Lori E; Joffe, Naomi E; Davis, Blair; Quinn, Charles T; Shook, Lisa; Morgan, Darice; Simmons, Kenya; Kalinyak, Karen A

    2016-07-01

    Stroke, a devastating complication of sickle cell anemia (SCA), can cause irreversible brain injury with physical and cognitive deficits. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) is a non-invasive tool for identifying children with SCA at highest risk of stroke. National guidelines recommend that TCD screening begin at age 2 years, yet there is research to suggest less than half of young children undergo screening. The purpose of this project was to use quality improvement methods to improve the proportion of patients aged 24-27 months who successfully completed their initial TCD from 25% to 75% by December 31, 2013. Quality improvement methods (e.g., process mapping, simplified failure mode effect analysis, and plan-do-study-act cycles) were used to develop and test processes for identifying eligible patients, scheduling TCDs, preparing children and families for the first TCD, and monitoring outcomes (i.e., TCD protocol). Progress was tracked using a report of eligible patients and a chart showing the age in months for the first successful TCD (population metric). As of December 2013, 100% of eligible patients successfully completed their initial TCD screen; this improvement was maintained for the next 20 months. In November 2014, a Welch's one-way ANOVA was conducted. Results showed a statistically significant difference between the average age of first TCD for eligible patients born in 2009 and eligible patients born during the intervention period (2010-2013; F[1,11.712]=16.03, p=0.002). Use of quality improvement methods to implement a TCD protocol was associated with improved TCD screening rates in young children with SCA. PMID:27320459

  19. Implementation of a Process for Initial Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography in Children With Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Lori E.; Joffe, Naomi E.; Davis, Blair; Quinn, Charles T.; Shook, Lisa; Morgan, Darice; Simmons, Kenya; Kalinyak, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke, a devastating complication of sickle cell anemia (SCA), can cause irreversible brain injury with physical and cognitive deficits. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) is a non-invasive tool for identifying children with SCA at highest risk of stroke. National guidelines recommend that TCD screening begin at age 2 years, yet there is research to suggest less than half of young children undergo screening. The purpose of this project was to use quality improvement methods to improve the proportion of patients aged 24–27 months who successfully completed their initial TCD from 25% to 75% by December 31, 2013. Quality improvement methods (e.g., process mapping, simplified failure mode effect analysis, and plan–do–study–act cycles) were used to develop and test processes for identifying eligible patients, scheduling TCDs, preparing children and families for the first TCD, and monitoring outcomes (i.e., TCD protocol). Progress was tracked using a report of eligible patients and a chart showing the age in months for the first successful TCD (population metric). As of December 2013, 100% of eligible patients successfully completed their initial TCD screen; this improvement was maintained for the next 20 months. In November 2014, a Welch’s one-way ANOVA was conducted. Results showed a statistically significant difference between the average age of first TCD for eligible patients born in 2009 and eligible patients born during the intervention period (2010–2013; F[1,11.712]=16.03, p=0.002). Use of quality improvement methods to implement a TCD protocol was associated with improved TCD screening rates in young children with SCA. PMID:27320459

  20. Localisation of ventricular septal defects by simultaneous display of superimposed colour Doppler and cross sectional echocardiographic images.

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, E; Robinson, P J; Deanfield, J E; Franklin, R; Macartney, F J; Wyse, R K

    1985-01-01

    Precise non-invasive localisation of the site of a small ventricular septal defect was attempted using a new technique that simultaneously combines conventional cross sectional echocardiography with a Doppler system by superimposing the colour coded direction and velocity of blood flow directly on to real time ultrasound images. Twenty three patients with unoperated ventricular septal defects and a further eight after surgical closure were studied; 12 children with normal hearts served as controls. A colour coded blood flow jet entering the right ventricle during systole was identified in all 23 unoperated patients, in 11 of whom the defect was too small to be visualised by conventional cross sectional echocardiography. The colour Doppler technique precisely located 19 perimembranous and five trabecular defects (one patient had two defects). Five of the postoperative patients were without clinical evidence of a significant shunt but had pansystolic murmurs. In each of these five, trans-septal shunt blood flow as demonstrated by colour Doppler images whereas in only three of these patients was the residual defect large enough to be visualised by conventional cross sectional echocardiography. Three postoperative patients had no murmurs and showed no residual shunt on colour Doppler images. This was confirmed at cardiac catheterisation. There were no false positive results among the controls. This technique is useful for the more accurate diagnosis and location of ventricular septal defects and may help in assessing their natural or surgical closure. Images PMID:4015916

  1. Doppler Ultrasonography in Suspected Subclavian Artery Obstruction and in Patient Monitoring after Subclavian Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Kablak-Ziembicka, Anna Przewlocki, Tadeusz; Pieniazek, Piotr; Musialek, Piotr; Kozanecki, Artur; Stopa, Ireneusz; Zalewski, Jaroslaw; Tracz, Wieslawa

    2007-09-15

    Purpose. Subclavian or innominate artery (SIA) stenosis affects up to 5% of patients referred to coronary bypass grafting; it is symptomatic in less than half of these. This study aimed to assess the Doppler ultrasonography (DU) findings in SIA obstruction and patients' follow-up after percutaneous angioplasty (PTA). Methods. The study enrolled 118 patients (68 men, 50 women), aged 61.3 {+-} 8.7 years, with suspected SIA obstruction, in whom peak systolic velocity (PSV) in the SIA and subclavian steal grade were assessed on DU and verified by quantitative angiography (QA). Serial follow-up DU was performed in patients treated with PTA. Results. Grade I-III of subclavian steal from the vertebral artery (VA) was found in 89.8% of patients. In the remaining 10.2% only a PSV increase in the SIA was observed. QA confirmed the presence of SIA obstruction in all patients (stenosis grade: 80.9 {+-} 17.3%). In patients with one-sided SIA obstruction, the ultrasonographic steal grade correlated with the QA stenosis grade (p < 0.001, r = 0.648). Lack of subclavian steal was noted in the case of distal subclavian stenosis, VA obstruction, VA originating from the aortic arch, and bilateral SIA obstruction. Successful PTA was performed in 77 of 83 patients referred to that procedure. PSV was reduced from 4.4 {+-} 1.2 (2.2-6.5) m/sec to 1.34 {+-} 0.51 (0.5-2.5) m/sec and flow in the VA was normalized. During the mean follow-up time of 24.7 {+-} 15.6 months, there was a gradual increase in the in-stent PSV as well as gradual VA flow alterations, resulting in symptom recurrence. More than a twofold PSV increase, compared with the post-PTA values, was an indicator of restenosis in 11 of 12 patients. Conclusions. Careful DU evaluation enables the recognition of SIA obstruction in all patients. Ninety percent of them have subclavian steal correlating with the stenosis grade. Restenosis can be reliably detected with DU based on in-stent PSV and VA flow alterations.

  2. Doppler ultrasonography measurement of hepatic hemodynamics during Valsalva maneuver: healthy volunteer study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of our study was to assess the hemodynamic change of liver during the Valsalva maneuver using Doppler ultrasonography. Methods: Thirty healthy men volunteers were enrolled (mean age, 25.5±3.64 years). The diameter, minimal and maximal velocities, and volume flow of intrahepatic inferior vena cava (IVC), middle hepatic vein (MHV), and right main portal vein (RMPV) was measured during both rest and Valsalva maneuver. These changes were compared using paired t-test. Results: The mean diameters (cm) of the intrahepatic IVC at rest and Valsalva maneuver were 1.94±0.40 versus 0.56±0.66 (P<0.001). The mean diameter (cm), minimal velocity (cm/sec), maximal velocity (cm/sec), and volume flow (mL/min) of MHV at rest and Valsalva maneuver were 0.60±0.15 versus 0.38±0.20 (P<0.001), -7.98±5.47 versus 25.74±13.13 (P<0.001), 21.34±6.89 versus 35.12±19.95 (P=0.002), and 106.94±97.65 versus 153.90±151.80 (P=0.014), respectively. Those of RMPV at rest and Valsalva maneuver were 0.78±0.21 versus 0.76±0.20 (P=0.485), 20.21±8.22 versus 18.73±7.43 (P=0.351), 26.79±8.85 versus 24.93±9.91 (P=0.275), and 391.52±265.63 versus 378.43±239.36 (P=0.315), respectively. Conclusion: The blood flow velocity and volume flow of MHV increased significantly during Valsalva maneuver. These findings suggest that hepatic vein might play an important role to maintain venous return to the heart during the maneuver. PMID:25327526

  3. Determination of Testicular Blood Flow in Camelids Using Vascular Casting and Color Pulsed-Wave Doppler Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Kutzler, Michelle; Tyson, Reid; Grimes, Monica; Timm, Karen

    2011-01-01

    We describe the vasculature of the camelid testis using plastic casting. We also use color pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography to measure testicular blood flow and compare the differences between testicular blood flow in fertile and infertile camelids. The testicular artery originates from the ventral surface of the aorta, gives rise to an epididymal branch, and becomes very tortuous as it approaches the testis. Within the supratesticular arteries, peak systolic velocity (PSV) was higher in fertile males compared to infertile males (P = 0.0004). In addition, end diastolic velocity (EDV) within the supratesticular arteries was higher for fertile males when compared to infertile males (P = 0.0325). Within the marginal arteries, PSV was also higher in fertile males compared to infertile males (P = 0.0104). However, EDV within the marginal arteries was not significantly different between fertile and infertile males (P = 0.121). In addition, the resistance index was not significantly different between fertile and infertile males within the supratesticular (P = 0.486) and marginal arteries (P = 0.144). The significance of this research is that in addition to information obtained from a complete reproductive evaluation, a male camelid's fertility can be determined using testicular blood flow measured by Doppler ultrasonography. PMID:21941690

  4. [Practical Use of Doppler Ultrasonography of the Cardiovascular System and Clinical Laboratory Tests for the Management of Pulmonary Embolism].

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Naoko

    2015-08-01

    Acute or chronic pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious disease, and the risk of mortality is increased if untreated. In 90% of cases the embolus source is deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower limbs or pelvic cavity. Therefore, it is necessary to recognize these as venous thromboembolism (VTE) which includes both DVT and PE. I suggest that Doppler ultrasonography of cardiovascular and clinical laboratory tests provide very valuable medical support for the management of VTE. Specifically, in the early diagnosis of VTE and the prevention of fatal PE, Doppler ultrasonography (cardiac and vascular) can provide very useful information. On the other hand, blood coagulation and thrombophilia tests are important to determine the risk of VTE and evaluate the effect of anticoagulant therapy on VTE. In this paper, I explain the main points of each examination of VTE by describing representative cases. I also show the results on investigating cases in our hospital involving diseases related to VTE and the onset site of DVT. In addition, I introduce how we convey the results of analysis to the clinical side. PMID:26638433

  5. The relationship between carotid artery colour Doppler finding and cerebral oximetry

    PubMed Central

    Ardakani, Mohammad Sobhan; Heidari, Manouchehr; Moghaddam, Reza Nafisi; Haddadzadeh, Mahdi; Moshtaghion, Hossein; Rahimianfar, Ali Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background: In some cases, permanent reduction in cerebral functioning affects a high percentage of patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery. We studied the relationship between the results of preoperative bilateral carotid artery colour Doppler sonography and regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) during coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional analytical study conducted with 96 candidates for off-pump CABG. This study determined the percentage of the correlation of rSO2 with demographic information, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, myocardial infraction (MI), and smoking, and also provided information on the presence and type of plaque, intima-media thickness (IMT), and percentage of stenosis of carotid artery detected through colour Doppler sonography. Data were analyzed by the t-test, the Chi-square test, and simple linear regression. Results: In this study, the mean value of rSO2 increased after intubation compared to the mean before intubation, the difference being statistically significant (P = 0.005). A comparison of the mean rSO2 of the right side of the brain and the percentage of right carotid obstruction (stenosis of less than 50% vs. stenosis with a range of 50-69%) revealed that the mean rSO2 at the time of the partial-clamp between carotid stenosis less than 50% and carotid stenosis with a range of 50-69% was statistically significant (P = 0.043). Conclusions: There is no statistically significant correlation between rSO2 and percentage of carotid artery stenosis less than 70%. It is advised that rSO2 and carotid stenosis of greater than 70% be studied in future. PMID:26015916

  6. Renal transplant hemodynamics in children: prospective analysis of colour coded versus pulsed Doppler sonography.

    PubMed

    Vergesslich, K A; Barton, P; Hübsch, P; Mostbeck, G; Kainberger, F; Karnel, F; Steger, H; Balzar, E

    1992-01-01

    In 30 children with renal allografts the diagnostic validity of pulsed Doppler (PD) versus colour coded Doppler (CD) sonography was assessed prospectively. 46 PD examinations were performed calculating the resistive index (RI) in the segmental arteries in comparison to 46 CD scans, where renal blood flow throughout the grey-scale image was displayed. In addition, point-spectral analysis with calculation of the RI was also performed on the CD scans. The time for examination ranged from five to ten minutes for the PD and from three to five minutes for the CD study. Concordant findings for the PD and CD technique were generally obtained (normal blood flow pattern on PD-excellent visualization of renal blood flow on CD, reduced or reversed diastolic flow on PD-poor visualization of renal blood flow on CD). There was close correlation of the RI values obtained by the PD and CD scans. CD sonography facilitated point-spectral analysis in shortening the time for examination. The ability to visualize focal hemodynamic alterations provided a higher diagnostic accuracy in comparison to PD sonography. PMID:1508580

  7. Left ventricular radial colour and longitudinal pulsed-wave tissue Doppler echocardiography in 39 healthy domestic pet rabbits.

    PubMed

    Casamian-Sorrosal, Domingo; Saunders, Richard; Browne, William; Elliot, Sarah; Fonfara, Sonja

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports radial colour and longitudinal mitral annulus pulsed-wave tissue Doppler findings in a large cohort of healthy, adult pet rabbits. Thirty-nine rabbits (22 Dwarf Lops, 14 French Lops and three Alaskans) underwent conscious echocardiography. The median age of the rabbits was 22 months and the median weight was 2.8 kg (Dwarf Lop 2.4 kg/French Lop 6.0 kg). Adequate radial colour and longitudinal pulsed-wave tissue Doppler traces were obtained in 100% and 85% of cases, respectively. Most systolic tissue Doppler parameters were significantly higher in French Lops than in Dwarf Lops. Separation of mitral inflow diastolic waves was present in 40% of cases using conventional spectral Doppler and in >60% of cases using pulsed-wave tissue Doppler which could be beneficial when evaluating diastolic function in rabbits. This study can be used as a reference for normal echocardiographic tissue Doppler values for adult rabbits undergoing conscious echocardiography in clinical practice. PMID:25089025

  8. Predicting Factors for Successful Maturation of Autogenous Haemodialysis Fistulas After Salvage Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty in Diabetic Nephropathy: A Study on Follow-Up Doppler Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Eui-Yong; Cho, Young Kwon; Cho, Sung Bum; Yoon, Dae Young; Suh, Seong O

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maturation failure of autogenous arteriovenous fistula (aAVF) has been increasing after surgical procedures and the salvage percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (sPTA) for immature aAVF has been identified as an effective treatment modality. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify factors predicting successful aAVF maturation and to determine positive technical aspects of sPTA. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records and radiological images of 59 patients who had undergone sPTA for non-maturing aAVFs. We analysed images from pre-surgical mapping Doppler ultrasonography, angiography, and angioplasty and follow-up Doppler ultrasonography performed within two weeks after sPTA. We assessed the following factors, for their ability to predict successful aAVF maturation: 1) patient factors (age; sex; co-morbidities; and aAVF age, side and type); 2) vessel factors (cephalic vein diameter and depth, presence of accessory veins, and pre- and postoperative radial artery disease); 3) lesion factors (stenosis number, location and severity); and 4) technical factors (presence of residual stenosis and anatomic success ratio (ASR) on follow-up Doppler ultrasonography). Results: The technical and clinical success rates were both 94.9% (56/59); the mean ASR was 0.84. An ASR of ≥ 0.7 and no significant residual stenosis (< 30%) (both P < 0.001) on two-week follow-up Doppler ultrasonography predicted successful aAVF maturation. Conclusion: For more precise prediction of successful aAVF maturation after sPTA, short-term follow-up Doppler ultrasonography (< 2 weeks) was useful. If the ASR was < 0.7 or if residual stenosis was ≥ 30%, immediate repeat sPTA is recommended. PMID:27127581

  9. Interatrial shunt flow profiles in newborn infants: a colour flow and pulsed Doppler echocardiographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Hiraishi, S; Agata, Y; Saito, K; Oguchi, K; Misawa, H; Fujino, N; Horiguchi, Y; Yashiro, K

    1991-01-01

    Interatrial shunt flow profiles in 36 normal term infants were examined serially by colour flow and pulsed Doppler echocardiographic techniques from within an hour of birth to four or five days after birth. Shunt flow across the foramen ovale was detected in 33 normal infants (92%) within an hour of birth (mean 40 minutes). The occurrence of interatrial shunting decreased with age, but a shunt signal was still detected in 17 infants (47%) on the fourth or fifth day of life, by then the ductus arteriosus had already closed in all the normal infants. The direction of interatrial shunt flow was predominantly left-to-right, but in 64% there was a coexistent small right-to-left shunt in diastole within an hour of birth; by four to five days it was found in 19%. In the six patients with persistent fetal circulation the direction of the interatrial shunt flow was predominantly right-to-left with biphasic peaks in diastole and systole at the early stage of the disease, and the period of right-to-left shunt flow during each cardiac cycle was significantly longer than that in normal infants examined within 1 hour of birth. In all patients the ductus closed before the foramen ovale. At the time of ductal closure in all patients with persistent fetal circulation right-to-left shunt flow was seen during diastole and its period was still prolonged. These findings suggest that interatrial shunting, predominantly left-to-right, is common in normal newborn infants. Evaluation of the characteristics of the interatrial shunt by Doppler echocardiography may be useful for predicting the progress of or improvement in neonates with persistent fetal circulation. Images PMID:1993129

  10. Comparative B-mode and Doppler renal ultrasonography with histopathological findings in dogs positive for canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Baltazar, Pollyana Irene; Da Silva Moura, Laecio; Pessoa, Gerson Tavares; De Sá Rodrigues, Renan Paraguassu; Sanches, Marina Pinto; Das Neves Diniz, Anaemilia; Das Chagas Araújo Sousa, Francisco; Guerra, Porfírio Candanedo; Neves, Willams Costa; Giglio, Robson Fortes; De Jesus Rosa Pereira Alves, Jacyara; De Assis Leite Souza, Francisco; Braga, Juliana Fortes Vilarinho; Alves, Flávio Ribeiro

    2016-07-01

    Morphological parameters and renal flow were assessed and measured in six clinically healthy dogs with negative serological and parasitological examinations for canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) and six dogs with CVL-positive serological and parasitological tests and asymptomatic condition of the disease. Kidney length and diameter were measured and compared with the aorta/kidney ratio. Alterations in flow were measured using the flow velocity (cm/s) and resistance index (RI). Renal function was assessed by serum biochemical examination (urea, creatine, total proteins, albumin, and globulin) and urinalysis. CVL-positive animals presented heterogeneous kidney echotexture, reduced vascular flow, hypoperfusion, lesser visualization of the arcuate arteries, high RI values (1.06 ± 0.28 for the right kidney and 1.10 ± 0.30 for the left kidney), reduced diastolic flow, and high systolic peak. They also presented positive creatine/RI correlation and between the renal artery vascular flow and kidney diameter. Histopathological analysis of CVL-positive animals was compatible and confirmed hemodynamic changes observed by Doppler ultrasound. The findings in the present study showed that Doppler ultrasonography is a valid method to assess and detect alterations in flow in renal pathological processes with kidney vascular damage, as in the case of leishmaniasis, and can help in the diagnosis of animals with this infection. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:637-645, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27194210

  11. Evaluation of portal blood flow using transcutaneous and intraoperative Doppler ultrasonography in dairy cows with fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Starke, A; Schmidt, S; Haudum, A; Scholbach, T; Wohlsein, P; Beyerbach, M; Rehage, J

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate portal blood flow (PBF) in dairy cows with fatty liver by means of Doppler ultrasonography. Eighty lactating German Holstein cows less than 100 d in milk were used (mean ± standard error of the mean; body weight: 583 ± 9 kg, age: 5 ± 0.2 yr, withers height: 145.4 ± 0.5 cm, milk yield: 9 ± 0.6 kg). All cows had left abomasal displacement and underwent omentopexy via right flank laparotomy. The size of the liver and the thickness over the portal vein were determined ultrasonographically. Doppler ultrasonographic examinations of PBF were carried out transcutaneously and intraoperatively directly via liver surface. The PBF velocities [peak maximum (v(max)), peak minimum (v(min)), and mean maximum (v(mean)) velocity] were recorded. Venous pulsatility index (VPI) was calculated. Because transcutaneous Doppler ultrasonography revealed images of very poor quality in 58 of the 80 cows, only data obtained intraoperatively were presented. Liver biopsies were used for hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) determination and histological examination. Based on histopathologic and ultrasonographic examinations, none of the cows suffered from hepatic disorders other than hepatic lipidosis. Hepatic TAG content ranged from 5 to 292 mg/g of liver fresh weight (FW). Cows were allocated to 1 of 4 groups according to their hepatic TAG content (very severe: TAG >150 mg/g of FW, n=27; severe: >100-150 mg/g of FW, n=18; moderate: ≥ 50-100mg/g of FW, n=19; mild: <50mg/g of FW, n=16). The VPI decreased with increasing TAG content (r=-0.55). The VPI did not differ between cows with severe and very severe fatty liver but it differed between cows of these 2 groups and cows with mild and moderate fatty liver. Velocities of PBF (v(mean), v(min), v(max)) correlated negatively with hepatic TAG content (r=-0.26 to -0.37). Mean PBF velocity of the cows with very severe fatty liver differed from cows with severe, moderate, and mild fatty liver. Variables of

  12. TEMPERATURE INFLUENCES ON VASCULAR DYNAMICS IN CATTLE AS MEASURED BY DOPPLER ULTRASONOGRAPHY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two preliminary studies were performed to determine if Doppler-image ultrasound can be used to document the vascular changes of cattle under hot and cold conditions. Three calves per study (320 ± 38 kg) were acclimated to thermoneutrality (17.5oC). Three ultrasound measurements per animal were tak...

  13. Effect of transient carotid artery compression during transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in dogs.

    PubMed

    Duque, F J; Barrera-Chacon, R; Ruiz, P; Casamian-Sorrosal, D; Zaragoza, C; Dominguez-Roldan, J M

    2010-09-25

    Changes in blood flow in the arteries of the canine skull base following compression of the ipsilateral carotid artery were evaluated. Forty healthy conscious dogs were evaluated during examination in lateral recumbency. Using the temporal window, the rostral, middle and caudal cerebral arteries were evaluated. The basilar artery was studied through the suboccipital window. Following compression, the pulse Doppler signal was reduced or inverted when interrogating the rostral or middle cerebral artery, and no change was observed when the caudal cerebral artery or basilar artery was evaluated. PMID:20871081

  14. Preoperative localization of parathyroid lesion: diagnostic usefulness of color doppler ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    mohammadi, Afshin; Moloudi, Farzad; Ghasemi-rad, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Recently, minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) has been developed and is gaining popularity among surgeons. For this reason, preoperative localization is playing an important role to detect the precise location of the affected gland and to increase the success rate. Material and methods From June 2007 to June 2011, 56 consecutive patients (11 men and 45 women) with primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism in our center underwent Gray scale, color Doppler and 99m-Tc MIBI scan prior to operative management of parathyroid lesions. Results The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of US and MIBI scan for pHPT was 88%, 94%, 91% and 70%, 100% and 85% respectively. In patients with sHPT, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of US and MIBI scan was 54%, 93%, 76% and 25%, 100% and 72.9% respectively. The overall sensitivity of combined US and MIBI scan in pHPT and sHPT was 97% and 45% respectively. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of CDUS in diagnosis of parathyroid lesions in pHPT and sHPT is 97%, 100%, 98.6% and 62%, 100% and 83% respectively. Conclusion The overall sensitivity and specificity of US and MIBI in preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma in sHPT is lower than pHPT and performing CDUS can increases the overall sensitivity and specificity of imaging methods in accurate localization of parathyroid lesion. PMID:22328952

  15. Focal bowel wall changes detected with colour Doppler ultrasound: diagnostic value in acute non-diverticular diseases of the colon.

    PubMed

    Danse, E M; Jamart, J; Hoang, P; Laterre, P F; Kartheuser, A; Van Beers, B E

    2004-11-01

    We performed a study to determine if colour Doppler findings may help to identify the cause of wall thickening in acute non-diverticular diseases of the colon. The study group included 66 patients admitted to the emergency department with a final diagnosis of infectious colitis (n=23), inflammatory colitis (n=10), ischaemic colitis (n=23) and malignant tumours (n=10). The following ultrasound features were assessed: maximal wall thickness, wall stratification, arterial flow in the colonic wall and arteriolar resistive index. Higher values of wall thickness were observed in malignant tumour (18.2+/-6.2 mm, p<0.001). Moderately thickened wall (6.6+/-1.3 mm, p< or =0.06), preserved stratification (90% versus 46% in the remainder of the study population) and lower resistive index (0.51+/-0.10, p< or =0.05) were significantly related to inflammatory colitis. Absence of arterial flow was more frequently observed in ischaemia (43% versus 12% in the remainder of the study population). In conclusion, despite some overlap, both ultrasound and colour Doppler features are helpful in the differential diagnosis of colonic thickening related to non-diverticular colonic lesions. PMID:15507414

  16. [Role of Doppler color ultrasonography in the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Summaria, V; Mirk, P; Costantini, A M; Maresca, G; Ardito, G; Bellantone, R; Marano, P

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and accuracy of color flow-Doppler sonography (CFDS) in predicting the malignancy of thyroid nodules. Seventy eight consecutive patients (52 females and 26 males), with 78 thyroid nodules (29 single nodules and 49 in a nodular goiter) have been examined by CFDS, before surgery, evaluating the hypoechogenicity of the nodule, the presence of microcalcifications and the halo sign absent and the vascular pattern, which has been classified as follows: absence of blood flow (type I), perinodular blood flow (type II), intranodular, with or without perinodular blood flow (type III), which is considered the most typical pattern of malignancy. On histology 22 nodules as carcinoma (CA) and 56 as benign nodules (BN) have been diagnosed. The most predictive for malignancy, sonographic pattern, "microcalcifications", has been found in 13/22 CA and in 4/56 BN (P < 0.0001, specificity 93%, sensitivity 59%); "hypoechogenicity" in 16/22 CA and in 8/56 BN (P < 0.0001, specificity 86%, sensitivity 73%), "absent halo sign" in 18/22 CA and in 16/56 BN (P < 0.0001, specificity 71%, sensitivity 82%.) have been found. On CFD type III pattern has been detected in 17/22 CA and in 24/56 BN (P < 0.15, specificity 57%, sensitivity 77%); type IIIa pattern (intranodular without perinodular blood flow) has been the most predictive for malignancy (P < 0.0001, specificity 100%, sensitivity 36%). The combination of type III pattern with "hypoechogenicity" in 13/22 CA and in 2/56 BN (p < 0.0001, specificity 93%, sensitivity 59%) has been found, with "absent halo sign" in 15/22 CA and in 3/56 BN (P < 0.0001, specificity 94.6%, sensitivity 68%), has been found, with "microcalcification" in 10/22 CA and in 0/56 BN (P < 0.0001, specificity 100%, sensitivity 45%) has been found. The combination of "microcalcifications" and absent halo sign" with type III pattern has been the most specific for malignancy, being detected in 11/22 Ca and 2/56 BN (P < 0

  17. Assessment of inflammatory activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a comparative study of clinical evaluation with grey scale and power Doppler ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Naredo, E; Bonilla, G; Gamero, F; Uson, J; Carmona, L; Laffon, A

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the clinical assessment of overall inflammatory activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with grey scale and power Doppler (PD) ultrasonography (US). Methods: Ninety four consecutive patients with RA were included. Demographic and clinical data, C reactive protein (CRP) level, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were recorded for each patient. The presence of tenderness, swelling, and a subjective swelling score from 1 to 3 were independently assessed by two rheumatologists, who reached a consensus in 60 joints examined in each patient. All patients underwent a US examination by a third blinded rheumatologist, using PD. US joint effusion, synovitis, and PD signal were graded from 1 to 3 in the 60 joints. Joint count and joint index for effusion, synovitis, and PD signal were recorded. A 28 joint count for clinical and US variables was calculated. Interobserver reliability of the US examination was evaluated by a fourth blinded rheumatologist. Results: US showed significantly more joints with effusion (mean 15.2) and synovitis (mean 14.6) than clinical examination (mean 11.5, p<0.05). A significant correlation was found between joint count and joint index for swelling, US effusion, synovitis, and PD signal. The 28 joint count for effusion, synovitis, and PD signal correlated highly with the corresponding 60 joint counts. US findings correlated better with CRP and ESR than clinical measures. Interobserver reliability was better for US findings than for clinical assessment. Conclusion: US is a sensitive method for assessing joint inflammatory activity in RA, complementary to clinical evaluation. PMID:15708891

  18. The use of the color Doppler ultrasonography in the diagnosis and monitoring of an atypical case of giant-cell arteritis.

    PubMed

    Martins, N; Polido-Pereira, J; Rodrigues, A M; Soares, F; Batista, P; Pereira da Silva, J A

    2016-01-01

    Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA) is a large vessels vasculitis that is typically characterised by headache, scalp tenderness, jaw claudication and visual disturbances. Temporal arteries color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) is a sensitive and non-invasive image technique used in the diagnosis of this disease. This work highlights the importance of CDUS in the diagnostic workup of GCA and also demonstrates it´s usefullness in the evaluation and documentation of the response to corticosteroids therapy in an atypical case of ACG. PMID:27606478

  19. Role of conventional ultrasonography and color flow-doppler sonography in predicting malignancy in 'cold' thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Rago, T; Vitti, P; Chiovato, L; Mazzeo, S; De Liperi, A; Miccoli, P; Viacava, P; Bogazzi, F; Martino, E; Pinchera, A

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish the usefulness of conventional thyroid ultrasonography (US) and color flow-doppler (CFD) sonography in the assessment of 'cold' thyroid nodules. One hundred and four consecutive patients with thyroid nodules who were to undergo surgery were examined by US and CFD before thyroidectomy. Conventional US evaluated the presence of a halo sign, hypoechogenicity and microcalcifications. The vascular pattern on CFD was classified as follows: Type I, absence of blood flow; Type II, perinodular blood flow; Type III, marked intranodular blood flow. On histology, 30 nodules were diagnosed as malignant (carcinoma, CA) and 74 as benign nodules (BN). On US, the echographic pattern most predictive for malignancy was absent halo sign, which was found in 20/30 CA and in 17/72 BN (P = 0.0001; specificity 77.0%; sensitivity 66.6%). The most specific combination on US, absent halo sign/microcalcifications, was found in 8/30 CA and in 5/74 BN (P < 0.005; specificity 93.2%, sensitivity 26.6%). The Type III pattern on CFD was found in 20/30 CA and 38/74 BN (not statistically significant). The combination of absent halo sign on US with Type III pattern on CFD was found in 15/30 CA and in 8/74 BN (P < 0.0001; specificity 89.0%, sensitivity 50.0%). The combination of absent halo sign/microcalcifications on US with Type III pattern on CFD was the most specific combination of the two techniques, being found in 5/30 CA and in only 2/74 BN (P < 0.01; specificity 97.2%, sensitivity 16.6%). In conclusion, findings on US and CFD become highly predictive for malignancy only when multiple signs are simultaneously present in a thyroid nodule. Thus the predictive value of these techniques increases at the expense of their sensitivity. Only in a small proportion of patients with thyroid carcinoma is US and CFD information highly predictive of malignancy. PMID:9461314

  20. Usefulness of resistive index on spectral Doppler ultrasonography in the detection of renal cell carcinoma in patients with end-stage renal disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of the resistive index (RI) on spectral Doppler ultrasonography (US) in the detection of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods: Seventeen ESRD patients with kidneys in which renal masses were suspected in routine US were subjected. They underwent computed tomography scans and additional Doppler US for the characterization of the detected lesions. All underwent radical nephrectomy with the suspicion of RCC. Fourteen patients finally were included. RI measurements were conducted in the region of the suspected renal mass and the background renal parenchyma. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to assess the reproducibility of the RI measurement. A paired t-test was used to compare the RI values between the renal mass and the background renal parenchyma (P<0.05). Results: The RI values measured at the RCCs were significantly lower than those measured at the background renal parenchyma (0.41-0.65 vs. 0.75-0.89; P<0.001). The intrareader reproducibility proved to be excellent and good for the renal masses and the parenchyma, respectively (P<0.001). Conclusion: RI on spectral Doppler US is useful in detecting RCC in patients with ESRD. The RI values measured at the RCCs were significantly lower than those measured at the background renal parenchyma. PMID:24936507

  1. The Foetal 'Mind' as a Reflection of its Inner Self: Evidence from Colour Doppler Ultrasound of Foetal MCA.

    PubMed

    Kachewar, Sushil Ghanshyam; Gandage, Siddappa Gurubalappa

    2012-01-01

    The unborn healthy foetus is looked upon as a blessing by one and all. A plethora of thoughts arise in the brains of expectant parents. But what goes on in the brain of the yet unborn still remains a mystery. 'Foetal mind' is a reflection of functions of its organs of sense, an instrument of knowledge that may even be reduced to machine to demonstrate the effect of sense organs and brain contact. Testimony to this fact are the various waveform patterns obtained non-invasively from the foetal Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) by using Colour Doppler Ultrasound. Our study, conducted for evaluating the foetal MCA in a rural obstetric population in Maharashtra, India, explains how the MCA - a major artery supplying foetal brain, can give abundant information about foetal heart and foetal stress. When only the foetal heart is stressed by the presence of arrhythmias or ectopic beats, these changes are manifest in the foetal MCA velocity waveform pattern as seen on Colour Doppler study. When the entire foetus is under stress, as in cases of intra uterine growth retardation (IUGR), changes again manifest in the foetal MCA velocity waveform pattern and are designated as the foetal Brain Sparing Effect. Thus scientific evaluation of foetal MCA waveform can objectively demonstrate that the overtly non-communicating foetal brain indeed remains an internal organ of sense and a vital instrument of knowledge to clarify the various effects of sense organs and brain contact. Although the brain parenchyma or cerebral metabolism has not been studied here, cerebral vessels serve as a window to cerebral metabolism, as auto regulatory function of brain leads to changes in haemodynamics of cerebral vessels. Also, like other vessels, MCA mirrors foetal distress and IUGR; but unlike other vessels, e.g. the umbilical or uterine artery, which show these changes in the form of reduction or even reversal of diastolic flow, MCA shows an increase in diastolic component due to brain sparing effect

  2. The Foetal ‘Mind’ as a Reflection of its Inner Self: Evidence from Colour Doppler Ultrasound of Foetal MCA

    PubMed Central

    Kachewar, Sushil Ghanshyam; Gandage, Siddappa Gurubalappa

    2012-01-01

    The unborn healthy foetus is looked upon as a blessing by one and all. A plethora of thoughts arise in the brains of expectant parents. But what goes on in the brain of the yet unborn still remains a mystery. ‘Foetal mind’ is a reflection of functions of its organs of sense, an instrument of knowledge that may even be reduced to machine to demonstrate the effect of sense organs and brain contact. Testimony to this fact are the various waveform patterns obtained non-invasively from the foetal Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) by using Colour Doppler Ultrasound. Our study, conducted for evaluating the foetal MCA in a rural obstetric population in Maharashtra, India, explains how the MCA - a major artery supplying foetal brain, can give abundant information about foetal heart and foetal stress. When only the foetal heart is stressed by the presence of arrhythmias or ectopic beats, these changes are manifest in the foetal MCA velocity waveform pattern as seen on Colour Doppler study. When the entire foetus is under stress, as in cases of intra uterine growth retardation (IUGR), changes again manifest in the foetal MCA velocity waveform pattern and are designated as the foetal Brain Sparing Effect. Thus scientific evaluation of foetal MCA waveform can objectively demonstrate that the overtly non-communicating foetal brain indeed remains an internal organ of sense and a vital instrument of knowledge to clarify the various effects of sense organs and brain contact. Although the brain parenchyma or cerebral metabolism has not been studied here, cerebral vessels serve as a window to cerebral metabolism, as auto regulatory function of brain leads to changes in haemodynamics of cerebral vessels. Also, like other vessels, MCA mirrors foetal distress and IUGR; but unlike other vessels, e.g. the umbilical or uterine artery, which show these changes in the form of reduction or even reversal of diastolic flow, MCA shows an increase in diastolic component due to brain sparing effect

  3. Relationship between colour flow Doppler sonographic assessment of corpus luteum activity and progesterone concentrations in mares after embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Brogan, P T; Henning, H; Stout, T A E; de Ruijter-Villani, M

    2016-03-01

    Colour-flow Doppler sonography has been described as a means of assessing corpus luteum (CL) function rapidly, because area of luteal blood vessels correlates well with circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations [P4] in oestrous cycling mares. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between CL size and vascularity, and circulating [P4] during early pregnancy in mares, and to determine whether luteal blood flow was a useful aid for selecting an embryo transfer recipient. Equine embryos (n=48) were recovered 8 days after ovulation and were transferred to available recipient mares as part of a commercial program with the degree of synchrony in timing of recipient ovulation ranging from 1 day before to 4 days after the donor. Immediately prior to embryo transfer (ET), maximum CL cross-section and blood vessel areas were assessed sonographically, and jugular blood was collected to measure plasma [P4]. Sonographic measurements and jugular blood collection were repeated at day 4 after ET for all mares, and again at days 11, 18 and 25 after ET in mares that were pregnant. The number of grey-scale and colour pixels within the CL was subsequently quantified using ImageJ software. The CL blood flow correlated significantly but weakly with plasma [P4] on the day of transfer and on day 4 after ET in all mares, and on days 11 and 25 after ET in pregnant mares (r=0.30-0.36). The CL area and plasma [P4] were also correlated on each day until day 11 after ET (r=0.49-0.60). The CL colour pixel area decreased significantly after day 18, whereas CL area was already decreasing by day 4 after ET. The CL area, area of blood flow, or [P4] was predictive of pregnancy. Findings in the present study suggest that both CL area and blood flow are correlated with circulating [P4] at the time of transfer and in early pregnancy. Evaluation of the CL using B-mode or CF sonography, although practical, provides no improvement in the selection of recipients or prediction of pregnancy

  4. Gastroepiploic artery as an in situ coronary artery bypass graft: evaluation of MRI and colour Doppler ultrasound in follow-up.

    PubMed

    Vanninen, R L; Vainio, P A; Manninen, H I; Suhonen, M; Jaakola, P

    1995-01-01

    The right gastroepiploic artery, increasingly used as an in situ coronary artery bypass graft, has good long-term patency. This study aimed to assess the accuracy and limitations of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and colour Doppler ultrasound (US) in postoperative follow-up of such cases. In eight consecutive patients (6 men, 2 women, mean age 57 years), conventional angiography, MRI and US were performed to evaluate graft patency. Colour Doppler US, performed within a week of the operation, correctly detected flow in three patent grafts. MRI (1.5 tesla) was performed c. 17 months after surgery, using a spine coil and a coronal two-dimensional Flash-type imaging sequence. At angiography six of the eight gastroepiploic artery grafts were patent, and two were occluded. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI were 100%. This accuracy makes MRI a promising method for noninvasive post-operative evaluation of right gastroepiploic artery graft patency. PMID:7644909

  5. Investigation of mammary blood flow changes by transrectal colour Doppler sonography in an Escherichia coli mastitis model.

    PubMed

    Potapow, André; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Schmauder, Sandra; Friker, Jutta; Nautrup, Cordula Poulsen; Mehne, Daniel; Petzl, Wolfram; Zerbe, Holm

    2010-05-01

    The objectives of this preliminary investigation were to evaluate the feasibility of transrectal colour Doppler sonography (TCDS) for determining blood flow of the pudendoepigastric trunk in cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli Mastitis. Five primiparous Holstein dairy cows, 4-6 months after calving, were examined in two trials. All monitored udder quarters were initially clinically healthy, somatic cell count (SCC) was <50 000 cells/ml and bacteriologically negative. The blood flow of the left and the right pudendoepigastric trunk was described by the blood flow volume (BFV). In the methodological part of the study, the intra-observer precision of the method was evaluated. The coefficients of variation of the BFV were 7.1% for the left and 9.4% for the right pudendoepigastric trunk. The intraclass correlation coefficients of the BFV were 0.99 (P<0.001) for the left and 0.75 (P=0.004) for the right vessel. BFV did not differ significantly between the left and the right side nor between pre- and post-milking nor between oestrus and dioestrus. In the experimental part of the study, significant differences of increasing BFV between 0 and 12 h p.i. (post infectionem) (P=0.043) and decreasing BFV between 12 and 24 h p.i. (P=0.043) were discovered for the pudendoepigastric trunk of the infected right side. In the left-right (control-infection) comparison a significant increase of the right BFV was observed at 12 h p.i. (P=0.043). The difference of an increasing SCC correlated positively with the difference of an increasing BFV between 0 and 12 h p.i. (Spearman's rho=1.00; P=0.043) for the right infected side. It was shown that TCDS is a reproducible technique for investigating pathological mammary blood flow changes at an early stage of acute mastitis. PMID:20380774

  6. Relationship of Elongated Styloid Process in Digital Panoramic Radiography with Carotid Intima Thickness and Carotid Atheroma in Doppler Ultrasonography in Osteoporotic Females

    PubMed Central

    Hamedani, Shahram; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Zare, Zahra; Hasani, Mahvash; Torabi Ardakani, Mahshid; Hasani, Mahsa; Shahidi, Shoaleh

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis are major health dilemmas. Osteoporotic patients frequently display vascular calcification that consequently increases the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Purpose This study aimed to investigate the relation of osteoporosis, vascular calcification (atheroma, intima-media thickness (IMT)) and elongated styloid process (ESP) in a sample of osteoporotic and normal female individuals. Materials and Method This study recruited 78 women who were assessed for bone mass density (BMD). Sample included individuals with normal BMD (n=13, 17 %), osteopenia (n=36, 46 %), and osteoporosis (n=29, 37%). The presence of atheroma and IMT was examined using color Doppler ultrasonography (CD-US). In addition, digital panoramic radiographs (PRs) were obtained to assess ESP. Results In this study, 55 subjects (70%) with low BMD exhibited at least one side ESP. Femoral BMD decreased significantly in subjects with ESP (p= 0.03). Bilateral ESP was correlated with the presence of atheroma (p= 0.029). The CIMT was greater in patients with ESP, although the relation was not significant. Conclusion The obtained data suggest referring the aged individuals with ESP for BMD assessment and individuals with low bone mass and ESP for more cardiovascular risk assessment. PMID:26046104

  7. Doppler ultrasonography reveals blood flow signals within the masses of invasive moles in subjects with normal hCG levels after chemotherapy: Three case reports

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, XI; DUAN, ZHAO

    2013-01-01

    A consensus has formed that patients with invasive moles should continue with one to three cycles of chemotherapy after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels have decreased to a normal level. However, the management plan has not been agreed for cases where Doppler ultrasonography (DU) indicates blood-flow signals within the tumor mass after one to three cycles of chemotherapy when the hCG concentration has returned to normal. The present study describes the clinical and therapeutic courses of three patients with invasive moles with confirmed blood-flow signals (by DU) after their hCG levels had normalized. One patient underwent surgery to remove the mass within the uterine muscle, while the other two patients decided to cease chemotherapy and were managed by follow-up appointments; all three patients had good outcomes. These data illustrate that patients with invasive moles should be followed up if DU indicates blood-flow signals in the tumor mass after one to three cycles of chemotherapy when the hCG level has decreased back to a normal level. PMID:24137443

  8. Joint Doppler frequency, 2D-DOD and 2D-DOA estimation for bistatic MIMO radar in spatial coloured noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lingyun; Zhang, Xiaofei; Xu, Zongze; Zeng, Xianwei; Yao, Fuqiang

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of four-dimensional angle and Doppler frequency estimation for L-shaped bistatic multiple input multiple output radar in spatial coloured noise. A novel method of joint estimation of Doppler frequency, two-dimensional direction of departure and two-dimensional direction of arrival based on the propagator method is discussed. Utilising the cross-correlation matrix which is formed by the adjacent outputs of matched filter in the time domain, the special matrix is constructed to eliminate the influence of spatial coloured noise. The proposed algorithm provides lower computational complexity and has very close parameter estimation to the estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques algorithm and DOA-matrix algorithm in high signal-to-noise ratio and Cramér-Rao bound is given. Furthermore, multidimensional parameters can be automatically paired by this algorithm to avoid the performance degradation resulting from wrong pairing. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Quantitative research into the deconditioning of hemodynamic to disorder of consciousness carried out using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography and photoplethysmography obtained via finger-transmissive absorption.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Zhou, Yan; Yi, Rui; He, Jianghong; Yang, Yi; Luo, Li; Dai, Yiwu; Luo, Xiaomin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) and photoplethysmography (PPG) have been utilized, through the observation of peripheral and cerebrovascular hemodynamic changes of the disorder of consciousness (DOC) patients, measured on clinical behavior scale of Coma Recovery Score-Revised (CRS-R) to obesrve their diagnostic value in evaluation of DOC patients. TCD ultrasound was used to evaluate the flow velocity and waveform patterns of middle cerebral artery (MCA), while PPG infrared signals were utilized to assess the peripheral circulation as a mean of measuring cardiovascular activities. The research was carried out on a sample of 36 individuals, of which 16 met the DOC criteria and 20 were healthy individuals. Each person in the patients groups was assessed by the CRS-R. The velocity of middle cerebral artery in tested patients in a whole cardiac cycle, detected by TCD, decreased comparing with normal values. The values of pulsatility index (PI) of the MCA increased in patients groups comparing with normal. Through binary variables correlation analysis, we found that the PI of the left MCA of TCD of the patients significantly inversely correlated with their motor subscore, included in their CRS-R in the level of α = 0.05 (Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient = -0.556, p = 0.025). The values of photoplethysmographic augmentation index (PAI) that were detected by PPG increased comparing with normal. Finally, using binary variables correlation analysis we found the significant inverse correlation between the PAI of PPG and the mean velocity of the left MCA of the TCD in the level of α = 0.05 (Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient = -0.377, p = 0.022) in all the groups. The results of this study revealed a specific relationship between PI and PAI in the DOC patients. That relationship can potentially be exploited to enhance the capabilities in early assessment of the deconditioning of the DOC patients

  10. Effect of a single injection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on testicular blood flow measured by color doppler ultrasonography in male Shiba goats.

    PubMed

    Samir, Haney; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Ahmed, Eman; Karen, Aly; Nagaoka, Kentaro; El Sayed, Mohamed; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Gen

    2015-05-01

    Although color Doppler ultrasonography has been used to evaluate testicular blood flow in many species, very little has been done in goat. Eight male Shiba goats were exposed to a single intramuscular injection of either gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH group; 1 µg/kg BW) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG group; 25 IU/kg BW). Plasma testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and inhibin (INH) were measured just before (0 hr) and at different intervals post injection by radioimmunoassay. Testis volume (TV) and Doppler indices, such as resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) of the supratesticular artery, were measured by B-mode and color Doppler ultrasonography, respectively. The results indicated an increase in testicular blood flow in both groups, as RI and PI decreased significantly (P<0.05), but this increase was significant higher and earlier in hCG group (1 hr) than in the GnRH group (2 hr). A high correlation was found for RI and PI with both T (RI, r= -0.862; PI, r= -0.707) and INH in the GnRH group (RI, r=0.661; PI, r=0.701). However, a significant (P<0.05) correlation was found between E2 and both RI (r= -0.610) and PI (r= -0.763) in hCG group. In addition, TV significantly increased and was highly correlated with RI in both groups (GnRH, r= -0.718; hCG, r= -0.779). In conclusion, hCG and GnRH may improve testicular blood flow and TV in Shiba goats. PMID:25715956

  11. Study of the ureterovesical jet flow by means of dupplex Doppler ultrasonography in patients with residual ureteral stone after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Ciftci, Halil; Cece, Hasan; Dusak, Abdurrahim; Savas, Murat; Verit, Ayhan; Yeni, Ercan

    2010-02-01

    The aims of our study are to evaluate ureterovesical jet flow Doppler ultrasound (US) in patients with residual ureteral stone after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and to compare with unobstructed contralateral ureter. Patients who have residual ureteral stone in intravenous pyelography (IVP) and/or computed tomography (CT) after ESWL and unobstructed contralateral ureter in 20 patients were prospectively evaluated with Doppler US. The mean peak velocity of the Doppler waveforms was obtained on the residual ureteral stone and contralateral non-obstructed ureter (17.10 +/- 20), (56.0 +/- 32), respectively (P < 0.05). In conclusion, due to the absence of contraindications and side-effects, Doppler US is sensitive and highly specific that can contribute significantly to the diagnosis of residual ureteral stone after ESWL. It can replace IVP and/or CT, in condition where IVP is undesirable and in addition Doppler US can supply a functional investigation of the obstructed ureter. PMID:19940988

  12. The role of elastosonography, gray-scale and colour flow Doppler sonography in prediction of malignancy in thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Tatar, Idil Gunes; Kurt, Aydin; Yilmaz, Kerim Bora; Doğan, Mehmet; Hekimoglu, Baki; Hucumenoglu, Sema

    2014-01-01

    Background Ultrasound is as a noninvasive method commonly used in the work-up of thyroid nodules. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of sonographic and elastosonographic parameters in the discrimination of malignancy. Patients and methods. 150 thyroid nodules were evaluated by gray-scale, Doppler and elastosonography. The cytological analysis revealed that 141 nodules were benign and 9 were malignant. Results Orientation of the nodule was the only sonographic parameter associated with malignancy (p = 0.003). In the strain ratio analysis the best cut-off point was 1.935 to discriminate malignancy (p = 0.000), with 100% sensitivity, 76% specificity, 100% negative predictive value, 78.5% positive predictive value and 78% accuracy rate. There was a statistically significant correlation between the elasticity score and malignancy (p = 0.001). Most of the benign nodules had score 2 and 3, none of them displayed score 5. On the other hand, none of the malignant nodules had score 1 and 2, most of them displaying score 5. Conclusions A change in the diagnostic algorithm of the thyroid nodules should be considered integrating the elastosonographic analysis. PMID:25435847

  13. Fetal ultrasonography.

    PubMed Central

    Garmel, S H; D'Alton, M E

    1993-01-01

    Since its introduction in the 1950s, ultrasonography in pregnancy has been helpful in determining gestational age, detecting multiple pregnancies, locating placentas, diagnosing fetal anomalies, evaluating fetal well-being, and guiding obstetricians with in utero treatment. We review current standards and controversies regarding the indications, safety, accuracy, and limitations of ultrasonography in pregnancy. Images PMID:8236969

  14. Pediatric ultrasonography

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, C.K. Jr.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Two leading experts explore the benefits and limitations of pediatric ultrasonography, explaining the latest techniques for optimal imaging of specific body regions: the head, chest, abdomen, pelvis, extremities, and soft tissues. Numerous illustrations emphasize significant points and combine with the text to show specifically what to look for when imaging children.

  15. Ultrasonic colour flow imaging.

    PubMed

    Wells, P N

    1994-12-01

    Real-time ultrasonic colour flow imaging, which was first demonstrated to be feasible only about a decade ago, has come into widespread clinical use. Ultrasound is scattered by ensembles of red blood cells. The ultrasonic frequency that gives the best signal-to-noise ratio for backscattering from blood depends on the required penetration. The frequency of ultrasound backscattered from flowing blood is shifted by the Doppler effect. The direction of flow can be determined by phase quadrature detection, and range selectivity can be provided by pulse-echo time-delay measurements. The Doppler frequency spectrum can be determined by Fourier analysis. Early two- and three-dimensional flow-imaging systems used slow manual scanning; velocity colour coding was introduced. Real-time colour flow imaging first became feasible when autocorrelation detection was used to extract the Doppler signal. Time-domain processing, which is a broad-band technique, was also soon shown to be practicable, for analysing both radio-frequency pulse-echo wavetrains and two-dimensional image speckle. Frequency- and time-domain processing both require effective cancellation of stationary echoes. The time-domain approach seems to have advantages in relation to both aliasing and the effects of attenuation in overlying tissues. Colour-coding schemes that can be interpreted without the need to refer to keys have been adopted, for both velocity and flow disturbance. Colour coding according to signal power has also been reintroduced. Three-dimensional display has been demonstrated. In interpreting colour flow images, it is important to understand the functions of critical system controls and the origins of artifacts. Various strategies can be adopted to increase the image frame rate. The problems of performance measurement and safety need to be kept under review. There are numerous opportunities for further development of ultrasonic colour flow imaging, including improvements in system design, methods of

  16. Failure to attain stretched penile length after intracavernosal injection of a vasodilator agent is predictive of veno-occlusive dysfunction on penile duplex Doppler ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Yafi, F A; Libby, R P; McCaslin, I R; Sangkum, P; Sikka, S C; Hellstrom, W J G

    2015-09-01

    Penile duplex Doppler ultrasound (PDDU) assesses the etiology of erectile dysfunction. Peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), and resistive index (RI) are common PDDU parameters. We assessed whether stretched penile length (SPL) in the flaccid state and measured penile length at peak erection after intracavernosal injection (ICI) of a vasodilator during PDDU correlated with the etiology of erectile dysfunction. We performed a retrospective review of 93 patients who underwent PDDU for erectile dysfunction. Normal and stretched penile length were measured, both at a flaccid state prior to ICI and at peak erection during PDDU. Collected data included patient demographics, vascular, and anatomic parameters. The mean age was 52 years. SPL was equivalent to peak penile length after ICI in 60 patients (65%, group 1) and did not match in 33 (35%, group 2). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of flaccid, stretched, and post-ICI erect penile lengths, IIEF score, PSV, percent rigidity or tumescence, and vasodilator dose used. Patients in group 2 had less of a change in penile length from flaccid to erect state (36% vs. 44%, p = 0.02), higher EDV (12.0 vs. 8.5, p = 0.041), lower RI (0.6 vs. 1.0, p = 0.046), and more veno-occlusive dysfunction (82% vs. 53%, p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, failure to reach maximum SPL at peak ICI erection (OR 2.255, CI 1.191-4.271, p = 0.0126), EDV (OR 1.281, CI 1.115-1.471, p < 0.001) and RI (OR 0.694, CI 0.573-0.723, p = 0.009) predicted veno-occlusive dysfunction. Failure to reach maximal SPL during PDDU using ICI with a vasodilator agent predicted veno-occlusive dysfunction, which is independent of both penile rigidity and tumescence. This measurement could serve as another diagnostic tool for predicting veno-occlusive dysfunction when PDDU is not readily available. Limitations include the subjective nature of penile measurements and different PGE1 doses used. PMID

  17. Coloured plastinates.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Hanno; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2006-03-01

    To obtain coloured plastinates by colouring anatomical structures in e.g. red, blue and yellow we used different types of chemical reagents. The colours remained stable during dehydration, degreasing and impregnation of specimen with silicone resin. The colours, which penetrated into the specimen, appeared to be included in the plastination process. To prove their stability, the coloured plastinates were exposed to light and heat for more than 5 years. A permanent colouration remained. The coloured plastinates are dry and flexible, odourless and robust. They are instructive and can be used in tutorials, examinations and seminars. PMID:16551016

  18. Ultrasonography of the scrotum in adults.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Anna L; Scortegagna, Eduardo; Nowitzki, Kristina M; Kim, Young H

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasonography is the ideal noninvasive imaging modality for evaluation of scrotal abnormalities. It is capable of differentiating the most important etiologies of acute scrotal pain and swelling, including epididymitis and testicular torsion, and is the imaging modality of choice in acute scrotal trauma. In patients presenting with palpable abnormality or scrotal swelling, ultrasonography can detect, locate, and characterize both intratesticular and extratesticular masses and other abnormalities. A 12-17 MHz high frequency linear array transducer provides excellent anatomic detail of the testicles and surrounding structures. In addition, vascular perfusion can be easily assessed using color and spectral Doppler analysis. In most cases of scrotal disease, the combination of clinical history, physical examination, and information obtained with ultrasonography is sufficient for diagnostic decision-making. This review covers the normal scrotal anatomy as well as various testicular and scrotal lesions. PMID:26983766

  19. Ultrasonography of the scrotum in adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the ideal noninvasive imaging modality for evaluation of scrotal abnormalities. It is capable of differentiating the most important etiologies of acute scrotal pain and swelling, including epididymitis and testicular torsion, and is the imaging modality of choice in acute scrotal trauma. In patients presenting with palpable abnormality or scrotal swelling, ultrasonography can detect, locate, and characterize both intratesticular and extratesticular masses and other abnormalities. A 12-17 MHz high frequency linear array transducer provides excellent anatomic detail of the testicles and surrounding structures. In addition, vascular perfusion can be easily assessed using color and spectral Doppler analysis. In most cases of scrotal disease, the combination of clinical history, physical examination, and information obtained with ultrasonography is sufficient for diagnostic decision-making. This review covers the normal scrotal anatomy as well as various testicular and scrotal lesions. PMID:26983766

  20. Applying colour science in colour design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming Ronnier

    2006-06-01

    Although colour science has been widely used in a variety of industries over the years, it has not been fully explored in the field of product design. This paper will initially introduce the three main application fields of colour science: colour specification, colour-difference evaluation and colour appearance modelling. By integrating these advanced colour technologies together with modern colour imaging devices such as display, camera, scanner and printer, some computer systems have been recently developed to assist designers for designing colour palettes through colour selection by means of a number of widely used colour order systems, for creating harmonised colour schemes via a categorical colour system, for generating emotion colours using various colour emotional scales and for facilitating colour naming via a colour-name library. All systems are also capable of providing accurate colour representation on displays and output to different imaging devices such as printers.

  1. Sophisticated instrumentation and ophthalmic ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Buschmann, W

    1992-01-01

    Formerly, ophthalmic ultrasonography was leading in view of high-performance apparatuses and transducer probes: e.g., the first array-scanner in the world was built for ophthalmic use. Within the past 2 decades, however, high-tech innovations were merely developed for other medical specialties. These were studied in view of their use for ultrasonography of eye and orbit. The combination of B-scan and Doppler techniques facilitates detection of orbital vessels. The resolution of ophthalmic digital B-scan video images proved poorer than crt-B-scans. A digital memory, however, is advantageous. But one high-resolution crt-type B-scan needs more than one disc storage capacity. "Frontline digitalization" could help to reduce the amount of data. Array transducers are now available in small sizes and could better show structure movements, but they were not yet adapted to ophthalmic use. This applies as well to annular arrays and dynamic focusing. Different methods of 3-dimensional scanning and (Pseudo-) 3-dimensional imaging might renew Baum's and Coleman's early work. PMID:1332387

  2. Ultrasonographic Doppler Use for Female Reproduction Management.

    PubMed

    Bollwein, Heinrich; Heppelmann, Maike; Lüttgenau, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Transrectal color Doppler ultrasonography is a useful technique to get new information about physiologic and pathophysiologic alterations of the uterus and ovaries in female cattle. During all reproductive stages characteristic changes in uterine blood flow are observed. Cows with puerperal disturbances show delayed decrease in uterine blood flow in the first few weeks postparturition compared with healthy cows. Measurement of follicular blood flow is used to identify normally developing follicles and predict superovulatory response. Determination of luteal blood is more reliable than B-mode sonography to distinguish between functional and nonfunctional corpora lutea. Color Doppler ultrasonography is a promising tool to improve reproductive management in female cattle. PMID:26922117

  3. Ultrasonic Doppler Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortoli, Piero; Fidanzati, Paolo; Luca, Bassi

    Any US equipment includes Doppler facilities capable of providing information about moving structures inside the human body. In most cases, the primary interest is in the investigation of blood flow dynamics, since this may be helpful for early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. However, there is also an increasing interest in tracking the movements of human tissues, since such movements can give an indirect evaluation of their elastic properties, which are valuable indicators of the possible presence of pathologies. This paper aims at presenting an overview of the different ways in which the Doppler technique has been developed and used in medical ultrasound (US), from early continuous wave (CW) systems to advanced pulsed wave (PW) colour-Doppler equipment. In particular, the most important technical features and clinical applications of CW, single-gate PW, multi-gate PW and flow-imaging systems are reviewed. The main signal processing approaches used for detection of Doppler frequencies are described, including time-domain and frequency-domain (spectral) methods, as well as novel strategies like, e.g., harmonic Doppler mode, which have been recently introduced to exploit the benefits of US contrast agents.

  4. [Diagnosing pneumothorax with ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Lasarte Izcue, A; Navasa Melado, J M; Blanco Rodríguez, G; Fidalgo González, I; Parra Blanco, J A

    2014-01-01

    The ultrasonographic diagnosis of pneumothorax is based on the analysis of artifacts. It is possible to confirm or rule out pneumothorax by combining the following signs: lung sliding, the A and B lines, and the lung point. One fundamental advantage of lung ultrasonography is its easy access in any critical situation, especially in patients in the intensive care unit. For this reason, chest ultrasonography can be used as an alternative to plain-film X-rays and computed tomography in critical patients and in patients with normal plain films in whom pneumothorax is strongly suspected, as well as to evaluate the extent of the pneumothorax and monitor its evolution. PMID:23200632

  5. Ultrasonography: Applications in Pediatric Abdomen.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Akshay Kumar; Gupta, Pankaj; Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is a valuable imaging tool for evaluation of different clinical conditions in children, in general and abdominal conditions, in particular. The interest in US derives primarily from the lack of ionizing radiation exposure, low cost, portability, real-time imaging and Doppler capabilities. In addition, US application requires no preparation or sedation, making it particularly attractive in the pediatric population. Because of these advantages, US has been adopted as the primary imaging tool for evaluation of a number of pediatric abdominal conditions that would have involved the use of ionising radiation in the past, e.g., pyloric stenosis, intussusception and various renal and bladder abnormalities, to name a few. Certain limitations, however, are inherent to US including large body habitus, excessive bowel gas, postoperative state and the learning curve. In addition, pediatric US is particularly challenging as the children are frequently unable to co-operate for breath holding and many of them are crying during the scanning. In the present review, the authors discuss the various applications of US in the evaluation of pediatric abdomen. PMID:26973334

  6. Modelling memory colour region for preference colour reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2010-01-01

    Colour preference adjustment is an essential step for colour image enhancement and perceptual gamut mapping. In colour reproduction for pictorial images, properly shifting colours away from their colorimetric originals may produce more preferred colour reproduction result. Memory colours, as a portion of the colour regions for colour preference adjustment, are especially important for preference colour reproduction. Identifying memory colours or modelling the memory colour region is a basic step to study preferred memory colour enhancement. In this study, we first created gamut for each memory colour region represented as a convex hull, and then used the convex hull to guide mathematical modelling to formulate the colour region for colour enhancement.

  7. Colour association and "colour amnesia" in aphasia.

    PubMed Central

    Varney, N R

    1982-01-01

    "Colour association" performance of 50 aphasic patients was investigated by means of a test in which they identified the characteristic colours of objects shown in line drawings. All aphasics with defects in colour association were impaired in reading comprehension. However, some (33%) retained normal aural comprehension. Approximately half the aphasics with receptive language impairment performed normally in colour association. The findings suggest that "colour amnesia" may be the result of a specific cognitive disturbance which is also responsible for a subtype of aphasic alexia. PMID:7086445

  8. Ultrasonography of intrauterine devices

    PubMed Central

    Nowitzki, Kristina M.; Hoimes, Matthew L.; Chen, Byron; Zheng, Larry Z.; Kim, Young H.

    2015-01-01

    The intrauterine device (IUD) is gaining popularity as a reversible form of contraception. Ultrasonography serves as first-line imaging for the evaluation of IUD position in patients with pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, or absent retrieval strings. This review highlights the imaging of both properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs. The problems associated with malpositioned IUDs include expulsion, displacement, embedment, and perforation. Management considerations depend on the severity of the malposition and the presence or absence of symptoms. Three-dimensional ultrasonography has proven to be more sensitive in the evaluation of more subtle findings of malposition, particularly side-arm embedment. Familiarity with the ultrasonographic features of properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs is essential. PMID:25985959

  9. Synaesthesia and colour constancy.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Holly; Mattingley, Jason B; Arnold, Derek H

    2013-04-01

    Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is an atypical condition characterized by the perception of colours when reading achromatic text. We investigated the level of colour processing responsible for these experiences. To do so, we tapped a central characteristic of colour perception. In different lighting conditions the same wavelength of light can prompt the perception of different colours. This helps humans recognize distinctive coloured objects despite changes in illumination. We wanted to see if synaesthetic colours were generated at a neural locus that was susceptible to colour constancy analyses. We used colour matching and naming tasks to examine interactions between simulated coloured illuminants and synaesthetic colours. Neither synaesthetic colour matching or naming was impacted. This contrasted with non-synaesthetic control participants, who performed the colour-matching task with graphemes physically coloured to mimic synaesthesia. Our data suggest that synaesthetic colour signals are not generated at lower-levels of colour processing, but are introduced at higher levels of analysis and are therefore not impacted by the processes responsible for perceptual constancy. PMID:22487049

  10. Colour Perception in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Ruppert, Sinje; Tannock, Rosemary; Albrecht, Bjorn; Becker, Andreas; Uebel, Henrik; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children…

  11. Doppler echocardiography

    SciTech Connect

    Labovitz, A.J.; Williams, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors are successful in presenting a basic book on clinical quantitative Doppler echocardiography. It is not intended to be a comprehensive text, but it does cover clinical applications in a succinct fashion. Only the more common diseases in the adult are considered. The subjects are presented logically and are easy to comprehend. The illustrations are good, and the book is paperbound. The basic principles of Doppler echocardiography are presented briefly. The book ends with chapters on left ventricular function (stroke volume and cardiac output), congenital heart disease, and color Doppler echo-cardiography. There are numerous references and a good glossary and index.

  12. Rethinking Colour Constancy

    PubMed Central

    Logvinenko, Alexander D.; Funt, Brian; Mirzaei, Hamidreza; Tokunaga, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    Colour constancy needs to be reconsidered in light of the limits imposed by metamer mismatching. Metamer mismatching refers to the fact that two objects reflecting metameric light under one illumination may reflect non-metameric light under a second; so two objects appearing as having the same colour under one illuminant can appear as having different colours under a second. Yet since Helmholtz, object colour has generally been believed to remain relatively constant. The deviations from colour constancy registered in experiments are usually thought to be small enough that they do not contradict the notion of colour constancy. However, it is important to determine how the deviations from colour constancy relate to the limits metamer mismatching imposes on constancy. Hence, we calculated metamer mismatching’s effect for the 20 Munsell papers and 8 pairs of illuminants employed in the colour constancy study by Logvinenko and Tokunaga and found it to be so extensive that the two notions—metamer mismatching and colour constancy—must be mutually exclusive. In particular, the notion of colour constancy leads to some paradoxical phenomena such as the possibility of 20 objects having the same colour under chromatic light dispersing into a hue circle of colours under neutral light. Thus, colour constancy refers to a phenomenon, which because of metamer mismatching, simply cannot exist. Moreover, it obscures the really important visual phenomenon; namely, the alteration of object colours induced by illumination change. We show that colour is not an independent, intrinsic attribute of an object, but rather an attribute of an object/light pair, and then define a concept of material colour in terms of equivalence classes of such object/light pairs. We suggest that studying the shift in material colour under a change in illuminant will be more fruitful than pursuing colour constancy’s false premise that colour is an intrinsic attribute of an object. PMID:26356217

  13. Rethinking Colour Constancy.

    PubMed

    Logvinenko, Alexander D; Funt, Brian; Mirzaei, Hamidreza; Tokunaga, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    Colour constancy needs to be reconsidered in light of the limits imposed by metamer mismatching. Metamer mismatching refers to the fact that two objects reflecting metameric light under one illumination may reflect non-metameric light under a second; so two objects appearing as having the same colour under one illuminant can appear as having different colours under a second. Yet since Helmholtz, object colour has generally been believed to remain relatively constant. The deviations from colour constancy registered in experiments are usually thought to be small enough that they do not contradict the notion of colour constancy. However, it is important to determine how the deviations from colour constancy relate to the limits metamer mismatching imposes on constancy. Hence, we calculated metamer mismatching's effect for the 20 Munsell papers and 8 pairs of illuminants employed in the colour constancy study by Logvinenko and Tokunaga and found it to be so extensive that the two notions-metamer mismatching and colour constancy-must be mutually exclusive. In particular, the notion of colour constancy leads to some paradoxical phenomena such as the possibility of 20 objects having the same colour under chromatic light dispersing into a hue circle of colours under neutral light. Thus, colour constancy refers to a phenomenon, which because of metamer mismatching, simply cannot exist. Moreover, it obscures the really important visual phenomenon; namely, the alteration of object colours induced by illumination change. We show that colour is not an independent, intrinsic attribute of an object, but rather an attribute of an object/light pair, and then define a concept of material colour in terms of equivalence classes of such object/light pairs. We suggest that studying the shift in material colour under a change in illuminant will be more fruitful than pursuing colour constancy's false premise that colour is an intrinsic attribute of an object. PMID:26356217

  14. Ultrasonography of ovarian hyperandrogenemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmina, Svetlana A.; Zharkin, Nikolay A.

    2001-05-01

    The method of ultrasonography is high informative and widely used in diagnostics of ovarian hyperandrogenaemia. The majority of authors consider that a hyperplasia of a stroma is the main pathognomonic marker of polycystic ovaries (PCO). Still recently swell of a stroma was valued visually, that had subjective nature. We offer for the first time a way of diagnostics of stromal hyperplasia grounded on measurement of a volume of a stroma and ovary with ultrasound method, calculation of the ratio of a volume of the ovary to a volume of a stroma for every patient.

  15. Can Doppler or contrast-enhanced ultrasound analysis add diagnostically important information about the nature of breast lesions?

    PubMed Central

    Stanzani, Daniela; Chala, Luciano F.; de Barros, Nestor; Cerri, Giovanni G.; Chammas, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Despite evidence suggesting that Doppler ultrasonography can help to differentiate between benign and malignant breast lesions, it is rarely applied in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine whether certain vascular features of breast masses observed by duplex Doppler and color Doppler ultrasonography (before and/or after microbubble contrast injection) add information to the gray-scale analysis and support the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification. METHODS: Seventy solid lesions were prospectively evaluated with gray-scale ultrasonography, color Doppler ultrasonography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. The morphological analysis and lesion vascularity were correlated with the histological results. RESULTS: Percutaneous core biopsies revealed that 25/70 (17.5%) lesions were malignant, while 45 were benign. Hypervascular lesions with tortuous and central vessels, a resistive index (RI)≥0.73 before contrast injection, and an RI≥0.75 after contrast injection were significantly predictive of malignancy (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The combination of gray-scale ultrasonography data with unenhanced or enhanced duplex Doppler and color Doppler US data can provide diagnostically useful information. These techniques can be easily implemented because Doppler devices are already present in most health centers. PMID:24519198

  16. Usefulness of Microvascular Ultrasonography in Differentiating Metastatic Lymphadenopathy from Tuberculous Lymphadenitis.

    PubMed

    Ryoo, Inseon; Suh, Sangil; You, Sung-Hye; Seol, Hae Young

    2016-09-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the usefulness of vascular pattern analysis on microvascular ultrasonography in distinguishing metastatic lymphadenopathy from tuberculous lymphadenitis, compared with conventional power Doppler ultrasonography, and to evaluate inter-observer agreement for microvascular ultrasonography. Thirty-four patients with metastatic lymphadenopathy and 27 patients with tuberculous lymphadenitis were included. The level of inter-observer agreement was excellent or good for all aspects of vascular pattern analysis on both ultrasonographic examinations. Vascular distribution, internal vascularity and internal vascular features of lymph nodes on microvascular ultrasonography differed significantly different (p ≤ 0.002) between metastatic lymphadenopathy and tuberculous lymphadenitis. A central vascular pattern with displacement was prevalent in metastasis, and an avascular pattern was more frequent in tuberculosis. Internal vascularity of metastasis was higher than that of tuberculosis. Vascular patterns on power Doppler ultrasonography did not differ significantly. Vascular pattern analysis using microvascular ultrasonography can be helpful in differentiating metastatic lymphadenopathy from tuberculous lymphadenitis with good inter-observer agreement. PMID:27353493

  17. Does Colour Preference Have a Role in Colour Term Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Davis, Emma E.; Scerif, Gaia

    2009-01-01

    A developmental association exists between colour preference and emerging colour term acquisition in young children. Colour preference might influence colour term acquisition by directing attention towards or away from a particular colour, making it more or less memorable. To investigate the role that colour preference may have in the acquisition…

  18. Pediatric imaging/doppler ultrasound of the chest: Extracardiac diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Huhta, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    In this book the author spells out new diagnostic applications in pediatrics for high resolution cross-sectional ultrasonography, and demonstrates the ways in which Doppler techniques complement the cross-sectional method. This reference presents practical, step-by-step methods for non-invasive ultrasound examination of extra-cardiac anatomy and assessment of vascular blood flow.

  19. Is colour cognitive?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorupski, Peter; Chittka, Lars

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, colour-vision abilities have been rather generously ascribed to various invertebrates and even bacteria. This uncertainty of when to diagnose colour vision stems in part from confusing what colour vision can do with what it is. What colour vision can do is discriminate wavelength independent of intensity. However, if we take this as a definition of what colour vision is, then we might be obliged to conclude that some plants and bacteria have colour vision. Moreover, there is a similar confusion of what are necessary and what are sufficient mechanisms and behavioural abilities for colour vision. To humans, seeing in colour means seeing an image in which objects/lights have chromatic attributes—in contrast to the sensation that we have when viewing monochrome movies, or our experience in dim light when only rod vision is possible. The necessary basic equipment for this is to have at least two types of photoreceptors that differ in spectral sensitivity, and at least one type of spectrally opponent cell to compare the signals from the photoreceptors. Clearly, however, a necessary additional prerequisite for colour vision is to have vision, which entails the identification of shapes, sizes and locations of objects in the world. Thus, if an animal has colour vision, it should see an image in which distinct objects/lights have colour attributes. This distinguishes colour vision from wavelength discrimination, but also from what has historically been called wavelength-specific behaviour: a type of behaviour triggered by fixed configurations of spectral receptor signals; however, we discuss difficulties in diagnosing wavelength-specific behaviour as an indicator of the absence of colour vision. Finally, we discuss whether colour vision, by definition, contains a cognitive dimension for ordering and classifying perceptual experience.

  20. [Ultrasonography in chronic inflammatory rheumatic and connective tissue disorders].

    PubMed

    Mérot, O; Le Goff, B

    2014-08-01

    Musculoskeletal ultrasonography is now widely used by almost all rheumatologists thanks to an improvement in the quality of ultrasound unit and probe and to the systematic teaching of this imaging technique to the rheumatology fellows. Applications have broadened from the study of degenerative and mechanical diseases to inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Ultrasound is more sensitive than clinical examination. Power Doppler allows the direct visualisation of inflammation within the tissues. Finally, it is a prognostic tool helping the physician in the management of the disease. This review will focus on the value and applications of ultrasonography in the 2 most frequent rheumatic diseases: rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis. We will also give some recent data on the usefulness of this imaging technique in the study of musculoskeletal manifestations associated with connective tissue disease. PMID:24439720

  1. Henoch-Schonlein purpura: ultrasonography of scrotal and penile involvement

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Testicular or scrotal involvement has been reported in children with Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP), but there are very few reports on penile involvement. We report the initial and follow-up ultrasonographic findings of scrotal and penile involvement of HSP in a 5-year-old boy. On ultrasonography, scrotal soft tissue thickening and epididymal swelling with increased vascularity were noted, and on the penis, a focal mass-like lesion appeared on the dorsal surface of the distal penis, having a hypoechoic mass-like appearance without visible vascular flow on a Doppler study. After 2 days of treatment, follow-up ultrasonography showed normal scrotum and penis with a resolved soft tissue mass-like lesion. Therefore, we think that HSP ultrasonographic findings involving the scrotum and penis might help to diagnose scrotal and penile involvement in a case of HSP and to avoid unnecessary medication and/or surgical procedures. PMID:25541068

  2. Colour constancy in insects.

    PubMed

    Chittka, Lars; Faruq, Samia; Skorupski, Peter; Werner, Annette

    2014-06-01

    Colour constancy is the perceptual phenomenon that the colour of an object appears largely unchanged, even if the spectral composition of the illuminating light changes. Colour constancy has been found in all insect species so far tested. Especially the pollinating insects offer a remarkable opportunity to study the ecological significance of colour constancy since they spend much of their adult lives identifying and choosing between colour targets (flowers) under continuously changing ambient lighting conditions. In bees, whose colour vision is best studied among the insects, the compensation provided by colour constancy is only partial and its efficiency depends on the area of colour space. There is no evidence for complete 'discounting' of the illuminant in bees, and the spectral composition of the light can itself be used as adaptive information. In patchy illumination, bees adjust their spatial foraging to minimise transitions between variously illuminated zones. Modelling allows the quantification of the adaptive benefits of various colour constancy mechanisms in the economy of nature. We also discuss the neural mechanisms and cognitive operations that might underpin colour constancy in insects. PMID:24647930

  3. The colour preference control based on two-colour combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ji Young; Kwak, Youngshin; Park, Du-Sik; Kim, Chang Yeong

    2008-02-01

    This paper proposes a framework of colour preference control to satisfy the consumer's colour related emotion. A colour harmony algorithm based on two-colour combinations is developed for displaying the images with several complementary colour pairs as the relationship of two-colour combination. The colours of pixels belonging to complementary colour areas in HSV colour space are shifted toward the target hue colours and there is no colour change for the other pixels. According to the developed technique, dynamic emotions by the proposed hue conversion can be improved and the controlled output image shows improved colour emotions in the preference of the human viewer. The psychophysical experiments are conducted to investigate the optimal model parameters to produce the most pleasant image to the users in the respect of colour emotions.

  4. Use of Doppler ultrasound for non-invasive urodynamic diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, Hideo; Watanabe, Toyohiko; Uematsu, Katsutoshi; Sasaki, Katsumi; Inoue, Miyabi; Kumon, Hiromi

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: A totally non-invasive transperineal urodynamic technique using Doppler ultrasonography has been developed. Methods: Since normal urine does not have blood cells, urine was thought not to produce the Doppler effects. However, basic studies confirmed that the decrease of pressure at high velocity (Bernouilli effect) caused dissolved gas to form microbubbles, which are detected by Doppler ultrasonography. Subjects sat and the probe was advanced via remote control to achieve gentle contact with the perineal skin. The digital uroflow data signals and the color Doppler ultrasound video images were processed on a personal computer. The flow-velocity curves from two sites; the distal prostatic urethra just above the external sphincter (V1) and the sphincteric urethra (V2) were plotted against time. The parameters of both the pressure-flow studies and the Doppler ultrasound urodynamic studies were compared in men who had various degrees of obstruction. Results: Functional cross-sectional area at prostatic urethra (A1), calculated by Qmax/V1, was lower in the group of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) vs. control group. Velocity ratio (VR), which was calculated by V1/V2, was the parameter having the best correlation with BOO index, though A1 had a similar correlation. This method is viable to diagnose the degree of BOO. Conclusions: The development of non-invasive Doppler ultrasound videourodynamics (Doppler UDS) will dramatically expand the information on voiding function. PMID:19468440

  5. [Chest ultrasonography in pleurapulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gallego Gómez, M P; García Benedito, P; Pereira Boo, D; Sánchez Pérez, M

    2014-01-01

    Although the initial diagnosis and follow-up of pleuropulmonary disease are normally done with plain chest films and the gold standard for chest disease is computed tomography, diverse studies have established the usefulness of chest ultrasonography in the diagnosis of different pleuropulmonary diseases like pleural effusion and lung consolidation, among others. In this article, we show the different ultrasonographic patterns for pleuropulmonary disease. The availability of ultrasonography in different areas (ICU, recovery areas) makes this technique especially important for critical patients because it obviates the need to transfer the patient. Moreover, ultrasonography is noninvasive and easy to repeat. On the other hand, it enables the direct visualization of pleuropulmonary disease that is necessary for interventional procedures. PMID:22819690

  6. Effects of memory colour on colour constancy for unknown coloured objects

    PubMed Central

    Granzier, Jeroen J M; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2012-01-01

    The perception of an object's colour remains constant despite large variations in the chromaticity of the illumination—colour constancy. Hering suggested that memory colours, the typical colours of objects, could help in estimating the illuminant's colour and therefore be an important factor in establishing colour constancy. Here we test whether the presence of objects with diagnostical colours (fruits, vegetables, etc) within a scene influence colour constancy for unknown coloured objects in the scene. Subjects matched one of four Munsell papers placed in a scene illuminated under either a reddish or a greenish lamp with the Munsell book of colour illuminated by a neutral lamp. The Munsell papers were embedded in four different scenes—one scene containing diagnostically coloured objects, one scene containing incongruent coloured objects, a third scene with geometrical objects of the same colour as the diagnostically coloured objects, and one scene containing non-diagnostically coloured objects (eg, a yellow coffee mug). All objects were placed against a black background. Colour constancy was on average significantly higher for the scene containing the diagnostically coloured objects compared with the other scenes tested. We conclude that the colours of familiar objects help in obtaining colour constancy for unknown objects. PMID:23145282

  7. Use of intraoperative ultrasonography in canine spinal cord lesions.

    PubMed

    Nanai, Beatrix; Lyman, Ronald; Bichsel, Pierre S

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the intraoperative appearance of various spinal cord conditions, and to investigate how intraoperative ultrasonography assisted in modification of surgical and postoperative treatment plans. Intraoperative ultrasonography (B-mode, and power Doppler mode) was used in 25 dogs undergoing spinal surgery. The neurologic conditions included cervical spondylomyelopathy, intervertebral disc (IVD) protrusion, IVD extrusion, spinal tumors, nerve sheath mass, granulomatous myelitis, and discospondylitis. All of these diagnoses were supported by histopathologic and/or cytologic evaluation. It was possible to visualize the spinal cord and the abnormal spinal tissue in all of the patients. Power Doppler imaging allowed assessment of the spinal cord microcirculation, and assisted in judgment of the degree of decompression. Ultrasound imaging directly impacted the surgical and the medical treatment plans in four patients. Owing to the intraoperative imaging, two hemilaminectomies were extended cranially and caudally, and additional disc spaces were fenestrated, one hemilaminectomy site was extended dorsally to retrieve the disc material from the opposite side, and one intramedullary cervical spinal cord lesion was discovered, aspirated, and consequently diagnosed as granulomatous inflammation, which altered the long-term medication protocol in that dog. This study suggests that intraoperative sonographic spinal cord imaging is a useful and viable technique. PMID:17508514

  8. Unconventional colour vision.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Justin; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2014-12-15

    Butterflies and stomatopods are certainly outliers in their unconventional colour sense and despite some similarities at first glance, in fact sample the world of colour very differently. In one way, butterflies are relatively conventional, possessing either tri-or tetrachromatic colour vision, then just adding one or several task-specific sub-mechanisms onto this. It is the stomatopods so far that have really pushed the boat out into a different colour vision mechanism. Over 400 million years of independent evolution they have arrived at a solution with more in common with the way a satellite sensor examines the colours of the earth than other animals. Remember, however, that unconventional colour vision is not just the realm of the serially polychromatic. Apparently waterfleas with four classes of spectral receptors living in ponds operate a task-specific spectral sense with no need, or indeed neural processing power, to construct a complex discriminatory mechanism. It seems they have the butterfly added-extra set without the more complex comparative chromatic mechanisms, although in truth, conclusive behavioural proof is lacking. Behavioural observation of colour vision in the ecological context of each animal is vital before making the distinction between conventional and unconventional. Just counting spectral sensitivities is never enough. PMID:25514002

  9. Adaptive colouration in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Rudh, Andreas; Qvarnström, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians, i.e. salamanders, frogs and caecilians show a wide range of bright colours in combination with contrasting patterns. There is variation among species, populations and also within species and populations. Furthermore, individuals often change colours during developmental stages or in response to environmental factors. This extraordinary variation means that there are excellent opportunities to test hypotheses of the adaptive significance of colours using amphibian species as models. We review the present view of functions of colouration in amphibians with the main focus on relatively unexplored topics. Variation in colouration has been found to play a role in thermoregulation, UV protection, predator avoidance and sexual signalling. However, many proposed cases of adaptive functions of colouration in amphibians remain virtually scientifically unexplored and surprisingly few genes influencing pigmentation or patterning have been detected. We would like to especially encourage more studies that take advantage of recent developments in measurement of visual properties of several possible signalling receivers (e.g. predators, competitors or mates). Future investigations on interactions between behaviour, ecology and vision have the potential to challenge our current view of the adaptive function of colouration in amphibians. PMID:23664831

  10. Doppler tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Christopher Jacob

    This study addresses the development of a methodology using the Doppler Effect for high-resolution, short-range tracking of small projectiles and vehicles. Minimal impact on the design of the moving object is achieved by incorporating only a transmitter in it and using ground stations for all other components. This is particularly useful for tracking objects such as sports balls that have configurations and materials that are not conducive to housing onboard instrumentation. The methodology developed here uses four or more receivers to monitor a constant frequency signal emitted by the object. Efficient and accurate schemes for filtering the raw signals, determining the instantaneous frequencies, time synching the frequencies from each receiver, smoothing the synced frequencies, determining the relative velocity and radius of the object and solving the nonlinear system of equations for object position in three dimensions as a function of time are developed and described here.

  11. Technical note: comparison between two tracing methods with ultrasonography to determine lumen area of the caudal artery in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Doppler ultrasonography has potential use in studying the effects of ergot alkaloids on vascular circulation in cattle. Accurate and precise measurement of artery lumen area is critical in quantifying vasoconstriction responses to ergot alkaloids and other toxins. Lumen area can be determined by...

  12. Use of Audible and Chart-recorded Ultrasonography to Monitor Fetal Heart Rate and Uterine Blood Flow Parameters in Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of audible chart-recorded doppler ultrasonography (DUS) to monitor both uterine blood flow and fetal heart rate (FHR) during pregnancy in dairy cattle. Possible applications of DUS include the monitoring of fetal distress when a pregnancy be...

  13. Object knowledge modulates colour appearance

    PubMed Central

    Witzel, Christoph; Valkova, Hanna; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective) colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis. PMID:23145224

  14. [Ultrasonography for carpal tunnel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Kenichi

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasonography in cases of carpal tunnel syndrome is described with respect to the following aspects: (1) imaging technique; (2) image characteristics; (3) detection of pathophysiology; (4) diagnosis of idiopathic cases; (5) screening of local pathologies (space-occupying lesions, tenosynovitis, and bone and joint abnormalities), incomplete release, and anatomic variations; and (6) role in facilitating minimally-invasive surgery. PMID:24607945

  15. Colour Mixing Based on Daylight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large…

  16. Plasmonic colour laser printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Mortensen, N. Asger; Kristensen, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Colour generation by plasmonic nanostructures and metasurfaces has several advantages over dye technology: reduced pixel area, sub-wavelength resolution and the production of bright and non-fading colours. However, plasmonic colour patterns need to be pre-designed and printed either by e-beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB), both expensive and not scalable processes that are not suitable for post-processing customization. Here we show a method of colour printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances leading to different colour appearances can be created. Using this technique we can print all primary colours with a speed of 1 ns per pixel, resolution up to 127,000 dots per inch (DPI) and power consumption down to 0.3 nJ per pixel.

  17. Comparison of ultrasonography, computed tomography and 99mTc liver scan in diagnosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, S; Barter, S; Phillips, G W; Gibson, R N; Hodgson, H J

    1987-01-01

    Ultrasonography, computed tomography and 99mTc liver scanning are all useful in diagnosis of patients with the Budd-Chiari syndrome. In a study to determine their comparative value characteristic findings were recorded in all nine patients at ultrasonography and in seven patients at computed tomography. In contrast 99mTc liver scan showed a characteristic pattern in only one of eight patients. In our experience intrahepatic venous abnormalities were seen better at ultrasonography than at computed tomography. In addition, abnormality in the direction of blood flow could be detected by pulsed Doppler examination. Ultrasonography is relatively inexpensive, readily accessible, does not require administration of radiation or contrast agents and therefore should be the primary non-invasive investigation of patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome, or those at risk of developing it. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:3552905

  18. Is Doppler ultrasound useful for evaluating gestational trophoblastic disease?

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lawrence H; Bernardes, Lisandra S; Hase, Eliane A; Fushida, Koji; Francisco, Rossana P V

    2015-01-01

    Doppler ultrasound is a non-invasive method for evaluating vascularization and is widely used in clinical practice. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia includes a group of highly vascularized malignancies derived from placental cells. This review summarizes data found in the literature regarding the applications of Doppler ultrasound in managing patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. The PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane and LILACS databases were searched for articles published in English until 2014 using the following keywords: “Gestational trophoblastic disease AND Ultrasonography, Doppler.” Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria and were separated into the 4 following groups according to the aim of the study. 1 Doppler ultrasound does not seem to be capable of differentiating partial from complete moles, but it might be useful when evaluating pregnancies in which a complete mole coexists with a normal fetus. 2 There is controversy in the role of uterine artery Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of development of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. 3 Doppler ultrasound is a useful tool in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia because abnormal myometrial vascularization and lower uterine artery Doppler indices seem to be correlated with invasive disease. 4 Lower uterine artery Doppler indices in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia are associated with methotrexate resistance and might play a role in prognosis. CONCLUSION: Several studies support the importance of Doppler ultrasound in the management of patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, particularly the role of Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of trophoblastic neoplasia and the chemoresistance of trophoblastic tumors. Doppler findings should be used as ancillary tools, along with human chorionic gonadotropin assessment, in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. PMID:26735221

  19. Colour in flux: describing and printing colour in art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parraman, Carinna

    2008-01-01

    This presentation will describe artists, practitioners and scientists, who were interested in developing a deeper psychological, emotional and practical understanding of the human visual system who were working with wavelength, paint and other materials. From a selection of prints at The Prints and Drawings Department at Tate London, the presentation will refer to artists who were motivated by issues relating to how colour pigment was mixed and printed, to interrogate and explain colour perception and colour science, and in art, how artists have used colour to challenge the viewer and how a viewer might describe their experience of colour. The title Colour in Flux refers, not only to the perceptual effect of the juxtaposition of one colour pigment with another, but also to the changes and challenges for the print industry. In the light of screenprinted examples from the 60s and 70s, the presentation will discuss 21 st century ideas on colour and how these notions have informed the Centre for Fine Print Research's (CFPR) practical research in colour printing. The latter part of this presentation will discuss the implications for the need to change methods in mixing inks that moves away from existing colour spaces, from non intuitive colour mixing to bespoke ink sets, colour mixing approaches and colour mixing methods that are not reliant on RGB or CMYK.

  20. Fun with Colour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Curriculum: Science for Year 5 includes "recognising that the colour of an object depends on the properties of the object and the color of the light source". This article shows how much more can be done with color in the science laboratory. Activities include using a prism to explore white light, using a hand lens to…

  1. The role of ultrasonography in the study of medical nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Fiorini, F.; Barozzi, L.

    2007-01-01

    Diagnostic techniques in nephrology include clinical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, scintigraphy, diagnostic imaging techniques as well as renal biopsy. In kidney diseases, ultrasonography is used as a first-line imaging technique, and its role in medical nephropathy is to exclude urological pathologies, to differentiate between acute and chronic renal failure, to follow-up on the course of a disease, to guide needle biopsy, etc. Ultrasound images are useful at characterizing the pelvis, assessing renal dimensions and parenchymal echogenicity, sampling color–power Doppler signals and evaluating their characteristics and distribution as well as measuring parenchymal resistive index. Taken together, these data can provide useful clues to the diagnosis and help to reduce the number of possible differential diagnoses. PMID:23396246

  2. How safe is diagnostic ultrasonography?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, B S

    1984-01-01

    Health care workers and patients alike are concerned about the safety of diagnostic ultrasonography in clinical practice. Evidence published to date on the immediate and possible long-term biologic effects of exposure to ultrasound in diagnostic procedures is reviewed in this paper. No harmful effect in the human fetus, child or adult following the diagnostic use of pulsed ultrasound has been reported. However, the question of long-term biologic effects cannot yet be answered. Continued vigilance and further research are required. PMID:6378349

  3. Specifying colour and maintaining colour accuracy for 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parraman, Carinna; Walters, Peter; Reid, Brendan; Huson, David

    2008-02-01

    Advances in rapid prototyping technologies have led to the emergence of three-dimensional printers which can fabricate physical artefacts, including the application of surface colours. In light of these developments, this paper asserts that the need to print colour accurately is just as important for designers using three-dimensional colour printing as it is for two-dimensional inkjet printing. Parallels can be made with two-dimensional digital Inkjet printing and 2D common problems include: on screen previsualisation, colour management methods, colour gamut and maintaining colour accuracy. However, for three dimensional colour printed objects, there are more variables that will affect the finished colour. These are: the powder and process inks, unevenness of the surface, wax post-processing and other infiltration media and procedures. Furthermore, in some 3D printers, the K channel is replaced by the binder and so the printer is only using the cyan, magenta and yellow channels. The paper will suggest methods for improving pre-visualisation and accurate pre-viewing of the colours through the manufacture of three-dimensional colour charts as a reference guide for designers so that they can make accurate coloured artefacts. A series of case studies will be demonstrated.

  4. DOPPLER WEATHER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Berlin, Gary J.

    2002-08-05

    The SRS Doppler Weather System consists of a Doppler Server, A Master Server (also known as the Weather Server), several Doppler Slave Servers, and client-side software program called the Doppler Radar Client. This system is used to display near rel-time images taken from the SRS Weather Center's Doppler Radar computer. The Doppler Server is software that resides on the SRS Doppler Computer. It gathers raw data, 24-bit color weather images via screen scraping ever five minutes as requested by the Master Server. The Doppler Server then reduces the 24-bit color images to 8-bit color using a fixed color table for analysis and compression. This preserves the fidelity of the image color and arranges the colors in specific order for display. At the time of color reduction, the white color used for the city names on the background images are remapped to a different index (color) of white that the white on the weather scale. The Weather Server places a time stamp on the image, then compresses the image and passes it to all Doppler Slave servers. Each of the Doppler Slave servers mainitain a circular buffer of the eight most current images representing the last 40 minutes of weather data. As a new image is added, the oldest drops off. The Doppler Radar Client is an optional install program for any site-wide workstation. When a Client session is started, the Client requests Doppler Slave server assignment from the Master Server. Upon its initial request to the Slave Server, the Client obtains all eight current images and maintains its own circular buffer, updating its images every five minutes as the Doppler Slave is updated. Three background reference images are stored as part of the Client. The Client brings up the appropriate background image, decompresses the doppler data, and displays the doppler data on the background image.

  5. DOPPLER WEATHER SYSTEM

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-08-05

    The SRS Doppler Weather System consists of a Doppler Server, A Master Server (also known as the Weather Server), several Doppler Slave Servers, and client-side software program called the Doppler Radar Client. This system is used to display near rel-time images taken from the SRS Weather Center's Doppler Radar computer. The Doppler Server is software that resides on the SRS Doppler Computer. It gathers raw data, 24-bit color weather images via screen scraping ever fivemore » minutes as requested by the Master Server. The Doppler Server then reduces the 24-bit color images to 8-bit color using a fixed color table for analysis and compression. This preserves the fidelity of the image color and arranges the colors in specific order for display. At the time of color reduction, the white color used for the city names on the background images are remapped to a different index (color) of white that the white on the weather scale. The Weather Server places a time stamp on the image, then compresses the image and passes it to all Doppler Slave servers. Each of the Doppler Slave servers mainitain a circular buffer of the eight most current images representing the last 40 minutes of weather data. As a new image is added, the oldest drops off. The Doppler Radar Client is an optional install program for any site-wide workstation. When a Client session is started, the Client requests Doppler Slave server assignment from the Master Server. Upon its initial request to the Slave Server, the Client obtains all eight current images and maintains its own circular buffer, updating its images every five minutes as the Doppler Slave is updated. Three background reference images are stored as part of the Client. The Client brings up the appropriate background image, decompresses the doppler data, and displays the doppler data on the background image.« less

  6. False-colour palette generation using a reference colour gamut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Monochrome images are often converted to false-colour images, in which arbitrary colours are assigned to regions of the image to aid recognition of features within the image. Criteria for selection of colour palettes vary according to the application, but may include distinctiveness, extensibility, consistency, preference, meaningfulness and universality. A method for defining a palette from colours on the surface of a reference gamut is described, which ensures that all colours in the palette have the maximum chroma available for the given hue angle in the reference gamut. The palette can be re-targeted to a reproduction medium as needed using colour management, and this method ensures consistency between cross-media colour reproductions using the palette.

  7. Colour vision in marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Justin; Carleton, Karen L; Cronin, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Colour vision in the marine environment is on average simpler than in terrestrial environments with simple or no colour vision through monochromacy or dichromacy. Monochromacy is found in marine mammals and elasmobranchs, including whales and sharks, but not some rays. Conversely, there is also a greater diversity of colour vision in the ocean than on land, examples being the polyspectral stomatopods and the many colour vision solutions found among reef fish. Recent advances in sequencing reveal more opsin (visual pigment) types than functionally useful at any one time. This diversity arises through opsin duplication and conversion. Such mechanisms allow pick-and-mix adaptation that tunes colour vision on a variety of very short non-evolutionary timescales. At least some of the diversity in marine colour vision is best explained as unconventional colour vision or as neutral drift. PMID:25725325

  8. Present problems of food colours.

    PubMed

    Kläui, H

    1980-01-01

    Food colours belong to those food additives which have been most carefully evaluated toxicologically. The colours which are accepted today by international bodies, like the FAO/WHO and Codex Alimentarius, offer an extraordinary high degree of safety. Within these toxicologically accepted colours, the group of colours which naturally occur in foods (for long periods of time) deserves special attention: such colours combine in an ideal way a very long practical human experience with scientific examination under experimental and animal test conditions, and they offer, therefore, a maximum degree of safety. Colours which naturally occur in foods and which are also of industrial importance are: caramel, carotenoids, grape skin extracts and some colouring spices. PMID:7447918

  9. Intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS) in thoracolumbar fractures.

    PubMed

    Blumenkopf, B; Daniels, T

    1988-01-01

    The thoracolumbar levels are the second most common region for spinal trauma. A major surgical effort often entails removal of retropulsed bone fragments with decompression of the spinal contents or realignment of vertebral subluxations. The ability to determine intraoperatively the completeness of such a procedure could impact on the surgical approach and, ultimately, the operative result. The intraoperative use of ultrasonography has gained popularity and applicability. This comparison study of intraoperative ultrasonography versus postoperative computed tomography (CT) assessed the accuracy of intraoperative ultrasonography in determining the status of the spinal canal following surgical intervention in a group of 21 patients with thoracolumbar fractures. In all cases a patent ventral subarachnoid space or complete spinal canal decompression was deduced following intraoperative ultrasonography. The postoperative assessment by CT concurred in 20 of 21 (95%) situations. Intraoperative ultrasonography proved useful during the operative management of these fractures and gave good supportive evidence that the neural elements were decompressed by surgical procedure. PMID:2980067

  10. Christian Doppler and the Doppler effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toman, Kurt

    1984-04-01

    A summary is given of Doppler's life and career. He was born 180 years ago on November 29, 1803, in Salzburg, Austria. He died on March 17, 1853 in Venice. The effect bearing his name was first announced in a presentation before the Royal Bohemian Society of the Sciences in Prague on May 25, 1842. Doppler considered his work a generalization of the aberration theorem as discovered by Bradley. With it came the inference that the perception of physical phenomena can change with the state of motion of the observer. Acceptance of the principle was not without controversy. In 1852, the mathematician Petzval claimed that no useful scientific deductions can be made from Doppler's elementary equations. In 1860, Ernst Mach resolved the misunderstanding that clouded this controversy. The Doppler effect is alive and well. Its role in radio science and related disciplines is enumerated.

  11. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness.

    PubMed

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d') and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object's stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain. PMID:27023274

  12. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B.; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d’) and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object’s stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain. PMID:27023274

  13. Imaging of the malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour with emphasis οn ultrasonography: correlation with MRI.

    PubMed

    Rafailidis, Vasileios; Kaziani, Theodora; Theocharides, Costas; Papanikolaou, Athanasios; Rafailidis, Dimitrios

    2014-09-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours affect 0.001 % of the population. The epithelioid subtype accounts for only 5 % of them. We herein present a patient with a palpable mass on the left calf, which was investigated by ultrasonography, ultrasonographically guided fine-needle biopsy and MRI. Ultrasonography estimated the size of the tumour and evaluated its echotexture. Doppler technique detected characteristic corkscrew-type blood vessel entering in the upper pole of the mass. T1-weighted, fat-suppression and gadolinium-enhanced MRI sequences confirmed ultrasonographic findings. In conclusion, although final diagnosis was established by biopsy, ultrasonography and MRI proved complementary in the characterization of the lesion and planning of surgery. PMID:25177396

  14. Colour detection thresholds in faces and colour patches.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok Wei; Stephen, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    Human facial skin colour reflects individuals' underlying health (Stephen et al 2011 Evolution & Human Behavior 32 216-227); and enhanced facial skin CIELab b* (yellowness), a* (redness), and L* (lightness) are perceived as healthy (also Stephen et al 2009a International Journal of Primatology 30 845-857). Here, we examine Malaysian Chinese participants' detection thresholds for CIELab L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) colour changes in Asian, African, and Caucasian faces and skin coloured patches. Twelve face photos and three skin coloured patches were transformed to produce four pairs of images of each individual face and colour patch with different amounts of red, yellow, or lightness, from very subtle (deltaE = 1.2) to quite large differences (deltaE = 9.6). Participants were asked to decide which of sequentially displayed, paired same-face images or colour patches were lighter, redder, or yellower. Changes in facial redness, followed by changes in yellowness, were more easily discriminated than changes in luminance. However, visual sensitivity was not greater for redness and yellowness in nonface stimuli, suggesting red facial skin colour special salience. Participants were also significantly better at recognizing colour differences in own-race (Asian) and Caucasian faces than in African faces, suggesting the existence of cross-race effect in discriminating facial colours. Humans' colour vision may have been selected for skin colour signalling (Changizi et al 2006 Biology Letters 2 217-221), enabling individuals to perceive subtle changes in skin colour, reflecting health and emotional status. PMID:24344549

  15. Renal Artery Doppler Findings in the Patients with Polyhydramnios before and after the Conservative Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Akdogan, Melek; İpek, Ali; Kurt, Aydın; Sayit, Aslı Tanrıvermis; Karaoglanoglu, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the foetal renal blood flow with colour Doppler ultrasonography. Patients with polyhydramnios were investigated for the foetal renal artery pulsatility index (PI) at the beginning of the treatment, and after the conservative treatment in those who reached the normal amniotic fluid index. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 39 foetuses with polyhydramnios were evaluated at gestational weeks 26 to 36. The foetal development parameters, right and left foetal renal artery PIs, and amniotic fluid index were measured at the beginning of the treatment in all of these patients. Of these patients, 19 who responded to the conservative treatment were also revaluated when their amniotic fluid index reached normal levels, and statistical analyses were performed for the renal artery PIs before and after the treatment. Results: In this study, 19 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria as patients with polyhydramnios who responded to conservative treatment. For these patients, the mean foetal renal artery PI was 2.08 (range 1.5–3.0) at the first sonographic examination, and the mean foetal renal artery PI was 1.94 (range 1.53–2.69) after the conservative treatment. However, there was no statistically significant difference between these two groups (p=0.117). Conclusion: In this study, no statistically significant difference was found in the foetal renal artery PIs of the patients with polyhydramnios before and after the conservative treatment. These results suggest that the renal artery blood flow may not have any effect on the renal artery PI; therefore, these findings indicate that the renal artery PI cannot be used as a marker in the evaluation of polyhydramnios. PMID:26180491

  16. Advances in Doppler OCT

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gangjun; Chen, Zhongping

    2014-01-01

    We review the principle and some recent applications of Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT). The advances of the phase-resolved Doppler OCT method are described. Functional OCT algorithms which are based on an extension of the phase-resolved scheme are also introduced. Recent applications of Doppler OCT for quantification of flow, imaging of microvasculature and vocal fold vibration, and optical coherence elastography are briefly discussed. PMID:24443649

  17. Advanced Doppler tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler tracking method is currently the only technique available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the approx. 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1) Hz low frequency band. A brief review is given of the Doppler method, a discussion of the main noise sources, and a review of experience with current spacecraft and the prospects for sensitivity improvements in an advanced Doppler tracking experiment.

  18. Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guihua; Zou, Dazhong; Cai, Haiyun; Liu, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a type of autoimmune thyroid disease with an increasing prevalence in past decades. Its diagnosisis mostly based on ultrasonography. Ultrasonography is a useful and essential tool to make this diagnosis based on the characteristics of the disease. In the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules, ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy is an effective method to distinguish Hashimoto's thyroiditis from other thyroid disorders. One exciting and recent advance is that non-invasive ultrasound-based methods have supplemented fine-needle aspiration to diagnose Hashimoto's thyroiditis under more complex conditions. In this review, we discuss the recent advantages of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:27100487

  19. Complementary colours for a physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babič, Vitomir; Čepič, Mojca

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports on a simple experiment which enables splitting incident light into two different modes, each having a colour exactly complementary to the other. A brief historical development of colour theories and differences in a physicist's point of view with respect to an artist's one is discussed. An experimental system for producing colours and their physically exact complements using cellophane is presented. The origin of the colours lies in the transmission of polarized light through the birefringent cellophane, and therefore the optics of birefringent materials is briefly presented. A set-up which will be described in the following can be used in a laboratory experiment at an undergraduate level.

  20. Across light: through colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Isabel; Richardson, Martin; Bernardo, Luis Miguel

    2012-03-01

    The speed at which our world is changing is reflected in the shifting way artistic images are created and produced. Holography can be used as a medium to express the perception of space with light and colour and to make the material and the immaterial experiments with optical and digital holography. This paper intends to be a reflection on the final product of that process surrounding a debate of ideas for new experimental methodologies applied to holographic images. Holography is a time-based medium and the irretrievable linear flow of time is responsible for a drama, unique to traditional cinematography. If the viewers move to left or right, they see glimpses of the next scene or the previous one perceived a second ago. This interaction of synthetic space arises questions such as: can we see, in "reality", two forms in the same space? Trying to answer this question, a series of works has been created. These concepts are embryonic to a series of digital art holograms and lenticulars technique's titled "Across Light: Through Colour". They required some technical research and comparison between effects from different camera types, using Canon IS3 and Sony HDR CX105.

  1. Digital colour management system for colour parameters reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grudzinski, Karol; Lasmanowicz, Piotr; Assis, Lucas M. N.; Pawlicka, Agnieszka; Januszko, Adam

    2013-10-01

    Digital Colour Management System (DCMS) and its application to new adaptive camouflage system are presented in this paper. The DCMS is a digital colour rendering method which would allow for transformation of a real image into a set of colour pixels displayed on a computer monitor. Consequently, it can analyse pixels' colour which comprise images of the environment such as desert, semi-desert, jungle, farmland or rocky mountain in order to prepare an adaptive camouflage pattern most suited for the terrain. This system is described in present work as well as the use the subtractive colours mixing method to construct the real time colour changing electrochromic window/pixel (ECD) for camouflage purpose. The ECD with glass/ITO/Prussian Blue(PB)/electrolyte/CeO2-TiO2/ITO/glass configuration was assembled and characterized. The ECD switched between green and yellow after +/-1.5 V application and the colours have been controlled by Digital Colour Management System and described by CIE LAB parameters.

  2. Postoperative ultrasonography of the musculoskeletal system

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Kyung Ah; Cho, Kil-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography of the postoperative musculoskeletal system plays an important role in the Epub ahead of print accurate diagnosis of abnormal lesions in the bone and soft tissues. Ultrasonography is a fast and reliable method with no harmful irradiation for the evaluation of postoperative musculoskeletal complications. In particular, it is not affected by the excessive metal artifacts that appear on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Another benefit of ultrasonography is its capability to dynamically assess the pathologic movement in joints, muscles, or tendons. This article discusses the frequent applications of musculoskeletal ultrasonography in various postoperative situations including those involving the soft tissues around the metal hardware, arthroplasty, postoperative tendons, recurrent soft tissue tumors, bone unions, and amputation surgery. PMID:25971901

  3. Ultrasonography for Hand and Wrist Conditions.

    PubMed

    Starr, Harlan M; Sedgley, Matthew D; Means, Kenneth R; Murphy, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasonography facilitates dynamic, real-time evaluation of bones, joints, tendons, nerves, and vessels, making it an ideal imaging modality for hand and wrist conditions. Ultrasonography can depict masses and fluid collections, help locate radiolucent foreign bodies, characterize traumatic or overuse tendon or ligament pathology, and help evaluate compressive peripheral neuropathy and microvascular blood flow. Additionally, this modality improves the accuracy of therapeutic intra-articular or peritendinous injections and facilitates aspiration of fluid collections, such as ganglia. PMID:27355280

  4. The Cognitive Doppler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozoil, Micah E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the learning needs of students in the concrete operational stage in mathematics. Identifies the phenomenon of reduced cognitive performance in an out-of-class environment as the "Cognitive Doppler." Suggests methods of reducing the pronounced effects of the Cognitive Doppler by capitalizing on the students' ability to memorize effective…

  5. Linguistic determinants of word colouring in grapheme-colour synaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Simner, Julia; Glover, Louise; Mowat, Alice

    2006-02-01

    Previous studies of grapheme-colour synaesthesia have suggested that words tend to be coloured by their initial letter or initial vowel (e.g., Baron-Cohen et al., 1993; Ward et al., 2005). We examine this assumption in two ways. First, we show that letter position and syllable stress have been confounded, such that the initial letters of a word are often in stressed position (e.g., 'wo-man, 'ta-ble, 'ha-ppy). With participant JW, we separate these factors (e.g., with stress homographs such as 'con-vict vs. con-'vict) and show that the primary determinant of word colour is syllable stress, with only a secondary influence of letter position. We show that this effect derives from conceptual rather than perceptual stress, and that the effect is more prominent for synaesthetes whose words are coloured by vowels than by consonants. We examine, too, the time course of word colour generation. Slower colour naming occurs for spoken versus written stimuli, as we might expect from the additional requirement of grapheme conversion in the former. Reaction time data provide evidence, too, of incremental processing, since word colour is generated faster when the dominant grapheme is flagged early rather than late in the spoken word. Finally, we examine the role of non-dominant graphemes in word colouring and show faster colour naming when later graphemes match the dominant grapheme (e.g., ether) compared to when they do not (e.g., ethos). Taken together, our findings suggest that words are coloured incrementally by a process of competition between constituent graphemes, in which stressed graphemes and word-initial graphemes are disproportionately weighted. PMID:16683502

  6. [Ultrasonography in acute pelvic pain].

    PubMed

    Kupesić, Sanja; Aksamija, Alenka; Vucić, Niksa; Tripalo, Ana; Kurjak, Asim

    2002-01-01

    Acute pelvic pain may be the manifestation of various gynecologic and non-gynecologic disorders from less alarming rupture of the follicular cyst to life threatening conditions such as rupture of ectopic pregnancy or perforation of inflamed appendix. In order to construct an algorithm for differential diagnosis we divide acute pelvic pain into gynecologic and non-gynecologic etiology, which is than subdivided into gastrointestinal and urinary causes. Appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency and should always be considered in differential diagnosis if appendix has not been removed. Apart of clinical examination and laboratory tests, an ultrasound examination is sensitive up to 90% and specific up to 95% if graded compression technique is used. Still it is user-depended and requires considerable experience in order to perform it reliably. Meckel's diverticulitis, acute terminal ileitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis and functional bowel disease are conditions that should be differentiated from other causes of low abdominal pain by clinical presentation, laboratory and imaging tests. Dilatation of renal pelvis and ureter are typical signs of obstructive uropathy and may be efficiently detected by ultrasound. Additional thinning of renal parenchyma suggests long-term obstructive uropathy. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy, salpingitis and hemorrhagic ovarian cysts are three most commonly diagnosed gynecologic conditions presenting as an acute abdomen. Degenerating leiomyomas and adnexal torsion occur less frequently. For better systematization, gynecologic causes of acute pelvic pain could be divided into conditions with negative pregnancy test and conditions with positive pregnancy test. Pelvic inflammatory disease may be ultrasonically presented with numerous signs such as thickening of the tubal wall, incomplete septa within the dilated tube, demonstration of hyperechoic mural nodules, free fluid in the "cul-de-sac" etc. Color Doppler ultrasound contributes to more

  7. Reversible colour change in Arthropoda.

    PubMed

    Umbers, Kate D L; Fabricant, Scott A; Gawryszewski, Felipe M; Seago, Ainsley E; Herberstein, Marie E

    2014-11-01

    The mechanisms and functions of reversible colour change in arthropods are highly diverse despite, or perhaps due to, the presence of an exoskeleton. Physiological colour changes, which have been recorded in 90 arthropod species, are rapid and are the result of changes in the positioning of microstructures or pigments, or in the refractive index of layers in the integument. By contrast, morphological colour changes, documented in 31 species, involve the anabolism or catabolism of components (e.g. pigments) directly related to the observable colour. In this review we highlight the diversity of mechanisms by which reversible colour change occurs and the evolutionary context and diversity of arthropod taxa in which it has been observed. Further, we discuss the functions of reversible colour change so far proposed, review the limited behavioural and ecological data, and argue that the field requires phylogenetically controlled approaches to understanding the evolution of reversible colour change. Finally, we encourage biologists to explore new model systems for colour change and to engage scientists from other disciplines; continued cross-disciplinary collaboration is the most promising approach to this nexus of biology, physics, and chemistry. PMID:24495279

  8. Characterization of Caramel Colour IV.

    PubMed

    Licht, B H; Shaw, K; Smith, C; Mendoza, M; Orr, J; Myers, D V

    1992-05-01

    A large number of commercial Caramel Colour IV samples were characterized in order to assess the uniformity of the class and to provide data to be used in specifications development. Owing to the chemical and physical complexity of caramel colour it was not feasible to perform detailed analysis of all constituents for assessment of uniformity. Instead, selected parameters were evaluated and judgements were made with respect to compositional uniformity based on the similarities of these parameters among the various samples. As Caramel Colour IV is required by the food industry in a range of colour intensities, there must be a range of properties that differ from sample to sample, but that are sufficiently similar for the material to still be considered as part of the Caramel Colour IV class. Fractions as well as whole caramel were analysed using selected spectrophotometric, chromatographic and chemical techniques. Samples were fractionated based on molecular weight and polarity. The data presented here provide evidence for the uniformity in composition of Caramel Colour IV with respect to molecular weight distribution, to nitrogen and sulphur content and their distribution throughout the fractions, to absorbance properties and to specific low molecular weight compounds. Thus, it can be concluded that Caramel Colour IV exhibits compositional uniformity within the range of colour intensity required by the food industry worldwide. PMID:1644377

  9. Complementary Colours for a Physicist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babic, Vitomir; Cepic, Mojca

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple experiment which enables splitting incident light into two different modes, each having a colour exactly complementary to the other. A brief historical development of colour theories and differences in a physicist's point of view with respect to an artist's one is discussed. An experimental system for producing…

  10. Christian Doppler is 200 years young.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, Alfred; Partsch, Hugo

    2003-11-01

    Christian Doppler was born 200 years ago in Salzburg, Austria, on November 29, 1803, worked in Prague and Vienna and died 150 years ago in Venice. In an article of eight pages he described the principle, which made him famous. It appeared in 1842 with the exotic title: "On the Coloured Light of the Double Stars and Certain Other Stars of the Heaven". The validity of his principle for velocity measurement was confirmed by trumpet sounds produced on a train moving towards and away from the observer. Around 1960 Japanese scientists suggested that flow velocity in blood vessels could be determined by analysing the difference of frequency between emitted and backscattered ultrasound. Rushmer and coworkers built machines suitable for medicine in Seattle, where Eugene Strandness recognized their potential and applied them in first studies. In 1967 the technique jumped to Europe and started to be used worldwide. Already by using continuous wave ultrasound it was possible to diagnose occlusive disease of neck and limb arteries, venous thrombosis and valvular insufficiency with accuracy. Measurements of postestenotic ankle blood pressure were facilitated by Doppler sensing. Over the years more sophisticated instruments were developed. Pulsed emission of ultrasound waves opened a way to study flow velocity profiles across large vessels. By combining the method with A or B mode ultrasound blood flow could be quantified and finally perfused segments of blood vessels visualized. Duplex scanning in its simple and then in its colour coded version is nowadays the standard non-invasive technique that nobody would like to miss. Vascular territories like intracranial, renal and intestinal arteries can also be explored. For the assessment of microvascular flow in skin and mucosae laser Doppler instruments were introduced. PMID:14694774

  11. Blood flow velocity in monocular retinoblastoma assessed by color doppler

    PubMed Central

    Bonanomi, Maria Teresa B C; Saito, Osmar C; de Lima, Patricia Picciarelli; Bonanomi, Roberta Chizzotti; Chammas, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the flow of retrobulbar vessels in retinoblastoma by color Doppler imaging. METHODS: A prospective study of monocular retinoblastoma treated by enucleation between 2010 and 2014. The examination comprised fundoscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography and color Doppler imaging. The peak blood velocities in the central retinal artery and central retinal vein of tumor-containing eyes (tuCRAv and tuCRVv, respectively) were assessed. The velocities were compared with those for normal eyes (nlCRAv and nlCRVv) and correlated with clinical and pathological findings. Tumor dimensions in the pathological sections were compared with those in magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography and were correlated with tuCRAv and tuCRVv. In tumor-containing eyes, the resistivity index in the central retinal artery and the pulse index in the central retinal vein were studied in relation to all variables. RESULTS: Eighteen patients were included. Comparisons between tuCRAv and nlCRAv and between tuCRVv and nlCRVv revealed higher velocities in tumor-containing eyes (p<0.001 for both), with a greater effect in the central retinal artery than in the central retinal vein (p=0.024). Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography measurements were as reliable as pathology assessments (p=0.675 and p=0.375, respectively). A positive relationship was found between tuCRAv and the tumor volume (p=0.027). The pulse index in the central retinal vein was lower in male patients (p=0.017) and in eyes with optic nerve invasion (p=0.0088). CONCLUSIONS: TuCRAv and tuCRVv are higher in tumor-containing eyes than in normal eyes. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography measurements are reliable. The tumor volume is correlated with a higher tuCRAv and a reduced pulse in the central retinal vein is correlated with male sex and optic nerve invasion. PMID:26735219

  12. Ultrasonography and guided biopsy in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bolondi, L; Gaiani, S; Benzi, G; Zironi, G; Rigamonti, A; Fusconi, F; Barbara, L

    1992-01-01

    Ultrasonographic screening and follow-up of patients with chronic liver disease lead to the detection of a large number of small asymptomatic hepatocellular carcinomas, so that the changing appearance of this neoplasm during its natural history has now been recognized. Ultrasonography provides information on shape, echogenicity, growth pattern and vascular involvement of the neoplasm. Three different shapes may be identified, depending upon the size and the invasiveness of the neoplasm: nodular, massive and diffuse. The echogenicity is variable and the tumour mass may appear hypo, hyper or isoechoic in comparison with the surrounding liver tissue. A mixed pattern and/or a hypoechoic ring may also be visualized. A tendency to change from a low echo pattern to a low periphery and finally to a massive pattern with increasing echogenicity has been shown in Japanese patients. The infiltrative growth pattern may be grossly distinguished from the expansive one on the basis of the aspect of the tumour boundary. Vascular invasion is easily recognizable as a mass within a major portal branch or even in the portal trunk. Duplex and color Doppler ultrasonography enable further insights on the vascular alterations related to this neoplasm. Abnormal signals, typical of HCC, are characterized by high-peak with broadening of spectrum. Low impedance continuous signals are less characteristic. Finally, ultra-sound guidance allows puncture of intrahepatic nodules as small as 1cm. The sensitivity of this procedure in the diagnosis of focal liver lesions is very high, varying between 91% and 95% with a specificity of 92%-100%. PMID:1315177

  13. Can Doppler ultrasound-guided oocyte retrieval improve IVF safety?

    PubMed

    Rísquez, Francisco; Confino, Edmond

    2010-10-01

    Transvaginal ultrasound-guided oocyte retrieval has gained universal acceptance with an excellent safety record overall. However, even with contemporary ultrasound resolution, the aspiration needle can injure adjacent pelvic organs and blood vessels and result in external and internal bleeding. Although the idea that Doppler ultrasound might reduce the risk of blood vessel injury during follicular aspiration seems to be plausable, measurement of peritoneal blood loss and the validity of this opinion has never been appropriately tested. Using a proposed classification method in an IVF programme, it was estimated that a significant peritoneal bleeding occurred in 56/898 (6%) of IVF patients. Although Doppler ultrasound was routinely used in all patients, it did not predict 24/53 (45%) of the patients with moderate peritoneal bleeding. In 8/53 cases (15%) with moderate peritoneal bleeding, vaginal bleeding was also detected and correctly predicted during oocyte aspiration using colour Doppler vaginal vessel imaging. Colour Doppler ultrasound guidance is an easily accessible technology with a theoretical promise to improve IVF safety and, with proper usage, has the potential to reduce haemorrhagic complications. PMID:20800546

  14. Doppler radar flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Petlevich, Walter J.; Sverdrup, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    A Doppler radar flowmeter comprises a transceiver which produces an audio frequency output related to the Doppler shift in frequency between radio waves backscattered from particulate matter carried in a fluid and the radiated radio waves. A variable gain amplifier and low pass filter are provided for amplifying and filtering the transceiver output. A frequency counter having a variable triggering level is also provided to determine the magnitude of the Doppler shift. A calibration method is disclosed wherein the amplifier gain and frequency counter trigger level are adjusted to achieve plateaus in the output of the frequency counter and thereby allow calibration without the necessity of being able to visually observe the flow.

  15. Generating colour and texture verniers.

    PubMed

    Brelstaff, G J; Wilson, J B

    1994-05-01

    This paper describes computer graphics techniques for presenting visual stimuli in a vernier format composed out of coloured texture patterns. Such stimuli can be used to investigate the performance at the task of localising boundaries mediated by changes in colour and/or texture. We summarise the contents as follows: (1) Techniques for presenting visual stimuli are reviewed with a view to how they might be used to present colour and texture verniers. (2) The design of the vernier stimuli for the localisation task is considered. (3) Significant elements of this design are: (a) the use of non-isoplanatic textures to avoid interference effects at boundaries, (b) the modulation of the texture patterns along axes in MacLeod-Boynton colour space so that relative retinal cone contributions are controlled, and (c) the use of double-buffering, colour map manipulation, and contrast randomisation techniques to avoid problems commonly encountered when presenting computer graphics stimuli on colour monitors. (4) Results of a psychophysical experiment that presents colour and texture verniers are reported elsewhere. PMID:8089039

  16. Critical care ultrasonography in acute respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Vignon, Philippe; Repessé, Xavier; Vieillard-Baron, Antoine; Maury, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a leading indication for performing critical care ultrasonography (CCUS) which, in these patients, combines critical care echocardiography (CCE) and chest ultrasonography. CCE is ideally suited to guide the diagnostic work-up in patients presenting with ARF since it allows the assessment of left ventricular filling pressure and pulmonary artery pressure, and the identification of a potential underlying cardiopathy. In addition, CCE precisely depicts the consequences of pulmonary vascular lesions on right ventricular function and helps in adjusting the ventilator settings in patients sustaining moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Similarly, CCE helps in identifying patients at high risk of ventilator weaning failure, depicts the mechanisms of weaning pulmonary edema in those patients who fail a spontaneous breathing trial, and guides tailored therapeutic strategy. In all these clinical settings, CCE provides unparalleled information on both the efficacy and tolerance of therapeutic changes. Chest ultrasonography provides further insights into pleural and lung abnormalities associated with ARF, irrespective of its origin. It also allows the assessment of the effects of treatment on lung aeration or pleural effusions. The major limitation of lung ultrasonography is that it is currently based on a qualitative approach in the absence of standardized quantification parameters. CCE combined with chest ultrasonography rapidly provides highly relevant information in patients sustaining ARF. A pragmatic strategy based on the serial use of CCUS for the management of patients presenting with ARF of various origins is detailed in the present manuscript. PMID:27524204

  17. Colour Reconnection in WW Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hondt, J.

    2003-07-01

    Preliminary results are presented for a measurement of the κ parameter used in the JETSET SK-I model of Colour Reconnection in {W}+{W}^- -> qbar {q}'bar {q}q^' events at LEP2. An update on the investigation of Colour Reconnection effects in hadronic decays of W pairs, using the particle flow in DELPHI is presented. A second method is based on the observation that two different mW estimators have different sensitivity to the parametrised Colour Reconnection effect. Hence the difference between them is an observable with information content about κ.

  18. Doppler Lidar (DL) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, RK

    2012-02-13

    The Doppler lidar (DL) is an active remote sensing instrument that provides range- and time-resolved measurements of radial velocity and attenuated backscatter. The principle of operation is similar to radar in that pulses of energy are transmitted into the atmosphere; the energy scattered back to the transceiver is collected and measured as a time-resolved signal. From the time delay between each outgoing transmitted pulse and the backscattered signal, the distance to the scatterer is inferred. The radial or line-of-sight velocity of the scatterers is determined from the Doppler frequency shift of the backscattered radiation. The DL uses a heterodyne detection technique in which the return signal is mixed with a reference laser beam (i.e., local oscillator) of known frequency. An onboard signal processing computer then determines the Doppler frequency shift from the spectra of the heterodyne signal. The energy content of the Doppler spectra can also be used to determine attenuated backscatter.

  19. Color Doppler flow imaging.

    PubMed

    Foley, W D; Erickson, S J

    1991-01-01

    The performance requirements and operational parameters of a color Doppler system are outlined. The ability of an operator to recognize normal and abnormal variations in physiologic flow and artifacts caused by noise and aliasing is emphasized. The use of color Doppler flow imaging is described for the vessels of the neck and extremities, upper abdomen and abdominal transplants, obstetrics and gynecology, dialysis fistulas, and testicular and penile flow imaging. PMID:1898567

  20. Christian Andreas Doppler: A legendary man inspired by the dazzling light of the stars

    PubMed Central

    Katsi, V; Felekos, I; Kallikazaros, I

    2013-01-01

    Christian Andreas Doppler is renowned primarily for his revolutionary theory of the Doppler effect, which has deeply influenced many areas of modern science and technology, including medicine. His work has laid the foundations for modern ultrasonography and his ideas are still inspiring discoveries more than a hundred years after his death. Doppler may well earn the title of Homo Universalis for his broad knowledge of physics, mathematics and astronomy and most of all for his indefatigable investigations for new ideas and his ingenious mind. According to Bolzano: “It is hard to believe how fruitful a genius Austria has in this man”. His legacy of scientific achievement have seen Doppler honoured in the later years on coinage and money, names of streets, educational institutions, rock groups, even of a lunar crater; while the ultimate tribute to his work is the countless references to the homonymous medical eponym. PMID:24376313

  1. Christian Andreas Doppler: A legendary man inspired by the dazzling light of the stars.

    PubMed

    Katsi, V; Felekos, I; Kallikazaros, I

    2013-04-01

    Christian Andreas Doppler is renowned primarily for his revolutionary theory of the Doppler effect, which has deeply influenced many areas of modern science and technology, including medicine. His work has laid the foundations for modern ultrasonography and his ideas are still inspiring discoveries more than a hundred years after his death. Doppler may well earn the title of Homo Universalis for his broad knowledge of physics, mathematics and astronomy and most of all for his indefatigable investigations for new ideas and his ingenious mind. According to Bolzano: "It is hard to believe how fruitful a genius Austria has in this man". His legacy of scientific achievement have seen Doppler honoured in the later years on coinage and money, names of streets, educational institutions, rock groups, even of a lunar crater; while the ultimate tribute to his work is the countless references to the homonymous medical eponym. PMID:24376313

  2. Ultrasonography of the hand, wrist, and elbow.

    PubMed

    Bodor, Marko; Fullerton, Brad

    2010-08-01

    High-frequency diagnostic ultrasonography of the hand, wrist and elbow has significant potential to improve the quality of diagnosis and care provided by neuromuscular and musculoskeletal specialists. In patients referred for weakness, pain and numbness of the hand, wrist or elbow, diagnostic ultrasonography can be an adjunct to electrodiagnosis and help in identifying ruptured tendons and treating conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome or trigger finger. Use of a small high-frequency (>10-15 MHz) transducer, an instrument with a blunt pointed tip to enhance sonopalpation and a model of the hand, wrist and elbow is advised to enhance visualization of small anatomical structures and complex bony contours. A range of conditions, including tendon and ligament ruptures, trigger finger, de Quervain tenosynovitis, intersection syndrome, lateral epicondylitis, and osteoarthritis, is described along with detailed ultrasonography-guided injection techniques for carpal tunnel syndrome and trigger finger. PMID:20797547

  3. Sources of error in emergency ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the common sources of diagnostic errors in emergency ultrasonography. Methods The authors performed a Medline search using PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland) for original research and review publications examining the common sources of errors in diagnosis with specific reference to emergency ultrasonography. The search design utilized different association of the following terms : (1) emergency ultrasonography, (2) error, (3) malpractice and (4) medical negligence. This review was restricted to human studies and to English-language literature. Four authors reviewed all the titles and subsequent the abstract of 171 articles that appeared appropriate. Other articles were recognized by reviewing the reference lists of significant papers. Finally, the full text of 48 selected articles was reviewed. Results Several studies indicate that the etiology of error in emergency ultrasonography is multi-factorial. Common sources of error in emergency ultrasonography are: lack of attention to the clinical history and examination, lack of communication with the patient, lack of knowledge of the technical equipment, use of inappropriate probes, inadequate optimization of the images, failure of perception, lack of knowledge of the possible differential diagnoses, over-estimation of one’s own skill, failure to suggest further ultrasound examinations or other imaging techniques. Conclusions To reduce errors in interpretation of ultrasonographic findings, the sonographer needs to be aware of the limitations of ultrasonography in the emergency setting, and the similarities in the appearances of various physiological and pathological processes. Adequate clinical informations are essential. Diagnostic errors should be considered not as signs of failure, but as learning opportunities. PMID:23902656

  4. What Colour Is a Shadow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, S. W.

    2009-01-01

    What colour is a shadow? Black, grey, or some other colour? This article describes how to use a digital camera to test the hypothesis that a shadow under a clear blue sky has a blue tint. A white sheet of A4 paper was photographed in full sunlight and in shadow under a clear blue sky. The images were analysed using a shareware program called…

  5. [Uterine arteriovenous malformation: US, color Doppler US and MRI findings (case report)].

    PubMed

    Murat, Ayşe; Boztosun, Yasemin; Oğur, Erkin

    2004-06-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformations are rare but life threatening lesions. Sixty nine-year old, multiparous, postmenopausal patient complained of intermittent vaginal hemorrhage for 4 years. Serum beta-HCG level of the patient who had no history of uterine curettage or pelvic operation was normal. Noninvasive diagnosis of arteriovenous malformations with congenital or acquired etiology can be made by color Doppler ultrasonography and MRI. PMID:15236132

  6. Can the ductus venosus doppler predict the hemoglobinopathies?

    PubMed Central

    Karateke, Atilla; Silfeler, Dilek Benk; Güngören, Arif; Kurt, Raziye Keskin; Okyay, Ayşe Güler; Dokuyucu, Recep; Ulutas, Turker; Un, Burak; Paksoy, Hacer; Hakverdi, Ali Ulvi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the ductus venosus doppler between 11-13+6 (week-day) in pregnant women with hemoglobinopaties and its relation with fetal outcomes. Material and methods: A total of 100 pregnant women with hemoglobinopathies and 100 healthy pregnant women were included in our study. Ultrasonography (USG) was performed to all pregnant women and the ductus venosus doppler (DVD) flows were evaluated. The results were statistically analyzed. Results: The mean hemoglobin level was significantly lower in hemoglobinopathy group (9.7 ± 0.7) than control group (10.67 ± 0.82) (P<0.001). There was a significant relationship between Vmax, Vmin, S/D and reverse ‘a’ wave in fetuses with hemoglobinopathies. Vmax, Vmin and S/D parameters were higher in the group of hemoglobinopathies (respectively mean value, 31.3 ± 1.66, 8.90 ± 0.81, 2.97 ± 0.49). Reverse ‘a’ wave was detected especially in all fetuses with sickle cell anemia. There was no significantly relationship between the groups in terms of PI, RI and HR. In a logistic regression analyses, fetal hemoglobinopathy was independently associated with Vmin (β = 1.07, P = 0.001), S/D (β = 2.61, P = 0.001) and reverse ‘a’ wave (β = 2.46, P = 0.004). Conclusion: Pregnant women with hemoglobinopathies had changed ductus venosus doppler values in compared to normal pregnant women. Maternal anemia may cause this doppler changes. Furthermore all fetuses with sickle cell anemia (n = 5) had abnormal ductus venosus doppler findings. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between abnormal ductus venosus doppler findings and fetuses diagnosed with sickle cell anemia. PMID:26064361

  7. Use of ultrasonography to make management decisions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transrectal ultrasonography has been available for making management decisions since the mid 1980’s. This technology allows for the real-time visualization of internal structures (i.e. ovary and fetus) that are otherwise difficult to evaluate. The use of this technology in making reproductive manag...

  8. Ultrasonography of the Kidney: A Pictorial Review

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography of the kidneys is essential in the diagnosis and management of kidney-related diseases. The kidneys are easily examined, and most pathological changes in the kidneys are distinguishable with ultrasound. In this pictorial review, the most common findings in renal ultrasound are highlighted. PMID:26838799

  9. [Real-time ultrasonography in neonatal diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Nogués, A; Morales, A; Munguía, C; Pagola, C; Arena, J

    1982-11-01

    Real time ultrasonography is a diagnostic technique very widely used in pediatrics and with specific applications in neonatology. Bedside its use in Neonatal I.C.U. it has many interesting aspects for intraabdominal and intracranial pathology. In some particular conditions this procedure can be the first diagnostic tool. Conventional X-rays can be performed after sonographic data have been analyzed. PMID:7168508

  10. Applications of Colour Processing In Optical Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, W. V.; Connolly, C.

    1986-11-01

    Humans are endowed with the facility to perceive colour. This not only provides an additional aesthetic dimension but also helps perform visual tasks efficiently. There are many occupations, including inspection, not open to those with defective colour vision. Todays machine vision systems are virtually all colour-blind. Yet there are applications where colour is intrinsic. Consider for example the inspection and grading of fruit, vegetables, biscuits and other food products. Consider also the widespread use of colour coding for wiring and components in the electrical and electronic industries. Automatic optical inspection of such things cannot be done without relating to colour. There are other applications where colour is not directly relevant but the additional information provided can help simplify and speed up the processing task. This paper reviews the nature of colour, relating the psychophysical aspects of colour perception and the physical properties of available sensors to the needs of an automatic inspection system. The theory of colour perception is based on the tri-stimulus theory which says that any colour may be matched using appropriate proportions of three primary colours. Although later experiments have suggested human colour perception is more complex, most electronic video sensors employ a three colour system. Usually the red, green and blue primary components are derived and may be used directly as sensory inputs to a vision system. However the primary representation of colour is not the most efficient means of encoding nor is it the most useful basis for interpretive processing. The R,G and B primary signals may be simply transformed into a new coordinate system where one of the axes represents true object colour or hue. Using this new colour space simplifies processing. These ideas are illustrated by an inspection example. The colour coded wires of a European power cable are identified to ensure that a power plug is safely wired. For this

  11. Polarimetric Doppler Weather Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringi, V. N.; Chandrasekar, V.

    2001-10-01

    This work provides a detailed introduction to the principles of Doppler and polarimetric radar, focusing in particular on their use in the analysis of weather systems. The authors first discuss underlying topics such as electromagnetic scattering, polarization, and wave propagation. They then detail the engineering aspects of pulsed Doppler polarimetric radar, before examining key applications in meteorology and remote sensing. The book is aimed at graduate students of electrical engineering and atmospheric science as well as practitioners involved in the applications of polarimetric radar.

  12. Diagnosis of the cavo-hepato-atrial pathway in Budd-Chiari syndrome by ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Gai, Yong-Hao; Cai, Shi-Feng; Fan, Hui-Li; Liu, Qing-Wei

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrasonic features of the cavo-hepato-atrial pathway in Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS), by which blood is drained from the occluded inferior vena cava (IVC) to the right atrium via hepatic veins. Ultrasonograms from 11 patients with BCS with cavo-hepato-atrial pathways were retrospectively studied. Doppler ultrasound was used to observe the direction of the flow and measure the velocity of the blood-draining vessels. Blood flow in the draining vessels and the collaterals was shown as blue, red or bicolored depending on whether the flow direction was away from the transducer, towards the transducer or both. For measurement, the Doppler angle between the axis of the Doppler beam and that of the vein examined was always <60°. Ultrasonography was performed 1-2 weeks prior to digital subtraction angiography (DSA). All patients were confirmed by DSA. Membranous and segmental occlusions of IVCs were observed in seven and four cases, respectively. Blood flow from the IVC reversed to the hepatic/accessory hepatic vein, continued through the dilated intrahepatic collaterals, onward to the other hepatic vein and finally to the right atrium. The majority of the inlets (8/11) of hepatic veins above the occlusion were narrow compared with the dilated distant parts of the lumens. Accelerated blood flow in the inlets was detected in all patients regardless of the luminal diameter. In conclusion, the results from the present study suggest that the unusual cavo-hepato-atrial pathway can be diagnosed reliably by ultrasonography, which may be useful for clinical management. PMID:25120601

  13. The clinical practice patterns of fetal ultrasonography in the first-trimester: A questionnaire survey of members of the Korean Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kun Woo; Kwak, Dong Wook; Ko, Hyun Sun; Park, Hyun Soo; Seol, Hyun Joo; Hong, Joon Seok; Yang, Seung Woo; Oh, Soo Young; Kim, Moon Young; Kim, Sa Jin

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to survey the current clinical practice of first-trimester ultrasonography among members of the Korean Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology (KSUOG) and to provide basic data for making practical recommendations about first-trimester ultrasonography scan in Korea. Methods This survey was conducted using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The first-trimester in this survey was divided into two parts: early and late first-trimester. The survey was focused on safety issue, nuchal translucency (NT) cutoff, the anatomic structures they check, and the need for practical recommendations or educational courses during the first-trimester. Results During the study period, 194 KSUOG members participated into this survey. The survey on early first-trimester scan reveal that 173 (89.2%) of respondents had used pulsed-wave Doppler or color Doppler imaging to monitor fetal heart beat. For the late first-trimester scan, 145 (74.7%) of respondents was found to check for fetal anatomical assessments during their NT screening performance; however, the clinical practice patterns were considerably varied among participants. More than half of the respondents used the criterion of NT ≥3.0 mm to define increased NT. Approximately 80% of respondents stated that the screening ultrasonography of fetal structures in the first-trimester was necessary. Furthermore, 187 (96.4%) of respondents were in favor of a recommendation for first-trimester ultrasonography in Korea. Conclusion This is the first survey of the current clinical practice of first-trimester ultrasonography in Korea. Our survey findings highlight the need for the practical recommendation or educational course for first-trimester ultrasonography. PMID:25469332

  14. The colour of an avifauna: A quantitative analysis of the colour of Australian birds

    PubMed Central

    Delhey, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    Animal coloration is a poorly-understood aspect of phenotypic variability. Here I expand initial studies of the colour gamut of birds by providing the first quantitative description of the colour variation of an entire avifauna: Australian landbirds (555 species). The colour of Australian birds occupies a small fraction (19%) of the entire possible colour space and colour variation is extremely uneven. Most colours are unsaturated, concentrated in the centre of colour space and based on the deposition of melanins. Other mechanisms of colour production are less common but account for larger portions of colour space and for most saturated colours. Male colours occupy 45–25% more colour space than female colours, indicating that sexual dichromatism translates into a broader range of male colours. Male-exclusive colours are often saturated, at the edge of chromatic space, and have most likely evolved for signalling. While most clades of birds occupy expected or lower-than-expected colour volumes, parrots and cockatoos (Order Psittaciformes) occupy a much larger volume than expected. This uneven distribution of colour variation across mechanisms of colour production, sexes and clades is probably shared by avifaunas in other parts of the world, but this remains to be tested with comparable data. PMID:26679370

  15. The colour of an avifauna: A quantitative analysis of the colour of Australian birds.

    PubMed

    Delhey, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    Animal coloration is a poorly-understood aspect of phenotypic variability. Here I expand initial studies of the colour gamut of birds by providing the first quantitative description of the colour variation of an entire avifauna: Australian landbirds (555 species). The colour of Australian birds occupies a small fraction (19%) of the entire possible colour space and colour variation is extremely uneven. Most colours are unsaturated, concentrated in the centre of colour space and based on the deposition of melanins. Other mechanisms of colour production are less common but account for larger portions of colour space and for most saturated colours. Male colours occupy 45-25% more colour space than female colours, indicating that sexual dichromatism translates into a broader range of male colours. Male-exclusive colours are often saturated, at the edge of chromatic space, and have most likely evolved for signalling. While most clades of birds occupy expected or lower-than-expected colour volumes, parrots and cockatoos (Order Psittaciformes) occupy a much larger volume than expected. This uneven distribution of colour variation across mechanisms of colour production, sexes and clades is probably shared by avifaunas in other parts of the world, but this remains to be tested with comparable data. PMID:26679370

  16. Finnish Meteorological Institute Doppler Lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Ewan OConnor

    2015-03-27

    This doppler lidar system provides co-polar and cross polar attenuated backscatter coefficients,signal strength, and doppler velocities in the cloud and in the boundary level, including uncertainties for all parameters. Using the doppler beam swinging DBS technique, and Vertical Azimuthal Display (VAD) this system also provides vertical profiles of horizontal winds.

  17. The Doppler Pendulum Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, C. K.; Wong, H. K.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment to verify the Doppler effect of sound waves is described. An ultrasonic source is mounted at the end of a simple pendulum. As the pendulum swings, the rapid change of frequency can be recorded by a stationary receiver using a simple frequency-to-voltage converter. The experimental results are in close agreement with the Doppler…

  18. Structural colour in Chondrus crispus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Chris J.; Wilts, Bodo D.; Vignolini, Silvia; Brodie, Juliet; Steiner, Ullrich; Rudall, Paula J.; Glover, Beverley J.; Gregory, Thomas; Walker, Rachel H.

    2015-07-01

    The marine world is incredibly rich in brilliant and intense colours. Photonic structures are found in many different species and provide extremely complex optical responses that cannot be achieved solely by pigments. In this study we examine the cuticular structure of the red alga Chondrus crispus (Irish Moss) using anatomical and optical approaches. We experimentally measure the optical response of the multilayer structure in the cuticle. Using finite-difference time-domain modelling, we demonstrate conclusively for the first time that the dimensions and organisation of lamellae are responsible for the blue structural colouration on the surface of the fronds. Comparison of material along the apical-basal axis of the frond demonstrates that structural colour is confined to the tips of the thalli and show definitively that a lack of structural colour elsewhere corresponds with a reduction in the number of lamellae and the regularity of their ordering. Moreover, by studying the optical response for different hydration conditions, we demonstrate that the cuticular structure is highly porous and that the presence of water plays a critical role in its ability to act as a structural light reflector.

  19. Structural colour in Chondrus crispus.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Chris J; Wilts, Bodo D; Vignolini, Silvia; Brodie, Juliet; Steiner, Ullrich; Rudall, Paula J; Glover, Beverley J; Gregory, Thomas; Walker, Rachel H

    2015-01-01

    The marine world is incredibly rich in brilliant and intense colours. Photonic structures are found in many different species and provide extremely complex optical responses that cannot be achieved solely by pigments. In this study we examine the cuticular structure of the red alga Chondrus crispus (Irish Moss) using anatomical and optical approaches. We experimentally measure the optical response of the multilayer structure in the cuticle. Using finite-difference time-domain modelling, we demonstrate conclusively for the first time that the dimensions and organisation of lamellae are responsible for the blue structural colouration on the surface of the fronds. Comparison of material along the apical-basal axis of the frond demonstrates that structural colour is confined to the tips of the thalli and show definitively that a lack of structural colour elsewhere corresponds with a reduction in the number of lamellae and the regularity of their ordering. Moreover, by studying the optical response for different hydration conditions, we demonstrate that the cuticular structure is highly porous and that the presence of water plays a critical role in its ability to act as a structural light reflector. PMID:26139470

  20. String formation beyond leading colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Jesper R.; Skands, Peter Z.

    2015-08-01

    We present a new model for the hadronisation of multi-parton systems, in which colour correlations beyond leading N C are allowed to influence the formation of confining potentials (strings). The multiplet structure of SU(3) is combined with a minimisation of the string potential energy, to decide between which partons strings should form, allowing also for "baryonic" configurations (e.g., two colours can combine coherently to form an anticolour). In e + e -collisions, modifications to the leading-colour picture are small, suppressed by both colour and kinematics factors. But in pp collisions, multi-parton interactions increase the number of possible subleading connections, counteracting their naive 1/ N {/C 2} suppression. Moreover, those that reduce the overall string lengths are kinematically favoured. The model, which we have implemented in the PYTHIA 8 generator, is capable of reaching agreement not only with the important < p ⊥> ( n charged) distribution but also with measured rates (and ratios) of kaons and hyperons, in both ee and pp collisions. Nonetheless, the shape of their p ⊥ spectra remains challenging to explain.

  1. Colour Reconnection at LEP2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, P.

    2002-03-01

    The preliminary results on the search of colour reconnection effects (CR) from the four experiments at LEP, Aleph, Delphi, L3 and Opal, are reviewed. Extreme models are excluded by studies of standard variables, and on going studies of a method first suggested by L3, the particle flow method1, are yet inconclusive.

  2. An RGB approach to prismatic colours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theilmann, Florian; Grusche, Sascha

    2013-11-01

    Teaching prismatic colours usually boils down to establishing the take-home message that white light consists of ‘differently refrangible’ coloured rays. This approach explains the classical spectrum of seven colours but has its limitations, e.g. in discussing spectra from setups with higher resolution or in understanding the well saturated colours of simple edge spectra. Besides, the connection of physical wavelength and colour remains obscure—after all, colour and wavelength are not equivalent. In this paper, we suggest that teachers demonstrate these impressive experiments in the classroom by using a video projector and a prism to disperse black-and-white slit images. We introduce experimental and diagrammatic methods for establishing the connection between the original slit image and the wavelength composition of the resulting spectrum. From this (or any other given) wavelength composition, students can systematically derive the colours with a simple RGB approach, thus gaining a more accurate picture of the relation between wavelength and colour.

  3. Standard reference values for musculoskeletal ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, W; Schmidt, H; Schicke, B; Gromnica-Ihle, E

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To determine standard reference values for musculoskeletal ultrasonography in healthy adults. Methods: Ultrasonography was performed on 204 shoulders, elbows, hands, hips, knees, and feet of 102 healthy volunteers (mean age 38.4 years; range 20–60; 54 women) with a linear probe (10–5 MHz; Esaote Technos MP). Diameters of tendons, bursae, cartilage, erosions, hypoechoic rims around tendons and at joints were measured with regard to established standard scans. Mean, minimum, and maximum values, as well as two standard deviations (2 SD) were determined. Mean values ±2 SD were defined as standard reference values. Results: Hypoechoic rims were normally present in joints and tendon sheaths owing to physiological synovial fluid and/or cartilage. Similarly, fluid was found in the subdeltoid bursa in 173/204 (85%), at the long biceps tendon in 56 (27%), in the suprapatellar recess in 158 (77%), in the popliteal bursae in 32 (16%), and in the retrocalcaneal bursa in 49 (24%). Erosions of >1 mm were seen at the humeral head in 47 (23%). Values for important intervals were determined. The correlation between two investigators was 0.96 (0.78–0.99). The reliability of follow up investigations was 0.83 (0.52–0.99). Conclusions: Fluid in bursae as well as hypoechoic rims within joints and around tendons are common findings in healthy people. This study defines standard reference values for musculoskeletal ultrasonography to prevent misinterpretation of normal fluid as an anatomical abnormality. PMID:15249327

  4. Ultrasonography in gastrointestinal disease in cattle.

    PubMed

    Braun, U

    2003-09-01

    Ultrasonography is an ideal diagnostic tool for investigating gastrointestinal disorders in cattle. It is performed on standing non-sedated cattle using a 3.5 MHz linear transducer. In animals with traumatic reticuloperitonitis, inflammatory fibrinous changes, and abscesses can be imaged; however, magnets and foreign bodies are difficult to visualize because of the gas content of the reticulum. Ultrasonography can be used to assess the size, position and contents of the abomasum. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided abomasocentesis can be performed to evaluate the nature and chemical composition of its contents. In left displacement of the abomasum, the abomasum is seen between the left abdominal wall and the rumen. It contains fluid ingesta ventrally and a gas cap of varying size dorsally. Occasionally, the abomasal folds are seen in the ingesta. In cattle with right displacement of the abomasum, the liver is displaced medially from the right abdominal wall by the abomasum, which has an ultrasonographic appearance similar to that described for left displacement. Motility and diameter of the intestine are the most important criteria for ultrasonographic assessment of ileus. However, the cause of the ileus is rarely determined using ultrasonography. In cases with ileus of the small intestine, there is at least one region of dilatation of the intestine and motility is reduced or absent. In cattle with caecal dilatation, the caecum can always be imaged from the right lateral abdominal wall. The wall of the caecum closest to the transducer appears as a thick, echogenic, semi-circular line. PMID:12902177

  5. An RGB Approach to Prismatic Colours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theilmann, Florian; Grusche, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Teaching prismatic colours usually boils down to establishing the take-home message that white light consists of "differently refrangible" coloured rays. This approach explains the classical spectrum of seven colours but has its limitations, e.g. in discussing spectra from setups with higher resolution or in understanding the well…

  6. Biological Components of Colour Preference in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Anna; Bevis, Laura; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

    2010-01-01

    Adult colour preference has been summarized quantitatively in terms of weights on the two fundamental neural processes that underlie early colour encoding: the S-(L+M) ("blue-yellow") and L-M ("red-green") cone-opponent contrast channels ( Ling, Hurlbert & Robinson, 2006; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007). Here, we investigate whether colour preference in…

  7. Role of transrectal ultrasonography in evaluting azoospermia causes.

    PubMed

    Smajlovic, Fahrudin

    2007-01-01

    Infertility is a term with which we define lack of pregnancy among sexual partners within one year of regular intercourses without use of contraceptives. The term primary infertility includes lack of any previous pregnancy, while secondary infertility is a current infertility with previous successful pregnancy. Azoospermia is an inability to produce spermatozoids in testicles or represents normal production of the spermatozoids but the obstacle is somewhere in the ejaculatory paths. Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) provides us with the quality and most reliable data about the urinary bladder, prostate gland. Seminiferous tubule and ejaculatory ducts. The goal of this paper is to determine the role of TRUS in patients with azoospermia, in one significant sample of infertile respondents. During 2005 and 2006, among 35 patients with verified azoospermia, and which were involved in determination of infertility cause, also TRUS was performed as a mode of ultrasound diagnostic procedure. Average age of the patients was 35 years. Evaluation is done with use of ultrasound equipment HDI 4000-PHILIPS, with Color Doppler equipped with the transrectal ,biplane" probe of high frequency 9.5 MHz. There was 10 (29%) normal findings (29%), and 25 (71%) pathological. Also there was 8 (23%) dilatated vesicles, 6 (17%) wide ejaculatory ducts, 5 (13%) calcifications in vesicles. Atrophy and hypotrophy of vesicles was present in 3 (9%) cases and 3 (9%) central prostate cysts. TRUS is a useful diagnostic method in evaluation of seminal vesicles, ejaculatory ducts and prostate gland abnormalities. These abnormalities can cause azoospermia as the most important cause of infertility. PMID:17582974

  8. [Utility of Ultrasonography in Point of Care for Cardiovascular Disease].

    PubMed

    Ishizu, Tomoko; Kawakami, Yasushi

    2015-06-01

    Echocardiography is a powerful noninvasive cardiovascular diagnostic tool. In the emergency room, an outpatient setting, and the intensive care unit, physician-performed point-of-care (POC) echocardiography is particularly important to understand the concurrent pathophysiology of unstable patients. In POC echocardiography, the purpose of examination should be clearly decided in advance by performing careful symptom assessment and physical examination, including heart and lung auscultation. In this article, heart failure, cardiac murmur-, ischemic heart disease, and acute pulmonary artery thromboembolism are selected and overviewed to assess the utility of POC cardiovascular ultrasound. In heart failure, visual assessments of the left ventricular ejection fraction, chamber size ratio, and inferior vena cava diameter are important. An ultrasound lung comet is a very useful finding, suggesting the presence of lung congestion. In patients with a cardiac murmur, the source of the abnormal sound can easily be confirmed by the color Doppler signal in conjunction with chamber size assessment. On the other hand, judgment of the severity of valvular heart disease should be reserved for detailed echocardiography. In acute coronary syndrome, POC echo is extremely important for prompt diagnosis and complication assessment. An understanding of the coronary artery territory and method to detect regional wall motion abnormality in ischemic heart disease is necessary. Papillary muscle rupture and ventricular septal perforation are both fatal complications of myocardial infarction, and they should be kept in mind and pan-systolic murmur should be detected before echocardiography. In acute pulmonary thromboembolism, the right heart size and characteristic wall motion abnormality should be focused on using echocardiography in addition to tricuspid regurgitant flow velocity measurement. Femoral vein ultrasonography with a compression test should be performed for all patients with acute

  9. Doppler radar results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bracalente, Emedio M.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are covered in viewgraph form and include the following: (1) a summary of radar flight data collected; (2) a video of combined aft cockpit, nose camera, and radar hazard displays; (3) a comparison of airborne radar F-factor measurements with in situ and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) F-factors for some sample events; and (4) a summary of wind shear detection performance.

  10. Laser double Doppler flowmeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poffo, L.; Goujon, J.-M.; Le Page, R.; Lemaitre, J.; Guendouz, M.; Lorrain, N.; Bosc, D.

    2014-05-01

    The Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a non-invasive method for estimating the tissular blood flow and speed at a microscopic scale (microcirculation). It is used for medical research as well as for the diagnosis of diseases related to circulatory system tissues and organs including the issues of microvascular flow (perfusion). It is based on the Doppler effect, created by the interaction between the laser light and tissues. LDF measures the mean blood flow in a volume formed by the single laser beam, that penetrate into the skin. The size of this measurement volume is crucial and depends on skin absorption, and is not directly reachable. Therefore, current developments of the LDF are focused on the use of always more complex and sophisticated signal processing methods. On the other hand, laser Double Doppler Flowmeter (FL2D) proposes to use two laser beams to generate the measurement volume. This volume would be perfectly stable and localized at the intersection of the two laser beams. With FL2D we will be able to determine the absolute blood flow of a specific artery. One aimed application would be to help clinical physicians in health care units.

  11. Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Werkmeister, René M.; Blatter, Cedric; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2014-01-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has revolutionized ophthalmology. Since its introduction in the early 1990s it has continuously improved in terms of speed, resolution and sensitivity. The technique has also seen a variety of extensions aiming to assess functional aspects of the tissue in addition to morphology. One of these approaches is Doppler OCT (DOCT), which aims to visualize and quantify blood flow. Such extensions were already implemented in time domain systems, but have gained importance with the introduction of Fourier domain OCT. Nowadays phase-sensitive detection techniques are most widely used to extract blood velocity and blood flow from tissues. A common problem with the technique is that the Doppler angle is not known and several approaches have been realized to obtain absolute velocity and flow data from the retina. Additional studies are required to elucidate which of these techniques is most promising. In the recent years, however, several groups have shown that data can be obtained with high validity and reproducibility. In addition, several groups have published values for total retinal blood flow. Another promising application relates to non-invasive angiography. As compared to standard techniques such as fluorescein and indocyanine-green angiography the technique offers two major advantages: no dye is required and depth resolution is required is provided. As such Doppler OCT has the potential to improve our abilities to diagnose and monitor ocular vascular diseases. PMID:24704352

  12. Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Leitgeb, Rainer A; Werkmeister, René M; Blatter, Cedric; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2014-07-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has revolutionized ophthalmology. Since its introduction in the early 1990s it has continuously improved in terms of speed, resolution and sensitivity. The technique has also seen a variety of extensions aiming to assess functional aspects of the tissue in addition to morphology. One of these approaches is Doppler OCT (DOCT), which aims to visualize and quantify blood flow. Such extensions were already implemented in time domain systems, but have gained importance with the introduction of Fourier domain OCT. Nowadays phase-sensitive detection techniques are most widely used to extract blood velocity and blood flow from tissues. A common problem with the technique is that the Doppler angle is not known and several approaches have been realized to obtain absolute velocity and flow data from the retina. Additional studies are required to elucidate which of these techniques is most promising. In the recent years, however, several groups have shown that data can be obtained with high validity and reproducibility. In addition, several groups have published values for total retinal blood flow. Another promising application relates to non-invasive angiography. As compared to standard techniques such as fluorescein and indocyanine-green angiography the technique offers two major advantages: no dye is required and depth resolution is required is provided. As such Doppler OCT has the potential to improve our abilities to diagnose and monitor ocular vascular diseases. PMID:24704352

  13. Colour annealing - a toy model of colour reconnections

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhoff, Marisa; Skands, Peter; /Fermilab

    2005-12-01

    We present a simple toy model for colour reconnections at the nonperturbative level. The model resembles an annealing-type algorithm and is applicable to any collider and process type, though we argue for a possible enhancement of the effect in hadron-hadron collisions. We present a simple application and study of the consequences for semileptonic t{bar t} events at the Tevatron.

  14. Localization of needle tip with color doppler during pericardiocentesis: In vitro validation and initial clinical application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, G.; Cardon, L.; Vilkomerson, D.; Lipson, D.; Wong, J.; Rodriguez, L. L.; Thomas, J. D.; Griffin, B. P.

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluates a new device that uses color Doppler ultrasonography to enable real-time image guidance of the aspirating needle, which has not been possible until now. The ColorMark device (EchoCath Inc, Princeton, NJ) induces high-frequency, low-amplitude vibrations in the needle to enable localization with color Doppler. We studied this technique in 25 consecutive patients undergoing pericardiocentesis, and in vitro, in a urethane phantom with which the accuracy of color Doppler localization of the needle tip was compared with that obtained by direct measurement. Tip localization was excellent in vitro; errors axial to the ultrasound beam (velocity Doppler -0.13 +/- 0.90 mm, power Doppler -0.05 +/- 1.7 mm) were less than lateral errors (velocity -0.36 +/- 1.8 mm, power -0.02 +/- 2.8 mm). In 18 of 25 patients, the needle was identified and guided into the pericardial space with the ColorMark technique, and it allowed successful, uncomplicated drainage of fluid. Initial failures were the result of incorrect settings on the echocardiographic machine and inappropriate combinations of the needle puncture site and imaging window. This study demonstrates a novel color Doppler technique that is highly accurate at localizing a needle tip. The technique is feasible for guiding pericardiocentesis. Further clinical validation of this technique is required.

  15. Colour vision in diurnal and nocturnal hawkmoths.

    PubMed

    Kelber, Almut; Balkenius, Anna; Warrant, Eric J

    2003-08-01

    Diurnal and nocturnal hawkmoths (Sphingidae, Lepidoptera) have three spectral types of receptor sensitive to ultraviolet, blue and green light. As avid flower visitors and pollinators, they use olfactory and visual cues to find and recognise flowers. Moths of the diurnal species Macroglossum stellatarum and the nocturnal species Deilephila elpenor, Hyles lineata and Hyles gallii use and learn the colour of flowers. Nocturnal species can discriminate flowers at starlight intensities when humans and honeybees are colour-blind. M. stellatarum can use achromatic, intensity-related cues if colour cues are absent, and this is probably also true for D. elpenor. Both species can recognise colours even under a changed illumination colour. PMID:21680465

  16. Characterisation of the n-colour printing process using the spot colour overprint model.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Kiran; Green, Phil; Pointer, Michael R

    2014-12-29

    This paper is aimed at reproducing the solid spot colours using the n-colour separation. A simplified numerical method, called as the spot colour overprint (SCOP) model, was used for characterising the n-colour printing process. This model was originally developed for estimating the spot colour overprints. It was extended to be used as a generic forward characterisation model for the n-colour printing process. The inverse printer model based on the look-up table was implemented to obtain the colour separation for n-colour printing process. Finally the real-world spot colours were reproduced using 7-colour separation on lithographic offset printing process. The colours printed with 7 inks were compared against the original spot colours to evaluate the accuracy. The results show good accuracy with the mean CIEDE2000 value between the target colours and the printed colours of 2.06. The proposed method can be used successfully to reproduce the spot colours, which can potentially save significant time and cost in the printing and packaging industry. PMID:25607147

  17. Doppler ultrasonography for evaluating vascular responses to ergopeptine alkaloids in livestock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids are produced by non-spore producing fungal endophytes that infect certain species of grasses, most notably tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and the spore producing Claviceps spp. that infect seed heads of certain grasses...

  18. Vasoconstriction in horses caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed is detected with Doppler ultrasonography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hypotheses that endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected tall fescue (TF) seed causes vasoconstriction in horses in vivo and that ground seed would cause more pronounced vasoconstriction than whole seed were tested. Ten horses each received 1 of 3 treatments: endophyte-free ground (E–G; n ...

  19. Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Karthik; Duan, Huigao; Hegde, Ravi S; Koh, Samuel C W; Wei, Jennifer N; Yang, Joel K W

    2012-09-01

    The highest possible resolution for printed colour images is determined by the diffraction limit of visible light. To achieve this limit, individual colour elements (or pixels) with a pitch of 250 nm are required, translating into printed images at a resolution of ∼100,000 dots per inch (d.p.i.). However, methods for dispensing multiple colourants or fabricating structural colour through plasmonic structures have insufficient resolution and limited scalability. Here, we present a non-colourant method that achieves bright-field colour prints with resolutions up to the optical diffraction limit. Colour information is encoded in the dimensional parameters of metal nanostructures, so that tuning their plasmon resonance determines the colours of the individual pixels. Our colour-mapping strategy produces images with both sharp colour changes and fine tonal variations, is amenable to large-volume colour printing via nanoimprint lithography, and could be useful in making microimages for security, steganography, nanoscale optical filters and high-density spectrally encoded optical data storage. PMID:22886173

  20. Carotenoids need structural colours to shine.

    PubMed

    Shawkey, Matthew D; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2005-06-22

    The bright colours of feathers are among the most striking displays in nature and are frequently used as sexual signals. Feathers can be coloured by pigments or by ordered tissue, and these mechanisms have traditionally been treated as distinct modes of display. Here we show that some yellow plumage colour is created both by reflection of light from white structural tissue and absorption of light by carotenoids. Thus, structural components of feathers contribute substantially to yellow 'carotenoid' displays, but the effect of variation in structural components on variation in colour displays is, to our knowledge, unstudied. The presence of structural colour in some carotenoid-based colour displays will have to be considered in studies of colour signalling. PMID:17148144

  1. Clinical applications of doppler ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K.J.W.; Burns, P.N.; Well, P.N.T.

    1987-01-01

    This book introduces a guide to the physical principles and instrumentation of duplex Doppler ultrasound and its applications in obstetrics, gynecology, neonatology, gastroentology, and evaluation of peripheral vascular disease. The book provides information needed to perform Doppler ultrasound examinations and interpret the results. An introduction to Doppler physics and instrumentation is followed by a thorough review of hemodynamics, which explains the principles underlying interpretation of Doppler signals. Of special note is the state-of-the-art coverage of new applications of Doppler in recognition of high-risk pregnancy, diagnosis of intrauterine growth retardation, investigation of neonatal blood flow, evaluation of first-trimester pregnancy, and diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease. The book also offers guidelines on the use of Doppler ultrasound in diagnosing carotid disease, deep venous thrombosis, and aorta/femoral disease.

  2. Laser Doppler diagnostics for orthodontia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhkova, Anastasia V.; Lebedeva, Nina G.; Sedykh, Alexey V.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Lepilin, Alexander V.; Kharish, Natalia A.

    2004-06-01

    The results of statistical analysis of Doppler spectra of intensity fluctuations of light, scattered from mucous membrane of oral cavity of healthy volunteers and patients, abused by the orthodontic diseases, are presented. Analysis of Doppler spectra, obtained from tooth pulp of patients, is carried out. New approach to monitoring of blood microcirculation in orthodontics is suggested. Influence of own noise of Doppler measuring system on formation of the output signal is studied.

  3. Emerging technology in head and neck ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Holtel, Michael R

    2010-12-01

    Increased use of ultrasonography of the head and neck by clinicians has resulted from more compact, higher resolution ultrasound machines that can be more readily used in the office setting. Palm-sized machines are already used for vascular access and bladder assessment. As the resolution of these machines becomes adequate for head and neck assessment, ultrasonography is likely to become a routine adjunct to the office physical examination. Further techniques to reduce artifact beyond spatial compounding, second harmonics, and broadband inversion techniques are likely to be developed to improve ultrasound images. Manual palpation using the ultrasound transducer or "sound palpation," using sound to recreate vibration provides information on tissue "stiffness," which has been successfully used to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions in the head and neck (particularly thyroid nodules). Microbubble contrast-enhanced ultrasound provides improved resolution of ultrasound images. Three- and four-dimensional ultrasonography provides for more accurate diagnosis. The ability of microbubbles with ligands affixed to their outer surface to target specific tissue makes them excellent delivery vehicles. DNA plasmids, chemotherapy agents, and therapeutic drugs can be released at a specific anatomic site. The motion of microbubbles stimulated by ultrasound can be used to increase drug penetration through tissues and has been shown to be effective in breaking up clots in stroke patients (without increased risk). High-intensity focused ultrasound can be used to create coagulation necrosis without significant damage to adjacent tissue. It has been effectively used in neurosurgery and urology, but its effectiveness in the head and neck is still being determined. A prototype for surgical navigation with ultrasound has been developed for the head and neck, which allows real-time imaging of anatomic surgical changes. PMID:21044741

  4. Ultrasonography for the assessment of the upper trapezius properties in healthy females: a reliability study

    PubMed Central

    Adigozali, Hakimeh; Shadmehr, Azadeh; Ebrahimi, Esmail; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Naderi, Farrokh

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background to date, an assessment of morphometric features, muscle stiffness and blood flow in the upper trapezius among healthy females at rest and contraction states has not been conducted. So, in the current research, the intra-rater reliability of ultrasonographic features of upper trapezius in healthy females was examined. Method in this study stiffness and thickness of the upper trapezius in rest and contraction states were measured by ultrasonography on 12 healthy female subjects (28.33±5.05 years old). Color Doppler imaging was used to assess muscle circulation in the rest state only. Every step and calculation of measurements was repeated 3 times with the same rater. Therefore, in total 36 measurements were done for each variable. Results according to the analysis, the value of intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) for total variables showed an excellent level of reliability. Thickness at contraction had maximum reliability (ICC= 0.993) and Minimum Diastolic Velocity had the lowest reliability (ICC=0.771). Conclusions the results of current research demonstrated that real time ultrasonography is a reliable method for measurement of various parameters of upper trapezius, including morphometric features, its stiffness and blood supply in non-symptomatic females. These mentioned variables can likely be used for objective assessment and provide numerical reference value for clinical plans. PMID:27331047

  5. Put on that colour, it fits your emotion: Colour appropriateness as a function of expressed emotion.

    PubMed

    Dael, Nele; Perseguers, Marie-Noëlle; Marchand, Cynthia; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Mohr, Christine

    2016-01-01

    People associate affective meaning with colour, and this may influence decisions about colours. Hue is traditionally considered the most salient descriptor of colour and colour-affect associations, although colour brightness and saturation seem to have particularly strong affective connotations. To test whether colour choices can be driven by emotion, we investigated whether and how colour hue, brightness, and saturation are systematically associated with bodily expressions of positive (joy) and negative (fear) emotions. Twenty-five non-colour-blind participants viewed videos of these expressions and selected for each video the most appropriate colour using colour sliders providing values for hue, brightness, and saturation. The overall colour choices were congruent with the expressed emotion--that is, participants selected brighter and more saturated colours for joy expressions than for fear expressions. Also, colours along the red-yellow spectrum were deemed more appropriate for joy expressions and cyan-bluish hues for fear expressions. The current study adds further support to the role of emotion in colour choices by (a) showing that emotional information is spontaneously used in an unconstrained choice setting, (b) extending to ecologically valid stimuli occurring in everyday encounters (dressed bodies), and PMID:26339950

  6. Usefulness of ultrasonography in assessment of laryngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xia, C-X; Zhao, H-X; Yan, F; Li, S-L; Zhang, S-M

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of ultrasonography in assessing laryngeal cancer. Methods: 72 patients with laryngeal carcinoma proven by surgery and pathology were enrolled. The pre-therapeutic ultrasonography and CT images were retrospectively evaluated, including tumour detection, localisation and invasion of intra- and extralaryngeal structures. A comparative assessment was made between the detection rate, correspondence rate of localisation and sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography and CT. The mobility of the larynx was observed on real-time ultrasonography and compared with laryngoscopy. Results: The detection rate of ultrasonography [63 (87.5%)/72] was lower than that of CT [72 (100.0%)/72] (p=0.006). The primary foci were accurately located in 59 (93.7%) of 63 lesions using ultrasonography compared with 70 (97.2%) of 72 lesions using CT (p=0.392). In the evaluation of invasion, the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography were similar to that of CT in most of the intra- and extralaryngeal structures (p=0.059–1.000). A higher specificity was obtained during the assessment of the paraglottic space involvement when using ultrasonography than CT (94.9% vs 66.7%, p=0.001). For vocal cord fixation, no statistical difference was found between ultrasonography and laryngoscopy (p=0.223). Conclusion: Ultrasonography could be used as a valuable supplementary imaging method to CT and laryngoscopy in the assessment of laryngeal carcinoma, even in male adults with some calcifications of the thyroid cartilage. Advances in knowledge: Our study demonstrates that ultrasonography, which has been used scarcely in the larynx, could supply useful information on the detection, localisation and intra- and extralaryngeal invasion of laryngeal carcinoma. PMID:24004487

  7. Terminal Doppler weather radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelson, M.; Shrader, W. W.; Wieler, J. G.

    1990-02-01

    The terminal Doppler weather radar (TDWR) system, now under development, will provide automatic detection of microbursts and low-level wind shear. This paper discusses the TDWR performance parameters and describes its structural elements, including the antenna subsystem, the transmitter, the receiver/exciter, the digital signal processor, and the radar product generator/remote monitoring subsystem. Attention is also given to the processes of the base data formation, point target removal, signal-to-noise thresholding, and velocity de-aliasing and to the TDWR algorithms and displays. A schematic diagram of the TDWR system is presented.

  8. Laser Doppler velocimetry primer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachalo, William D.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced research in experimental fluid dynamics required a familiarity with sophisticated measurement techniques. In some cases, the development and application of new techniques is required for difficult measurements. Optical methods and in particular, the laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) are now recognized as the most reliable means for performing measurements in complex turbulent flows. And such, the experimental fluid dynamicist should be familiar with the principles of operation of the method and the details associated with its application. Thus, the goals of this primer are to efficiently transmit the basic concepts of the LDV method to potential users and to provide references that describe the specific areas in greater detail.

  9. The original colours of fossil beetles

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Maria E.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Orr, Patrick J.; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Structural colours, the most intense, reflective and pure colours in nature, are generated when light is scattered by complex nanostructures. Metallic structural colours are widespread among modern insects and can be preserved in their fossil counterparts, but it is unclear whether the colours have been altered during fossilization, and whether the absence of colours is always real. To resolve these issues, we investigated fossil beetles from five Cenozoic biotas. Metallic colours in these specimens are generated by an epicuticular multi-layer reflector; the fidelity of its preservation correlates with that of other key cuticular ultrastructures. Where these other ultrastructures are well preserved in non-metallic fossil specimens, we can infer that the original cuticle lacked a multi-layer reflector; its absence in the fossil is not a preservational artefact. Reconstructions of the original colours of the fossils based on the structure of the multi-layer reflector show that the preserved colours are offset systematically to longer wavelengths; this probably reflects alteration of the refractive index of the epicuticle during fossilization. These findings will allow the former presence, and original hue, of metallic structural colours to be identified in diverse fossil insects, thus providing critical evidence of the evolution of structural colour in this group. PMID:21957131

  10. Structural colour: Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukusic, P.; Sambles, J. R.; Lawrence, C. R.

    2000-03-01

    Green coloration in the animal kingdom, as seen in birds' feathers and reptile integument, is often an additive mixture of structurally effected blue and pigmentary yellow. Here we investigate the origin of the bright green coloration of the wing scales of the Indonesian male Papilio palinurus butterfly, the microstructure of which generates an extraordinary combination of both yellow and blue iridescence. The dual colour arises from a modulation imposed on the multilayer, producing the blue component as a result of a previously undiscovered retro-reflection process.

  11. ANL Doppler flowmeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karplus, H. B.; Raptis, A. C.; Lee, S.; Simpson, T.

    1985-10-01

    A flowmeter has been developed for measuring flow velocity in hot slurries. The flowmeter works on an ultrasonic Doppler principle in which ultrasound is injected into the flowing fluid through the solid pipe wall. Isolating waveguides separate the hot pipe from conventional ultrasonic transducers. Special clamp-on high-temperature transducers also can be adapted to work well in this application. Typical flows in pilot plants were found to be laminar, giving rise to broad-band Doppler spectra. A special circuit based on a servomechanism sensor was devised to determine the frequency average of such a broad spectrum. The device was tested at different pilot plants. Slurries with particulates greater than 70 microns (0.003 in.) yielded good signals, but slurries with extremely fine particulates were unpredictable. Small bubbles can replace the coarse particles to provide a good signal if there are not too many. Successful operation with very fine particulate slurries may have been enhanced by the presence of microbubbles.

  12. Quantifying Plant Colour and Colour Difference as Perceived by Humans Using Digital Images

    PubMed Central

    Kendal, Dave; Hauser, Cindy E.; Garrard, Georgia E.; Jellinek, Sacha; Giljohann, Katherine M.; Moore, Joslin L.

    2013-01-01

    Human perception of plant leaf and flower colour can influence species management. Colour and colour contrast may influence the detectability of invasive or rare species during surveys. Quantitative, repeatable measures of plant colour are required for comparison across studies and generalisation across species. We present a standard method for measuring plant leaf and flower colour traits using images taken with digital cameras. We demonstrate the method by quantifying the colour of and colour difference between the flowers of eleven grassland species near Falls Creek, Australia, as part of an invasive species detection experiment. The reliability of the method was tested by measuring the leaf colour of five residential garden shrub species in Ballarat, Australia using five different types of digital camera. Flowers and leaves had overlapping but distinct colour distributions. Calculated colour differences corresponded well with qualitative comparisons. Estimates of proportional cover of yellow flowers identified using colour measurements correlated well with estimates obtained by measuring and counting individual flowers. Digital SLR and mirrorless cameras were superior to phone cameras and point-and-shoot cameras for producing reliable measurements, particularly under variable lighting conditions. The analysis of digital images taken with digital cameras is a practicable method for quantifying plant flower and leaf colour in the field or lab. Quantitative, repeatable measurements allow for comparisons between species and generalisations across species and studies. This allows plant colour to be related to human perception and preferences and, ultimately, species management. PMID:23977275

  13. Quantifying plant colour and colour difference as perceived by humans using digital images.

    PubMed

    Kendal, Dave; Hauser, Cindy E; Garrard, Georgia E; Jellinek, Sacha; Giljohann, Katherine M; Moore, Joslin L

    2013-01-01

    Human perception of plant leaf and flower colour can influence species management. Colour and colour contrast may influence the detectability of invasive or rare species during surveys. Quantitative, repeatable measures of plant colour are required for comparison across studies and generalisation across species. We present a standard method for measuring plant leaf and flower colour traits using images taken with digital cameras. We demonstrate the method by quantifying the colour of and colour difference between the flowers of eleven grassland species near Falls Creek, Australia, as part of an invasive species detection experiment. The reliability of the method was tested by measuring the leaf colour of five residential garden shrub species in Ballarat, Australia using five different types of digital camera. Flowers and leaves had overlapping but distinct colour distributions. Calculated colour differences corresponded well with qualitative comparisons. Estimates of proportional cover of yellow flowers identified using colour measurements correlated well with estimates obtained by measuring and counting individual flowers. Digital SLR and mirrorless cameras were superior to phone cameras and point-and-shoot cameras for producing reliable measurements, particularly under variable lighting conditions. The analysis of digital images taken with digital cameras is a practicable method for quantifying plant flower and leaf colour in the field or lab. Quantitative, repeatable measurements allow for comparisons between species and generalisations across species and studies. This allows plant colour to be related to human perception and preferences and, ultimately, species management. PMID:23977275

  14. Point-of-care ultrasonography by pediatric emergency medicine physicians.

    PubMed

    Marin, Jennifer R; Lewiss, Resa E

    2015-04-01

    Emergency physicians have used point-of-care ultrasonography since the 1990 s. Pediatric emergency medicine physicians have more recently adopted this technology. Point-of-care ultrasonography is used for various scenarios, particularly the evaluation of soft tissue infections or blunt abdominal trauma and procedural guidance. To date, there are no published statements from national organizations specifically for pediatric emergency physicians describing the incorporation of point-of-care ultrasonography into their practice. This document outlines how pediatric emergency departments may establish a formal point-of-care ultrasonography program. This task includes appointing leaders with expertise in point-of-care ultrasonography, effectively training and credentialing physicians in the department, and providing ongoing quality assurance reviews. PMID:25825532

  15. Colour Consideration for Waiting areas in hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zraati, Parisa

    2012-08-01

    Colour is one the most important factors in the nature that can have some affects on human behaviour. Many years ago, it was proven that using colour in public place can have some affect on the users. Depend of the darkness and lightness; it can be vary from positive to negative. The research will mainly focus on the colour and psychological influences and physical factors. The statement of problem in this research is what is impact of colour usually applied to waiting area? The overall aim of the study is to explore the visual environment of hospitals and to manage the colour psychological effect of the hospital users in the waiting area by creating a comfortable, pleasant and cozy environment for users while spend their time in waiting areas. The analysisconcentrate on satisfaction and their interesting regarding applied colour in two private hospital waiting area in Malaysia.

  16. Molecular tests for coat colours in horses.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    Colour phenotypes may have played a major role during early domestication events and initial selection among domestic animal species. As coat colours mostly follow a relatively simple mode of Mendelian inheritance, they have been among the first traits to be systematically analysed at the molecular level. As a result of the number of genetic tools developed during the past decade, horse coat colour tests have been designed and are now commercially available for some of the basic phenotypes. These tests enable breeders to verify segregation within particular pedigrees, to select specific colour phenotypes according to market demand or studbook policies and to avoid complex inherited diseases associated with some of the colour patterns. This paper reviews the relevance of the topic, describes all currently available tests for coat colours in horses and addresses also ongoing research in this field. PMID:19912415

  17. Doppler Beats or Interference Fringes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Paul S.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the following: another version of Doppler beats; alternate proof of spin-1 sin-1/2 problems; some mechanisms related to Dirac's strings; Doppler redshift in oblique approach of source and observer; undergraduate experiment on noise thermometry; use of the time evolution operator; resolution of an entropy maximization controversy;…

  18. B-mode and Doppler sonography of the mammary glands in dairy goats for mastitis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Santos, V J C; Simplício, K; Sanchez, D; Coutinho, L; Teixeira, P; Barros, F; Almeida, V; Rodrigues, L; Bartlewski, P; Oliveira, M; Feliciano, M; Vicente, W

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the sonographic characteristics of the udder and teats and to determine the Doppler indexes of mammary artery in healthy and undergoing subclinical and clinical mastitis goats. Thirty animals among Saanen and Alpine Brown goats were arranged in three groups, healthy goats (HG), goats with subclinical mastitis (SMG) and goats with clinical mastitis (CMG). Using the B-mode, the sonographic characteristics (echotexture and echogenicity) and biometry (diameter and area of the udder cistern, diameter and area of the teat cistern and thickness of the teat wall) were evaluated. Using Doppler ultrasonography, the vascular indexes of the mammary artery were obtained. It was observed hyperechogenicity with solid component in the gland cistern when comparing animals with clinical mastitis and healthy mammary tissue. Regarding the echotexture of the breast tissue, there was heterogeneity in the mammary parenchyma on the three groups, for the milk, it was observed homogeneity for animals on HG and SMG and heterogeneity for animals on CMG. Grey-scale quantitative assessment revealed increase in echogenicity (mean value) for all the structures when comparing the three groups. Biometry did not reveal statistical difference between groups, for none of the evaluated structures. Doppler examination of the mammary artery showed the decrease of end diastolic velocity and raise of pulsatility index between groups. The association of B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography is useful for the evaluation of the udder of dairy goats with mastitis. It is a sensitive and specific method for the study of this disease. Doppler mode was unable to establish reliable criteria for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis. Moreover, the quantification of echogenicity is a useful technique for the evaluation of the milk in animals with mastitis; therefore, it is suggested that it can be used as complementary technique for the diagnosis of mastitis in goats. PMID:25601226

  19. Colour Vision Impairment in Young Alcohol Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Brasil, Alódia; Castro, Antônio José O.; Martins, Isabelle Christine V. S.; Lacerda, Eliza Maria C. B.; Souza, Givago S.; Herculano, Anderson Manoel; Rosa, Alexandre Antônio M.; Rodrigues, Anderson R.; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test) to test subject’s ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test) to measure subject’s colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to neurotoxicants. PMID

  20. Colour vision deficiency and physics teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maule, Louise; Featonby, David

    2016-05-01

    1 in 12 males suffer from some form of colour vision deficiency (CVD) which in the present colour dominated world of education presentation can be a severe disadvantage. Although aware of ‘colourblindness’ most teachers make little or no adjustment for these pupils for whom tasks may be more difficult. This article examines colour vision deficiency and looks at ways in which we can help the many students who have this problem.

  1. Duplex Doppler and spectral flow analysis of racial differences in cerebrovascular atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gil-Peralta, A; Alter, M; Lai, S M; Friday, G; Otero, A; Katz, M; Comerota, A J

    1990-05-01

    We compared carotid artery disease in 99 black and 106 white patients using duplex ultrasonography (B-mode imaging and Doppler spectral analysis). Blacks had significantly less stenosis of the extracranial internal carotid artery than whites. Among the risk factors investigated, hypertension alone, ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and smoking failed to explain the racial difference. Although carotid stenosis of greater than or equal to 40% correlated significantly with age in both races (p = 0.001 in whites and p = 0.005 in blacks), blacks had significantly less carotid stenosis of any degree even when age was taken into account. Multivariate analysis showed that race is a significant and independent risk factor for carotid stenosis (p less than 0.0001). Hypertension interacting with race was also significant. Our results require verification in population-based studies. Carotid duplex ultrasonography offers a noninvasive method for carrying out such studies. PMID:2187289

  2. Vascular complications after adult living donor liver transplantation: Evaluation with ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lin; Lu, Qiang; Luo, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been widely used to treat end-stage liver disease with improvement in surgical technology and the application of new immunosuppressants. Vascular complications after liver transplantation remain a major threat to the survival of recipients. LDLT recipients are more likely to develop vascular complications because of their complex vascular reconstruction and the slender vessels. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical for the survival of graft and recipients. As a non-invasive, cost-effective and non-radioactive method with bedside availability, conventional gray-scale and Doppler ultrasonography play important roles in identifying vascular complications in the early postoperative period and during the follow-up. Recently, with the detailed vascular tracing and perfusion visualization, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has significantly improved the diagnosis of postoperative vascular complications. This review focuses on the role of conventional gray-scale ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound and CEUS for early diagnosis of vascular complications after adult LDLT. PMID:26819527

  3. [Comparative study of pathological Doppler and non-stress test in IUGR].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, B; Malinova, M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the timing of delivery and the relationship between pathological Doppler ultrasonography and NST in IUGR fetuses. The prospective study included 84 fetuses with ultrasound diagnosis of IUGR and 100 fetuses of normal pregnancy The study group underwent Doppler velocimetry study of UA, MCA, DV and UV twice weekly, AFI twice weekly and NST daily. Apgar score, need of intubation, RDS, IVH, days of NICU hospitalization were available and related to neonatal outcome. Patients were stratified into groups: Preeclampsia with IUGR (Group 1) and IUGR only (group 2). In the group 1 the stillbirth was 3/44 (6,8%), in the group 2 the stillbirth was 8/40 (20%). Sensitivity for NST was 60%, and for Doppler velocimetry of DV was 71%. Specificity for NST was 87%, and for Doppler velocimetry of DV was 90%, respectively. Doppler changes occur first in chronic hypoxia while abnormal NST represent late stage of fetal compromise. PMID:22452172

  4. High resolution Doppler lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abreu, Vincent J.; Hays, Paul B.; Barnes, John E.

    1989-01-01

    A high resolution lidar system was implemented to measure winds in the lower atmosphere. The wind speed along the line of sight was determined by measuring the Doppler shift of the aerosol backscattered laser signal. The system in its present configuration is stable, and behaves as indicated by theoretical simulations. This system was built to demonstrate the capabilities of the detector system as a prototype for a spaceborne lidar. The detector system investigated consisted of a plane Fabry-Perot etalon, and a 12-ring anode detector. This system is generically similar to the Fabry-Perot interferometer developed for passive wind measurements on board the Dynamics Explorer satellite. That this detector system performs well in a lidar configuration was demonstrated.

  5. Shoulder Ultrasonography: Performance and Common Findings

    PubMed Central

    Gaitini, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) of the shoulder is the most commonly requested examination in musculoskeletal US diagnosis. Sports injuries and degenerative and inflammatory processes are the main sources of shoulder pain and functional limitations. Because of its availability, low cost, dynamic examination process, absence of radiation exposure, and ease of patient compliance, US is the preferred mode for shoulder imaging over other, more sophisticated, and expensive methods. Operator dependence is the main disadvantage of US examinations. Use of high range equipment with high resolution transducers, adhering to a strict examination protocol, good knowledge of normal anatomy and pathological processes and an awareness of common pitfalls are essential for the optimal performance and interpretation of shoulder US. This article addresses examination techniques, the normal sonographic appearance of tendons, bursae and joints, and the main pathological conditions found in shoulder ultrasonography. PMID:22919552

  6. Current status of ultrasonography of the finger

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The recent development of advanced high-resolution transducers has enabled the fast, easy, and dynamic ultrasonographic evaluation of small, superficial structures such as the finger. In order to best exploit these advances, it is important to understand the normal anatomy and the basic pathologies of the finger, as exemplified by the following conditions involving the dorsal, volar, and lateral sections of the finger: sagittal band injuries, mallet finger, and Boutonnière deformity (dorsal aspect); flexor tendon tears, trigger finger, and volar plate injuries (volar aspect); gamekeeper’s thumb (Stener lesions) and other collateral ligament tears (lateral aspect); and other lesions. This review provides a basis for understanding the ultrasonography of the finger and will therefore be useful for radiologists. PMID:26753604

  7. Prenatal diagnosis of hypophosphatasia congenita using ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Congenital hypophosphatasia is a rare fatal skeletal dysplasia. Antenatal determinants of Epub ahead of print lethality include small thoracic circumference with pulmonary hypoplasia and severe micromelia. These features were present in the fetus of a 25-year-old female who came for an anomaly scan in her second trimester of pregnancy. Additional findings of generalized demineralization and osteochondral spurs led to the diagnosis of hypophosphatasia congenita. The pregnancy was terminated, and the findings were confirmed on autopsy. Common differential diagnoses with clues to diagnose the above mentioned condition have been discussed here. Early and accurate detection of this medical condition is important as no treatment has been established for this condition. Therefore, antenatal ultrasonography helps in diagnosing and decision making with respect to the current pregnancy and lays the foundation for the genetic counseling of the couple. PMID:25971898

  8. [Accidental discovery of renal cancer by ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Michel, F; Gattegno, B; Cohen, L; Fiatte, P; Thibault, P

    1989-04-01

    A retrospective study of 152 consecutive patients admitted for renal carcinoma between January, 1969 and August, 1987 showed that these patients could be divided into two groups, the dividing line being 1980, date of the advent of ultrasonography. Compared with the 68 patients treated between 1969 and 1980, the 84 patients treated between 1981 and 1987 had a significantly greater number of asymptomatic renal carcinomas. The asymptomatic tumours discovered incidentally by ultrasounds were less advanced than the symptomatic tumours, the difference between the 2 groups being highly significant. The diagnosis of asymptomatic renal carcinoma at an early stage suggests that these tumours might have a better prognosis. These data underline the usefulness of a systematic study of the kidney during all abdominal or vesicoprostatic ultrasonographic explorations. PMID:2524038

  9. Colour measurements of all ceramic crown systems.

    PubMed

    Rosenstiel, S F; Porter, S S; Johnston, W M

    1989-09-01

    The objectives of this study were: (i) to determine variability among colour parameters of five different ceramic crown systems; and (ii) to measure the effect of using coloured luting agents on restoration colour. The crown systems studied were Cerestore, Dicor, Hi-Ceram, Renaissance, and Vitadur-N. Five crowns for each system were made according to manufacturer's instructions with the same nominal shade (Vita Lumin Vacuum A2) to fit an Ivorine central incisor tooth. Restoration thickness was adjusted to within +/- 0.1 mm (+/- 0.05 mm in the mid-facial area where colour measurements were to be made) with the aid of a dial calliper prior to glazing or, in the case of Dicor, surface staining. Where a core was part of the system this was fabricated to the minimum recommended thickness. The crowns were cemented using luting agents of five different colours in a randomly chosen sequence. The colour of each restoration/cement combination was measured three times using a small-area colorimeter (Minolta CR-121). The variance of each colour parameter (L*, a*, b*) was statistically compared for each crown system using an analysis of variance procedure, as was the effect of the cement. Observed differences were related to visual perception by using the colour difference formula. There were statistically significant differences among the variances of the crown systems and the cements, with significant interactions between crown systems and direction of colour and between cement and direction of colour. Restorations made with different ceramic crown systems had noticeably different colour despite having the same nominal shade. Changing the shade of the luting agent had a perceivable effect on Dicor crowns and, to a lesser extent, on Vitadur-N crowns but not on the other systems due, presumably, to the opacity of their core materials. PMID:2809851

  10. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography for assessment of lymph node metastases in pancreatobiliary carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Takeshi; Kitano, Masayuki; Omoto, Shunsuke; Kadosaka, Kumpei; Kamata, Ken; Imai, Hajime; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Nisida, Naoshi; Harwani, Yogesh; Murakami, Takamichi; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Chiba, Yasutaka; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the usefulness of contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography (CH-EUS) for lymph node metastasis in pancreatobiliary carcinoma. METHODS: All patients suspected of pancreatobiliary carcinoma with visible lymph nodes after standard EUS between June, 2009 and January, 2012 were enrolled. In the primary analysis, patients with successful EUS-fine needle aspiration (FNA) were included. The lymph nodes were assessed by several standard EUS variables (short and long axis lengths, shape, edge characteristic and echogenicity), color Doppler EUS variable [central intranodal blood vessel (CIV) presence] and CH-EUS variable (heterogeneous/homogeneous enhancement patterns). The diagnostic accuracy relative to EUS-FNA was calculated. In the second analysis, N-stage diagnostic accuracy of CH-EUS was compared with EUS-FNA in patients who underwent surgical resection. RESULTS: One hundred and nine patients (143 lymph nodes) fulfilled the criteria. The short axis cut-off ≥ 13 mm predicted malignancy with a sensitivity and specificity of 72% and 85%, respectively. These values were 72% and 63% for the long axis cut-off ≥ 20 mm, 62% and 75% for the round shape variable, 81% and 30% for the sharp edge variable, 66% and 61% for the hypoechogenicity variable, 70% and 72% for the CIV-absent variable, and 83% and 91% for the heterogeneous CH-EUS-enhancement variable, respectively. CH-EUS was more accurate than standard and color Doppler EUS, except the short axis cut-off. Notably, three patients excluded because of EUS-FNA failure were correctly N-staged by CH-EUS. CONCLUSION: CH-EUS complements standard and color Doppler EUS and EUS-FNA for assessment of lymph node metastases. PMID:27022220

  11. Digital Doppler measurement with spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.; Hinedi, Sami M.; Labelle, Remi C.; Bevan, Roland P.; Del Castillo, Hector M.; Chong, Dwayne C.

    1991-01-01

    Digital and analog phase-locked loop (PLL) receivers were operated in parallel, each tracking the residual carrier from a spacecraft. The PLL tracked the downlink carrier and measured its instantaneous phase. This information, combined with a knowledge of the uplink carrier and the transponder ratio, permitted the computation of a Doppler observable. In this way, two separate Doppler measurements were obtained for one observation window. The two receivers agreed on the magnitude of the Doppler effect to within 1 mHz. There was less jitter on the data from the digital receiver. This was due to its smaller noise bandwidth. The demonstration and its results are described.

  12. Doppler ultrasound--basics revisited.

    PubMed

    Eagle, Mary

    Palpation of pedal pulses alone is known to be an unreliable indicator for the presence of arterial disease. Using portable Doppler ultrasound to measure the resting ankle brachial pressure index is superior to palpation of peripheral pulses as an assessment of the adequacy pf the arterial supply in the lower limb. Revisiting basics, this article aims to aid the clinician to understand and perform hand-held Doppler ultrasound effectively while involving the client or patient in the process. The author describes the basics of Doppler ultrasound, how to select correct equipment for the process, and interpretation of results to further enhance clinicians' knowledge. PMID:16835512

  13. Brilliant Colours from a White Snow Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Michael; Shaw, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Surprisingly colourful views are possible from sparkling white snow. It is well known that similarly colourful features can exist in the sky whenever appropriate ice crystals are around. However, the transition of light reflection and refraction from ice crystals in the air to reflection and refraction from those in snow on the ground is not…

  14. Development of specifications for caramel colours.

    PubMed

    Licht, B H; Shaw, K; Smith, C; Mendoza, M; Orr, J; Myers, D V

    1992-05-01

    Specifications have been developed to define each of the four classes of caramel colour. The specifications were based on analysis of a large database generated during the course of characterization studies of each of the classes. A series of simple and practical tests was developed for the analysis of caramel colour samples to ensure conformity to the specifications. PMID:1644379

  15. A novel colour-sensitive CMOS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langfelder, G.; Longoni, A.; Zaraga, F.

    2009-10-01

    A novel colour-sensitive semiconductor detector is proposed. The device (named Transverse Field Detector (TFD)) can be used to measure the colour of the incident light without any colour filter. The device is completely compatible with standard CMOS processes and is suitable to be integrated in a pixel array for imaging purposes. The working principle is based on the capability of this device to collect at different superficial junctions the carriers, generated at different depths, by means of suitable transverse electric fields. The transverse components of the electric field are generated inside the depleted region by a suitable bias of the superficial junctions. Thanks to the differences in the light absorption coefficients at different wavelengths, the device performs colour separation. Among the advantages of this approach are the capability of an active tuning of the pixel colour response, which can be obtained just by changing the biasing values of collecting junctions, and foreseen higher colour fidelity, thanks to the easy extension to four colour pixels. First test structures of three colours TFD pixels were designed and built in a standard CMOS 90 nm technology. Operative principles of the device and first experimental results are presented.

  16. Application of graph colouring to biological networks.

    PubMed

    Khor, S

    2010-05-01

    The author explores the application of graph colouring to biological networks, specifically protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. First, the author finds that given similar conditions (i.e. graph size, degree distribution and clustering), fewer colours are needed to colour disassortative than assortative networks. Fewer colours create fewer independent sets which in turn imply higher concurrency potential for a network. Since PPI networks tend to be disassortative, the author suggests that in addition to functional specificity and stability proposed previously by Maslov and Sneppen (Science, 296, 2002), the disassortative nature of PPI networks may promote the ability of cells to perform multiple, crucial and functionally diverse tasks concurrently. Second, because graph colouring is closely related to the presence of cliques in a graph, the significance of node colouring information to the problem of identifying protein complexes (dense subgraphs in PPI networks), is investigated. The author finds that for PPI networks where 1-11% of nodes participate in at least one identified protein complex, such as H. sapien, DSATUR (a well-known complete graph colouring algorithm) node colouring information can improve the quality (homogeneity and separation) of initial candidate complexes. This finding may help improve existing protein complex detection methods, and/or suggest new methods. [Includes supplementary material]. PMID:20499999

  17. Representing Object Colour in Language Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Louise

    2007-01-01

    Embodied theories of cognition hold that mentally representing something "red" engages the neural subsystems that respond to environmental perception of that colour. This paper examines whether implicit perceptual information on object colour is represented during sentence comprehension even though doing so does not necessarily facilitate task…

  18. Colour mathematics: with graphs and numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presto, Michael C.

    2009-07-01

    The different combinations involved in additive and subtractive colour mixing can often be difficult for students to remember. Using transmission graphs for filters of the primary colours and a numerical scheme to write out the relationships are good exercises in analytical thinking that can help students recall the combinations rather than just attempting to memorize them.

  19. Colour Mathematics: With Graphs and Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    The different combinations involved in additive and subtractive colour mixing can often be difficult for students to remember. Using transmission graphs for filters of the primary colours and a numerical scheme to write out the relationships are good exercises in analytical thinking that can help students recall the combinations rather than just…

  20. 4D microvascular imaging based on ultrafast Doppler tomography.

    PubMed

    Demené, Charlie; Tiran, Elodie; Sieu, Lim-Anna; Bergel, Antoine; Gennisson, Jean Luc; Pernot, Mathieu; Deffieux, Thomas; Cohen, Ivan; Tanter, Mickael

    2016-02-15

    4D ultrasound microvascular imaging was demonstrated by applying ultrafast Doppler tomography (UFD-T) to the imaging of brain hemodynamics in rodents. In vivo real-time imaging of the rat brain was performed using ultrasonic plane wave transmissions at very high frame rates (18,000 frames per second). Such ultrafast frame rates allow for highly sensitive and wide-field-of-view 2D Doppler imaging of blood vessels far beyond conventional ultrasonography. Voxel anisotropy (100 μm × 100 μm × 500 μm) was corrected for by using a tomographic approach, which consisted of ultrafast acquisitions repeated for different imaging plane orientations over multiple cardiac cycles. UFT-D allows for 4D dynamic microvascular imaging of deep-seated vasculature (up to 20 mm) with a very high 4D resolution (respectively 100 μm × 100 μm × 100 μm and 10 ms) and high sensitivity to flow in small vessels (>1 mm/s) for a whole-brain imaging technique without requiring any contrast agent. 4D ultrasound microvascular imaging in vivo could become a valuable tool for the study of brain hemodynamics, such as cerebral flow autoregulation or vascular remodeling after ischemic stroke recovery, and, more generally, tumor vasculature response to therapeutic treatment. PMID:26555279

  1. Evaluation of meteorological airborne Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, P. H.; Mueller, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper will discuss the capabilities of airborne Doppler radar for atmospheric sciences research. The evaluation is based on airborne and ground based Doppler radar observations of convective storms. The capability of airborne Doppler radar to measure horizontal and vertical air motions is evaluated. Airborne Doppler radar is shown to be a viable tool for atmospheric sciences research.

  2. Colour in insect thermoregulation: empirical and theoretical tests in the colour-changing grasshopper, Kosciuscola tristis.

    PubMed

    Umbers, K D L; Herberstein, M E; Madin, J S

    2013-01-01

    Body colours can result in different internal body temperatures, but evidence for the biological significance of colour-induced temperature differences is inconsistent. We investigated the relationship between body colour and temperature in a model insect species that rapidly changes colour. We used an empirical approach and constructed a heat budget model to quantify whether a colour change from black to turquoise has a role in thermoregulation for the chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis). Our study shows that colour change in K. tristis provides relatively small temperature differences that vary greatly with wind speed (0.55 °C at ms(-1) to 0.05 °C at 10 ms(-1)). The biological significance of this difference is unclear and we discuss the requirement for more studies that directly test hypotheses regarding the fitness effects of colour in manipulating body temperature. PMID:23108152

  3. Comparison of real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and standard ultrasonography in liver cancer microwave ablation

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shi-Yan; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Chao; Cao, Hai-Xia; Li, Guang-Ming; Wang, Yu-Qin; Fan, Jian-Gao

    2016-01-01

    Primary liver cancer has a high incidence and high mortality rates, and currently the only viable option is surgery, although there are a number of difficulties related to this method. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential advantages of the real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) for microwave ablation of primary liver cancer. One hundred patients with primary liver cancer were included in the study. The patients were divided into the ordinary ultrasonography and the CEUS groups. For the ordinary ultrasonography group, the ordinary ultrasonography-guided microwave ablation method was used, while microwave ablation under the guidance of CEUS was conducted for the CEUS group. The size of lesions and clearness of the tumor boundary prior to surgery in the two groups were compared. Additionally, postoperative complications and the survival rate were monitored. Lesion boundary areas measured by CEUS were significantly larger than those measured with ordinary ultrasonography. The incidence rate of postoperative pain, fever, intra-abdominal hemorrhage and infection and other complications in the ordinary ultrasonography group were significantly higher than that in the CEUS group. The tumor recurrence rate in the CEUS group was significantly lower than that in the ordinary ultrasonography group. Seventy-two percent of patients in the CEUS group showed no progress, compared to 48% of in the ordinary ultrasonography group. The progress-free survival rate in the CEUS group after 6 months was significantly higher than that in the ordinary ultrasonography group. Disease-free survival time in the CEUS group was considerably longer than the control group. In conclusion, the guidance of real-time CEUS on the primary liver cancer microwave ablation treatment can achieve good intra-operative results. It offers a real-time guidance effect, improves survival time and reduces the incidence of complications. PMID:27602065

  4. Measurement and prediction of pork colour.

    PubMed

    Van Oeckel, M J; Warnants, N; Boucqué, C V

    1999-08-01

    The extent to which instrumental colour determinations by FOPu (light scattering), Göfo (reflectance) and Labscan II (CIE L*, CIE a* and CIE b*, hue and chroma) are related to the Japanese colour grades was studied. Additionally, four on-line methods: pH1, FOP1, PQM1 (conductivity) and DDLT (Double Density Light Transmission, analogous to Capteur Gras/Maigre), were evaluated for their ability to predict subjectively and objectively colour. One hundred and twenty samples of m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum, from animals of different genotypes, were analysed. Of the instrumental colour determinations, CIE L* (r=-0.82), FOPu (r=-0.70) and Göfo (r=0.70) were best correlated with the Japanese colour scores. The Japanese colour grades could be predicted by the on-line instruments, pH1, FOP1, PQM1 and DDLT, with determination coefficients between 15 and 28%. Ultimate meat colour, determined by Japanese colour standards, FOPu, Göfo and CIE L*, was better predicted by DDLT than by the classic on-line instruments: FOP1, pH1 and PQM1, although the standard error of the estimate was similar for all instruments. This means that DDLT, although originally designed for estimating lean meat percentage, can additionally give information about meat quality, in particular colour. However, it must be stressed that the colour estimate by DDLT refers to a population of animals, rather than to individual pigs, because of the number of erroneously assigned samples. PMID:22062695

  5. Dual-Doppler Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, Lisa L.

    2012-01-01

    When two or more Doppler weather radar systems are monitoring the same region, the Doppler velocities can be combined to form a three-dimensional (3-D) wind vector field thus providing for a more intuitive analysis of the wind field. A real-time display of the 3-D winds can assist forecasters in predicting the onset of convection and severe weather. The data can also be used to initialize local numerical weather prediction models. Two operational Doppler Radar systems are in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS); these systems are operated by the 45th Space Wing (45 SW) and the National Weather Service Melbourne, Fla. (NWS MLB). Dual-Doppler applications were considered by the 45 SW in choosing the site for the new radar. Accordingly, the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS), NWS MLB and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to investigate the feasibility of establishing dual-Doppler capability using the two existing systems. This study investigated technical, hardware, and software requirements necessary to enable the establishment of a dual-Doppler capability. Review of the available literature pertaining to the dual-Doppler technique and consultation with experts revealed that the physical locations and resulting beam crossing angles of the 45 SW and NWS MLB radars make them ideally suited for a dual-Doppler capability. The dual-Doppler equations were derived to facilitate complete understanding of dual-Doppler synthesis; to determine the technical information requirements; and to determine the components of wind velocity from the equation of continuity and radial velocity data collected by the two Doppler radars. Analysis confirmed the suitability of the existing systems to provide the desired capability. In addition, it is possible that both 45 SW radar data and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar data from Orlando International Airport could be used to alleviate any

  6. Doppler tracking of planetary spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    This article concerns the measurement of Doppler shift on microwave links that connect planetary spacecraft with the Deep Space Network. Such measurements are made by tracking the Doppler effect with phase-locked loop receivers. A description of equipment and techniques as well as a summary of the appropriate mathematical models are given. The two-way Doppler shift is measured by transmitting a highly-stable microwave (uplink) carrier from a ground station, having the spacecraft coherently transpond this carrier, and using a phase-locked loop receiver at the ground station to track the returned (downlink) carrier. The largest sources of measurement error are usually plasma noise and thermal noise. The plasma noise, which may originate in the ionosphere or the solar corona, is discussed; and a technique to partially calibrate its effect, involving the use of two simultaneous downlink carriers that are coherently related, is described. Range measurements employing Doppler rate-aiding are also described.

  7. Doppler characteristics of sea clutter.

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2010-06-01

    Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can expect to find sea-clutter returns in Doppler space and what detection algorithms are most appropriate to help mitigate false alarms and increase probability of detection of a target. This paper studies the existing state-of-the-art in the understanding of Doppler characteristics of sea clutter and scattering from the ocean to better understand the design and performance choices of a radar in differentiating targets from clutter under prevailing sea conditions.

  8. Mathematical Models for Doppler Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, William M.

    1987-01-01

    Error analysis increases precision of navigation. Report presents improved mathematical models of analysis of Doppler measurements and measurement errors of spacecraft navigation. To take advantage of potential navigational accuracy of Doppler measurements, precise equations relate measured cycle count to position and velocity. Drifts and random variations in transmitter and receiver oscillator frequencies taken into account. Mathematical models also adapted to aircraft navigation, radar, sonar, lidar, and interferometry.

  9. High Resolution Doppler Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Paul B.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on UARS spacecraft during the period 4/l/96 - 3/31/99. During this period, HRDI operation, data processing, and data analysis continued, and there was a high level of vitality in the HRDI project. The HRDI has been collecting data from the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere since instrument activation on October 1, 1991. The HRDI team has stressed three areas since operations commenced: 1) operation of the instrument in a manner which maximizes the quality and versatility of the collected data; 2) algorithm development and validation to produce a high-quality data product; and 3) scientific studies, primarily of the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. There has been no significant degradation in the HRDI instrument since operations began nearly 8 years ago. HRDI operations are fairly routine, although we have continued to look for ways to improve the quality of the scientific product, either by improving existing modes, or by designing new ones. The HRDI instrument has been programmed to collect data for new scientific studies, such as measurements of fluorescence from plants, measuring cloud top heights, and lower atmosphere H2O.

  10. High Resolution Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This Grant supported the development of an incoherent lidar system to measure winds and aerosols in the lower atmosphere. During this period the following activities occurred: (1) an active feedback system was developed to improve the laser frequency stability; (2) a detailed forward model of the instrument was developed to take into account many subtle effects, such as detector non-linearity; (3) a non-linear least squares inversion method was developed to recover the Doppler shift and aerosol backscatter without requiring assumptions about the molecular component of the signal; (4) a study was done of the effects of systematic errors due to multiple etalon misalignment. It was discovered that even for small offsets and high aerosol loadings, the wind determination can be biased by as much as 1 m/s. The forward model and inversion process were modified to account for this effect; and (5) the lidar measurements were validated using rawinsonde balloon measurements. The measurements were found to be in agreement within 1-2 m/s.